Science.gov

Sample records for telluric acid transformations

  1. Purification of telluric acid for SNO+ neutrinoless double-beta decay search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hans, S.; Rosero, R.; Hu, L.; Chkvorets, O.; Chan, W. T.; Guan, S.; Beriguete, W.; Wright, A.; Ford, R.; Chen, M. C.; Biller, S.; Yeh, M.

    2015-09-01

    Tellurium-130 has the highest natural abundance of any double-beta decay isotopes. Recently it has been developed as a promising candidate for loading in liquid scintillator to explore the Majorana or Dirac nature of the neutrino through a search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0???). To this end, procedures have been developed to transfer tellurium ions into the organic liquid by a water-based loading technology. However, traces of naturally occurring radioactivity and cosmic-ray induced isotopes introduced into the scintillator with tellurium could produce undesirable contaminations in the 130Te 0??? region. Measurements using various elemental spikes prepared from different chemical forms indicate that the uses of self-scavenging as well as acid and thermal recrystallization prior to the preparation of a tellurium-loaded liquid scintillator can deplete U and Th and several cosmic-activated isotopes from Te feedstock by a factor of 102-103 in a single pass. The process is also found to improve the optical transmission in the blue region, sensible to the photomultiplier tube, by removing traces of colored impurities. In addition to the scintillator-based experiments, this cleansing scheme has potential applications to the production of radiopure tellurium crystals for other rare-event experiments.

  2. An Abstracting Transformation for Amino Acid Polymorphism

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Dakai

    An Abstracting Transformation for Amino Acid Polymorphism Anthony M. Castaldo, PhD Research three nucleotide se- quences (a codon) into amino acids: Amino Acid (or signal) Codons A (Alanine) GCT believe what is important is the sequence of amino acids produced, and because amino acids average about

  3. Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer

    E-print Network

    D. S. Davis; P. Hickson; G. Herriot; C. Y. She

    2006-09-12

    The temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer is investigated by analyzing 28 nights of data obtained with the Colorado State University LIDAR experiment. The mean height power spectrum of the sodium layer was found to be well fit by a power law over the observed range of frequencies, 10 microhertz to 4 millhertz. The best fitting power law was found to be 10^\\beta \

  4. Genetic Evidence for a Molybdopterin-Containing Tellurate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Joanne; Zylstra, Gerben J.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic identity and cofactor composition of the bacterial tellurate reductase are currently unknown. In this study, we examined the requirement of molybdopterin biosynthesis and molybdate transporter genes for tellurate reduction in Escherichia coli K-12. The results show that mutants deleted of the moaA, moaB, moaE, or mog gene in the molybdopterin biosynthesis pathway lost the ability to reduce tellurate. Deletion of the modB or modC gene in the molybdate transport pathway also resulted in complete loss of tellurate reduction activity. Genetic complementation by the wild-type sequences restored tellurate reduction activity in the mutant strains. These findings provide genetic evidence that tellurate reduction in E. coli involves a molybdoenzyme. PMID:23475618

  5. Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Peretyazhko, Tetyana; Zachara, John M.; Boily, Jean F.; Xia, Yuanxian; Gassman, Paul L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Burgos, William D.

    2009-05-30

    The role of Fe(III) minerals in controlling acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry was studied using samples from two AMD sites [Gum Boot (GB) and Fridays-2 (FR)] located in northern Pennsylvania. Chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to identify and characterize Fe(III) phases. The mineralogical analysis revealed that schwertmannite and goethite were the principal Fe(III) phases in the sediments. Schwertmannite transformation occurred at the GB site where poorly-crystallized goethite rich in surface-bound sulfate was initially formed. In contrast, no schwertmannite transformation occurred at the FR site. The goethite in GB sediments had spherical morphology due to preservation of schwertmannite structure by adsorbed sulfate. Results of chemical extractions showed that poorly-crystallized goethite was subject to further crystallization accompanied by sulfate desorption. Changes in sulfate speciation preceded its desorption, with a conversion of bidentate- to monodentate-bound sulfate surface complexes. Laboratory sediment incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of mineral transformation on water chemistry. Incubation experiments were carried out with schwertmannite-containing sediments and AMD waters with different pH and chemical composition. The pH decreased to 1.9-2.2 in all suspensions and the concentrations of dissolved Fe and S increased significantly. Regardless of differences in the initial water composition, pH, Fe and S were similar in suspensions of the same sediment. XRD measurements revealed that schwertmannite transformed into goethite in GB and FR sediments during laboratory incubation. The incubation experiment demonstrated that schwertmannite transformation controlled AMD water chemistry during “closed system” laboratory contact.

  6. Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage1 T. Peretyazhko*1

    E-print Network

    Burgos, William

    Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage1 chemistry2 3 4 5 T. Peretyazhko*1 , J drainage, schwertmannite, mineralogical transformations65 #12;4 1. Introduction66 Acid mine drainage (AMD tetyana.peretyazhko@pnl.gov.35 #12;2 Abstract36 The role of Fe(III) minerals in controlling acid mine

  7. Telluric currents: A meeting of theory and observation

    SciTech Connect

    Boteler, D.H.; Seager, W.H.

    1998-09-01

    Pipe-to-soil (P/S) potential variations resulting from telluric currents have been observed on pipelines in many locations. However, it has never teen clear which parts of a pipeline will experience the worst effects. Two studies were conducted to answer this question. Distributed-source transmission line (DSTL) theory was applied to the problem of modeling geomagnetic induction in pipelines. This theory predicted that the largest P/S potential variations would occur at the ends of the pipeline. The theory also predicted that large P/S potential variations, of opposite sign, should occur on either side of an insulating flange. Independently, an observation program was conducted to determine the change in telluric current P/S potential variations and to design counteractive measures along a pipeline in northern Canada. Observations showed that the amplitude of P/S potential fluctuations had maxima at the northern and southern ends of the pipeline. A further set of recordings around an insulating flange showed large P/S potential variations, of opposite sign, on either side of the flange. Agreement between the observations and theoretical predictions was remarkable. While the observations confirmed the theory, the theory explains how P/S potential variations are produced by telluric currents and provides the basis for design of cathodic protection systems for pipelines that can counteract any adverse telluric effects.

  8. Usnic acid: preparation, structure, properties and chemical transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, D. N.; Luzina, O. A.; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F.

    2012-08-01

    Published data on the chemistry of usnic acid since the time of its isolation in a pure state up to now are integrated and analyzed. The preparation methods, structure and properties of this compound are considered. The data on the chemical transformations of usnic acid comprise reactions that do not affect the carbon skeleton and reactions accompanied by carbon skeleton destruction. The bibliography includes 96 references.

  9. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on the Fe(III)-motnomrillonite surface. Our study demonstrate the importance of iron-enriched minerals for the abiotic formation of humic materials and for the transformation of aromatic (phenolic) pollutants.

  10. Correcting for Telluric Absorption: Methods, Case Studies, and Release of the TelFit Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullikson, Kevin; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah; Kraus, Adam

    2014-09-01

    Ground-based astronomical spectra are contaminated by the Earth's atmosphere to varying degrees in all spectral regions. We present a Python code that can accurately fit a model to the telluric absorption spectrum present in astronomical data, with residuals of ~3%-5% of the continuum for moderately strong lines. We demonstrate the quality of the correction by fitting the telluric spectrum in a nearly featureless A0V star, HIP 20264, as well as to a series of dwarf M star spectra near the 819 nm sodium doublet. We directly compare the results to an empirical telluric correction of HIP 20264 and find that our model-fitting procedure is at least as good and sometimes more accurate. The telluric correction code, which we make freely available to the astronomical community, can be used as a replacement for telluric standard star observations for many purposes.

  11. Correcting for telluric absorption: Methods, case studies, and release of the TelFit code

    SciTech Connect

    Gullikson, Kevin; Kraus, Adam; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    Ground-based astronomical spectra are contaminated by the Earth's atmosphere to varying degrees in all spectral regions. We present a Python code that can accurately fit a model to the telluric absorption spectrum present in astronomical data, with residuals of ?3%-5% of the continuum for moderately strong lines. We demonstrate the quality of the correction by fitting the telluric spectrum in a nearly featureless A0V star, HIP 20264, as well as to a series of dwarf M star spectra near the 819 nm sodium doublet. We directly compare the results to an empirical telluric correction of HIP 20264 and find that our model-fitting procedure is at least as good and sometimes more accurate. The telluric correction code, which we make freely available to the astronomical community, can be used as a replacement for telluric standard star observations for many purposes.

  12. Microbial Transformation of Esters of Chlorinated Carboxylic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Paris, D. F.; Wolfe, N. L.; Steen, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    Two groups of compounds were selected for microbial transformation studies. In the first group were carboxylic acid esters having a fixed aromatic moiety and an increasing length of the alkyl component. Ethyl esters of chlorine-substituted carboxylic acids were in the second group. Microorganisms from environmental waters and a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida U were used. The bacterial populations were monitored by plate counts, and disappearance of the parent compound was followed by gas-liquid chromatography as a function of time. The products of microbial hydrolysis were the respective carboxylic acids. Octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for the compounds were measured. These values spanned three orders of magnitude, whereas microbial transformation rate constants (kb) varied only 50-fold. The microbial rate constants of the carboxylic acid esters with a fixed aromatic moiety increased with an increasing length of alkyl substituents. The regression coefficient for the linear relationships between log kb and log Kow was high for group 1 compounds, indicating that these parameters correlated well. The regression coefficient for the linear relationships for group 2 compounds, however, was low, indicating that these parameters correlated poorly. PMID:16346459

  13. Amino acid catalyzed neogenesis of carbohydrates: a plausible ancient transformation.

    PubMed

    Córdova, Armando; Ibrahem, Ismail; Casas, Jesús; Sundén, Henrik; Engqvist, Magnus; Reyes, Efraim

    2005-08-01

    Hexose sugars play a fundamental role in vital biochemical processes and their biosynthesis is achieved through enzyme-catalyzed pathways. Herein we disclose the ability of amino acids to catalyze the asymmetric neogenesis of carbohydrates by sequential cross-aldol reactions. The amino acids mediate the asymmetric de novo synthesis of natural L- and D-hexoses and their analogues with excellent stereoselectivity in organic solvents. In some cases, the four new stereocenters are assembled with almost absolute stereocontrol. The unique feature of these results is that, when an amino acid is employed as the catalyst, a single reaction sequence can convert a protected glycol aldehyde into a hexose in one step. For example, proline and its derivatives catalyze the asymmetric neogenesis of allose with >99 % ee in one chemical manipulation. Furthermore, all amino acids tested catalyzed the asymmetric formation of natural sugars under prebiotic conditions, with alanine being the smallest catalyst. The inherent simplicity of this catalytic process suggests that a catalytic prebiotic "gluconeogenesis" may occur, in which amino acids transfer their stereochemical information to sugars. In addition, the amino acid catalyzed stereoselective sequential cross-aldol reactions were performed as a two-step procedure with different aldehydes as acceptors and nucleophiles. The employment of two different amino acids as catalysts for the iterative direct aldol reactions enabled the asymmetric synthesis of deoxysugars with >99 % ee. In addition, the direct amino acid catalyzed C(2)+C(2)+C(2) methodology is a new entry for the short, highly enantioselective de novo synthesis of carbohydrate derivatives, isotope-labeled sugars, and polyketide natural products. The one-pot asymmetric de novo syntheses of deoxy and polyketide carbohydrates involved a novel dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT) mediated by an amino acid. PMID:15929141

  14. Transformation of acidic poorly water soluble drugs into ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Balk, Anja; Wiest, Johannes; Widmer, Toni; Galli, Bruno; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Meinel, Lorenz

    2015-08-01

    Poor water solubility of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is a major challenge in drug development impairing bioavailability and therapeutic benefit. This study is addressing the possibility to tailor pharmaceutical and physical properties of APIs by transforming these into tetrabutylphosphonium (TBP) salts, including the generation of ionic liquids (IL). Therefore, poorly water soluble acidic APIs (Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen, Naproxen, Sulfadiazine, Sulfamethoxazole, and Tolbutamide) were converted into TBP ILs or low melting salts and compared to the corresponding sodium salts. Free acids and TBP salts were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy, DSC and XRPD, DVS and dissolution rate measurements, release profiles, and saturation concentration measurements. TBP salts had lower melting points and glass transition temperatures and dissolution rates were improved up to a factor of 1000 as compared to the corresponding free acid. An increase in dissolution rates was at the expense of increased hygroscopicity. In conclusion, the creation of TBP ionic liquids or solid salts from APIs is a valuable concept addressing dissolution and solubility challenges of poorly water soluble acidic compounds. The data suggested that tailor-made counterions may substantially expand the formulation scientist's armamentarium to meet challenges of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:25976317

  15. [Activated Sludge Bacteria Transforming Cyanopyridines and Amides of Pyridinecarboxylic Acids].

    PubMed

    Demakov, V A; Vasil'ev, D M; Maksimova, Yu G; Pavlova, Yu A; Ovechkina, G V; Maksimov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    Species diversity of bacteria from the activated sludge of Perm biological waste treatment facilities capable of transformation of cyanopyridines and amides of pyridinecarboxylic acids was investigated. Enrichment cultures in mineral media with 3-cyanopyridine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source were used to obtain 32 clones of gram-negative heterotrophic bacteria exhibiting moderate growth on solid and liquid media with 3- and 4-cyanopyridine. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments revealed that the clones with homology of at least 99% belonged to the genera Acinetobacte, Alcaligenes, Delftia, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Xanthobacter. PCR analysis showed that 13 out of 32 isolates contained the sequences (-1070 bp) homologous to the nitrilase genes reported previously in Alcaligenes faecalis JM3 (GenBank, D13419.1). Nine clones were capable of nitrile and amide transformation in minimal salt medium. Acinetobacter sp. 11 h and Alcaligenes sp. osv transformed 3-cyanopyridine to nicotinamide, while most of the clones possessed amidase activity (0.5 to 46.3 mmol/(g h) for acetamide and 0.1 to 5.6 mmol/(g h) for nicotinamide). Nicotinamide utilization by strain A. faecalis 2 was shown to result in excretion of a secondary metabolite, which was identified as dodecyl acrylate at 91% probability. PMID:26263697

  16. Monomethylarsonous acid induces transformation of human bladder cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bredfeldt, Tiffany G.; Jagadish, Bhumasamudram; Eblin, Kylee E.; Mash, Eugene A.; Gandolfi, A. Jay . E-mail: gandolfi@pharmacy.arizona.edu

    2006-10-01

    Arsenic is a human bladder carcinogen. Arsenic is methylated to both monomethyl and dimethyl metabolites which have been detected in human urine. The trivalent methylated arsenicals are more toxic than inorganic arsenic. It is unknown if these trivalent methylated metabolites can directly cause malignant transformation in human cells. The goal of this study is determine if monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) can induce malignant transformation in a human bladder urothelial cell line. To address this goal, a non-tumorigenic human urothelial cell line (UROtsa) was continuously exposed to 0.05 {mu}M MMA{sup III} for 52 weeks. Hyperproliferation was the first phenotypic change observed in exposed UROtsa (URO-MSC). After 12 weeks of exposure, doubling time had decreased from 42 h in unexposed control cells to 27 h in URO-MSC. Hyperproliferation continued to be a quality possessed by the URO-MSC cells after both 24 and 52 weeks of exposure to MMA{sup III}, which had a 40-50% reduction in doubling time. Throughout the 52-week exposure, URO-MSC cells retained an epithelial morphology with subtle morphological differences from control cells. 24 weeks of MMA{sup III} exposure was required to induce anchorage-independent growth as detected by colony formation in soft agar, a characteristic not found in UROtsa cells. To further substantiate that malignant transformation had occurred, URO-MSC cells were tested after 24 and 52 weeks of exposure to MMA{sup III} for the ability to form tumors in SCID mice. Enhanced tumorigenicity in SCID mouse xenografts was observed after 52 weeks of treatment with MMA{sup III}. These observations are the first demonstration of MMA{sup III}-induced malignant transformation in a human bladder urothelial cell line and provide important evidence that MMA{sup III} may be carcinogenic in human tissues.

  17. Formation of Semimetallic Cobalt Telluride Nanotube Film via Anion Exchange Tellurization Strategy in Aqueous Solution for Electrocatalytic Applications.

    PubMed

    Patil, Supriya A; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Shrestha, Nabeen K; Chang, Jinho; Lee, Joong Kee; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2015-11-25

    Metal telluride nanostructures have demonstrated several potential applications particularly in harvesting and storing green energy. Metal tellurides are synthesized by tellurization process performed basically at high temperature in reducing gas atmosphere, which makes the process expensive and complicated. The development of a facile and economical process for desirable metal telluride nanostructures without complicated manipulation is still a challenge. In an effort to develop an alternative strategy of tellurization, herein we report a thin film formation of self-standing cobalt telluride nanotubes on various conducting and nonconducting substrates using a simple binder-free synthetic strategy based on anion exchange transformation from a thin film of cobalt hydroxycarbonate nanostructures in aqueous solution at room temperature. The nanostructured films before and after ion exchange transformation reaction are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thin film X-ray diffraction technique, high resolution transmission electron microscope, and selected area electron diffraction analysis technique. After the ion exchange transformation of nanostructures, the film shows conversion from insulator to highly electrical conductive semimetallic characteristic. When used as a counter electrode in I3(-)/I(-) redox electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cells, the telluride film exhibits an electrocatalytic reduction activity for I3(-) with a demonstration of solar-light to electrical power conversion efficiency of 8.10%, which is highly competitive to the efficiency of 8.20% exhibited by a benchmarked Pt-film counter electrode. On the other hand, the telluride film electrode also demonstrates electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction from oxidation of water. PMID:26524092

  18. Plants having modified response to ethylene by transformation with an ETR nucleic acid

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M. (Pasadena, CA); Chang, Caren (Pasadena, CA); Bleecker, Anthony B. (Madison, WI)

    2001-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  19. A final report on computed magneto-telluric curves for hypothetical models of crustal structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritchard, J.I.

    1965-01-01

    Several mathematical models were investigated to determine the capa-bilities of the magneto-telluric method for determining the resistivity structure of the earth's crust. The model parameters were based on the crust model proposed by Keller (1963). The mathematical technique used was developed by Cagniard (1953). The investigations indicate that a three-layer model approximation of the crust and mantle is the most detailed model warranted in inter-preting the information provided by the magneto-telluric method about the lower crust. Only the thickness of the lower crust can be determined, and not the resistivity.

  20. Acid-catalyzed transformation of ionophore veterinary antibiotics: reaction mechanism and product implications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peizhe; Yao, Hong; Minakata, Daisuke; Crittenden, John C; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2013-07-01

    Ionophore antibiotics (IPAs) are polyether antimicrobials widely used in the livestock industry and may enter the environment via land application of animal waste and agricultural runoff. Information is scarce regarding potential transformation of IPAs under environmental conditions. This study is among the first to identify the propensity of IPAs to undergo acid-catalyzed transformation in mildly acidic aquatic systems and characterize the reactions in depth. The study focused on the most widely used monensin (MON) and salinomycin (SAL), and also included narasin (NAR) in the investigation. All three IPAs are susceptible to acid-catalyzed transformation. MON reacts much more slowly than SAL and NAR and exhibits a different kinetic behavior that is further evaluated by a reversible reaction kinetic model. Extensive product characterization identifies that the spiro-ketal group of IPAs is the reactive site for the acid-catalyzed hydrolytic transformation, yielding predominantly isomeric and other products. Toxicity evaluation of the transformation products shows that the products retain some antimicrobial properties. The occurrence of IPAs and isomeric transformation products is also observed in poultry litter and agricultural runoff samples. Considering the common presence of mildly acidic environments (pH 4-7) in soils and waters, the acid-catalyzed transformation identified in this study likely plays an important role in the environmental fate of IPAs. PMID:23373828

  1. Geomagnetically Induced Currents / Telluric Currents and Potential for Power

    E-print Network

    Schrijver, Karel

    of occurring in US Large Electrojet Disturbances observed here ·Based on last ~40 Years of Data ­ d Trends IEEE Survey of GSU Transformer Failures #12;1989-1991 IEEE Survey of GSU Transformer Failures Data Replacement 27% of All Reported Failures Resulted in Major Fire Event involved major catastrophic

  2. Molecfit: A general tool for telluric absorption correction. I. Method and application to ESO instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smette, A.; Sana, H.; Noll, S.; Horst, H.; Kausch, W.; Kimeswenger, S.; Barden, M.; Szyszka, C.; Jones, A. M.; Gallenne, A.; Vinther, J.; Ballester, P.; Taylor, J.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The interaction of the light from astronomical objects with the constituents of the Earth's atmosphere leads to the formation of telluric absorption lines in ground-based collected spectra. Correcting for these lines, mostly affecting the red and infrared region of the spectrum, usually relies on observations of specific stars obtained close in time and airmass to the science targets, therefore using precious observing time. Aims: We present molecfit, a tool to correct for telluric absorption lines based on synthetic modelling of the Earth's atmospheric transmission. Molecfit is versatile and can be used with data obtained with various ground-based telescopes and instruments. Methods: Molecfit combines a publicly available radiative transfer code, a molecular line database, atmospheric profiles, and various kernels to model the instrument line spread function. The atmospheric profiles are created by merging a standard atmospheric profile representative of a given observatory's climate, of local meteorological data, and of dynamically retrieved altitude profiles for temperature, pressure, and humidity. We discuss the various ingredients of the method, its applicability, and its limitations. We also show examples of telluric line correction on spectra obtained with a suite of ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) instruments. Results: Compared to previous similar tools, molecfit takes the best results for temperature, pressure, and humidity in the atmosphere above the observatory into account. As a result, the standard deviation of the residuals after correction of unsaturated telluric lines is frequently better than 2% of the continuum. Conclusions: Molecfit is able to accurately model and correct for telluric lines over a broad range of wavelengths and spectral resolutions. The accuracy reached is comparable to or better than the typical accuracy achieved using a telluric standard star observation. The availability of such a general tool for telluric absorption correction may improve future observational and analysing strategies, as well as empower users of archival data. Molecfit is available at http://www.eso.org/pipelines/skytoolsBased on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme IDs: 60.A-9100, 60.A-9452, 076.C-0129, 075.A-0603, 079.D-0374, 080.D-0526, 290.C-5022, 092.D-0024, 084.D-0912, 085.D-0161, 086.D-0066, and 088.D-0109.

  3. Telluric Line Effect on High Precision Radial Velocity Survey of K and M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sithajan, Sirinrat; Ge, Jian; Wang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The red and NIR region, where K and M dwarfs emit most of light, is the desirable region for radial velocity (RV) measurements for detecting low mass planets, but this wavelength region is heavily contaminated with telluric absorption lines. Variation in the telluric line depths and centroids can result in large RV measurement uncertainties, limiting the sensitivity to detect low mass planets. Here we use simulations to study effect of telluric removal and the residuals on RV measurements and determine the level of correction needed to minimize the effect. Simulated spectra from three representative spectrographs with spectral resolutions, R=60K, 80K, 100K and 120K for wavelength coverage at 0.38-0.62 ?m (called the optical spectrograph), 0.38-0.90 ?m (called the broad optical spectrograph) and 0.90-2.4 ?m (called the NIR spectrograph), have been studied. Two methods are used to study the RV effect by the telluric lines. The first one is a 'Masking' method, in which the telluric lines are identified and removed from RV calculation. The other method is a 'Removal' method, in which all heavily saturated lines are masked out and the remaining lines are subtracted by synthetic atmospheric spectra to a desired level. Our results show that, in case of late M dwarfs, the broad optical spectrograph can gain additional RV sensitivity over the optical spectrograph if telluric lines can be modeled and subtracted to better than 10%, or all lines deeper than 5% are masked out from RV calculation. For the earlier type stars, it requires better than 2% modeling and subtracting precision with the broad optical spectrograph to gain additional Doppler sensitivity over the optical spectrograph. Besides the photon gain with the NIR spectrograph over the optical spectrograph for late M dwarf observations, the NIR can gain additional advantage of Doppler sensitivity over the optical tool for late M dwarfs when telluric residuals can be subtracted to below 1%. However, it is never better than the broad optical spectrograph in any cases with the same residual levels. These indicate the broad optical spectrograph can potentially be an optimal spectrograph for high precision RV surveys for low mass planets.

  4. Modelling telluric line spectra in the optical and infrared with an application to VLT/X-Shooter spectr

    E-print Network

    Rudolf, N; Schneider, P C; Schmitt, J H M M

    2015-01-01

    Earth's atmosphere imprints a large number of telluric absorption and emission lines on astronomical spectra, especially in the near infrared, that need to be removed before analysing the affected wavelength regions. These lines are typically removed by comparison to A- or B-type stars used as telluric standards that themselves have strong hydrogen lines, which complicates the removal of telluric lines. We have developed a method to circumvent that problem. For our IDL software package tellrem we used a recent approach to model telluric absorption features with the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM). The broad wavelength coverage of the X-Shooter at VLT allows us to expand their technique by determining the abundances of the most important telluric molecules H2O, O2, CO2, and CH4 from sufficiently isolated line groups. For individual observations we construct a telluric absorption model for most of the spectral range that is used to remove the telluric absorption from the object spectrum. We remov...

  5. Organic amendment effects on the transformation and fractionation of aluminum in acidic sandy soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was attempted to evaluate the transformation of aluminum (Al) in an acidic sandy soil amended with composts (yard waste, yard + municipal waste, GreenEdge®, and synthetic humic acid), based on soil Al fractionation by single and sequential extraction. The compost amendment significantly i...

  6. Adding value to plant oils and fatty acids: Biological transformation of fatty acids into ?-hydroxycarboxylic, ?,?-dicarboxylic, and ?-aminocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Seo, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Mee; Lee, Jinwon; Park, Jin-Byung

    2015-12-20

    Not only short chain ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids, ?,?-dicarboxylic acids, and ?-aminocarboxylic acids but also medium to long chain carboxylic acids are widely used as building blocks and intermediates in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Thereby, recent achievements in biological production of medium to long chain carboxylic acids are addressed here. ?-Hydroxycarboxylic and ?,?-dicarboxylic acids were synthesized via terminal CH bond oxygenation of fatty acids and/or internal oxidative cleavage of the fatty acid carbon skeletons. ?-Aminocarboxylic acids were enzymatically produced from ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids via ?-oxocarboxylic acids. Productivities and product yields of some of the products are getting close to the industrial requirements for large scale production. PMID:26546054

  7. The rolC gene increases caffeoylquinic acid production in transformed artichoke cells.

    PubMed

    Vereshchagina, Y V; Bulgakov, V P; Grigorchuk, V P; Rybin, V G; Veremeichik, G N; Tchernoded, G K; Gorpenchenko, T Y; Koren, O G; Phan, N H T; Minh, N T; Chau, L T; Zhuravlev, Y N

    2014-09-01

    Caffeoylquinic acids are found in artichokes, and they are currently considered important therapeutic or preventive agents for treating Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. We transformed artichoke [the cultivated cardoon or Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC (Asteraceae)] with the rolC gene, which is a known inducer of secondary metabolism. High-performance liquid chromatography with UV and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-HRMS) revealed that the predominant metabolites synthesized in the transgenic calli were 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and chlorogenic acid. The rolC-transformed calli contained 1.5% caffeoylquinic acids by dry weight. The overall production of these metabolites was three times higher than that of the corresponding control calli. The enhancing effect of rolC remained stable over long-term cultivation. PMID:24938208

  8. Transformation of Monoaromatic hydrocarbons to organic acids in anoxic groundwater environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cozzarelli, I.M.; Eganhouse, R.P.; Baedecker, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The transformation of benzene and a series of alkylbenzenes was studied in anoxic groundwater of a shallow glacial-outwash aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota, U.S.A. Monoaromatic hydrocarbons, the most water-soluble components of crude oil, were transported downgradient of an oil spill, forming a plume of contaminated groundwater. Organic acids that were not original components of the oil were identified in the anoxic groundwater. The highest concentrations of these oxidized organic compounds were found in the anoxic plume where a decrease in concentrations of structurally related alkylbenzenes was observed. These results suggest that biological transformation of benzene and alkylbenzenes to organic acid intermediates may be an important attenuation process in anoxic environments. The transformation of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons to a series of corresponding oxidation products in an anoxic subsurface environment provides new insight into in situ anaerobic degradation processes. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  9. Characteristics of Palm Fatty Acid Ester (PFAE), a New Vegetable Based Insulating Oil for Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Kanoh, Takaaki; Koide, Hidenobu; Hikosaka, Tomoyuki

    We have developed new vegetable based insulating oil for transformers called PFAE (Palm Fatty Acid Ester). PFAE has 0.6 times less viscosity and 1.3 times higher dielectric constant compared to mineral oil. The oxidative stability, biodegradability and acute toxicity to fish of PFAE has also been determined to be superior to mineral oil. In this paper, in order to optimize the characteristics of fatty acid esters originating from palm oil, several kinds of fatty acid alkyl esters were first synthesized in the laboratory by the molecular design technique and the transesterification from fatty acid methyl esters and alkyl alcohols. Next the electro-chemical characteristics of the fatty acid alkyl esters as insulating oil were analyzed.

  10. Chemoselective Transformation of Diarylethanones to Arylmethanoic Acids and Diarylmethanones and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Chen, Rui-Xi; Wei, Zeng-Feng; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Tu, Hai-Yang; Zhang, Ai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The chemoselective transformation of diarylethanones via either aerobic oxidative cleavage to give arylmethanoic acids or tandem aerobic oxidation/benzilic acid rearrangement/decarboxylation to give diarylmethanones has been developed. The transformation is controllable and applicable to a broad spectrum of substrates and affords the desired products in good to excellent yields. Mechanistic insights with control reactions, (1)H NMR tracking, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveal a complex mechanistic network in which two common intermediates, ?-ketohydroperoxide and diarylethanedione, and three plausible pathways are proposed and verified. These pathways are interlinked and can be switched reasonably by changing the reaction conditions. This method enables scalable synthesis and access to a number of valuable compounds, including vitamin B3, diphenic acid, and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen. The present protocol represents a step forward in exploiting complex mechanistic networks to control reaction pathways, achieving divergent syntheses from the same class of starting materials. PMID:26618373

  11. Molecfit: A general tool for telluric absorption correction. II. Quantitative evaluation on ESO-VLT/X-Shooterspectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausch, W.; Noll, S.; Smette, A.; Kimeswenger, S.; Barden, M.; Szyszka, C.; Jones, A. M.; Sana, H.; Horst, H.; Kerber, F.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Absorption by molecules in the Earth's atmosphere strongly affects ground-based astronomical observations. The resulting absorption line strength and shape depend on the highly variable physical state of the atmosphere, i.e. pressure, temperature, and mixing ratio of the different molecules involved. Usually, supplementary observations of so-called telluric standard stars (TSS) are needed to correct for this effect, which is expensive in terms of telescope time. We have developed the software package molecfit to provide synthetic transmission spectra based on parameters obtained by fitting narrow ranges of the observed spectra of scientific objects. These spectra are calculated by means of the radiative transfer code LBLRTM and an atmospheric model. In this way, the telluric absorption correction for suitable objects can be performed without any additional calibration observations of TSS. Aims: We evaluate the quality of the telluric absorption correction using molecfit with a set of archival ESO-VLT/X-Shooter visible and near-infrared spectra. Methods: Thanks to the wavelength coverage from the U to the K band, X-Shooter is well suited to investigate the quality of the telluric absorption correction with respect to the observing conditions, the instrumental set-up, input parameters of the code, the signal-to-noise of the input spectrum, and the atmospheric profiles. These investigations are based on two figures of merit, Ioff and Ires, that describe the systematic offsets and the remaining small-scale residuals of the corrections. We also compare the quality of the telluric absorption correction achieved with molecfit to the classical method based on a telluric standard star. Results: The evaluation of the telluric correction with molecfit shows a convincing removal of atmospheric absorption features. The comparison with the classical method reveals that molecfit performs better because it is not prone to the bad continuum reconstruction, noise, and intrinsic spectral features introduced by the telluric standard star. Conclusions: Fitted synthetic transmission spectra are an excellent alternative to the correction based on telluric standard stars. Moreover, molecfit offers wide flexibility for adaption to various instruments and observing sites. http://www.eso.org/sci/software/pipelines/skytools/

  12. Determination of amino acids in Chinese rice wine by fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fei; Niu, Xiaoying; Yang, Danting; Ying, Yibin; Li, Bobin; Zhu, Geqing; Wu, Jian

    2010-09-01

    Chinese rice wine is abundant in amino acids. The possibility of quantitative detection of 16 free amino acids (aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, and arginine) in Chinese rice wine by Fourier transform near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was investigated for the first time in this study. A total of 98 samples from vintage 2007 rice wines with different aging times were analyzed by NIR spectroscopy in transmission mode. Calibration models were developed using partial least-squares regression (PLSR) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) by postcolumn derivatization and diode array detection as a reference method. To validate the calibration models, full cross (leave-one-out) validation was employed. The results showed that the calibration statistics were good (rcal>0.94) for all amino acids except proline, histidine, and arginine. The correlation coefficient in cross validation (rcv) was >0.81 for 12 amino acids. The residual predictive deviation (RPD) value obtained was >1.5 in all amino acids except proline and arginine, and it was >2.0 in 6 amino acids. The results obtained in this study indicated that NIR spectroscopy could be used as an easy, rapid, and novel tool to quantitatively predict free amino acids in Chinese rice wine without sophisticated methods. PMID:20707307

  13. Demonstration of Infectious Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Transformed Cells I. Recovery of Simian Virus 40 from Yielder and Nonyielder Transformed Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Virginia A. L.; Butel, Janet S.

    1972-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from virus-free simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed hamster, mouse, and monkey cells and was inoculated into simian cells in the presence of diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-dextran; infectious SV40 was recovered by using DNA from cell lines which fail to yield virus by the fusion technique as well as from cell lines which readily yield virus by fusion. The rescued virus was identified as SV40 by three methods: (i) neutralization of plaque formation by specific antiserum; (ii) induction of synthesis of viral-specific antigens detected by immunofluorescence; and (iii) presence of papovavirus particles seen by the electron microscope. Treatment of the transformed cell DNA with deoxyribonuclease or omission of the DEAE-dextran prevented the rescue of virus. Large amounts of transformed cell DNA were required (>10 ?g/culture of 106 cells) to effect rescue of SV40 by passage through monkey cells. A linear response was obtained between the input of DNA with inocula between 10 and 45 ?g of DNA/culture and the yield of SV40 recovered. Biological activity was demonstrable irregularly when the transformed cell DNA was assayed directly in the presence of DEAE-dextran. The DNA induced plaque formation in about 50% of the trials as well as the synthesis of SV40 tumor and viral antigens in rare simian cells. The infectious DNA appeared to be associated with cellular DNA. The infectivity was found in the pellet of precipitated DNA obtained by the Hirt technique and was inactivated by boiling for 15 min. These properties are characteristic of linear cellular DNA and not of free, circular SV40 DNA. PMID:4342048

  14. Anti-transforming nature of ascorbic acid and its derivatives examined by two-stage cell transformation using BALB/c 3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Kato-Masatsuji, E; Tsuzuki, T; Umeda, M

    2000-11-10

    The anti-transforming effects of sodium ascorbate and its stable derivatives were examined in the two-stage transformation assay. When BALB/c 3T3 cells were treated with 0.2 microg/ml 20-methylcholanthrene as an initiator, and 100 ng/ml 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate as a promoter, the addition at the promotion stage of L-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate ester magnesium (APM) was most marked in the inhibition of transformation. The inhibitory effects of sodium ascorbate and ascorbic acid-2-glucoside (AG) were comparable, but weaker than those of APM; L (+)-ascorbic acid-2-sulfate ester disodium 2H(2)O showed little effect. When phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) were used as promoters, APM also effectively suppressed transformation. PMID:11098084

  15. ESR and proton ENDOR studies in urea oxalic acid (2:1) single crystal: Radical transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.V.V.S.; Lingam, K.V.; Gundu Rao, T.K.

    1982-05-01

    A radical transformation has been investigated in a single crystal of urea oxalic acid (2:1) irradiated at room temperature. ENDOR studies (approx.-160 /sup 0/C) have been performed on both the initial and final radicals. The initial species has been assigned to a protonated anion radical. The results indicated that a common proton was involved in the protonation of the anion and in the subsequent transformation to R--CHOH. Two important differences in relation to the earlier studies on the protonated anions were noted. The maximum dipolar coupling values (B/sub max/) for the O--H/sub ..beta../ protons are smaller than normal and the proton transfer is not across the hydrogen bridge. A qualitative estimation of the spin densities indicated delocalization and the possible causes for small values of B/sub max/ are discussed. A mechanism proposed earlier is invoked to understand the radical transformation.

  16. Determination of the Telluric Water Vapor Absorption Correction for Astronomical Data Obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Simpson, J. P.; Kuhn, P. M.; Stearns, L. P.

    1979-01-01

    The amount of telluric water vapor along the line of sight of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory telescope as obtained concommitantly on 23 flights is compared with the NASA-Ames Michelson interferometer and with the NOAA-Boulder radiometer. A strong correlation between the two determinations exists, and a method for computing the atmospheric transmission for a given radiometer reading is established.

  17. Production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids by bacteria in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, L.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Benner, R.; Middelboe, M.; Stedmon, C. A.

    2014-10-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of combined neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining after 32 days of bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations with natural seawater (sampled from water masses originating from the surface waters of the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean) and artificial seawater indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol %) and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3-14 mol %). DOM remaining after bacterial degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol %), followed by glucose (22 mol %) and the remaining neutral sugars (7-11 mol %). The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days, the D/L ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural (representing marine semi-labile and refractory DOM) and artificial (representing bacterially produced DOM) seawater samples, suggests that microbes transform bioavailable neutral sugars and amino acids into a common, more persistent form.

  18. Seismic and magneto-telluric imaging for geothermal exploration at Jemez pueblo in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Albrecht, Michael

    2011-01-25

    A shallow geothermal reservoir in the Pueblo of Jemez in New Mexico may indicate a commercial-scale geothermal energy potential in the area. To explore the geothermal resource at Jemez Pueblo, seismic surveys are conducted along three lines for the purpose of imaging complex subsurface structures near the Indian Springs fault zone. A 3-D magneto-telluric (MT) survey is also carried out in the same area. Seismic and MT imaging can provide complementary information to reveal detailed geologic formation properties around the fault zones. The high-resolution seismic images will be used together with MT images, geologic mapping, and hydrogeochemistry, to explore the geothermal resource at Jemez Pueblo, and to determine whether a conunercial-scale geothermal resource exists for power generation or direct use applications after drilling and well testing.

  19. Effects of Fe oxide on N transformations in subtropical acid soils.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xianjun; Xin, Xiaoping; Li, Shiwei; Zhou, Junchao; Zhu, Tongbin; Müller, Christopher; Cai, Zucong; Wright, Alan L

    2015-01-01

    Subtropical ecosystems are often characterized by high N cycling rates, but net nitrification rates are often low in subtropical acid soils. NO3(-)-N immobilization into organic N may be a contributing factor to understand the observed low net nitrification rates in these acid soils. The effects of Fe oxide and organic matter on soil N transformations were evaluated using a (15)N tracing study. Soil net nitrification was low for highly acidic yellow soil (Ferralsols), but gross ammonia oxidation was 7 times higher than net nitrification. In weakly acidic purple soil (Cambisols), net nitrification was 8 times higher than in Ferralsols. The addition of 5% Fe oxide to Cambisols, reduced the net nitrification rate to a negative rate, while NO3(-)-N immobilization rate increased 8 fold. NO3(-)-N immobilization was also observed in Ferralsols which contained high Fe oxides levels. A possible mechanism for these reactions could be stimulation of NO3(-)-N immobilization by Fe oxide which promoted the abiotic formation of nitrogenous polymers, suggesting that the absence of net nitrification in some highly acid soils may be due to high rates of NO3(-)-N immobilization caused by high Fe oxide content rather than a low pH. PMID:25722059

  20. Effects of Fe oxide on N transformations in subtropical acid soils

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xianjun; Xin, Xiaoping; Li, Shiwei; Zhou, Junchao; Zhu, Tongbin; Müller, Christopher; Cai, Zucong; Wright, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    Subtropical ecosystems are often characterized by high N cycling rates, but net nitrification rates are often low in subtropical acid soils. NO3?-N immobilization into organic N may be a contributing factor to understand the observed low net nitrification rates in these acid soils. The effects of Fe oxide and organic matter on soil N transformations were evaluated using a 15N tracing study. Soil net nitrification was low for highly acidic yellow soil (Ferralsols), but gross ammonia oxidation was 7 times higher than net nitrification. In weakly acidic purple soil (Cambisols), net nitrification was 8 times higher than in Ferralsols. The addition of 5% Fe oxide to Cambisols, reduced the net nitrification rate to a negative rate, while NO3?-N immobilization rate increased 8 fold. NO3?-N immobilization was also observed in Ferralsols which contained high Fe oxides levels. A possible mechanism for these reactions could be stimulation of NO3?-N immobilization by Fe oxide which promoted the abiotic formation of nitrogenous polymers, suggesting that the absence of net nitrification in some highly acid soils may be due to high rates of NO3?-N immobilization caused by high Fe oxide content rather than a low pH. PMID:25722059

  1. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  2. Reversion by deletion of transforming oncogene following interferon-beta and retinoic acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, R M; Yeh, A; Gutman, P; Contente, S; Kenyon, K

    1997-10-01

    We have previously shown that prolonged interferon-beta (IFN-beta) treatment of RS485 cells (NIH3T3 cells transformed with multiple copies of an LTR-cHa-ras oncogene) resulted in the phenotypic reversion of 1%-5% of the culture, depending on the conditions used. This reversion persisted after IFN-beta was discontinued, although the revertants retained the LTR-cHa-ras and continued to express ras mRNA and p21. Clones were prepared of such persistent revertant cell lines (PRs). Expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX), which appears to act as a suppressor of ras transformation, was downregulated in RS485 and upregulated in the PRs. When retinoic acid (RA) was combined with IFN-beta treatment of the RS485 cultures, a different mechanism of reversion predominated. Following 60 days of treatment with 20 IU/ml of IFN-beta and 10 microM RA, all of the multiple (3-5) copies of the transforming LTR-c-Ha-ras originally present in RS485 cells were deleted from the genome in 72% of 54 revertant cell lines isolated. As in the case of revertants observed after treatment with IFN-beta alone, LOX mRNA expression was upregulated in all of the revertants that resulted from the treatment with IFN plus RA. The level of LOX mRNA expression acts, therefore, as an indicator of transformation in this system. PMID:9355967

  3. Pectin functionalised by fatty acids: Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopic characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Calce, Enrica; Tarantilis, Petros A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; De Luca, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Chemically modified pectin derivatives obtained by partial esterification of its hydroxyl moieties with fatty acids (FA; oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids), as well as the initial apple peel pectin were comparatively characterised using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Characteristic changes observed in DRIFT spectra in going from pectin to its FA esters are related to the corresponding chemical modifications. Comparing the DRIFT spectra with some reported data on FTIR spectra of the same materials measured in KBr or NaCl matrices has revealed noticeable shifts of several polar functional groups both in pectin and in its FA-esterified products induced by the halide salts. The results obtained have implications for careful structural analyses of biopolymers with hydrophilic functional groups by means of different FTIR spectroscopic methodologies.

  4. Role of Oxalic Acid Overexcretion in Transformations of Toxic Metal Minerals by Beauveria caledonica

    PubMed Central

    Fomina, M.; Hillier, S.; Charnock, J. M.; Melville, K.; Alexander, I. J.; Gadd, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    The fungus Beauveria caledonica was highly tolerant to toxic metals and solubilized cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc minerals, converting them into oxalates. This fungus was found to overexcrete organic acids with strong metal-chelating properties (oxalic and citric acids), suggesting that a ligand-promoted mechanism was the main mechanism of mineral dissolution. Our data also suggested that oxalic acid was the main mineral-transforming agent. Cadmium, copper, and zinc oxalates were precipitated by the fungus in the local environment and also in association with the mycelium. The presence of toxic metal minerals often led to the formation of mycelial cords, and in the presence of copper-containing minerals, these cords exhibited enhanced excretion of oxalic acid, which resulted in considerable encrustation of the cords by copper oxalate hydrate (moolooite). It was found that B. caledonica hyphae and cords were covered by a thick hydrated mucilaginous sheath which provided a microenvironment for chemical reactions, crystal deposition, and growth. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed that mycogenic metal oxalates overgrew parental fungal hyphae, leaving a labyrinth of fungal tunnels within the newly formed mineral matter. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that oxygen ligands played a major role in metal coordination within the fungal biomass during the accumulation of mobilized toxic metals by B. caledonica mycelium; these ligands were carboxylic groups in copper phosphate-containing medium and phosphate groups in pyromorphite-containing medium. PMID:15640211

  5. Perfluorobutyric acid and its monohydrate: a chirped pulse and cavity based fourier transform microwave spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Javix; Serrato, Agapito; Lin, Wei; Jäger, Wolfgang; Xu, Yunjie

    2014-05-12

    Rotational spectra of perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA) and its monohydrate were studied with a broadband chirped pulse and a narrow-band cavity based Fourier transform microwave spectrometer, and high-level ab initio calculations. Extensive conformational searches were performed for both the acid and its monohydrate at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory. Two and three conformers were predicted to exist for PFBA and its monohydrate, respectively. One set of rotational transitions was observed and assigned for each, PFBA and its monohydrate. Based on the measured broadband spectra, we confidently conclude that only one dominant conformer exists in each case. The orientation of the hydroxyl group in PFBA was determined by using isotopic analysis. Comparison of the observed transition intensities and the calculated electric dipole moment components allowed us to identify the most stable monohydrate conformation, which takes on an insertion hydrogen-bonding topology. Comparisons to the shorter chain analogues, that is, trifluoroacetic acid, perfluoropropionic acid, and their monohydrates, are made to elucidate the general trend in their conformational preference and binding topologies. PMID:24756992

  6. Radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of C3H10T1/2 cells is suppressed by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yasukawa, M.; Terasima, T.; Seki, M. )

    1989-12-01

    X-ray induced transformation of C3H10T1/2 cells was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by administration of ascorbic acid after irradiation (0.1-20 micrograms/ml for the first week) in the culture medium. The dose-response curve was shifted about 60% downward and was slightly steeper in the presence of ascorbic acid (5 micrograms/ml for the first week) than in its absence. The 1-week treatment procedure revealed that cells initiated by radiation remained susceptible to ascorbic acid until the time of morphological phenotype expression. The neoplastically transformed phenotype expressed after incubation for 8 weeks could no longer be suppressed by ascorbic acid even after culture transfer. Similarly, the neoplastically transformed phenotype suppressed for 8 weeks by ascorbic acid treatment was not subsequently expressed in the absence of ascorbic acid. On the basis of the oxygen-detoxifying nature of ascorbic acid, we postulated that expression of the neoplastically transformed phenotype is promoted by reactive oxygen species and peroxy radicals generated in cells during the whole assay period. The data may be useful as a guide for chemopreventive efforts against radiation carcinogenesis.

  7. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging parameters describing acid phosphate substitution in biologic hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Spevak, Lyudmila; Flach, Carol R; Hunter, Tracey; Mendelsohn, Richard; Boskey, Adele

    2013-05-01

    Acid phosphate substitution into mineralized tissues is an important determinant of their mechanical properties and their response to treatment. This study identifies and validates Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIRI) spectral parameters that provide information on the acid phosphate (HPO4) substitution into hydroxyapatite in developing mineralized tissues. Curve fitting and Fourier self-deconvolution were used to identify subband positions in model compounds (with and without HPO4). The intensity of subbands at 1127 and 1110 cm(-1) correlated with the acid phosphate content in these models. Peak height ratios of these subbands to the ?3 vibration at 1096 cm(-1) found in stoichiometric apatite were evaluated in the model compounds and mixtures thereof. FTIRI spectra of bones and teeth at different developmental ages were analyzed using these spectral parameters. Factor analysis (a chemometric technique) was also conducted on the tissue samples and resulted in factor loadings with spectral features corresponding to the HPO4 vibrations described above. Images of both factor correlation coefficients and the peak height ratios 1127/1096 and 1112/1096 cm(-1) demonstrated higher acid phosphate content in younger vs. more mature regions in the same specimen. Maps of the distribution of acid phosphate content will be useful for characterizing the extent of new bone formation, the areas of potential decreased strength, and the effects of therapies such as those used in metabolic bone diseases (osteoporosis, chronic kidney disease) on mineral composition. Because of the wider range of values obtained with the 1127/1096 cm(-1) parameter compared to the 1110/1096 cm(-1) parameter and the smaller scatter in the slope, it is suggested that this ratio should be the parameter of choice. PMID:23380987

  8. Lipoxygenase-catalyzed transformation of epoxy fatty acids to hydroxy-endoperoxides: a potential P450 and lipoxygenase interaction.

    PubMed

    Teder, Tarvi; Boeglin, William E; Brash, Alan R

    2014-12-01

    Herein, we characterize a generally applicable transformation of fatty acid epoxides by lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes that results in the formation of a five-membered endoperoxide ring in the end product. We demonstrated this transformation using soybean LOX-1 in the metabolism of 15,16-epoxy-?-linolenic acid, and murine platelet-type 12-LOX and human 15-LOX-1 in the metabolism of 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET). A detailed examination of the transformation of the two enantiomers of 15,16-epoxy-?-linolenic acid by soybean LOX-1 revealed that the expected primary product, a 13S-hydroperoxy-15,16-epoxide, underwent a nonenzymatic transformation in buffer into a new derivative that was purified by HPLC and identified by UV, LC-MS, and ¹H-NMR as a 13,15-endoperoxy-16-hydroxy-octadeca-9,11-dienoic acid. The configuration of the endoperoxide (cis or trans side chains) depended on the steric relationship of the new hydroperoxy moiety to the enantiomeric configuration of the fatty acid epoxide. The reaction mechanism involves intramolecular nucleophilic substitution (SNi) between the hydroperoxy (nucleophile) and epoxy group (electrophile). Equivalent transformations were documented in metabolism of the enantiomers of 14,15-EET by the two mammalian LOX enzymes, 15-LOX-1 and platelet-type 12-LOX. We conclude that this type of transformation could occur naturally with the co-occurrence of LOX and cytochrome P450 or peroxygenase enzymes, and it could also contribute to the complexity of products formed in the autoxidation reactions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25293588

  9. Directional Borehole Logging Configurations Using DC and Telluric Methods for Detecting Deep Conductors Not Intersected by Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2005-12-01

    Herewith, two borehole directional geoelectrical configurations have been introduced for the detection of deep conductors not intersected by the well. The first one is a hole to surface configuration (HSC) using the dc current, and the second one is a telluric configuration (TC). Characterized by a deeper penetration depth, and a directional effect, both configurations have superiority comparable with other traditional geoelectrical configurations. Basically, a Directional Natural Induced Polarization methodology termed (DNIP) has been developed and proposed by benefiting from borehole telluric measurements taken at two sufficiently low frequencies. These configurations have been tested in the Rouez mine, Bretagne, France, where sulphide mineralization is known to occur. Several anomalies have been isolated in field data and interpreted by different interpretative techniques. The results obtained by applying these configurations are in good agreement, and the detected conductors are confirmed by morphological and lithological description.

  10. A Rare Phaeodactylum tricornutum Cruciform Morphotype: Culture Conditions, Transformation and Unique Fatty Acid Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    He, Liyan; Han, Xiaotian; Yu, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    A rare Phaeodactylum tricornutum cruciform morphotype was obtained and stabilized with a proportion of more than 31.3% in L1 medium and is reported for the first time. Long-term culture and observation showed that the cruciform morphotype was capable of transforming to the oval form following the degeneration of arms by two processes. After three months of culture, four morphotypes existed in a relatively stable proportion in culture for six months (10.5% for oval, 11.3% for fusiform, 37.2% for triradiate and 41.0% for cruciform). Low temperature was particularly beneficial for cruciform cell formation. As the culture temperature decreased from 25°C to 10°C, the percentage of the cruciform morphotype increased from 39.1% to 55.3% approximately. The abundant cruciform cells endowed this strain with unique fatty acid characteristics. The strain cultured at 15°C showed both maximum content of neutral lipid in a single cell and total yield. The maximum content of fatty acid methyl esters was C16:1 for Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultured at four temperatures (43.82% to 50.82%), followed by C16:0 (20.47% to 22.65%). Unique fatty acid composition endowed this strain with excellent quality for biodiesel production. PMID:24710200

  11. Fourier transform infrared study on hydrogen bonding species of carboxylic acids in supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Morio; Iwai, Yoshio; Nakajima, Taro; Arai, Yasuhiko

    1999-05-06

    Supercritical fluid extraction has been given much attention recently as one of the new separation technologies in the chemical industry. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to determine the equilibrium constants of the dimerization for carboxylic acid (acetic acid or palmitic acid) and the amount of hydrogen bonding species between carboxylic acid and ethanol in supercritical CO{sub 2}. Experiments were carried out at 308.2--313.2 K and 10.0--20.0 MPa. The noticeable band was the C{double_bond}O stretching band for carboxylic acid. In the binary system (supercritical CO{sub 2} + carboxylic acid), the equilibrium constants of the dimerization between the carboxylic acid monomer and dimer decrease with increasing pressure and temperature. The equilibrium constants of palmitic acid are larger than those of acetic acid. In a ternary system (supercritical CO{sub 2} + carboxylic acid + ethanol), the amount of hydrogen bonding species between carboxylic acid and ethanol in supercritical CO{sub 2} increases with the increasing mole fraction of added ethanol. Furthermore, the authors confirm that the solubility enhancement by ethanol used as an entrainer in supercritical CO{sub 2} related to the amount of hydrogen bonding species between carboxylic acid and ethanol.

  12. Small interfering ribonucleic acid induces liquid-to-ripple phase transformation in a phospholipid membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Amit; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2014-09-01

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) molecules play a pivotal role in silencing gene expression via the RNA interference mechanism. A key limitation to the widespread implementation of siRNA therapeutics is the difficulty of delivering siRNA-based drugs to cells. Here, we examine changes in the structure and dynamics of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in the presence of a siRNA molecule and mechanical barriers to siRNA transfection in the bilayer. Our all-atom molecular dynamics simulation shows that siRNA induces a liquid crystalline-to-ripple phase transformation in the bilayer. The ripple phase consists of a major region of non-interdigitated and a minor region of interdigitated lipid molecules with an intervening kink. In the ripple phase, hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules have large compressive stresses, which present a considerable barrier to siRNA transfection.

  13. Small interfering ribonucleic acid induces liquid-to-ripple phase transformation in a phospholipid membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Choubey, Amit; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2014-09-15

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) molecules play a pivotal role in silencing gene expression via the RNA interference mechanism. A key limitation to the widespread implementation of siRNA therapeutics is the difficulty of delivering siRNA-based drugs to cells. Here, we examine changes in the structure and dynamics of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in the presence of a siRNA molecule and mechanical barriers to siRNA transfection in the bilayer. Our all-atom molecular dynamics simulation shows that siRNA induces a liquid crystalline-to-ripple phase transformation in the bilayer. The ripple phase consists of a major region of non-interdigitated and a minor region of interdigitated lipid molecules with an intervening kink. In the ripple phase, hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules have large compressive stresses, which present a considerable barrier to siRNA transfection.

  14. Low-temperature phase transformation studies in the stearic acid: C form.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, F F; Freire, P T C; de Menezes, A S; Pinheiro, G S; Cardoso, L P; Alcantara, P; Moreira, S G C; Melo, F E A; Mendes Filho, J; Saraiva, G D

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the temperature-dependent measurements in the C form of stearic acid. Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements were performed at low temperatures. The polarized Raman spectra were measured for temperatures ranging from 8 to 300 K over the spectral range of 30-3000 cm(-1). The spectral changes observed in both the lattice vibrational modes and the internal vibrational modes regions of the Raman spectrum, allowed to identify a phase transition undergone by the stearic acid crystal occurring between 210 and 170 K and a change in the structure continues to be observed down to 8 K. The anharmonicity of some vibrational modes and the possible space groups presented by the crystal at low temperatures were also discussed. Low-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements were performed from 290 to 80 K and the results showed slight changes in the lattice parameters at ?200 K. Furthermore, the evidence of the phase transformation was provided by the differential scanning calorimetry measurements, which identified an enthalpic anomaly at about 160 K. PMID:25909902

  15. Low-temperature phase transformation studies in the stearic acid: C form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, F. F.; Freire, P. T. C.; de Menezes, A. S.; Pinheiro, G. S.; Cardoso, L. P.; Alcantara, P.; Moreira, S. G. C.; Melo, F. E. A.; Mendes Filho, J.; Saraiva, G. D.

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the temperature-dependent measurements in the C form of stearic acid. Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry measurements were performed at low temperatures. The polarized Raman spectra were measured for temperatures ranging from 8 to 300 K over the spectral range of 30-3000 cm-1. The spectral changes observed in both the lattice vibrational modes and the internal vibrational modes regions of the Raman spectrum, allowed to identify a phase transition undergone by the stearic acid crystal occurring between 210 and 170 K and a change in the structure continues to be observed down to 8 K. The anharmonicity of some vibrational modes and the possible space groups presented by the crystal at low temperatures were also discussed. Low-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements were performed from 290 to 80 K and the results showed slight changes in the lattice parameters at ?200 K. Furthermore, the evidence of the phase transformation was provided by the differential scanning calorimetry measurements, which identified an enthalpic anomaly at about 160 K.

  16. Surface complexation of mellitic acid to goethite: an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bruce B; Sjöberg, Staffan; Persson, Per

    2004-02-01

    The nature of the interaction between mellitic acid (benzene hexacarboxylic acid) and the common soil mineral goethite (alpha-FeOOH) has been investigated as a function of pH and ionic strength by use of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Molecular orbital calculations of the theoretical vibrational frequencies of the mellitate ion (L6-) and dihydrogen mellitate (H2L4-) have allowed the measured absorption frequencies to be accurately assigned. At pH values above 6, adsorption involves outer-sphere complexation of the deprotonated L6- ion. At lower pH values, there is evidence of a second outer-sphere surface complex involving a partially protonated species, although the extent of protonation of the surface species is significantly less than that found for the solution species at the same pH. While there is no evidence of inner-sphere complexation, increasing the ionic strength to 2.0 M does not displace the adsorbed species but does increase the fraction present on the surface as the fully deprotonated L6-. The small effect of ionic strength suggests that the adsorptive interaction, although outer-sphere in character, is still relatively strong, which indicates that hydrogen bonds may play a significant role. Hydrogen bonding may also help to account for the observed outer-sphere complexation at pH values above the pHiep of goethite. PMID:15773110

  17. Synthesis, calorimetric, structural and conductivity studies in a new thallium selenate tellurate adduct compound

    SciTech Connect

    Ktari, L.; Abdelhedi, M.; Bouhlel, N.; Dammak, M.; Cousson, A.

    2009-08-05

    The crystal structure of the thallium selenate tellurate Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} (TlSeTe) was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c space group. The following parameters are: a = 12.358(3) A; b = 7.231(1) A; c = 11.986(2) A; {beta} = 111.092(2){sup o}; Z = 4. The structure can be regarded as being built of isolated TeO{sub 6} octahedra and SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The Tl{sup +} cations are intercalated between these kinds of polyhedra. The main feature of this structure is the coexistence of two different and independent anions (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and TeO{sub 6}{sup 6-}) in the same unit cell. The structure is stable due to O-H...O hydrogen bonds which link tetrahedral and octahedral groups. Crystals of Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} undergo three endothermal transitions at 373, 395 and 437 K. These transitions are detected by DSC and analyzed by dielectric measurements with impedance spectroscopy. The evolution of conductivity versus temperature showed the presence of a protonic conduction phase transition at 437 K. The phase transition at 373 K can be related to a structural phase transition, whereas the one at 395 K is ascribed as likely due to a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition.

  18. Process Coupling Between Mineral Transformation and U Speciation in Acid Waste Weathered Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdrial, N.; Kanematsu, M.; Wang, G.; Um, W.; O'Day, P. A.; Chorover, J.

    2013-12-01

    The need for better prediction of contaminant transport motivates multi-faceted lines of inquiry to build a strong bridge between molecular- and field-scale information. At Hanford (WA), millions of liters of U-containing acidic wastes have been discharged to the soil. In order to predict reactive contaminant migration in the soil, it is necessary to determine the process coupling that occurs between mineral transformation and uranium speciation in these acid-uranium waste weathered sediments. Furthermore, we seek to establish linkages between molecular-scale contaminant speciation and meso-scale contaminant lability, release and reactive transport. Unweathered Hanford sediments were reacted for 365 days with acidic (pH 3), uranium bearing waste solutions in batch experiments. The presence and absence of phosphate in the waste as a control on uranium speciation was also investigated. At dedicated reaction times (7, 14, 30, 90, 180 and 365 days) solid and solution chemistry were analyzed to determine weathering trajectories and contaminant speciation. As observed by XRD and U-EXAFS, when present, PO4 exerted a strong controls over uranium speciation at all pH with the rapid precipitation of meta-ankoleite [K(UO2PO4).3H2O] and near complete immobilization of U. Over prolonged reaction time, however, small fractions of boltwoodite [K(UO2)(HSiO4).3H2O] increased in PO4-high U systems. When PO4 was excluded from the reaction systems, U speciation was indirectly controlled by the pH of the reactant solution and its effect on primary mineral weathering. In this case, U immobilization remained limited with 25 to 50% of the uranium precipitated as becquerelite ([Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6.3H2O] or the K equivalent - compreignacite) and suspected boltwoodite. Differences between the systems are attributed to process coupling between acid chemistry and U geochemistry. Carbonate weathering contributed to rapidly buffer the pH to pH 7-8 in the absence of PO4 and to 6-7 in its presence, promoting subsequent silicate weathering that makes aqueous Si available for boltwoodite precipitation. Comparison with homogeneous nucleation experiments and thermodynamic calculations confirmed the strong phosphate control over U speciation and the multispeciation of U in its absence.

  19. Tellurite-, tellurate-, and selenite-based anaerobic respiration by strain CM-3 isolated from gold mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Chris; Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    The newly discovered strain CM-3, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from gold mine tailings of the Central Mine in Nopiming Provincial Park, Canada, is capable of dissimilatory anaerobic reduction of tellurite, tellurate, and selenite. CM-3 possesses very high level resistance to these oxides, both aerobically and anaerobically. During aerobic growth, tellurite and tellurate resistance was up to 1500 and 1000 µg/ml, respectively. In the presence of selenite, growth occurred at the highest concentration tested, 7000 µg/ml. Under anaerobic conditions, resistance was decreased to 800 µg/ml for the Te oxides; however, much like under aerobic conditions, growth with selenite still took place at 7000 µg/ml. In the absence of oxygen, CM-3 couples oxide reduction to an increase in biomass. Following an initial drop in viable cells, due to switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, there was an increase in CFU/ml greater than one order of magnitude in the presence of tellurite (6.6 × 10(3)-8.6 × 10(4) CFU/ml), tellurate (4.6 × 10(3)-1.4 × 10(5) CFU/ml), and selenite (2.7 × 10(5)-5.6 × 10(6) CFU/ml). A control culture without metalloid oxides showed a steady decrease in CFU/ml with no recovery. ATP production was also increased in the presence of each oxide, further indicating anaerobic respiration. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a 99.0 % similarity of CM-3 to Pseudomonas reactans. PMID:26254805

  20. Bio-transformation of Glycerol to 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid Using Resting Cells of Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Gopi Gopal; Nehru, Ganesh; Suppuram, Pandiaraj; Balasubramaniyam, Sowmiya; Gulab, Brajesh Raman; Subramanian, Ramalingam

    2015-10-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri grown in MRS broth containing 20 mM glycerol exhibits 3.7-fold up-regulation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) pathway genes during the stationary phase. Concomitantly, the resting cells prepared from stationary phase show enhancement in bio-conversion of glycerol, and the maximum specific productivity (q p) is found to be 0.17 g 3-HP per g CDW per hour. The regulatory elements such as catabolite repression site in the up-stream of 3-HP pathway genes are presumed for the augmentation of glycerol bio-conversion selectively in stationary phase. However, in the repression mutant, the maximum q p of 3-HP persisted in the stationary phase-derived resting cells indicating the role of further regulatory features. In the production stage, the external 3-HP concentration of 35 mM inhibits 3-HP synthesis. In addition, it has also moderated 1,3-propanediol formation, as it is a redox bio-catalysis involving NAD(+)/NADH ratio of 6.5. Repeated batch bio-transformation has been used to overcome product inhibition, and the total yield (Ypx) of 3-HP from the stationary phase-derived biomass is 3.3 times higher than that from the non-repeated mode. With the use of appropriate gene expression condition and repeated transfer of biomass, 3-HP produced in this study can be used for low-volume, high-value applications. PMID:26204968

  1. An empirical model of amino acid transformations in an alpine soil D.A. Lipson*, T.K. Raab, S.K. Schmidt, R.K. Monson

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    An empirical model of amino acid transformations in an alpine soil D.A. Lipson*, T.K. Raab, S; accepted 22 June 2000 Abstract Amino acids are potentially important nitrogen (N) sources for plants ecosystems. This study estimates seasonal amino acid ¯uxes in an alpine tundra soil using three independent

  2. The study of aluminum loss and consequent phase transformation in heat-treated acid-leached kaolin

    SciTech Connect

    Foo, Choo Thye; Mahmood, Che Seman; Mohd Salleh, Mohamad Amran

    2011-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of Al leaching during Fe removal from kaolin to mullite. Heat-treated kaolin was obtained by heating natural kaolin at 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg. C. The heat-treated kaolin was then leached at 100 deg. C with 4 M, 3 M, 2 M, 1 M, 0.2 M solution of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.2 M solution of oxalic acid. The dried samples were sintered to 1300 deg. C for 4 h at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1}. X-ray diffractometry and differential thermal analysis were used to study the phase transformation of kaolin to mullite. It was found that 700 deg. C is the optimum preheat-treatment temperature to leach out Fe and also Al for both types of the acids used. The majority of the 4 M sulfuric acid-treated kaolins formed the cristobalite phase when sintered. On the other hand, 1 M, 0.2 M sulfuric acid and 0.2 M oxalic acid leached heat-treated kaolin formed mullite and quartz phase after sintering. - Research Highlights: {yields} Preheat-treatment of kaolin improves the leachability of unwanted iron. {yields} The optimum preheat-treatment temperature is 700 deg. C. {yields} Sintered 4 M sulfuric acid-treated kaolin majorly formed the cristobalite phase. {yields} Sintered 0.2 M oxalic acid-treated kaolin formed lesser amorphous silicate phase.

  3. State of the art of Lewis acid-containing zeolites: lessons from fine chemistry to new biomass transformation processes.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Manuel

    2014-03-21

    The former synthesis of TS-1 opened new catalytic opportunities for zeolites, especially for their application as selective redox catalysts in several fine chemistry processes. Interestingly, isolated Ti species in the framework positions of hydrophobic zeolites, such as high silica zeolites, offer unique Lewis acid sites even in the presence of protic polar solvents (such as water). Following this discovery, other transition metals (such as Sn, Zr, V, Nb, among others) have been introduced in the framework positions of different hydrophobic zeolitic structures, allowing their application in new fine chemistry processes as very active and selective redox catalysts. Recently, these hydrophobic metallozeolites have been successfully applied as efficient catalysts for several biomass-transformation processes in bulk water. The acquired knowledge from the former catalytic descriptions in fine chemistry processes using hydrophobic Lewis acid-containing zeolites has been essential for their application in these novel biomass transformations. In the present review, I will describe the recent advances in the synthesis of new transition metal-containing zeolites presenting Lewis acid character, and their unique catalytic applications in both fine chemistry and novel biomass-transformations. PMID:24142026

  4. Insights into the role of humic acid on Pd-catalytic electro-Fenton transformation of toluene in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Liao, Peng; Al-Ani, Yasir; Malik Ismael, Zainab; Wu, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    A recently developed Pd-based electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) process enables efficient in situ remediation of organic contaminants in groundwater. In the process, H?O?, Fe(II), and acidic conditions (~pH 3) are produced in situ to facilitate the decontamination, but the role of ubiquitous natural organic matters (NOM) remain unclear. This study investigated the effect of Aldrich humic acid (HA) on the transformation of toluene by the Pd-based E-Fenton process. At pH 3 with 50?mA current, the presence of HA promoted the efficiency of toluene transformation, with pseudo-first-order rate constants increase from 0.01 to 0.016 as the HA concentration increases from 0 to 20?mg/L. The HA-enhanced toluene transformation was attributed to the accelerated thermal reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), which led to production of more hydroxyl radicals. The correlation of the rate constants of toluene transformation and HA decomposition validated hydroxyl radical (·OH) as the predominant reactive species for HA decomposition. The finding of this study highlighted that application of the novel Pd-based E-Fenton process in groundwater remediation may not be concerned by the fouling from humic substances. PMID:25783864

  5. Insights into the Role of Humic Acid on Pd-catalytic Electro-Fenton Transformation of Toluene in Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Peng; Al-Ani, Yasir; Malik Ismael, Zainab; Wu, Xiaohui

    2015-03-01

    A recently developed Pd-based electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) process enables efficient in situ remediation of organic contaminants in groundwater. In the process, H2O2, Fe(II), and acidic conditions (~pH 3) are produced in situ to facilitate the decontamination, but the role of ubiquitous natural organic matters (NOM) remain unclear. This study investigated the effect of Aldrich humic acid (HA) on the transformation of toluene by the Pd-based E-Fenton process. At pH 3 with 50 mA current, the presence of HA promoted the efficiency of toluene transformation, with pseudo-first-order rate constants increase from 0.01 to 0.016 as the HA concentration increases from 0 to 20 mg/L. The HA-enhanced toluene transformation was attributed to the accelerated thermal reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), which led to production of more hydroxyl radicals. The correlation of the rate constants of toluene transformation and HA decomposition validated hydroxyl radical (.OH) as the predominant reactive species for HA decomposition. The finding of this study highlighted that application of the novel Pd-based E-Fenton process in groundwater remediation may not be concerned by the fouling from humic substances.

  6. Metformin and phenformin deplete tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolytic intermediates during cell transformation and NTPs in cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Janzer, Andreas; German, Natalie J.; Gonzalez-Herrera, Karina N.; Asara, John M.; Haigis, Marcia C.; Struhl, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Metformin, a first-line diabetes drug linked to cancer prevention in retrospective clinical analyses, inhibits cellular transformation and selectively kills breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). Although a few metabolic effects of metformin and the related biguanide phenformin have been investigated in established cancer cell lines, the global metabolic impact of biguanides during the process of neoplastic transformation and in CSCs is unknown. Here, we use LC/MS/MS metabolomics (>200 metabolites) to assess metabolic changes induced by metformin and phenformin in an Src-inducible model of cellular transformation and in mammosphere-derived breast CSCs. Although phenformin is the more potent biguanide in both systems, the metabolic profiles of these drugs are remarkably similar, although not identical. During the process of cellular transformation, biguanide treatment prevents the boost in glycolytic intermediates at a specific stage of the pathway and coordinately decreases tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. In contrast, in breast CSCs, biguanides have a modest effect on glycolytic and TCA cycle intermediates, but they strongly deplete nucleotide triphosphates and may impede nucleotide synthesis. These metabolic profiles are consistent with the idea that biguanides inhibit mitochondrial complex 1, but they indicate that their metabolic effects differ depending on the stage of cellular transformation. PMID:25002509

  7. Physical size of the donor locus and transmission of Haemophilus influenzae ampicillin resistance genes by deoxyribonucleic acid-mediated transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Bendler, J W

    1976-01-01

    The properties of donor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from three clinical isolates and its ability to mediate the transformation of competent Rd strains to ampicillin resistance were examined. A quantitative technique for determining the resistance of individual Haemophilus influenzae cells to ampicillin was developed. When this technique was used, sensitive cells failed to tolerate levels of ampicillin greater than 0.1 to 0.2 mug/ml, whereas three resistant type b beta-lactamase-producing strains could form from the colonies in 1- to 3-mug/ml levels of the antibiotic. DNA extracted from the resistant strains elicited transformation of the auxotrophic genes in a multiply auxotrophic Rd strain. For two of the donors, transformation to ampicillin resistance occurred after the uptake of a single DNA molecule approximately 104-fold less frequently than transformation of auxotrophic loci and was not observed to occur at all with the third. The frequency of transformation to ampicillin resistance was two- to fivefold higher in strain BC200 (Okinaka and Barnhart, 1974), which was cured of a defective prophage. All three clinical ampicillin-resistant strains were poor recipients, but the presence of the ampicillin resistant genes in strain BC200 did not reduce its competence. Sucrose gradients of DNA from ampicillin-resistant transformants of BC200 and from the original ampicillin-resistant strains showed that: (i) all the DNA preparations had high molecular weights; (ii) donor activity for ampicillin resistance sedimented heterogeneously and in parallel with genome DNA up to the highest molecular weights observed (100 x 106 to 200 x 106); and (iii) genetic transformation of ampicillin resistance from strain BC200-amp90383 required the physical integrity of a linearly integrated segment of DNA having a molecular weight of about 25 x 106 to 30 x 106. PMID:1081986

  8. Amino acid-dependent transformations of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles: impact on morphology, stability and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junpeng; Sun, Xia; Zou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwu

    2014-08-17

    Humans face the risk of exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their extensive application in consumer products. AgNPs can interact with many substances in the human body due to their chemically unstable nature and high activity properties, which might result in unknown hazards and even some serious diseases for humans. As the basic constituent element of human bodies, amino acids (AAs) differ in concentration and variety in different cells and tissues. Thus, understanding the transformation of citrate-coated AgNPs in the presence of AAs is crucial for determining their fate and toxicity in the human body. Our study focused on the transformation of the morphology, dissolution behavior and reaction product of AgNPs in different AA-containing systems and then evaluated the effect of these transformations on the cytotoxicity of AgNPs. The obtained results indicated that the addition of glycine with the lowest Ag(+) binding energy had little effect on the transformations and toxicity of AgNPs. While in the presence of histidine with higher Ag(+) binding energy, the Ag(+) release and particle size of AgNPs obviously increased. These transformations resulted in a decrease in the cytotoxicity of AgNPs due to the formation of Ag-His complex and the growth of AgNPs. Furthermore, l-cysteine with the highest Ag(+) binding energy could easily interact with AgNPs, transforming them completely to form [Ag(Cys)n](+) and Ag2S precipitates, which induced the largest decrease in AgNP toxicity. In summary, our results may provide useful information to understand the fate, transformation, and toxicity of citrate-coated AgNPs in the human body. PMID:24910988

  9. Mammalian evolution: timing and implications from using the LogDeterminant transform for proteins of differing amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Penny, D; Hasegawa, M; Waddell, P J; Hendy, M D

    1999-03-01

    We explore the tree of mammalian mtDNA sequences, using particularly the LogDet transform on amino acid sequences, the distance Hadamard transform, and the Closest Tree selection criterion. The amino acid composition of different species show significant differences, even within mammals. After compensating for these differences, nearest-neighbor bootstrap results suggest that the tree is locally stable, though a few groups show slightly greater rearrangements when a large proportion of the constant sites are removed. Many parts of the trees we obtain agree with those on published protein ML trees. Interesting results include a preference for rodent monophyly. The detection of a few alternative signals to those on the optimal tree were obtained using the distance Hadamard transform (with results expressed as a Lento plot). One rearrangement suggested was the interchange of the position of primates and rodents on the optimal tree. The basic stability of the tree, combined with two calibration points (whale/cow and horse/rhinoceros), together with a distant secondary calibration from the mammal/bird divergence, allows inferences of the times of divergence of putative clades. Allowing for sampling variances due to finite sequence length, most major divergences amongst lineages leading to modern orders, appear to occur well before the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary. Implications arising from these early divergences are discussed, particularly the possibility of competition between the small dinosaurs and the new mammal clades. PMID:12078647

  10. Transformation of Fatty Acids Catalyzed by Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Enzymes of Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Eschenfeldt, William H.; Zhang, Yeyan; Samaha, Hend; Stols, Lucy; Eirich, L. Dudley; Wilson, C. Ronald; Donnelly, Mark I.

    2003-01-01

    Candida tropicalis ATCC 20336 can grow on fatty acids or alkanes as its sole source of carbon and energy, but strains blocked in ?-oxidation convert these substrates to long-chain ?,?-dicarboxylic acids (diacids), compounds of potential commercial value (Picataggio et al., Biotechnology 10:894-898, 1992). The initial step in the formation of these diacids, which is thought to be rate limiting, is ?-hydroxylation by a cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase. C. tropicalis ATCC 20336 contains a family of CYP genes, and when ATCC 20336 or its derivatives are exposed to oleic acid (C18:1), two cytochrome P450s, CYP52A13 and CYP52A17, are consistently strongly induced (Craft et al., this issue). To determine the relative activity of each of these enzymes and their contribution to diacid formation, both cytochrome P450s were expressed separately in insect cells in conjunction with the C. tropicalis cytochrome P450 reductase (NCP). Microsomes prepared from these cells were analyzed for their ability to oxidize fatty acids. CYP52A13 preferentially oxidized oleic acid and other unsaturated acids to ?-hydroxy acids. CYP52A17 also oxidized oleic acid efficiently but converted shorter, saturated fatty acids such as myristic acid (C14:0) much more effectively. Both enzymes, in particular CYP52A17, also oxidized ?-hydroxy fatty acids, ultimately generating the ?,?-diacid. Consideration of these different specificities and selectivities will help determine which enzymes to amplify in strains blocked for ?-oxidation to enhance the production of dicarboxylic acids. The activity spectrum also identified other potential oxidation targets for commercial development. PMID:14532054

  11. Transformation with Oncogenic Ras and the Simian Virus 40 T Antigens Induces Caspase-Dependent Sensitivity to Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shihao; Spencer, Cody M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oncogenesis is frequently accompanied by the activation of specific metabolic pathways. One such pathway is fatty acid biosynthesis, whose induction is observed upon transformation of a wide variety of cell types. Here, we explored how defined oncogenic alleles, specifically the simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigens and oncogenic Ras12V, affect fatty acid metabolism. Our results indicate that SV40/Ras12V-mediated transformation of fibroblasts induces fatty acid biosynthesis in the absence of significant changes in the concentration of fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes. This oncogene-induced activation of fatty acid biosynthesis was found to be mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) dependent, as it was attenuated by rapamycin treatment. Furthermore, SV40/Ras12V-mediated transformation induced sensitivity to treatment with fatty acid biosynthetic inhibitors. Pharmaceutical inhibition of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC), a key fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme, induced caspase-dependent cell death in oncogene-transduced cells. In contrast, isogenic nontransformed cells were resistant to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition. This oncogene-induced sensitivity to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition was independent of the cells' growth rates and could be attenuated by supplementing the medium with unsaturated fatty acids. Both the activation of fatty acid biosynthesis and the sensitivity to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition could be conveyed to nontransformed breast epithelial cells through transduction with oncogenic Ras12V. Similar to what was observed in the transformed fibroblasts, the Ras12V-induced sensitivity to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition was independent of the proliferative status and could be attenuated by supplementing the medium with unsaturated fatty acids. Combined, our results indicate that specific oncogenic alleles can directly confer sensitivity to inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis. IMPORTANCE Viral oncoproteins and cellular mutations drive the transformation of normal cells to the cancerous state. These oncogenic alterations induce metabolic changes and dependencies that can be targeted to kill cancerous cells. Here, we find that the cellular transformation resulting from combined expression of the SV40 early region with an oncogenic Ras allele is sufficient to induce cellular susceptibility to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition. Inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis in these cells resulted in programmed cell death, which could be rescued by supplementing the medium with nonsaturated fatty acids. Similar results were observed with the expression of oncogenic Ras in nontransformed breast epithelial cells. Combined, our results suggest that specific oncogenic alleles induce metabolic dependencies that can be exploited to selectively kill cancerous cells. PMID:25855740

  12. "In vivo" effects of acetylsalicylic acid and two ether derived compounds on primary immune response and lymphoblastic transformation.

    PubMed

    Barasoain, I; Rojo, J M; Portolés, A

    1980-12-01

    A comparison was performed of acetylsalicylic acid and two ether derivatives (Benorilate and Eterilate) and indomethacin in order to ascertain the in vivo effects on the lymphoblastic transformation and the primary immune response in mice. The humoral response in Benorilate-and Eterilate-treated mice was 40-50% lower than that of the controls, whereas in acetylsalicylic acid-treated mice the response was only 25% inhibited. The number of immunoglobulin synthesizing cells was neither reduced by acetylsalicylic acid nor by its derivatives, although indomethacin treatments (used for comparative purposes) inhibited by 40% the number of direct plaque-forming cells on the days tested. Mitogen-induced proliferation of spleen lymphocytes was also inhibited in the treated mice; these inhibitions were negligible in the case of cells from acetylsalicylic acid-treated mice activated by concanavalin A and slight in cells from Benorilate-treated mice activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. When lymphocytes from drug-treated animals were further cultured in the presence of the same drug, a variable inhibition of mitogen-induced proliferation was observed. These different in vivo effects of acetylsalicylic acid and the two ether derivatives and indomethacin may be due to a distinct action on diverse lymphocyte subpopulations altering their cellular collaborative interactions or modifying the prostaglandin availability. PMID:6109698

  13. Rapid preparation of rare ginsenosides by acid transformation and their structure-activity relationships against cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Kai; Liu, Qun; Wan, Jin-Yi; Zhao, Yi-Jing; Guo, Ru-Zhou; Alolga, Raphael N.; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The anticancer activities of ginsenosides are widely reported. The structure-activity relationship of ginsenosides against cancer is not well elucidated because of the unavailability of these compounds. In this work, we developed a transformation method to rapidly produce rare dehydroxylated ginsenosides by acid treatment. The optimized temperature, time course, and concentration of formic acid were 120°C, 4?h and 0.01%, respectively. From 100?mg of Rh1, 8.3?mg of Rk3 and 18.7?mg of Rh4 can be produced by acid transformation. Similarly, from 100?mg of Rg3, 7.4?mg of Rk1 and 15.1?mg of Rg5 can be produced. From 100?mg of Rh2, 8.3?mg of Rk2 and 12.7?mg of Rh3 can be generated. Next, the structure-activity relationships of 23 ginsenosides were investigated by comparing their cytotoxic effects on six human cancer cells, including HCT-116, HepG2, MCF-7, Hela, PANC-1, and A549. The results showed that: (1) the cytotoxic effect of ginsenosides is inversely related to the sugar numbers; (2) sugar linkages rank as C-3 > C-6 > C-20; (3) the protopanaxadiol-type has higher activities; (4) having the double bond at the terminal C20-21 exhibits stronger activity than that at C20-22; and (5) 20(S)-ginsenosides show stronger effects than their 20(R)-stereoisomers. PMID:25716943

  14. Effect of Humic Acid on As Redox Transformation and Kinetic Adsorption onto Iron Oxide Based Adsorbent (IBA)

    PubMed Central

    Fakour, Hoda; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2014-01-01

    Due to the importance of adsorption kinetics and redox transformation of arsenic (As) during the adsorption process, the present study elucidated natural organic matter (NOM) effects on As adsorption-desorption kinetics and speciation transformation. The experimental procedures were conducted by examining interactions of arsenate and arsenite with different concentrations of humic acid (HA) as a model representative of NOM, in the presence of iron oxide based adsorbent (IBA), as a model solid surface in three environmentally relevant conditions, including the simultaneous adsorption of both As and HA onto IBA, HA adsorption onto As-presorbed IBA, and As adsorption onto HA-presorbed IBA. Experimental adsorption-desorption data were all fitted by original and modified Lagergren pseudo-first and -second order adsorption kinetic models, respectively. Weber’s intraparticle diffusion was also used to gain insight into the mechanisms and rate controlling steps, which the results suggested that intraparticle diffusion of As species onto IBA is the main rate-controlling step. Different concentrations of HA mediated the redox transformation of As species, with a higher oxidation ability than reduction. The overall results indicated the significant effect of organic matter on the adsorption kinetics and redox transformation of As species, and consequently, the fate, transport and mobility of As in different environmentally relevant conditions. PMID:25325357

  15. Complementary cavity-enhanced spectrometers to investigate the OH + CH combination band in trans-formic acid.

    PubMed

    Golebiowski, D; Földes, T; Vanfleteren, T; Herman, M; Perrin, A

    2015-07-01

    We have used continuous-wave cavity ring-down and femto-Fourier transform-cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometers to record the spectrum of the OH-stretching + CH-stretching (?1 + ?2) combination band in trans-formic acid, with origin close to 6507 cm(-1). They, respectively, allowed resolving and simplifying the rotational structure of the band near its origin under jet-cooled conditions (Trot = 10 K) and highlighting the overview of the band under room temperature conditions. The stronger B-type and weaker A-type subbands close to the band origin could be assigned, as well as the main B-type Q branches. The high-resolution analysis was hindered by numerous, severe perturbations. Rotational constants are reported with, however, limited physical meaning. The ?1 + ?2 transition moment is estimated from relative intensities to be 24° away from the principal b-axis of inertia. PMID:26156476

  16. Complementary cavity-enhanced spectrometers to investigate the OH + CH combination band in trans-formic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golebiowski, D.; Földes, T.; Vanfleteren, T.; Herman, M.; Perrin, A.

    2015-07-01

    We have used continuous-wave cavity ring-down and femto-Fourier transform-cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometers to record the spectrum of the OH-stretching + CH-stretching (?1 + ?2) combination band in trans-formic acid, with origin close to 6507 cm-1. They, respectively, allowed resolving and simplifying the rotational structure of the band near its origin under jet-cooled conditions (Trot = 10 K) and highlighting the overview of the band under room temperature conditions. The stronger B-type and weaker A-type subbands close to the band origin could be assigned, as well as the main B-type Q branches. The high-resolution analysis was hindered by numerous, severe perturbations. Rotational constants are reported with, however, limited physical meaning. The ?1 + ?2 transition moment is estimated from relative intensities to be 24° away from the principal b-axis of inertia.

  17. Adsorption of Amino Acids (Ala, Cys, His, Met) on Zeolites: Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Cristine E. A.; de Santana, Henrique; Casado, Clara; Coronas, Joaquin; Zaia, Dimas A. M.

    2011-06-01

    Minerals adsorb more amino acids with charged R-groups than amino acids with uncharged R-groups. Thus, the peptides that form from the condensation of amino acids on the surface of minerals should be composed of amino acid residues that are more charged than uncharged. However, most of the amino acids (74%) in today's proteins have an uncharged R-group. One mechanism with which to solve this paradox is the use of organophilic minerals such as zeolites. Over the range of pH (pH 2.66-4.50) used in these experiments, the R-group of histidine (His) is positively charged and neutral for alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys), and methionine (Met). In acidic hydrothermal environments, the pH could be even lower than those used in this study. For the pH range studied, the zeolites were negatively charged, and the overall charge of all amino acids was positive. The conditions used here approximate those of prebiotic Earth. The most important finding of this work is that the relative concentrations of each amino acid (X=His, Met, Cys) to alanine (X/Ala) are close to 1.00. This is an important result with regard to prebiotic chemistry because it could be a solution for the paradox stated above. Pore size did not affect the adsorption of Cys and Met on zeolites, and the Si/Al ratio did not affect the adsorption of Cys, His, and Met. ZSM-5 could be used for the purification of Cys from other amino acids (Student-Newman-Keuls test, p<0.05), and mordenite could be used for separation of amino acids from each other (Student-Newman-Keuls test, p<0.05). As shown by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, Ala interacts with zeolites through the group, and methionine-zeolite interactions involve the COO, , and CH3 groups. FT-IR spectra show that the interaction between the zeolites and His is weak. Cys showed higher adsorption on all zeolites; however, the hydrophobic Van der Waals interaction between zeolites and Cys is too weak to produce any structural changes in the Cys groups (amine, carboxylic, sulfhydryl, etc.); thus, the FT-IR and Raman spectra are the same as those of solid Cys.

  18. Fourier transform infrared studies of model polar stratospheric cloud surfaces - Growth and evaporation of ice and nitric acid/ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Margaret A.; Middlebrook, Ann M.

    1990-01-01

    Fourier-transform infrared surface studies are used to probe the microphysical properties of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and ice films representative of type I and II polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). Experiments indicate that, on initial exposure to 1.8 microtorr of HNO3, a layer of ice is quantitatively converted to NAT. However, conversion of ice to NAT does not proceed indefinitely, but rather the system reaches saturation. For longer exposures or higher HNO3 pressures, NAM becomes the dominant nitric acid containing species on the surface. Evaporation studies were performed to test the feasibility of a recent denitrification mechanism. The results indicate that ice coated with 0.20 micron of NAT evaporates at a temperature of about 4 C higher than uncoated ice.

  19. [Responses of rhizosphere nitrogen and phosphorus transformations to different acid rain intensities in a hilly red soil tea plantation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Fu-sheng; Ye, Su-qiong; Yu, Su-qin; Fang, Xiang-min; Hu, Xiao-fei

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) plantation in hilly red soil region has been long impacted by acid deposition, however its effects on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transformations in rhizosphere soils remain unclear. A 25-year old tea plantation in a typical hilly red soil region was selected for an in situ simulation experiment treated by pH 4.5, pH 3.5, pH 2.5 and control. Rhizosihere and bulk soils were collected in the third year from the simulated acid deposition experiment. Soil mineral N, available P contents and major enzyme activities were analyzed using the chemical extraction and biochemical methods, and N and P mineralization rates were estimated using the indoor aerobic incubation methods. Our results showed that compared to the control, the treatments of pH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5, respectively decreased 7.1%, 42.1% and 49.9% NO3(-)-N, 6.4%, 35.9% and 40.3% mineral N, 10.5%, 41.1% and 46.9% available P, 18.7%, 30.1% and 44.7% ammonification rate, 3.6%, 12.7% and 38.8% net N-mineralization rate, and 31.5%, 41.8% and 63.0% P mineralization rate in rhizosphere soils; however, among the 4 treatments, rhizosphere soil nitrification rate was not significantly different, the rhizosphere soil urease and acid phosphatase activities generally increased with the increasing intensity of acid rain (P<0.05). In bulk soil, compared with the control, the treatments of pH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5 did not cause significant changes in NO3(-)-N, mineral N, available P as well as in the rates of nitrification, ammonification, net N-mineralization and P mineralization. With increasing the acid intensity, the rhizosphere effects of NH4+-N, NO3(-)-N, mineral N, ammonification and net N-mineralization rates were altered from positive to negative effects, those of urease and acid phosphatease showed the opposite trends, those of available P and P mineralization were negative and that of nitrification was positive. In sum, prolonged elevated acid rain could reduce N and P transformation rates, decrease their availability, alter their rhizosphere effects, and have impact on nutrient cycling in tea plantation. PMID:25985647

  20. Plant Lectin Can Target Receptors Containing Sialic Acid, Exemplified by Podoplanin, to Inhibit Transformed Cell Growth and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yongquan; Acharya, Nimish K.; Han, Min; McNulty, Dean E.; Hasegawa, Hitoki; Hyodo, Toshinori; Senga, Takeshi; Geng, Jian-Guo; Kosciuk, Mary; Shin, Seung S.; Goydos, James S.; Temiakov, Dmitry; Nagele, Robert G.; Goldberg, Gary S.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death of men and women worldwide. Tumor cell motility contributes to metastatic invasion that causes the vast majority of cancer deaths. Extracellular receptors modified by ?2,3-sialic acids that promote this motility can serve as ideal chemotherapeutic targets. For example, the extracellular domain of the mucin receptor podoplanin (PDPN) is highly O-glycosylated with ?2,3-sialic acid linked to galactose. PDPN is activated by endogenous ligands to induce tumor cell motility and metastasis. Dietary lectins that target proteins containing ?2,3-sialic acid inhibit tumor cell growth. However, anti-cancer lectins that have been examined thus far target receptors that have not been identified. We report here that a lectin from the seeds of Maackia amurensis (MASL) with affinity for O-linked carbohydrate chains containing sialic acid targets PDPN to inhibit transformed cell growth and motility at nanomolar concentrations. Interestingly, the biological activity of this lectin survives gastrointestinal proteolysis and enters the cardiovascular system to inhibit melanoma cell growth, migration, and tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate how lectins may be used to help develop dietary agents that target specific receptors to combat malignant cell growth. PMID:22844530

  1. Structures of aspartic acid-96 in the L and N intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin: analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maeda, A.; Sasaki, J.; Shichida, Y.; Yoshizawa, T.; Chang, M.; Ni, B.; Needleman, R.; Lanyi, J. K.

    1992-01-01

    The light-induced difference Fourier transform infrared spectrum between the L or N intermediate minus light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was measured in order to examine the protonated states and the changes in the interactions of carboxylic acids of Asp-96 and Asp-115 in these intermediates. Vibrational bands due to the protonated and unprotonated carboxylic acid were identified by isotope shift and band depletion upon substitution of Asp-96 or -115 by asparagine. While the signal due to the deprotonation of Asp-96 was clearly observed in the N intermediate, this residue remained protonated in L. Asp-115 was partially deprotonated in L. The C = O stretching vibration of protonated Asp-96 of L showed almost no shift upon 2H2O substitution, in contrast to the corresponding band of Asp-96 or Asp-115 of BR, which shifted by 9-12 cm-1 under the same conditions. In the model system of acetic acid in organic solvents, such an absence of the shift of the C = O stretching vibration of the protonated carboxylic acid upon 2H2O substitution was seen only when the O-H of acetic acid is hydrogen-bonded. The non-hydrogen-bonded monomer showed the 2H2O-dependent shift. Thus, the O-H bond of Asp-96 enters into hydrogen bonding upon conversion of BR to L. Its increased hydrogen bonding in L is consistent with the observed downshift of the O-H stretching vibration of the carboxylic acid of Asp-96.

  2. Bacterial production and transformation of dissolved neutral sugars and amino acids in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, L.; Lechtenfeld, O.; Benner, R.; Middelboe, M.; Stedmon, C. A.

    2014-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the ocean consists of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules, most of which are of unknown origin. Neutral sugars and amino acids are among the few recognizable biomolecules in DOM, and the molecular composition of these biomolecules is shaped primarily by biological production and degradation processes. This study provides insight into the bioavailability of biomolecules as well as the chemical composition of DOM produced by bacteria. The molecular compositions of neutral sugars and amino acids were investigated in DOM produced by bacteria and in DOM remaining after long-term bacterial degradation. Results from bioassay incubations (32 days) with natural and artificial seawater, indicate that the molecular compositions following bacterial degradation are not strongly influenced by the initial substrate or bacterial community. The molecular composition of neutral sugars released by bacteria was characterized by a high glucose content (47 mol%) and heterogeneous contributions from other neutral sugars (3-14 mol%). DOM remaining after bacterial degradation was characterized by a high galactose content (33 mol%), followed by glucose (22 mol%) and the remaining neutral sugars (7-11 mol%). The ratio of D-amino acids to L-amino acids increased during the experiments as a response to bacterial degradation, and after 32 days the D/L ratios of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and alanine reached around 0.79, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.51 in all treatments, respectively. The striking similarity in neutral sugar and amino acid compositions between natural and artificial seawater samples, suggests that the microbial carbon pump also applies for neutral sugars and amino acids and that bacterially-produced biomolecules persist for long periods in the ocean.

  3. Growth and shape transformations of giant phospholipid vesicles upon interaction with an aqueous oleic acid suspension

    E-print Network

    Peterlin, Primoz; Kogej, Ksenija; Svetina, Sasa; Walde, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of two types of vesicle systems was investigated: micrometer-sized, giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) formed from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and submicrometer-sized, large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) formed from oleic acid and oleate, both in a buffered aqueous solution (pH=8.8). Individual POPC GUVs were transferred with a micropipette into a suspension of oleic acid/oleate LUVs, and the shape changes of the GUVs were monitored using optical microscopy. The behavior of POPC GUVs upon transfer into a 0.8 mM suspension of oleic acid, in which oleic acid/oleate forms vesicular bilayer structures, was qualitatively different from the behavior upon transfer into a 0.3 mM suspension of oleic acid/oleate, in which oleic acid/oleate is predominantly present in the form of monomers and possibly non-vesicular aggregates. In both cases, changes in vesicle morphology were observed within tens of seconds after the transfer. Vesicle initially started to evaginate. In 60% of the...

  4. Characterization of naphthenic acids by gas chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Xavier; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Backus, Sean M; Peru, Kerry M; McMartin, Dena W; O'Sullivan, Gwen; Taguchi, Vince Y; Headley, John V

    2014-08-01

    During the bitumen extraction from the oil sands of Alberta, large volumes of process water containing naphthenic acids are stored in tailing ponds. The naphthenic acids along with other components in the processed waters are known to be toxic in aquatic environments. In view of the complex matrix and the toxicity of the processed waters, there is a need for complementary analytical techniques for comprehensive characterization of the naphthenic acid mixtures. This study reports the online gas chromatographic separation of naphthenic acid mixtures prior to ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry detection, using electron and chemical ionization. Two oil sands processed water samples and two groundwater samples were characterized to evaluate the performance of the instrumental technique. The high mass resolution of the system enabled visualization of the data using Kendrick mass defect plots. The addition of gas chromatographic separations enabled visualization of the data as unique compound class elution fingerprints. The technique is demonstrated to be a valuable tool for chemical fingerprinting of naphthenic acids. PMID:25001115

  5. Transformation of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in blueberries during high-temperature processing.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Typek, Rafal

    2014-11-12

    Chlorogenic acid (CQA), an ester of caffeic with quinic acid, is a natural compound found in a wide array of plants. Although coffee beans are most frequently mentioned as plant products remarkably rich in CQAs, their significant amounts can also be found in many berries, for example, blueberries. This paper shows and discusses the thermal stability of the main CQA representative, that is, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), during high-temperature processing of blueberries (as in the production of blueberry foods) in systems containing sucrose in low and high concentration. It has been found that up to 11 components (5-CQA derivatives and its reaction product with water) can be formed from 5-CQA during the processing of blueberries. Their formation speed depends on the sucrose concentration in the processed system, which has been confirmed in the artificial system composed of 5-CQA water solution containing different amounts of the sugar. PMID:25336323

  6. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibits EGF-induced cell transformation via reduction of cyclin D1 mRNA stability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jingjie; Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Rd, Tuxedo, NY 10987 ; Ouyang, Weiming; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Yu, Yonghui; Wang, York; Li, Xuejun; Huang, Chuanshu

    2012-09-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibiting cancer cell growth has been associated with its downregulation of cyclin D1 protein expression at transcription level or translation level. Here, we have demonstrated that SAHA inhibited EGF-induced Cl41 cell transformation via the decrease of cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. We found that SAHA treatment resulted in the dramatic inhibition of EGF-induced cell transformation, cyclin D1 protein expression and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. Further studies showed that SAHA downregulation of cyclin D1 was only observed with endogenous cyclin D1, but not with reconstitutionally expressed cyclin D1 in the same cells, excluding the possibility of SAHA regulating cyclin D1 at level of protein degradation. Moreover, SAHA inhibited EGF-induced cyclin d1 mRNA level, whereas it did not show any inhibitory effect on cyclin D1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter activity under the same experimental conditions, suggesting that SAHA may decrease cyclin D1 mRNA stability. This notion was supported by the results that treatment of cells with SAHA decreased the half-life of cyclin D1 mRNA from 6.95 h to 2.57 h. Consistent with downregulation of cyclin D1 mRNA stability, SAHA treatment also attenuated HuR expression, which has been well-characterized as a positive regulator of cyclin D1 mRNA stability. Thus, our study identifies a novel mechanism responsible for SAHA inhibiting cell transformation via decreasing cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest in Cl41 cells. -- Highlights: ? SAHA inhibits cell transformation in Cl41 cells. ? SAHA suppresses Cyclin D1 protein expression. ? SAHA decreases cyclin D1 mRNA stability.

  7. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of Forages with Varied Fatty Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminant diet can affect the fatty acid (FA) content of meat and dairy products, which indicates that managing forage consumption is important in determining the quality of the animal products. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is sensitive to changes in forage FA and has been used successfully to quantify ...

  8. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Mid-infrared Spectral Properties of Forages with Varied Fatty Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminant diet can affect the fatty acid (FA) content of meat and dairy products, which indicates that managing forage consumption is important in determining the quality of the animal products. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is sensitive to changes in forage FA and has been used successfully to quantify ...

  9. CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION MODULES FOR EULERIAN ACID DEPOSITION MODELS. VOLUME 2. THE AQUEOUS-PHASE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study focuses on the review and evaluation of mechanistic and kinetic data for aqueous-phase reactions that lead to the production of acidic substances in the environment. The intent of this research is to provide a framework that can be used to develop a state-of-the-art aq...

  10. CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION MODULES FOR EULERIAN ACID DEPOSITION MODELS. VOLUME 1. THE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study focuses on the review and evaluation of mechanistic and kinetic data for the gas-phase reactions that lead to the production of acidic substances in the environment. A master mechanism is designed that treats oxides, sulfur dioxide, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, t...

  11. Enantioselective transformation of Na2SO3 into allylic sulfonic acids under Pd catalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Hong-bo; Zhang, Liang

    2015-01-14

    Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic sulfonation of di-aryl-substituted allylic acetates with sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) in THF-H2O at room temperature was described. This method directly provided allylic sulfonic acids in up to excellent yield and enantioselectivity. PMID:25415622

  12. Leaching Behavior of Heavy Metals and Transformation of Their Speciation in Polluted Soil Receiving Simulated Acid Rain

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shun-an; Zheng, Xiangqun; Chen, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals that leach from contaminated soils under acid rain are of increasing concern. In this study, simulated acid rain (SAR) was pumped through columns of artificially contaminated purple soil. Column leaching tests and sequential extraction were conducted for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn to determine the extent of their leaching as well as to examine the transformation of their speciation in the artificially contaminated soil columns. Results showed that the maximum leachate concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were less than those specified in the Chinese Quality Standards for Groundwater (Grade IV), thereby suggesting that the heavy metals that leached from the polluted purple soil receiving acid rain may not pose as risks to water quality. Most of the Pb and Cd leachate concentrations were below their detection limits. By contrast, higher Cu and Zn leachate concentrations were found because they were released by the soil in larger amounts as compared with those of Pb and Cd. The differences in the Cu and Zn leachate concentrations between the controls (SAR at pH 5.6) and the treatments (SAR at pH 3.0 and 4.5) were significant. Similar trends were observed in the total leached amounts of Cu and Zn. The proportions of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn in the EXC and OX fractions were generally increased after the leaching experiment at three pH levels, whereas those of the RES, OM, and CAR fractions were slightly decreased. Acid rain favors the leaching of heavy metals from the contaminated purple soil and makes the heavy metal fractions become more labile. Moreover, a pH decrease from 5.6 to 3.0 significantly enhanced such effects. PMID:23185399

  13. Glucose transformation to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in acidic ionic liquid: A quantum mechanical study.

    PubMed

    Arifin; Puripat, Maneeporn; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Parasuk, Vudhichai; Irle, Stephan

    2016-01-30

    Isomerization and transformation of glucose and fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in both ionic liquids (ILs) and water has been studied by the reference interaction site model self-consistent field spatial electron density distribution (RISM-SCF-SEDD) method coupled with ab initio electronic structure theory, namely coupled cluster single, double, and perturbative triple excitation (CCSD(T)). Glucose isomerization to fructose has been investigated via cyclic and open chain mechanisms. In water, the calculations support the cyclic mechanism of glucose isomerization; with the predicted activation free energy is 23.8 kcal mol(-1) at experimental condition. Conversely, open ring mechanism is more favorable in ILs with the energy barrier is 32.4 kcal mol(-1) . Moreover, the transformation of fructose into HMF via cyclic mechanism is reasonable; the calculated activation barriers are 16.0 and 21.5 kcal mol(-1) in aqueous and ILs solutions, respectively. The solvent effects of ILs could be explained by the decomposition of free energies and radial distribution functions of solute-solvent that are produced by RISM-SCF-SEDD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26453901

  14. Analytical evaluation of polyunsaturated fatty acids degradation during thermal oxidation of edible oils by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moya Moreno, M C; Mendoza Olivares, D; Amézquita López, F J; Gimeno Adelantado, J V; Bosch Reig, F

    1999-09-13

    The oxidative deterioration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in culinary oils and fats during episodes of heating associated with normal usage (80-300 degrees C, 20-40 min) has been monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal oxidation of PUFAs is a free radical chain reaction, in which hydroperoxides are generally recognized as the primary major products. Hydroperoxides of PUFAs are easily decomposed into a very complex mixture of secondary products with the decrease in unsaturation. The oxidative advance of PUFAs during heating was studied by the determination of unsaturation percentage at different temperatures and heating times. Oils frequently used in food frying such as olive oil, sunflower oil, corn oil and seeds oil (sunflower, safflower and canola seed) were studied. The results show there is a decrease in unsaturation starting at 150 degrees C and becoming more pronounced at temperatures around 250 degrees C. The following variations were found in the unsaturation percentage, expressed as methyl linoleate, between the original sample and the sample heated at 300 degrees C for 40 min: olive oil (19-6%), sunflower oil (29-12%), corn oil (28-18%) and seeds oil (23-11%). This variation in unsaturation grade provides evidence of the transformation of essential PUFAs and subsequent decrease in the oils' nutritional value. The internal standard method is suitably precise when the n-valeronitrile is used as standard as shown by the 1-2% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) found for seven replicates. PMID:18967717

  15. Two solid forms of tauroursodeoxycholic acid and the effects of milling and storage temperature on solid-state transformations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kailin; Zheng, Shoujun; Zhai, Yuanming; Guo, Liuqi; Tang, Peixiao; Yan, Jin; Wu, Di; Li, Hui

    2015-05-30

    Two phase-pure solid forms of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) were prepared and characterized by thermal analysis, vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and morphological analysis. All solid forms can be produced from solvents and also can be obtained by mechanically and non-mechanically activated polymorph conversion. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, in combination with chemometrical techniques, was used for the quantitative monitoring of the polymorph conversion of TUDCA in milling process and at different storage temperatures. The NIR spectra in the range of 7139-5488 cm(-1) were considered for multivariate analysis. Results demonstrated that the NIR multivariate chemometric model can predict the percentage of crystal and amorphous TUDCA with the correlation coefficient of 0.9998, root mean square error of calibration of 0.740%, root mean square error of prediction of 0.698%, and root mean square error of cross-validation of 1.49%. In the milling process of crystal TUDCA (Form I), a direct transformation from crystal to glass was observed in 4h. Moreover, the impact of different storage temperatures on the stability of amorphous TUDCA was investigated, and the rate of polymorph transformation was found to be accelerated with increasing temperature. PMID:25841565

  16. Automated acid and base number determination of mineral-based lubricants by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: commercial laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Winterfield, Craig; van de Voort, F R

    2014-12-01

    The Fluid Life Corporation assessed and implemented Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)-based methods using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-like stoichiometric reactions for determination of acid and base number for in-service mineral-based oils. The basic protocols, quality control procedures, calibration, validation, and performance of these new quantitative methods are assessed. ASTM correspondence is attained using a mixed-mode calibration, using primary reference standards to anchor the calibration, supplemented by representative sample lubricants analyzed by ASTM procedures. A partial least squares calibration is devised by combining primary acid/base reference standards and representative samples, focusing on the main spectral stoichiometric response with chemometrics assisting in accounting for matrix variability. FTIR(AN/BN) methodology is precise, accurate, and free of most interference that affects ASTM D664 and D4739 results. Extensive side-by-side operational runs produced normally distributed differences with mean differences close to zero and standard deviations of 0.18 and 0.26 mg KOH/g, respectively. Statistically, the FTIR methods are a direct match to the ASTM methods, with superior performance in terms of analytical throughput, preparation time, and solvent use. FTIR(AN/BN) analysis is a viable, significant advance for in-service lubricant analysis, providing an economic means of trending samples instead of tedious and expensive conventional ASTM(AN/BN) procedures. PMID:25271046

  17. Measurements of deuterium quadrupole coupling in propiolic acid and fluorobenzenes using pulsed-beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming; Sargus, Bryan A.; Carey, Spencer J.; Kukolich, Stephen G.

    2015-04-01

    The pure rotational spectra of deuterated propiolic acids (HCCCOOD and DCCCOOH), 1-fluorobenzene (4-d1), and 1,2-difluorobenzene (4-d1) in their ground states have been measured using two Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectrometers at the University of Arizona. For 1-fluorobenzene (4-d1), nine hyperfine lines of three different ?J = 0 and 1 transitions were measured to check the synthesis method and resolution. For 1,2-difluorobenzene (4-d1), we obtained 44 hyperfine transitions from 1 to 12 GHz, including 14 different ?J = 0, 1 transitions. Deuterium quadrupole coupling constants along the three principal inertia axes were well determined. For deuterated propiolic acids, 37 hyperfine lines of Pro-OD and 59 hyperfine lines of Pro-CD, covering 11 and 12 different ?J = - 1, 0, 1 transitions, respectively, were obtained from 5 to 16 GHz. Deuterium quadrupole coupling constants along the three inertia axes were well resolved for Pro-OD. For Pro-CD, only eQqaa was determined due to the near coincidence of the CD bond and the least principal inertia axis. Some measurements were made using a newer FTMW spectrometer employing multiple free induction decays as well as background subtraction. For 1-fluorobenzene (4-d1) and 1,2-difluorobenzene (4-d1), a very large-cavity (1.2 m mirror dia.) spectrometer yielded very high resolution (2 kHz) spectra.

  18. Measurements of deuterium quadrupole coupling in propiolic acid and fluorobenzenes using pulsed-beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ming; Sargus, Bryan A.; Carey, Spencer J.; Kukolich, Stephen G.

    2015-04-21

    The pure rotational spectra of deuterated propiolic acids (HCCCOOD and DCCCOOH), 1-fluorobenzene (4-d{sub 1}), and 1,2-difluorobenzene (4-d{sub 1}) in their ground states have been measured using two Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectrometers at the University of Arizona. For 1-fluorobenzene (4-d{sub 1}), nine hyperfine lines of three different ?J = 0 and 1 transitions were measured to check the synthesis method and resolution. For 1,2-difluorobenzene (4-d{sub 1}), we obtained 44 hyperfine transitions from 1 to 12 GHz, including 14 different ?J = 0, 1 transitions. Deuterium quadrupole coupling constants along the three principal inertia axes were well determined. For deuterated propiolic acids, 37 hyperfine lines of Pro-OD and 59 hyperfine lines of Pro-CD, covering 11 and 12 different ?J = ? 1, 0, 1 transitions, respectively, were obtained from 5 to 16 GHz. Deuterium quadrupole coupling constants along the three inertia axes were well resolved for Pro-OD. For Pro-CD, only eQq{sub aa} was determined due to the near coincidence of the CD bond and the least principal inertia axis. Some measurements were made using a newer FTMW spectrometer employing multiple free induction decays as well as background subtraction. For 1-fluorobenzene (4-d{sub 1}) and 1,2-difluorobenzene (4-d{sub 1}), a very large-cavity (1.2 m mirror dia.) spectrometer yielded very high resolution (2 kHz) spectra.

  19. A PHENYLPROPENOIC ACID DERIVATIVE, N-CAFFEOLYTYRAMINE, IS A POTENT PHYTOCHEMICAL TO INDUCE APOPTOSIS OF HUMAN TRANSFORMED MYEOLOCYTIC U937 AND HL-60 AND LYMPHOCYTIC JURKAT CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytochemicals consist of many diverse compounds which may have beneficial effects on chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancers. Previously, a phenylpropenoic acid derivative, N-coumaroyltyramine, was reported to arrest human transformed cells at S-phase of the cell cycle by inhi...

  20. Do soil Fe transformation and secretion of low-molecular-weight organic acids affect the availability of Cd to rice?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Yang, Yazhou; Liu, Danqing; Zhang, Chunhua; Ge, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) to rice may be complicated by chemical and biological factors in the rhizosphere. The aim of this work is to investigate how soil iron (Fe) redox transformations and low-molecular-weight organic acid (LMWOA) exudation from root affect Cd accumulation in rice. Two soils (a paddy soil and a saline soil) with different physicochemical properties were used in this study. Soil redox conditions were changed by flooding and addition of organic matter (OM). Two days after the soil treatments, rice seedlings were transplanted in a vermiculite-soil system and grown for 10 days. We measured pH and Eh, LMWOA, Fe and Cd contents in rice, and their fractions in the soils and vermiculite. Cadmium accumulation in rice declined in both soils upon the flooding and OM treatment. Iron dissolution in the paddy soil and its deposition in the rhizosphere significantly increased upon the OM addition, but the concentration of Fe plaque on the rice root significantly declined. Conversely, although Fe transformed into less active fractions in the saline soil, Fe accumulation on the surface and in the tissue of root was considerably enhanced. The secretion of LMWOA was remarkably induced when the OM was amended in the saline soil, but the same effect was not observed in the paddy soil. Reduction of Cd uptake by rice could be attributed to different factors in the two soils. For the paddy soil, the lowered Cd bioavailability was likely due to the competition of Fe and Cd for the binding sites on the vermiculite surface. For the saline soil, however, rice responded to the low Fe mobility through more LMWOA exudation and Fe plaque formation, and their increases could explain the decrease of rice Cd. PMID:26260840

  1. Effects of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Disruption of seawater tolerance and endocrine status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monette, M.Y.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Episodic acidification resulting in increased acidity and inorganic aluminum (Ali) is known to interfere with the parr-smolt transformation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and has been implicated as a possible cause of population decline. To determine the extent and mechanism(s) by which short-term acid/Al exposure compromises smolt development, Atlantic salmon smolts were exposed to either control (pH 6.7-6.9) or acid/Al (pH 5.4-6.3, 28-64 ??g l-1 Ali) conditions for 2 and 5 days, and impacts on freshwater (FW) ion regulation, seawater (SW) tolerance, plasma hormone levels and stress response were examined. Gill Al concentrations were elevated in all smolts exposed to acid/Al relative to controls confirming exposure to increased Ali. There was no effect of acid/Al on plasma ion concentrations in FW however, smolts exposed to acid/Al followed by a 24 h SW challenge exhibited greater plasma Cl- levels than controls, indicating reduced SW tolerance. Loss of SW tolerance was accompanied by reductions in gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and Na+,K+,2Cl- (NKCC) cotransporter protein abundance. Acid/Al exposure resulted in decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and 3,3???,5???-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) levels, whereas no effect of treatment was seen on plasma cortisol, growth hormone (GH), or thyroxine (T4) levels. Acid/Al exposure resulted in increased hematocrit and plasma glucose levels in FW, but both returned to control levels after 24 h in SW. The results indicate that smolt development and SW tolerance are compromised by short-term exposure to acid/Al in the absence of detectable impacts on FW ion regulation. Loss of SW tolerance during short-term acid/Al exposure likely results from reductions in gill NKA and NKCC, possibly mediated by decreases in plasma IGF-I and T3. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Conformational changes of human serum albumin in vivo induced by free fatty acids as studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, J M; Manfait, M

    1990-12-01

    Binding of free fatty acids (FFA) to human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Six volunteers ran a marathon race in order to induce changes in their basal plasma FFA levels. Three volunteers were well-trained and three untrained. The non-deconvolved HSA spectra show two types of spectra: the first one includes the untrained runners, who, after the run, display noticeable changes in the absorbance intensity of the amide I band, which also shifts to higher frequencies. The second one includes the well-trained subjects who exhibit few changes after the race. Examination of the deconvolved spectra of HSA shows two types of spectra, as well: the first class displays important decreases in the absorbance of the component assigned to alpha-helix after the race, together with a gradual growth of the two components that can be assigned to turns. The second class, which includes the well-trained subjects, exhibits few changes after the run. These data are interpreted in terms of conformational changes due to a less ordered alpha-helix state of HSA after FFA binding, while the emergence of components assigned to turns may reflect the exposure of several histidine residues to the solvent (which are buried in HSA when FFA/HSA less than 4). Our data are consistent with the Karush model of FFA to HSA binding. PMID:2268672

  3. Direct determination of rosmarinic acid in Lamiaceae herbs using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Saltas, Dimitrios; Pappas, Christos S; Daferera, Dimitra; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2013-04-01

    For the determination of rosmarinic acid (RA) directly in pulverized plant material, a method is developed using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) without any physicochemical pretreatment of samples. The RA content of 11 samples of eight different Lamiaceae herbs, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), varied between 86 ± 1 mg/g (in lemon balm) and 12.0 ± 0.8 mg/g (in hyssop) of dried plant material. The 11 samples and 50 other additional samples, which were prepared by mixing initial samples with KBr, were measured using DRIFTS. The second derivative of the spectral region 1344-806 cm(-1) was used and the corresponding data were analyzed using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The correlation between infrared spectral analysis and HPLC measurements shows that the DRIFTS method is sufficiently accurate, simple, and rapid. The RA content of the 11 Lamiaceae samples determined by DRIFTS ranged from 81 ± 4 mg/g (in lemon balm) to 12 ± 3 mg/g (in hyssop) of dried plant material. PMID:23496773

  4. The impact of mineral fertilizers and lime on the transformation of humic acids in a soddy-podzolic heavy loamy soil of the Cis-Ural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zav'yalova, N. E.

    2015-06-01

    The composition and structure of humic acids in a soddy-podzolic heavy loamy soil (Retisol) of the Cis-Ural region after the long-term application of mineral fertilizers and lime was studied by the methods of elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry. It was found that mineral fertilizers and lime did not change the ranges of C, H, O, and N contents and general structure typical of humic acids in soddy-podzolic soils. The long-term anthropogenic impact on the soil resulted in some transformation of the composition and properties of humic acids. Clear absorption bands in the area of 1700 cm-1 (C=O of carbonyl group) and 1620 cm-1 (C=C of aromatic rings), which characterize the benzenoid structures of molecules, were found in the infrared spectra of humic acids from the soil treated with lime at the rate to compensate for the total acidity. Soil liming favored the accumulation of thermodynamically stable fragments of the central part of humic acid molecules and the destruction of peripheral radicals. The application of mineral fertilizers resulted in the enrichment of humic acids with aliphatic fragments. The combined application of mineral fertilizers and lime increased the portion of aromatic structures and, at the same time, enriched humic acids in aliphatic fragments less resistant to pyrolysis. These fragments are biologically and chemically active and can be readily involved in the element turnover processes, thus protecting the stable part of humus from the biological destruction.

  5. Ambient formic acid in southern California air: A comparison of two methods, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and alkaline trap-liquid chromatography with UV detection

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. ); Tuazon, E.C. ); Fujita, E. )

    1990-01-01

    Formic acid is an ubiquitous component of urban smog. Sources of formic acid in urban air include direct emissions from vehicles and in situ reaction of ozone with olefins. Ambient levels of formic acid in southern California air were first measured some 15 years ago by Hanst et al. using long-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). All subsequent studies of formic acid in the Los Angeles area have involved the use of two methods, either FTIR or collection on alkaline traps followed by gas chromatography, ion chromatography, or liquid chromatography analysis with UV detection, ATLC-UV. The Carbon Species Methods Comparison Study (CSMCS), a multilaboratory air quality study carried out in August 1986 at a southern California smog receptor site, provided an opportunity for direct field comparison of the FTIR and alkaline trap methods. The results of the comparison are presented in this brief report.

  6. Better Rooting Procedure to Enhance Survival Rate of Field Grown Malaysian Eksotika Papaya Transformed with 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4?cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets. PMID:25969786

  7. Characterization of the chemical composition of soil humic acids using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeya, Kosuke; Sleighter, Rachel L.; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Watanabe, Akira

    2015-03-01

    The composition of humic acids (HAs) with varying degrees of humification isolated from 10 common Japanese soils was characterized using negative ion mode electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry at 12 T. In particular, attention was paid to polynuclear aromatic components, which are more associated with the refractory nature of HAs and their resistance to biodegradation in soil than single C ring aromatic entities, such as lignin-like components, and aliphatic functionalities. Thousands of peaks were observed in the m/z range of 200-700, and molecular formulas were assigned to 817-2457 peaks in each sample. The molecular formulas having H/C and O/C ratios similar to those of lipid, protein, and other aliphatics with low double bond equivalents (DBE) of 0-7 were generally observed across the m/z range of 200-700. Although there were a number of molecular formulas having H/C and O/C values similar to those of lignin across the wide m/z range in the HAs with a low degree of humification, most lignin-like molecular formulas in the larger m/z range (450-650) or irrespective of m/z were lacking in the HAs with middle and high degrees of humification, respectively. These observations suggest a longer residence time for lignin monomers/dimers (and their derivatives; m/z 200-400) than larger lignin oligomers (m/z 450-650) in HA structural domains. The number of molecular formulas having H/C and O/C values similar to condensed aromatics increased with increasing degree of humification. The m/z and DBE values of condensed aromatic-like molecular formulas in the HAs with a lower degree of humification were <500 and 10-25, respectively, whilst the ranges expanded to 600 and 30-33, respectively, in the highly-humified black HAs. Kendrick mass defect analysis using a carboxyl group as the characteristic functional group found that 31, 73, and 39 molecular formulas had chain-type, net-type, and biphenyl-type condensed aromatic acids, respectively, as possible structures. Summed peak magnitudes of the condensed aromatic-like molecular formulas, in particular those with higher DBE values (>17) expected to have at least 5 rings, increased with increasing degree of humification and aromatic C content (evaluated by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy), suggesting their contribution to the intrinsic recalcitrance of HAs in soil.

  8. Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for rapid and simple determination of phytic acid content in green gram seeds (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Pande, Ranjana; Mishra, H N

    2015-04-01

    The feasibility of measuring phytic acid content in green gram (Vigna radiata) seeds was investigated by Fourier Transform Near-Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopic technique. Pure phytic acid standards of varying concentrations were scanned using FTNIR spectroscopy. The spectra were measured in diffused reflectance mode by keeping 100-1500 mg/100g standard of pure phytic acid in small sample cuvette. A calibration model was developed using pure phytic acid standards of varying concentrations in the near-infrared region (4000-12,000 cm(-1)). FT-NIR spectroscopy with chemometrics, using the first derivative plus vector normalisation method could predict the phytic acid content in green gram seeds samples. The developed model was validated using cross-validation technique. Maximum coefficient of determination (R(2)) value of 0.97 was obtained for the calibration model developed. The developed model was applied to predict phytic acid content in green gram seeds samples within 1-2 min. The developed procedure was further validated by recovery studies by comparing with UV spectroscopic method of phytic acid determination. PMID:25442633

  9. De novo synthesis of amino acids during the maillard reaction: qTOF/ESI mass spectrometric evidence for the mechanism of Akabori transformation.

    PubMed

    Nashalian, Ossanna; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2015-01-14

    The transformation of ?-amino acids into their hydroxymethyl derivatives during the Maillard reaction is an intriguing possibility for catalysis by metal salts in the presence of Strecker aldehydes; the process is commonly known as the Akabori reaction. The mechanism of this reaction was studied in the presence of glucose, using glycine copper complex and paraformaldehyde as Akabori model system in aqueous mixtures heated at 110 °C for 2 h and subsequently analyzed by qTOF/ESI/MS. Isotope-labeling studies of the various products identified have provided for the first time mass spectrometric evidence for the detailed mechanism of Akabori transformation, particularly the formation of Schiff base adducts prior to the final conversion into serine and hydroxymethyl-serine. Furthermore, the results have indicated that sugars do not interfere with such transformations and, on the contrary, the presence of glycine–copper complexes in the Maillard model systems can enhance the production of Maillard reaction intermediates. PMID:25514107

  10. Identification of fulvic acids and sulfated and nitrated analogues in atmospheric aerosol by electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; These, Anja; Venkatachari, Prasanna; Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Phillip K; Springer, Andreas; Linscheid, Michael

    2006-12-15

    The water-soluble organic fractions of aerosol samples collected in Riverside, CA, in summer 2005 were analyzed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Elemental compositions of about 1000 molecular species were determined in the range m/z 220-420, and four series of organic compounds were identified, fulvic acids, and S-containing, N-containing, and S- and N-containing molecules. Low-resolution product ion spectra proved the presence of organosulfates, organonitrates, and mixed organosulfates and -nitrates that appear to be structurally closely related to each other and to the fulvic acids. This is the first unambiguous detection of fulvic acid molecules and sulfated components in atmospheric aerosol and the first detection even of nitrated analogues. These species provide new clues to the nature of particulate organic matter in atmospheric aerosol. PMID:17165819

  11. Differences in the molecular composition of fulvic acid size fractions detected by size-exclusion chromatography-on line Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR-) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; These, Anja; Springer, Andreas; Linscheid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography was coupled to electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (SEC-FTICR-MS) to separate a fulvic acid isolate into three size fractions and to determine the elemental composition of fulvic acids in these fractions. Molecular formulas of about 3000 ions in the mass range of 200-700 Da were derived, many of which occur in all three fractions and follow the same system of elemental composition. Product ion spectra generated by SEC coupled to quadrupol-time-of-flight-MS (Q-TOF-MS) confirmed that the ions of all three fractions are basically polycarboxylates with hardly any other functional moiety. However, SEC-FTICR-MS revealed that the ions generated from the high molecular weight (HMW) fraction are enriched in carboxyl groups and are more aromatic as compared with the low molecular weight (LMW) fraction. These findings support the idea that the HMW fulvic acids are formed from LMW fulvic acids. The shift in the relative frequency of ions from the LMW to the HMW fraction is in line with different interaction mechanisms: HMW fulvic acids may be aggregates held together by electrostatic interaction of the carboxylate groups via hydrogen bonds or with polyvalent cations or by hydrophobic interaction of their carbon backbone, or consist of LMW fulvic acids covalently bound to each other or to (aliphatic) alcohols. PMID:17640699

  12. Development of a Nuclear Transformation System for Oleaginous Green Alga Lobosphaera (Parietochloris) incisa and Genetic Complementation of a Mutant Strain, Deficient in Arachidonic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Leu, Stefan; Shapira, Michal; Kaye, Yuval; Tourasse, Nicolas; Vallon, Olivier; Boussiba, Sammy

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are considered a promising source for various high value products, such as carotenoids, ?-3 and ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The unicellular green alga Lobosphaera (Parietochloris) incisa is an outstanding candidate for the efficient phototrophic production of arachidonic acid (AA), an essential ?-6 PUFA for infant brain development and a widely used ingredient in the baby formula industry. Although phototrophic production of such algal products has not yet been established, estimated costs are considered to be 2–5 times higher than competing heterotrophic production costs. This alga accumulates unprecedented amounts of AA within triacylglycerols and the molecular pathway of AA biosynthesis in L. incisa has been previously elucidated. Thus, progress in transformation and metabolic engineering of this high value alga could be exploited for increasing the efficient production of AA at competitive prices. We describe here the first successful transformation of L. incisa using the ble gene as a selection marker, under the control of the endogenous RBCS promoter. Furthermore, we have succeeded in the functional complementation of the L. incisa mutant strain P127, containing a mutated, inactive version of the delta-5 (?5) fatty acid desaturase gene. A copy of the functional ?5 desaturase gene, linked to the ble selection marker, was transformed into the P127 mutant. The resulting transformants selected for zeocine resistant, had AA biosynthesis partially restored, indicating the functional complementation of the mutant strain with the wild-type gene. The results of this study present a platform for the successful genetic engineering of L. incisa and its long-chain PUFA metabolism. PMID:25133787

  13. K3LaTe2O9: a new alkali-rare earth tellurate with face-sharing TeO6 octahedra.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Yao, Jiyong; Jiang, Xingxing; Fu, Ying; Lin, Zheshuai; Zhang, Guochun; Wu, Yicheng

    2015-09-21

    A new quaternary alkali-lanthanide metal tellurate K3LaTe2O9 has been synthesized by a conventional high-temperature solid state method, and single crystals have been grown by spontaneous crystallization. K3LaTe2O9 crystallizes in the hexagonal space group P63/mmc, with a = b = 6.0589(9) Å, c = 15.024(3) Å, and Z = 2. In the structure, [Te2O9](6-) contains rare face-sharing TeO6 polyhedra, which are connected by LaO6 octahedra forming a three-dimensional framework structure. Furthermore, its properties are investigated by UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman and IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, variable-temperature X-ray powder diffraction, and first-principles calculations. PMID:26242776

  14. Evidence for an Ionic Intermediate in the Transformation of Fatty Acid Hydroperoxide by a Catalase-related Allene Oxide Synthase from the Cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Benlian; Boeglin, William E.; Zheng, Yuxiang; Schneider, Claus; Brash, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Allene oxides are reactive epoxides biosynthesized from fatty acid hydroperoxides by specialized cytochrome P450s or by catalase-related hemoproteins. Here we cloned, expressed, and characterized a gene encoding a lipoxygenase-catalase/peroxidase fusion protein from Acaryochloris marina. We identified novel allene oxide synthase (AOS) activity and a by-product that provides evidence of the reaction mechanism. The fatty acids 18.4?3 and 18.3?3 are oxygenated to the 12R-hydroperoxide by the lipoxygenase domain and converted to the corresponding 12R,13-epoxy allene oxide by the catalase-related domain. Linoleic acid is oxygenated to its 9R-hydroperoxide and then, surprisingly, converted ?70% to an epoxyalcohol identified spectroscopically and by chemical synthesis as 9R,10S-epoxy-13S-hydroxyoctadeca-11E-enoic acid and only ?30% to the 9R,10-epoxy allene oxide. Experiments using oxygen-18-labeled 9R-hydroperoxide substrate and enzyme incubations conducted in H218O indicated that ?72% of the oxygen in the epoxyalcohol 13S-hydroxyl arises from water, a finding that points to an ionic intermediate (epoxy allylic carbocation) during catalysis. AOS and epoxyalcohol synthase activities are mechanistically related, with a reacting intermediate undergoing a net hydrogen abstraction or hydroxylation, respectively. The existence of epoxy allylic carbocations in fatty acid transformations is widely implicated although for AOS reactions, without direct experimental support. Our findings place together in strong association the reactions of allene oxide synthesis and an ionic reaction intermediate in the AOS-catalyzed transformation. PMID:19531485

  15. Lactic Acid Is Elevated in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Induces Myofibroblast Differentiation via pH-Dependent Activation of Transforming Growth Factor-?

    PubMed Central

    Kottmann, Robert Matthew; Kulkarni, Ajit A.; Smolnycki, Katie A.; Lyda, Elizabeth; Dahanayake, Thinesh; Salibi, Rami; Honnons, Sylvie; Jones, Carolyn; Isern, Nancy G.; Hu, Jian Z.; Nathan, Steven D.; Grant, Geraldine; Phipps, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex disease for which the pathogenesis is poorly understood. In this study, we identified lactic acid as a metabolite that is elevated in the lung tissue of patients with IPF. Objectives: This study examines the effect of lactic acid on myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: We used metabolomic analysis to examine cellular metabolism in lung tissue from patients with IPF and determined the effects of lactic acid and lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH5) overexpression on myofibroblast differentiation and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? activation in vitro. Measurements and Main Results: Lactic acid concentrations from healthy and IPF lung tissue were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; ?-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and LDH5 expression were assessed by Western blot of cell culture lysates. Lactic acid and LDH5 were significantly elevated in IPF lung tissue compared with controls. Physiologic concentrations of lactic acid induced myofibroblast differentiation via activation of TGF-?. TGF-? induced expression of LDH5 via hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?). Importantly, overexpression of both HIF1? and LDH5 in human lung fibroblasts induced myofibroblast differentiation and synergized with low-dose TGF-? to induce differentiation. Furthermore, inhibition of both HIF1? and LDH5 inhibited TGF-?–induced myofibroblast differentiation. Conclusions: We have identified the metabolite lactic acid as an important mediator of myofibroblast differentiation via a pH-dependent activation of TGF-?. We propose that the metabolic milieu of the lung, and potentially other tissues, is an important driving force behind myofibroblast differentiation and potentially the initiation and progression of fibrotic disorders. PMID:22923663

  16. Lactic Acid is Elevated in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Induces Myofibroblast Differentiation Via pH-Dependent Activation of Transforming Growth Factor-?

    SciTech Connect

    Kottman, R. M.; Kulkarni, Ajit A.; Smolnycki, Katie A.; Lyda, Elizabeth; Dahanayake, Thinesh; Salibi, Rami; Honnons, Sylvie; Jones, Carolyn; Isern, Nancy G.; Hu, Jian Z.; Nathan, Steven D.; Grant, Geraldine; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2012-10-15

    Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex disease for which the pathogenesis is poorly understood. In this study, we identified lactic acid as a metabolite that is elevated in the lung tissue of patients with IPF. Objectives: This study examines the effect of lactic acid on myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis. Methods:We used metabolomic analysis to examine cellular metabolism in lung tissuefrom patients with IPFanddeterminedthe effects of lactic acid and lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH5) overexpression on myofibroblast differentiation and transforming growth factor (TGF)-b activation in vitro. Measurements and Main Results: Lactic acid concentrations from healthy and IPF lung tissue were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; a-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and LDH5 expression were assessed by Western blot of cell culture lysates. Lactic acid and LDH5 were significantly elevated in IPF lung tissue compared with controls. Physiologic concentrations of lactic acid induced myofibroblast differentiation via activation of TGF-b. TGF-b induced expression of LDH5 via hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF1a). Importantly, overexpression of both HIF1a and LDH5 in human lung fibroblasts induced myofibroblast differentiation and synergized with low dose TGF-b to induce differentiation. Furthermore, inhibition of both HIF1a and LDH5 inhibited TGF-b–induced myofibroblast differentiation. Conclusions: We have identified the metabolite lactic acid as an important mediator of myofibroblast differentiation via a pHdependent activation of TGF-b. We propose that the metabolic milieu of the lung, and potentially other tissues, is an important driving force behind myofibroblast differentiation and potentially the initiation and progression of fibrotic disorders.

  17. Improvement of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Production in Echium acanthocarpum Transformed Hairy Root Cultures by Application of Different Abiotic Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zárate, Rafael; Cequier-Sánchez, Elena; Rodríguez, Covadonga; Dorta-Guerra, Roberto; El Jaber-Vazdekis, Nabil; Ravelo, Ángel G.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are of great nutritional, therapeutic, and physiological importance, especially the polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids, possessing larger carbon chains and abundant double bonds or their immediate precursors. A few higher plant species are able to accumulate these compounds, like those belonging to the Echium genus. Here, the novel E. acanthocarpum hairy root system, which is able to accumulate many fatty acids, including stearidonic and ?-linolenic acids, was optimized for a better production. The application of abiotic stress resulted in larger yields of stearidonic and ?-linolenic acids, 60 and 35%, respectively, with a decrease in linoleic acid, when grown in a nutrient medium consisting of B5 basal salts, sucrose or glucose, and, more importantly, at a temperature of 15°C. The application of osmotic stress employing sorbitol showed no positive influence on the fatty acid yields; furthermore, the combination of a lower culture temperature and glucose did not show a cumulative boosting effect on the yield, although this carbon source was similarly attractive. The abiotic stress also influenced the lipid profile of the cultures, significantly increasing the phosphatidylglycerol fraction but not the total lipid neither their biomass, proving the appropriateness of applying various abiotic stress in this culture to achieve larger yields. PMID:25937970

  18. Chemical and physical transformations of aluminosilicate clay minerals due to acid treatment and consequences for heterogeneous ice nucleation.

    PubMed

    Sihvonen, Sarah K; Schill, Gregory P; Lyktey, Nicholas A; Veghte, Daniel P; Tolbert, Margaret A; Freedman, Miriam Arak

    2014-09-25

    Mineral dust aerosol is one of the largest contributors to global ice nuclei, but physical and chemical processing of dust during atmospheric transport can alter its ice nucleation activity. In particular, several recent studies have noted that sulfuric and nitric acids inhibit heterogeneous ice nucleation in the regime below liquid water saturation in aluminosilicate clay minerals. We have exposed kaolinite, KGa-1b and KGa-2, and montmorillonite, STx-1b and SWy-2, to aqueous sulfuric and nitric acid to determine the physical and chemical changes that are responsible for the observed deactivation. To characterize the changes to the samples upon acid treatment, we use X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. We find that the reaction of kaolinite and montmorillonite with aqueous sulfuric acid results in the formation of hydrated aluminum sulfate. In addition, sulfuric and nitric acids induce large structural changes in montmorillonite. We additionally report the supersaturation with respect to ice required for the onset of ice nucleation for these acid-treated species. On the basis of lattice spacing arguments, we explain how the chemical and physical changes observed upon acid treatment could lead to the observed reduction in ice nucleation activity. PMID:25211030

  19. Monitoring the Reaction Products of Perfluoropropionic Acid and Allyl Phenyl Ether Using Chirped-Pulse Fourier Transform Microwave Cp-Ftmw Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Derek S.; Obenchain, Daniel A.; Lin, Wei; Novick, Stewart E.; Cooke, S. A.; Grubbs, G. S., II

    2014-06-01

    The pure rotational spectra of the reaction mixture of perfluoropropionic acid, CF3CF2COOH, and allyl phenyl ether, C6H5OCH2CH=CH2, have been studied by a pulsed nozzle, chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer in the frequency range of 8-14 GHz. Transitions corresponding to multiple species, two of which being starting materials allyl phenyl ether and perfluoropropionic acid, have been observed and analyzed. Determination of the reaction products was carried out by matching observed rotational constants with ab initio quantum chemical calculations of predicted products and will be discussed. Rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants and the assignment of allyl phenyl ether and reaction products spectra will all be discussed.

  20. Characterization of the Adsorption of Nucleic Acid Bases onto Ferrihydrite via Fourier Transform Infrared and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffractometry.

    PubMed

    Canhisares-Filho, José E; Carneiro, Cristine E A; de Santana, Henrique; Urbano, Alexandre; da Costa, Antonio C S; Zaia, Cássia T B V; Zaia, Dimas A M

    2015-09-01

    Minerals could have played an important role in concentration, protection, and polymerization of biomolecules. Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust, there are few works in the literature that describe the use of iron oxide-hydroxide in prebiotic chemistry experiments. In the present work, the interaction of adenine, thymine, and uracil with ferrihydrite was studied under conditions that resemble those of prebiotic Earth. At acidic pH, anions in artificial seawater decreased the pH at the point of zero charge (pHpzc) of ferrihydrite; and at basic pH, cations increased the pHpzc. The adsorption of nucleic acid bases onto ferrihydrite followed the order adenine?> uracil?>?thymine. Adenine adsorption peaked at neutral pH; however, for thymine and uracil, adsorption increased with increasing pH. Electrostatic interactions did not appear to play an important role on the adsorption of nucleic acid bases onto ferrihydrite. Adenine adsorption onto ferrihydrite was higher in distilled water compared to artificial seawater. After ferrihydrite was mixed with artificial seawaters or nucleic acid bases, X-ray diffractograms and Fourier transform infrared spectra did not show any change. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy showed that the interaction of adenine with ferrihydrite was not pH-dependent. In contrast, the interactions of thymine and uracil with ferrihydrite were pH-dependent such that, at basic pH, thymine and uracil lay flat on the surface of ferrihydrite, and at acidic pH, thymine and uracil were perpendicular to the surface. Ferrihydrite adsorbed much more adenine than thymine; thus adenine would have been better protected against degradation by hydrolysis or UV radiation on prebiotic Earth. Key Words: Ferrihydrite-Nucleic acid bases-Seawater-Adsorption-Prebiotic chemistry. Astrobiology 15, 728-738. PMID:26393397

  1. Exploring amino acid side chain decomposition using enzymatic digestion and HPLC-MS: combined lysine transformations in chlorinated waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Characterizing the transformations of polypeptides is important across a broad range of scientific disciplines. As polypeptides are an important constituent of dissolved organic matter within seawater and freshwater, it is important to understand their fate. Oxidants formed in blood, as part of the ...

  2. Multielement crystalline and pseudocrystalline oxides as efficient catalysts for the direct transformation of glycerol into acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Chieregato, Alessandro; Soriano, M Dolores; García-González, Ester; Puglia, Giuseppe; Basile, Francesco; Concepción, Patricia; Bandinelli, Claudia; López Nieto, José M; Cavani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol surplus from biodiesel synthesis still represents a major problem in the biofuel production chain. Meanwhile, those in the acrylic acid market are looking for new processes that are able to offer viable alternatives to propylene-based production. Therefore, acrylic acid synthesis from glycerol could be an effective solution to both issues. Among the viable routes, one-pot synthesis theoretically represents the most efficient process, but it is also highly challenging from the catalyst design standpoint. A new class of complex W--Mo--V mixed-oxide catalysts, which are strongly related to the hexagonal tungsten bronze structure, able to directly convert glycerol into acrylic acid with yields of up to 51?% are reported. PMID:25488515

  3. In situ determination of transient pKa changes of internal amino acids of bacteriorhodopsin by using time-resolved attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zscherp, Christian; Schlesinger, Ramona; Tittor, Jörg; Oesterhelt, Dieter; Heberle, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    Active proton transfer through membrane proteins is accomplished by shifts in the acidity of internal amino acids, prosthetic groups, and water molecules. The recently introduced step-scan attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR/FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to determine transient pKa changes of single amino acid side chains of the proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. The high pKa of D96 (>12 in the ground state) drops to 7.1 ± 0.2 (in 1 M KCl) during the lifetime of the N intermediate, quantitating the role of D96 as the internal proton donor of the retinal Schiff base. We conclude from experiments on the pH dependence of the proton release reaction and on point mutants where each of the glutamates on the extracellular surface has been exchanged that besides D85 no other carboxylic group changes its protonation state during proton release. However, E194 and E204 interact with D85, the primary proton acceptor of the Schiff base proton. The C?O stretching vibration of D85 undergoes a characteristic pH-dependent shift in frequency during the M state of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin with a pKa of 5.2 (±0.3) which is abolished in the single-site mutants E194Q and E204Q and the quadruple mutant E9Q/E74Q/E194Q/E204Q. The double mutation E9Q/E74Q does not affect the lifetime of the intermediates, ruling out any participation of these residues in the proton transfer chain of bacteriorhodopsin. This study demonstrates that transient changes in acidity of single amino acid residues can be quantified in situ with infrared spectroscopy. PMID:10318912

  4. CHEMISTRY OF FOG WATER IN CALIFORNIA'S CENTRAL VALLEY: 2. PHOTOCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF AMINO ACIDS AND ALKYL AMINES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although amino compounds are seemingly ubiquitous in atmospheric particles and deposition, little is known of their fate in the troposphere. We report here on the fate of 21 amino acids and alkyl amines in fog waters from Davis, California, illuminated with simulated sunlight ...

  5. Identification of black carbon derived structures in a volcanic ash soil humic acid by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Robert W; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Hatcher, Patrick G

    2004-06-15

    Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), coupled with cross-polarization magic angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Kendrick mass defect analysis, was used to study the molecular composition of an aromatic carbon-rich humic acid extracted from a dark black soil from Iwata, Japan. Black carbon, produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and organic matter, has been suggested as a major component of humic acids having intense peaks in the aromatic and carboxyl regions of the 13C NMR spectrum. Taking advantage of the high resolving power of FT-ICR MS to make precise formula assignments, three different types of highly carboxylated polycyclic aromatic compounds were identified in the sample: linearly fused aromatic structures, aromatic structures linked by carbon-carbon single bonds, and highly condensed aromatic structures. These carboxylated aromatic structures have a low mass defect in their mass spectra due to their abundance of oxygen and deficiency of hydrogen. This mass defect is observed in the vast majority of peaks present in the entire mass spectrum, differentiating them from structures that are hydrogen-rich (e.g., fatty acids, proteins, carbohydrates). Thus, we conclude that the bulk of the sample analyzed is comprised of these heavily carboxylated, hydrogen-deficient, condensed aromatic structures, features believed to be characteristic of black carbon-like material. PMID:15260339

  6. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Online Monitoring of Dibutyl Phosphate Degradation Product in Tributyl Phosphate /n-Dodecane/Nitric Acid Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Campbell, Emily L.; Casella, Amanda J.; Peterman, Dean; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2013-11-05

    In liquid-liquid extraction separation processes, accumulation of organic solvent degradation products is detrimental to the process robustness and frequent solvent analysis is warranted. Our research explores feasibility of online monitoring of the organic solvents relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. This paper describes the first phase of developing a system for monitoring the tributyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solvent commonly used to separate used nuclear fuel. In this investigation, the effect of extraction of nitric acid from aqueous solutions of variable concentrations on the quantification of TBP and its major degradation product dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) was assessed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to discriminate between HDBP and TBP in the nitric acid-containing TBP/n-dodecane solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitated the development of regression models for HDBP and TBP quantification in real time, enabling online implementation of the monitoring system. The predictive regression models were validated using TBP/n-dodecane solvent samples subjected to the high dose external gamma irradiation. The predictive models were translated to flow conditions using a hollow fiber FTIR probe installed in a centrifugal contactor extraction apparatus demonstrating the applicability of the FTIR technique coupled with multivariate analysis for the online monitoring of the organic solvent degradation products.

  7. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Online Monitoring of Dibutyl Phosphate Degradation Product in Tributyl Phosphate/n-Dodecane/Nitric Acid Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Tatiana G. Levitskaia; James M. Peterson; Emily L. Campbell; Amanda J. Casella; Dean R. Peterman; Samuel A. Bryan

    2013-12-01

    In liquid–liquid extraction separation processes, accumulation of organic solvent degradation products is detrimental to the process robustness, and frequent solvent analysis is warranted. Our research explores the feasibility of online monitoring of the organic solvents relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. This paper describes the first phase of developing a system for monitoring the tributyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solvent commonly used to separate used nuclear fuel. In this investigation, the effect of extraction of nitric acid from aqueous solutions of variable concentrations on the quantification of TBP and its major degradation product dibutylphosphoric acid (HDBP) was assessed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to discriminate between HDBP and TBP in the nitric acid-containing TBP/n-dodecane solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitated the development of regression models for HDBP and TBP quantification in real time, enabling online implementation of the monitoring system. The predictive regression models were validated using TBP/n-dodecane solvent samples subjected to high-dose external ?-irradiation. The predictive models were translated to flow conditions using a hollow fiber FTIR probe installed in a centrifugal contactor extraction apparatus, demonstrating the applicability of the FTIR technique coupled with multivariate analysis for the online monitoring of the organic solvent degradation products.

  8. Reactivity and Selectivity of Charged Phenyl Radicals Toward Amino Acids in a Fourier-Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Pates, George O.; Guler, Leonard; Nash, John J.; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2011-01-01

    The reactivity of ten charged phenyl radicals toward several amino acids was examined in the gas phase in a dual-cell Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. All radicals abstract a hydrogen atom from the amino acids, as expected. The most electrophilic radicals (with a greater calculated vertical electron affinity (EA) at the radical site) also react with these amino acids via NH2 abstraction (a nonradical nucleophilic addition-elimination reaction). Both the radical (hydrogen atom abstraction) and nonradical (NH2 abstraction) reaction efficiencies were found to increase with the electrophilicity (EA) of the radical. However, NH2 abstraction is more strongly influenced by EA. In contrast to an earlier report, the ionization energies of the amino acids do not appear to play a general reactivity controlling role. Studies using several partially deuterium-labeled amino acids revealed that abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the ?-carbon is only preferred for glycine; for the other amino acids, a hydrogen atom is preferentially abstracted from the side chain. The electrophilicity of the radicals does not appear to have a major influence on the site from which the hydrogen atom is abstracted. Hence, the regioselectivity of hydrogen atom abstraction appears to be independent of the structure of the radical but dependent on the structure of the amino acid. Surprisingly, abstraction of two hydrogen atoms was observed for the 3-nitro-5-dehydrophenyl pyridinium radical, indicating that substituents on the radical not only influence the EA of the radical but also can be involved in the reaction. In disagreement with an earlier report, proline was found to display several unprecedented reaction pathways that likely do not proceed via a radical mechanism but rather by a nucleophilic addition-elimination mechanism. Both NH2 and 15NH2 groups were abstracted from lysine labeled with 15N on the side-chain, indicating that NH2 abstraction occurs both from the amino terminus as well as from the side-chain. Quantum chemical calculations were employed to obtain insights into some of the reaction mechanisms. PMID:21612203

  9. Electrochemistry for biofuel generation: transformation of fatty acids and triglycerides to diesel-like olefin/ether mixtures and olefins.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Tatiane R; Harnisch, Falk; Nilges, Peter; Schröder, Uwe

    2015-03-01

    Electroorganic synthesis can be exploited for the production of biofuels from fatty acids and triglycerides. With Coulomb efficiencies (CE) of up to 50?%, the electrochemical decarboxylation of fatty acids in methanolic and ethanolic solutions leads to the formation of diesel-like olefin/ether mixtures. Triglycerides can be directly converted in aqueous solutions by using sonoelectrochemistry, with olefins as the main products (with a CE of more than 20?%). The latter reaction, however, is terminated at around 50?% substrate conversion by the produced side-product glycerol. An energy analysis shows that the electrochemical olefin synthesis can be an energetically competitive, sustainable, and--in comparison with established processes--economically feasible alternative for the exploitation of fats and oils for biofuel production. PMID:25648972

  10. Nondestructive quantification of the soluble-solids content and the available acidity of apples by Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Yibin; Liu Yande; Tao Yang

    2005-09-01

    This research evaluated the feasibility of using Fourier-transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to quantify the soluble-solids content (SSC) and the available acidity (VA) in intact apples. Partial least-squares calibration models, obtained from several preprocessing techniques (smoothing, derivative, etc.) in several wave-number ranges were compared. The best models were obtained with the high coefficient determination (r{sup 2}) 0.940 for the SSC and a moderate r{sup 2} of 0.801 for the VA, root-mean-square errors of prediction of 0.272% and 0.053%, and root-mean-square errors of calibration of 0.261% and 0.046%, respectively. The results indicate that the FT-NIR spectroscopy yields good predictions of the SSC and also showed the feasibility of using it to predict the VA of apples.

  11. Interactions of protein and nucleic acid components of hepatitis C virus as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Pedro; Molina, Marina

    2010-06-15

    The secondary structure of the loop IIId domain in the RNA of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is well-conserved among different genotypes of HCV, which suggests that the nucleocapsid proteins may interact with the genome RNA through this loop structure. Using infrared spectroscopy, we monitored structural changes occurring in HCV core protein and loop IIId upon formation of nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs). The protein secondary structure of these particles involves beta-sheet enrichment in relation to its protein monomer. The phosphodiester backbone vibrations of loop IIId reflect the predominant C3'-endo conformation of the riboses involved in the RNA A-form and reveal the packaging-imposed transition of the said RNA segments toward single-stranded structure within the NLPs. Intermolecular protein-nucleic acid contacts in these particles involve RNA phosphate groups and positively charged amino acid residues such as arginine and lysine. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopic analysis of the spectra measured in the course of deuteration shows synchronous cross-peaks correlating two bands assigned to guanine and arginine side chain, which is consistent with the presence of guanine-arginine interactions in these NLPs. This is also supported by the kinetically favored formation of NLPs having HCV core protein and guanine-enriched synthetic oligonucleotides. We also found that these NPLs are fully permeable to water molecules. PMID:20469947

  12. A Study of the Monohydrate and Dihydrate Complexes of Perfluoropropionic Acid Using Chirped-Pulse Fourier Transform Microwave (CP-FTMW) Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, G S; Obenchain, Daniel A; Frank, Derek S; Novick, Stewart E; Cooke, S A; Serrato, Agapito; Lin, Wei

    2015-10-22

    This work reports the first known spectroscopic observation of the monohydrate and dihydrate complexes of perfluoropropionic acid (PFPA). The spectra have been observed using a chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer in the 7750 to 14250 MHz region. The structures of the species have been confirmed with the aid of ab initio quantum chemical calculations. Rotational constants A, B, and C have been determined and reported for both species along with centrifugal distortion constants ?J, ?JK, ?K, ?J, ?K for H2O-PFPA and ?J, ?JK, and ?J for (H2O)2-PFPA. Effects due to large amplitude motions were not observable in these experiments. Structures of the complexes have been determined using a combination of experimental second moment values and ab initio results. The complexation of the -OH of one or two water molecules has been found to occur in the plane of the carboxylic acid group forming a six- or eight-member ring. PMID:26421936

  13. Tracking the composition and transformation of humic and fulvic acids during vermicomposting of sewage sludge by elemental analysis and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Sewage sludge (T1) and the mixture of sewage sludge and cattle dung (T2) were vermicomposted with Eisenia fetida, respectively. The transformation of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) extracted from these two treatments were evaluated by a series of chemical and spectroscopic methods. Results indicated that the vermicomposting decreased pH, TOC, and C/N ratio, and increased EC, total extractable C, and HA contents. The FA content in treatment T1 was increased significantly, and only slight increasing was observed in treatment T2. Moreover, vermicomposting decreased H content, C/N ratio, proteinaceous and carbohydrates components, and increased the N content, C/H ratio, aromatic compounds and polycondensation structures in HA and FA. In addition, fluorescence spectra and fluorescence regional integration indicated that protein-like groups were degraded and HA compounds were formed. Furthermore, the addition of cattle dung enhanced the humification process and improved the HA quality in spite of no significant effect on the FA. PMID:25736580

  14. Expression and Functional Characterization of the Agrobacterium VirB2 Amino Acid Substitution Variants in T-pilus Biogenesis, Virulence, and Transient Transformation Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chao-Ying; Lai, Erh-Min

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease by transferring transferred DNA (T-DNA) into the plant genome. The translocation process is mediated by the type IV secretion system (T4SS) consisting of the VirD4 coupling protein and 11 VirB proteins (VirB1 to VirB11). All VirB proteins are required for the production of T-pilus, which consists of processed VirB2 (T-pilin) and VirB5 as major and minor subunits, respectively. VirB2 is an essential component of T4SS, but the roles of VirB2 and the assembled T-pilus in Agrobacterium virulence and the T-DNA transfer process remain unknown. Here, we generated 34 VirB2 amino acid substitution variants to study the functions of VirB2 involved in VirB2 stability, extracellular VirB2/T-pilus production and virulence of A. tumefaciens. From the capacity for extracellular VirB2 production (ExB2+ or ExB2?) and tumorigenesis on tomato stems (Vir+ or Vir?), the mutants could be classified into three groups: ExB2?/Vir?, ExB2?/Vir+, and ExB2+/Vir+. We also confirmed by electron microscopy that five ExB2?/Vir+ mutants exhibited a wild-type level of virulence with their deficiency in T-pilus formation. Interestingly, although the five T-pilus?/Vir+ uncoupling mutants retained a wild-type level of tumorigenesis efficiency on tomato stems and/or potato tuber discs, their transient transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings was highly attenuated. In conclusion, we have provided evidence for a role of T-pilus in Agrobacterium transformation process and have identified the domains and amino acid residues critical for VirB2 stability, T-pilus biogenesis, tumorigenesis, and transient transformation efficiency. PMID:24971727

  15. Strong Lewis acids of air-stable metallocene bis(perfluorooctanesulfonate)s as high-efficiency catalysts for carbonyl-group transformation reactions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Renhua; Xu, Xinhua; Peng, Lifeng; Zhao, Yalei; Li, Ningbo; Yin, Shuangfeng

    2012-05-14

    Strong Lewis acids of air-stable metallocene bis(perfluorooctanesulfonate)s [M(Cp)(2)][OSO(2)C(8)F(17)](2)?nH(2)O?THF (M = Zr (2?a?3?H(2)O?THF), M = Ti (2?b?2?H(2)O?THF)) were synthesized by the reaction of [M(Cp)(2)]Cl(2) (M = Zr (1?a), M = Ti (1?b)) with nBuLi and C(8)F(17)SO(3)H (2?equiv) or with C(8)F(17)SO(3)Ag (2?equiv). The hydrate numbers (n) of these complexes were variable, changing from 0 to 4 depending on conditions. In contrast to well-known metallocene triflates, these complexes suffered no change in open air for a year. thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analysis showed that 2?a and 2?b were thermally stable at 300 and 180?°C, respectively. These complexes exhibited unusually high solubility in polar organic solvents. Conductivity measurement showed that the complexes (2?a and 2?b) were ionic dissociation in CH(3)CN solution. X-ray analysis result confirmed 2?a?3?H(2)O?THF was a cationic organometallic Lewis acid. UV/Vis spectra showed a significant red shift due to the strong complex formation between 10-methylacridone and 2?a. Fluorescence spectra showed that the Lewis acidity of 2?a fell between those of Sc(3+) (?(em)=474?nm) and Fe(3+) (?(em)=478?nm). ESR spectra showed the Lewis acidity of 2?a (0.91?eV) was at the same level as that of Sc(3+) (1.00?eV) and Y(3+) (0.85?eV), while the Lewis acidity of 2?b (1.06?eV) was larger than that of Sc(3+) (1.00?eV) and Y(3+) (0.85?eV). They showed high catalytic ability in carbonyl-compound transformation reactions, such as the Mannich reaction, the Mukaiyama aldol reaction, allylation of aldehydes, the Friedel-Crafts acylation of alkyl aromatic ethers, and cyclotrimerization of ketones. Moreover, the complexes possessed good reusability. On account of their excellent catalytic efficiency, stability, and reusability, the complexes will find broad catalytic applications in organic synthesis. PMID:22504964

  16. Reaction mechanism and metal ion transformation in photocatalytic ozonation of phenol and oxalic acid with Ag(+)/TiO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingying; Xie, Yongbing; Yang, Jun; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi

    2014-03-01

    Photocatalytic ozonation of phenol and oxalic acid (OA) was conducted with a Ag(+)/TiO2 catalyst and different pathways were found for the degradation of different compounds. Ag(+) greatly promoted the photocatalytic degradation of contaminants due to its role as an electron scavenger. It also accelerated the removal rate of OA in ozonation and the simultaneous process for its complex reaction with oxalate. Phenol could be degraded both in direct ozonation and photolysis, but the TOC removal rates were much higher in the simultaneous processes due to the oxidation of hydroxyl radicals resulting from synergetic effects. The sequence of photo-illumination and ozone exposure in the combined process showed quite different effects in phenol degradation and TOC removal. The synergetic effects in different combined processes were found to be highly related to the properties of the target pollutants. The color change of the solution and TEM result confirmed that Ag(+) was easily reduced and deposited on the surface of TiO2 under photo-illumination, and dissolved again into solution in the presence of ozone. This simple cycle of enrichment and distribution of Ag(+) can greatly benefit the design of advanced oxidation processes, in which the sequences of ozone and photo-illumination can be varied according to the needs for catalyst recycling and the different properties of pollutants. PMID:25079280

  17. Fourier transform infrared study on microemulsion system of potassium salt of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphinic acid (HA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weijin; Shi, Nai; Wang, Yi; Chang, Zhiyuan; Wu, JinGuang

    1994-01-01

    To study microemulsion formation in a solvent extraction system is to probe into some basic principles of extraction chemistry in the light of combining extraction chemistry with surface chemistry. In our previous investigations, the microemulsions of the salts of HDEHP and PC88A have been studied systematically by FT-IR. In the experiment, we observed the change of peak positions and intensities of P equals O, P-O-C and P-O-H groups during saponification and hydration, and discovered that the peak of P-O-C splits apart into 1045 and 1075 cm-1. The vibration frequency of the P-O-C group in HDEHP and PC88A is quite close to the symmetric stretching frequency of the POO- group, and thus causes difficulties in the study of their peak position and absorbance variation. For this reason we synthesized bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphinic acid without the P-O-C group. Infrared spectra in the range of 800 - 4000 cm-1 of this microemulsion system was studied.

  18. The immunomodulator, ammonium trichloro[1,2-ethanediolato-O,O']-tellurate, suppresses the propagation of herpes simplex virus 2 by reducing the infectivity of the virus progeny.

    PubMed

    Sheinboim, D; Hindiyeh, M; Mendelson, E; Albeck, M; Sredni, B; Dovrat, S

    2015-07-01

    Persistent investigations for the identification of novel anti-herpetic drugs are being conducted worldwide, as current treatment options are sometimes insufficient. The immunomodulator, ammonium trichloro[1,2?ethanediolato?O,O']?tellurate (AS101), a non?toxic tellurium (?) compound, has been shown to exhibit anti?viral activity against a variety of viruses in cell cultures and in animal models. In the present study, the anti?viral activity of AS101 against herpes simplex virus (HSV)?1 and 2 was investigated in vitro. The results demonstrated that AS101 significantly restricted HSV?2-induced plaque formation and reduced the infectivity of the HSV?2 yield, while HSV?1 was affected to a lesser extent. The incubation of mature HSV?1 and HSV?2 viruses with AS101 had no effect on viral infectivity, indicating that the compound interrupts de novo viral synthesis. The addition of AS101 at up to 9 h post?infection had almost the same effect as did the addition of the drug together with the virus (it maintained 80% of its total anti?viral capacity). Quantitative PCR and immunofluoresence staining of viral structural proteins revealed that the viral DNA and protein synthesis stages were not interrupted by the administration of AS101. By contrast, in the presence of the compound, significantly fewer viable viruses (?2 log reduction) were recovered from the AS10?treated cell cultures. Of note, when we determined the viability of the intracellular virus, formed in the presence of the compound, a less severe (?1 log) effect was observed. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that AS101 primarily interferes with late stages of viral replication, such as viral particle envelopment or egress, leading to the production of a defective virus progeny. PMID:25936393

  19. Sources, transformation and fate of particulate amino acids and hexosamines under varying hydrological regimes in the tropical Wenchang/Wenjiao Rivers and Estuary, Hainan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Daniela; Herbeck, Lucia S.; Li, Min; Bao, Hongyan; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Jennerjahn, Tim

    2013-04-01

    The small tropical Wenchang and Wenjiao Rivers on the island of Hainan, tropical China, are affected by effluents from municipal sewage, aquaculture and agriculture, and by contrasting hydrological regimes related to monsoon and tropical storms. In order to obtain information on the sources, transformation and fate of organic matter (OM) we investigated the amount and composition of amino acids and hexosamines as well as the carbon isotope composition in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the Wenchang/Wenjiao Estuary. SPM was collected along the salinity gradient starting from the river sites, along the lagoon-shaped Bamen Bay to coastal waters during four sampling campaigns between 2006 and 2009. SPM concentrations ranged between 4.7 and 58.2 mg L-1. Apart from highest values after heavy rain events in spring and summer, SPM showed little seasonal variation, but increased with salinity. From SPM POC% (1.2-20.9%), C/N (4.9-16.5) and ?13Corg (-31.5 to -19.5‰), the molar composition and content of amino acids and hexosamines (8.2-156.2 mg g-1 dry weight) and by comparison with sediments, mangroves, soils and plants we are able to show that soil-derived material, freshwater and marine plankton were the major sources of suspended OM. High POC and amino acid contents were related to primary production sustained by dissolved nutrients to a large extent stemming from municipal and aquaculture effluents. Factor analysis showed that the suite of biogeochemical parameters measured clearly depict the terrestrial vs. marine origin and the freshness/reactivity of OM. The four groups of samples resulting from cluster analysis were basically related to varying hydrological regimes. With respect to the sources, degradation and fate of particulate OM the major factors were: (i) the year round input of labile, amino acid rich riverine OM matter at the freshwater dominated sites, (ii) high input of degraded soil OM after heavy rains with dispersal throughout the estuary and export to the adjacent coastal area, (iii) significant production of labile marine OM especially during summer inside the bay and the (iv) dominance of refractory marine OM during winter and spring season and in the offshore region. While a major part of the fresh OM fuelled by anthropogenic nutrients appears to be stored or recycled inside the bay, periodic torrential rainfalls can lead to a pulsed export of this OM to the coastal area where it may adversely affect seagrass meadows and coral reefs.

  20. Beyond Naphthenic Acids: Environmental Screening of Water from Natural Sources and the Athabasca Oil Sands Industry Using Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Mark P; Peru, Kerry M; Fahlman, Brian; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing need for environmental screening of natural waters in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada, particularly in the differentiation between anthropogenic and naturally-derived organic compounds associated with weathered bitumen deposits. Previous research has focused primarily upon characterization of naphthenic acids in water samples by negative-ion electrospray ionization methods. Atmospheric pressure photoionization is a much less widely used ionization method, but one that affords the possibility of observing low polarity compounds that cannot be readily observed by electrospray ionization. This study describes the first usage of atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes) to characterize and compare extracts of oil sands process water, river water, and groundwater samples from areas associated with oil sands mining activities. When comparing mass spectra previously obtained by electrospray ionization and data acquired by atmospheric pressure photoionization, there can be a doubling of the number of components detected. In addition to polar compounds that have previously been observed, low-polarity, sulfur-containing compounds and hydrocarbons that do not incorporate a heteroatom were detected. These latter components, which are not amenable to electrospray ionization, have potential for screening efforts within monitoring programs of the oil sands. PMID:26115966

  1. Beyond Naphthenic Acids: Environmental Screening of Water from Natural Sources and the Athabasca Oil Sands Industry Using Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Mark P.; Peru, Kerry M.; Fahlman, Brian; Hewitt, L. Mark; Frank, Richard A.; Headley, John V.

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing need for environmental screening of natural waters in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada, particularly in the differentiation between anthropogenic and naturally-derived organic compounds associated with weathered bitumen deposits. Previous research has focused primarily upon characterization of naphthenic acids in water samples by negative-ion electrospray ionization methods. Atmospheric pressure photoionization is a much less widely used ionization method, but one that affords the possibility of observing low polarity compounds that cannot be readily observed by electrospray ionization. This study describes the first usage of atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes) to characterize and compare extracts of oil sands process water, river water, and groundwater samples from areas associated with oil sands mining activities. When comparing mass spectra previously obtained by electrospray ionization and data acquired by atmospheric pressure photoionization, there can be a doubling of the number of components detected. In addition to polar compounds that have previously been observed, low-polarity, sulfur-containing compounds and hydrocarbons that do not incorporate a heteroatom were detected. These latter components, which are not amenable to electrospray ionization, have potential for screening efforts within monitoring programs of the oil sands.

  2. Interdependent genotoxic mechanisms of monomethylarsonous acid: Role of ROS-induced DNA damage and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibition in the malignant transformation of urothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wnek, Shawn M.; Kuhlman, Christopher L.; Camarillo, Jeannie M.; Medeiros, Matthew K.; Liu, Ke J.; Lau, Serrine S.; Gandolfi, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of human bladder urothelial cells (UROtsa) to 50 nM of the arsenic metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), for 12 weeks results in irreversible malignant transformation. The ability of continuous, low-level MMAIII exposure to cause an increase in genotoxic potential by inhibiting repair processes necessary to maintain genomic stability is unknown. Following genomic insult within cellular systems poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger protein, is rapidly activated and recruited to sites of DNA strand breaks. When UROtsa cells are continuously exposed to 50 nM MMAIII, PARP-1 activity does not increase despite the increase in MMAIII-induced DNA single-strand breaks through 12 weeks of exposure. When UROtsa cells are removed from continuous MMAIII exposure (2 weeks), PARP-1 activity increases coinciding with a subsequent decrease in DNA damage levels. Paradoxically, PARP-1 mRNA expression and protein levels are elevated in the presence of continuous MMAIII indicating a possible mechanism to compensate for the inhibition of PARP-1 activity in the presence of MMAIII. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 contain vicinal sulfhydryl groups which may act as a potential site for MMAIII to bind, displace zinc ion, and render PARP-1 inactive. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates the ability of MMAIII to bind a synthetic peptide representing the zinc-finger domain of PARP-1, and displace zinc from the peptide in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of continuous MMAIII exposure, continuous 4-week zinc supplementation restored PARP-1 activity levels and reduced the genotoxicity associated with MMAIII. Zinc supplementation did not produce an overall increase in PARP-1 protein levels, decrease the levels of MMAIII-induced reactive oxygen species, or alter Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase levels. Overall, these results present two potential interdependent mechanisms in which MMAIII may increase the susceptibility of UROtsa cells to genotoxic insult and/or malignant transformation: elevated levels of MMAIII-induced DNA damage through the production of reactive oxygen species, and the direct MMAIII-induced inhibition of PARP-1. PMID:21925530

  3. Interdependent genotoxic mechanisms of monomethylarsonous acid: Role of ROS-induced DNA damage and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibition in the malignant transformation of urothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wnek, Shawn M.; Kuhlman, Christopher L.; Camarillo, Jeannie M.; Medeiros, Matthew K.; Liu, Ke J.; Lau, Serrine S.; Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ 85721 ; Gandolfi, A.J.

    2011-11-15

    Exposure of human bladder urothelial cells (UROtsa) to 50 nM of the arsenic metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}), for 12 weeks results in irreversible malignant transformation. The ability of continuous, low-level MMA{sup III} exposure to cause an increase in genotoxic potential by inhibiting repair processes necessary to maintain genomic stability is unknown. Following genomic insult within cellular systems poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger protein, is rapidly activated and recruited to sites of DNA strand breaks. When UROtsa cells are continuously exposed to 50 nM MMA{sup III}, PARP-1 activity does not increase despite the increase in MMA{sup III}-induced DNA single-strand breaks through 12 weeks of exposure. When UROtsa cells are removed from continuous MMA{sup III} exposure (2 weeks), PARP-1 activity increases coinciding with a subsequent decrease in DNA damage levels. Paradoxically, PARP-1 mRNA expression and protein levels are elevated in the presence of continuous MMA{sup III} indicating a possible mechanism to compensate for the inhibition of PARP-1 activity in the presence of MMA{sup III}. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 contain vicinal sulfhydryl groups which may act as a potential site for MMA{sup III} to bind, displace zinc ion, and render PARP-1 inactive. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates the ability of MMA{sup III} to bind a synthetic peptide representing the zinc-finger domain of PARP-1, and displace zinc from the peptide in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of continuous MMA{sup III} exposure, continuous 4-week zinc supplementation restored PARP-1 activity levels and reduced the genotoxicity associated with MMA{sup III}. Zinc supplementation did not produce an overall increase in PARP-1 protein levels, decrease the levels of MMA{sup III}-induced reactive oxygen species, or alter Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase levels. Overall, these results present two potential interdependent mechanisms in which MMA{sup III} may increase the susceptibility of UROtsa cells to genotoxic insult and/or malignant transformation: elevated levels of MMA{sup III}-induced DNA damage through the production of reactive oxygen species, and the direct MMA{sup III}-induced inhibition of PARP-1.

  4. Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torre, Amalia

    2011-07-01

    The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when considering the radial heat equation, suitably defined Hankel-type transforms come to be involved in the inherent Appell transformation. The analysis is aimed at outlining the link between the Appell transformation and the canonical transforms.

  5. Alteration of a single amino acid in the basic domain of Marek's disease virus Meq oncoprotein plays an important role in T-cell transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease virus encoded oncoprotein, Meq, has been shown to play a major role in transformation of T-lymphocytes. We have earlier shown that replacement of the meq gene in the very virulent strain Md5 with that of vaccine strain CVI988/Rispens resulted in virus attenuation in chickens. To dete...

  6. Molecular distribution, seasonal variation, chemical transformation and sources of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in atmospheric aerosols at remote marine Gosan site, Jeju Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Lee, M.

    2009-12-01

    : A homologous series of C2-C12 ?, ?-dicarboxylic acids, ?-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), pyruvic acid and ?-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) were detected in atmospheric aerosols collected between April 2003 and April 2004 from remote marine Gosan site (33°29? N, 126°16? E) located in Jeju Island, South Korea. They were determined using a GC-FID and GC/MS. Total diacid concentration ranged from 130 to 1911 ng m-3 (av. 642 ng m-3), whereas total oxoacid concentration ranged from 7 to 155 ng m-3 (av. 43 ng m-3), and pyruvic acid and ?-dicarbonyls ranged from 0.5 to 15 ng m-3 (av. 5 ng m-3) and 2-108 ng m-3 (av. 17.3 ng m-3), respectively. Oxalic (C2) acid was the most abundant in all seasons followed by malonic (C3) or succinic (C4) acid, and phthalic (Ph) acid. The concentration of diacids decreased with an increase in carbon number except for azelaic (C9) acid, which was more abundant than suberic (C8) acid. Glyoxylic acid was predominant ?-oxoacid contributing to 92% of total ?-oxoacid. Total diacids, oxoacids and dicarbonyls showed maximum concentrations in spring and occasionally in winter, while minimum concentrations were observed in summer. Air mass trajectory analysis suggests that either spring or winter maxima can be explained by strong continental outflow associated with cold front passages, while summer minima are associated with warm southerly flows, which transport clean marine air from low latitudes to Jeju Island. The comparison between total diacid concentration level of this study and other study results of urban and remote sites of East Asia reveals that Gosan site is more heavily influenced by the continental outflow from China. The seasonal variation of malonic/succinic (C3/C4), malic/succinic (hC4/C4), fumaric/maleic (F/M), oxalic/pyruvic (C2/Py) and oxalic/Glyoxal (C2/Gly) ratios showed maxima in summer due to an enhanced photo-production and degradation of diacids and related compounds. Throughout all seasons C3/C4 ratio at Gosan site, located between Chinese cities and Chichi-jima Island in Japan was observed higher than those in Chinese cities and lower than that of the Chichi-jima Island, pointing to the formation of diacid during long range transport. The lowest values of adipic/azelaic (C6/C9) and phthalic/azelaic (Ph/C9) were observed as a result of the overwhelming biogenic emission of the precursors (e.g., unsaturated fatty acids) of azelaic acid in summer.In this study, we will also discuss the sources and transport pathways of diacids and related compounds resolved using a hybrid receptor model, potential source contribution function (PSCF) and model results will be compared with available in-situ observations in East Asia.

  7. ATR-FOURIER TRANSFORM MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FOR DETERMINATION OF TRANS FATTY ACIDS IN GROUND CEREAL PRODUCTS WITHOUT OIL EXTRACTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since FDA amended the rules for food labeling to include trans fatty acids (TFA), there has been a continued interest in development of optimized methods for determining TFA in foods. Traditional chromatographic methods are time-consuming and solvent based. Alternatively, spectroscopic methods invol...

  8. ATR-Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy for determination of trans fatty acids in ground cereal products without oil extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was investigated as a method for analysis of trans fatty acids (FA) in cereal products without oil extraction. Spectra were obtained with an ATR-FTIR spectrometer using ground samples pressed onto the diamond ATR surface and trans FA measured by a modification of AOAC Method 9...

  9. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS OF RETINOIC ACID ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: EGF and TGF regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in the embryo. The induction of cleft palate (CP) by all trans retinoic acid (RA) was associated with altered expression of TGF, EGF receptor and binding of EGF. The present study uses knockout (KO) mice to e...

  10. Dynamic kinetic resolution of 1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindole-1-carboxylic acid methyl ester: asymmetric transformations toward isoindoline carbamates.

    PubMed

    Morán-Ramallal, Roberto; Gotor-Fernández, Vicente; Laborda, Pedro; Sayago, Francisco J; Cativiela, Carlos; Gotor, Vicente

    2012-04-01

    Asymmetric syntheses of isoindoline carbamates have been successfully achieved through enzyme-mediated dynamic kinetic resolution processes and without requirement of metal or acid-base catalyst for the substrate racemization. Optically active carbamates were obtained in good yields and an excellent degree of stereoselectivity when Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (PSL) was used as biocatalyst, with diallyl or dibenzyl carbonates being both adequate reagents in alkoxycarbonylation reactions. PMID:22417293

  11. 8R-Lipoxygenase-catalyzed synthesis of a prominent cis-epoxyalcohol from dihomo-?-linolenic acid: a distinctive transformation compared with S-lipoxygenases[S

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jing; Boeglin, William E.; Cha, Jin K.; Brash, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Conversion of fatty acid hydroperoxides to epoxyalcohols is a well known secondary reaction of lipoxygenases, described for S-specific lipoxygenases forming epoxyalcohols with a trans-epoxide configuration. Here we report on R-specific lipoxygenase synthesis of a cis-epoxyalcohol. Although arachidonic and dihomo-?-linolenic acids are metabolized by extracts of the Caribbean coral Plexaura homomalla via 8R-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase activities, 20:3?6 forms an additional prominent product, identified using UV, GC-MS, and NMR in comparison to synthetic standards as 8R,9S-cis-epoxy-10S-erythro-hydroxy-eicosa-11Z,14Z-dienoic acid. Both oxygens of 18O-labeled 8R-hydroperoxide are retained in the product, indicating a hydroperoxide isomerase activity. Recombinant allene oxide synthase formed only allene epoxide from 8R-hydroperoxy-20:3?6, whereas two different 8R-lipoxygenases selectively produced the epoxyalcohol.A biosynthetic scheme is proposed in which a partial rotation of the reacting intermediate is required to give the observed erythro epoxyalcohol product. This characteristic and the synthesis of cis-epoxy epoxyalcohol may be a feature of R-specific lipoxygenases. PMID:22158855

  12. Transforming Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goens, George A.; Clover, Sharon I. R.

    1992-01-01

    Transforming the school as an organization requires change in all its components. More important, transformation connects the technical components with the human elements to create fundamental changes in the ways people perceive, think, and behave. With the community, a Wisconsin school board adopted a school district value statement to be used as…

  13. Reading Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    The parents of students who attend Decatur High School thought that there was little hope of their kids going on to college. After a year or so in Decatur's reading program, their sons and daughters were both transformed and college bound. In this article, the author describes how Decatur was able to successfully transform their students. Seven…

  14. Transformational leadership.

    PubMed

    Luzinski, Craig

    2011-12-01

    This month, the director of the Magnet Recognition Program® takes an in-depth look at the Magnet® model component transformational leadership. The author examines the expectations for Magnet organizations around this component. What are the qualities that make a nursing leader truly transformational, and what is the best approach to successfully lead a healthcare organization through today's volatile healthcare environment? PMID:22094611

  15. Complementary DNA cloning of the pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene and agrobacterium-mediated anti-sense genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Dong, Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to genetically modify plantlets of the Chinese yali pear to reduce their expression of ripening-associated 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) and therefore increase the shelf-life of the fruit. Primers were designed with selectivity for the conserved regions of published ACO gene sequences, and yali complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning was performed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The obtained cDNA fragment contained 831 base pairs, encoding 276 amino acid residues, and shared no less than 94% nucleotide sequence identity with other published ACO genes. The cDNA fragment was inversely inserted into a pBI121 expression vector, between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator, in order to construct the anti?sense expression vector of the ACO gene; it was transfected into cultured yali plants using Agrobacterium LBA4404. Four independent transgenic lines of pear plantlets were obtained and validated by PCR analysis. A Southern blot assay revealed that there were three transgenic lines containing a single copy of exogenous gene and one line with double copies. The present study provided germplasm resources for the cultivation of novel storage varieties of pears, therefore providing a reference for further applications of anti?sense RNA technology in the genetic improvement of pears and other fruit. PMID:26460204

  16. Photo-transformation of pedogenic humic acid and consequences for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) speciation and bioavailability to green microalga.

    PubMed

    Worms, Isabelle A M; Adenmatten, David; Miéville, Pascal; Traber, Jacqueline; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2015-11-01

    Humic substances (HS) play key role in toxic metal binding and protecting aquatic microorganisms from metal-induced stress. Any environmental changes that could alter HS concentration and reactivity can be expected to modify metal complexation and thus affect metal speciation and bioavailability to microalgae. The present study explores the influence of increased solar irradiance on the chemical structures and molecular weight of Elliott soil humic acid (EHA) and the associated consequences for Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) complexation and intracellular metal content in microalga. The results demonstrate that high radiance doses induce an oxidation of EHA with a formation of low molecular weight acids, an increase of -OH and -COOH group abundance, and a drop in EHA hydrodynamic size and molecular weight. The photo-induced structural changes are accompanied with a release of metal from M-EHA complexes and narrowing their size distribution, which in turn results in an increase of the intracellular Cd, Cu and Pb contents in microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in agreement with the measured free metal ions concentrations. PMID:25563161

  17. Lightweight transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Swallom, D.W.; Enos, G.

    1990-05-01

    The technical effort described in this report relates to the program that was performed to design, fabricate, and test a lightweight transformer for Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) mission requirements. The objectives of this program were two-fold: (1) design and fabricate a lightweight transformer using liquid hydrogen as the coolant; and (2) test the completed transformer assembly with a low voltage, dc power source. Although the full power testing with liquid helium was not completed, the program demonstrated the viability of the design approach. The lightweight transformer was designed and fabricated, and low and moderate power testing was completed. The transformer is a liquid hydrogen cooled air core transformer that uses thin copper for its primary and secondary windings. The winding mass was approximately 12 kg, or 0.03 kg/kW. Further refinements of the design to a partial air core transformer could potentially reduce the winding mass to as low as 4 or 5 kg, or 0.0125 kg/kW. No attempt was made on this program to reduce the mass of the related structural components or cryogenic container. 8 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. An experimental investigation of Lewis acid-base interactions of liquid carbon dioxide using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. T.; Bokis, C. P.; Donohue, M. D.

    1995-05-01

    Presented here is an investigation into the solvent properties of liquid carbon dioxide by means of FT-IR spectroscopy. A high-pressure, circulation-type apparatus was designed and built specifically for this study. The spectra for the combination bands for carbon dioxide show that there are interactions between methanol and carbon dioxide. However, the spectra of the fundamental O-D vibration of deuterated methanol in liquid carbon dioxide indicate that there is no hydrogen bonding. Therefore. we conclude that the interactions between carbon dioxide and methanol are Lewis acid-base interactions rather than hydrogen bonding. This conclusion is supported by experiments where acetone is introduced into the CO2/methanol- d binary system. FT-IR measurements show that acetone hydrogen bonds with deuterated methanol.

  19. Organelle transformation.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kumar, Anish; Desai, Nirali; Parikh, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The source of genetic information in a plant cell is contained in nucleus, plastids, and mitochondria. Organelle transformation is getting a lot of attention nowadays because of its superior performance over the conventional and most commonly used nuclear transformation for obtaining transgenic lines. Absence of gene silencing, strong predictable transgene expression, and its application in molecular pharming, both in pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals, are some of many advantages. Other important benefits of utilizing this technology include the absence of transgene flow, as organelles are maternally inherited. This may increase the acceptability of organelle transformation technology in the development of transgenic crops in a wider scale all over the globe. As the need for crop productivity and therapeutic compounds increases, organelle transformation may be able to bridge the gap, thereby having a definite promise for the future. PMID:22610643

  20. Transformative copy

    E-print Network

    Offenhuber, Dietmar

    2008-01-01

    The ability to create an unlimited number of identical copies is a privilege of digital documents. What if that would not be the case, if each copy of a digital file would go along with some sort of transformation? This ...

  1. OligoPred: a web-server for predicting homo-oligomeric proteins by incorporating discrete wavelet transform into Chou's pseudo amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jian-Ding; Suo, Sheng-Bao; Sun, Xing-Yu; Shi, Shao-Ping; Liang, Ru-Ping

    2011-09-01

    In vivo, some proteins exist as monomers (single polypeptide chains) and others as oligomers. Not like monomers, oligomers are composed of two or more chains (subunits) that are associated with each other through non-covalent interactions and, occasionally, through disulfide bonds. These proteins are the structural components of various biological functions, including cooperative effects, allosteric mechanisms and ion-channel gating. However, with the dramatic increase in the number of protein sequences submitted to the public data bank, it is important for both basic research and drug discovery research to acquire the possible knowledge about homo-oligomeric attributes of their interested proteins in a timely manner. In this paper, a high-throughput method, combined support vector machines with discrete wavelet transform, has been developed to predict the protein homo-oligomers. The total accuracy obtained by the re-substitution test, jackknife test and independent dataset test are 99.94%, 96.17% and 96.18%, respectively, showing that the proposed method of extracting feature from the protein sequences is effective and feasible for predicting homo-oligomers. The online service is available at http://bioinfo.ncu.edu.cn/Services.aspx. PMID:21802968

  2. Preparation of hydrophilic poly(lactic acid) tissue engineering scaffold via (PLA)-(PLA-b-PEG)-(PEG) solution casting and thermal-induced surface structural transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaomin; Zhong, Tian; Huang, Ran; Wan, Ajun

    2015-12-01

    Porous poly(lactic acid) (PLA) tissue engineering scaffolds with a hydrophilic surface assembled by polyethylene glycol aggregations were prepared by the solvent casting/particulate leaching method from (PLA)-(PLA-b-PEG)-(PEG) blend solution, where the PLA-b-PEG block polymer serves as an amphiphilic glue between two phases. A thermal recrystallization process was inserted before leaching to induce a phase separation, which subsequently squeezes out PEG to form a hydrophilic shell. Characterizations of XRD and DSC indicated the composition and mixing states of materials. The water contact angle test qualitatively presented the excellent hydrophilicity compared to the pure PLA or PLA-PEG simple blend scaffold. The scanning electron microscope results confirmed the formation of porous structure of [Formula: see text] pore size, with an observable phase separation on the surface. The scaffold was degraded in PBS at [Formula: see text], and the degradation exhibits a three-stage behavior, which evidenced the amphiphilically glued phase separations. PMID:26324121

  3. Fourier Transform Pairs The Fourier transform transforms a function of

    E-print Network

    Masci, Frank

    Fourier Transform Pairs The Fourier transform transforms a function of time, f(t), into a function of frequency, F(s): F {f(t)}(s) = F(s) = Z - f(t)e- j2st dt. The inverse Fourier transform transforms a func. The inverse Fourier transform of the Fourier trans- form is the identity transform: f(t) = Z - Z - f()e- j2s

  4. Transformative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    2008-01-01

    If you're at all skeptical that "formative assessment" is just another buzzword, then here's a book that will change the way you think about the role that formative assessment can play in transforming education into a more powerful and positive process. Renowned expert W. James Popham clarifies what formative assessment really is, why it's right…

  5. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  6. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acids . Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. "Nonessential" means that our ... this amino acid from the food we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps ...

  7. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  8. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Ohlrogge, John B. (Okemos, MI); Cahoon, Edgar B. (Lansing, MI); Shanklin, John (Upton, NY); Somerville, Christopher R. (Okemos, MI)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  9. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

    1995-07-04

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

  10. GEMAS: prediction of solid-solution phase partitioning coefficients (Kd) for oxoanions and boric acid in soils using mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Janik, Leslie J; Forrester, Sean T; Soriano-Disla, José M; Kirby, Jason K; McLaughlin, Michael J; Reimann, Clemens

    2015-02-01

    The authors' aim was to develop rapid and inexpensive regression models for the prediction of partitioning coefficients (Kd), defined as the ratio of the total or surface-bound metal/metalloid concentration of the solid phase to the total concentration in the solution phase. Values of Kd were measured for boric acid (B[OH]3(0)) and selected added soluble oxoanions: molybdate (MoO4(2-)), antimonate (Sb[OH](6-)), selenate (SeO4(2-)), tellurate (TeO4(2-)) and vanadate (VO4(3-)). Models were developed using approximately 500 spectrally representative soils of the Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural Soils of Europe (GEMAS) program. These calibration soils represented the major properties of the entire 4813 soils of the GEMAS project. Multiple linear regression (MLR) from soil properties, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) using mid-infrared diffuse reflectance Fourier-transformed (DRIFT) spectra, and models using DRIFT spectra plus analytical pH values (DRIFT?+?pH), were compared with predicted log K(d?+?1) values. Apart from selenate (R(2) ?=?0.43), the DRIFT?+?pH calibrations resulted in marginally better models to predict log K(d?+?1) values (R(2) ?=?0.62-0.79), compared with those from PSLR-DRIFT (R(2) ?=?0.61-0.72) and MLR (R(2) ?=?0.54-0.79). The DRIFT?+?pH calibrations were applied to the prediction of log K(d?+?1) values in the remaining 4313 soils. An example map of predicted log K(d?+?1) values for added soluble MoO4(2-) in soils across Europe is presented. The DRIFT?+?pH PLSR models provided a rapid and inexpensive tool to assess the risk of mobility and potential availability of boric acid and selected oxoanions in European soils. For these models to be used in the prediction of log K(d?+?1) values in soils globally, additional research will be needed to determine if soil variability is accounted on the calibration. PMID:25476926

  11. Hamlet's Transformation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  12. Rotary Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  13. Acid Safety Checklist Acid Storage

    E-print Network

    Acid Safety Checklist Acid Storage Acids stored separately from bases, organic acids, flammables stored in separate secondary containment from bases, flammables Acid waste container correctly labeled, water reactives Acids stored in secondary containment Eyewash and shower immediately available Spill kit

  14. Transformational leadership.

    PubMed

    Marlow, D L

    1996-01-01

    In these uncertain times in the healthcare industry, administrators are asked to do more with less time and resources. Because of the extended roles they are playing in today's organizations, radiology administrators are looked upon as agents of change. What leadership skills do they need in this turbulent and uncertain healthcare environment? What are the trait's of tomorrow's leaders? The transformational leader is the one who will guide us through this changing healthcare environment. Several behavioral patterns emerge as important traits for tomorrow's leaders to have-individual consideration, intellectual stimulation and charisma. Tomorrow's leader must view each person as an individual, showing genuine concern and belief in each person's ability to perform. Transformational leaders stimulate others by encouraging them to be curious and try new ideas. The final characteristic, charisma, is the ability to inspire others. Luckily, leaders are made, not born: today's leaders can learn to be responsive, to draw out new ideas from employees, and to communicate self-esteem, energy and enthusiasm. PMID:10163135

  15. ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of antioxidants on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    , lipoic acid, and polyvinylpyrrolidone were evaluated to improve transformation efficiency of Mexican lime was moderately beneficial while glutathione and polyvinylpyrrolidone did not have the ability to improve Glycine Betaine Á Glutathione Á Lipoic acid Á Mexican lime Á Transformation Á Polyvinylpyrrolidone

  16. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

  17. Hadamard transform imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed a Hadamard transform Raman microscopic imaging system, and have developed it to a high definition (64K pixel) technique. We have demonstrated multispectral Raman imaging and developed the first three-dimensional (digital confocal) Raman imaging. We have explored the systematic errors in Hadamard multiplexing techniques and developed corrections. We have used our Raman microscope techniques to explore defect distributions on graphite electrodes and damage effects on SERS-activated silver electrodes. We have used the microprobe capabilities of our instrument to investigate the kinetics of polyacrylamide formation in electrolysis capabilities. We have worked closely with a manufacture of holographic displays to develop and incorporate holographic filters and holographic beam splitters into Raman spectrographs and microscopes. Finally, we have developed Hadamard multiplexing techniques for densitometric measurements of protein or nucleic acid blots.

  18. Transforming giants.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big. PMID:18271317

  19. Transforming America's Energy Economy Transforming America's

    E-print Network

    #12;Transforming America's Energy Economy Transforming America's Energy Economy This document was prepared by the Chief Research Officers of the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories Laboratory Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Los Alamos National Laboratory National Energy Technology

  20. Transformation of lipids in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Dueholm, T E; Andreasen, K H; Nielsen, P H

    2001-01-01

    Transformation of lipids in activated sludge treatment plants is of interest for two reasons: lipids contribute 30-40% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewater, and they may stimulate the growth of filamentous microorganisms in nutrient removal activated sludge plants. The transformation of lipids was investigated under aerobic and anoxic conditions by measuring the oxygen and nitrate uptake rates (OUR and NUR). The maximal OUR and NUR of long-chain fatty acid was found to be at the same level as acetate indicating that long-chain fatty acid was as easily consumable. However, the adsorption of long-chain fatty acid to surfaces of sludge flocs made it difficult to determine initial uptake rates of long-chain fatty acids. It was not possible to describe the hydrolysis rate of triacylglyceride by OUR and NUR to long-chain fatty acids because the hydrolysis rate was very slow. For a better description of the processes involved in transformation of lipids, a conceptual model was suggested. The processes in the suggested model were the adsorption/desorption of both triacylglyceride, and long-chain fatty acid onto surfaces of sludge flocs, hydrolysis of triacylglyceride by lipases and the uptake of long-chain fatty acid by bacteria under various conditions. The model can be helpful to structure design and evaluation of activated sludge experiment with lipids. PMID:11379087

  1. Amino acids

    MedlinePLUS

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  2. Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get enough folic acid each day? What foods contain folic acid? Can I get enough folic acid ... their doctors. Some doctors prescribe prenatal vitamins that contain higher amounts of folic acid. You are breastfeeding. ...

  3. Sonolysis of Short-Chain Organic Dicarboxylic Acid Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruke, Yukio; Harada, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Sonolyses of C4 (carbon number 4) dicarboxylic acids (succinic acid, maleic acid, and fumaric acid) were performed in aqueous solution. They changed one into the other during sonication, affording carbon-number-conserving transformations. Maleic acid and fumaric acid were produced from saccinic acid by dehydrogenation. Furthermore, malic acid and tartaric acid were obtained by hydroxylation. The sonochemical reaction processes are discussed in terms of the time dependences of products and the addition of radical scavengers. In addition, mutual isomerization of fumaric acid and maleic acid was observed during sonication without the use of mediators.

  4. Integral Transforms Roe Goodman

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Roe

    Integral Transforms Roe Goodman Introduction to Math at Rutgers August 29, 2010 Roe Goodman operators Solution: Use characters of G and Fourier transform Roe Goodman Integral Transforms #12;Fourier)(p) Roe Goodman Integral Transforms #12;Diagonalization of Translation Invariant Operators Theorem Let G

  5. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  6. Acid Rain

    MedlinePLUS

    Acid Rain Contact Us Search: All EPA This Area You are here: EPA Home Acid Rain Quick Finder Acid Rain Program Office of Atmospheric Programs Clean Air Markets Science Experiments pH Cap and Trade Acid Rain Students Site Acid Rain Kids Site Air ...

  7. A FURTHER EVALUATION OF MICROCOULOMETRY FOR ATMOSPHERIC NITRIC ACID MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A coulometric instrument for measuring gaseous nitric acid is modified to improve response time characteristics and simplify operation. Possible interferences were investigated and found minimal. Comparison measurements of nitric acid by long path Fourier Transform infrared analy...

  8. [Kinetics of the transformation of dihydroambazone into ambazone].

    PubMed

    Miosga, N; Roemer, W; Amlacher, R

    1990-01-01

    The oxidation of dihydroambazone (1) by oxygen is dependent on the pH-values of the solutions used. This transformation can be inhibited and excluded, respectively, by ascorbic acid using defined concentrations. The oxidation product ambazone (2) was determined spectroscopically at different pH-values. The rate of transformation in serum depends on the temperature and can also be inhibited with ascorbic acid. PMID:2333311

  9. Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  10. Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  11. Amide Bond Formation via Reversible, Carboxylic Acid-Promoted Lactone Aminolysis

    E-print Network

    Foley, Megan A.

    A rapid carboxylic acid-promoted lactone aminolysis is reported. A number of carboxylic acids were found to promote this amide bond-forming transformation, with aliphatic acids being the most efficient. This reaction is ...

  12. Transformation in Escherichia coli: cryogenic preservation of competent cells.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, D A

    1977-01-01

    Escherichia coli cells prepared for transformation by treatment with cold 0.1 M CaCl2 remained viable and competent after storage at -82 degrees C in 15% glycerol; thawed-cell samples yielded up to 10(6) transformants per microgram of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid. PMID:334731

  13. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  14. Transforming F0 Contours 

    E-print Network

    Gillett, Ben; King, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Voice transformation is the process of transforming the characteristics of speech uttered by a source speaker, such that a listener would believe the speech was uttered by a target speaker. Training F0 contour generation ...

  15. Transforming Voice Quality 

    E-print Network

    Gillett, Ben; King, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Voice transformation is the process of transforming the characteristics of speech uttered by a source speaker, such that a listener would believe the speech was uttered by a target speaker. In this paper we address the ...

  16. Landscapes of transformation

    E-print Network

    Ambs, Emily (Emily Kiersten)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to examine the cultural effect of transformation through the lens of procedural techniques applied to the human body and architecture. The body and architecture both operate as landscapes of transformation. ...

  17. The Patch Transform

    E-print Network

    Avidan, Shai

    The patch transform represents an image as a bag of overlapping patches sampled on a regular grid. This representation allows users to manipulate images in the patch domain, which then seeds the inverse patch transform to ...

  18. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    FTIR - 1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL IN VODKA AND MOUTHWASH Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;FTIR - 2 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

  19. LAPPED TRANSFORMS COMPRESSION

    E-print Network

    de Queiroz, Ricardo L.

    will describe the principles of a block transform and its corresponding transform matrix along with its to compression applications. In Sec. 6.11, image compression systems are briefly introduced, including JPEG

  20. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  1. Equations For Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

  2. Metrics for enterprise transformation

    E-print Network

    Blackburn, Craig D. (Craig David), S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to depict the role of metrics in the evolving journey of enterprise transformation. To this end, three propositions are explored: (i) metrics and measurement systems drive transformation, ...

  3. Probabilistically Accurate Program Transformations

    E-print Network

    Misailovic, Sasa

    The standard approach to program transformation involves the use of discrete logical reasoning to prove that the transformation does not change the observable semantics of the program. We propose a new approach that, in ...

  4. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  5. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  6. Transformed Auto-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Gao, Yang

    2014-05-01

    A transformed auto-correlation method is presented here, where a received signal is transformed based on a priori reflecting model, and then the transformed signal is cross-correlated to its original one. If the model is correct, after transformation, the reflected signal will be coherent to the transmitted signal, with zero delay. A map of transformed auto-correlation function with zero delay can be generated in a given parametric space. The significant peaks in the map may indicate the possible reflectors nearby the central transmitter. The true values of the parameters of reflectors can be estimated at the same time.

  7. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  8. Polystyrene sulphonic acid resins with enhanced acid strength via macromolecular self-assembly within confined nanospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhao, Yaopeng; Xu, Shutao; Yang, Yan; Liu, Jia; Wei, Yingxu; Yang, Qihua

    2014-01-01

    Tightening environmental legislation is driving the chemical industries to develop efficient solid acid catalysts to replace conventional mineral acids. Polystyrene sulphonic acid resins, as some of the most important solid acid catalysts, have been widely studied. However, the influence of the morphology on their acid strength—closely related to the catalytic activity—has seldom been reported. Herein, we demonstrate that the acid strength of polystyrene sulphonic acid resins can be adjusted through their reversible morphology transformation from aggregated to swelling state, mainly driven by the formation and breakage of hydrogen bond interactions among adjacent sulphonic acid groups within the confined nanospace of hollow silica nanospheres. The hybrid solid acid catalyst demonstrates high activity and selectivity in a series of important acid-catalysed reactions. This may offer an efficient strategy to fabricate hybrid solid acid catalysts for green chemical processes.

  9. Transformable liquid-metal nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yue; Hu, Quanyin; Lin, Yiliang; Pacardo, Dennis B; Wang, Chao; Sun, Wujin; Ligler, Frances S; Dickey, Michael D; Gu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    To date, numerous inorganic nanocarriers have been explored for drug delivery systems (DDSs). However, the clinical application of inorganic formulations has often been hindered by their toxicity and failure to biodegrade. We describe here a transformable liquid-metal nanomedicine, based on a core-shell nanosphere composed of a liquid-phase eutectic gallium-indium core and a thiolated polymeric shell. This formulation can be simply produced through a sonication-mediated method with bioconjugation flexibility. The resulting nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin (Dox) have an average diameter of 107?nm and demonstrate the capability to fuse and subsequently degrade under a mildly acidic condition, which facilitates release of Dox in acidic endosomes after cellular internalization. Equipped with hyaluronic acid, a tumour-targeting ligand, this formulation displays enhanced chemotherapeutic inhibition towards the xenograft tumour-bearing mice. This liquid metal-based DDS with fusible and degradable behaviour under physiological conditions provides a new strategy for engineering theranostic agents with low toxicity. PMID:26625944

  10. Transformable liquid-metal nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yue; Hu, Quanyin; Lin, Yiliang; Pacardo, Dennis B.; Wang, Chao; Sun, Wujin; Ligler, Frances S.; Dickey, Michael D.; Gu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    To date, numerous inorganic nanocarriers have been explored for drug delivery systems (DDSs). However, the clinical application of inorganic formulations has often been hindered by their toxicity and failure to biodegrade. We describe here a transformable liquid-metal nanomedicine, based on a core–shell nanosphere composed of a liquid-phase eutectic gallium-indium core and a thiolated polymeric shell. This formulation can be simply produced through a sonication-mediated method with bioconjugation flexibility. The resulting nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin (Dox) have an average diameter of 107?nm and demonstrate the capability to fuse and subsequently degrade under a mildly acidic condition, which facilitates release of Dox in acidic endosomes after cellular internalization. Equipped with hyaluronic acid, a tumour-targeting ligand, this formulation displays enhanced chemotherapeutic inhibition towards the xenograft tumour-bearing mice. This liquid metal-based DDS with fusible and degradable behaviour under physiological conditions provides a new strategy for engineering theranostic agents with low toxicity. PMID:26625944

  11. Program Transformation in HATS

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, V.L.

    1999-02-24

    HATS is a general purpose syntax derivation tree based transformation system in which transformation sequences are described in special purpose language. A powerful feature of this language is that unification is an explicit operation. By making unification explicit, an elegant framework arises in which to express complex application conditions which in turn enables refined control strategies to be realized. This paper gives an overview of HATS, focusing especially on the framework provided by the transformation language and its potential with respect to control and general purpose transformation.

  12. Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

  13. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  14. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  15. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  16. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  17. Aristolochic Acids

    Cancer.gov

    Aristolochic acids are a group of acids found naturally in many types of plants known as Aristolochia (birthworts or pipevines) and some types of plants known as Asarum (wild ginger), which grow worldwide.

  18. Dendrimer-enabled transformation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    PubMed

    Oki, Aminat T; Seidman, David; Lancina, Michael G; Mishra, Manoj K; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M; Yang, Hu; Carlyon, Jason A

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes the emerging infection, granulocytic anaplasmosis. While electroporation can transform A. phagocytophilum isolated from host cells, no method has been developed to transform it while growing inside the ApV (A. phagocytophilum-occupied vacuole). Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers, well-defined tree-branched macromolecules used for gene therapy and nucleic acid delivery into mammalian cells, were recently shown to be effective in transforming Chlamydia spp. actively growing in host cells. We determined if we could adapt a similar system to transform A. phagocytophilum. Incubating fluorescently labeled PAMAM dendrimers with infected host cells resulted in fluorescein-positive ApVs. Incubating infected host cells or host cell-free A. phagocytophilum organisms with dendrimers complexed with pCis GFPuv-SS Himar A7 plasmid, which carries a Himar1 transposon cassette encoding GFPuv and spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance plus the Himar1 transposase itself, resulted in GFP-positive, antibiotic resistant bacteria. Yet, transformation efficiencies were low. The transformed bacterial populations could only be maintained for a few passages, likely due to random Himar1 cassette-mediated disruption of A. phagocytophilum genes required for fitness. Nonetheless, these results provide proof of principle that dendrimers can deliver exogenous DNA into A. phagocytophilum, both inside and outside of host cells. PMID:26369714

  19. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  20. Glucuronic acid conjugates of bilirubin-IX? in normal bile compared with post-obstructive bile. Transformation of the 1-O-acylglucuronide into 2-, 3-, and 4-O-acylglucuronides

    PubMed Central

    Compernolle, Frans; Van Hees, Gustaaf P.; Blanckaert, Norbert; Heirwegh, Karel P. M.

    1978-01-01

    Structures have been determined for bilirubin-IX? conjugates in freshly collected bile of normal rats, dogs and man and in post-obstructive bile of man and rats. The originally secreted conjugate has been characterized as azopigment (I), i.e. a 1-O-acyl-?-d-glucopyranuronic acid glycoside. Conversion of the acetylated methyl ester of azopigment (I) into methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-1-bromo-1-deoxy-?-d-glucopyranuronate (V) indicates the pyranose ring structure for the carbohydrate and a C-1 attachment for the bilirubin-IX? acyl group. Alternative procedures for deconjugation of azopigment (I) and its derivatives are also described. In post-obstructive bile, the 1-O-acylglucuronide is converted into 2-, 3- and 4-O-acylglucuronides via sequential intramolecular migrations of the bilirubin acyl group. The following approach was utilized. (1) The tetrapyrrole conjugates were cleaved to dipyrrolic aniline and ethyl anthranilate azopigments, and the azopigments were separated as the acids or methyl esters. (2) The isomeric methyl esters were characterized by mass spectral analysis of the acetates and silyl ethers. (3) The free glycosidic function was demonstrated by 1-oxime and 1-methoxime derivative formation. (4) The position of the dipyrrolic O-acyl group was determined for the methyl esters by protecting the free hydroxyl groups of the glucuronic acid moieties as the acetals formed with ethyl vinyl ether and by further conversion of the carbohydrates into partially methylated alditol acetates. These were analysed by using g.l.c.–mass spectrometry. The relevance of the present results with regard to previous reports on disaccharidic conjugates is discussed. Details of procedures for the formation of chemical derivatives for g.l.c. and mass spectrometry have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50081 (15 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1978), 169, 5. PMID:646816

  1. BIOCONVERSION OF ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID BY CLAVIBACTER SP. ALA2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial enzyme systems transform unsaturated fatty acids to functional substances. Previously, we reported that Clavibacter sp. ALA2 converted linoleic acid to unique cyclic fatty acids such as diepoxy bicyclic fatty acids (DEOA) and tetrahydrofuranyl fatty acids (THFA) as well as trihydroxy fatty...

  2. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  3. The effects of hydroxy fatty acids on the hyphal branching of germinated spores of AM fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abietic acid (Aba), dehydroabietic acid (DAba), and 2-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (2-HTDA) were identified by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectroscopy and found to be elevated in the exudate of Ri T-DNA transformed carrot roots that were grown in the absence relative to the presence of phosph...

  4. Generalized Lorentz Transformations

    E-print Network

    Virendra Gupta

    2013-12-05

    Generalized Lorentz transformations with modified velocity parameter are considered. Lorentz transformations depending on the mass of the observer are suggested.The modified formula for the addition of velocities remarkably preserves the constancy of the velocity of light for all observers. The Doppler red shift is affected and can provide a test of such generalisations.

  5. Pathways to Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bob; Cushing, Pamela

    The ubiquitous use of the term "transformation" in experiential education has blurred its specific meaning in any given case. Designing an effective curriculum requires instructors to determine what kind of transformation they would like to generate. A review of two research projects provides insights about different types of personal change and…

  6. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  7. A Transformation Called "Twist"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The transformations found in secondary mathematics curriculum are typically limited to stretches and translations (e.g., ACARA, 2010). Advanced students may find the transformation, twist, to be of further interest. As most available resources are written for professional-level readers, this article is intended to be an introduction accessible to…

  8. Phase Transformations Course Outline

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    ; thermodynamics of phase transformations; solidification of pure metals and alloys; thermal supercooling transformations. Aspects of ferrous metallurgy and common classes of low carbon and alloy steels to be taught - thermal and constitutional super-cooling and their influence on interface stability. 2 Solute

  9. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which…

  10. Genetic Transformation of Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students transform an ampicillin-sensitive strain of E. coli with a plasmid containing a gene for ampicillin resistance is described. The procedure for the preparation of competent cells and the transformation of competent E. coli is provided. (KR)

  11. Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the global atmospheric changes is difficult with today's current technology. However, with high resolution and nearly continuous observations from a satellite, it's possible to transform our understanding of the atmosphere. To enable the next generation of atmospheric science, a new class of orbiting atmospheric sensors is being developed. The foundation of this advanced concept is the Fourier Transform Spectrometer, or FTS.

  12. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  13. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  14. Transformer design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Technical memorandum includes transformer area product numbers, which are used to summarize dimensional and electrical properties of C-cores, pot cores, lamination, powder cores, and tape-wound cores. To aid in core selection, comparison of five common core materials is presented to indicate their influence on overall transformer efficiency and weight.

  15. Direct current transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  16. Two Different Squeeze Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.

    1996-01-01

    Lorentz boosts are squeeze transformations. While these transformations are similar to those in squeezed states of light, they are fundamentally different from both physical and mathematical points of view. The difference is illustrated in terms of two coupled harmonic oscillators, and in terms of the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism.

  17. Pattern transformation with DNA circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirieleison, Steven M.; Allen, Peter B.; Simpson, Zack B.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Chen, Xi

    2013-12-01

    Readily programmable chemical networks are important tools as the scope of chemistry expands from individual molecules to larger molecular systems. Although many complex systems are constructed using conventional organic and inorganic chemistry, the programmability of biological molecules such as nucleic acids allows for precise, high-throughput and automated design, as well as simple, rapid and robust implementation. Here we show that systematic and quantitative control over the diffusivity and reactivity of DNA molecules yields highly programmable chemical reaction networks (CRNs) that execute at the macroscale. In particular, we designed and implemented non-enzymatic DNA circuits capable of performing pattern-transformation algorithms such as edge detection. We also showed that it is possible to fine-tune and multiplex such circuits. We believe these strategies will provide programmable platforms on which to prototype CRNs, discover bottom-up construction principles and generate patterns in materials.

  18. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ab initio theory of acid-hydrogen sulfide clusters: H2S-HCl, D2S-DCl and H2S-(HCl)(2).

    PubMed

    Asselin, Pierre; Soulard, Pascale; Madebène, Bruno; Lewerenz, Marius

    2007-06-14

    The rotationally resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of the nu(s) HCl and DCl stretching bands for the hydrogen bonded complex H2S-HCl and its isotopomer D2S-DCl have been observed in a supersonic jet at 0.02 cm(-1) resolution. In the same experimental conditions, two additional bands observed without rotational structure in the HCl range of the dimer have been assigned to the cyclic trimer H2S-(HCl)(2). The multidimensional coupling picture involving the donor stretch mode nu(s) and low frequency intermolecular modes already evidenced in several medium strength hydrogen bonded complexes is beautifully confirmed by the observation of completely separated hot band progressions in the 198 K cell spectrum of both dimers. Based on our anharmonic adiabatic approach for the treatment of the coupled vibrations, absolute vibrational frequencies, diagonal and off-diagonal anharmonicities as well as rovibrational coupling constants obtained from analyses of several 2-D subspaces at MP2 and CCSD(T) level are in excellent agreement with spectroscopic results. In the case of small light complexes, the combination of elevated rotational constants and a negligible contribution of intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) improve the reliability of predissociation lifetime measurements, estimated to 180 ps for H2S-HCl and above 200 ps for D2S-DCl. PMID:17538732

  19. Lorentz transformation by mimicking the Lorentz transformation

    E-print Network

    Bernhard Rothenstein; Stefan Popescu

    2007-09-24

    We show that starting with the fact that special relativity theory is concerned with a distortion of the observed length of a moving rod, without mentioning if it is a "contraction" or "dilation", we can derive the Lorentz transformations for the spacetime coordinates of the same event. This derivation is based on expressing the length of the moving rod as a sum of components with all the lengths involved in this summation being measured by the observers of the same inertial reference frame.

  20. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Berthomieu, Catherine; Hienerwadel, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy probes the vibrational properties of amino acids and cofactors, which are sensitive to minute structural changes. The lack of specificity of this technique, on the one hand, permits us to probe directly the vibrational properties of almost all the cofactors, amino acid side chains, and of water molecules. On the other hand, we can use reaction-induced FTIR difference spectroscopy to select vibrations corresponding to single chemical groups involved in a specific reaction. Various strategies are used to identify the IR signatures of each residue of interest in the resulting reaction-induced FTIR difference spectra. (Specific) Isotope labeling, site-directed mutagenesis, hydrogen/deuterium exchange are often used to identify the chemical groups. Studies on model compounds and the increasing use of theoretical chemistry for normal modes calculations allow us to interpret the IR frequencies in terms of specific structural characteristics of the chemical group or molecule of interest. This review presents basics of FTIR spectroscopy technique and provides specific important structural and functional information obtained from the analysis of the data from the photosystems, using this method. PMID:19513810

  1. Transformer design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    Material was presented to assist transformer designers in the transition from long-used English units to the less familiar metric equivalents. A coordination between the area product numbers ap (product of window and core cross-section areas) and current density J was developed for a given regulation and temperature rise. Straight-line relationships for Ap and Volume, Ap and surface area At and, Ap and weight were developed. These relationships can now be used as new tools to simplify and standardize the process of transformer design. They also made it possible to design transformers of small bulk and volume or to optimize efficiency.

  2. Relativistic Transformation of Solid Angle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Rederives the relativistic transformations of light intensity from compact sources (stars) to show where and how the transformation of a solid angle contributes. Discusses astrophysical and other applications of the transformations. (Author/CS)

  3. Claude Sabbah FOURIER TRANSFORMATION AND

    E-print Network

    Sabbah, Claude

    Claude Sabbah FOURIER TRANSFORMATION AND STOKES STRUCTURES CHICAGO, MAY 2012 WORK IN PROGRESS, 2013 #12;FOURIER TRANSFORMATION AND STOKES STRUCTURES CHICAGO, MAY 2012 WORK IN PROGRESS (VERSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. Fourier transformation: some analogies between arithmetic and complex algebraic geometry

  4. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.

    1993-09-13

    This invention is comprised of an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer having a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer providing a series of images to a focal plane array camera. The focal plane array camera is clocked to a multiple of zero crossing occurrences as caused by a moving mirror of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and as detected by a laser detector such that the frame capture rate of the focal plane array camera corresponds to a multiple of the zero crossing rate of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The images are transmitted to a computer for processing such that representations of the images as viewed in the light of an arbitrary spectral ``fingerprint`` pattern can be displayed on a monitor or otherwise stored and manipulated by the computer.

  5. A Classical Science Transformed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalevsky, Jean

    1979-01-01

    Describes how satellites and other tools of space technology have transformed classical geodesy into the science of space geodynamics. The establishment and the activities of the French Center for Geodynamic and Astronomical Research Studies (CERGA) are also included. (HM)

  6. Proof in Transformation Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    The first of three articles showing how inductively-obtained results in transformation geometry may be organized into a deductive system. This article discusses two approaches to enlargement (dilatation), one using coordinates and the other using synthetic methods. (MM)

  7. Transformer design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    In space, power system transformer components are frequently the heaviest and bulkiest items in the power conversion circuit. They also have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system. Accordingly, the design of such transformers has an important effect on overall system weight, power-inversion efficiency, and cost. Relationships were between the parameters used by transformer designers that can be used as new tools to standardize and simplify transformer design. They can be used to optimize the design either for small size and weight or efficiency. The metric system of units, rather than the familiar English units, is used; however, material is presented to assist the reader in the transition from one system to the other.

  8. Selection of Transformed Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Huw D.; Sparks, Caroline A.

    The low frequency and randomness of transgene integration into host cells, combined with the significant challenges of recovering whole plants from those rare events, makes the use of selectable marker genes routine in plant transformation experiments. For research applications that are unlikely to be grown in the field, strong herbicide- or antibiotic resistance is commonly used. Here we use genes conferring resistance to glufosinate herbicides as an example of a selectable marker in wheat transformation by either Agrobacterium or biolistics.

  9. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  10. Applying Improved Efficiency Transformers 

    E-print Network

    Haggerty, N. K.; Malone, T. P.

    1998-01-01

    total owning costs over the life of the transformer. Acknowledgments The authors wish to express their appreciation to Mr. Dave Johnson of Eli Lilly and Company, Mr. Jim Robertson of Dow Chemical Company, and Mr. Dick Doughty of DuPont... EFFICIENCY TRANSFORMERS N. Kent Haggerty Timothy P. Malone Electrical Consultant Electrical Consultant DuPont USA DuPont USA Old Hickory, TN Charlotte, NC ABSTRACT Today's business and energy conscious environment affords both producers and consumers...

  11. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  12. Application of Fourier transform spectroscopy to air pollution problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, J. H.; Calvert, J. G.

    1980-11-01

    The nature of information that can be retrieved from spectra obtained with Fourier transform spectroscopy is discussed. Nonlinear, least squares analysis of spectra is capable of retrieving information that is beyond the reach of conventional methods and has improved precision and accuracy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study quantitatively the kinetics and mechanisms of several chemical reactions that are of interest to atmospheric chemists and are important in the development of air pollution control strategies. The systems studied include the metastable, reactive, gaseous species, peroxynitric acid, hypochlorous acid, and dimethylnitrosamine.

  13. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  14. Acid Deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents acid deposition trends in the contiguous U.S. from 1989 to 2007. Data are broken down by wet and dry deposition and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Acid deposition is particularly damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and a...

  15. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  16. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  17. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  18. Discrete Fourier Transform Javier Montoya

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Discrete Fourier Transform Javier Montoya Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ETH Zurich March 16, 2012 1 Introduction The Discrete form of the Fourier transform is known as Discrete Fourier Transform domain using the Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT): f(x) = 1 N N-1 x=0 F(u)ej 2 N ux for u = 0, 1

  19. BIOCONVERSION OF N-3 AND N-6 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS (PUFAS) BY STRAIN CLAVIBACTER SP.ALA2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial enzyme systems transform unsaturated fatty acids to functional substances. Previously, we reported that Clavibacter sp. ALA2 converted linoleic acid to unique cyclic fatty acids such as diepoxy bicyclic fatty acids (DEOA) and tetrahydrofuranyl fatty acids (THFA) as well as trihydroxy fatt...

  20. Enhanced anaerobic transformations of carbon tetrachloride by soil organic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, R.; Picardal, F.

    1999-12-01

    Anaerobic, reductive dehalogenation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Shewanella putrefaciens 200 is enhanced by the presence of a high-organic-carbon soil. In microbial incubations without soil, 29% of the initial 3 ppm CT was transformed after 33 h, whereas 64% was transformed after only 18 h when soil was present. In sterile, biomimetic systems using a chemical reductant, 20 mM dithiothreitol, similar results were observed, suggesting that abiotic electron-transfer mediators in the soil were catalyzing the reaction. Destruction of 62% of the soil organic carbon by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} resulted in a soil that was less effective in enhancing CT dechlorination. Following separation of the soil organic matter into three humic fractions, the humic acid (HA) fraction catalyzed the dechlorination reaction to a greater extent than did the fulvic acid (FA) fraction, and both were more effective than the fraction containing humin and inorganic minerals. The results are consistent with a mechanism involving humic functional groups that serve as electron-transfer mediators able to enhance the reductive transformation of CT in the presence of a microbial or chemical reductant. Humic functional group analyses showed that the FA contained more total acidity and carboxylic acidity than did the HA; however, both fractions contained similar amounts of total carbonyl groups and quinone carbonyls. Abiotic, HA-mediated CT transformation was observed regardless of whether dithiothreitol was present or not. At circumneutral pH, HA-mediated CT transformation required the presence of dithiothreitol. At pH 8.7, HA-mediated reductive CT transformation occurred both in the absence or presence of dithiothreitol although the transformation was greater in the presence of a reductant. Trichloromethane (chloroform [CF]) production at pH 8.7 was much lower than at circumneutral pH, and volatile organic compounds other than CF were not detected as products in any case.

  1. Transformation based endorsement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudkamp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Evidential reasoning techniques classically represent support for a hypothesis by a numeric value or an evidential interval. The combination of support is performed by an arithmetic rule which often requires restrictions to be placed on the set of possibilities. These assumptions usually require the hypotheses to be exhausitive and mutually exclusive. Endorsement based classification systems represent support for the alternatives symbolically rather than numerically. A framework for constructing endorsement systems is presented in which transformations are defined to generate and update the knowledge base. The interaction of the knowledge base and transformations produces a non-monotonic reasoning system. Two endorsement based reasoning systems are presented to demonstrate the flexibility of the transformational approach for reasoning with ambiguous and inconsistent information.

  2. OVOC Emissions and Atmospheric Transformations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Christian, T. J.; Bertschi, I. T.; Ward, D. E.; Field, R. J.; Hobbs, P. V.; Goode, J.; Mason, S.; Susott, R.; Babbitt, R.; Hao, W. M.

    2002-12-01

    We quantified the main emissions from a few vegetation samples and many biomass fires using ground-based, open-path FTIR and airborne, closed-cell FTIR. The two instruments have been rigorously compared to each other and to PTR-MS and canister sampling. OVOC are major emissions from plants. OVOC account for about 70 percent of NMOC from savanna fires (the largest type of biomass burning) and 70-80 percent of NMOC from production and use of domestic biofuels (the second largest type of biomass burning). A table of average biofuel emissions is presented. Data from laboratory and free-burning fires, obtained from Alaska to South Africa, is used to develop equations that predict OVOC emissions from a wide variety of global fires. The impact of OVOC on smoke plume chemistry and the post-emission transformations of OVOC were investigated with two models. Addition of HCHO alone to the simple chemistry used in some global models dramatically reduces NOx lifetime and speeds up O3 formation rates in plumes. A detailed model verifies these effects and shows that OVOC profoundly affect formation of HOx, peroxide, and nitrogen reservoir species. The modeled photochemical transformations of OVOC are diverse, but some key pathways are unknown. We observed rapid production of both O3 and additional OVOC and OH of 1.7E7 in smoke plumes in Alaska and Africa; all reasonably consistent with model predictions. In addition, we found that cloud processing caused large post-emission changes in smoke trace gases including removal of nearly all methanol, a decrease in acetic acid, and a large increase in HCHO. These observations suggest that OVOC could react in cloud droplets and lead to production of modified aerosol. In addition, transport of OVOC by deep convection may be associated with large effects not explained by solubility alone.

  3. Plastid transformation in soybean.

    PubMed

    Dubald, Manuel; Tissot, Ghislaine; Pelissier, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The biotechnological potential of plastid genetic engineering has been illustrated in a limited number of higher plant species. We have developed a reproducible method to generate plastid transformants in soybean (Glycine max), a crop of major agronomic importance. The transformation vectors are delivered to embryogenic cultures by the particle gun method and selection performed using the aadA antibiotic resistance gene. Homoplasmy is established rapidly in the selected events without the need for further selection or regeneration cycles, and genes of interest can be expressed at a high level in green tissues. This is a significant step toward the commercial application of this technology. PMID:24599865

  4. Successful Transformational Radiology Leaders.

    PubMed

    Douget, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Transformational radiology leaders elevate subordinates, expand self-awareness, develop lasting relationships, strive to exceed expectations, and uphold the vision and goals of the organization. In order for radiology leaders to become more transformational in their leadership style there are four fundamental elements they must learn: idealized influence, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, and intellectual stimulation. Leaders can utilize personality and self-assessments to learn more about themselves, identify areas of strengths and weaknesses, and learn to be more effective when leading employees. PMID:26710553

  5. Transformation of Follicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lossos, Izidore S.; Gascoyne, Randy D.

    2011-01-01

    Histological transformation of follicular lymphoma (FL) to a more aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas is a pivotal event in the natural history of FL and is associated with poor outcome. While commonly observed in clinical practice and despite multiple studies designed to address its pathogenesis, the biology of this process represents an enigma. In this chapter we present a state of the art review summarizing the definition of histologic transformation, its incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment and outcome. Furthermore, we specifically emphasize gaps in our knowledge that should be addressed in future studies. PMID:21658615

  6. The quantum Arnold transformation

    E-print Network

    Victor Aldaya; Francisco Cossio; Julio Guerrero; Francisco F. Lopez-Ruiz

    2010-11-02

    By a quantum version of the Arnold transformation of classical mechanics, all quantum dynamical systems whose classical equations of motion are non-homogeneous linear second-order ordinary differential equations, including systems with friction linear in velocity, can be related to the quantum free-particle dynamical system. This transformation provides a basic (Heisenberg-Weyl) algebra of quantum operators, along with well-defined Hermitian operators which can be chosen as evolution-like observables and complete the entire Schr\\"odinger algebra. It also proves to be very helpful in performing certain computations quickly, to obtain, for example, wave functions and closed analytic expressions for time-evolution operators.

  7. Carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Birti?, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (?70 years ago) and its identification (?50 years ago), numerous articles and patents (?400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted. PMID:25639596

  8. ACID RAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  9. Folic acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... appear to have a lower risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease than people who consume less folic acid. Preventing re-blockage of blood vessels after angioplasty. There is inconsistent evidence on the ...

  10. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  11. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  12. Oxalic acid production by citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger overexpressing the oxaloacetate hydrolase gene oahA.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Keiichi; Hattori, Takasumi; Honda, Yuki; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2014-05-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used worldwide in the industrial production of citric acid. However, under specific cultivation conditions, citric acid-producing strains of A. niger accumulate oxalic acid as a by-product. Oxalic acid is used as a chelator, detergent, or tanning agent. Here, we sought to develop oxalic acid hyperproducers using A. niger as a host. To generate oxalic acid hyperproducers by metabolic engineering, transformants overexpressing the oahA gene, encoding oxaloacetate hydrolase (OAH; EC 3.7.1.1), were constructed in citric acid-producing A. niger WU-2223L as a host. The oxalic acid production capacity of this strain was examined by cultivation of EOAH-1 under conditions appropriate for oxalic acid production with 30 g/l glucose as a carbon source. Under all the cultivation conditions tested, the amount of oxalic acid produced by EOAH-1, a representative oahA-overexpressing transformant, exceeded that produced by A. niger WU-2223L. A. niger WU-2223L and EOAH-1 produced 15.6 and 28.9 g/l oxalic acid, respectively, during the 12-day cultivation period. The yield of oxalic acid for EOAH-1 was 64.2 % of the maximum theoretical yield. Our method for oxalic acid production gave the highest yield of any study reported to date. Therefore, we succeeded in generating oxalic acid hyperproducers by overexpressing a single gene, i.e., oahA, in citric acid-producing A. niger as a host. PMID:24615146

  13. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian (East Lansing, MI); Kleff, Susanne (East Lansing, MI); Guettler, Michael V. (Holt, MI)

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  14. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  15. Transformative Change Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, D. D.; Kirby, C.; Witt, M. A.; Richie, D.; Mix, S.; Feldbaum, M.; Liu, S.; Mason, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Transformative Change Initiative (TCI) is dedicated to assisting community colleges to scale up innovation in the form of guided pathways, programs of study, and evidence-based strategies to improve student outcomes and program, organization, and system performance. The impetus for TCI is the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and…

  16. Transforming Young Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of transformational change pervade the field of business but are rare in work with young people at risk--those most in need of deep change. Instead, the nation seems preoccupied with punishing or medicating problem behavior. Some propose the alternative of "rehabilitation," but that term means "to restore to former…

  17. Transforming American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Michael B.; Mackey, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors accept as a given the National Education Technology Plan's vision of a transformed education system powered by technology such that learners receive personalized and engaging learning experiences, and where assessment, teaching, infrastructure, and productivity are redefined. The article analyzes this vision of a…

  18. transforming human health

    E-print Network

    Bukauskas, Feliksas

    malaria and solid tumors such as lung and breast cancers are in development. #12;A TrAnsformATive educATion At Yeshiva University we believe that a quality education involves more than just excellent classroom with ethical and moral sensitivity and are prepared to enter the world with a positive attitude

  19. Is Distance Learning Transformational?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Is distance learning transformational? The author heard this question posed to a panel of faculty members during Distance Education Week activities. After reflecting upon her own students' reaction to her syllabus, her answer to the question changed from an initial, enthusiastic "yes" to a reflective "maybe," given the most favorable environment.…

  20. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  1. Imagination & Transformative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin, Kathleen A.

    Research was conducted to gain insight into both the facilitators of consciousness-raising and the nature of this emancipatory process. Consciousness-raising was defined as a transformation of consciousness in which individuals experience critical reflection and action that develops a deepened consciousness of their situation leading them to…

  2. High Resolution Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volker, A. W. F.; Bloom, J. G. P.

    2009-03-01

    The introduction of phased arrays opens-up a range of new possibilities for ultrasonic inspections. Arrays come in various shapes ranging from linear arrays for weld inspection to circular arrays emitting guided waves for permanent monitoring applications. For this kind of applications, the data is best displayed as angle versus time to locate the position a defects. However, the data is normally measured as function of a certain spatial coordinate and time. A transformation is then applied to convert data from the spatial domain into the angle domain. The simplest example is a spatial Fourier transform. Unfortunately the resolution obtained by this kind of transforms is determined by the size of the array compared to the wavelength. The longer the array is compared to the wavelength, the higher is the resolution. The reason for this is the increased phase rotation along the aperture. A new iterative approach is proposed to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional plane wave decomposition. This is a so-called high resolution transform. The new approach yields at least a five times higher resolution and can deal easily with irregular sampling or missing data. The approach will be illustrated on numerically modeled.

  3. Transforming Nursery Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friendly, Martha

    1998-01-01

    Reviews "Transforming Nursery Education" by Peter Moss and Helen Penn. Maintains that the book clarifies issues and options in child care policy in Great Britain, is highly applicable to the situation in Canada, articulates the importance of values as central to developing early childhood policy and programs, highlights the importance of learning…

  4. Case Study: Ecosystem Transformations

    E-print Network

    Nippert, Jesse

    142 Chapter 15 Case Study: Ecosystem Transformations Along The Colorado Front Range: Prairie Dog-tailed prairie dog. Directional changes in climate and atmospheric chemistry are altering the environment foothills and mixed-grass to short-grass prairie. Among these direc- tional changes are elevated average

  5. Teaching, Caring, and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Educator Bell Hooks acknowledged the fundamental truth that teaching, caring, and transformation are closely linked, that is, that true teaching must be accompanied by a deep level of care in order for learning to take place. No matter how young or old, no matter the subject matter, and no matter where teaching and learning take place--a…

  6. TRANSFORMING Management Development

    E-print Network

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    DEVELOPING LEADERS TRANSFORMING TEAMS Management Development: What's in it for the Business? Terry of the following best summarises your current approach to evaluating the impact of major investments in management Executive Development is not an "event". Customisation means there is no "standard package". ...which means

  7. Transforming Education at Einstein

    E-print Network

    Emmons, Scott

    Transforming Education at Einstein EinstEin Winter/spring 2012 The Magazine for Alumni and Friends of Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University #12;2 EinstEin : WintEr/spring 2012 Meet Our interactive Companion Magazine Give Einstein's "virtual" version a try! this interactive version

  8. Steganograpic image transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Shuichi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Sugimura, Tatsuo

    1999-04-01

    Due to the drastic development of Internet, it has recently been a critical problem to secure multimedia contents against illegal use. In order to solve this problem, data hiding has drawn great attention as a promising method that plays a complementary role to conventional cryptographic techniques. The idea of this approach is found in ancient Greek literature as 'Steganography,' which means a 'covered writing' for special secret communication. This paper presents a new method for steganographic image transformation, which is different from conventional data hiding techniques. The transformation is achieved in frequency domain and the concept of Fourier filtering method is used. An input image is transformed into a fractal image, which can be used in Computer Graphic (CG) applications. Unauthorized users will not notice the 'secret' original image behind the fractal image, but even if they know that there is a hidden image it will be difficult for them to estimate the original image from the transformed image. Only authorized users who know the proper keys can regenerate the original image. The proposed method is applicable not only as a security tool for multimedia contents on web pages but also as a steganographic secret communication method through fractal images.

  9. Chained Quantum Arnold Transformations

    E-print Network

    Francisco F. López-Ruiz; Julio Guerrero; Victor Aldaya

    2011-09-06

    We put forward the concatenation of Quantum Arnold Transformations as a tool to obtain the wave function of a particle subjected to a harmonic potential which is switched on and off successively. This simulates the capture and release process of an ion in a trap and provides a mathematical picture of this physical process.

  10. Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, William

    2014-01-01

    Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage…

  11. Transformer and Meter Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoms, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

  12. Fixture for winding transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, M. T.

    1980-01-01

    Bench-mounted fixture assists operator in winding toroid-shaped transformer cores. Toroid is rigidly held in place as wires are looped around. Arrangement frees both hands for rapid winding and untangling of wires that occurs when core is hand held.

  13. Computerized toroidal transformer design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Computer program designs transformers which have one primary /center tap permissible/ and up to 20 untapped secondaries, and which can handle up to 500 V across any one winding. Computer determines total secondary power, core type, primary turns, secondary turns, and wire sizes for primary and secondary windings.

  14. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation from hypocotyls slices of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supp...

  15. Rainbow Fourier Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

  16. Comparison of Soybean Transformation Efficiency and Plant Factors Affecting Transformation during the Agrobacterium Infection Process.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuying; Yao, Xingdong; Zhao, Mingzhe; Zhao, Qiang; Du, Yanli; Yu, Cuimei; Xie, Futi

    2015-01-01

    The susceptibility of soybean genotype to Agrobacterium infection is a key factor for the high level of genetic transformation efficiency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plant factors related to transformation in cotyledonary nodes during the Agrobacterium infection process. This study selected three genotypes (Williams 82, Shennong 9 and Bert) with high transformation efficiency, which presented better susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection, and three low transformation efficiency genotypes (General, Liaodou 16 and Kottman), which showed a relatively weak susceptibility. Gibberellin (GA) levels and soybean GA20ox2 and CYP707A2 transcripts of high-efficiency genotypes increased and were higher than those of low-efficiency genotypes; however, the opposite performance was shown in abscisic acid (ABA). Higher zeatin riboside (ZR) content and DNA quantity, and relatively higher expression of soybean IPT5, CYCD3 and CYCA3 were obtained in high-efficiency genotypes. High-efficiency genotypes had low methyl jasmonate (MeJA) content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, and relatively lower expression of soybean OPR3, PPO1 and PRX71. GA and ZR were positive plant factors for Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation by facilitating germination and growth, and increasing the number of cells in DNA synthesis cycle, respectively; MeJA, PPO, POD and ABA were negative plant factors by inducing defence reactions and repressing germination and growth, respectively. PMID:26262617

  17. Comparison of Soybean Transformation Efficiency and Plant Factors Affecting Transformation during the Agrobacterium Infection Process

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yuying; Yao, Xingdong; Zhao, Mingzhe; Zhao, Qiang; Du, Yanli; Yu, Cuimei; Xie, Futi

    2015-01-01

    The susceptibility of soybean genotype to Agrobacterium infection is a key factor for the high level of genetic transformation efficiency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plant factors related to transformation in cotyledonary nodes during the Agrobacterium infection process. This study selected three genotypes (Williams 82, Shennong 9 and Bert) with high transformation efficiency, which presented better susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection, and three low transformation efficiency genotypes (General, Liaodou 16 and Kottman), which showed a relatively weak susceptibility. Gibberellin (GA) levels and soybean GA20ox2 and CYP707A2 transcripts of high-efficiency genotypes increased and were higher than those of low-efficiency genotypes; however, the opposite performance was shown in abscisic acid (ABA). Higher zeatin riboside (ZR) content and DNA quantity, and relatively higher expression of soybean IPT5, CYCD3 and CYCA3 were obtained in high-efficiency genotypes. High-efficiency genotypes had low methyl jasmonate (MeJA) content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, and relatively lower expression of soybean OPR3, PPO1 and PRX71. GA and ZR were positive plant factors for Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation by facilitating germination and growth, and increasing the number of cells in DNA synthesis cycle, respectively; MeJA, PPO, POD and ABA were negative plant factors by inducing defence reactions and repressing germination and growth, respectively. PMID:26262617

  18. Materials and methods for efficient lactic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Shengde; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Yomano, Lorraine; Grabar, Tammy B; Moore, Jonathan C

    2013-04-23

    The present invention provides derivatives of Escherichia coli constructed for the production of lactic acid. The transformed E. coli of the invention are prepared by deleting the genes that encode competing pathways followed by a growth-based selection for mutants with improved performance. These transformed E. coli are useful for providing an increased supply of lactic acid for use in food and industrial applications.

  19. Materials and methods for efficient lactic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Shengde (Sycamore, IL); Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Shanmugam, Keelnatham T. (Gainesville, FL); Yomano, Lorraine (Gainesville, FL); Grabar, Tammy B. (Gainesville, FL); Moore, Jonathan C. (Gainesville, FL)

    2009-12-08

    The present invention provides derivatives of ethanologenic Escherichia coli K011 constructed for the production of lactic acid. The transformed E. coli of the invention are prepared by deleting the genes that encode competing pathways followed by a growth-based selection for mutants with improved performance. These transformed E. coli are useful for providing an increased supply of lactic acid for use in food and industrial applications.

  20. Algorithms for transform selection in multiple-transform video compression

    E-print Network

    Cai, Xun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Selecting proper transforms for video compression has been based on the rate-distortion criterion. Transforms that appear reasonable are incorporated into a video coding system and their performance is evaluated. This ...

  1. DE MAGNO MAGNETE TELLURE O VELIK EM MAGNETU ZEMSK EM

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    #12;Historick´y ´uvod De magnete De magnete -- Gilbert a jeho n´asledovn´ici 1600 William Gilbert: De´asledovn´ici 1600 William Gilbert: De Magnete shrnul predchoz´i pozorov´an´i inklinace a deklinace zkoumal magnete De magnete -- Gilbert a jeho n´asledovn´ici 1600 William Gilbert: De Magnete shrnul predchoz

  2. Photodissociation dynamics of hydroxybenzoic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yilin; Dyakov, Yuri; Lee, Y. T.; Ni, Chi-Kung; Sun Yilun; Hu Weiping

    2011-01-21

    Aromatic amino acids have large UV absorption cross-sections and low fluorescence quantum yields. Ultrafast internal conversion, which transforms electronic excitation energy to vibrational energy, was assumed to account for the photostability of amino acids. Recent theoretical and experimental investigations suggested that low fluorescence quantum yields of phenol (chromophore of tyrosine) are due to the dissociation from a repulsive excited state. Radicals generated from dissociation may undergo undesired reactions. It contradicts the observed photostability of amino acids. In this work, we explored the photodissociation dynamics of the tyrosine chromophores, 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in a molecular beam at 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. We demonstrated that dissociation from the excited state is effectively quenched for the conformers of hydroxybenzoic acids with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Ab initio calculations show that the excited state and the ground state potential energy surfaces change significantly for the conformers with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. It shows the importance of intramolecular hydrogen bond in the excited state dynamics and provides an alternative molecular mechanism for the photostability of aromatic amino acids upon irradiation of ultraviolet photons.

  3. Chemical transformations of Populus trichocarpa during dilute acid pretreatment

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    , cross-linked and highly heterogeneous aromatic macromolecule. The plant cell wall microstructure The structural complexity and unique chemical and physical properties of plant cell walls cause plant biomass that enable the release of sugars `locked in' the intricacy of cell wall macromolecular structures.3

  4. Nucleic acid encoding TGF-. beta. and its uses

    SciTech Connect

    Derynck, R.M.A.; Goeddel, D.V.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a method. It comprises: constructing a vector which includes nucleic acid encoding biologically active TGF-{beta}, transforming a host eukaryotic cell with the vector, culturing the transformed cell and recovering mature TGF-{beta} from the culture medium.

  5. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  6. Chemical Transformations of Nanosilver in Biological Environments

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyu; Wang, Zhongying; Liu, Frances D.; Kane, Agnes B.; Hurt, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in consumer and medical products provides strong motivation for a careful assessment of their environmental and human health risks. Recent studies have shown that Ag-NPs released to the natural environment undergo profound chemical transformations that can affect silver bioavailability, toxicity, and risk. Less is known about Ag-NP chemical transformations in biological systems, though the medical literature clearly reports that chronic silver ingestion produces argyrial deposits consisting of silver-, sulfur-, and selenium-containing particulate phases. Here we show that Ag-NPs undergo a rich set of biochemical transformations, including accelerated oxidative dissolution in gastric acid, thiol binding and exchange, photoreduction of thiol- or protein-bound silver to secondary zero-valent Ag-NPs, and rapid reactions between silver surfaces and reduced selenium species. Selenide is also observed to rapidly exchange with sulfide in preformed Ag2S solid phases. The combined results allow us to propose a conceptual model for Ag-NP transformation pathways in the human body. In this model, argyrial silver deposits are not translocated engineered Ag-NPs, but rather secondary particles formed by partial dissolution in the GI tract followed by ion uptake, systemic circulation as organo-Ag complexes and immobilization as zero-valent Ag-NPs by photoreduction in light affected skin regions. The secondary Ag-NPs then undergo detoxifying transformations into sulfides, and further into selenides or Se/S mixed phases through exchange reactions. The formation of secondary particles in biological environments implies that Ag-NPs are not only a product of industrial nanotechnology, but have long been present in the human body following exposure to more traditional chemical forms of silver. PMID:23046098

  7. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-print Network

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  8. A DC Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Starr, Stanley O.

    2013-01-01

    A component level dc transformer is described in which no alternating currents or voltages are present. It operates by combining features of a homopolar motor and a homopolar generator, both de devices, such that the output voltage of a de power supply can be stepped up (or down) with a corresponding step down (or up) in current. The basic theory for this device is developed, performance predictions are made, and the results from a small prototype are presented. Based on demonstrated technology in the literature, this de transformer should be scalable to low megawatt levels, but it is more suited to high current than high voltage applications. Significant development would be required before it could achieve the kilovolt levels needed for de power transmission.

  9. Reduction/Transformation Operators

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-09-01

    RTOp (reduction/transformation operators) is a collection of C++ software that provides the basic mechanism for implementinig vector operations in a flexible and efficient manner. This is the main interface utilized by Thyra to allow for the specification of specific vector reduction and/or transformation operations. The RTOp package contains three different types of software. (a) a small number of interoperability interfaces. (b) support software including code for the parallel SPMD mode based on only Teuchos::Comm(and notmore »MPl directly(, and (c) a library of pre-implemented RTOp subclasses for everything from simple AXPYs and norms, to more specialized vector operations. RTOp allows an algorithm developer to implement their own RTOp subclasses in a way that is independent from any specific serial, parallel, out-of-core or other type of vector implementation. RTOp is a required package by Thyra and MOOCHO. (c)« less

  10. Transforming the optical landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendry, J. B.; Luo, Yu; Zhao, Rongkuo

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetism provides us with some of the most powerful tools in science, encompassing lasers, optical microscopes, magnetic resonance imaging scanners, radar, and a host of other techniques. To understand and develop the technology requires more than a set of formal equations. Scientists and engineers have to form a vivid picture that fires their imaginations and enables intuition to play a full role in the process of invention. It is to this end that transformation optics has been developed, exploiting Faraday’s picture of electric and magnetic fields as lines of force, which can be manipulated by the electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability of surrounding materials. Transformation optics says what has to be done to place the lines of force where we want them to be.

  11. High voltage isolation transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  12. Bacterial transformation of terpenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishko, V. V.; Nogovitsina, Y. M.; Ivshina, I. B.

    2014-04-01

    Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references.

  13. Microbial transformation of benzosampangine.

    PubMed

    Orabi, K Y; Clark, A M; Hufford, C D

    2000-03-01

    Microbial transformation studies of the synthetic antifungal alkaloid benzosampangine (1) have revealed that 1 is metabolized by a number of microorganisms. Using a standard two-stage fermentation technique Absidia glauca (ATCC 22752), Cunninghamella blakesleeana (ATCC 8688a), Cunninghamella species (NRRL 5695), Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae (CSIH #C-5), and Rhizopogon species (ATCC 36060) each produced a beta-glucopyranose conjugate of benzosampangine (2). The identity of 2 was established on the basis of spectroscopic data. PMID:10757729

  14. Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, William

    2014-10-01

    Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage may help to clear up this confusion.

  15. Transforming revenue management.

    PubMed

    Silveria, Richard; Alliegro, Debra; Nudd, Steven

    2008-11-01

    Healthcare organizations that want to undertake a patient administrative/revenue management transformation should: Define the vision with underlying business objectives and key performance measures. Strategically partner with key vendors for business process development and technology design. Create a program organization and governance infrastructure. Develop a corporate design model that defines the standards for operationalizing the vision. Execute the vision through technology deployment and corporate design model implementation. PMID:18990839

  16. Laminated piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

  17. RECENT ADVANCES IN BARLEY TRANSFORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...

  18. Transformer Abdullah Al-Otaibi

    E-print Network

    Masoudi, Husain M.

    induces a changing voltage in the secondary. II. HISTORY Michael Faraday demonstrated the principle of the transformer in 1831. The transformer is used by Faraday only to demonstrate the principle of electromagnetic

  19. Transformational Leadership, Integrity, and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership enjoys widespread appeal among student affairs professionals. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) and American College Personnel Association (ACPA) conferences frequently feature speakers who promote transformational leadership's two primary tenets: (1) change is the central purpose of…

  20. On transformational creativity Graeme Ritchie

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Graeme

    On transformational creativity Graeme Ritchie Department of Computing Science University of creativity has been extremely influential, particularly her promo- tion of transformational creativity. We or methodological frameworks for studying computational creativity in general [Ritchie, 2001], [Wiggins, 2001; 2003

  1. Spectrophotometric, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic and theoretical studies of the charge-transfer complexes between methyldopa [(S)-2 amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl propanoic acid] and the acceptors (chloranilic acid, o-chloranil and dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone) in acetonitrile and their thermodynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K; Sharma, S P; Lahiri, S C

    2012-06-15

    Methyldopa is a much used antihypertensive drug. It is the subject matter of study mostly for the determination and estimation of methyldopa in pharmaceutical properties. These considerations led us to study the charge-transfer interactions between methyldopa, a centrally acting antihypertensive agent of limited use with the known acceptors like o-chloranil (o-ClN), chloranilic acid (ClA) and dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ). Methyldopa (MDP) formed beautifully colored complexes (having absorption maxima at 581 nm and 368 nm; 519 nm; 583.5 nm, 547 nm and 346 nm, respectively) with the acceptors mentioned before. The physico-chemical properties of the complexes were studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry and FTIR measurements. The composition, the accurate association constants and thermodynamics of the complexes were determined spectrophotometrically. Attempts were made to interpret the thermodynamics of complexes in terms of I(D)(V), E(A)(V) and h?(CT). Solid CT complexes between MDP+o-ClN, MDP+ClA and MDP+DDQ were prepared and FTIR spectra of the complexes were studied. The energies h?(CT) of the charge-transfer complexes and vertical ionization potential I(D)(V) of methyldopa were compared with the theoretical values of h?(CT) obtained from HOMO and LUMO of the donors and acceptors calculated using Density Function Theory utilizing different basis sets. The agreement between the results can be regarded to be reasonable. Oscillator strengths and dipole strengths of the complexes were determined theoretically and experimentally and the limitations of the calculations were outlined. PMID:22446770

  2. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 003F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 76 - 03 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2011 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This document has

  3. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  4. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  5. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  6. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  7. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 03 / 007 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 79 - 43 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been revi

  8. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  9. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  10. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  11. A novel method to transform prokaryotic cells using shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataraja, K. N.; Udayakumar, M.; Jagadeesh, G.

    The transgenic approach that is being used to study gene function or to improve the efficiency of crop plants/organisms involves transformation of a wide range of cells, tissues, and organisms with nucleic acid. In this study we report a new micro- shock assisted prokaryotic cell transformation technique. An underwater electric discharge based shock wave generator (25 kV; 150 m A; high voltage capacitor) has been designed and fabricated to carry out the prokaryotic cell transformation experiments. Test tubes with bacterial cell suspension with appropriate plasmid DNA, immersed in water are exposed to shock wave loading (typical overpressure 130 bar). The transformation efficiency of samples of the prokaryotic cells exposed to shock waves is very high compared to conventional methods.

  12. Spectrum transformation for divergent iterations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Murli M.

    1991-01-01

    Certain spectrum transformation techniques are described that can be used to transform a diverging iteration into a converging one. Two techniques are considered called spectrum scaling and spectrum enveloping and how to obtain the optimum values of the transformation parameters is discussed. Numerical examples are given to show how this technique can be used to transform diverging iterations into converging ones; this technique can also be used to accelerate the convergence of otherwise convergent iterations.

  13. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  14. Nonlinear transient simulation of transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Pierrat, L.; Tran-Quoc, T.; Montmeat, A.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a nonlinear model of transformer which takes into account both the saturation and the hysteresis is proposed. In order to simulate transient phenomena in transformers, a system of equations is presented. The digital simulation of the energization and de-energization of a three-phase distribution transformer is studied. Ferroresonant phenomena in iron core transformers supplied through capacitive links are presented. Finally, the influence of MOV arresters on overvoltage reduction is investigated.

  15. Canonical Transformations of Kepler Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, canonical transformations generated by constants of motion in the case of the Kepler problem are discussed. It is shown that canonical transformations generated by angular momentum are rotations of the trajectory. Particular attention is paid to canonical transformations generated by the Runge-Lenz vector. It is shown that these…

  16. Isotropic Transformation Optics Approximate Cloaking

    E-print Network

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    Isotropic Transformation Optics and Approximate Cloaking Allan Greenleaf joint with Yaroslav Kurylev Matti Lassas Gunther Uhlmann CLK08 @ CSCAMM September 24, 2008 #12;Challenges of cloaking and other transformation optics (TO) designs: #12;Challenges of cloaking and other transformation optics (TO

  17. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Gerwert, Klaus

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy Klaus Gerwert, Lehrstuhl fu¨r Biophysik, Ruhr, Germany Based in part on the previous version of this Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (ELS) article, Fourier Transform IR by Johannes Orphal. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is an experimental technique

  18. Claude Sabbah FOURIER TRANSFORMATION OF

    E-print Network

    Sabbah, Claude

    Claude Sabbah FOURIER TRANSFORMATION OF D-MODULES AND APPLICATIONS LECTURE NOTES (CIRM, LUMINY://www.math.polytechnique.fr/~sabbah #12;FOURIER TRANSFORMATION OF D-MODULES AND APPLICATIONS LECTURE NOTES (CIRM, LUMINY, SEPT. 2010 of the Fourier transformation of holonomic D-modules. Firstly, a compar- ison is made with the usual Fourier

  19. Teacher Transformation: Transcending Hegemonic Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation study, I build from the research on transformative teaching (transformative for students), liberating theories (Liberating, Liberation and Liberating Theories) as well as literature about transformation, reflection and discourse to make the case that our historic and continuously inequitable results for students based on…

  20. Quality as Transformation: Educational Metamorphosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The notion of "quality as transformation" has been widely used in the higher education sector. However, both quality and transformation are elusive terms. There is little research exploring how quality could be equated to transformation in the learning process. This paper will provide an insight into the relationship between quality and…

  1. Enhancing Understanding of Transformation Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Jonathan; Childrey, Maria

    2012-01-01

    With the Common Core State Standards' emphasis on transformations, teachers need a variety of approaches to increase student understanding. Teaching matrix transformations by focusing on row vectors gives students tools to create matrices to perform transformations. This empowerment opens many doors: Students are able to create the matrices for…

  2. Total Synthesis of (±)- and (?)-Actinophyllic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Connor L.; Overman, Larry E.; Rohde, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    Development of efficient sequences for the total syntheses of (±)-actinophyllic acid (rac-1) and (?)-actinophyllic acid (1) are described. The central step in these syntheses is the aza-Cope/Mannich reaction, which constructs the previously unknown hexacyclic ring system of actinophyllic acid in one step from much simpler tetracyclic precursors. The tetracyclic hexahydro-1,5-methano-1H-azocino[4,3-b]indole ketone rac-37 is assembled from o-nitrophenylacetic acid in four steps, with oxidative cyclization of a dienolate derivative of tricyclic precursor rac-35 being the central step. In the first-generation synthesis, this intermediate is transformed in two steps to homoallyl amine rac-43, whose formaldiminium derivative undergoes efficient aza-Cope/Mannich reaction to give pentacyclic ketone rac-44. In four additional steps, this intermediate is advanced to (±)-actinophyllic acid. The synthesis is streamlined by elaborating ketone rac-37 to ?-hydroxyester intermediate rac-53, which is directly transformed to (±)-actinophyllic acid upon exposure to HCl and paraformaldehyde. This concise second-generation total synthesis of (±)-actinophyllic acid is realized in 22% overall yield from commercially available di-tert-butylmalonate and o-nitrophenylacetic acid by a sequence that proceeds by way of only six isolated intermediates. The first enantioselective total synthesis of (?)-actinophyllic acid (1) is accomplished by this direct sequence from tricyclic keto malonate (S)-35. Catalytic enantioselective reduction of ?,?-unsaturated ketone 66 is the key step in the preparation of intermediate (S)-35 from the commercially available Boc-amino acid 65. Discussed also is the possibility that the aza-Cope/Mannich reaction might be involved in the biosynthesis of (?)-actinophyllic acid. PMID:20218696

  3. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  4. Gas-Phase Acidities of Phosphorylated Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Stover, Michele L; Plummer, Chelsea E; Miller, Sean R; Cassady, Carolyn J; Dixon, David A

    2015-11-19

    Gas-phase acidities and heats of formation have been predicted at the G3(MP2)/SCRF-COSMO level of theory for 10 phosphorylated amino acids and their corresponding amides, including phospho-serine (pSer), -threonine (pThr), and -tyrosine (pTyr), providing the first reliable set of these values. The gas-phase acidities (GAs) of the three named phosphorylated amino acids and their amides have been determined using proton transfer reactions in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer. Excellent agreement was found between the experimental and predicted GAs. The phosphate group is the deprotonation site for pSer and pThr and deprotonation from the carboxylic acid generated the lowest energy anion for pTyr. The infrared spectra were calculated for six low energy anions of pSer, pThr, and pTyr. For deprotonated pSer and pThr, good agreement is found between the experimental IRMPD spectra and the calculated spectra for our lowest energy anion structure. For pTyr, the IR spectra for a higher energy phosphate deprotonated structure is in good agreement with experiment. Additional experiments tested electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions for pTyr and determined that variations in solvent, temperature, and voltage can result in a different experimental GA value, indicating that ESI conditions affect the conformation of the pTyr anion. PMID:26492552

  5. Computer simulation of martensitic transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ping

    1993-11-01

    The characteristics of martensitic transformations in solids are largely determined by the elastic strain that develops as martensite particles grow and interact. To study the development of microstructure, a finite-element computer simulation model was constructed to mimic the transformation process. The transformation is athermal and simulated at each incremental step by transforming the cell which maximizes the decrease in the free energy. To determine the free energy change, the elastic energy developed during martensite growth is calculated from the theory of linear elasticity for elastically homogeneous media, and updated as the transformation proceeds.

  6. A Fast Hermite Transform?

    PubMed Central

    Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N.; Park, Wooram; Taintor, Robert; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2008-01-01

    We present algorithms for fast and stable approximation of the Hermite transform of a compactly supported function on the real line, attainable via an application of a fast algebraic algorithm for computing sums associated with a three-term relation. Trade-offs between approximation in bandlimit (in the Hermite sense) and size of the support region are addressed. Numerical experiments are presented that show the feasibility and utility of our approach. Generalizations to any family of orthogonal polynomials are outlined. Applications to various problems in tomographic reconstruction, including the determination of protein structure, are discussed. PMID:20027202

  7. Thermal energy transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.; Thiele, C. L. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    For use in combination with a heat engine, a thermal energy transformer is presented. It is comprised of a flux receiver having a first wall defining therein a radiation absorption cavity for converting solar flux to thermal energy, and a second wall defining an energy transfer wall for the heat engine. There is a heat pipe chamber interposed between the first and second walls having a working fluid disposed within the chamber and a wick lining the chamber for conducting the working fluid from the second wall to the first wall. Thermal energy is transferred from the radiation absorption cavity to the heat engine.

  8. Banded transformer cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  9. Trkalian fields and Radon transformation

    E-print Network

    K. Saygili

    2010-03-27

    We write the spherical curl transformation for Trkalian fields using differential forms. Then we consider Radon transform of these fields. The Radon transform of a Trkalian field satisfies a corresponding eigenvalue equation on a sphere in transform space. The field can be reconstructed using knowledge of the Radon transform on a canonical hemisphere. We consider relation of the Radon transformation with Biot-Savart integral operator and discuss its transform introducing Radon-Biot- Savart operator. The Radon transform of a Trkalian field is an eigenvector of this operator. We also present an Ampere law type relation for these fields. We apply these to Lundquist solution. We present a Chandrasekhar-Kendall type solution of the corresponding equation in the transform space. Lastly, we focus on the Euclidean topologically massive Abelian gauge theory. The Radon transform of an anti-self-dual field is related by antipodal map on this sphere to the transform of the self-dual field obtained by inverting space coordinates. The Lundquist solution provides an example of quantization of topological mass in this context.

  10. Lorentz transformations: Einstein's derivation simplified

    E-print Network

    Bernhard Rothenstein; Stefan Popescu

    2007-02-19

    We show that the Lorentz transformations for the space-time coordinates of the same event are a direct consequence of the principle of relativity and of Einstein's distant clocks synchronization procedure. In our approach, imposing the linear character of the Lorentz transformations we guess that the transformation equation for the space coordinate has the form x=ax'+cbt'. Imposing the condition that it accounts for the time dilation relativistic effect and taking into account the fact that due to the clock synchronization a la Einstein the space-time coordinates of the same event in the two frames are related by x=ct and x'=ct', we find out expressions for a and b. Dividing the transformation equation for the space coordinate by c we obtain the transformation equation for the time coordinate t=at'+b/cx'. Combining the two transformation equations we obtain directly the inverse Lorentz transformations.

  11. Chiral Brønsted Acids for Asymmetric Organocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampen, Daniela; Reisinger, Corinna M.; List, Benjamin

    Chiral Brønsted acid catalysis is an emerging area of organocatalysis. Since the pioneering studies of the groups of Akiyama and Terada in 2004 on the use of chiral BINOL phosphates as powerful Brønsted acid catalysts in asymmetric Mannich-type reactions, numerous catalytic asymmetric transformations involving imine activation have been realized by means of this catalyst class, including among others Friedel-Crafts, Pictet-Spengler, Strecker, cycloaddition reactions, transfer hydrogenations, and reductive aminations. More recently, chiral BINOL phosphates found application in multicomponent and cascade reactions as for example in an asymmetric version of the Biginelli reaction. With the introduction of chiral BINOL-derived N-triflyl phosphoramides in 2006, asymmetric Brønsted acid catalysis is no longer restricted to reactive substrates. Also certain carbonyl compounds can be activated through these stronger Brønsted acid catalysts. In dealing with sensitive substrate classes, chiral dicarboxylic acids proved of particular value.

  12. Acid and Base What is an acid?

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Acid and Base Reactions #12;What is an acid? · Definitions · Arrhenius- an acid is a substance. · Lewis ­ an acid is any species that accepts an electron pair. #12;What is an base? · Definitions;Identification of acids and bases. · HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl ­ · Acid because it dissociates to form a H+ · Base

  13. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-print Network

    Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

    2014-01-30

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

  14. Transformational silicon electronics.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Ghoneim, Mohamed Tarek; Inayat, Salman Bin; Ahmed, Sally M; Hussain, Aftab Mustansir; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-02-25

    In today's traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 ?m), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry's most advanced high-?/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. PMID:24476361

  15. Image Transformations-Montserrat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A slightly oblique digital photograph of Montserrat taken from the International Space Station was posted to Earth Observatory in December 2001. An Earth Observatory reader used widely available software to correct the oblique perspective and adjust the color. The story of how he modified the image includes step-by-step instructions that can be applied to other photographs. Photographs of Earth taken by astronauts have shaped our view of the Earth and are part of our popular culture because NASA makes them easily accessible to the public. Read the Transformations Story for more information. The original image was digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309, taken on July 9, 2001, from the International Space Station and was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Bill Innanen provided the transformed image and the story of how he did it.

  16. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-04-15

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore's law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog{sub 2}N rather than N{sup 2}) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  17. Transformations of emotional experience.

    PubMed

    de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

  18. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins (called amino acids) in the body break down. A test can ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  19. Nature and origins of acidity in bogs

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    To elucidate the causes of acidity in bogs, all of the processes generating and consuming acidity in a small peat bog in northern Minnesota were measured. These processes include ion exchange, plant nutrient uptake, atmospheric deposition, decomposition, organic acid production, sulfate reduction, and denitrification. Organic acid production was found to be the dominant source of acidity, responsible for the low pH of bog waters and the high acidity in the outflow. Net biological uptake (NBU) is the next largest source of acidity. Ion exchange accounts for only about 40% of the NBU-acidity. Plant uptake and ion exchange are much larger sources of acidity on an annual basis, but much of this acidity is neutralized by decomposition. Sulfate reduction and denitrification are quantitatively unimportant at this site because inputs (NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4/=) are low. Bog water samples and peat cores from bogs across northeastern North America were analyzed to determine if geographic trends in the rates of acidity-generating and -consuming processes exist. Rates of organic acid production varied little across the transect. Higher values of NBU-acidity were observed in maritime bogs than in midcontinental bogs. The effects of transformations of sulfur and nitrogen on the hydrogen-ion cycle were examined in detail. Nitrate appears to be taken up by bryophytes and little is lost to denitrification. Alkalinity from nitrate uptake is low. In contrast, there is a dynamic cycle of oxidation and reduction of sulfur within bogs. Inorganic forms of sulfur are not important storage pools in peat; 35% of the total sulfur input is accumulated as organic S.

  20. Optimality of general lattice transformations with applications to the Bain strain in steel

    E-print Network

    Konstantinos Koumatos; Anton Muehlemann

    2015-12-14

    This article provides a rigorous proof of a conjecture by E.C. Bain in 1924 on the optimality of the so-called "Bain strain" based on a criterion of least atomic movement. A general framework that explores several such optimality criteria is introduced, and employed to show the existence of optimal transformations between any two Bravais lattices. A precise algorithm to compute the optimal transformation strains is given. Apart from the Bain conjecture concerning the transformation from face-centred cubic to body-centred cubic, applications include the face-centred cubic to body-centred tetragonal transition as well as the transformation between two triclinic phases of Terephthalic Acid.

  1. Optimality of general lattice transformations with applications to the Bain strain in steel

    E-print Network

    Konstantinos Koumatos; Anton Muehlemann

    2015-10-15

    This article provides a rigorous proof to a conjecture by E.C. Bain in 1924 on the optimality of the so-called "Bain strain" based on a criterion of least atomic movement. A general framework that explores several such optimality criteria is introduced and employed to show the existence of optimal transformations between any two given Bravais lattices. A precise algorithm to compute the optimal transformation strains is entailed. Apart from the Bain conjecture concerning the transformation from face-centred cubic to body-centred cubic, applications include the face-centred cubic to body-centred tetragonal transition as well as the transformation from Terephthalic acid I to II.

  2. Mechanisms of iron oxide transformations in hydrothermal systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Otake, Tsubasa; Wesolowski, David J; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Coexistence of magnetite and hematite in hydrothermal systems has often been used to constrain the redox potential of fluids, assuming that the redox equilibrium is attained among all minerals and aqueous species. However, as temperature decreases, disequilibrium mineral assemblages may occur due to the slow kinetics of reaction involving the minerals and fluids. In this study, we conducted a series of experiments in which hematite or magnetite was reacted with an acidic solution under H2-rich hydrothermal conditions (T = 100 250 C,) to investigate the kinetics of redox and non-redox transformations between hematite and magnetite, and the mechanisms of iron oxide transformation under hydrothermal conditions. The formation of euhedral crystals of hematite in 150 and 200 C experiments, in which magnetite was used as the starting material, indicates that non-redox transformation of magnetite to hematite occurred within 24 h. The chemical composition of the experimental solutions was controlled by the non-redox transformation between magnetite and hematite throughout the experiments. While solution compositions were controlled by the non-redox transformation in the first 3 days in a 250 C experiment, reductive dissolution of magnetite became important after 5 days and affected the solution chemistry. At 100 C, the presence of maghemite was indicated in the first 7 days. Based on these results, equilibrium constants of non-redox transformation between magnetite and hematite and those of non-redox transformation between magnetite and maghemite were calculated. Our results suggest that the redox transformation of hematite to magnetite occurs in the following steps: (1) reductive dissolution of hematite to and (2) non-redox transformation of hematite and to magnetite.

  3. Bacterial Transformations of Naphthothiophenes

    PubMed Central

    Kropp, K. G.; Andersson, J. T.; Fedorak, P. M.

    1997-01-01

    Naphthothiophenes are minor components of fossil fuels, and they can enter the environment from oil spills. Naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene, naphtho[2,3-b]thiophene, and 1-methylnaphtho[2,1-b]thiophene were synthesized and used in biodegradation studies with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN)-degrading Pseudomonas strains W1, F, and BT1. Cultures were incubated with one of the naphthothiophenes with or without 1-MN, acidified, and extracted with CH(inf2)Cl(inf2). The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame photometric and mass detectors to characterize sulfur-containing metabolites and with an atomic emission detector for quantification. Only strain W1 was able to grow on naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene, but strains F and BT1 cometabolized this compound if 1-MN was present. 1-MN was required by all three strains to metabolize naphtho[2,3-b]thiophene, which was more resistant to biodegradation than the [2,1-b] isomer. Two metabolites of naphtho [2,1-b]thiophene were purified, analyzed by (sup1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and found to be 4-hydroxybenzothiophene-5-carboxylic acid (metabolite I) and 5-hydroxybenzothiophene-4-carboxylic acid (metabolite II). In cultures of strain W1 grown for 7 days on 52 (mu)mol of naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene, >84% of the substrate was degraded and metabolites I and II accounted for 19 and 9%, respectively, of the original amount of naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene. When 1-MN was present, strain W1 degraded >97% of the naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene and similar amounts of metabolite II were produced, but metabolite I did not accumulate. 1-MN was shown to promote the further degradation of metabolite I, but not of metabolite II, by strain W1. Thus, 1-MN enhanced the biodegradation of naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene. Approximately 70% of the 1-methylnaphtho [2,1-b]thiophene added to cultures of strain W1 with 1-MN was recovered as 4-hydroxy-3-methylbenzothiophene-5-carboxylic acid, the 3-methyl analog of metabolite I. The methyl substitution hindered further metabolism of 3-methyl-metabolite I even in the presence of 1-MN. Cometabolism of naphtho[2,3-b]thiophene yielded two products that were tentatively identified as 5-hydroxybenzothiophene-6-carboxylic and 6-hydroxybenzothiophene-5-carboxylic acids. PMID:16535687

  4. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  5. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  6. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  7. Hydrogenation of Glutamic Acid to Value Added Products

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, John E.; Werpy, Todd A.

    2005-01-01

    Glutamic acid provides a platform to numerous compounds through thermochemical approaches including, hydrogentation, cyclyization, decarboxylation and deamination. Hydrogenation of amino acids also provides access into chiral compounds with high enantio-purity. In this paper the hydrogenation of glutamic acid is examined with an emphasis on controlling the selectivity of carbonyl reduction. Under neutral conditions at 70 ºC, glutaminol is produced (US 6,310,254). At elevated temperatures pyroglutaminol is produced. Using base, the pyrrolidinone ring can be opened to give 4-amino-5-ol-pentanoic acid. Under acidic conditions, normally used for amino acids, the pyrrolidinone carbonyl is activated and prolinol is formed. A mechanism for the various products is suggested. The results show that hydrogenation of glutamic acid has unique characteristics from other amino acids and that paradigms in the literature do not hold up for this transformation.

  8. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  9. A piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Won, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    This work describes a modeling and design method whereby a piezoelectric system is formulated by two sets of second-order equations, one for the mechanical system, and the other for the electrical system, coupled through the piezoelectric effect. The solution to this electromechanical coupled system gives a physical interpretation of the piezoelectric effect as a piezoelectric transformer that is a part of the piezoelectric system, which transfers the applied mechanical force into a force-controlled current source, and short circuit mechanical compliance into capacitance. It also transfers the voltage source into a voltage-controlled relative velocity input, and free motional capacitance into mechanical compliance. The formulation and interpretation simplify the modeling of smart structures and lead to physical insight that aids the designer. Due to its physical realization, the smart structural system can be unconditional stable and effectively control responses. This new concept has been demonstrated in three numerical examples for a simple piezoelectric system.

  10. Transformation plasticity in ductile solids

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.B.

    1993-02-01

    Research has addressed the role of martensitic transformation plasticity in the enhancement of toughness in high-strength austenitic steels, and the enhancement of formability in multiphase low-alloy sheet steels. In the austenitic steels, optimal processing conditions have been established to achieve a significant increase in strength level, in order to investigate the interaction of strain-induced transformation with the microvoid nucleation and shear localization mechanisms operating at ultrahigh strength levels. The stress-state dependence of transformation and fracture mechanisms has been investigated in model alloys, comparing behavior in uniaxial tension and blunt-notch tension specimens. A numerical constitutive model for transformation plasticity has been reformulated to allow a more thorough analysis of transformation/fracture interactions. Processing of a new low alloy steel composition has been optimized to stabilize retained austenite by isothermal bainitic transformation after intercritical annealing. Preliminary results show a good correlation of uniform ductility with the austenite amount and stability.

  11. 7 transformations of leadership.

    PubMed

    Rooke, David; Torbert, William R

    2005-04-01

    Most developmental psychologists agree that what differentiates one leader from another is not so much philosophy of leadership, personality, or style of management. Rather, it's internal "action logic"--how a leader interprets the surroundings and reacts when his or her power or safety is challenged. Relatively few leaders, however, try to understand their action logic, and fewer still have explored the possibility of changing it. They should, because leaders who undertake this voyage of personal understanding and development can transform not only their own capabilities but also those of their companies. The authors draw on 25 years of consulting experience and collaboration with psychologist Susanne Cook-Greuter to present a typology of leadership based on the way managers personally make sense of the world around them. Rooke and Torbert classify leaders into seven distinct actionlogic categories: Opportunists, Diplomats, Experts, Achievers, Individualists, Strategists, and Alchemists-the first three associated with below-average performance, the latter four with medium to high performance. These leadership styles are not fixed, the authors say, and executives who are willing to work at developing themselves and becoming more self-aware can almost certainly move toward one of the more effective action logics. A Diplomat, for instance, can succeed through hard work and self-reflection at transforming himself into a Strategist. Few people may become Alchemists, but many will have the desire and potential to become Individualists and Strategists. Corporations that help their executives and leadership teams to examine their action logics can reap rich rewards. PMID:15807040

  12. Hadamard Transform Infrared Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhou

    The primary objective of this research is the design and application of a stationary mask Hadamard transform infrared (HT-IR) spectrometer. Previous research in the area of stationary Hadamard encoding focused on the use of switching materials for the masks. However, these masks could not pass infrared radiation and, as a result, the advantages of stationary Hadamard encoding could not be applied to infrared spectrometry. A nontraditional mask, called a thermo-optic array for the stationary encoding of radiation (TOASTER), was proposed and implemented to perform the stationary Hadamard encoding. The Hadamard encoding procedure was performed with an array of electrically controlled IR sources. Operated with a reversed Czerny -Turner system, the source array was switched on or off according to the Hadamard functions. In this manner, the wavelength limitation to stationary Hadamard encoding was totally lifted. The research presented in this dissertation addresses two other aspects of stationary mask HT-IR. First, since the optical encoding of the TOASTER was thermally operated, the thermo-optic behavior of the electrically controlled IR sources was studied based on the theory of heat conduction. Secondly, a LiTaO_3 pyroelectric detector was employed in our prototype HT-IR spectrometer and as a result, the feasibility of low cost pyroelectric IR detectors for spectrometric use was investigated and discussed. The results of this work showed that the thermo -optic array and the corresponding optical design of the HT-IR could allow the prototype instrument to work in the IR region with a transform multiplex advantage. The thermo -optic stationary encoding method also provided frequency precision with experimental results of spectral subtraction. With regards to the thermo-optic behavior of the electrically controlled IR sources, the experimental data verified the physical and mathematical analysis proposed. In addition, the low cost pyroelectric IR detector, with proper signal processing, was found to be useful for spectrometric use under certain application requirements.

  13. Infrared transform spectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujkovic-Cvijin, Pajo; Lee, Jamine; Gregor, Brian; Goldstein, Neil; Panfili, Raphael; Fox, Marsha

    2012-10-01

    A dispersive transform spectral imager named FAROS (FAst Reconfigurable Optical Sensor) has been developed for high frame rate, moderate-to-high resolution hyperspectral imaging. A programmable digital micromirror array (DMA) modulator makes it possible to adjust spectral, temporal and spatial resolution in real time to achieve optimum tradeoff for dynamic monitoring requirements. The system's F/2.8 collection optics produces diffraction-limited images in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) spectral region. The optical system is based on a proprietary dual-pass Offner configuration with a single spherical mirror and a confocal spherical diffraction grating. FAROS fulfills two functions simultaneously: one output produces two-dimensional polychromatic imagery at the full focal plane array (FPA) frame rate for fast object acquisition and tracking, while the other output operates in parallel and produces variable-resolution spectral images via Hadamard transform encoding to assist in object discrimination and classification. The current version of the FAROS spectral imager is a multispectral technology demonstrator that operates in the MWIR with a 320 x 256 pixel InSb FPA running at 478 frames per second resulting in time resolution of several tens of milliseconds per hypercube. The instrument has been tested by monitoring small-scale rocket engine firings in outdoor environments. The instrument has no macro-scale moving parts, and conforms to a robust, small-volume and lightweight package, suitable for integration with small surveillance vehicles. The technology is also applicable to multispectral/hyperspectral imaging applications in diverse areas such as atmospheric contamination monitoring, agriculture, process control, and biomedical imaging, and can be adapted for use in any spectral domain from the ultraviolet (UV) to the LWIR region.

  14. Transformation Systems at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray; Fischer, Bernd; Havelund, Klaus; Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, TOm; Roach, Steve; Robinson, Peter; VanBaalen, Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the experiences of the Automated Software Engineering Group at the NASA Ames Research Center in the development and application of three different transformation systems. The systems span the entire technology range, from deductive synthesis, to logic-based transformation, to almost compiler-like source-to-source transformation. These systems also span a range of NASA applications, including solving solar system geometry problems, generating data analysis software, and analyzing multi-threaded Java code.

  15. Cereal transformation through particle bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casas, A. M.; Kononowicz, A. K.; Bressan, R. A.; Hasegawa, P. M.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The review focuses on experiments that lead to stable transformation in cereals using microprojectile bombardment. The discussion of biological factors that affect transformation examines target tissues and vector systems for gene transfer. The vector systems include reporter genes, selectable markers, genes of agronomic interest, and vector constructions. Other topics include physical parameters that affect DNA delivery, selection of stably transformed cells and plant regeneration, and analysis of gene expression and transmission to the progeny.

  16. Brnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid**

    E-print Network

    Reed, Christopher A.

    -Chan Kim, and Christopher A. Reed* Acids based on carborane anions as conjugate bases (Figure 1) are a newBrønsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid** Mark Juhasz, Stephan Hoffmann, Evgenii Stoyanov, Kee class of Brønsted (protic) acids, notable for their "strong yet gentle" qualities.[1] For example

  17. -Amino acids, although less abundant than their -analogues, are also present in peptides and other natural

    E-print Network

    -Amino acids, although less abundant than their -analogues, are also present in peptides and other. A number of methods for synthesis and transformations leading to -amino acids in diastereomerically and enantiomerically enriched forms have been reported.1 The synthesis of modified peptides containing -amino acids

  18. Specific Locations of Hydrophilic Amino Acids in Constructed Transmembrane Ligands of the Platelet-

    E-print Network

    Specific Locations of Hydrophilic Amino Acids in Constructed Transmembrane Ligands of the Platelet University, New Haven CT 06510, USA The 44 amino acid E5 transmembrane protein is the primary oncogene in cellular transformation. To investigate the role of transmembrane hydrophilic amino acids in receptor

  19. SHORT-TERM CHANGES IN THE BASE NEUTRALIZING CAPACITY OF AN ACID ADIRONDACK LAKE, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern and controversy over the effects of acidic deposition on low ionic strength surface wa ters has led to much discussion on the nature and extent of proton transformations within acid sensitive ecosystems. The source of base neutralizing capacity(BNC) within acid surface wa...

  20. Medical data transformation using rewriting

    PubMed Central

    Ashish, Naveen; Toga, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a system for declaratively transforming medical subjects' data into a common data model representation. Our work is part of the “GAAIN” project on Alzheimer's disease data federation across multiple data providers. We present a general purpose data transformation system that we have developed by leveraging the existing state-of-the-art in data integration and query rewriting. In this work we have further extended the current technology with new formalisms that facilitate expressing a broader range of data transformation tasks, plus new execution methodologies to ensure efficient data transformation for disease datasets. PMID:25750622

  1. Anisotropic origin of transform faults.

    PubMed

    Freund, R; Merzer, A M

    1976-04-01

    Transform faults appear in the process of stretching during freezing of the surface films on liquid wax. These films are composed of a warp yarn of wax fibers with optical anisotropy. This fabric is absent in materials that fail to produce transform faults. The mechanical anisotropy of these wax films (with high tensile strength and low shear strength in the direction of spreading) is responsible for the initiation of the transform faults. It is suggested that the anisotropy of the ocean upper mantle recorded seismically may likewise be responsible for the creation of the ridge-ridge transform faults in the oceans. PMID:17792444

  2. Plasmid transformation of Weissella paramesenteroides DX by electroporation.

    PubMed

    Papagianni, Maria; Papamichael, Emmanuel M

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation sought to provide a reliable and highly efficient electrotransformation method for the lactic acid bacterium Weissella paramesenteroides DX. Experiments were carried out with the shuttle vectors pVS44 (2910 bps), pTRKH3 (7766 bps) and its derivative pTRKH3-1 (4855 bps). Several parameters, including the concentration of transforming plasmid DNA, plasmid size, electric field strength, age of the culture, cell density, and the pretreatment of cells with dl-threonine, lysozyme, and combined treatment with lithium acetate and dithiothreitol, were investigated and proved to influence the efficiency of transformation. Electrocompetence was found to peak in the early stationary phase (OD600 1.2). Other optimized conditions included: the concentration of 10 ?g/ml transforming DNA, the cell density of 10(10) cells/ml, a high-density electric field pulse of 2.5 kV, 25 ?F and 200 ?, pretreatment of cells with 40 mM dl-threonine and 2000 U/ml lysozyme, and yielded 3.5×10(4) transformants/?g DNA for pVS44 while 1.2×10(4) transformants/?g DNA for the large plasmid TRKH3. Compared to previously reported data, the obtained transformation efficiencies provided an 8.75-fold increase for pVS44 and ensured plasmid stability for 120 generations in non-selective medium. PMID:25199701

  3. Logarithmic Transformations in Regression: Do You Transform Back Correctly?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dambolena, Ismael G.; Eriksen, Steven E.; Kopcso, David P.

    2009-01-01

    The logarithmic transformation is often used in regression analysis for a variety of purposes such as the linearization of a nonlinear relationship between two or more variables. We have noticed that when this transformation is applied to the response variable, the computation of the point estimate of the conditional mean of the original response…

  4. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

  5. Transformation Protocol: RbCl-method Media and Solutions

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    and all of the 5 ml overnight culture can be used. 4. Transfer cutlure to sterile 50 ml tube. Chill on iceTransformation Protocol: RbCl-method Media and Solutions YETM, 500 ml: 2.5 g Yeast Extract 10 g/vol) Adjust to pH 5.8 with 0.2 M acetic acid (do not adjust pH with KOH). Add dH2O to 200 ml. Filter sterilize

  6. Determination of transformation mechanisms for DMMTA and DMDTA in landfill leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, J.; Yoon, H.; Bae, J.; Jung, H.; Kong, M.; Kim, M.

    2011-12-01

    Dimethylmonothiolated arsinic acid (DMMTA) and dimethyldithiolated arsinic acid (DMDTA) have receiving increasing attention because of its high toxicity to human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells (Naranmandura et al., 2007) and bladder EJ-1 cells (Naranmandura et al., 2009). These findings require accurate assessment of arsenic species including thiolated compounds in environmental media. Recently, Li et al. (2010) found DMMTA and DMDTA was transformed from dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in landfill leachate with low redox potential and high bacterial biomass and concentrations of BOD and sulfide. Therefore, the transformation mechanisms for DMMTA and DMDTA were investigated to quantify what arsenic species are existed and transformed in landfill leachate for determining their potential risk. For this purpose, simulated leachate mimicking mature landfill condition was prepared under the concentrations of sulfide and volatile fatty acid (VFA) and redox potential controlled. The leachate was spiked with arsenite (iAs(III)), arsenate (iAs(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and DMA respectively and the transformed arsenic species were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Factors influencing arsenic transformations in landfill leachate were evaluated in present study and these results provide to us pathways for being generated thiolated arsenicals. Realistic risk in arsenic disposed landfill is able to calculate by using these results. Acknowledgement : This research was supported by the research grant T31603 from Korea Basic Science Institute.

  7. Stable chloroplast transformation of the unicellular red alga Porphyridium species.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, Miri; Raveh, Dina; Sivan, Alex; Arad, Shoshana Malis; Shapira, Michal

    2002-05-01

    Red algae are extremely attractive for biotechnology because they synthesize accessory photosynthetic pigments (phycobilins and carotenoids), unsaturated fatty acids, and unique cell wall sulfated polysaccharides. We report a high-efficiency chloroplast transformation system for the unicellular red microalga Porphyridium sp. This is the first genetic transformation system for Rhodophytes and is based on use of a mutant form of the gene encoding acetohydroxyacid synthase [AHAS(W492S)] as a dominant selectable marker. AHAS is the target enzyme of the herbicide sulfometuron methyl, which effectively inhibits growth of bacteria, fungi, plants, and algae. Biolistic transformation of synchronized Porphyridium sp. cells with the mutant AHAS(W492S) gene that confers herbicide resistance gave a high frequency of sulfomethuron methyl-resistant colonies. The mutant AHAS gene integrated into the chloroplast genome by homologous recombination. This system paves the way for expression of foreign genes in red algae and has important biotechnological implications. PMID:12011332

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina.

    PubMed

    Urtubia, Carolina; Devia, Jessica; Castro, Alvaro; Zamora, Pablo; Aguirre, Carlos; Tapia, Eduardo; Barba, Paola; Dell Orto, Paola; Moynihan, Michael R; Petri, César; Scorza, Ralph; Prieto, Humberto

    2008-08-01

    We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the hypocotyl slice technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supplemented Murashige and Skoog (MS) media reached 11% for 'Angeleno' and 19% for 'Larry Anne' hypocotyl slices. Transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring a plasmid with the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and the green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes produced ten independent lines, six from 'Angeleno' and four from 'Larry Anne', representing transformation efficiencies of 0.8 and 0.3%, respectively, relative to the initial number of hypocotyl slices. Plants of six lines were found to produce the transgene encoded mRNAs. DNA blotting demonstrated the presence of transgene sequences in trees from five lines after 18 months of growth in the greenhouse. PMID:18493725

  9. LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS

    E-print Network

    LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS Daniel Henry Gottlieb Abstract. 1. Introduction In [Gottlieb (1998)] and [Gottlieb (2000)] we launched a study of Lorentz trans­ formations. We find that every Lorentz transformation can be expressed as an ex­ ponential e F where F is a skew symmetric operator

  10. LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS

    E-print Network

    LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS Daniel Henry Gottlieb Abstract. 1. Introduction In [Gottlieb (1998)] and [Gottlieb (2000)] we launched a study of Lorentz trans- formations. We find that every Lorentz transformation can be expressed as an ex- ponential eF where F is a skew symmetric operator

  11. LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS

    E-print Network

    LORENTZ TRANSFORMATIONS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS In [Gottlieb (1998)] and [Gottlieb (2000)] we launched a study of Lorentz tr* *ans- formations. We find that every Lorentz transformation can be expressed as an ex- ponential eF where F is a skew symmetric

  12. Translating Transformation into Something Real.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Anthropological theory and the rites of passage model were used to understand Outward Bound (OB) student experiences of transformation. Three long ethnographic interviews with 22 OB students, conducted before, after, and 3 months after the course, revealed that although the transformational effect of the course was strong initially, additional…

  13. Data compression by wavelet transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahshahani, M.

    1992-01-01

    A wavelet transform algorithm is applied to image compression. It is observed that the algorithm does not suffer from the blockiness characteristic of the DCT-based algorithms at compression ratios exceeding 25:1, but the edges do not appear as sharp as they do with the latter method. Some suggestions for the improved performance of the wavelet transform method are presented.

  14. Travel and Adult Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

  15. Transformational Professional Learning, May 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Staff Development Council, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Transformational Professional Learning" is a periodically published e-newsletter designed to influence what educational leaders think, say, and do to improve teaching and learning by promoting deep understanding of important issues, the transformation of beliefs and assumptions, and a stream of powerful goal-focused actions. There are two…

  16. Towards Transformative Leadership in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oord, Lodewijk

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that an educational organization's type of leadership will to a very large extent determine the quality of personal transformation it instigates among its stakeholders. Focusing on the importance of transformative leadership, such leadership will be viewed as a critical and collaborative process in which school-based…

  17. Transformative Learning: Mutinous Thoughts Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The author finds himself rereading an article he wrote several years ago, in which he questioned transformative learning. He recalls some of his reasons for writing the article, and considers his present position. He reflects on the understanding of consciousness that underlies much of the literature on transformative learning, and compares it…

  18. Transformational Grammar and Cognitive Psycholinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Mark

    1973-01-01

    An overview of Noam Chomsky's theories about transformational grammar and phonology is given. Since Chomsky was interested in characterizing what it is to know a language, the ways in which we demonstrate knowledge of our native language are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on describing how the transformational approach actually…

  19. Student Services Revitalization/Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipitone, Brenda; Poirer, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Over a two year period, a multidisciplinary team developed and implemented a plan to transform the delivery of student services at George Brown College in Toronto. It was a plan that called upon the College to fundamentally overhaul student services, but more importantly, to transform the service culture at the College through the students'…

  20. Apparatus and method for transforming living cells

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Galambos, Paul C.

    2003-11-11

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for in vitro transformation of living cells. The apparatus, which is formed as a microelectromechanical device by surface micromachining, can be used to temporarily disrupt the cell walls or membrane of host cells one at a time so that a particular substance (e.g. a molecular tag, nucleic acid, bacteria, virus etc.) can be introduced into the cell. Disruption of the integrity of the host cells (i.e. poration) can be performed mechanically or electrically, or by both while the host cells are contained within a flow channel. Mechanical poration is possible using a moveable member which has a pointed or serrated edge and which is driven by an electrostatic actuator to abrade, impact or penetrate the host cell. Electroporation is produced by generating a relatively high electric field across the host cell when the host cell is located in the flow channel between a pair of electrodes having a voltage applied therebetween.

  1. Parallel fast gauss transform

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, Rahul S; Sundar, Hari; Veerapaneni, Shravan

    2010-01-01

    We present fast adaptive parallel algorithms to compute the sum of N Gaussians at N points. Direct sequential computation of this sum would take O(N{sup 2}) time. The parallel time complexity estimates for our algorithms are O(N/n{sub p}) for uniform point distributions and O( (N/n{sub p}) log (N/n{sub p}) + n{sub p}log n{sub p}) for non-uniform distributions using n{sub p} CPUs. We incorporate a plane-wave representation of the Gaussian kernel which permits 'diagonal translation'. We use parallel octrees and a new scheme for translating the plane-waves to efficiently handle non-uniform distributions. Computing the transform to six-digit accuracy at 120 billion points took approximately 140 seconds using 4096 cores on the Jaguar supercomputer. Our implementation is 'kernel-independent' and can handle other 'Gaussian-type' kernels even when explicit analytic expression for the kernel is not known. These algorithms form a new class of core computational machinery for solving parabolic PDEs on massively parallel architectures.

  2. Microbial Aldicarb Transformation in Aquifer, Lake, and Salt Marsh Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Kazumi, J.; Capone, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    The microbial transformation of [N-methyl-(sup14)C]aldicarb, a carbamate pesticide, occurred in aquifer, lake, and salt marsh sediments. Microbial degradation of aldicarb took place within 21 days in aquifer sediments from sites previously exposed to aldicarb (Jamesport, Long Island, N.Y.) but did not occur in sediments which were not previously exposed (Connetquot State Park, Long Island, N.Y.). At the Jamesport sites, higher aldicarb transformation rates occurred in deep, anoxic sediments than in shallow, oxic sediments. There was a significant negative relationship (P < 0.05) between transformation rates and ambient dissolved O(inf2) levels. Aldicarb hydrolysis rates in Jamesport sediments were 10- to 1,000-fold lower than rates previously reported for soils. In addition, aldicarb degradation rates were not significantly correlated with measurements of bacterial activity and density previously determined in the same sediments. Substantially higher aldicarb degradation rates were found in anoxic lake and salt marsh than in aquifer sediments. Furthermore, we investigated the anaerobic microbial processes involved in aldicarb transformation by adding organic substrates (acetate, glucose), an alternative electron acceptor (nitrate), and microbial inhibitors (molybdate, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid) to anoxic aquifer, lake, and salt marsh sediments. The results suggest that a methanogenic consortium was important in aldicarb transformation or in the use of aldicarb-derived products such as methylamine. In addition, microbial aldicarb transformation proceeded via different pathways under oxic and anoxic conditions. In the presence of O(inf2), aldicarb transformation was mainly via an oxidation pathway, while in the absence of O(inf2), degradation took place through a hydrolytic pathway (including the formation of methylamine precursors). Under anoxic conditions, therefore, aldicarb can be transformed by microbial consortia to yield products which can be of direct benefit to natural populations of methanogens present in sediments. PMID:16535090

  3. Recent advances in transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-09-01

    Within the past a few years, transformation optics has emerged as a new research area, since it provides a general methodology and design tool for manipulating electromagnetic waves in a prescribed manner. Using transformation optics, researchers have demonstrated a host of striking phenomena and devices; many of which were only thought possible in science fiction. In this paper, we review the most recent advances in transformation optics. We focus on the theory, design, fabrication and characterization of transformation devices such as the carpet cloak, "Janus" lens and plasmonic cloak at optical frequencies, which allow routing light at the nanoscale. We also provide an outlook of the challenges and future directions in this fascinating area of transformation optics. PMID:22847459

  4. Effects of natural organic matter model compounds on the transformation of carbon tetrachloride by chloride green rust.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaoming; Butler, Elizabeth C

    2010-04-01

    Interest has grown in the use of reactive minerals for natural and engineered transformation of ground water contaminants. This study investigated how the structural properties of 10 model compounds representing natural organic matter (NOM) influenced their adsorption to chloride green rust (GR-Cl), and how this adsorption affected rate constants for transformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by GR-Cl. The affinity of benzoic acid, phthalic acid, trimesic acid, pyromellitic acid, and mellitic acid for the GR-Cl surface generally increased in the order of increasing number of carboxylic acid functional groups, increasing acidity of these functional groups, and increasing charge density. For NOM model compounds that had phenolic functional groups (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, alpha-resorcylic acid, and caffeic acid), the affinity for the GR-Cl surface was greatest for caffeic acid, which had two adjacent phenolic functional groups. Some NOM model compounds had experimentally determined Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities (q(max-Langmuir)) greater than those calculated based on external surface area measurements and the size of the NOM model compound, suggesting adsorption to internal as well as external sites at the GR-Cl surface for these compounds. Rate constants for CT transformation by GR-Cl generally decreased as the affinity of the NOM model compounds (estimated by Langmuir K values) increased, but there was no statistically significant correlation between Langmuir parameters (i.e., K and q(max-Langmuir)) and rate constants, perhaps due to significant adsorption of some NOM model compounds to sites that were not accessible to CT, such as interlayer sites. Unlike the other NOM model compounds, caffeic acid, which adsorbed to a significant extent to the GR-Cl surface, increased the rate constant for CT transformation. The influence of NOM on rate constants for CT transformation by green rusts should be considered in ground water remediation planning. PMID:20045548

  5. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  6. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  7. Acid monolayer functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikenberry, Myles

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle functionalization is an area of intensely active research, with applications across disciplines such as biomedical science and heterogeneous catalysis. This work demonstrates the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles with a quasi-monolayer of 11-sulfoundecanoic acid, 10-phosphono-1-decanesulfonic acid, and 11-aminoundecanoic acid. The carboxylic and phosphonic moieties form bonds to the iron oxide particle core, while the sulfonic acid groups face outward where they are available for catalysis. The particles were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), potentiometric titration, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The sulfonic acid functionalized particles were used to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose at 80° and starch at 130°, showing a higher activity per acid site than the traditional solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15, and comparing well against results reported in the literature for sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous silicas. In sucrose catalysis reactions, the phosphonic-sulfonic nanoparticles (PSNPs) were seen to be incompletely recovered by an external magnetic field, while the carboxylic-sulfonic nanoparticles (CSNPs) showed a trend of increasing activity over the first four recycle runs. Between the two sulfonic ligands, the phosphonates produced a more tightly packed monolayer, which corresponded to a higher sulfonic acid loading, lower agglomeration, lower recoverability through application of an external magnetic field, and higher activity per acid site for the hydrolysis of starch. Functionalizations with 11-aminoundecanoic acid resulted in some amine groups binding to the surfaces of iron oxide nanoparticles. This amine binding is commonly ignored in iron oxide nanoparticle syntheses and functionalizations for biomedical and catalytic applications, affecting understandings of surface charge and other material properties.

  8. Integrated transformations of plant biomass to valuable chemicals, biodegradable polymers and nanoporous carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, B. N.; Chesnokov, N. V.; Taraban'ko, V. E.; Kuznetsova, S. A.; Petrov, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    Integrated transformations of wood biomass to valuable chemicals and materials are described. They include the main biomass components separation, the conversion of cellulose to glucose, levulinic acid, biodegradable polymers and lignin - to nanoporous carbons. For wood fractionation on pure cellulose and low molecular mass lignin the methods of catalytic oxidation and exploded autohydrolysis are used. The processes of acid-catalysed hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and levulinic acid were optimized. New methods of biodegradable polymers synthesis from lactone of levulinic acid and nanoporous carbons from lignin were suggested.

  9. A NEW FOURIER TRANSFORM JONATHAN WANG

    E-print Network

    May, J. Peter

    A NEW FOURIER TRANSFORM JONATHAN WANG Abstract. In order to define a geometric Fourier transform action of Gm, however, Laumon provides a uniform geometric construction of the Fourier transform in any the relation between this new functor and Laumon's homogeneous transform, the Fourier-Deligne transform

  10. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  11. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  12. Conduction-coupled Tesla transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, J. L.

    2015-03-01

    A proof-of-principle Tesla transformer circuit is introduced. The new transformer exhibits the high voltage-high power output signal of shock-excited transformers. The circuit, with specification of proper circuit element values, is capable of obtaining extreme oscillatory voltages. The primary and secondary portions of the circuit communicate solely by conduction. The destructive arcing between the primary and secondary inductors in electromagnetically coupled transformers is ubiquitous. Flashover is eliminated in the new transformer as the high-voltage inductors do not interpenetrate and so do not possess an annular volume of electric field. The inductors are remote from one another. The high voltage secondary inductor is isolated in space, except for a base feed conductor, and obtains earth by its self-capacitance to the surroundings. Governing equations, for the ideal case of no damping, are developed from first principles. Experimental, theoretical, and circuit simulator data are presented for the new transformer. Commercial high-temperature superconductors are discussed as a means to eliminate the counter-intuitive damping due to small primary inductances in both the electromagnetic-coupled and new conduction-coupled transformers.

  13. Conduction-coupled Tesla transformer.

    PubMed

    Reed, J L

    2015-03-01

    A proof-of-principle Tesla transformer circuit is introduced. The new transformer exhibits the high voltage-high power output signal of shock-excited transformers. The circuit, with specification of proper circuit element values, is capable of obtaining extreme oscillatory voltages. The primary and secondary portions of the circuit communicate solely by conduction. The destructive arcing between the primary and secondary inductors in electromagnetically coupled transformers is ubiquitous. Flashover is eliminated in the new transformer as the high-voltage inductors do not interpenetrate and so do not possess an annular volume of electric field. The inductors are remote from one another. The high voltage secondary inductor is isolated in space, except for a base feed conductor, and obtains earth by its self-capacitance to the surroundings. Governing equations, for the ideal case of no damping, are developed from first principles. Experimental, theoretical, and circuit simulator data are presented for the new transformer. Commercial high-temperature superconductors are discussed as a means to eliminate the counter-intuitive damping due to small primary inductances in both the electromagnetic-coupled and new conduction-coupled transformers. PMID:25832281

  14. Transform coding for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Data compression coding requirements for aerospace applications differ somewhat from the compression requirements for entertainment systems. On the one hand, entertainment applications are bit rate driven with the goal of getting the best quality possible with a given bandwidth. Science applications are quality driven with the goal of getting the lowest bit rate for a given level of reconstruction quality. In the past, the required quality level has been nothing less than perfect allowing only the use of lossless compression methods (if that). With the advent of better, faster, cheaper missions, an opportunity has arisen for lossy data compression methods to find a use in science applications as requirements for perfect quality reconstruction runs into cost constraints. This paper presents a review of the data compression problem from the space application perspective. Transform coding techniques are described and some simple, integer transforms are presented. The application of these transforms to space-based data compression problems is discussed. Integer transforms have an advantage over conventional transforms in computational complexity. Space applications are different from broadcast or entertainment in that it is desirable to have a simple encoder (in space) and tolerate a more complicated decoder (on the ground) rather than vice versa. Energy compaction with new transforms are compared with the Walsh-Hadamard (WHT), Discrete Cosine (DCT), and Integer Cosine (ICT) transforms.

  15. Spacecraft transformer and inductor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion process in spacecraft power electronics requires the use of magnetic components which frequently are the heaviest and bulkiest items in the conversion circuit. This handbook pertains to magnetic material selection, transformer and inductor design tradeoffs, transformer design, iron core dc inductor design, toroidal power core inductor design, window utilization factors, regulation, and temperature rise. Relationships are given which simplify and standardize the design of transformers and the analysis of the circuits in which they are used. The interactions of the various design parameters are also presented in simplified form so that tradeoffs and optimizations may easily be made.

  16. DNA UPTAKE BY TRANSFORMABLE BACTERIA

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    1999-09-07

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  17. DNA Uptake by Transformable Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1999-03-31

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  18. Intelligent Transformer: Possibilities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viktor, Beldjajev; Indrek, Roasto; Tõnu, Lehtla

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers the concept of an intelligent transformer that is a good candidate to replace a conventional low frequency transformer in the microgrids. As the power production and consumption can vary in a wide range, the new substations have to meet many requirements to guarantee reliable energy management in the autonomous networks. Different topologies of intelligent transformers can be used to meet these requirements. Therefore the advantages and disadvantages of the existing topologies were analyzed. The future trends and challenges are also discussed.

  19. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.; Gueceri, S. I.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of eutectic transformation was examined to find guidelines to the best material combinations to examine. The heats of transformation were measured calorimetrically, and the volume changes of expanding solid mixtures and homogeneous liquid solutions, especially during the transformation between the two states at fixed temperature, were measured by changes in X-ray absorption. Heat flow models appropriate to storage in phase change materials were developed along with efficient calculating procedures so that the relative importance of the problems associated with energy storage density, heat conduction, and similar properties could be assessed.

  20. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs ...

  1. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePLUS

    Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

  2. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  3. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePLUS

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acids levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  4. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > Parents > Pregnancy & Newborn Center > Your ... especially before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  5. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... defects of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  6. Ripplet-II transform for feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Dapeng

    2010-07-01

    Current image representation schemes have limited capability of representing 2D singularities (e.g., edges in an image). Wavelet transform has better performance in representing 1D singularities than Fourier transform. Recently invented ridgelet and curvelet transform achieve better performance in resolving 2D singularities than wavelet transform. To further improve the capability of representing 2D singularities, this paper proposes a new transform called ripplet transform Type II (ripplet-II). The new transform is able to capture 2D singularities along a family of curves in images. In fact, ridgelet transform is a special case of ripplet-II transform with degree 1. Ripplet-II transform can be used for feature extraction due to its efficiency in representing edges and textures. Experiments in texture classification and image retrieval demonstrate that the ripplet-II transform based scheme outperforms wavelet and ridgelet transform based approaches.

  7. Direction Neutral Language Transformation with Metamodels

    E-print Network

    Gogolla, Martin - Fachbereich 3

    Direction Neutral Language Transformation with Metamodels Martin Gogolla University of Bremen in a direction neutral way and opens the possibility for bidirectionality. Analogously, semantical objects can: descriptive transformation specification, direction neutral transformations, separation of syntax

  8. BIOLISTIC TRANSFORMATION OF SUGAR BEET CELL SUSPENSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nonproprietary sugar beet transformation methods are plagued by low transformation frequencies and lack of reproducibility. In efforts to optimize the methods, we established highly embryogenic sugar beet cell suspension cultures for transformation by the particle bombardment method. Callus obtain...

  9. Transformational leadership in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Doody, Owen; Doody, Catriona M

    Traditionally, nurses have been over-managed and led inadequately, yet today they face unprecedented challenges and opportunities. Organisations constantly face changes that require an increasingly adaptive and flexible leadership. This type of adaptive leadership is referred to as 'transformational'; under it, environments of shared responsibilities that influence new ways of knowing are created. Transformational leadership motivates followers by appealing to higher ideas and moral values, where the leader has a deep set of internal values and ideas. This leads to followers acting to sustain the greater good, rather than their own interests, and supportive environments where responsibility is shared. This article focuses on transformational leadership and its application to nursing through the four components of transformational leadership. These are: idealised influence; inspirational motivation; intellectual stimulation; and individual consideration. PMID:23132001

  10. Cognitive Transformations and Extended Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menary, Richard; Kirchhoff, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Expertise is extended by becoming immersed in cultural practices. We look at an example of mathematical expertise in which immersion in cognitive practices results in the transformation of expert performance.

  11. Reservoir characterization using wavelet transforms 

    E-print Network

    Rivera Vega, Nestor

    2004-09-30

    Automated detection of geological boundaries and determination of cyclic events controlling deposition can facilitate stratigraphic analysis and reservoir characterization. This study applies the wavelet transformation, a recent advance in signal...

  12. Lightweight, high-frequency transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    The 25-kVA space transformer was developed under contract by Thermal Technology Laboratory, Buffalo, N. Y. The NASA Lewis transformer technology program attempted to develop the baseline technology. For the 25-kVA transformer the input voltage was chosen as 200 V, the output voltage as 1500 V, the input voltage waveform as square wave, the duty cycle as continuous, the frequency range (within certain constraints) as 10 to 40 kHz, the operating temperatures as 85 deg. and 130 C, the baseplate temperature as 50 C, the equivalent leakage inductance as less than 10 micro-h, the operating environment as space, and the life expectancy as 10 years. Such a transformer can also be used for aircraft, ship and terrestrial applications.

  13. Rotary Transformer Seals Power In

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.; Paulkovich, J.

    1982-01-01

    Rotary transformer originally developed for spacecraft transfers electrical power from stationary primary winding to rotating secondary without sliding contacts and very little leakage of electromagnetic radiation. Transformer has two stationary primary windings connected in parallel. Secondary, mounted on a shaft that extends out of housing, rotates between two windings of primary. Shaft of secondary is composed of electrically conducting inner and outer parts separated by an insulator. Electrical contact is made from secondary winding, through shaft, to external leads.

  14. Scaling Transformation for Nonlocal Interactions

    E-print Network

    Hai-Jhun Wanng

    2015-03-06

    In the light of their relationships with renormalization, in this paper we associate the scaling transformation with nonlocal interactions. On one hand, the association leads us to interpret the nonlocality with locally symmetric method. On the other hand, we find that the nonlocal interaction between hadrons could be test ground for scaling transformation if ascribing the running effects in renormalization to scaling transformation. First we derive directly from group theory the operator/coordinate representation and unitary/spinor representation for scaling transformation, then link them together by inquiring a scaling-invariant interaction vertex mimicking the similar process of Lorentz transformation applied to Dirac equation. The main feature of this paper is that we discuss both the representations in a sole physical frame. The representations correspond respectively to the spatial freedom and the intrinsic freedom of the same quantum system. And the latter is recognized to contribute to spin angular momentum that in literature has never been considered seriously. The nonlocal interaction Lagrangian turns out to vary under scaling transformation, analogous to running cases in renormalization. And the total Lagrangian becomes scale invariant only under some extreme conditions. The conservation law of this extreme Lagrangian is discussed and a contribution named scalum appears to the spin angular momentum. Finally a mechanism is designed to test the scaling effect on nonlocal interaction.

  15. Neoplastic transformation of human cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this project was to gain a better understanding of the cellular mechanisms of cancer induction by ionizing radiation as a risk assessment for workers subjected to high LET irradiation such as that found in space. The following ions were used for irradiation: Iron, Argon, Neon, and Lanthanum. Two tests were performed: growth in low serum and growth in agar were used as indicators of cell transformation. The specific aims of this project were to: (1) compare the effectiveness of various ions on degree of transformation of a single dose of the same RBE; (2) determine if successive irradiations with the same ion (Ge 600 MeV/u) increases the degree of transformation; (3) test if clones with the greatest degree of transformation produce tumors in nude mice; and (4) construct a cell hybrid of a transformed and control (non-transformed) clone. The cells used for this work are human mammary epithelial cells with an extended lifespan and selected for growth in MEM + 10% serum.

  16. A novel transformation of polychlorinated biphenyls by Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, M.; Kimbara, K.; Fukuda, M. |

    1995-09-01

    We have characterized a biphenyl degrader, Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1. Biphenyl-grown cells of strain RHA1 efficiently transformed 45 components in the 62 major peaks of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture of Kanechlors 200, 300, 400, and 500 within 3 days, which includes mono- to octachlorobiphenyls. Among the intermediate metabolites of PCB transformation, di- and trichlorobenzoic acids were identified. The gradual decrease of these chlorobenzoic acids during incubation indicated that these chlorobenzoic acids would also be degraded by this strain. The effect of the position of chlorine substitution was determined by using PCB mixtures that have chlorine substitutions mainly at either the ortho or the meta position. This strain transformed both types of congeners, and strong PCB transformation activity of RHA1 was indicated. RHA1 accumulated 4-chlorobenzoic acid temporally during the transformation of 4-chlorobiphenyl. The release of most chloride in the course of 2,2`-dichlorobiphenyl degradation was observed. These results suggested that RHA1 would break down at least some PCB congeners into smaller molecules to a considerable extent. 21 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Seeing the Fisher Z-Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Charles F., Jr.; Richardson, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Since 1915, statisticians have been applying Fisher's Z-transformation to Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. We offer new geometric interpretations of this transformation. (Contains 9 figures.)

  18. Production of a novel 9,12-dihydroxy-10(E)-eicosenoic acid from eicosenoic acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3.

    PubMed

    Back, Ka-Yeon; Sohn, Hye-Ran; Hou, Ching T; Kim, Hak-Ryul

    2011-09-14

    Microbial conversions of unsaturated fatty acids often generate polyhydroxy fatty acids, giving them new properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity. A bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3) has been intensively studied to produce mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acids from different 9-cis-monoenoic fatty acids such as oleic acid, ricinoleic acid, and palmitoleic acid. However, from the results and the postulated similar metabolic pathways involved in these transformations, it was assumed that the enzyme system involved in transformation of the monoenoic fatty acid by strain PR3 could utilize fatty acids with different chain lengths and locations of the double bond. In this study was used as a substrate for bioconversion by strain PR3 eicosenoic acid (C20:1, ?-9) containing a singular cis double bond at different positions from the carboxyl end as oleic acid, and it was confirmed that PR3 could produce a novel 9,12-dihydroxy-10(E)-eicosenoic acid (DED) with 6.2% yield from eicosenoic acid. The structure of DED was confirmed using GC-MS, FTIR, and NMR analyses. DED production was maximized at 72 h after the substrate was added to the 24 h culture. Some other nutritional factors were also studied for optimal production of DED. PMID:21809883

  19. Acidic deposition: review of current knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Events in Europe which led to the introduction of the concern for acidic deposition in eastern North America are reviewed. Some of the early conclusions regarding the existence of a trend and the extent of the phenomenon are reexamined. These reexaminations indicate that the definition of a precipitation acidity trend is questionable. Also, it was verified that any explanation of the variability of precipitation acidity must consider such factors as drought and farming and forest management activities. The chemical constituents contributing most to precipitation acidity are reviewed as an indication of primary sources. Sulfate is the primary contributor in the Northeast (60 to 70%). The contribution due to nitrates in this region increased from about 22% in the mid-1950s to about 30% in 1973. However, in other regions deposition acidity may be attributable to a much different combination of chemical species, and may even be dominated by an acidic constituent other than sulfate or nitrate. Several individual processes involved in the transport and transformation of precursor pollutants from source to receptor were briefly reviewed. These processes included mechanisms for the transformation of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions into sulfates and nitrates, specific meteorological conditions conducive to long-range transport, major source identification, and the incorporation of this information into mathematical models to predict acidic deposition amounts and patterns. Although the information presented does not explore ecery facet of each process, it does address important governing features and allows for an appreciation of the complexity of quantifying the complete process through use of mathematical models.

  20. Interrelation of surface tension, optical turbidity, and color of operational transformer oils

    SciTech Connect

    L'vov, S. Yu.; Lyut'ko, E. O.; Lankau, Ya. V.; Komarov, V. B.; Seliverstov, A. F.; Bondareva, V. N.; L'vov, Yu. N.; L'vov, M. Yu.; Ershov, B. G.

    2011-09-15

    Measurements of the acidity, optical turbidity, surface tension, and color of transformer oil from 54 power transformers, autotransformers, and shunt reactors are reported. Changes in surface tension, optical turbidity, and color are found to obey adequate linear correlations, while the acidity has no correlation with any of these properties. Numerical criteria for the maximum permissible state (quality) of the oil with respect to optical turbidity and color are obtained. Recommendations to operating staff are provided for cases in which the criteria for optical turbidity and color are exceeded.

  1. METABOLISM, MICROFLORA EFFECTS, AND GENOTOXICITY IN HALOACETIC ACID-TREATED CULTURES OF RAT CECAL MICROBIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Haloacetic acids are by-products of drinking water disinfection. Several compounds in this class are genotoxic and have been identified as rodent hepatocarcinogens. Enzymes produced by the normal intestinal bacteria can transform some promutagens and procarcinogens to their bio...

  2. tRNA as an active chemical scaffold for diverse chemical transformations

    PubMed Central

    Francklyn, Christopher S.; Minajigi, Anand

    2011-01-01

    During protein synthesis, tRNA serves as the intermediary between cognate amino acids and their corresponding RNA trinucleotide codons. Aminoacyl-tRNA is also a biosynthetic precursor and amino acid donor for other macromolecules. AA-tRNAs allow transformations of acidic amino acids into their amide-containing counterparts, and seryl-tRNASer donates serine for antibiotic synthesis. Aminoacyl-tRNA is also used to cross-link peptidoglycan, to lysinylate the lipid bilayer, and to allow proteolytic turnover via the N-end rule. These alternative functions may signal the use of RNA in early evolution as both a biological scaffold and a catalyst to achieve a wide variety of chemical transformations. PMID:19925795

  3. Radiogenic cell transformation and carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Mei, M.; Durante, M.; Craise, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis is one of the major biological effects considered important in the risk assessment for space travel. Various biological model systems, including both cultured cells and animals, have been found useful for studying the carcinogenic effects of space radiations, which consist of energetic electrons, protons and heavy ions. The development of techniques for studying neoplastic cell transformation in culture has made it possible to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. Cultured cell systems are thus complementary to animal models. Many investigators have determined the oncogenic effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation in cultured mammalian cells. One of the cell systems used most often for radiation transformation studies is mouse embryonic cells (C3H10T1/2), which are easy to culture and give good quantitative dose-response curves. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for heavy ions with various energies and linear energy transfer (LET) have been obtained with this cell system. Similar RBE and LET relationship was observed by investigators for other cell systems. In addition to RBE measurements, fundamental questions on repair of sub- and potential oncogenic lesions, direct and indirect effect, primary target and lesion, the importance of cell-cell interaction and the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in radiogenic carcinogenesis have been studied, and interesting results have been found. Recently several human epithelial cell systems have been developed, and ionizing radiation have been shown to transform these cells. Oncogenic transformation of these cells, however, requires a long expression time and/or multiple radiation exposures. Limited experimental data indicate high-LET heavy ions can be more effective than low-LET radiation in inducing cell transformation. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses can be performed with cloned transformants to provide insights into basic genetic mechanism(s) of radiogenic transformation of human epithelial cells.

  4. Microbial transformation of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin).

    PubMed Central

    He, P; Young, L G; Forsberg, C

    1992-01-01

    Microbial inocula from rumen fluid, soil, and contents of the large intestines of chickens (CLIC) and of swine (SLIC) were tested for their ability to transform deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in vitro. Microorganisms in (CLIC) completely transformed pure vomitoxin, and this activity was retained through six serial subcultures. No alteration of the toxin by incubation with SLIC was detected, whereas 35% of the vomitoxin was metabolized in the original culture of rumen fluid and 50% was metabolized by the soil sample, though metabolism was decreased in subsequent subcultures of either sample. A single metabolite was isolated and identified as deepoxy vomitoxin. The increase in concentration of deepoxy vomitoxin in the culture medium corresponded with the decrease in vomitoxin concentration. The vomitoxin transformation rate was not affected by either the ratio of CLIC to vomitoxin (5 to 0.2 g of CLIC per mg of vomitoxin) or the initial concentration of vomitoxin (14 to 1,400 ppm) in the medium. Biotransformation of vomitoxin was completely inhibited when the pH in the medium was lowered to 5.20. Sodium azide at a 0.1% (wt/vol) concentration in the medium blocked the transformation of vomitoxin, suggesting that the deepoxidation of vomitoxin is an energy-dependent process. About 50% of the vomitoxin in moldy corn in culture medium was transformed by microorganisms from CLIC. The vomitoxin transformation rate in moldy corn was not affected when the concentration of CLIC changed from 0.2 to 0.8 g/ml of medium. Vomitoxin in the moldy corn was not transformed when CLIC were added to corn without culture medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1476428

  5. Formic Acid Mechanical,

    E-print Network

    Lee, Tonghun

    Formic Acid Fire Ant Starch Mechanical, Industrial Chemical, Petroleum Biological What Do and engineering. Products will range from starch, to polylactic acid, to corn fiber, to motor fuels. Progressive systems. Fire ants make formic acid. U of I researchers are developing fuel cells that use formic acid (1

  6. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid

  7. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePLUS

    Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... drugs that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

  8. Appell transformation and symmetry transformations for the paraxial wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torre, A.

    2011-07-01

    The analysis presented in this paper is the natural continuation of that developed in a previous paper, where the Appell transformation, well known in the theory of the heat equation, has been interpreted in relation to the paraxial (free) propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry as connecting solutions of the pertinent paraxial wave equation, which are generated by Fourier or Hankel pairs of functions. Indeed, here we will reformulate in optical terms the result proved by Leutwiler relative to the n-dimensional heat equation. Accordingly, we will show that the optical Appell transformation is essentially—in the sense clarified in the text—the only symmetry transformation for the paraxial wave equation.

  9. Synthesis of Oxazoles by Tandem Cycloisomerization/Allylic Alkylation of Propargyl Amides with Allylic Alcohols: Zn(OTf)2 as ? Acid and ? Acid Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Ying; Zhou, Ling; Wang, Jianwu; Tung, Chen-Ho; Xu, Zhenghu

    2015-12-18

    A Zn(OTf)2-catalyzed tandem cycloisomerization/allylic alkylation of N-(propargyl)arylamides and allylic alcohols to produce oxazole derivatives has been successfully developed. The zinc catalyst served as ? acid and also ? acid in this reaction. The target allylic oxazoles have been transformed into multisubstituted diene structures, which are potential aggregation-induced emission active optical materials. PMID:26618919

  10. A mild copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative thiocyanation of arylboronic acids with TMSNCS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Nan; Che, Liusheng; Mo, Weimin; Hu, Baoxiang; Shen, Zhenlu; Hu, Xinquan

    2015-01-21

    A facile and efficient transformation of arylboronic acids to their corresponding aryl thiocyanates has been successfully developed. Based on the CuCl-catalyzed oxidative cross-coupling reaction between arylboronic acids and trimethylsilylisothiocyanate (TMSNCS) under oxygen atmosphere, the transformation can be readily conducted at ambient temperature. The newly-developed protocol provided a competitive synthetic approach to aryl thiocyanates that can tolerate a broad range of reactive functional groups and/or strong electron-withdrawing groups. PMID:25514847

  11. Electrochemical Oxidative Decarboxylation of Malonic Acid Derivatives: A Method for the Synthesis of Ketals and Ketones.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaofeng; Luo, Xiya; Dochain, Simon; Mathot, Charlotte; Markò, István E

    2015-10-01

    A novel electrochemical oxidative decarboxylation of disubstituted malonic acids leading to dimethoxy ketals is described. In the presence of NH3, a wide range of disubstituted malonic acids was transformed into the corresponding ketals in good to excellent yields under electrochemical conditions. When the crude reaction mixture, obtained after electrolysis, was directly treated with 1 M aq HCl, the initially generated ketals were smoothly transformed into the corresponding ketones in a single vessel operation. PMID:26392322

  12. Direct synthesis of formic acid from carbon dioxide by hydrogenation in acidic media

    PubMed Central

    Moret, Séverine; Dyson, Paul J.; Laurenczy, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The chemical transformation of carbon dioxide into useful products becomes increasingly important as CO2 levels in the atmosphere continue to rise as a consequence of human activities. In this article we describe the direct hydrogenation of CO2 into formic acid using a homogeneous ruthenium catalyst, in aqueous solution and in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), without any additives. In water, at 40?°C, 0.2?M formic acid can be obtained under 200?bar, however, in DMSO the same catalyst affords 1.9?M formic acid. In both solvents the catalysts can be reused multiple times without a decrease in activity. Worldwide demand for formic acid continues to grow, especially in the context of a renewable energy hydrogen carrier, and its production from CO2 without base, via the direct catalytic carbon dioxide hydrogenation, is considerably more sustainable than the existing routes. PMID:24886955

  13. Transforming activity of retroviral genomes encoding Gag-Axl fusion proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q K; Boast, S; de los Santos, K; Begemann, M; Goff, S P

    1996-01-01

    Retroviral genomes encoding a portion of the Moloney murine leukemia virus Gag protein fused to portions of the murine axl cDNA were constructed so as to mimic naturally occurring transforming viruses. Virus MA1 retained 5 amino acids of the extracellular domain and the complete transmembrane and intracellular domains of Axl; virus MA2 retained only the intracellular Axl sequences beginning 33 amino acids downstream of the transmembrane region. Although both viruses could transform NIH 3T3 cells, they induced different morphological changes. MA1 transformants became elongated and assumed a cross-hatched pattern, while MA2 transformants were round and very refractile and grew to high density. Gag-Axl and Glyco-Gag-Axl proteins were detected in both types of transformed cells and were predominantly localized to the cytoplasmic compartment. When cell-free v-axl virus supernatants were introduced into wild-type BALB/c neonates, Rag-2-deficient mice, or c-myc transgenic mice, they did not cause tumors in a 3-month period. However, MA2-transformed NIH 3T3 cells, but not MA1 or control cells, could establish sarcomas by subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection into BALB/c neonates. These results show that the transforming potential of the axl gene can be activated by truncation of the extracellular domain of the receptor and fusion of the remaining sequence to the gag gene. PMID:8892934

  14. Transformation efficiency and formation of transformation products during photochemical degradation of TCE and PCE at micromolar concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene are the most common pollutants in groundwater and two of the priority pollutants listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In previous studies on TCE and PCE photolysis and photochemical degradation, concentration ranges exceeding environmental levels by far with millimolar concentrations of TCE and PCE have been used, and it is not clear if the obtained results can be used to explain the degradation of these contaminants at more realistic environmental concentration levels. Methods Experiments with micromolar concentrations of TCE and PCE in aqueous solution using direct photolysis and UV/H2O2 have been conducted and product formation as well as transformation efficiency have been investigated. SPME/GC/MS, HPLC/UV and ion chromatography with conductivity detection have been used to determine intermediates of degradation. Results The results showed that chloride was a major end product in both TCE and PCE photodegradation. Several intermediates such as formic acid, dichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetaldehyede, chloroform, formaldehyde and glyoxylic acid were formed during both, UV and UV/H2O2 treatment of TCE. However chloroacetaldehyde and chloroacetic acid were only detected during direct UV photolysis of TCE and oxalic acid was only formed during the UV/H2O2 process. For PCE photodegradation, formic acid, di- and trichloroacetic acids were detected in both UV and UV/H2O2 systems, but formaldehyde and glyoxylic acid were only detected during direct UV photolysis. Conclusions For water treatment UV/H2O2 seems to be favorable over direct UV photolysis because of its higher degradation efficiency and lower risk for the formation of harmful intermediates. PMID:24401763

  15. Immersed surfaces and membranes transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kats, E. I.; Monastyrsky, M. I.

    2015-06-01

    Physical and biological observation methods provide a variety of bilayer membranes’ shapes and their transformations. Besides, the topological and geometrical methods allow us to deduce a classification of all possible membrane surfaces. This double-sided approach leads to a deeper insight into membranes properties. Our goal is to apply an appropriate mathematical technique for classifying vesicles (closed surfaces in mathematical terminology) and for their transformation ways. The problem turned out to be an intricate one, and to our knowledge no mathematical techniques have been applied to its solution. We find that all vesicles can be decomposed in a small number of universality classes generated by a few ‘bricks’: a torus, a screwed torus, and the real projective plane. We consider several ways of transforming membrane surfaces, bearing in mind that they possess an additional extremal property. Our method exploits different constructions of minimal surfaces in S3. We estimate energetic barrier for transformation of minimal membrane surfaces using the so-called doubling procedure. This problem is far from being a pure theoretical exercise. For instance, almost all cells’ biological functions, or tumor progression, are accompanied by apparently singular cell membrane transformations.

  16. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  17. Environmental Selenium Transformations: Distinguishing Abiotic and Biotic Factors Influencing Se Redox Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, C.; Kenyon, J.; James, B. R.; Santelli, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, selenium (Se) is proving to be a significant environmental concern, with many anthropogenic activities (e.g. coal mining and combustion, phosphate mining and agricultural irrigation) releasing potentially hazardous concentrations into surface and subsurface ecosystems. The US EPA is currently considering aquatic Se regulations, however no guidelines exist for excess soil Se, despite its ability to act as a persistent Se source. Various abiotic and biological processes mediate Se oxidation/reduction (redox) transformations in soils, thus influencing its solubility and bioavailability. In this research we assess (1) the ability of metal-transforming fungal species to aerobically reduce Se (Se (IV and/or VI) to Se(0)), and (2) the relative contribution of biotic and abiotic pathways for aerobic Se transformation. The primary objective of this research is to determine what abiotic and biotic factors enhance or restrict Se bioavailability. Results indicate that fungal-mediated Se reduction may be quite widespread, with at least 7 out of 10 species of known Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi isolated from metal impacted environments also identified as capable of aerobically reducing Se(IV) and/or Se(VI) to Se(0). Increasing concentrations of selenite (SeO32-; Se(IV)) and selenate (SeO42-; Se(VI)) generally reduced fungal growth rates, although selenate was more likely to inhibit fungal growth than selenite. To study oxidation, Se(0) was combined with Mn(III/IV) (hydr)oxides (henceforth referred to as Mn oxides), Se-transforming fungi (Alternaria alternata), and oxalic acid to mimic Se biogeochemistry at the plant-soil interface. Increased pH in the presence of fungi (7.2 with fungi, 6.8 without fungi after 24 days) was observed. Additionally, a slight decrease in redox potential was measured for incubations without Mn oxides (236 mV with Mn oxides, 205 mV without Mn oxides after 24 days), indicating that Mn oxides may enhance Se oxidation. Elemental Se oxidation rates to Se(IV and/or SeVI) and extent will also be determined by measuring dissolved Se(IV) and Se(VI). Results from this research are key for understanding Se-transforming reactions in soils, and the role of both biotic and abiotic factors in influencing Se bioavailability and mobility within and out of contaminated ecosystems.

  18. Sialic acids in cancer biology and immunity.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Oliver M T; Läubli, Heinz

    2016-02-01

    During malignant transformation, glycosylation is heavily altered compared with healthy tissue due to differential expression of glycosyltransferases, glycosidases and monosaccharide transporters within the cancer microenvironment. One key change of malignant tissue glycosylation is the alteration of sialic acid processing that leads to a general upregulation of sialylated glycans (hypersialylation) on cell surfaces and an increased introduction of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) instead of N-acetyl-neuraminic acid into cell surface glycans. These changes have been shown to be the result of altered sialyltransferase and sialidase expression. Functionally, cancer-associated hypersialylation appears to directly impact tumor cell interaction with the microenvironment, in particular the modulation of sialic acid-binding lectins on immune cells. Moreover, Neu5Gc expression in human tissues enhances inflammation due to an anti-Neu5Gc immune response, which can potentially influence inflammation-induced cancer and cancer-associated inflammation. In this review, we summarize the changes of sialic acid biology within the malignant microenvironment and the resulting effect on cancer immunity. PMID:26518624

  19. Enhanced perturbative continuous unitary transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krull, H.; Drescher, N. A.; Uhrig, G. S.

    2012-09-01

    Unitary transformations are an essential tool for the theoretical understanding of many systems by mapping them to simpler effective models. A systematically controlled variant to perform such a mapping is a perturbative continuous unitary transformation (pCUT) among others. So far, this approach required an equidistant unperturbed spectrum. Here, we pursue two goals: First, we extend its applicability to nonequidistant spectra with the particular focus on an efficient derivation of the differential flow equations, which define the enhanced perturbative continuous unitary transformation (epCUT). Second, we show that the numerical integration of the flow equations yields a robust scheme to extract data from the epCUT. The method is illustrated by the perturbation of the harmonic oscillator with a quartic term and of the two-leg spin ladders in the strong-rung-coupling limit for uniform and alternating rung couplings. The latter case provides an example of perturbation around a nonequidistant spectrum.

  20. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.; Gueceri, S. I.; Farkas, D.; Labdon, M. B.; Nagaswami, N.; Pregger, B.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was determined. The following major elements were studied: (1) identification of congruently transforming alloys and thermochemical property measurements; (2) development of a precise and convenient method for measuring volume change during phase transformation and thermal expansion coefficients; (3) development of a numerical modeling routine for calculating heat flow in cylindrical heat exchangers containing phase change materials; and (4) identification of materials that could be used to contain the metal alloys. Several eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation from data obtained during one continuous experimental test. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented. The development of the numerical modeling method is presented and results are discussed for both salt and metal alloy phase change media.

  1. Unsolved problems in plastid transformation

    PubMed Central

    Rigano, M. Manuela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2012-01-01

    Plants have been proved as a novel production platform for a wide range of biologically important compounds such as enzymes, therapeutic proteins, antibiotics, and proteins with immunological properties. In this context, plastid genetic engineering can be potentially used to produce recombinant proteins. However, several challenges still remain to be overcome if the full potential of plastid transformation technology is to be realized. They include the development of plastid transformation systems for species other than tobacco, the expression of transgenes in non-green plastids, the increase of protein accumulation and the appearance of pleiotropic effects. In this paper, we discuss the novel tools recently developed to overcome some limitations of chloroplast transformation. PMID:22892591

  2. Trace Driven Data Structure Transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Janjusic, Tomislav; Kartsaklis, Christos

    2012-01-01

    As the complexity of scientific codes and computational hardware increases it is increasingly important to study the effects of data-structure layouts on program memory behavior. Program structure layouts affect the memory performance differently, therefore we need the capability to effectively study such transformations without the need to rewrite application codes. Trace-driven simulations are an effective and convenient mechanism to simulate program behavior at various granularities. During an application s execution, a tool known as a tracer or profiler, collects program flow data and records program instructions. The trace-file consists of tuples that associate each program instruction with program internal variables. In this paper we outline a proof-of-concept mechanism to apply data-structure transformations during trace simulation and observe effects on memory without the need to manually transform an application s code.

  3. Phase Transformations in Confined Nanosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Shield, Jeffrey E.; Belashchenko, Kirill

    2014-04-29

    This project discovered that non-equilibrium structures, including chemically ordered structures not observed in bulk systems, form in isolated nanoscale systems. Further, a generalized model was developed that effectively explained the suppression of equilibrium phase transformations. This thermodynamic model considered the free energy decrease associated with the phase transformation was less than the increase in energy associated with the formation of an interphase interface, therefore inhibiting the phase transformation. A critical diameter exists where the system transitions to bulk behavior, and a generalized equation was formulated that successfully predicted this transition in the Fe-Au system. This provided and explains a new route to novel structures not possible in bulk systems. The structural characterization was accomplished using transmission electron microscopy in collaboration with Matthew Kramer of Ames Laboratory. The PI and graduate student visited Ames Laboratory several times a year to conduct the experiments.

  4. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Dunahay, Terri Goodman (2710 Arbor Glen Pl., Boulder, CO 80304); Roessler, Paul G. (15905 Ellsworth Pl., Golden, CO 80401); Jarvis, Eric E. (3720 Smuggler Pl., Boulder, CO 80303)

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae which includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae.

  5. Method to transform algae, materials therefor, and products produced thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Dunahay, T.G.; Roessler, P.G.; Jarvis, E.E.

    1997-08-26

    Disclosed is a method to transform chlorophyll C-containing algae. The method includes introducing a recombinant molecule comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding a dominant selectable marker operatively linked to an algal regulatory control sequence into a chlorophyll C-containing alga in such a manner that the marker is produced by the alga. In a preferred embodiment the algal regulatory control sequence is derived from a diatom and preferably Cyclotella cryptica. Also disclosed is a chimeric molecule having one or more regulatory control sequences derived from one or more chlorophyll C-containing algae operatively linked to a nucleic acid molecule encoding a selectable marker, an RNA molecule and/or a protein, wherein the nucleic acid molecule does not normally occur with one or more of the regulatory control sequences. Further, specifically disclosed are molecules pACCNPT10, pACCNPT4.8 and pACCNPT5.1. The methods and materials of the present invention provide the ability to accomplish stable genetic transformation of chlorophyll C-containing algae. 2 figs.

  6. Production of a novel compound, 10,12-dihydroxystearic acid from ricinoleic acid by an oleate hydratase from Lysinibacillus fusiformis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2013-10-01

    A recombinant oleate hydratase from Lysinibacillus fusiformis converted ricinoleic acid to a product, whose chemical structure was identified as the novel compound 10,12-dihydroxystearic acid by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The reaction conditions for the production of 10,12-dihydroxystearic acid were optimized as follows: pH?6.5, 30 °C, 15 g?l(-1) ricinoleic acid, 9 mg?ml(-1) of enzyme, and 4 % (v/v) methanol. Under the optimized conditions, the enzyme produced 13.5 g?l(-1) 10,12-dihydroxystearic acid without detectable byproducts in 3 h, with a conversion of substrate to product of 90 % (w/w) and a productivity of 4.5 g?l(-1)?h(-1). The emulsifying activity of 10,12-dihydroxystearic acid was higher than that of oleic acid, ricinoleic acid, stearic acid, and 10-hydroxystearic acid, indicating that 10,12-dihydroxystearic acid can be used as a biosurfactant. PMID:23377790

  7. Drug Resistance Reversal Potential of Ursolic Acid Derivatives against Nalidixic Acid- and Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Gaurav Raj; Maurya, Anupam; Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Khan, Feroz; Darokar, Mahendra P; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    As a part of our drug discovery program, ursolic acid was chemically transformed into six semi-synthetic derivatives, which were evaluated for their antibacterial and drug resistance reversal potential in combination with conventional antibiotic nalidixic acid against the nalidixic acid-sensitive and nalidixic acid-resistant strains of Escherichia coli. Although ursolic acid and its all semi-synthetic derivatives did not show antibacterial activity of their own, but in combination, they significantly reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration of nalidixic acid up to eightfold. The 3-O-acetyl-urs-12-en-28-isopropyl ester (UA-4) and 3-O-acetyl-urs-12-en-28-n-butyl ester (UA-5) derivatives of ursolic acid reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration of nalidixic acid by eightfold against nalidixic acid-resistant and four and eightfold against nalidixic acid-sensitive, respectively. The UA-4 and UA-5 were further evaluated for their synergy potential with another antibiotic tetracycline against the multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of Escherichia coli-KG4. The results showed that both these derivatives in combination with tetracycline reduced the cell viability in concentration-dependent manner by significantly inhibiting efflux pump. This was further supported by the in silico binding affinity of UA-4 and UA-5 with efflux pump proteins. These ursolic acid derivatives may find their potential use as synergistic agents in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. PMID:25476148

  8. Transforming Lives, Transforming Communities: Conceptual Framework for Further Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Delia

    A new conceptual framework for further education has been developed as part of the reforms currently being undertaken by Australia's Adult, Community, and Further Education Board. Four key principles underpin the curriculum framework: multiplicity, connectedness, critical intelligence, and transformation. According to the framework, educational…

  9. "Transformational Ministry" and "Reparative Therapy": Transformative Learning Gone Awry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Andre P.

    North Americans' fear and preoccupation with safety and security as a result of the September 11 attacks is similar to that felt by gays and lesbians in daily life. Queer persons are not part of the Christian family, according to Jerry Falwell and other rightist Christian fundamentalists, including those involved in transformative ministry and…

  10. Liouville transformations and quantum reflection

    E-print Network

    Gabriel Dufour; Romain Guérout; Astrid Lambrecht; Serge Reynaud

    2015-02-21

    Liouville transformations of Schr\\"odinger equations preserve the scattering amplitudes while changing the effective potential. We discuss the properties of these gauge transformations and introduce a special Liouville gauge which allows one to map the problem of quantum reflection of an atom on an attractive Casimir-Polder well into that of reflection on a repulsive wall. We deduce a quantitative evaluation of quantum reflection probabilities in terms of the universal probability which corresponds to the solution of the $V_4=-C_4/z^4$ far-end Casimir-Polder potential.

  11. Polyanalytic relativistic second Bargmann transforms

    E-print Network

    Zouhair Mouayn

    2015-04-01

    We construct coherent states through special superpositions of photon number states of the relativistic isotonic oscillator. In each superposition the coefficients are chosen to be L 2 eingenfunctions of a sigma weight Maass Laplacian on the Poincare disk, which are associated with discrete eigenvalues. For each nonzero m the associated coherent states transform constitutes the m true polyanalytic extension of a relativistic version of the second Bargmann transform, whose integral kernel is expressed in terms of a special Appel Kampe de Feriet hypergeometric function. The obtained results could be used to extend the known semi classical analysis of quantum dynamics of the relativistic isotonic oscillator.

  12. Fourier transforms of UD integrals

    E-print Network

    Igor Kondrashuk; Anatoly Kotikov

    2008-02-23

    UD integrals published by N. Usyukina and A. Davydychev in 1992-1993 are integrals corresponding to ladder-type Feynman diagrams. The results are UD functions $\\Phi^{(L)},$ where $L$ is the number of loops. They play an important role in N=4 supersymmetic Yang-Mills theory. The integrals were defined and calculated in the momentum space. In this paper the position space representation of UD functions is investigated. We show that Fourier transforms of UD functions are UD functions of space-time intervals but this correspondence is indirect. For example, the Fourier transform of the second UD integral is the second UD integral.

  13. Conditional unitary transformation on biphotons

    SciTech Connect

    Brida, G.; Genovese, M.; Gramegna, M.; Chekhova, M.V.; Krivitsky, L.A.; Kulik, S.P.

    2004-09-01

    A conditional unitary transformation (90 deg. polarization rotation) is performed at single-photon level. The transformation is realized by rotating polarization for one of the photons of a polarization-entangled biphoton state (signal photon) by means of a Pockel cell triggered by the detection of the other (idler) photon after polarization selection. As a result, the state of the signal photon is losslessly changed from being completely unpolarized to being partially polarized, so that the final polarization degree is given by the idler detector quantum efficiency. This experiment can be used for developing a different method of absolute quantum efficiency calibration.

  14. Microbial Transformation of Flavonoids 1

    PubMed Central

    Ciegler, Alex; Lindenfelser, Lloyd A.; Nelson, George E. N.

    1971-01-01

    The ability of a number of fungal spores, and in particular of resting vegetative mycelia, to transform naringin and naringenin was studied. In general, only hydrolytic cleavage of the sugar moieties of naringin to produce prunin and naringenin was observed. Two cultures, Penicillium charlesii and Helminthosporium sativum, also produced two unidentified flavonoid compounds but in very low yields. No transformation of aglycone was detected, although the compound was metabolized by some cultures when supplied as the glycoside prunin. A fluorodensitometric method was developed for the quantitative analysis of flavonoid compounds. Images PMID:5137588

  15. Development of Toroidal Core Transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, Francisco

    2014-05-31

    The original objective of this project was to design, build and test a few prototypes of singlephase dry-type distribution transformers of 25 kVA, 2.4 kV primary to 120 V transformers using cores made of a continuous steel strip shaped like a doughnut (toroid). At different points during the development of the project, the scope was enhanced to include the more practical case of a 25 kVA transformer for a 13.8 kV primary system voltage. Later, the scope was further expanded to design and build a 50 kVA unit to transformer voltage from 7.62 kV to 2x120 V. This is a common transformer used by Con Edison of New York and they are willing to test it in the field. The project officially started in September 2009 and ended in May 2014. The progress was reported periodically to DOE in eighteen quarterly reports. A Continuation Application was submitted to DOE in June 2010. In May 2011 we have requested a non-cost extension of the project. In December 2011, the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) was updated to reflect the real conditions and situation of the project as of 2011. A second Continuation Application was made and funding was approved in 2013 by DOE and the end date was extended to May 2014.The technical challenges that were overcome in this project include: the development of the technology to pass the impulse tests, derive a model for the thermal performance, produce a sound mechanical design, and estimate the inrush current. However, the greatest challenge that we faced during the development of the project was the complications of procuring the necessary parts and materials to build the transformers. The actual manufacturing process is relatively fast, but getting all parts together is a very lengthy process. The main products of this project are two prototypes of toroidal distribution transformers of 7.62 kV (to be used in a 13.8 kV system) to 2x120 V secondary (standard utilization voltage); one is rated at 25 kVA and the other at 50 kVA. The 25 kVA transformer passed the impulse test in KEMA high-voltage laboratories. Additional products include: nine papers published in the IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, one patent has been filed, three PhD students were supported from beginning to graduation, five postdoctoral fellows, and three MSc students were partially supported. The electrical characteristics of our dry-type toroidal transformers are similar to those of the oil-immersed pole mounted transformers currently in use by many utilities, but toroids have higher efficiency. The no-load losses of the 50 kVA prototype are only 45 W. A standard transformer has no-load losses between 90 and 240 W. Thus, even the finest transformer built today with standard technology has double the amount of no-load losses than the prototype toroidal transformer. When the manufacturing process is prepared for mass production, the cost of a dry-type toroidal transformer would be similar to the price of an oil-filed standard design. However, because of the greatly reduced losses, the total ownership cost of a toroidal transformer could be about half of a traditional design. We got a grant from Power Bridge NY in the amount of $149,985 from June 2014 to May 2015 to continue developing the transformer with commercialization objectives. We are considering the possibility to incorporate a company to manufacture the transformers and have contacted investors. The current status of the real life testing is as follows: after several months of silence, Con Edison has re-started conversations and has shown willingness to test the transformer. Other companies, PSE&G and National Grid have recently also shown interest and we will present our product to them soon.

  16. Acid-functionalized nanoparticles for biomass hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Duque, Leidy Eugenia

    Cellulosic ethanol is a renewable source of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex material composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Biomass pretreatment is a required step to make sugar polymers liable to hydrolysis. Mineral acids are commonly used for biomass pretreatment. Using acid catalysts that can be recovered and reused could make the process economically more attractive. The overall goal of this dissertation is the development of a recyclable nanocatalyst for the hydrolysis of biomass sugars. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) were synthesized to provide a magnetic core that could be separated from reaction using a magnetic field and modified to carry acid functional groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystal structure was that of cobalt spinel ferrite. CoFe2O4 were covered with silica which served as linker for the acid functions. Silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with three different acid functions: perfluoropropyl-sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, and propyl-sulfonic acid. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were analyzed to obtain particle size distributions of the nanoparticles. Total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were quantified using an elemental analyzer. Fourier transform infra-red spectra confirmed the presence of sulfonic and carboxylic acid functions and ion-exchange titrations accounted for the total amount of catalytic acid sites per nanoparticle mass. These nanoparticles were evaluated for their performance to hydrolyze the beta-1,4 glycosidic bond of the cellobiose molecule. Propyl-sulfonic (PS) and perfluoropropyl-sulfonic (PFS) acid functionalized nanoparticles catalyzed the hydrolysis of cellobiose significantly better than the control. PS and PFS were also evaluated for their capacity to solubilize wheat straw hemicelluloses and performed better than the control. Although PFS nanoparticles were stronger acid catalysts, the acid functions leached out of the nanoparticle during the catalytic reactions. PS nanoparticles were further evaluated for the pretreatment of corn stover in order to increase digestibility of the biomass. The pretreatment was carried out at three different catalyst load and temperature levels. At 180°C, the total glucose yield was linearly correlated to the catalyst load. A maximum glucose yield of 90% and 58% of the hemicellulose sugars were obtained at this temperature.

  17. Canonical transformations for space trajectory optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haissig, Christine M.; Mease, Kenneth D.; Vinh, Nguyen X.

    1992-01-01

    Canonical transformations are developed between the Cartesian coordinates, equinoctial elements, trajectory variables, and orbital elements for coplanar space trajectory optimization problems. The canonical transformations permit the state and adjoint or their solution, transversality conditions, the optimal control, and integrals of the motion, to be transformed between any of the common sets of coordinates for planar space trajectory optimization problems. Variations on the canonical transformations shown are straightforward to develop given the group properties of the canonical transformations.

  18. Heterologous expression of a fatty acid hydroxylase gene in developing seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark A; Moon, Hangsik; Chowrira, Gangamma; Kunst, Ljerka

    2003-07-01

    Expression of a cDNA encoding the castor bean ( Ricinus communis L.) oleate Delta12-hydroxylase in the developing seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. results in the synthesis of four novel hydroxy fatty acids. These have been previously identified as ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-octadec- cis-9-enoic acid: 18:1-OH), densipolic acid (12-hydroxy-octadec- cis-9,15-enoic acid: 18:2-OH), lesquerolic acid (14-hydroxy-eicos- cis-11-enoic acid: 20:1-OH) and auricolic acid (14-hydroxy-eicos- cis-11,17-enoic acid: 20:2-OH). Using mutant lines of Arabidopsis that lack the activity of the FAE1 condensing enzyme or FAD3 ER Delta-15-desaturase, we have shown that these enzymes are required for the synthesis of C20 hydroxy fatty acids and polyunsaturated hydroxy fatty acids, respectively. Analysis of the seed fatty acid composition of transformed plants demonstrated a dramatic increase in oleic acid (18:1) levels and a decrease in linoleic acid (18:2) content correlating to the levels of hydroxy fatty acid present in the seed. Plants in which FAD2 (ER Delta12-desaturase) activity was absent showed a decrease in 18:1 content and a slight increase in 18:2 levels corresponding to hydroxy fatty acid content. Expression of the castor hydroxylase protein in yeast indicates that this enzyme has a low level of fatty acid Delta12-desaturase activity. Lipase catalysed 1,3-specific lipolysis of triacylglycerol from transformed plants demonstrated that ricinoleic acid is not excluded from the sn-2 position of triacylglycerol, but is the only hydroxy fatty acid present at this position. PMID:14520576

  19. Development and application of the quasi-potential transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, B.

    1992-08-01

    The quasi-potential transformation, based on the Kirchhoff transformation, reduces the equations governing mass-transfer in a steady-state, nonconvective electrolytic system into two independent parts. The geometry-specific part involves the solution of Laplace`s equation subject to the relevant boundary conditions. The system-specific part involves the solution of a set of coupled first-order, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations. We develop a theoretical basis for the quasi-potential transformation using potential theory. The major assumption on which the quasi-potential transformation is based is that the concentrations can be written as single-valued functions of the electrostatic potential. We see how the system-specific part of the calculation is developed. Boundary conditions are outlined, and the geometry-specific calculations for the disk and hemisphere electrodes are developed. We combine the system-specific calculations for the binary and acidic copper sulfate solutions with these geometry-specific calculations to obtain complete concentration profiles, potential distributions, and current density distributions for these systems. We also investigate the effect of migration on limiting currents.

  20. Development and application of the quasi-potential transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, B.

    1992-08-01

    The quasi-potential transformation, based on the Kirchhoff transformation, reduces the equations governing mass-transfer in a steady-state, nonconvective electrolytic system into two independent parts. The geometry-specific part involves the solution of Laplace's equation subject to the relevant boundary conditions. The system-specific part involves the solution of a set of coupled first-order, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations. We develop a theoretical basis for the quasi-potential transformation using potential theory. The major assumption on which the quasi-potential transformation is based is that the concentrations can be written as single-valued functions of the electrostatic potential. We see how the system-specific part of the calculation is developed. Boundary conditions are outlined, and the geometry-specific calculations for the disk and hemisphere electrodes are developed. We combine the system-specific calculations for the binary and acidic copper sulfate solutions with these geometry-specific calculations to obtain complete concentration profiles, potential distributions, and current density distributions for these systems. We also investigate the effect of migration on limiting currents.

  1. Laccase mediated transformation of 17?-estradiol in soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rashmi; Cabrera, Miguel L; Radcliffe, David E; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Qingguo

    2015-02-01

    It is known that 17?-estradiol (E2) can be transformed by reactions mediated by some oxidoreductases such as laccase in water. Whether or how such reactions can happen in soil is however unknown although they may significantly impact the environmental fate of E2 that is introduced to soil by land application of animal wastes. We herein studied the reaction of E2 in a model soil mediated by laccase, and found that the reaction behaviors differ significantly from those in water partly because of the dramatic difference in laccase stability. We also examined E2 transformation in soil using (14)C-labeling in combination with soil organic matter extraction and size exclusion chromatography, which indicated that applied (14)C radioactivity was preferably bound to humic acids. The study provides useful information for understanding the environmental fate of E2 and for developing a novel soil remediation strategy via enzyme-enhanced humification reactions. PMID:25489747

  2. The Dual Horospherical Radon Transform as a Limit of Spherical Radon Transforms

    E-print Network

    Pasquale, Angela

    The Dual Horospherical Radon Transform as a Limit of Spherical Radon Transforms J. Hilgert, A of G. The horospherical Radon transform maps functions on X to functions on HorX by integrating over the dual horospherical Radon transform as a limit of dual spherical Radon transforms. 1. Introduction

  3. Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping 

    E-print Network

    Turk, Stacey N.

    2010-01-14

    measured. The brisket was significantly lower in palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acid than the other seven sampling sites (P = 0.001). The brisket demonstrated the highest values of MUFA (P = 0.001) with the exception of possessing the lowest value... their own fatty acid composition makeup. The primary SFA are palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0), whereas the main MUFA is oleic acid (18:1) (Rule, Smith & Romans, 1995). Fatty acid composition is tested and observed regularly because...

  4. Acid from heaven

    SciTech Connect

    West, S.

    1980-02-02

    Since the 1950's, acid rain has spread throughout the world and significantly increased in its acidity. Most of the acid rain in the U.S. is caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from coal- and oil-fired power plants. These emissions react with oxygen in the atmosphere to produce dehydrated sulfuric and nitric acids. The effect of acid rain on U.S. lakes, streams, vegetation, forests, and agricultural soils are discussed. Scientific and political actions to alleviate the current acid rain problem must be initiated. (3 maps, 1 photo)

  5. Purification of oleic acid and linoleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arudi, R.L.; Sutherland, M.W.; Bielski, B.H.J.

    1983-01-01

    To permit kinetic studies of the reactivity of unsaturated fatty acids towards oxygen radicals, it is essential to remove traces of hydroperoxides and other conjugated lipid impurities commonly present in commercial samples. Removal of these impurities has been satisfactorily achieved for oleic and linoleic acids by anaerobic low temperature recrystallization from acetonitrile. The uv spectra of commercial and purified samples are compared.

  6. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  7. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  8. Transformative Pedagogy for Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which pedagogy for an elaborated form of transformative learning can be a useful catalyst for the development of social capital in community and workplace groups and networks. I begin with an example and then explore ideas of learning challenges embedded in building and maintaining social capital. I consider the…

  9. Nonstandard Lorentz-Einstein transformations

    E-print Network

    Bernhard Rothenstein; Stefan Popescu

    2008-08-01

    The standard Lorentz transformations establish a relationship between the space-time coordinates of the same event when detected from two inertial reference frames I and I' in the standard arrangement. This event is characterized by the space-time coordinates E(x,tE) and E'(x',t'E), tE and t'E representing the readings of the standard synchronized clocks C(x) and C'(x') located in the two frames where the event takes place. We obtain the nonstandard Lorentz transformations establishing a "physically" correct relationship between the readings of the standard synchronized clocks and the readings of other clocks (ta,t'a) of the same inertial reference frames. This relationship of the type tE=f(x,ta), expresses the standard Lorentz transformations as a function of ta and t'a respectively. We present several cases of nonstandard Lorentz transformation (the case of radar detection, the case when one reference frame is filled with an ideal transparent dielectric and the case of relativity of the apparent, actual and synchronized positions of the same moving particle).

  10. The Weir: Storytelling that Transforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpiak, Irene E.

    2008-01-01

    Through the acts of telling our stories, writing our stories, and reading others' stories, we become known both to others and to ourselves. Drawing on the theme of transformation in the recent play "The Weir," this article explores the place of story in adult and continuing education and considers how story told by students can break through the…

  11. GREENER SYNTHETIC TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave irradiation has been used for a variety of organic transformations wherein chemical reactions are expedited because of selective adsorption of microwave (MW) energy by polar molecules, non-polar molecules being inert to the MW dielectric loss. The MW application under s...

  12. Placeless Organizations: Collaborating for Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Bonnie A.

    2007-01-01

    This article defines and discusses placeless organizations as sites and generators of learning on a large scale. The emphasis is on how placeless organizations structure themselves to carry out social transformation--necessarily involving intensive learning--on a national or global scale. The argument is made that place is not a necessary…

  13. Static Semantics as Program Transformation

    E-print Network

    Costantini, Stefania

    Static Semantics as Program Transformation and Well-Founded Computation Stefania Costantini,1. In this paper, we propose a new constructive characterization of those semantics for disjunctive logic programs which are extensions of the well-founded semantics for normal programs. Based on considera- tions about

  14. ATMOSPHERIC TRANSFORMATION OF DIESEL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigators anticipate successfully conducting a complex study to characterize the atmospheric transformations of DE under the influence of sunlight, O3, radicals, and organic compounds. It is hope that this study will present novel results on the atmospheric aging of...

  15. BIODIVERSITY Sonoran Desert Ecosystem transformation

    E-print Network

    @gmail.com ABSTRACT Aim Biological invasions facilitate ecosystem transformation by altering the structure-level impacts on ecosystem processes in advance of a grass­fire cycle. Keywords Biological invasions Invasive species have been implicated in reduced species richness (Elton, 1958; Sanders et al., 2003

  16. Lorentz transformations of open systems

    E-print Network

    Asher Peres; Daniel R. Terno

    2001-07-29

    We consider open dynamical systems, subject to external interventions by agents that are not completely described by the theory (classical or quantal). These interventions are localized in regions that are relatively spacelike. Under these circumstances, no relativistic transformation law exists that relates the descriptions of the physical system by observers in relative motion. Still, physical laws are the same in all Lorentz frames.

  17. POWER Innovation: Transforming a Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quattrochi, David P.; Robinson, Edward J.; Chapman, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    The Carrollton Exempted Village School District is experiencing a major transformation due to the Utica Shale industry boom that has positively impacted the district. New money has not been passed by the voters since 1977. As a result, the administration and board had to find alternative ways to fund the district, which includes partnering with…

  18. Neural data Fourier transforms, spectral

    E-print Network

    Lin, Kevin K.

    Neural data analysis - Session 2 Fourier transforms, spectral analysis #12;Why Fourier? A lot of these oscillations is often of interest Fourier analysis provides a way of identifying the frequencies of the oscillations present in a signal #12;Math review ­ complex numbers #12;Waves - terminology #12;Fourier series

  19. Some Special Fourier Transform Pairs

    E-print Network

    Vickers, James

    Some Special Fourier Transform Pairs 24.3 Introduction ' & $ % Prerequisites Before starting to . . . #12;1. Parseval's Theorem Recall from Unit 2 on Fourier Series that for a periodic signal fT (t) with complex Fourier coefficients cn(n = 0, ±1, ±2, . . .) Parseval's Theorem holds: 1 T + T 2 - T 2 f2 T (t

  20. Transforming Lives Through Klipsch School

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    in this area could possibly work on cell phone design, satellites, sensor design and monitoring, imaging and Electromagnetics Students could expect to work with lasers and laser applications including communications, imagingTransforming Lives Through Discovery Klipsch School Of Electrical and Computer Engineering Klipsch