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1

Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of complexes of Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(III), Zn(II), Mo(VI), Pd(II), Ag(III), Au(III) and W(VI) with telluric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New preparative methods are reported for telluric acid complexes, Na5[Cr(TeO4(OH)2)2(H2O)2], Na6[Zn(TeO4(OH)2)2(H2O)2], Na6[Pd(TeO4(OH)2)2], Na5[M(TeO4(OH)2)2] (M(III) = Cu, Ag, Au) and KTeM6'O (M'(VI) = Cr, Mo, W). Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic, crystallographic, magnetic and thermal measurements. The deprotonation constants of telluric acid and the stability constants of the Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pd(II) complexes were determined by pH-metric measurements.

Butler, Ian S.; El-Sherbeny, Heba Allah M.; Kenawy, Ibrahim M.; Mostafa, Sahar I.

2013-03-01

2

An Abstracting Transformation for Amino Acid Polymorphism  

E-print Network

An Abstracting Transformation for Amino Acid Polymorphism Anthony M. Castaldo, PhD Research three nucleotide se- quences (a codon) into amino acids: Amino Acid (or signal) Codons A (Alanine) GCT believe what is important is the sequence of amino acids produced, and because amino acids average about

Texas at San Antonio, University of

3

Temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer  

E-print Network

The temporal variability of the telluric sodium layer is investigated by analyzing 28 nights of data obtained with the Colorado State University LIDAR experiment. The mean height power spectrum of the sodium layer was found to be well fit by a power law over the observed range of frequencies, 10 microhertz to 4 millhertz. The best fitting power law was found to be 10^\\beta \

D. S. Davis; P. Hickson; G. Herriot; C. Y. She

2006-09-12

4

Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The role of Fe(III) minerals in controlling acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry was studied using samples from two AMD sites [Gum Boot (GB) and Fridays-2 (FR)] located in northern Pennsylvania. Chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to identify and characterize Fe(III) phases. The mineralogical analysis revealed that schwertmannite and goethite were the principal Fe(III) phases in the sediments. Schwertmannite transformation occurred at the GB site where poorly-crystallized goethite rich in surface-bound sulfate was initially formed. In contrast, no schwertmannite transformation occurred at the FR site. The goethite in GB sediments had spherical morphology due to preservation of schwertmannite structure by adsorbed sulfate. Results of chemical extractions showed that poorly-crystallized goethite was subject to further crystallization accompanied by sulfate desorption. Changes in sulfate speciation preceded its desorption, with a conversion of bidentate- to monodentate-bound sulfate surface complexes. Laboratory sediment incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of mineral transformation on water chemistry. Incubation experiments were carried out with schwertmannite-containing sediments and AMD waters with different pH and chemical composition. The pH decreased to 1.9-2.2 in all suspensions and the concentrations of dissolved Fe and S increased significantly. Regardless of differences in the initial water composition, pH, Fe and S were similar in suspensions of the same sediment. XRD measurements revealed that schwertmannite transformed into goethite in GB and FR sediments during laboratory incubation. The incubation experiment demonstrated that schwertmannite transformation controlled AMD water chemistry during “closed system” laboratory contact.

Peretyazhko, Tetyana; Zachara, John M.; Boily, Jean F.; Xia, Yuanxian; Gassman, Paul L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Burgos, William D.

2009-05-30

5

Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage1 T. Peretyazhko*1  

E-print Network

Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage1 chemistry2 3 4 5 T. Peretyazhko*1 , J drainage, schwertmannite, mineralogical transformations65 #12;4 1. Introduction66 Acid mine drainage (AMD tetyana.peretyazhko@pnl.gov.35 #12;2 Abstract36 The role of Fe(III) minerals in controlling acid mine

Burgos, William

6

EMT - Empirical-mode-decomposition-based Magneto-Telluric Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new Magneto-Telluric (MT) data processing scheme based on an emerging non linear, non stationary time series analysis tool, called the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) or Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT), to transform data into a non-stationary frequency domain and a robust principal component regression to estimate the most likely MT transfer functions from the data with the 2-? confidence intervals computed by a bootstrap algorithm. Optionally, data quality can be controlled by a physical coherence and a signal power filter. MT sources are assumed to be quasi stationary and therefore a (windowed) Fourier Transform is often applied to transform the time series into the frequency domain in which Transfer Functions (TF) are defined between the electromagnetic field components. This assumption can break down in the presence of noise or when the sources are non stationary, and then TF estimates can become unreliable when obtained through a stationary transform like the Fourier transform. Our TF estimation scheme naturally deals with non stationarity without introducing artifacts and, therefore, potentially can distinguish quasi-stationary sources and non-stationary noise. In contrast to previous works on using HHT for MT processing, we argue the necessity of a multivariate EMD to model the MT problem physically correctly and highlight the resulting possibility to use instantaneous parameters as independent and identically distributed variables. Furthermore, we define a homogenization between data channels of frequency discrepancies due to non stationarity and noise. The TF estimation in the frequency domain bases on a robust principal component analysis in order to find two source polarizations. These two principal components are used as predictor to regress robustly the data channels within a bootstrap algorithm to estimate the Earth's Transfer function with 2-? confidence interval supplied by the measured data.The scheme can be used with and without aid by any number of remote reference stations. The performance of this scheme will be demonstrated on MT data and compared with BIRRP, a widely used MT processing software by Alan Chave.

Neukirch, M.; Garcia, X.

2012-04-01

7

Telluric currents: A meeting of theory and observation  

SciTech Connect

Pipe-to-soil (P/S) potential variations resulting from telluric currents have been observed on pipelines in many locations. However, it has never teen clear which parts of a pipeline will experience the worst effects. Two studies were conducted to answer this question. Distributed-source transmission line (DSTL) theory was applied to the problem of modeling geomagnetic induction in pipelines. This theory predicted that the largest P/S potential variations would occur at the ends of the pipeline. The theory also predicted that large P/S potential variations, of opposite sign, should occur on either side of an insulating flange. Independently, an observation program was conducted to determine the change in telluric current P/S potential variations and to design counteractive measures along a pipeline in northern Canada. Observations showed that the amplitude of P/S potential fluctuations had maxima at the northern and southern ends of the pipeline. A further set of recordings around an insulating flange showed large P/S potential variations, of opposite sign, on either side of the flange. Agreement between the observations and theoretical predictions was remarkable. While the observations confirmed the theory, the theory explains how P/S potential variations are produced by telluric currents and provides the basis for design of cathodic protection systems for pipelines that can counteract any adverse telluric effects.

Boteler, D.H. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Geomagnetic Lab.; Seager, W.H. [CORRPRO, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1998-09-01

8

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION OF ESTERS OF CHLORINATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Two groups of compounds were selected for microbial transformation studies. In the first group were carboxylic acid esters having a fixed aromatic moiety and an increasing length of the alkyl component. Ethyl esters of chlorine-substituted carboxylic acids were in the second grou...

9

R-band Radial Velocity Measurements Using Telluric Line Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption cell technique is modified to use the telluric O2 and water vapor bands found between ˜5800-8800 ?, allowing access to the increased red flux of low-mass and evolved stars. We carry out a mock planet search of RV stable M dwarfs made with the High Resolution Spectrograph of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Radial velocities are measured by forward modeling the observations using model telluric spectra optimized to each epoch. Measurements are tested using a small number of ˜2 ? blocks and compared to analogous measurements made through an iodine cell. This sample of blocks is extrapolated to the full wavelength range, yielding a precision of ˜30 m s-1 with telluric calibration. We obtain a similarly modest precision with iodine calibration and both results may be improved by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio, with an expected final precision of <10 m s-1. This technique is ideal for red stars that have a moderate amount of intrinsic RV noise, such as K giants and flaring M dwarfs.

Gettel, Sara; Wright, J.; Bender, C. F.; Wang, X.; Zhao, M.; Wolszczan, A.

2013-01-01

10

Correcting METIS spectra for telluric absorption to maximize spectral fidelity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

METIS is a mid-infrared instrument proposed for the European Extremely Large Telescope. It is designed to provide imaging and spectroscopic capabilities in the 3 - 14 micron region up to a spectral resolution of 100000. One of the novel concepts of METIS is that of a high-resolution integral field spectrograph for a diffraction-limited mid-IR instrument. While this concept has many scientific and operational advantages over a long-slit spectrograph, one drawback is that the spectral resolution changes over the field of view. This has an impact on the procedures to correct for telluric absorption lines imprinted on the science spectra. They are a major obstacle in the quest to maximize spectral fidelity, the ability to distinguish a weak spectral feature from the continuum. The classical technique of division by a standard star spectrum, observed in a single IFS spaxel, cannot simply be applied to all spaxels, because the spectral resolution changes from spaxel to spaxel. Here we present and discuss possible techniques of telluric line correction of METIS IFS spectra, including the application of synthetic model spectra of telluric transmission, to maximize spectral fidelity.

Uttenthaler, Stefan; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Seifahrt, Andreas; Kendrew, Sarah; Blommaert, Joris A. D. L.; Pantin, Eric J.; Brandl, Bernhard R.; Molster, Frank J.; Venema, Lars; Lenzen, Rainer; Parr-Burman, Philip; Siebenmorgen, Ralf

2010-07-01

11

Chemical transformations of methane in trifluoroacetic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of methane conversion in anhydrous trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is shown to take place at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and to result in the formation of a resinous product. Signals of ions with molecular weights of 684 and 700 are observed in MALDI-TOF spectra of the dry residue of methane conversion products.

Vishnetskaya, M. V.; Svichkarev, O. M.; Budynina, E. M.; Mel'nikov, M. Ya.

2013-12-01

12

Donor deoxyribonucleic acid length and marker effect in pneumococcal transformation.  

PubMed Central

The efficiency of transformation of point mutations depends upon base pair mismatches during the recombination process. For low-efficiency markers, the genetic information carried on the donor deoxyribonucleic acid is preferentially lost. To understand this elimination process, we investigated the effect of the size of donor deoxyribonucleic acid on the relative efficiency of low-efficiency point mutations. The deoxyribonucleic acid was shortened either by mechanical shearing or by restriction enzyme treatments. The results indicate that transformation by low-efficiency markers was not affected by shortening the distance between them and the end of the molecule any more than was transformation by the other markers. Moreover, no lethal event could be detected for either cell or chromosomal marker survival. These data do not exclude the double-strand-break hypothesis that was proposed to explain the loss of genetic information for low-efficiency markers, but they offer no support for it. PMID:35523

Lefevre, J C; Claverys, J P; Sicard, A M

1979-01-01

13

Transformation of bile acids by mixed microbial cultures from human feces and bile acid transforming activities of isolated bacterial strains.  

PubMed

Microbiol transformation of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid by anaerobic mixed cultures of human fecal microorganisms was investigated, and the results were examined in relation to the bile acid transforming activities of 75 bacterial strains isolated from the same fecal cultures. The reactions involved in the mixed cultures were dehydrogenation and dehydroxylation of the 7 alpha-hydroxy group in both primary bile acids and epimerization of the 3 alpha-hydroxy group in all metabolic bile acids. Extensive epimerization of the 7 alpha-hydroxy group of chenodeoxycholic acid yielding ursodeoxycholic acid was also demonstrated by certain fecal samples. 7 alpha-Dehydrogenase activity was widespread among the fecal isolates (88% of 16 facultative anaerobes and 51% of 59 obligate anaerobes), and 7 alpha-dehydroxylase activity was revealed in one of the isolates, and unidentified gram-positive nonsporeforming anaerobic bacterium. 3 alpha-Epimerization was effected by seven strains assigned to Eubacterium lentum, which were also active for 3 alpha- and 7 alpha-dehydrogenations. No microorganism accounting for 7 alpha-epimerization was recovered among the isolates. Splitting of conjugated bile acid was demonstrated by the majority of obligate anaerobes but the activity was rare among facultative anaerobes. PMID:7253965

Hirano, S; Masuda, N; Oda, H; Imamura, T

1981-01-01

14

Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on the Fe(III)-motnomrillonite surface. Our study demonstrate the importance of iron-enriched minerals for the abiotic formation of humic materials and for the transformation of aromatic (phenolic) pollutants.

Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

2014-05-01

15

Picolinic and isonicotinic acids: a Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy study.  

PubMed

The rotational spectra of laser ablated picolinic and isonicotinic acids have been studied using broadband chirped pulse (CP-FTMW) and narrowband molecular beam (MB-FTMW) Fourier transform microwave spectroscopies. Two conformers of picolinic acid, s-cis-I and s-cis-II, and one conformer of isonicotinic acid have been identified through the analysis of their rotational spectra. The values of the inertial defect and the quadrupole coupling constants obtained for the most stable s-cis-I conformer of picolinic acid, evidence the formation of an O-H···N hydrogen bond between the acid group and the endocyclic N atom. The stabilization provided by this hydrogen bond compensates the destabilization energy due to the adoption of a -COOH trans configuration in this conformer. Its rs structure has been derived from the rotational spectra of several (13)C, (15)N, and (18)O species observed in their natural abundances. Mesomeric effects have been revealed by comparing the experimental values of the (14)N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in the isomeric series of picolinic, isonicotinic, and nicotinic acids. PMID:25382020

Peña, Isabel; Varela, Marcelino; Franco, Vanina G; López, Juan C; Cabezas, Carlos; Alonso, José L

2014-12-01

16

Iron transformations induced by an acid-tolerant Desulfosporosinus species.  

PubMed

The mineralogical transformations of Fe phases induced by an acid-tolerant, Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfosporosinus sp. strain GBSRB4.2 were evaluated under geochemical conditions associated with acid mine drainage-impacted systems (i.e., low pH and high Fe concentrations). X-ray powder diffractometry coupled with magnetic analysis by first-order reversal curve diagrams were used to evaluate mineral phases produced by GBSRB4.2 in media containing different ratios of Fe(II) and Fe(III). In medium containing Fe predominately in the +II oxidation state, ferrimagnetic, single-domain greigite (Fe?S?) was formed, but the addition of Fe(III) inhibited greigite formation. In media that contained abundant Fe(III) [as schwertmannite; Fe?O?(OH)?SO? · nH?O], the activities of strain GBSRB4.2 enhanced the transformation of schwertmannite to goethite (?-FeOOH), due to the increased pH and Fe(II) concentrations that resulted from the activities of GBSRB4.2. PMID:22038606

Bertel, Doug; Peck, John; Quick, Thomas J; Senko, John M

2012-01-01

17

Monomethylarsonous acid induces transformation of human bladder cells  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is a human bladder carcinogen. Arsenic is methylated to both monomethyl and dimethyl metabolites which have been detected in human urine. The trivalent methylated arsenicals are more toxic than inorganic arsenic. It is unknown if these trivalent methylated metabolites can directly cause malignant transformation in human cells. The goal of this study is determine if monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) can induce malignant transformation in a human bladder urothelial cell line. To address this goal, a non-tumorigenic human urothelial cell line (UROtsa) was continuously exposed to 0.05 ?M MMAIII for 52 weeks. Hyperproliferation was the first phenotypic change observed in exposed UROtsa (URO-MSC). After 12 weeks of exposure, doubling time had decreased from 42 h in unexposed control cells to 27 h in URO-MSC. Hyperproliferation continued to be a quality possessed by the URO-MSC cells after both 24 and 52 weeks of exposure to MMAIII, which had a 40–50% reduction in doubling time. Throughout the 52-week exposure, URO-MSC cells retained an epithelial morphology with subtle morphological differences from control cells. 24 weeks of MMAIII exposure was required to induce anchorage-independent growth as detected by colony formation in soft agar, a characteristic not found in UROtsa cells. To further substantiate that malignant transformation had occurred, URO-MSC cells were tested after 24 and 52 weeks of exposure to MMAIII for the ability to form tumors in SCID mice. Enhanced tumorigenicity in SCID mouse xenografts was observed after 52 weeks of treatment with MMAIII. These observations are the first demonstration of MMAIII-induced malignant transformation in a human bladder urothelial cell line and provide important evidence that MMAIII may be carcinogenic in human tissues. PMID:16806342

Bredfeldt, Tiffany G.; Jagadish, Bhumasamudram; Eblin, Kylee E.; Mash, Eugene A.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

2010-01-01

18

Plants having modified response to ethylene by transformation with an ETR nucleic acid  

DOEpatents

The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

Meyerowitz, Elliott M. (Pasadena, CA); Chang, Caren (Pasadena, CA); Bleecker, Anthony B. (Madison, WI)

2001-01-01

19

High efficiency transformation of intact yeast cells using single stranded nucleic acids as a carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method, using LiAc to yield competent cells, is described that increased the efficiency of genetic transformation of intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to more than 1 × 105 transformants per microgram of vector DNA and to 1.5% transformants per viable cell. The use of single stranded, or heat denaturated double stranded, nucleic acids as carrier resulted in about a

Robert H. Schiestl; R. Daniel Gietz

1989-01-01

20

A final report on computed magneto-telluric curves for hypothetical models of crustal structure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several mathematical models were investigated to determine the capa-bilities of the magneto-telluric method for determining the resistivity structure of the earth's crust. The model parameters were based on the crust model proposed by Keller (1963). The mathematical technique used was developed by Cagniard (1953). The investigations indicate that a three-layer model approximation of the crust and mantle is the most detailed model warranted in inter-preting the information provided by the magneto-telluric method about the lower crust. Only the thickness of the lower crust can be determined, and not the resistivity.

Pritchard, J.I.

1965-01-01

21

Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid inhibit proliferation in transformed rat hepatic oval cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate H2O2-induced promotion proliferation and malignant transformation in WB-F344 cells and anti-tumor effects of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA). METHODS: WB-F344 cells were continuously exposed to 7 x 10-7 mol/L H2O2 for 21 d. Observations of cell morphology, colony formation rates, flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle changes and aneuploidy formation indicated that H2O2 was able to induce malignant transformation of WB-F344 cells. We treated malignantly transformed WB-F344 cells with 4 ?mol/L OA or 8 ?mol/L UA for 72 h and analyzed the cell cycle distribution by flow cytometry. RESULTS: MTT assay showed that 7 x 10-7 mol/L H2O2 decreased G1 phase subpopulation from 73.8% to 49.6% compared with the control group, and increased S phase subpopulation from 14.5% to 31.8% (P < 0.05 vs control group). Cell morphology showed that nucleus to cytoplasm ratio increased, many mitotic cells, prokaryotes and even tumor giant cells were shown in H2O2-induced WB-F344 cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis showed that WB-F344 cell aneuploidy increased to 12% following H2O2 treatment. Flow cytometric analysis of the transformed WB-F344 cells following treatment with OA (4 ?mol/L) and UA (8 ?mol/L) showed that OA increased G1 subpopulation to 68.6%, compared to 49.7% in unexposed cells. UA increased G1 subpopulation to 67.4% compared to 49.7% in unexposed cells (P < 0.05 vs H2O2 model group). CONCLUSION: H2O2 causes the malignant transformation of WB-F344 cells. OA and UA exert anti-tumor effects by inhibiting the proliferation in malignantly transformed WB-F344 cells. PMID:24574810

Han, Yu-Ying; Xue, Xiao-Wei; Shi, Zheng-Ming; Wang, Peng-Yan; Wu, Xin-Rui; Wang, Xue-Jiang

2014-01-01

22

Studies of Telluric Co\\/ from Mauna-Kea Using the James-Clerk Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the J =3 --> 2 rotational transition of telluric CO is reported for the first time, along with the first quasi-simultaneous measurement of the J =2 --> 1 transition, using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The line shape of the observed J= 3 --> 2 transition is in good agreement with a modelled line

K. E. Preston; P. A. Feldman; D. L. Singleton; T. Amano; H. E. Matthews; A. Kudo

1993-01-01

23

Control of growth by picolinic acid: Differential response of normal and transformed cells  

PubMed Central

Picolinic acid reversibly inhibits the growth of cultured cells. Fourteen other pyridine derivatives were ineffective or toxic. Untransformed normal rat kidney (NRK) cells are reversibly arrested in the G1 stage of the growth cycle as shown by cell counts, mitotic index, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and flow microfluorometry. Flow microfluorometry was used to monitor the effects of picolinic acid on numerous other cell lines. Normal cells are blocked in G1, whereas transformed cells show responses that are dependent upon the transforming virus and independent of species or origin of the cell line. Kirsten sarcoma virus-transformed cells are blocked in G1. Simian virus 40-transformed cells progress to a G2 block. Cells transformed by polyoma or Harvey sarcoma virus with Moloney virus coat have flow microfluorometry profiles that indicate blocks in both G1 and G2. Cells transformed with Moloney sarcoma virus are not blocked in a specific phase of the cell cycle. Picolinic acid does not change the levels of NAD+ plus NADH; however, the growth inhibition by picolinic acid is partially overcome by nicotinamide. These results suggest that picolinic acid interacts with a specific growth control mechanism that may involve NAD+ and that this control mechanism is altered by different transforming viruses in different manners. Images PMID:197524

Fernandez-Pol, J. A.; Bono, Vincent H.; Johnson, George S.

1977-01-01

24

Catalytic Transformation of Toluene over High Acidity Y-Zeolite Based S. Al-Khattaf*  

E-print Network

Catalytic Transformation of Toluene over High Acidity Y-Zeolite Based Catalyst S. Al Abstract Catalytic transformation of toluene has been investigated over Y-zeolite based catalysts of the reported studies on toluene disproportionation have been conducted at relatively high pressure

Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

25

Application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine free fatty acid contents in palm olein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and rapid method for the quantitative determination of free fatty acid (FFA) contents in palm olein by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmission spectroscope is described. A set of palm olein samples is used as the calibration set. This set was prepared by spiking increasing amounts of oleic acid into a series of palm oleins that covers a wide

Y. B. Che Man; G. Setiowaty

1999-01-01

26

The investigation of the dynamics of the phase transformation in triolein and oleic acid under pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aim of our work is the understanding of processes happening during phase transformations under the pressure in triglycerides and unsaturated fatty acids. Particles of investigated liquids possess the double bond between carbon atoms, which causes the bended shape of the particle and makes its free rotation impossible. This property causes low temperatures of melting point and high temperatures of boiling and also investigated by us phase transformations. For study of the dynamics of phase transformation in these liquids we measured light transmission and light scattering at 90 degrees angle, temperature, permittivity and internal pressure versus time. We applied pressure using computer controlled pump with a stepping motor, which makes increase of the pressure steady. The phase transformation in oleic acid lasts several seconds, in triolein it lasts several minutes. We think that the elongated time of phase transformation is caused by a hooked shape of particles of triolein and the dynamics of that process is determined by the tangling of particles. We checked the influence of smaller particles of oleic acid on the phase transformation by investigating the mixture of these liquids.

Tefelski, D. B.; Siegoczy?ski, R. M.; Rostocki, A. J.; Kos, A.; Ko?ciesza, R.; Wieja, K.

2008-07-01

27

Rosmarinic acid synthesis in transformed callus culture of Coleus blumei benth.  

PubMed

Agrobacteria mediated Coleus blumei tumour tissues were cultured in vitro on MS medium. Sixteen diversified transformed callus cultures were maintained for several years in the absence of plant growth regulators and antibiotics without affecting the growth rate. Rosmarinic acid was detected spectrophotometrically in all tissue lines but in different quantities. The highest rosmarinic acid accumulation detected was 11% of dry tissue mass. The relation between culture growth and rosmarinic acid production was investigated in three callus lines. The lines showed different rosmarinic acid accumulation in relation to their growth rate; it was either parallel or inversely related to the tissue growth. The effects of certain medium constituents on the callus growth and rosmarinic acid accumulation were examined in four tumour cell lines. Addition of 4% or 5% sucrose stimulated rosmarinic acid synthesis and decreased callus growth. Nitrogen reduction to one half or one quarter of initial concentration did not affect rosmarinic acid synthesis and decreased callus growth in three lines, while it increased rosmarinic acid accumulation and callus growth in one line. Addition of 0.1 mg/l Phe stimulated rosmarinic acid production in two lines but had little effect on the rosmarinic acid level in others. Rosmarinic acid production was significantly improved on modified macronutrients, where the Ac2 line produced 16.5 mg of rosmarinic acid per tube (0.2 g of dry wt) after being in culture for 35 days. PMID:15813379

Bauer, Natasa; Leljak-Levanic, Dunja; Jelaska, Sibila

2004-01-01

28

Determination of olive oil free fatty acid by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new procedure for determining free fatty acids (FFA) in olive oil based on spectroscopic Fourier transform infrared-attenuated\\u000a total reflectance spectroscopy measurements is proposed. The range of FFA contents of samples was extended by adding oleic\\u000a acid to several virgin and pure olive oils, from 0.1 to 2.1%. Calibration models were constructed using partial least-squares\\u000a regression (PLSR). Two wavenumber ranges

Enriqueta Bertran; Marcelo Blanco; Jordi Coello; Hortensia Iturriaga; Santiago Maspoch; Ivan Montoliu

1999-01-01

29

Heterogeneous catalysts for the transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studies devoted to the catalysts for transformation of fatty acid triglycerides and their derivatives to fuel hydrocarbons are presented and described systematically. Various approaches to the use of heterogeneous catalysts for the production of biofuel from these raw materials are considered. The bibliography includes 134 references.

Yakovlev, Vadim A.; Khromova, Sofia A.; Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I.

2011-10-01

30

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Accumulation via 10Hydroxy12-Octadecaenoic Acid during Microaerobic Transformation of Linoleic Acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus acidophilus AKU 1137 under microaerobic conditions, and the metabolic pathway of CLA production from linoleic acid is explained for the first time. The CLA isomers produced were identified as cis-9, trans-11- or

JUN OGAWA; KENJI MATSUMURA; SHIGENOBU KISHINO; YORIKO OMURA; SAKAYU SHIMIZU

2001-01-01

31

Molecfit: A general tool for telluric absorption correction II. Quantitative evaluation on ESO-VLT X-Shooter spectra  

E-print Network

Context: Absorption by molecules in the Earth's atmosphere strongly affects ground-based astronomical observations. The resulting absorption line strength and shape depend on the highly variable physical state of the atmosphere, i.e. pressure, temperature, and mixing ratio of the different molecules involved. Usually, supplementary observations of so-called telluric standard stars (TSS) are needed to correct for this effect, which is expensive in terms of telescope time. We have developed the software package molecfit to provide synthetic transmission spectra based on parameters obtained by fitting narrow ranges of the observed spectra of scientific objects. These spectra are calculated by means of the radiative transfer code LBLRTM and an atmospheric model. In this way, the telluric absorption correction for suitable objects can be performed without any additional calibration observations of TSS. Aims: We evaluate the quality of the telluric absorption correction using molecfit with a set of archival ESO-VLT...

Kausch, W; Kimeswenger, S; Barden, M; Szyszka, C; Jones, A M; Sana, H; Horst, H; Kerber, F

2015-01-01

32

Functional transformations of bile acid transporters induced by high-affinity macromolecules.  

PubMed

Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporters (ASBT) are the intestinal transporters that form intermediate complexes with substrates and its conformational change drives the movement of substrates across the cell membrane. However, membrane-based intestinal transporters are confined to the transport of only small molecular substrates. Here, we propose a new strategy that uses high-affinity binding macromolecular substrates to functionally transform the membrane transporters so that they behave like receptors, ultimately allowing the apical-basal transport of bound macromolecules. Bile acid based macromolecular substrates were synthesized and allowed to interact with ASBT. ASBT/macromolecular substrate complexes were rapidly internalized in vesicles, localized in early endosomes, dissociated and escaped the vesicular transport while binding of cytoplasmic ileal bile acid binding proteins cause exocytosis of macromolecules and prevented entry into lysosomes. This newly found transformation process of ASBT suggests a new transport mechanism that could aid in further utilization of ASBT to mediate oral macromolecular drug delivery. PMID:24566561

Al-Hilal, Taslim A; Chung, Seung Woo; Alam, Farzana; Park, Jooho; Lee, Kyung Eun; Jeon, Hyesung; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, In-San; Kim, Sang Yoon; Byun, Youngro

2014-01-01

33

Functional transformations of bile acid transporters induced by high-affinity macromolecules  

PubMed Central

Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporters (ASBT) are the intestinal transporters that form intermediate complexes with substrates and its conformational change drives the movement of substrates across the cell membrane. However, membrane-based intestinal transporters are confined to the transport of only small molecular substrates. Here, we propose a new strategy that uses high-affinity binding macromolecular substrates to functionally transform the membrane transporters so that they behave like receptors, ultimately allowing the apical-basal transport of bound macromolecules. Bile acid based macromolecular substrates were synthesized and allowed to interact with ASBT. ASBT/macromolecular substrate complexes were rapidly internalized in vesicles, localized in early endosomes, dissociated and escaped the vesicular transport while binding of cytoplasmic ileal bile acid binding proteins cause exocytosis of macromolecules and prevented entry into lysosomes. This newly found transformation process of ASBT suggests a new transport mechanism that could aid in further utilization of ASBT to mediate oral macromolecular drug delivery. PMID:24566561

Al-Hilal, Taslim A.; Chung, Seung Woo; Alam, Farzana; Park, Jooho; Lee, Kyung Eun; Jeon, Hyesung; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, In-San; Kim, Sang Yoon; Byun, Youngro

2014-01-01

34

Flux calibration of medium-resolution spectra from 300 nm to 2500 nm: Model reference spectra and telluric correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. While the near-infrared wavelength regime is becoming more and more important for astrophysics there is a marked lack of spectrophotometric standard star data that would allow the flux calibration of such data. Furthermore, flux calibrating medium- to high-resolution échelle spectroscopy data is challenging even in the optical wavelength range, because the available flux standard data are often too coarsely sampled. Aims: We will provide standard star reference data that allow users to derive response curves from 300 nm to 2500 nm for spectroscopic data of medium to high resolution, including those taken with échelle spectrographs. In addition we describe a method to correct for moderate telluric absorption without the need of observing telluric standard stars. Methods: As reference data for the flux standard stars we use theoretical spectra derived from stellar model atmospheres. We verify that they provide an appropriate description of the observed standard star spectra by checking for residuals in line cores and line overlap regions in the ratios of observed (X-shooter) spectra to model spectra. The finally selected model spectra are then corrected for remaining mismatches and photometrically calibrated using independent observations. The correction of telluric absorption is performed with the help of telluric model spectra. Results: We provide new, finely sampled reference spectra without telluric absorption for six southern flux standard stars that allow the users to flux calibrate their data from 300 nm to 2500 nm, and a method to correct for telluric absorption using atmospheric models. The reference model spectra described here are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A9

Moehler, S.; Modigliani, A.; Freudling, W.; Giammichele, N.; Gianninas, A.; Gonneau, A.; Kausch, W.; Lançon, A.; Noll, S.; Rauch, T.; Vinther, J.

2014-08-01

35

One-pot transformation of cellobiose to formic acid and levulinic acid over ionic-liquid-based polyoxometalate hybrids.  

PubMed

Currently, levulinic acid (LA) and formic acid (FA) are considered as important carbohydrates for the production of value-added chemicals. Their direct production from biomass will open up a new opportunity for the transformation of biomass resource to valuable chemicals. In this study, one-pot transformation of cellobiose into LA and FA was demonstrated, using a series of multiple-functional ionic liquid-based polyoxometalate (IL-POM) hybrids as catalytic materials. These IL-POMs not only markedly promoted the production of valuable chemicals including LA, FA and monosaccharides with high selectivities, but also provided great convenience of the recovery and the reuse of the catalytic materials in an environmentally friendly manner. Cellobiose conversion of 100%, LA selectivity of 46.3%, and FA selectivity of 26.1% were obtained at 423?K and 3?MPa for 3?h in presence of oxygen. A detailed catalytic mechanism for the one-pot transformation of cellobiose was also presented. PMID:25110998

Li, Kaixin; Bai, Linlu; Amaniampong, Prince Nana; Jia, Xinli; Lee, Jong-Min; Yang, Yanhui

2014-09-01

36

Features of the damage produced by proflavine on transforming deoxyribonucleic acid.  

PubMed Central

Proflavine formed a complex with transforming deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Haemophilus influenzae, with optimal formation at a ratio of proflavine to DNA of 0.06. The rate of dissociation of the complex by dialysis increased in the order: native, denatured, renatured DNA. The transforming activity of the DNA was reduced by its interaction with proflavine. This inactivation was dependent on the physical state of the DNA, the proflavine concentration, and the temperature. DNA that had been denatured and renatured was most sensitive; native DNA was much less sensitive. The inactivation remained after dialysis and was stable to prolonged storage. It is concluded that the inactivation of transforming DNA by proflavine takes place by a mechanism different from that of DNA-proflavine complex formation. PMID:312284

Cabrera-Juárez, E; Sánchez-Rincón, D A

1979-01-01

37

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies of fatty acid homogeneous ceramide 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramides provide a major component of the barrier function of skin. An understanding of barrier organization requires a detailed characterization of ceramide phase behavior and molecular interactions. Toward this end, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of ceramide 2 analogues (non-hydroxylated fatty acid N-acyl sphingosines) of specific chain lengths (C14, C16, C18, C20) are presented. In

Hui-Chen Chen; Richard Mendelsohn; Mark E. Rerek; David J. Moore

2000-01-01

38

Flow of electric currents of telluric origin in a long metal pipeline and their effect in relation to corrosion control  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effects of telluric currents on the corrosion of a 280-mile (450-km) steel pipeline in Kenya, Spencer and Partners, London, and the University of Nairobi, Kenya, estimated the extent to which these currents influence corrosion rates on the line, their effects on potential readings, and the possible beneficial effects of further sectioning the lines or installing blocking diodes.

R. H. Barker; N. J. Skinner

1980-01-01

39

Trace element transformations and partitioning during the roasting of pyrite ores in the sulfuric acid industry.  

PubMed

Total concentrations combined with chemical partitioning of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, and Zn) in raw pyrite ore and solid roasting wastes were investigated in order to elucidate their transformations and partitioning during the roasting of raw pyrite ores in sulfuric acid production. In order to better understand the behavior of these elements during roasting, mineral transformations accompanying roasting were also investigated by using microscopy. Results indicated that the mode of occurrence of trace elements in raw pyrite ore and the thermostability of trace element-bearing species formed during roasting played major roles in the transformations of the selected trace elements. Silicate- and amorphous iron (hydr)oxide-bound elements (Cr and Pb) were stable and mainly retained in their original phases. However, acid-exchangeable and sulfide-bound elements tended to transform into other forms via different pathways: elements that tend to form low thermostable species (Cd, Pb and Tl) were significantly vaporized, whereas elements that tend to form high thermostable species (Co, Mn and Ni) mainly reacted with iron oxides or silicates, which then remained in the solid residues. The volatility of trace elements during the roasting has a significant effect on their subsequent partitioning in roasting wastes. Nonvolatile element (Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni) partitioning was determined by settling of the particulate in which they are bound, whereas the partitioning of (semi)volatile elements (Cd, Pb, Tl, and Zn) was controlled by the adsorption of their gaseous species on the particulate. PMID:19261379

Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yongheng; Peng, Ping'an; Li, Chao; Chang, Xiangyang; Wu, Yingjuan

2009-08-15

40

Transformer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet is about transformers. The number of turns on the primary and secondary winding, load resistance, frequency and amplitude of the voltage can be set by the user. The voltage and current waveforms are shown. A detailed mathematical analysis along with snap shots of voltage and current waveforms of a real transformer is also provided. This simulation is part of a simulation library.

Ng, Chiu-King

2007-10-16

41

TRANSFORMATION  

SciTech Connect

Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

LACKS,S.A.

2003-10-09

42

[Effect of humic acids on migration and transformation of NH4(+) -N in saturated aquifer].  

PubMed

Isothermal adsorption experiment was used to study the adsorbing process of NH4(+) -N in quartz sands under the conditions with and without humic acid; the Langmuir and Freundlich equations were used to fit the absorption result and the maximum adsorption capacity of NH4(+) -N by quarts sands was calculated. Through the soil column experiments, the concentration of NH4(+) -N, NO3(-) -N and NO2(-) -N in effluent water in the tested soil column was investigated, and the effect of humic acid on migration and transformation of NH4(+) -N in saturated aquifer was analyzed, and Pseudo-second-order Kinetics Equation and Two-step Adsorption Kinetics Rate Equation were applied to fit the kinetic processes. The results showed that both Langmuir and Freundlich models can well describe the isothermal adsorption process of NH4(+) -N on the surface of quartz sands, which means that NH4(+) -N adsorbed by the quartz sand was mainly in the form of monolayer adsorption. The humic acid could increase the adsorption capacity of NH4(+) -N on quartz sand, and the saturated adsorption capacity was 0.354 mg x g(-1) under the condition with humic acid and 0.205 mg x g(-1) with the absence of humic acid. The experiment indicated that humic acid increased the adsorption capacity of NH4(+) -N on the surface of quartz sand by increasing adsorption space in the initial stage. After saturation, humic acid influenced the migration and transformation of NH4(+) -N to NO3(-) -N and NO2(-) -N probably through providing carbon source and energy for microorganisms such as nitrifying bacteria and then resulting in lower NH4(+) -N concentration in effluent water. Both Pseudo-second-order Kinetics Equation and Two-step Adsorption Kinetics Rate Equations can well describe the process of NH4(+) -N adsorption kinetics on quartz sand (R2 = 0.997 7 and R2 = 0.998 1 with humic acid; R2 = 0.992 3 and R2 = 0.994 4 without humic acid), indicating that this process was chemical adsorption. By comparing the adsorption rate coefficient of Two-step Adsorption Kinetics Rate Equation k3 (0.247 and 0.143, respectively) and k4 (0.006 27 and 0.001 7) between the treatments with and without humic acid, it can be referred that NH4(+) -N was non-orientated adsorption on active points of the quartz sand at the initial stage, and the humic acid could increase the equilibrium adsorption quantity(q(e)) of NH4(+) -N on quartz sands. PMID:22295635

Meng, Qing-Jun; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Qi-Yan; Zhang, Shuang-Sheng

2011-11-01

43

Oleanolic acid inhibits proliferation and invasiveness of Kras-transformed cells via autophagy.  

PubMed

Oleanolic acid (OA) has been widely studied because of its pleiotropic therapeutic and preventive effect on various diseases. However, the mechanisms of OA's action are still not clear yet, especially its suppressing effect on transformed cells. In this work, we found that OA induced autophagy in normal tissue-derived cells without cytotoxicity. OA-induced autophagy was shown to decrease the proliferation of KRAS-transformed normal cells and to impair their invasion and anchorage-independent growth. Interrupting autophagy rescued OA's effect on the transformed cells. Mouse model experiments also demonstrated that OA suppressed the growth of KRAS-transformed breast epithelial cell MCF10A-derived tumor xenograft by inducing autophagy. Finally, we identified that OA induced autophagy in normal cells by inhibiting the activation of Akt/mTOR/S6K signaling. In conclusions, we found that OA treatment permitted normal cells to undergo autophagy. The induced autophagy was required for OA to prevent or delay the growth of transformed normal cells. PMID:25172632

Liu, Jia; Zheng, Lanhong; Ma, Leina; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Youguang; Wu, Ning; Liu, Ge; Lin, Xiukun

2014-11-01

44

Transformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip demonstrates the process of transformation. When a bacterial cell dies, the DNA in the cell breaks into fragments. This free DNA can be taken up by certain bacteria and integrated into their DNA.

American Society For Microbiology

2002-01-01

45

Correlation of Solar Activities with the Telluric Currents Level in the Northern Region of Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relation between solar activities and the geomagnetic field induced currents (GIC) have been well studied in the auroral region and it usually occurs most frequently at high latitudes. However, during major geomagnetic storms, the auroral zone can extend substantially towards lower latitudes. Disturbance caused by solar activities can disrupt power grids and also increase the corrosion rate of buried natural gas pipelines. GIC are driven by the geomagnetic field induced by a geomagnetic disturbance. In this paper, we investigated the correlation between solar activities using the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and geomagnetic disturbance storm time (DST) index data with the telluric currents (also referred to as geomagnetic induced currents GIC) level through the disturbance pattern of geomagnetic field. The research areas are from Lunas in Kedah to Perlis. The pattern of geomagnetic field disturbance had been identified and analyzed to investigate the harmful effect of geomagnetic storms towards the performance of complex power grid in Malaysia.

Razelan, Mazlina M.; Said, N. Masdiana Md; Aziz, A. H. A.; Chong, H. Y.; Nawawi, M.

2010-07-01

46

Gallium(III) triflate: an efficient and a sustainable Lewis acid catalyst for organic synthetic transformations.  

PubMed

Green chemical processes play a crucial role in sustainable development, and efficient recyclable catalysts that can be conveniently applied in various chemical reactions are the key elements for the development of sustainable synthetic processes. Many organic transformations rely on Lewis and Brønsted acid catalysts, and such molecules have been widely studied in organic synthesis. Over the years, researchers have looked for Lewis acid catalysts that provide high selectivity and high turnover frequency but are also stable in aqueous media and recoverable. Since the first preparation of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid by Hazeldine (triflic acid, HOTf), researchers have synthesized and used numerous metal triflates in a variety of organic reactions. Even though the rare earth metal triflates have played a major role in these studies, the majority of rare earth triflates lack one or more of the primary properties of sustainable catalysts: low cost and easy availability of the metals, easy preparation of triflates, aqueous/thermal stability, recyclability, and catalytic efficiency. In this Account, we describe the synthetic applications of Ga(OTf)(3) and its advantages over similar catalysts. Ga(OTf)(3) can be conveniently prepared from gallium metal or gallium chloride in excess of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (triflic acid) under reflux. Among many Lewis acid catalysts recently studied, Ga(OTf)(3) is water tolerant and soluble and requires very low catalyst loading to drive various acid-catalyzed reactions including Friedel-Crafts alkylation, hydroxyalkylation, and acylation selectively and efficiently. In many reactions Ga(OTf)(3) demonstrated high chemo- and regioselectivity, high yields, excellent stability, and recyclability. We successfully synthesized many biologically active heterocycles and their fluoroanalogs under mild conditions. Many challenging reactions such as the ketonic Strecker reactions proceed efficiently via Ga(OTf)(3) catalysis. Because it is stable in water, this catalyst provides the opportunity to study substrates and develop new synthetic protocols in aqueous media, significantly reducing the production of hazardous waste from organic solvents and toxic catalyst systems. PMID:22148160

Prakash, G K Surya; Mathew, Thomas; Olah, George A

2012-04-17

47

Anti-transforming nature of ascorbic acid and its derivatives examined by two-stage cell transformation using BALB\\/c 3T3 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anti-transforming effects of sodium ascorbate and its stable derivatives were examined in the two-stage transformation assay. When BALB\\/c 3T3 cells were treated with 0.2 ?g\\/ml 20-methylcholanthrene as an initiator, and 100 ng\\/ml 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate as a promoter, the addition at the promotion stage of l-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate ester magnesium (APM) was most marked in the inhibition of transformation. The inhibitory effects

Toshiyuki Tsuchiya; Eiko Kato-Masatsuji; Toshi Tsuzuki; Makoto Umeda

2000-01-01

48

Aqueous solubilities and transformations of tetrahalogenated benzenes and effects of aquatic fulvic acids  

SciTech Connect

The fate of organic pollutants in the environment is largely dependent on their physical and chemical properties. Many of the previous studies on halogenated benzenes have been focused on their photochemistry in an organic solvent system. Studies of halogenated benzenes in aqueous conditions without photochemical effect are rare. Recently, aqueous solubility enhancement of hydrophobic organic pollutants by humic substances was studied. Aqueous solubility enhancement did not occur with all test compounds. In this paper, the authors investigated the transformation of the three most symmetrical tetrahalogenated (fluoro, chloro, bromo) benzenes in absence of the photo effect. Solute and solvent interactions, and influence of aquatic fulvic acids (FA) on aqueous solubilities and transformation of the three tetrachlorobenzenes and 1,2,4,5-TeBB were studied.

Kim, Inyoung; Saleh, F.Y. (Univ. of North Texas, Denton (USA))

1990-06-01

49

Complexation of chitosan with acetic acid according to Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the interaction between the protonated chitosan (CHI) macromolecule and the acetate ion in dilute acetic acid solutions were studied by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and quantum-chemical modeling. The complexation of CHI with the acetate ion showed itself as the 934 cm-1 band in the Raman spectrum, which suggests the formation of [CHI+ · CH3COO-] type ion pairs. It was concluded that a comparative analysis of the integrated intensities of the Raman bands in the range 880-940 cm-1 makes it possible to judge about the relative content of hydrated acetate ions, CHI macromolecules of the [CHI+ · CH3COO-] complex, and acetic acid molecules not involved in CHI protonation.

Mikhailov, G. P.; Tuchkov, S. V.; Lazarev, V. V.; Kulish, E. I.

2014-06-01

50

Pectin functionalised by fatty acids: Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopic characterisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemically modified pectin derivatives obtained by partial esterification of its hydroxyl moieties with fatty acids (FA; oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids), as well as the initial apple peel pectin were comparatively characterised using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Characteristic changes observed in DRIFT spectra in going from pectin to its FA esters are related to the corresponding chemical modifications. Comparing the DRIFT spectra with some reported data on FTIR spectra of the same materials measured in KBr or NaCl matrices has revealed noticeable shifts of several polar functional groups both in pectin and in its FA-esterified products induced by the halide salts. The results obtained have implications for careful structural analyses of biopolymers with hydrophilic functional groups by means of different FTIR spectroscopic methodologies.

Kamnev, Alexander A.; Calce, Enrica; Tarantilis, Petros A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; De Luca, Stefania

2015-01-01

51

Metabolism of fatty acids and lipid hydroperoxides in human body monitoring with Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Background The metabolism of dietary fatty acids in human has been measured so far using human blood cells and stable-isotope labeled fatty acids, however, no direct data was available for human peripheral tissues and other major organs. To realize the role of dietary fatty acids in human health and diseases, it would be eager to develop convenient and suitable method to monitor fatty acid metabolism in human. Results We have developed the measurement system in situ for human lip surface lipids using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) – attenuated total reflection (ATR) detection system with special adaptor to monitor metabolic changes of lipids in human body. As human lip surface lipids may not be much affected by skin sebum constituents and may be affected directly by the lipid constituents of diet, we could detect changes of FTIR-ATR spectra, especially at 3005~3015 cm-1, of lip surface polyunsaturated fatty acids in a duration time-dependent manner after intake of the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing triglyceride diet. The ingested DHA appeared on the lip surface and was detected by FTIR-ATR directly and non-invasively. It was found that the metabolic rates of DHA for male volunteer subjects with age 60s were much lower than those with age 20s. Lipid hydroperoxides were found in lip lipids which were extracted from the lip surface using a mixture of ethanol/ethylpropionate/iso-octane solvents, and were the highest in the content just before noon. The changes of lipid hydroperoxides were detected also in situ with FTIR-ATR at 968 cm-1. Conclusion The measurements of lip surface lipids with FTIR-ATR technique may advance the investigation of human lipid metabolism in situ non-invasively. PMID:19627618

Yoshida, Satoshi; Zhang, Qin-Zeng; Sakuyama, Shu; Matsushima, Satoshi

2009-01-01

52

Monitoring of fatty acid composition in virgin olive oil by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopic method was applied to the determination of fatty acid (FA) profile and peroxide value (PV) of virgin olive oil. Calibration models were constructed using partial least squares (PLS) regression. A FA calibration model was constructed in the spectral range from 3033 to 700cm?1. Oleic acid (62.0–80.0%), linoleic acid (5.3–15.0%),

Rubén M. Maggio; Teodoro S. Kaufman; Michele Del Carlo; Lorenzo Cerretani; Alessandra Bendini; Angelo Cichelli; Dario Compagnone

2009-01-01

53

Influence of triacylglycerol characterics on the determination of free fatty acids in vegetable oils by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and direct Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method using a 25-?m NaCl transmission cell was developed\\u000a for the determination of free fatty acids (FFA) in six important vegetable oils (corn, soybean, sunflower, palm, palm kernel,\\u000a and coconut oils) that differ in fatty acid profile. The calibrations were established by adding either standard FFA (oleic,\\u000a lauric acids) or a

T. Verleyen; R. Verhe; A. Cano; A. Huyghebaert; W. De Greyt

2001-01-01

54

Experimental dissolution vs. transformation of micas under acidic soil conditions: Clues from boron isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minerals in soils evolve through contact with water and other weathering agents (protons, organic acids and ligands) from the atmosphere or released by the surrounding vegetation and associated fauna. Determining the respective contribution of these agents to weathering budgets and the mechanisms by which they interact with soil minerals is a key step toward obtaining refined models of soil development, plant/mineral interactions and, ultimately, soil sustainability. To test the influence of different chemical agents on the processes of mica weathering (dissolution and transformation), we conducted a series of laboratory flow-through experiments on biotite using three chemical groups of reactants found in forest soils: protons (HCl), organic acids (citric acid) and ligands (siderophores). These experiments were performed at two different pH values (pH 3 and pH 4.5) for 37 days at 20 °C. Biotite was chosen as a test-mineral because it is reactive with acids and water and because it is commonly found in granite soils. To investigate the weathering reactions, the chemical and isotopic compositions of B (?11B) and the concentrations of predominant cation (Si, Al, Mg, K and Fe) were monitored in the outflowing solutions. The choice of B as a proxy for weathering processes is based on the fact that B is located in different crystallographic sites in biotite (interlayers and structural sites, named I- and S-sites, respectively). We observed a large ?11B contrast between these sites (?11BS-I sites˜80‰), which allows for a precise quantification of the respective contribution of I- and S-sites to B released during biotite weathering. The individual reaction rates for these crystallographic sites were inferred from the B chemical and isotopic compositions of the outflowing solutions. A comparison with the major elements reveals that B is preferentially released to solution under all tested experimental conditions (up to 4 times more), particularly in the presence of siderophores. A major finding of the present work is that the dissolution of ?11B is shown to be highly dependent on the nature of the weathering agent: the presence of citric acid leads to a near-stoichiometric contribution of I- and S-sites to dissolved B, whereas the presence of siderophores results in an almost exclusive release of B from the I-sites, which indicates a mineral transformation without significant dissolution. The presence of HCl leads to an intermediate situation that shows a higher B reactivity from the I-sites than from the S-sites, indicating that biotite minerals transform faster than they dissolve. Because the dissolution reactions imply the destruction of the mineral structure, whereas transformation reactions are non-destructive, assessing the proportions in which minerals evolve by dissolution and transformation reactions has important implications for predicting plant/mineral interactions and soil sustainability.

Voinot, A.; Lemarchand, D.; Collignon, C.; Granet, M.; Chabaux, F.; Turpault, M.-P.

2013-09-01

55

Using Amino Acid Physicochemical Distance Transformation for Fast Protein Remote Homology Detection  

PubMed Central

Protein remote homology detection is one of the most important problems in bioinformatics. Discriminative methods such as support vector machines (SVM) have shown superior performance. However, the performance of SVM-based methods depends on the vector representations of the protein sequences. Prior works have demonstrated that sequence-order effects are relevant for discrimination, but little work has explored how to incorporate the sequence-order information along with the amino acid physicochemical properties into the prediction. In order to incorporate the sequence-order effects into the protein remote homology detection, the physicochemical distance transformation (PDT) method is proposed. Each protein sequence is converted into a series of numbers by using the physicochemical property scores in the amino acid index (AAIndex), and then the sequence is converted into a fixed length vector by PDT. The sequence-order information can be efficiently included into the feature vector with little computational cost by this approach. Finally, the feature vectors are input into a support vector machine classifier to detect the protein remote homologies. Our experiments on a well-known benchmark show the proposed method SVM-PDT achieves superior or comparable performance with current state-of-the-art methods and its computational cost is considerably superior to those of other methods. When the evolutionary information extracted from the frequency profiles is combined with the PDT method, the profile-based PDT approach can improve the performance by 3.4% and 11.4% in terms of ROC score and ROC50 score respectively. The local sequence-order information of the protein can be efficiently captured by the proposed PDT and the physicochemical properties extracted from the amino acid index are incorporated into the prediction. The physicochemical distance transformation provides a general framework, which would be a valuable tool for protein-level study. PMID:23029559

Liu, Bin; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Dong, Qiwen; Lan, Xun

2012-01-01

56

All trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) induces re-differentiation of early transformed breast epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Retinoids have been used as potential chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents because of their differentiative, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and antioxidant properties. We investigated the effect of all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) at different stages of the neoplastic transformation using an in vitro model of breast cancer progression. This model was previously developed by treating the MCF-10F human normal breast epithelial cells with high dose of estradiol and consists of four cell lines which show a progressive neoplastic transformation: MCF-10F, normal stage; trMCF, transformed MCF-10F; bsMCF, invasive stage; and caMCF, tumorigenic stage. In 3D cultures, MCF-10F cells form tubules resembling the structures in the normal mammary gland. After treatment with estradiol, these cells formed tubules and spherical masses which are indicative of transformation. Cells that only formed spherical masses in collagen were isolated (trMCF clone 11) and treated with ATRA. After treatment with 10 or 1 ?M ATRA, the trMCF clone 11 cells showed tubules in collagen; 10 and 43% of the structures were tubules in cells treated with 10 and 1 ?M ATRA, respectively. Gene expression studies showed that 207 genes upregulated in transformed trMCF clone 11 cells were downregulated after 1 ?M ATRA treatment to levels comparable to those found in the normal breast epithelial cells MCF-10F. Furthermore, 236 genes that were downregulated in trMCF clone 11 were upregulated after 1 ?M ATRA treatment to similar levels shown in normal epithelial cells. These 443 genes defined a signature of the ATRA re-programming effect. Our results showed that 1 ?M ATRA was able to re-differentiate transformed cells at early stages of the neoplastic process and antagonistically regulate breast cancer associated genes. The invasive and tumorigenic cells did not show any changes in morphology after ATRA treatment. These results suggest that ATRA could be used as a chemopreventive agent to inhibit the progression of premalignant lesions of the breast. PMID:24676586

ARISI, MARIA F.; STARKER, REBECCA A.; ADDYA, SANKAR; HUANG, YONG; FERNANDEZ, SANDRA V.

2014-01-01

57

A Rare Phaeodactylum tricornutum Cruciform Morphotype: Culture Conditions, Transformation and Unique Fatty Acid Characteristics  

PubMed Central

A rare Phaeodactylum tricornutum cruciform morphotype was obtained and stabilized with a proportion of more than 31.3% in L1 medium and is reported for the first time. Long-term culture and observation showed that the cruciform morphotype was capable of transforming to the oval form following the degeneration of arms by two processes. After three months of culture, four morphotypes existed in a relatively stable proportion in culture for six months (10.5% for oval, 11.3% for fusiform, 37.2% for triradiate and 41.0% for cruciform). Low temperature was particularly beneficial for cruciform cell formation. As the culture temperature decreased from 25°C to 10°C, the percentage of the cruciform morphotype increased from 39.1% to 55.3% approximately. The abundant cruciform cells endowed this strain with unique fatty acid characteristics. The strain cultured at 15°C showed both maximum content of neutral lipid in a single cell and total yield. The maximum content of fatty acid methyl esters was C16:1 for Phaeodactylum tricornutum cultured at four temperatures (43.82% to 50.82%), followed by C16:0 (20.47% to 22.65%). Unique fatty acid composition endowed this strain with excellent quality for biodiesel production. PMID:24710200

He, Liyan; Han, Xiaotian; Yu, Zhiming

2014-01-01

58

Acid Gas - Diethanolamine Vapor - Liquid Equilibrium Data by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new apparatus for establishing vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) and a new method for measuring VLE data on acid gas - diethanolamine (DEA) systems are described. The acid gases studied were carbon dioxide (CO_2 ) and hydrogen sulfide (H_2S). The capability of the apparatus to establish an equilibrium was verified by reproducing data for CO_ {2}-water and H_2S -water systems. The new measurement method used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to analyze the gas composition without removing a vapor sample from the equilibrium equipment. Gas chromatography was used to analyze the liquid phase. The FTIR method eliminated the typical adsorption losses and subsequent errors resulting from the sampling and analysis of vapor compositions with low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide. Using the new method, preliminary VLE measurements have been made for a previously determined system using a single acid gas and an acid gas mixture over a 20 wt % DEA solution at 50^circ C. The CO_2 only system was measured over the partial pressure range of 0.1 to 0.0002 psia and liquid loadings from 0.2 to 0.008 moles of CO_2 per mole of DEA. The H _2S only system was measured over the partial pressure range from 0.8 psia to the lower limit of 0.01 psia and liquid loadings from 0.32 to 0.001 moles of H_2S per mole of DEA. Low partial pressure H_2S measurements deviated from literature VLE data and indicated that the equipment or methodology still needs to be refined. Acid gas mixture measurements were also incorrect but do illustrate that the method is viable for analyzing mixed acid gases and can surpass published, contemporary, VLE measurements determined by gas chromatography only. FTIR analysis of the liquid phase for ionic species was indeterminate. This work is the first stage in a continuing research effort. Equipment modifications are recommended to improve the lower detectable limit for hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide partial pressure measurements, to define a quantitative FTIR liquid analysis method, to compare the FTIR method with gas chromatographic determined data, and to study other acid gas-alkanolamine systems.

Frazier, Richard Eugene

59

Rapid biotic molecular transformation of fulvic acids in a karst aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of molecular transformation processes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the environment significantly contributes to a better understanding of the global biogeochemical organic matter cycle. In an oxic karst groundwater system, in which the most powerful abiotic DOC degradative reactions, photodegradation and metal-mediated redox chemistry, are at best marginal contributors, a near complete turnover of fulvic acids (FAs) has been observed within decades (˜60 years). Depletion of oxygen for a very extensive range of aliphatic and aromatic carbon chemical environments has been confirmed as well as the formation of novel classes of compounds, suggesting a major contribution from biotic processes. From these results we infer that FAs must be perceived as a rather active participant in the global carbon cycle. Molecular-level alterations of such magnitude and rapidity on such short-time scales ought to be considered as widespread in the processing of "refractory" DOC in the environment.

Einsiedl, Florian; Hertkorn, Norbert; Wolf, Manfred; Frommberger, Moritz; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Koch, Boris P.

2007-11-01

60

Small interfering ribonucleic acid induces liquid-to-ripple phase transformation in a phospholipid membrane  

SciTech Connect

Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) molecules play a pivotal role in silencing gene expression via the RNA interference mechanism. A key limitation to the widespread implementation of siRNA therapeutics is the difficulty of delivering siRNA-based drugs to cells. Here, we examine changes in the structure and dynamics of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in the presence of a siRNA molecule and mechanical barriers to siRNA transfection in the bilayer. Our all-atom molecular dynamics simulation shows that siRNA induces a liquid crystalline-to-ripple phase transformation in the bilayer. The ripple phase consists of a major region of non-interdigitated and a minor region of interdigitated lipid molecules with an intervening kink. In the ripple phase, hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules have large compressive stresses, which present a considerable barrier to siRNA transfection.

Choubey, Amit; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States)

2014-09-15

61

Small interfering ribonucleic acid induces liquid-to-ripple phase transformation in a phospholipid membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) molecules play a pivotal role in silencing gene expression via the RNA interference mechanism. A key limitation to the widespread implementation of siRNA therapeutics is the difficulty of delivering siRNA-based drugs to cells. Here, we examine changes in the structure and dynamics of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in the presence of a siRNA molecule and mechanical barriers to siRNA transfection in the bilayer. Our all-atom molecular dynamics simulation shows that siRNA induces a liquid crystalline-to-ripple phase transformation in the bilayer. The ripple phase consists of a major region of non-interdigitated and a minor region of interdigitated lipid molecules with an intervening kink. In the ripple phase, hydrocarbon chains of lipid molecules have large compressive stresses, which present a considerable barrier to siRNA transfection.

Choubey, Amit; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

2014-09-01

62

Identification Of Fatty Acid Isomers By Gas Chromatography / Matrix Isolation / Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geometric and positional isomers of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) derived from hydrogenated soybean oil and margarines were separated by silver nitrate-thin layer chromatography (AgNO3-TLC) followed by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and identified by matrix isolation / Fourier transform infrared (MI/FTIR) spectroscopyi,2. Because of the high specificity of the MI technique, it was possible to distinguish between different 18-carbon aliphatic chains of FAME positional isomers with cis or trans configuration, and to determine their degree of unsaturation. For the first time mid-IR spectra were observed for methylene-interrupted or isolated trans, trans or cis/ trans C18 FAME positional isomers. These spectra could be readily differentiated based on unique MI/FTIR spectral characteristics.

Mossoba, Magdi M.; McDonald, Richard E.; Chen, Jo-Yun T.; Page, Samuel W.

1989-12-01

63

Qualitative determination of ?-acids and their transformation products in beer and hop using HR/AM-LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

Hops represent an important source of ?-acids with antimicrobial and sensory properties. Transformation products of ?-acids formed during their oxidation, mainly hulupones, have been shown to have an interesting kind of bitterness. Their structures were recently elucidated using LC-TOFMS and 1D/2D NMR in solution after thermal treatment of the hop ?-acids. This study demonstrates the advantages of MS detection with high resolution and accurate mass measurements. The structure of transformation products in an experimental solution of oxidized ?-acids was elucidated using a newly developed method by hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap MS. In addition to already known structures, two new ones were identified and named epoxycohulupone and epoxyhulupone. The method was verified on real samples; the profiles of these products in Sládek hops harvested in 2008 and 2012 and in corresponding beers were compared. For this purpose, a new QuEChERS assay was used for the preparation of beer samples. PMID:25099125

Dušek, Martin; Olšovská, Jana; Krofta, Karel; Jurková, Marie; Mikyška, Alexandr

2014-08-01

64

Quantitative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of binary mixtures of fatty acid esters using partial least squares regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes a quantitative spectroscopic method for the analysis of binary mixtures of fatty acid esters using multivariate data models based upon Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Multivariate calibration of binary mixtures has been performed using Partial Least Squares regression (PLS), with two approaches being applied for fitting the inner relation namely a standard linear function and a

Emma S. Haines; Anthony D. Walmsley; Stephen J. Haswell

1997-01-01

65

Synthesis, calorimetric, structural and conductivity studies in a new thallium selenate tellurate adduct compound  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structure of the thallium selenate tellurate Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} (TlSeTe) was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c space group. The following parameters are: a = 12.358(3) A; b = 7.231(1) A; c = 11.986(2) A; {beta} = 111.092(2){sup o}; Z = 4. The structure can be regarded as being built of isolated TeO{sub 6} octahedra and SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The Tl{sup +} cations are intercalated between these kinds of polyhedra. The main feature of this structure is the coexistence of two different and independent anions (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and TeO{sub 6}{sup 6-}) in the same unit cell. The structure is stable due to O-H...O hydrogen bonds which link tetrahedral and octahedral groups. Crystals of Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} undergo three endothermal transitions at 373, 395 and 437 K. These transitions are detected by DSC and analyzed by dielectric measurements with impedance spectroscopy. The evolution of conductivity versus temperature showed the presence of a protonic conduction phase transition at 437 K. The phase transition at 373 K can be related to a structural phase transition, whereas the one at 395 K is ascribed as likely due to a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition.

Ktari, L. [Laboratoire de l'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Abdelhedi, M. [Laboratoire de l'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Laboratoire Leon Brouillon LLB, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bouhlel, N. [Laboratoire de l'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Dammak, M., E-mail: meddammak@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de l'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Cousson, A. [Laboratoire Leon Brouillon LLB, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

2009-08-05

66

An efficient transformation of cyclic ene-carbamates into omega-(N-formylamino)carboxylic acids by ruthenium tetroxide oxidation.  

PubMed

The ruthenium tetroxide (RuO(4)) oxidation of cyclic ene-carbamates resulted in the endo-cyclic carbon-carbon double bond cleavage to afford the corresponding omega-(N-formylamino)carboxylic acids in good yields. Substituted cyclic ene-carbamates derived from (3R)-3-hydroxypiperidine hydrochloride were converted into the N-Boc 4-aminobutyric acids by utilization of the RuO(4) oxidation as the key step, which were further transformed into (3R)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid, an important key intermediate for the synthesis of L-carnitine. PMID:18758107

Kaname, Mamoru; Yoshifuji, Shigeyuki; Sashida, Haruki

2008-09-01

67

Process Coupling Between Mineral Transformation and U Speciation in Acid Waste Weathered Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for better prediction of contaminant transport motivates multi-faceted lines of inquiry to build a strong bridge between molecular- and field-scale information. At Hanford (WA), millions of liters of U-containing acidic wastes have been discharged to the soil. In order to predict reactive contaminant migration in the soil, it is necessary to determine the process coupling that occurs between mineral transformation and uranium speciation in these acid-uranium waste weathered sediments. Furthermore, we seek to establish linkages between molecular-scale contaminant speciation and meso-scale contaminant lability, release and reactive transport. Unweathered Hanford sediments were reacted for 365 days with acidic (pH 3), uranium bearing waste solutions in batch experiments. The presence and absence of phosphate in the waste as a control on uranium speciation was also investigated. At dedicated reaction times (7, 14, 30, 90, 180 and 365 days) solid and solution chemistry were analyzed to determine weathering trajectories and contaminant speciation. As observed by XRD and U-EXAFS, when present, PO4 exerted a strong controls over uranium speciation at all pH with the rapid precipitation of meta-ankoleite [K(UO2PO4).3H2O] and near complete immobilization of U. Over prolonged reaction time, however, small fractions of boltwoodite [K(UO2)(HSiO4).3H2O] increased in PO4-high U systems. When PO4 was excluded from the reaction systems, U speciation was indirectly controlled by the pH of the reactant solution and its effect on primary mineral weathering. In this case, U immobilization remained limited with 25 to 50% of the uranium precipitated as becquerelite ([Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6.3H2O] or the K equivalent - compreignacite) and suspected boltwoodite. Differences between the systems are attributed to process coupling between acid chemistry and U geochemistry. Carbonate weathering contributed to rapidly buffer the pH to pH 7-8 in the absence of PO4 and to 6-7 in its presence, promoting subsequent silicate weathering that makes aqueous Si available for boltwoodite precipitation. Comparison with homogeneous nucleation experiments and thermodynamic calculations confirmed the strong phosphate control over U speciation and the multispeciation of U in its absence.

Perdrial, N.; Kanematsu, M.; Wang, G.; Um, W.; O'Day, P. A.; Chorover, J.

2013-12-01

68

Main fatty acid classes in vegetable oils by SB-ATR-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The prospect of using single bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a rapid quantitative tool to determine the main fatty acid groups present in different edible oils was investigated. Partial least squares (PLS) calibrations were developed using SB-ATR-FTIR spectra which were associated with fatty acid groups (saturated, trans, mono- and polyunsaturated) using quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography (GC). Good calibrations were obtained for all main four fat groups (saturated, mono, trans and polyunsaturated) with excellent precision. The coefficient of determination (R(2)), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and bias for validation set were obtained as 0.999, 2.43 and 0.998 for saturated; 0.999, 1.850 and 0.003 for mono; 0.999, 0.625 and -0.001 for trans while for poly the values were 0.999, 1.170 and 0.003, respectively. The results of 13 validation samples for total saturated, mono, trans and polyunsaturated fats by FI-IR were found in the range of 8.16-55.16, 37.62-74.75, 0.20-18.16 and 1.36-62.35%, respectively. The present study shows that it may well be possible to expand the utility of SB-ATR-FTIR spectroscopy not only to provide isolated trans data, but also serve as a simple, rapid and quantitative means of categorizing the main groups present in the edible oils. The information obtained would be useful for meeting the new lipid nutritional labeling requirements. PMID:19836526

Sherazi, S T H; Talpur, M Younis; Mahesar, S A; Kandhro, Aftab A; Arain, Sarfraz

2009-12-15

69

Amino acids in the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent waters: origins, transformation and degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two cruises were conducted in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and adjacent coastal waters during July 1999 and 2000 to investigate spatial variation, transformation and degradation of amino acids (AAs). Salinity, suspended sediments (SS), chl a, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, AAs, and hexosamines were measured and analyzed. Concentrations of particulate hydrolysable AAs (PHAAs), dissolved combined AAs and dissolved free AAs ranged from 0.41 to 12.6 ?mol L -1, 1.1 to 4.0 ?mol L -1 and 0.15 to 1.10 ?mol L -1, respectively. AAs concentrations were low in waters of salinity <10, increased to the maximum in the estuarine and coastal plumes (salinity =10-25) and decreased beyond the coastal plume. There was a region where PHAAs were maximum, which coincided with the region of the chl a maximum and depletion of dissolved inorganic phosphorus in the coastal plume south of Hong Kong. This indicates that most of the AAs in estuarine and coastal waters were produced through phytoplankton production and AAs might be a temporary sink for inorganic nitrogen. The ratios of AAs/HAs and glucosamine/galactosamine (Glc-NH 2/Gal-NH 2) were on average, 26.0 and 3.8, respectively, in biogenic particulate matter (chl a >5 ?g L -1 and SS<10 mg L -1), decreased in turbid particles (SS>20 mg L -1) and reached the lowest values of 5.8 and 1.4 in sediments. In particular, the ratios of AAs/HAs, Glc-NH 2/Gal-NH 2 were low in the upper or northwest side of the estuary where turbidity was high. This indicated that these AAs were "old", likely due to resuspension of refractory organic matter from sediments or zooplankton grazing modification and bacterial reworking as the salt wedge advanced upstream near the bottom. Apparently, the dynamics of AAs in the PRE appeared to be governed by biological production processes and estuarine circulation in the estuary. As the chl a maximum developed downstream in the estuarine and coastal plume and the salt wedge moved upstream at the bottom, AAs increased and were subjected to sinking as particulates, grazing by zooplankton and reworking by bacterial activity. Sinking AAs would be transformed and modified in the lower layer, which would be brought back into the estuary in the salt wedge during the estuarine circulation.

Chen, Jianfang; Li, Yan; Yin, Kedong; Jin, Haiyan

2004-10-01

70

An empirical model of amino acid transformations in an alpine soil D.A. Lipson*, T.K. Raab, S.K. Schmidt, R.K. Monson  

E-print Network

An empirical model of amino acid transformations in an alpine soil D.A. Lipson*, T.K. Raab, S; accepted 22 June 2000 Abstract Amino acids are potentially important nitrogen (N) sources for plants ecosystems. This study estimates seasonal amino acid ¯uxes in an alpine tundra soil using three independent

Schmidt, Steven K.

71

Valproic acid overcomes transforming growth factor-?-mediated sorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor approved for hepatocellular carcinoma, but rarely causes tumor regression in patients with chronic liver diseases. To investigate whether growth factor-mediated signaling is involved in sorafenib resistance, HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells were exposed to epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) prior to treatment with sorafenib. Furthermore, to identify an effective combination treatment with sorafenib, growth factor-sensitized cells were treated with sorafenib alone or in combination with celecoxib, lovastatin or valproic acid (VPA). Trypan blue staining and Annexin V assays showed that the cytotoxic effect of sorafenib was inhibited by 15-54% in cells sensitized to TGF-? (P<0.05). Western blotting analysis showed that TGF-? significantly activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mediated AKT signaling, and sorafenib failed to suppress both ERK and AKT in TGF-?-sensitized cells. The decreased anti-tumor effect of sorafenib was rescued by chemical inhibition of ERK and AKT. When TGF-?-sensitized cells were treated with sorafenib plus VPA, the levels of phosphorylated ERK and AKT were considerably suppressed and the numbers of dead cells were increased by 3.7-5.7-fold compared with those exposed to sorafenib alone (P<0.05). Moreover, low dose sorafenib-induced cell migration was effectively suppressed by combination treatment with sorafenib and VPA. Collectively, TGF-?/ERK/AKT signaling might play a critical role in sorafenib resistance in hepatoma cells, and combination treatment with VPA may be effective against this drug resistance. PMID:24817927

Matsuda, Yasunobu; Wakai, Toshifumi; Kubota, Masayuki; Osawa, Mami; Hirose, Yuki; Sakata, Jun; Kobayashi, Takashi; Fujimaki, Shun; Takamura, Masaaki; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Aoyagi, Yutaka

2014-01-01

72

Analytical evaluation of polyunsaturated fatty acids degradation during thermal oxidation of edible oils by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative deterioration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in culinary oils and fats during episodes of heating associated with normal usage (80–300°C, 20–40 min) has been monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal oxidation of PUFAs is a free radical chain reaction, in which hydroperoxides are generally recognized as the primary major products. Hydroperoxides of PUFAs are easily

M. C. M. Moya Moreno; D. Mendoza Olivares; F. J. Amézquita López; J. V. Gimeno Adelantado; F. Bosch Reig

1999-01-01

73

Application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Monitoring Short-Chain Free Fatty Acids in Swiss Cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-chain free fatty acids (FFA) are important sources of cheese flavor and have been reported to be indicators for assessing quality. The objective of this research was to develop a simple and rapid screening tool for monitoring the short-chain FFA contents in Swiss cheese by using Fourier transform infrared spec- troscopy (FTIR). Forty-four Swiss cheese samples were evaluated by using

N. Koca; L. E. Rodriguez-Saona; W. J. Harper; V. B. Alvarez

2007-01-01

74

High-resolution spectroscopy of cool K and M stars through the telluric water vapor absorption band near 9360 A. 1: Methodology and first results  

Microsoft Academic Search

An observational program has been undertaken for the study of stellar spectra within telluric water vapor lines absorption region near 9360 A. This program has been developed in the future context of a European Space Agency's (ESAs) environment-dedicated experiment designed to probe atmospheric water vapor absorption with cool star spectrophotometry. With ground observations presented here, we determine absorption levels and

T. Widemann; J.-L. Bertaux; M. Querci; F. Querci

1994-01-01

75

Microbial transformation of acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid and their inhibitory activity on LPS-induced NO production.  

PubMed

The capabilities of 20 strains of fungi to transform acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic (AKBA) were screened. And biotransformation of AKBA by Cunninghamella blakesleana AS 3.970 afforded five metabolites (1-5), while two metabolites (6, 7) were isolated from biotransformation of Cunninghamella elegans AS 3.1207. The chemical structures of these metabolites were identified by spectral methods including 2D NMR and their structures were elucidated as 7?-hydroxy-3-acety-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (1), 21?-dihydroxy-3-acety-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (2), 7?,22?-dihydroxy-3-acety-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (3), 7?,16?-dihydroxy-3-acety-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (4), 7?,15?-dihydroxy-3-acety-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (5); 7?,15?,21?-trihydroxy-3-acety-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (6) and 15?,21?-dihydroxy-3-acety-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (7). All these products are previously unknown. Their primary structure-activity relationships (SAR) of inhibition activity on LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were evaluated. PMID:23391590

Sun, Yan; Liu, Dan; Xi, Ronggang; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Yan; Hou, Jie; Zhang, Baojing; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Kexin; Ma, Xiaochi

2013-03-01

76

The study of aluminum loss and consequent phase transformation in heat-treated acid-leached kaolin  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the effect of Al leaching during Fe removal from kaolin to mullite. Heat-treated kaolin was obtained by heating natural kaolin at 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg. C. The heat-treated kaolin was then leached at 100 deg. C with 4 M, 3 M, 2 M, 1 M, 0.2 M solution of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.2 M solution of oxalic acid. The dried samples were sintered to 1300 deg. C for 4 h at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1}. X-ray diffractometry and differential thermal analysis were used to study the phase transformation of kaolin to mullite. It was found that 700 deg. C is the optimum preheat-treatment temperature to leach out Fe and also Al for both types of the acids used. The majority of the 4 M sulfuric acid-treated kaolins formed the cristobalite phase when sintered. On the other hand, 1 M, 0.2 M sulfuric acid and 0.2 M oxalic acid leached heat-treated kaolin formed mullite and quartz phase after sintering. - Research Highlights: {yields} Preheat-treatment of kaolin improves the leachability of unwanted iron. {yields} The optimum preheat-treatment temperature is 700 deg. C. {yields} Sintered 4 M sulfuric acid-treated kaolin majorly formed the cristobalite phase. {yields} Sintered 0.2 M oxalic acid-treated kaolin formed lesser amorphous silicate phase.

Foo, Choo Thye [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahmood, Che Seman [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohd Salleh, Mohamad Amran, E-mail: asalleh@eng.upm.edu.my [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Chemical Engineering Department, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2011-04-15

77

Metformin and phenformin deplete tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolytic intermediates during cell transformation and NTPs in cancer stem cells  

PubMed Central

Metformin, a first-line diabetes drug linked to cancer prevention in retrospective clinical analyses, inhibits cellular transformation and selectively kills breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). Although a few metabolic effects of metformin and the related biguanide phenformin have been investigated in established cancer cell lines, the global metabolic impact of biguanides during the process of neoplastic transformation and in CSCs is unknown. Here, we use LC/MS/MS metabolomics (>200 metabolites) to assess metabolic changes induced by metformin and phenformin in an Src-inducible model of cellular transformation and in mammosphere-derived breast CSCs. Although phenformin is the more potent biguanide in both systems, the metabolic profiles of these drugs are remarkably similar, although not identical. During the process of cellular transformation, biguanide treatment prevents the boost in glycolytic intermediates at a specific stage of the pathway and coordinately decreases tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. In contrast, in breast CSCs, biguanides have a modest effect on glycolytic and TCA cycle intermediates, but they strongly deplete nucleotide triphosphates and may impede nucleotide synthesis. These metabolic profiles are consistent with the idea that biguanides inhibit mitochondrial complex 1, but they indicate that their metabolic effects differ depending on the stage of cellular transformation. PMID:25002509

Janzer, Andreas; German, Natalie J.; Gonzalez-Herrera, Karina N.; Asara, John M.; Haigis, Marcia C.; Struhl, Kevin

2014-01-01

78

Polymorphic transformation of L-glutamic acid monitored using combined on-line video microscopy and X-ray diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancement of process monitoring for detecting transformations of the organic solid state is an important, strategic area currently of substantial interest particularly to the pharmaceutical sector and, more generally, manufacturers of speciality chemical products. A feasibility study is reported in which a solution-mediated polymorphic transformation of L-glutamic acid (LGA) was monitored using, concurrently, both video microscopy accompanied by advanced image processing and, on-line X-ray diffraction. The applicability of these monitoring approaches, applied individually, has been demonstrated previously; however, it was useful to assess the relative sensitivity of the two techniques by their direct comparison, via simultaneous use, during application on-line to monitor a polymorphic transformation process. It was found that the onset of the polymorphic transformation, manifested as the point in time when crystals of the ? phase of LGA were first detected, was elucidated as being significantly sooner via video microscopy. This reflects the fact that the concentration regimes of maximum sensitivity for the individual approaches are complementary, hence video microscopy provides considerable added-value allowing detection of the early stages of the transformation process. Currently, the upper bound on solids concentration that is compatible with extracting useful information about the phase composition using video microscopy, based on particle shape, is restricted. However, it is anticipated that improvements to both the experimental design and the image processing algorithms applied will substantially increase this upper bound allowing practical application under realistic processing conditions.

Dharmayat, Spoorthi; Calderon De Anda, Jorge; Hammond, Robert B.; Lai, Xaiojun; Roberts, Kevin J.; Wang, Xue Z.

2006-08-01

79

Amino acid-dependent transformations of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles: impact on morphology, stability and toxicity.  

PubMed

Humans face the risk of exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their extensive application in consumer products. AgNPs can interact with many substances in the human body due to their chemically unstable nature and high activity properties, which might result in unknown hazards and even some serious diseases for humans. As the basic constituent element of human bodies, amino acids (AAs) differ in concentration and variety in different cells and tissues. Thus, understanding the transformation of citrate-coated AgNPs in the presence of AAs is crucial for determining their fate and toxicity in the human body. Our study focused on the transformation of the morphology, dissolution behavior and reaction product of AgNPs in different AA-containing systems and then evaluated the effect of these transformations on the cytotoxicity of AgNPs. The obtained results indicated that the addition of glycine with the lowest Ag(+) binding energy had little effect on the transformations and toxicity of AgNPs. While in the presence of histidine with higher Ag(+) binding energy, the Ag(+) release and particle size of AgNPs obviously increased. These transformations resulted in a decrease in the cytotoxicity of AgNPs due to the formation of Ag-His complex and the growth of AgNPs. Furthermore, l-cysteine with the highest Ag(+) binding energy could easily interact with AgNPs, transforming them completely to form [Ag(Cys)n](+) and Ag2S precipitates, which induced the largest decrease in AgNP toxicity. In summary, our results may provide useful information to understand the fate, transformation, and toxicity of citrate-coated AgNPs in the human body. PMID:24910988

Shi, Junpeng; Sun, Xia; Zou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwu

2014-08-17

80

Metabolism of fatty acids and lipid hydroperoxides in human body monitoring with Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The metabolism of dietary fatty acids in human has been measured so far using human blood cells and stable-isotope labeled fatty acids, however, no direct data was available for human peripheral tissues and other major organs. To realize the role of dietary fatty acids in human health and diseases, it would be eager to develop convenient and suitable method

Satoshi Yoshida; Qin-Zeng Zhang; Shu Sakuyama; Satoshi Matsushima

2009-01-01

81

Nondestructive analyses of unsaturated fatty acid species in dietary oils by attenuated total reflectance with Fourier transform IR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a nondestructive method to quantitate relative amounts of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) species in vegetable oils and oil seeds using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR). The alkene Cbond;H stretching vibrations of unsaturated fatty acids in oils showed IR absorption bands with various peak positions and intensities at around 3010 cm(-1), depending on the extent of unsaturation and PUFA species. With the aid of partial least-squares regression analysis, the FTIR measurement could practically predict the content of each PUFA species in the oil to be tested. A calculation method was also presented to directly find PUFA species in oils from the FTIR spectra. This technique was applied to dried soybean seeds to demonstrate a nonhomogenous distribution of saturated fatty acids and PUFAs, as well as glycans, in soybean cross sections. PMID:14648770

Yoshida, Satoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi

2003-12-01

82

Rapid characterization and identification of fatty acids in margarines using horizontal attenuate total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (HATR-FTIR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HATR) coupled to multivariate\\u000a analysis was used to predict chemical composition, fatty acid profile, nutritional relationships between fatty acids, and\\u000a to identify trans fatty acids (TFA) of margarines. For model building and validation, a set of 42 margarines samples were\\u000a analyzed in terms of fatty acid profile, total fat, moisture,

Maylet Hernández-Martínez; Tzayhri Gallardo-Velázquez; Guillermo Osorio-Revilla

2010-01-01

83

Crystal structure of bis­[(5-oxo­oxolan-3-yl)triphen­ylphosphanium] hexa­iodido­tellurate(IV)  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric unit of the title salt, [C22H20O2P]2 +[TeI6]2?, consists of one triphenyl(5-oxooxolan-3-yl)phosphanium cation and one half of a hexa­iodido­tellurate(IV) dianion. The Te atom is located at an inversion centre and is octa­hedrally coordinated by six I atoms. The Te—I bond lengths range from 2.9255?(9) to 2.9439?(10)?Å. The I—Te—I angles between cis-iodide ligands are in the range 87.85?(3)–92.15?(3)°. In the crystal, the components are connected by C—H?I inter­actions. In the final refinement of the compound a void of 32?Å3 was observed. PMID:25553021

Närhi, Sari M.; Oilunkaniemi, Raija; Laitinen, Risto S.

2014-01-01

84

Generation of organic acids and monosaccharides by hydrolytic and oxidative transformation of food processing residues.  

PubMed

Carbohydrate-rich biomass residues, i.e. sugar beet molasses, whey powder, wine yeast, potato peel sludge, spent hops, malt dust and apple marc, were tested as starting materials for the generation of marketable chemicals, e.g. aliphatic acids, sugar acids and mono-/disaccharides. Residues were oxidized or hydrolyzed under acidic or alkaline conditions applying conventional laboratory digestion methods and microwave assisted techniques. Yields and compositions of the oxidation products differed according to the oxidizing agent used. Main products of oxidation by 30% HNO(3) were acetic, glucaric, oxalic and glycolic acids. Applying H(2)O(2)/CuO in alkaline solution, the organic acid yields were remarkably lower with formic, acetic and threonic acids as main products. Gluconic acid was formed instead of glucaric acid throughout. Reaction of a 10% H(2)O(2) solution with sugar beet molasses generated formic and lactic acids mainly. Na(2)S(2)O(8) solutions were very inefficient at oxidizing the residues. Glucose, arabinose and galactose were formed during acidic hydrolysis of malt dust and apple marc. The glucose content reached 0.35 g per gram of residue. Important advantages of the microwave application were lower reaction times and reduced reagent demands. PMID:15607197

Fischer, Klaus; Bipp, Hans-Peter

2005-05-01

85

Thermal transformation of trans-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (trans-5-CQA) in alcoholic solutions.  

PubMed

Chlorogenic acid (CQA), the ester of caffeic acid with quinic acid supplied to human organisms mainly with coffee, tea, fruit and vegetables, has been one of the most studied polyphenols. It is potentially useful in pharmaceuticals, food additives, and cosmetics due to its recently discovered biomedical activity, which revived interest in its properties, isomers and natural occurrence. We found that the heating of the alcoholic solution of trans-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid produced at least twenty compounds (chlorogenic acid derivatives and its reaction products with water and alcohol). The formation of three of them (methoxy, ethoxy and propoxy adducts) has not been reported yet. No reports exist either on methoxy adducts of 3- and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid appearing in buffered methanol/water mixtures at pH exceeding 7. We observed that the amount of each formed component depended on the heating time, type of alcohol, its concentration in alcoholic/water mixture, and pH. PMID:25148959

Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Typek, Rafal

2015-01-15

86

Effects of ranolazine on fatty acid transformation in the isolated perfused rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that in the heart, ranolazine shifts the energy source from fatty acids to glucose oxidation by inhibiting\\u000a fatty acid oxidation. Up to now no mechanism for this inhibition has been proposed. The purpose of this study was to investigate\\u000a if ranolazine also affects hepatic fatty acid oxidation, with especial emphasis on cell membrane permeation based on

Márcio Shigueaki Mito; Jorgete Constantin; Cristiane Vizioli de Castro; Nair Seiko Yamamoto; Adelar Bracht

2010-01-01

87

An empirical model of amino acid transformations in an alpine soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids are potentially important nitrogen (N) sources for plants in many ecosystems. However, a quantitative understanding of organic N availability is lacking for most ecosystems. This study estimates seasonal amino acid fluxes in an alpine tundra soil using three independent data sets. In previous work in an alpine dry meadow ecosystem in the Front Range of the Colorado Rocky

D. a. Lipson; T. k. Raab; S. k. Schmidt; R. k. Monson

2001-01-01

88

Determination of fatty acid composition of pork fat by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid composition of pork fat determines its processing quality. FTIR spectroscopic methods were evaluated on pork back and breast fat, directly on fat slices and on the fat extracts. Near infrared transmission and middle infrared using an ATR method were developed to determine the fatty acid content in the fat extracts. The results obtained with 80 back and

A Ripoche; A. S Guillard

2001-01-01

89

Final Report: Theoretical Studies on Radiation-Induced Transformations in Nucleic Acid Bases, May 1, 1993 - April 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

In the proposal we identified several elemental molecular properties related to the effects observed in genetic material exposed to ionizing irradiation, and we studied them by means of the ab-initio quantum chemistry. The chemistry of irradiation is complex and biological consequences are significant. This includes cell death, mutations, carcinogenic transformations, etc. In the proposal we theoretically modeled several elemental processes related to the radiolysis of components of the nucleic acids, i.e., the pyrimidine nucleobases cytosine, uracine and thymine. Based on the state-of-the-art ab-initio calculations, we obtained information on the structural and spectroscopic properties of transition intermediate reactants.

Adamowicz, Ludwik

1996-04-30

90

Quantification of trans fatty acid content in French fries of local food service retailers using attenuated total reflection – Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of trans fatty acids in French fries served at the local food service retailers in Honolulu were determined by simple Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique without the pretreatment of fatty acid extraction. A horizontal attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystal made of zinc selenide (ZnSe) was used to obtain FTIR spectra of French fries with and without fatty

Il Kyu Cho; Sungkyun Kim; Harpreet Kaur Khurana; Qing X. Li; Soojin Jun

2011-01-01

91

Fourier transform infrared studies of model polar stratospheric cloud surfaces - Growth and evaporation of ice and nitric acid/ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourier-transform infrared surface studies are used to probe the microphysical properties of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and ice films representative of type I and II polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). Experiments indicate that, on initial exposure to 1.8 microtorr of HNO3, a layer of ice is quantitatively converted to NAT. However, conversion of ice to NAT does not proceed indefinitely, but rather the system reaches saturation. For longer exposures or higher HNO3 pressures, NAM becomes the dominant nitric acid containing species on the surface. Evaporation studies were performed to test the feasibility of a recent denitrification mechanism. The results indicate that ice coated with 0.20 micron of NAT evaporates at a temperature of about 4 C higher than uncoated ice.

Tolbert, Margaret A.; Middlebrook, Ann M.

1990-01-01

92

Structural transformation induced by locked nucleic acid or 2?–O-methyl nucleic acid site-specific modifications on thrombin binding aptamer  

PubMed Central

Background Locked nucleic acid (LNA) and 2'–O-methyl nucleic acid (OMeNA) are two of the most extensively studied nucleotide derivatives in the last decades. However, how they affect DNA quadruplex structures remains largely unknown. To explore their possible biological affinities for quadruplexes, we investigated how LNA- or OMeNA-substitutions affect G-quadruplex structure formation using a thrombin binding aptamer (TBA), the most studied extracorporal G-quadruplex-forming DNA sequence, which is frequently modified to increase its analytical performance. Results The experimental results showed that when two or more nucleotides were substituted with LNA or OMeNA, the anti-parallel TBA structure was transformed into an unstructured random conformation in a 50 mM K+ environment; OMeNA appeared to have greater power to induce this transformation. However, the native TBA was unstructured in a 50 mM Ca2+ environment, whereas four or more LNA- or OMeNA- substitutions could convert this unstructured TBA into a parallel quadruplex structure. PAGE mobility measurements suggested that these TBAs might be a dimeric form. Conclusion LNA or 2'-OMeNA site-specific modifications induced G-quadruplex structural transformation of TBA, which enriched our understanding of the intrinsic G-quadrupex forming property and affinity of LNA and OMeNA modifications. This study demonstrates possible applications in the regulation of gene expression (i.e. manual intervention of gene therapy), genetic analyses, molecular diagnosis and the construction of nano-scale biostructures. PMID:24642032

2014-01-01

93

Quantitative nucleic acid changes during phytohaemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte transformation in vitro. Dependence of the response on phytohaemagglutinin/serum ratio  

PubMed Central

1. Pig and human blood lymphocytes have been grown in culture without replenishment of medium, and stimulated to transform by phytohaemagglutinin. Quantitative nucleic acid changes during this process have been used as an index of transformation. 2. On the first day, cells attach to glass; then they detach and continue transforming. 3. The degree of transformation is dependent on the phytohaemagglutinin/serum ratio, and is independent of cell concentration within the range 0·5×106?2·0×106 cells/ml. 4. At low phytohaemagglutinin/serum ratios there is no response; at high phytohaemagglutinin/serum ratios, inhibition appears after the cells have been cultured for a day. PMID:5584011

Forsdyke, D. R.

1967-01-01

94

Structures of aspartic acid-96 in the L and N intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin: analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The light-induced difference Fourier transform infrared spectrum between the L or N intermediate minus light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was measured in order to examine the protonated states and the changes in the interactions of carboxylic acids of Asp-96 and Asp-115 in these intermediates. Vibrational bands due to the protonated and unprotonated carboxylic acid were identified by isotope shift and band depletion upon substitution of Asp-96 or -115 by asparagine. While the signal due to the deprotonation of Asp-96 was clearly observed in the N intermediate, this residue remained protonated in L. Asp-115 was partially deprotonated in L. The C = O stretching vibration of protonated Asp-96 of L showed almost no shift upon 2H2O substitution, in contrast to the corresponding band of Asp-96 or Asp-115 of BR, which shifted by 9-12 cm-1 under the same conditions. In the model system of acetic acid in organic solvents, such an absence of the shift of the C = O stretching vibration of the protonated carboxylic acid upon 2H2O substitution was seen only when the O-H of acetic acid is hydrogen-bonded. The non-hydrogen-bonded monomer showed the 2H2O-dependent shift. Thus, the O-H bond of Asp-96 enters into hydrogen bonding upon conversion of BR to L. Its increased hydrogen bonding in L is consistent with the observed downshift of the O-H stretching vibration of the carboxylic acid of Asp-96.

Maeda, A.; Sasaki, J.; Shichida, Y.; Yoshizawa, T.; Chang, M.; Ni, B.; Needleman, R.; Lanyi, J. K.

1992-01-01

95

Determination of C22:5 and C22:6 marine fatty acids in pork fat with Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acids in samples (n=74) of pork adipose tissue were measured with a Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectrometer and by gas chromatography. The measured absorption spectra provided information to estimate partial least squares regression models for fatty acid groups, the iodine value and several fatty acids. The iodine values were predicted with correlation coefficient R=0.996 and root mean square error

Audun Flåtten; Eli A. Bryhni; Achim Kohler; Bjørg Egelandsdal; Tomas Isaksson

2005-01-01

96

Transformation of ferulic acid to vanillin using a fed-batch solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor.  

PubMed

Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 (formerly Streptomyces setonii) has shown promising results in converting ferulic acid (trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; substrate), which can be derived from natural plant wastes, to vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). After exploring the influence of adding vanillin at different times during the growth cycle on cell growth and transformation performance of this strain and demonstrating the inhibitory effect of vanillin, a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) system was used as an in situ product removal technique to enhance transformation productivity by this strain. The thermoplastic polymer Hytrel(®) G4078W was found to have superior partitioning capacity for vanillin with a partition coefficient of 12 and a low affinity for the substrate. A 3-L working volume solid-liquid fed-batch TPPB mode, using 300 g Hytrel G4078W as the sequestering phase, produced a final vanillin concentration of 19.5 g/L. The overall productivity of this reactor system was 450 mg/L. h, among the highest reported in literature. Vanillin was easily and quantitatively recovered from the polymers mostly by single stage extraction into methanol or other organic solvents used in food industry, simultaneously regenerating polymer beads for reuse. A polymer-liquid two phase bioreactor was again confirmed to easily outperform single phase systems that feature inhibitory or easily further degraded substrates/products. This enhancement strategy might reasonably be expected in the production of other flavor and fragrance compounds obtained by biotransformations. PMID:24167066

Ma, Xiao-kui; Daugulis, Andrew J

2014-01-01

97

A study of the autoxidation of some unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters using Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-infrared Fourier transform Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy have been used to investigate the chemical changes taking place during the curing reaction of several fatty acid methyl esters, which are used for modelling processes in the autoxidation of alkyd resin coatings. We have studied methyl oleate, methyl linoleate, and methyl linolenate in an attempt to monitor the degree of unsaturation within the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMES) during the complex autoxidation/polymerisation reaction that takes place once the paint system is coated onto a substrate and exposed to the atmosphere. The peaks around 1655 cm -1 have been assigned as follows: to the trans isomer at 1670 cm -1, the cis isomer at 1655 cm -1 and the conjugated structure at 1640 cm -1 [B. Schrader, Raman/Infrared Atlas of Organic Compounds (2nd Edn), VCH, Weinheim (1989); J. K. Abenyega, M. Claybourn and G. Ellis, in preparations]. Raman spectra for the cure of methyl linoleate after 24 h show several interesting features, suggesting the formation of a highly conjugated cyclic structure. Current theories about the mechanism for the autoxidation of methyl linoleate make no mention of this aromatic product.

Agbenyega, J. K.; Claybourn, M.; Ellis, G.

98

Transformation of 5-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid in Blueberries during High-Temperature Processing.  

PubMed

Chlorogenic acid (CQA), an ester of caffeic with quinic acid, is a natural compound found in a wide array of plants. Although coffee beans are most frequently mentioned as plant products remarkably rich in CQAs, their significant amounts can also be found in many berries, for example, blueberries. This paper shows and discusses the thermal stability of the main CQA representative, that is, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), during high-temperature processing of blueberries (as in the production of blueberry foods) in systems containing sucrose in low and high concentration. It has been found that up to 11 components (5-CQA derivatives and its reaction product with water) can be formed from 5-CQA during the processing of blueberries. Their formation speed depends on the sucrose concentration in the processed system, which has been confirmed in the artificial system composed of 5-CQA water solution containing different amounts of the sugar. PMID:25336323

Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Typek, Rafal

2014-11-12

99

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibits EGF-induced cell transformation via reduction of cyclin D1 mRNA stability  

SciTech Connect

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibiting cancer cell growth has been associated with its downregulation of cyclin D1 protein expression at transcription level or translation level. Here, we have demonstrated that SAHA inhibited EGF-induced Cl41 cell transformation via the decrease of cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. We found that SAHA treatment resulted in the dramatic inhibition of EGF-induced cell transformation, cyclin D1 protein expression and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. Further studies showed that SAHA downregulation of cyclin D1 was only observed with endogenous cyclin D1, but not with reconstitutionally expressed cyclin D1 in the same cells, excluding the possibility of SAHA regulating cyclin D1 at level of protein degradation. Moreover, SAHA inhibited EGF-induced cyclin d1 mRNA level, whereas it did not show any inhibitory effect on cyclin D1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter activity under the same experimental conditions, suggesting that SAHA may decrease cyclin D1 mRNA stability. This notion was supported by the results that treatment of cells with SAHA decreased the half-life of cyclin D1 mRNA from 6.95 h to 2.57 h. Consistent with downregulation of cyclin D1 mRNA stability, SAHA treatment also attenuated HuR expression, which has been well-characterized as a positive regulator of cyclin D1 mRNA stability. Thus, our study identifies a novel mechanism responsible for SAHA inhibiting cell transformation via decreasing cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest in Cl41 cells. -- Highlights: ? SAHA inhibits cell transformation in Cl41 cells. ? SAHA suppresses Cyclin D1 protein expression. ? SAHA decreases cyclin D1 mRNA stability.

Zhang, Jingjie [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Rd, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Rd, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Rd, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Ouyang, Weiming; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Yu, Yonghui; Wang, York [Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Rd, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)] [Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Rd, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Li, Xuejun, E-mail: xjli@bjmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Rd, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Rd, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Huang, Chuanshu, E-mail: chuanshu.huang@nyumc.org [Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Rd, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)] [Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Rd, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

2012-09-01

100

Reactive oxygen species regulate properties of transformation in UROtsa cells exposed to monomethylarsonous acid by modulating MAPK signaling  

PubMed Central

UROtsa cells exposed to 50 nM monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] for 52 wk (MSC52) achieved hyperproliferation, anchorage independent growth, and enhanced tumorgenicity. MMA(III) has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can lead to activation of signaling cascades causing stress-related proliferation of cells and even cellular transformation. Previous research established the acute activation of MAPK signaling cascade by ROS produced by MMA(III) as well as chronic up regulation of COX-2 and EGFR in MSC52 cells. To determine if ROS played a role in the chronic pathway perturbations by acting as secondary messengers, activation of Ras was determined in UROtsa cells [exposed to MMA(III) for 0 –52 wk] and found to be increased through 52 wk most dramatically after 20 wk of exposure. Ras has been shown to cause an increase in O2·? and be activated by increases in O2·?, making ROS important to study in the transformation process. COX-2 upregulation in MSC52 cells was confirmed by real time RT-PCR. By utilizing both antioxidants or specific COX inhibitors, it was shown that COX-2 upregulation was dependent on ROS, specifically, O2·?. In addition, because previous research established the importance of MAPK activation in phenotypic changes associated with transformation in MSC52 cells, it was hypothesized that ROS play a role in maintaining phenotypic characteristics of the malignant transformation of MSC52 cells. Several studies have demonstrated that cancer cells have lowered superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity and protein levels. Increasing levels of MnSOD have been shown to suppress the malignant phenotype of cells. SOD was added to MSC52 cells resulting in slower proliferation rates (doubling time = 42 h vs 31 h). ROS scavengers of ·OH also slowed proliferation rates of MSC52 cells. To further substantiate the importance of ROS in these properties of transformation in MSC52 cells, anchorage independent growth was assessed after the addition of antioxidants, both enzymatic and non-enzymatic. Scavengers of·OH, and O2·? blocked the colony formation of MSC52 cells. These data support the role for the involvement of ROS in properties of transformation of UROtsa cells exposed to MMA(III). PMID:19014992

Eblin, K.E.; Jensen, T.J.; Wnek, S.M.; Buffington, S.E.; Futscher, B.W.; Gandolfi, A.J.

2009-01-01

101

CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION MODULES FOR EULERIAN ACID DEPOSITION MODELS. VOLUME 2. THE AQUEOUS-PHASE CHEMISTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

This study focuses on the review and evaluation of mechanistic and kinetic data for aqueous-phase reactions that lead to the production of acidic substances in the environment. The intent of this research is to provide a framework that can be used to develop a state-of-the-art aq...

102

CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION MODULES FOR EULERIAN ACID DEPOSITION MODELS. VOLUME 1. THE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

This study focuses on the review and evaluation of mechanistic and kinetic data for the gas-phase reactions that lead to the production of acidic substances in the environment. A master mechanism is designed that treats oxides, sulfur dioxide, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, t...

103

Novel Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of the Immunomodulator Organotellurium Compound Ammonium Trichloro(dioxoethylene-O,O?)tellurate (AS101)  

PubMed Central

Ammonium trichloro[1,2-ethanediolato-O,O?]-tellurate (AS101) is the most important synthetic Te compound from the standpoint of its biological activity. It is a potent immunomodulator with a variety of potential therapeutic applications and antitumoral action in several preclinical and clinical studies. An experimental design has been used to develop and optimize a novel microwave-assisted synthesis (MAOS) of the AS101. In comparison to the results observed in the literature, refluxing Te(IV) chloride and ethylene glycol in acetonitrile (Method A), or by refluxing Te(IV) chloride and ammonium chloride in ethylene glycol (Method B), it was found that the developed methods in the present work are an effective alternative, because although performance slightly decreases compared to conventional procedures (75% vs. 79% by Method A, and 45% vs. 51% by Method B), reaction times decreased from 4 h to 30 min and from 4 h to 10 min, by Methods A and B respectively. MAOS is proving to be of value in the rapid synthesis of compounds with new and improved biological activities, specially based on the benefit of its shorter reaction times. PMID:24566150

Vázquez-Tato, M. Pilar; Mena-Menéndez, Alberto; Feás, Xesús; Seijas, Julio A.

2014-01-01

104

Acute effect of erythromycin on metabolic transformations of volatile fatty acid mixture under anaerobic conditions.  

PubMed

The study explored the acute inhibitory impact of erythromycin on the methanogenic activity of acclimated biomass fed with a volatile fatty acid mixture and acetate alone. Parallel batch reactors were operated for six days, with increasing erythromycin dosing in the range of 1-1000mgL(-1). Substrate removal was monitored by means of soluble COD and volatile fatty acid (VFA) measurements together with parallel observations on biogas and methane generation. The inhibitory impact was variable with the initial erythromycin dose: At lower doses, the VFA mixture was completely removed but partially utilized, leading to reduced biogas and methane generation, suggesting the analogy of uncompetitive inhibition. At higher doses, propionate utilization was totally impaired and butyrate removal was reduced, but acetate was still fully removed. Remaining VFAs were partly converted to new VFA compound through isomerization and polymerization reactions. High erythromycin doses induced total inactivation of microbial metabolism with negligible methane generation. PMID:25542637

Cetecioglu, Z; Ince, B; Ince, O; Orhon, D

2015-04-01

105

Fourier transform far-infrared spectroscopy of the hydrogen bond in 4- n-alkoxybenzoic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Far-infrared transmittance spectra (200-30 cm?1) of the hydrogen bond in cyclic dimers of 4-n-heptyl-, octyl- and nonyloxybenzoic acids are observed and investigated. The spectral bands at 42, 63, 68 and 82 cm?1 are assigned to the four deformation vibrations: twisting, bending (in and out of the dimer ring plane) and stretching by halfwidth spectral band temperature analysis. The hydrogen band

K. Antonova; M. Petrov; N. Kirov; T. Tenev; H. Ratajczak

1995-01-01

106

Mechanism and kinetics of dark iron redox transformations in previously photolyzed acidic natural organic matter solutions.  

PubMed

Stable organic species produced on irradiation of Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) are shown to be important oxidants of Fe(II) in aqueous solutions at acidic pH, with rate constants substantially larger than those for oxygenation of Fe(II) under the same conditions. These Fe(II)-oxidizing species, which are formed during photolysis by superoxide-mediated oxidation of reduced organic moieties that are present intrinsically in SRFA, are long-lived in the dark but prone to rapid oxidation by singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) under irradiated conditions. The intrinsic reduced organic species are able to reduce Fe(III) at acidic pH. Although the exact identities of the organic Fe(II) oxidant and the organic Fe(III) reductant are unclear, their behavior is consistent with that expected of semiquinone and hydroquinone-like moieties respectively. A kinetic model is developed that adequately describes all aspects of the experimental data obtained, and which is capable of predicting dark Fe(II) oxidation rates and Fe(III) reduction rates in the presence of previously photolyzed natural organic matter. PMID:23331166

Garg, Shikha; Ito, Hiroaki; Rose, Andrew L; Waite, T David

2013-02-19

107

Leaching behavior of heavy metals and transformation of their speciation in polluted soil receiving simulated acid rain.  

PubMed

Heavy metals that leach from contaminated soils under acid rain are of increasing concern. In this study, simulated acid rain (SAR) was pumped through columns of artificially contaminated purple soil. Column leaching tests and sequential extraction were conducted for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn to determine the extent of their leaching as well as to examine the transformation of their speciation in the artificially contaminated soil columns. Results showed that the maximum leachate concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were less than those specified in the Chinese Quality Standards for Groundwater (Grade IV), thereby suggesting that the heavy metals that leached from the polluted purple soil receiving acid rain may not pose as risks to water quality. Most of the Pb and Cd leachate concentrations were below their detection limits. By contrast, higher Cu and Zn leachate concentrations were found because they were released by the soil in larger amounts as compared with those of Pb and Cd. The differences in the Cu and Zn leachate concentrations between the controls (SAR at pH 5.6) and the treatments (SAR at pH 3.0 and 4.5) were significant. Similar trends were observed in the total leached amounts of Cu and Zn. The proportions of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn in the EXC and OX fractions were generally increased after the leaching experiment at three pH levels, whereas those of the RES, OM, and CAR fractions were slightly decreased. Acid rain favors the leaching of heavy metals from the contaminated purple soil and makes the heavy metal fractions become more labile. Moreover, a pH decrease from 5.6 to 3.0 significantly enhanced such effects. PMID:23185399

Zheng, Shun-an; Zheng, Xiangqun; Chen, Chun

2012-01-01

108

Leaching Behavior of Heavy Metals and Transformation of Their Speciation in Polluted Soil Receiving Simulated Acid Rain  

PubMed Central

Heavy metals that leach from contaminated soils under acid rain are of increasing concern. In this study, simulated acid rain (SAR) was pumped through columns of artificially contaminated purple soil. Column leaching tests and sequential extraction were conducted for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn to determine the extent of their leaching as well as to examine the transformation of their speciation in the artificially contaminated soil columns. Results showed that the maximum leachate concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were less than those specified in the Chinese Quality Standards for Groundwater (Grade IV), thereby suggesting that the heavy metals that leached from the polluted purple soil receiving acid rain may not pose as risks to water quality. Most of the Pb and Cd leachate concentrations were below their detection limits. By contrast, higher Cu and Zn leachate concentrations were found because they were released by the soil in larger amounts as compared with those of Pb and Cd. The differences in the Cu and Zn leachate concentrations between the controls (SAR at pH 5.6) and the treatments (SAR at pH 3.0 and 4.5) were significant. Similar trends were observed in the total leached amounts of Cu and Zn. The proportions of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn in the EXC and OX fractions were generally increased after the leaching experiment at three pH levels, whereas those of the RES, OM, and CAR fractions were slightly decreased. Acid rain favors the leaching of heavy metals from the contaminated purple soil and makes the heavy metal fractions become more labile. Moreover, a pH decrease from 5.6 to 3.0 significantly enhanced such effects. PMID:23185399

Zheng, Shun-an; Zheng, Xiangqun; Chen, Chun

2012-01-01

109

An Unusual Abscisic Acid and Gibberellic Acid Synergism Increases Somatic Embryogenesis, Facilitates Its Genetic Analysis and Improves Transformation in Medicago truncatula  

PubMed Central

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) can be readily induced in leaf explants of the Jemalong 2HA genotype of the model legume Medicago truncatula by auxin and cytokinin, but rarely in wild-type Jemalong. Gibberellic acid (GA), a hormone not included in the medium, appears to act in Arabidopsis as a repressor of the embryonic state such that low ABA (abscisic acid): GA ratios will inhibit SE. It was important to evaluate the GA effect in M. truncatula in order to formulate generic SE mechanisms, given the Arabidopsis information. It was surprising to find that low ABA:GA ratios in M. truncatula acted synergistically to stimulate SE. The unusual synergism between GA and ABA in inducing SE has utility in improving SE for regeneration and transformation in M. truncatula. Expression of genes previously shown to be important in M. truncatula SE was not increased. In investigating genes previously studied in GA investigations of Arabidopsis SE, there was increased expression of GA2ox and decreased expression of PICKLE, a negative regulator of SE in Arabidopsis. We suggest that in M. truncatula there are different ABA:GA ratios required for down-regulating the PICKLE gene, a repressor of the embryonic state. In M. truncatula it is a low ABA:GA ratio while in Arabidopsis it is a high ABA:GA ratio. In different species the expression of key genes is probably related to differences in how the hormone networks optimise their expression. PMID:24937316

Nolan, Kim E.; Song, Youhong; Liao, Siyang; Saeed, Nasir A.; Zhang, Xiyi; Rose, Ray J.

2014-01-01

110

Structure of pp32, an acidic nuclear protein which inhibits oncogene-induced formation of transformed foci.  

PubMed Central

pp32 is a nuclear protein found highly expressed in normal tissues in those cells capable of self-renewal and in neoplastic cells. We report the cloning of cDNAs encoding human and murine pp32. The clones encode a 28.6-kDa protein; approximately two-thirds of the N-terminal predicts an amphipathic alpha helix containing two possible nuclear localization signals and a potential leucine zipper motif. The C-terminal third is exceptionally acidic, comprised of approximately 70% aspartic and glutamic acid residues; the predicted pI of human pp32 is 3.81. Human and murine pp32 cDNAs are 88% identical; the predicted proteins are 89% identical and 95% similar. Although the structure of pp32 is suggestive of a transcription factor, pp32 did not significantly modulate transcription of a reporter construct when fused to the Gal4 DNA-binding domain. In contrast, in cotransfection experiments, pp32 inhibited the ability of a broad assortment of oncogene pairs to transform rat embryo fibroblasts, including ras + myc, ras + jun, ras + E1a, ras + mutant p53, and E6 + E7. In related experiments, pp32 inhibited the ability of Rat 1a-myc cells to grow in soft agar, whereas it failed to affect ras-induced focus formation in NIH3T3 cells. These results suggest that pp32 may play a key role in self-renewing cell populations where it may act in the nucleus to limit their sensitivity to transformation. Images PMID:8970164

Chen, T H; Brody, J R; Romantsev, F E; Yu, J G; Kayler, A E; Voneiff, E; Kuhajda, F P; Pasternack, G R

1996-01-01

111

Humic acids and transformation processes of structure, peat water properties, peat soils under their dehydration-rewetting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the basis of the processes of structure transformation , water properties of peat systems (PS) during their dehydration (drying) or, on the contrary, humidifying there are mainly surface-like phenomena , namely: capillary forces; processes of interphase interaction (wetting), moisture, ions transfer in thin films, etc. Peat, peat soils are composite systems , containing basically humified vegetative residues in which, as a rule, humic matters ( substances) prevail (HS) representing unstructured organic formations of natural origin with a wide spectrum of ion-exchange centers, functional groups. Humic acids (HA) is a HS base component . It means, that having found specificity of the mechanism of HA action on PS physical and chemical properties it is obviously possible to operate properties of the last. In the course of agricultural use associates of peat in tillage horizon of peat soils are periodically exposed to drying-humidifying, i.e. periodically form compact structures at drying (being on a soil surface), and then periodically are exposed to the destruction at humidifying (being in sub-tillage horizon). Similar transformation of TS structure results in peat degradation and, as consequence, soil peat degradation, so, it activates their wind erosion, worsens agrophysical characteristics and, first of all, water properties. Rational use of peat soils obliges a science to working out actions to minimize organic substances of peat mineralization, i.e. minimizing CO2 sink and other derivatives of carbon into the atmosphere, subsoil waters. HA, TS transformation regularities at their dehydration -humidifying have been investigated by applying various methods of physical and chemical analysis.

Lishtvan, I. I.; Abramets, A. M.; Yanuta, J. G.; Monich, G. S.; Glukhova, N. S.; Emelyanenko, V. N.

2010-05-01

112

FT-IR spectroscopic study of phase transformation of chloropinnoite in boric acid solution at 303 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution and transformation of chloropinnoite in boric acid solution at 303 K has been studied using FT-IR difference spectroscopic technique. After equilibrium was reached, liquid and solid phases were separated and FT-IR spectra of each phase were recorded, FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of solid phases indicated that the transformation products, with the increase of boron-concentration in solution, were 2MgO?·?3B 2O 3?·?15H 2O (inderite), 2MgO?·?3B 2O 3?·?15H 2O (kurnakovite), MgO?·?3B 2O 3?·?7.5H 2O, and MgO?·?3B 2O 3?·?7H 2O, respectively. The main polyborate anions and their interaction in each borate saturated aqueous solution have been proposed according to the FT-IR difference spectra of borate in liquid phase, and some assignments were tentatively given firstly. The relations between the existing forms of polyborate anions and the crystallizing solid phases have been gained.

Zhihong, Liu; Shiyang, Gao; Shuping, Xia

2003-01-01

113

Iron redox transformations in continuously photolyzed acidic solutions containing natural organic matter: kinetic and mechanistic insights.  

PubMed

In this work, the various pathways contributing to the formation and decay of Fe(II) in photolyzed acidic solutions containing Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) are investigated. Results of experimental and computational studies suggest that ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT), superoxide-mediated iron reduction and interaction with reduced organic species that are present intrinsically in SRFA each contribute to Fe(III) reduction with LMCT the most likely dominant pathway under these conditions. Fe(II) oxidation occurs as a result of its interaction with a variety of light-generated species including (i) short-lived organic species, (ii) relatively stable semiquinone-like organic species, and (iii) hydroperoxy radicals. While not definitive, a hypothesis that the short-lived organic species are similar to peroxyl radicals appears most consistent with our experimental and modeling results. The semiquinone-like organic species formed during photolysis by superoxide-mediated oxidation of reduced organic moieties are long-lived in the dark but prone to rapid oxidation by singlet oxygen ((1)O2) under irradiated conditions and thus play a minor role in Fe(II) oxidation in the light. A kinetic model is developed that adequately describes all aspects of the experimental data obtained and which is capable of predicting Fe(II) oxidation rates and Fe(III) reduction rates in the presence of natural organic matter and light. PMID:23879362

Garg, Shikha; Jiang, Chao; Miller, Christopher J; Rose, Andrew L; Waite, T David

2013-08-20

114

Quantitative determination of fatty acid compositions in micro-encapsulated fish-oil supplements using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The research describes a rapid method for the determination of fatty acid (FA) contents in a micro-encapsulated fish-oil (?EFO) supplement by using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic technique and partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis. Using the ATR-FTIR technique, the ?EFO powder samples can be directly analysed without any pre-treatment required, and our developed PLSR strategic approach based on the acquired spectral data led to production of a good linear calibration with R(2)=0.99. In addition, the subsequent predictions acquired from an independent validation set for the target FA compositions (i.e., total oil, total omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA) were highly accurate when compared to the actual values obtained from standard GC-based technique, with plots between predicted versus actual values resulting in excellent linear fitting (R(2)?0.96) in all cases. The study therefore demonstrated not only the substantial advantage of the ATR-FTIR technique in terms of rapidness and cost effectiveness, but also its potential application as a rapid, potentially automated, online monitoring technique for the routine analysis of FA composition in industrial processes when used together with the multivariate data analysis modelling. PMID:22868135

Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Heraud, Philip; Zhang, Wei; Kralovec, Jaroslav A; McNaughton, Don; Barrow, Colin J

2012-11-15

115

Formation of a nickel carbon dioxide adduct and its transformation mediated by a Lewis acid.  

PubMed

An uncommon nickel dinitrogen adduct and its tendency toward CO2 binding are investigated using a (PP(Me)P)Ni scaffold. (PP(Me)P)Ni(N2) (1) and {(PP(Me)P)Ni}2(?-N2) (2) were prepared and their treatment with CO2 revealed the formation of (PP(Me)P)Ni(?(2)-CO2) (3). This is a new type of CO2 binding for a zero-valent nickel center supported by three donor ligands, reminiscent of the CODH active site environment. Clear unique structural differences in 3 are evident when compared with previous 4-coordinate Ni-CO2 adducts. Compound 3 when treated with B(C6F5)3 gives the Lewis acid-base adduct (PP(Me)P)Ni{COOB(C6F5)3} (4) possessing a Ni-?-CO2-?(2)C,O-B moiety. PMID:25070370

Kim, Yeong-Eun; Kim, Jin; Lee, Yunho

2014-10-01

116

A PHENYLPROPENOIC ACID DERIVATIVE, N-CAFFEOLYTYRAMINE, IS A POTENT PHYTOCHEMICAL TO INDUCE APOPTOSIS OF HUMAN TRANSFORMED MYEOLOCYTIC U937 AND HL-60 AND LYMPHOCYTIC JURKAT CELLS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytochemicals consist of many diverse compounds which may have beneficial effects on chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancers. Previously, a phenylpropenoic acid derivative, N-coumaroyltyramine, was reported to arrest human transformed cells at S-phase of the cell cycle by inhi...

117

Inhibitory effect of linoleic acid on transformation of IEC6 intestinal cells by in vitro azoxymethane treatment.  

PubMed

The effect of linoleic acid (LA) on growth and transformation of IEC6 intestinal cells was examined. IEC6 cells expressed mRNAs of 15-lipooxygenase (LOX15) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma but not COX-2. Cell growth was suppressed by LA in a dose-dependent manner in IEC6 cells. Three-week treatment with LA provided IEC6 cells a quiescent state. LA-induced growth inhibition was abrogated by exposure to antisense S-oligodeoxynucleotides (S-ODNs) for LOX15 and/or PPARgamma. In an in vitro carcinogenesis model, IEC6 cells, which had confirmed CYP2E1 expression and activity, were continuously treated with AOM and/or LA for 40 weeks. DNA injury in AOM-treated cells was suppressed to the control level by concurrent LA treatment. Colony formation of AOM-treated cells in soft agar was suppressed by treatment with LA, which was reversed by exposure to antisense S-ODNs for LOX15 and/or PPARgamma. AOM-treated IEC6 cells formed s.c. tumors in 9 of 12 mice, whereas AOM+LA-treated cells formed no tumor. IEC6 cells showed no remarkable alteration of protein production by AOM treatment, whereas cells treated with AOM+LA showed decreased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and phospho-EGFR and increased BAX. These findings suggest that LA inhibited AOM-induced transformation of COX-2-negative IEC6 cells, which was possibly mediated with PPARgamma ligands generated by LOX15 from LA. PMID:16094650

Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Shimura, Hideo; Ichiba, Masayosi; Sasahira, Tomonori; Shimomoto, Takasumi; Denda, Ayumi; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

2006-02-01

118

Qualitative environmental risk assessment of photolytic transformation products of iodinated X-ray contrast agent diatrizoic acid.  

PubMed

Recent studies have confirmed that the aquatic ecosystem is being polluted with an unknown cocktail of pharmaceuticals, their metabolites and/or their transformation products (TPs). Although individual chemicals are typically present at low concentrations, they can interact with each other resulting in additive or potentially even synergistic mixture effects. Therefore it is necessary to assess the environmental risk caused by these chemicals. Data on exposure is required for quantitative risk assessment of TPs and/or metabolites. Such data are mostly missing because of the non-availability of TPs and very often metabolites for experimental testing. This study demonstrates the application of different in silico tools for qualitative risk assessment using the example of photodegradation TPs (photo-TPs) of diatrizoic acid (DIAT), which itself is not readily biodegradable. Its photolytic transformation was studied and the photodegradation pathway was established. The aerobic biodegradability of photo-TPs under the conditions of an aquatic environment was assessed using standardized OECD tests. The qualitative risk assessment of DIAT and selected photo-TPs was performed by the PBT approach (i.e. Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity), using experimental biodegradation test assays, applying different QSAR models with several different toxicological endpoints and in silico read-across approaches. The qualitative risk assessment pointed out that the photo-TPs were less persistent compared to DIAT and none of them possessed any bioaccumulation threat. However, a few photo-TPs were predicted to be active for mutagenicity and genotoxicity, which indicate the need for further testing to confirm these predictions. The present study demonstrates that in silico qualitative risk assessment analysis can increase the knowledge space about the environmental fate of TPs. PMID:24662206

Rastogi, Tushar; Leder, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

2014-06-01

119

Birnessite formation and its transformation in acid media Xiong Han Feng, fxh73@mail.hzau.edu.cn, Matthew Ginder-Vogel, mattgv@udel.edu, Mengqiang Zhu, mzhu@UDel.Edu, and Donald  

E-print Network

hexagonal structure to biogenic manganese oxide. The formation of acid birnessite and its transformationBirnessite formation and its transformation in acid media GEOC 47 Xiong Han Feng, fxh73@mail@udel.edu. Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and the Center for Critical Zone Research, University of Delaware, 152

Sparks, Donald L.

120

Self-assembly behavior of alkylated isophthalic acids revisited: concentration in control and guest-induced phase transformation.  

PubMed

The engineering of two-dimensional crystals by physisorption-based molecular self-assembly at the liquid-solid interface is a powerful method to functionalize and nanostructure surfaces. The formation of high-symmetry networks from low-symmetry building blocks is a particularly important target. Alkylated isophthalic acid (ISA) derivatives are early test systems, and it was demonstrated that to produce a so-called porous hexagonal packing of plane group p6, i.e., a regular array of nanowells, either short alkyl chains or the introduction of bulky groups within the chains were mandatory. After all, the van der Waals interactions between adjacent alkyl chains or alkyl chains and the surface would dominate the ideal hydrogen bonding between the carboxyl groups, and therefore, a close-packed lamella structure (plane group p2) was uniquely observed. In this contribution, we show two versatile approaches to circumvent this problem, which are based on well-known principles: the "concentration in control" and the "guest-induced transformation" methods. The successful application of these methods makes ISA suitable building blocks to engineer a porous pattern, in which the distance between the pores can be tuned with nanometer precision. PMID:25419987

Park, Kwang-Won; Adisoejoso, Jinne; Plas, Jan; Hong, Jongin; Müllen, Klaus; De Feyter, Steven

2014-12-23

121

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester profoundly modifies protein synthesis profile in type 5 adenovirus-transformed cloned rat embryo fibroblast cells.  

PubMed

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis from bee hives, exerts a plethora of biological changes in diverse systems. These include antimitogenic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory responses. CAPE directly induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) in type 5 adenovirus (Ad5)-transformed cloned rat embryo fibroblast cells, wt3A. To identify the gene and protein expression changes induced by CAPE in wt3A cells we used a strategy involving in vitro translation of mRNAs followed by high resolution two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. This approach results in the detection of 745 spots, including 172 displaying differences in expression upon exposure to CAPE. A high proportion of spots show profound changes in spot intensity (42 spots with increased and 27 spots with decreased intensity) following CAPE treatment. These studies provide a basis for comparing these changes to known protein patterns of various cell populations with an ultimate aim of identifying families of polypeptides responsible for the up- and down-regulation of cellular proteins during CAPE-induced apoptosis. Specific newly appearing or completely disappearing spots (52 and 51 molecular species, respectively) will be used to attempt to identify and retrieve their cDNA counterparts from an ordered cDNA library. These approaches represent a novel strategy for cloning genes associated with and potentially mediating apoptosis. PMID:21528181

Lefkovits, I; Su, Z; Fisher, P; Grunberger, D

1997-07-01

122

Effects of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Disruption of seawater tolerance and endocrine status  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Episodic acidification resulting in increased acidity and inorganic aluminum (Ali) is known to interfere with the parr-smolt transformation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and has been implicated as a possible cause of population decline. To determine the extent and mechanism(s) by which short-term acid/Al exposure compromises smolt development, Atlantic salmon smolts were exposed to either control (pH 6.7-6.9) or acid/Al (pH 5.4-6.3, 28-64 ??g l-1 Ali) conditions for 2 and 5 days, and impacts on freshwater (FW) ion regulation, seawater (SW) tolerance, plasma hormone levels and stress response were examined. Gill Al concentrations were elevated in all smolts exposed to acid/Al relative to controls confirming exposure to increased Ali. There was no effect of acid/Al on plasma ion concentrations in FW however, smolts exposed to acid/Al followed by a 24 h SW challenge exhibited greater plasma Cl- levels than controls, indicating reduced SW tolerance. Loss of SW tolerance was accompanied by reductions in gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and Na+,K+,2Cl- (NKCC) cotransporter protein abundance. Acid/Al exposure resulted in decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and 3,3???,5???-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) levels, whereas no effect of treatment was seen on plasma cortisol, growth hormone (GH), or thyroxine (T4) levels. Acid/Al exposure resulted in increased hematocrit and plasma glucose levels in FW, but both returned to control levels after 24 h in SW. The results indicate that smolt development and SW tolerance are compromised by short-term exposure to acid/Al in the absence of detectable impacts on FW ion regulation. Loss of SW tolerance during short-term acid/Al exposure likely results from reductions in gill NKA and NKCC, possibly mediated by decreases in plasma IGF-I and T3. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

Monette, M.Y.; Bjornsson, B.T.; McCormick, S.D.

2008-01-01

123

Ambient formic acid in southern California air: A comparison of two methods, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and alkaline trap-liquid chromatography with UV detection  

SciTech Connect

Formic acid is an ubiquitous component of urban smog. Sources of formic acid in urban air include direct emissions from vehicles and in situ reaction of ozone with olefins. Ambient levels of formic acid in southern California air were first measured some 15 years ago by Hanst et al. using long-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). All subsequent studies of formic acid in the Los Angeles area have involved the use of two methods, either FTIR or collection on alkaline traps followed by gas chromatography, ion chromatography, or liquid chromatography analysis with UV detection, ATLC-UV. The Carbon Species Methods Comparison Study (CSMCS), a multilaboratory air quality study carried out in August 1986 at a southern California smog receptor site, provided an opportunity for direct field comparison of the FTIR and alkaline trap methods. The results of the comparison are presented in this brief report.

Grosjean, D. (DGA, Inc., Ventura, CA (USA)); Tuazon, E.C. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA)); Fujita, E. (California Air Resources Board, Sacramento (USA))

1990-01-01

124

Structure-function evolution of the Transforming acidic coiled coil genes revealed by analysis of phylogenetically diverse organisms  

PubMed Central

Background Examination of ancient gene families can provide an insight into how the evolution of gene structure can relate to function. Functional homologs of the evolutionarily conserved transforming acidic coiled coil (TACC) gene family are present in organisms from yeast to man. However, correlations between functional interactions and the evolution of these proteins have yet to be determined. Results We have performed an extensive database analysis to determine the genomic and cDNA sequences of the TACCs from phylogenetically diverse organisms. This analysis has determined the phylogenetic relationship of the TACC proteins to other coiled coil proteins, the resolution of the placement of the rabbit TACC4 as the orthologue of human TACC3, and RHAMM as a distinct family of coiled coil proteins. We have also extended the analysis of the TACCs to the interaction databases of C. elegans and D. melanogaster to identify potentially novel TACC interactions. The validity of this modeling was confirmed independently by the demonstration of direct binding of human TACC2 to the nuclear hormone receptor RXR?. Conclusion The data so far suggest that the ancestral TACC protein played a role in centrosomal/mitotic spindle dynamics. TACC proteins were then recruited to complexes involved in protein translation, RNA processing and transcription by interactions with specific bridging proteins. However, during evolution, the TACC proteins have now acquired the ability to directly interact with components of these complexes (such as the LSm proteins, nuclear hormone receptors, GAS41, and transcription factors). This suggests that the function of the TACC proteins may have evolved from performing assembly or coordination functions in the centrosome to include a more intimate role in the functional evolution of chromatin remodeling, transcriptional and posttranscriptional complexes in the cell. PMID:15207008

Still, Ivan H; Vettaikkorumakankauv, Ananthalakshmy K; DiMatteo, Anthony; Liang, Ping

2004-01-01

125

Effect of temperature on the rate of polymerization of 4-vinyl pyrrolidone in the presence of poly(acrylic acid) in nonaqueous medium by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this investigation, the effect of temperature on the rate of polymerization of 4-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) in the presence of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) in a non-aqueous medium (DMF) was followed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the rate of polymerization of NVP increased with increasing temperature. The effect was also investigated when NVP polymerized in the presence of temperature increases with the molecular weight of PAA.

Al-Alawi, Saeed S.

1992-03-01

126

Determination of free fatty acids in crude palm oil and refined-bleached-deodorized palm olein using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid direct Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method using a 100 BaF2 transmission cell was developed for the determination of free fatty acid (FFA) in crude palm oil (CPO) and refined-bleached-deodorized\\u000a (RBD) palm olein, covering an analytical range of 3.0–6.5% and 0.07–0.6% FFA, respectively. The samples were prepared by hydrolyzing\\u000a oil with enzyme in an incubator. The optimal calibration

Y. B. Che Man; M. H. Moh; F. R. van de Voort

1999-01-01

127

Fatty acid composition of spanish shortenings with special emphasis on trans unsaturation content as determined by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic procedure was used to analyze 34 edible fats (22 shortenings and 12 vegetable margarines)\\u000a as neat fats (IRNF) to determine their total trans fatty acid (TFA) content. The sloping baseline was corrected with a reference spectrum based on a nonprocessed olive oil.\\u000a The calibration was done using seven partially hydrogenated fats with an individual TFA

L. Alonso; M. J. Fraga; M. Juárez; P. Carmona

2002-01-01

128

Lysosomal acid hydrolases in established lymphoblastoid cell lines, transformed by Epstein-Barr virus, from patients with genetic lysosomal storage diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysosomal acid hydrolases were determined in established lymphoblastoid cell lines, transformed in vitro by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from lymphocyte-rich cell populations isolated from the peripheral blood of patients with genetic lysosomal storage diseases—Hurler syndrome, Scheie syndrome, GM1-gangliosidosis type 1 and type 2, Tay-Sachs disease, and I-cell disease—and from obligate heterozygotes for these diseases.

R. Minami; Y. Watanabe; T. Kudoh; M. Suzuki; K. Oyanagi; T. Orii; T. Nakao

1978-01-01

129

Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for rapid and simple determination of phytic acid content in green gram seeds (Vigna radiata).  

PubMed

The feasibility of measuring phytic acid content in green gram (Vigna radiata) seeds was investigated by Fourier Transform Near-Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopic technique. Pure phytic acid standards of varying concentrations were scanned using FTNIR spectroscopy. The spectra were measured in diffused reflectance mode by keeping 100-1500 mg/100g standard of pure phytic acid in small sample cuvette. A calibration model was developed using pure phytic acid standards of varying concentrations in the near-infrared region (4000-12,000 cm(-1)). FT-NIR spectroscopy with chemometrics, using the first derivative plus vector normalisation method could predict the phytic acid content in green gram seeds samples. The developed model was validated using cross-validation technique. Maximum coefficient of determination (R(2)) value of 0.97 was obtained for the calibration model developed. The developed model was applied to predict phytic acid content in green gram seeds samples within 1-2 min. The developed procedure was further validated by recovery studies by comparing with UV spectroscopic method of phytic acid determination. PMID:25442633

Pande, Ranjana; Mishra, H N

2015-04-01

130

Genetic transformation of industrial yeasts using an amino acid analog resistance gene as a directly selectable marker.  

PubMed

Prototrophic and often polyploid yeasts of industrial use require some dominant genes as directly selective markers for the transformation. We examined the applicability of a dominant gene, ARO4-OFP, which causes the resistance to PFP plus tyrosine, to direct selection of the transformants from 2 laboratory and 6 industrial strains, including bakers', distillers', winery, and saké yeasts. Although the transformation rates were low and seemed different among strains, the ARO4-OFP gene was applicable to all strains tested for direct selection of the transformants. PMID:7764106

Shimura, K; Fukuda, K; Ouchi, K

1993-10-01

131

Development of a Nuclear Transformation System for Oleaginous Green Alga Lobosphaera (Parietochloris) incisa and Genetic Complementation of a Mutant Strain, Deficient in Arachidonic Acid Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Microalgae are considered a promising source for various high value products, such as carotenoids, ?-3 and ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The unicellular green alga Lobosphaera (Parietochloris) incisa is an outstanding candidate for the efficient phototrophic production of arachidonic acid (AA), an essential ?-6 PUFA for infant brain development and a widely used ingredient in the baby formula industry. Although phototrophic production of such algal products has not yet been established, estimated costs are considered to be 2–5 times higher than competing heterotrophic production costs. This alga accumulates unprecedented amounts of AA within triacylglycerols and the molecular pathway of AA biosynthesis in L. incisa has been previously elucidated. Thus, progress in transformation and metabolic engineering of this high value alga could be exploited for increasing the efficient production of AA at competitive prices. We describe here the first successful transformation of L. incisa using the ble gene as a selection marker, under the control of the endogenous RBCS promoter. Furthermore, we have succeeded in the functional complementation of the L. incisa mutant strain P127, containing a mutated, inactive version of the delta-5 (?5) fatty acid desaturase gene. A copy of the functional ?5 desaturase gene, linked to the ble selection marker, was transformed into the P127 mutant. The resulting transformants selected for zeocine resistant, had AA biosynthesis partially restored, indicating the functional complementation of the mutant strain with the wild-type gene. The results of this study present a platform for the successful genetic engineering of L. incisa and its long-chain PUFA metabolism. PMID:25133787

Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Leu, Stefan; Shapira, Michal; Kaye, Yuval; Tourasse, Nicolas; Vallon, Olivier; Boussiba, Sammy

2014-01-01

132

Using radiative transfer models to study the atmospheric water vapor content and to eliminate telluric lines from high-resolution optical spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) and the retrieval algorithm, incorporated in the SCIATRAN 2.2 software package developed at the Institute of Remote Sensing/Institute of Enviromental Physics of Bremen University (Germany), allows to simulate, among other things, radiance/irradiance spectra in the 2400--24 000 Å range. In this work we present applications of RTM to two case studies. In the first case the RTM was used to simulate direct solar irradiance spectra, with different water vapor amounts, for the study of the water vapor content in the atmosphere above Sierra Nevada Observatory. Simulated spectra were compared with those measured with a spectrometer operating in the 8000--10 000 Å range. In the second case the RTM was used to generate telluric model spectra to subtract the atmospheric contribution and correct high-resolution stellar spectra from atmospheric water vapor and oxygen lines. The results of both studies are discussed.

Gardini, A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Pérez, E.; Quesada, J. A.; Funke, B.

2013-05-01

133

Accurate quantification and transformation of arsenic compounds during wet ashing with nitric acid and microwave assisted heating.  

PubMed

Arsenous acid, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), methylarsonic acid (MA), arsenic acid, arsenobetaine bromide (AB), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), arsenocholine iodide (AC), and tetramethylarsonium iodide (TETRA) were heated in a microwave autoclave with nitric acid to 100-300 degrees C. The arsenic compounds in the digests were separated with anion- and cation-exchange chromatography and determined with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer as arsenic-specific detector. Arsenous acid was completely oxidized to arsenic acid at 100 degrees C. For a complete oxidation of MA and DMA to arsenic acid temperatures > 220 degrees C and > 280 degrees C were necessary. AB decomposed to arsenic acid via TMAO. Complete conversion was only obtained after heating the sample for 90 min to 300 degrees C. For a complete conversion of TMAO similar harsh conditions were necessary. AC was already substantially degraded to TMAO, TETRA and two unknown compounds at 100 degrees C. The unknown arsenic compounds were found only in the digests up to 160 degrees C. Quantitative conversion of AC to arsenic acid went also via TMAO. At temperatures above 220 degrees C TETRA started to convert to TMAO, which then was further converted to arsenic acid. To investigate whether the results obtained for the arsenic standards are transferable to real samples, the certified reference material DORM-2 was also heated in nitric acid with variable digestion temperatures and times. For an almost complete conversion of the AB present in DORM-2 90 min at 300 degrees C were necessary. Total organic carbon (TOC) was less < 0.2% when DORM-2 was heated at temperatures > or = 260 degrees C for 60 min. UV photo-oxidation of DORM-2 was investigated as an alternative sample decomposition. Only 6% of AB was converted to arsenic acid when DORM-2 was irradiated for 2 h at 1000 W. In contrast to microwave heating substantial amounts of MA were observed as degradation product. PMID:12866906

Goessler, W; Pavkov, M

2003-06-01

134

Oligomerization of 2-methylpropene and transformation of 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentene over supported and unsupported perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Oligomerization of 2-methylpropene was studied with two types of supported (on alumina and on silicon carbide) as well neat perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid catalysts. The heterogeneous reactions were carried out over the solid acid catalysts in a continuous flow reactor at temperatures between 85 and 170 C under atmospheric pressure. Under the studied conditions (85 to 105 C, 1 atm pressure, WHSV:1-3 g/g {center dot} h) all catalysts studied are suitable for oligomerization of 2-methyl-propene. Product distributions show regular temperature dependence: upon increasing temperature the molecular weight of oligomers decreases, with no difference in the selectivity of the catalysts. Transformation of 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentene in the liquid phase at room temperature shows surprising selectivity using either the hydrated or dehydrated forms of the resinsulfonic acids. In the case of the hydrated forms of the acids, only double bond isomerization takes place. With dehydrated acids oligomerization as well as isomerization occurs. Above 50 C the selectivity is lost.

Bucsi, I.; Olah, G.A. (Univ. of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles (United States))

1992-09-01

135

Lactic Acid is Elevated in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Induces Myofibroblast Differentiation Via pH-Dependent Activation of Transforming Growth Factor-?  

SciTech Connect

Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex disease for which the pathogenesis is poorly understood. In this study, we identified lactic acid as a metabolite that is elevated in the lung tissue of patients with IPF. Objectives: This study examines the effect of lactic acid on myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis. Methods:We used metabolomic analysis to examine cellular metabolism in lung tissuefrom patients with IPFanddeterminedthe effects of lactic acid and lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH5) overexpression on myofibroblast differentiation and transforming growth factor (TGF)-b activation in vitro. Measurements and Main Results: Lactic acid concentrations from healthy and IPF lung tissue were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; a-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and LDH5 expression were assessed by Western blot of cell culture lysates. Lactic acid and LDH5 were significantly elevated in IPF lung tissue compared with controls. Physiologic concentrations of lactic acid induced myofibroblast differentiation via activation of TGF-b. TGF-b induced expression of LDH5 via hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF1a). Importantly, overexpression of both HIF1a and LDH5 in human lung fibroblasts induced myofibroblast differentiation and synergized with low dose TGF-b to induce differentiation. Furthermore, inhibition of both HIF1a and LDH5 inhibited TGF-b–induced myofibroblast differentiation. Conclusions: We have identified the metabolite lactic acid as an important mediator of myofibroblast differentiation via a pHdependent activation of TGF-b. We propose that the metabolic milieu of the lung, and potentially other tissues, is an important driving force behind myofibroblast differentiation and potentially the initiation and progression of fibrotic disorders.

Kottman, R. M.; Kulkarni, Ajit A.; Smolnycki, Katie A.; Lyda, Elizabeth; Dahanayake, Thinesh; Salibi, Rami; Honnons, Sylvie; Jones, Carolyn; Isern, Nancy G.; Hu, Jian Z.; Nathan, Steven D.; Grant, Geraldine; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

2012-10-15

136

Chemical and physical transformations of aluminosilicate clay minerals due to acid treatment and consequences for heterogeneous ice nucleation.  

PubMed

Mineral dust aerosol is one of the largest contributors to global ice nuclei, but physical and chemical processing of dust during atmospheric transport can alter its ice nucleation activity. In particular, several recent studies have noted that sulfuric and nitric acids inhibit heterogeneous ice nucleation in the regime below liquid water saturation in aluminosilicate clay minerals. We have exposed kaolinite, KGa-1b and KGa-2, and montmorillonite, STx-1b and SWy-2, to aqueous sulfuric and nitric acid to determine the physical and chemical changes that are responsible for the observed deactivation. To characterize the changes to the samples upon acid treatment, we use X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. We find that the reaction of kaolinite and montmorillonite with aqueous sulfuric acid results in the formation of hydrated aluminum sulfate. In addition, sulfuric and nitric acids induce large structural changes in montmorillonite. We additionally report the supersaturation with respect to ice required for the onset of ice nucleation for these acid-treated species. On the basis of lattice spacing arguments, we explain how the chemical and physical changes observed upon acid treatment could lead to the observed reduction in ice nucleation activity. PMID:25211030

Sihvonen, Sarah K; Schill, Gregory P; Lyktey, Nicholas A; Veghte, Daniel P; Tolbert, Margaret A; Freedman, Miriam Arak

2014-09-25

137

Transformation of the {Fe(NO)2}9 dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) into S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) triggered by acid-base pairs.  

PubMed

S-nitrosation of the coordinated thiolate of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) to generate S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) was demonstrated. Transformation of [{(NO)(2)Fe(?-StBu)}(2)] (1-tBuS) into the {Fe(NO)(2)}(9) DNIC [(NO)(2)Fe(StBu)(MeIm)] (2-MeIm) occurs under addition of 20?equiv of 1-methylimidazole (MeIm) into a solution of 1-tBuS in THF. The dynamic interconversion between {Fe(NO)(2)}(9) [(NO)(2)Fe(S-NAP)(dmso)] (2-dmso) (NAP = N-acetyl-D-penicillamine) and [{(NO)(2)Fe(?-S-NAP)}(2)] (1-NAP) was also observed in a solution of complex 1-NAP in DMSO. In contrast to the reaction of complex 2-MeIm and bis(dimethylthiocarbamoyl) disulfide ((DTC)(2)) to yield {Fe(NO)}(7)[(NO)Fe(DTC)(2)] (3) (DTC = S(2)CNMe(2)) accompanied by (tBuS)(2) and NO(g), transformation of {Fe(NO)(2)}(9) 2-MeIm (2-dmso) into RSNOs (RS = tBuS, NAP-S) along with complex 3 induced by the Brønsted acid solution of (DTC)(2) demonstrated that Brønsted acid may play a critical role in triggering S-nitrosation of the coordinated thiolate of DNICs 2-MeIm (or 2-dmso) to produce RSNOs. That is, DNIC-mediated S-nitrosation requires a Brønsted acid-Lewis base pair to produce RSNO. Transformation of DNICs into RSNOs may only occur on the one-thiolate-containing {Fe(NO)(2)}(9) DNICs, in contrast to protonation of the two-thiolate-containing DNICs [(NO)(2)Fe(SR)(2)](-) by Brønsted acid to yield [{(NO)(2)Fe(?-SR)}(2)]. These results might rationalize that the known protein-Cys-SNO sites derived from DNICs were located adjacent to acid and base motifs, and no protein-bound SNO characterized to date has been directly derived from [protein-(cysteine)(2)Fe(NO)(2)] in biology. PMID:22006643

Tsou, Chih-Chin; Liaw, Wen-Feng

2011-11-18

138

Exploring amino acid side chain decomposition using enzymatic digestion and HPLC-MS: combined lysine transformations in chlorinated waters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Characterizing the transformations of polypeptides is important across a broad range of scientific disciplines. As polypeptides are an important constituent of dissolved organic matter within seawater and freshwater, it is important to understand their fate. Oxidants formed in blood, as part of the ...

139

A rapid method for the quantification of fatty acids in fats and oils with emphasis on trans fatty acids using fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid method was developed for classifying and quantifying the FA composition of edible oils and fats using Fourier Transform\\u000a near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR). The FT-NIR spectra showed unique fingerprints for saturated FA, cis and trans monounsaturated FA, and all n?6 and n?3 PUFA within TAG to permit qualitative and quantitative comparisons of fats and oils.\\u000a The quantitative models were

Hormoz Azizian; John K. G. Kramer

2005-01-01

140

Geobacillus stearothermophilus V ubiE gene product is involved in the evolution of dimethyl telluride in Escherichia coli K-12 cultures amended with potassium tellurate but not with potassium tellurite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3.8-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA of Geobacillus stearothermophilus V cloned in pSP72 (p1VH) confers resistance to potassium tellurite (K 2TeO 3) and to potassium tellurate (K 2TeO 4) when the encoded genes are expressed in Escherichia coli K-12. The nt sequence of the cloned fragment predicts three ORFs of 780, 399, and 600 bp, whose encoded protein products exhibit about

Manuel A. Araya; Jerry W. Swearingen Jr; Mary F. Plishker; Claudia P. Saavedra; Thomas G. Chasteen; Claudio C. Vásquez

2004-01-01

141

Trans fatty acid determination in fats and margarine by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a disposable infrared card  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a disposable polyethylene infrared (IR) card as a sample carrier for the quantitative determination of trans content of fats and oils and margarine by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy was investigated. Standards prepared by dissolving\\u000a trielaidin in a zero-trans oil were used to develop partial least squares (PLS) calibrations for both the IR card and a 100-µm transmission

Kangming Ma; F. R. van de Voort; J. Sedman; A. A. Ismail

1999-01-01

142

Multielement crystalline and pseudocrystalline oxides as efficient catalysts for the direct transformation of glycerol into acrylic Acid.  

PubMed

Glycerol surplus from biodiesel synthesis still represents a major problem in the biofuel production chain. Meanwhile, those in the acrylic acid market are looking for new processes that are able to offer viable alternatives to propylene-based production. Therefore, acrylic acid synthesis from glycerol could be an effective solution to both issues. Among the viable routes, one-pot synthesis theoretically represents the most efficient process, but it is also highly challenging from the catalyst design standpoint. A new class of complex W?Mo?V mixed-oxide catalysts, which are strongly related to the hexagonal tungsten bronze structure, able to directly convert glycerol into acrylic acid with yields of up to 51?% are reported. PMID:25488515

Chieregato, Alessandro; Soriano, M Dolores; García-González, Ester; Puglia, Giuseppe; Basile, Francesco; Concepción, Patricia; Bandinelli, Claudia; López Nieto, José M; Cavani, Fabrizio

2015-01-01

143

Determination and occurrence of phenoxyacetic Acid herbicides and their transformation products in groundwater using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive method was developed and validated for ten phenoxyacetic acid herbicides, six of their main transformation products (TPs) and two benzonitrile TPs in groundwater. The parent compounds mecoprop, mecoprop-p, 2,4-D, dicamba, MCPA, triclopyr, fluroxypr, bromoxynil, bentazone, and 2,3,6-trichlorobenzoic acid (TBA) are included and a selection of their main TPs: phenoxyacetic acid (PAC), 2,4,5-trichloro-phenol (TCP), 4-chloro-2-methylphenol (4C2MP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (T2P), and 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (BrAC), as well as the dichlobenil TPs 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) and 3,5-dichlorobenzoic acid (DBA) which have never before been determined in Irish groundwater. Water samples were analysed using an efficient ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method in an 11.9 min separation time prior to detection by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The limit of detection (LOD) of the method ranged between 0.00008 and 0.0047 µg·L-1 for the 18 analytes. All compounds could be detected below the permitted limits of 0.1 µg·L-1 allowed in the European Union (EU) drinking water legislation [1]. The method was validated according to EU protocols laid out in SANCO/10232/2006 with recoveries ranging between 71% and 118% at the spiked concentration level of 0.06 µg·L-1. The method was successfully applied to 42 groundwater samples collected across several locations in Ireland in March 2012 to reveal that the TPs PAC and 4C2MP were detected just as often as their parent active ingredients (a.i.) in groundwater. PMID:25514054

McManus, Sarah-Louise; Moloney, Mary; Richards, Karl G; Coxon, Catherine E; Danaher, Martin

2014-01-01

144

Accumulation, transformation and tissue distribution of domoic acid, the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domoic acid (DA) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the Pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. Although DA has been frequently found in cephalopod prey such as crustaceans and fish, little is known about DA accumulation in these molluscs. This study presents the first data showing relevant concentrations of DA detected in

Pedro R. Costa; Rui Rosa; Alexandra Duarte-Silva; Vanda Brotas; Maria Antónia M. Sampayo

2005-01-01

145

CHEMISTRY OF FOG WATER IN CALIFORNIA'S CENTRAL VALLEY: 2. PHOTOCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF AMINO ACIDS AND ALKYL AMINES. (R825433)  

EPA Science Inventory

Although amino compounds are seemingly ubiquitous in atmospheric particles and deposition, little is known of their fate in the troposphere. We report here on the fate of 21 amino acids and alkyl amines in fog waters from Davis, California, illuminated with simulated sunlight ...

146

Transformational Learners: Transformational Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transformational learning, according to Mezirow (1981), involves transforming taken-for-granted frames of reference into more discriminating, flexible "habits of mind". In teacher education, transformative learning impacts on the development of students' action theories, self-efficacy and professional attributes. Although considered imperative to…

Jones, Marguerite

2009-01-01

147

The Transformations of Transformations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harris's original idea of transformations has been changed several times in Chomsky's work. This article explicates these transformations, arguing that though their motivations are highly understandable, these transformations are not necessary for understanding the workings of natural languages. (Author/VWL)

Lin, Francis Y.

2000-01-01

148

Hydrothermal syntheses and structures of the uranyl tellurates AgUO{sub 2}(HTeO{sub 5}) and Pb{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(TeO{sub 6})  

SciTech Connect

Two uranyl tellurates, AgUO{sub 2}(HTeO{sub 5}) (1) and Pb{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(TeO{sub 6}) (2), were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and were structurally, chemically, and spectroscopically characterized. 1 crystallizes in space group Pbca, a=7.085(2) A, b=11.986(3) A, c=13.913(4) A, V=1181.5(5) A{sup 3}, Z=8; 2 is in P2(1)/c, a=5.742(1) A, b=7.789(2) A, c=7.928(2) A, V=90.703(2) A{sup 3}, and Z=2. These are the first structures reported for uranyl compounds containing tellurate. The U{sup 6+} cations are present as (UO{sub 2}){sup 2+} uranyl ions that are coordinated by O atoms to give pentagonal and square bipyramids in compounds 1 and 2, respectively. The structural unit in 1 is a sheet consisting of chains of edge-sharing uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that are one bipyramid wide, linked through the dimers of TeO{sub 6} octahedra. In 2, uranyl square bipyramids share each of their equatorial vertices with different TeO{sub 6} octahedra, giving a sheet with the autunite-type topology. Sheets in 1 and 2 are connected through the low-valence cations that are located in the interlayer region. The structures of 1 and 2 are compared to those of uranyl compounds containing octahedrally coordinated cations. -- Graphical abstract: Two hydrothermally synthesized uranyl tellurates, AgUO{sub 2}(HTeO{sub 5}) and Pb{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(TeO{sub 6}), contain sheets built from uranyl pentagonal or square bipyramids, as well as tellurate octahedra. Display Omitted Research highlights: > Compounds AgUO{sub 2}(HTeO{sub 5}) and Pb{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(TeO{sub 6}) are the first uranyl tellurate compounds. > The structure of AgUO{sub 2}(HTeO{sub 5}) consists of sheets of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids and TeO{sub 6} octahedra. > The structure of Pb{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(TeO{sub 6}) contains sheets of TeO{sub 6} octahedra and uranyl square bipyramids.

Ling, Jie; Ward, Matthew [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Science, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Burns, Peter C., E-mail: pburns@nd.ed [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Science, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

2011-02-15

149

Nondestructive quantification of the soluble-solids content and the available acidity of apples by Fourier-transform near-infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This research evaluated the feasibility of using Fourier-transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to quantify the soluble-solids content (SSC) and the available acidity (VA) in intact apples. Partial least-squares calibration models, obtained from several preprocessing techniques (smoothing, derivative, etc.) in several wave-number ranges were compared. The best models were obtained with the high coefficient determination (r{sup 2}) 0.940 for the SSC and a moderate r{sup 2} of 0.801 for the VA, root-mean-square errors of prediction of 0.272% and 0.053%, and root-mean-square errors of calibration of 0.261% and 0.046%, respectively. The results indicate that the FT-NIR spectroscopy yields good predictions of the SSC and also showed the feasibility of using it to predict the VA of apples.

Ying Yibin; Liu Yande; Tao Yang

2005-09-01

150

Expression and Functional Characterization of the Agrobacterium VirB2 Amino Acid Substitution Variants in T-pilus Biogenesis, Virulence, and Transient Transformation Efficiency  

PubMed Central

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease by transferring transferred DNA (T-DNA) into the plant genome. The translocation process is mediated by the type IV secretion system (T4SS) consisting of the VirD4 coupling protein and 11 VirB proteins (VirB1 to VirB11). All VirB proteins are required for the production of T-pilus, which consists of processed VirB2 (T-pilin) and VirB5 as major and minor subunits, respectively. VirB2 is an essential component of T4SS, but the roles of VirB2 and the assembled T-pilus in Agrobacterium virulence and the T-DNA transfer process remain unknown. Here, we generated 34 VirB2 amino acid substitution variants to study the functions of VirB2 involved in VirB2 stability, extracellular VirB2/T-pilus production and virulence of A. tumefaciens. From the capacity for extracellular VirB2 production (ExB2+ or ExB2?) and tumorigenesis on tomato stems (Vir+ or Vir?), the mutants could be classified into three groups: ExB2?/Vir?, ExB2?/Vir+, and ExB2+/Vir+. We also confirmed by electron microscopy that five ExB2?/Vir+ mutants exhibited a wild-type level of virulence with their deficiency in T-pilus formation. Interestingly, although the five T-pilus?/Vir+ uncoupling mutants retained a wild-type level of tumorigenesis efficiency on tomato stems and/or potato tuber discs, their transient transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings was highly attenuated. In conclusion, we have provided evidence for a role of T-pilus in Agrobacterium transformation process and have identified the domains and amino acid residues critical for VirB2 stability, T-pilus biogenesis, tumorigenesis, and transient transformation efficiency. PMID:24971727

Wu, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chao-Ying; Lai, Erh-Min

2014-01-01

151

Comparison of Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Grating-Based Near-Infrared for the Determination of Fatty Acids in Forages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform mid-infrared (FTMIR) and near infrared spectroscopy (FTNIR) were compared to scanning monochromator-grating-based near infrared spectroscopy (SMNIR), for their ability to quantify fatty acids (FA) in forages. Thirteen different forage cultivars belonging to 11 d...

152

Photochemical transformation and photoinduced toxicity reduction of silver nanoparticles in the presence of perfluorocarboxylic acids under UV irradiation.  

PubMed

The impact of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with carbon chain length C2 to C8 on the dissolution, aggregation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and toxicity of citrate-coated AgNPs was investigated under UV irradiation. The presence of PFCAs decreased dissolution, aggregation, ROS generation, and toxicity of AgNPs because the negatively charged PFCAs sorbed on AgNP surface enhanced their stability. Both dissolution and aggregation rate of AgNPs decreased with chain length of PFCAs under UV irradiation, primarily because PFCAs with longer chain length sorbed on AgNP surface could form thicker coatings. The dissolution of AgNPs followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the rate constant decreased from 0.58 h(-1) with C2 to 0.30 h(-1) with C8. The hydrodynamic diameters of AgNPs linearly increased under UV irradiation with aggregation rates ranged from 72.1 to 143.5 nm/h. O2(•-) generation was observed in AgNP suspension with quantum yield of 0.12%, but was completely suppressed by PFCAs because they inhibited the interaction between photoelectrons and O2. A linear correlation was established between dissolved Ag(+) and bacterial survival rates of AgNPs with and without PFCAs under UV irradiation. This study highlights the necessity of considering coexisting organic contaminants when investigating the environmental behaviors of AgNPs. PMID:24673243

Li, Yang; Niu, Junfeng; Shang, Enxiang; Crittenden, John

2014-05-01

153

Collection of VLE data for acid gas---alkanolamine systems using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. [Vapor-liquid equilibrium  

SciTech Connect

The industrial standard process for the purification of natural gas is to remove acid gases, mainly hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, by the absorption and reaction of these gases with alkanolamines. Inadequate data for vapor--liquid equilibrium (VLE) hinder the industry from converting operations to more energy efficient amine mixtures and conserving energy. Some energy reductions have been realized in the past decade by applying such amine systems as hindered'' amines, methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and MDEA based amine mixtures. However, the lack of reliable and accurate fundamental VLE data impedes the commercial application of these more efficient alkanolamine systems. The first project objective is to improve the accuracy of vapor--liquid equilibrium measurements at low hydrogen sulfide concentrations. The second project objective is to measure the VLE for amine mixtures. By improving the accuracy of the VLE measurements on MDEA and mixtures with other amines, energy saving can be quickly and confidently implemented in the many existing absorption units already in use. If about 25% of the existing 95.3 billion SCFD gas purification capacity is converted to these new amine systems, the energy savings are estimated to be about 3 [times] 10[sup 14] BTU/yr.

Bullin, J.A.; Frazier, R.E.

1992-01-01

154

Comparative study of the continuous wavelet transform, derivative and partial least squares methods applied to the overlapping spectra for the simultaneous quantitative resolution of ascorbic acid and acetylsalicylic acid in effervescent tablets.  

PubMed

The simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in effervescent tablets in the presence of the overlapping spectra was accomplished by the continuous wavelet transform (CWT), derivative spectrophotometry (DS) and partial least squares (PLS) approaches without using any chemical pre-treatment. CWT and DS calibration equations for AA and ASA were obtained by measuring the CWT and DS amplitudes corresponding to zero-crossing points of spectra obtained by plotting continuous wavelet coefficients and first-derivative absorbance values versus the wavelengths, respectively. The PLS calibration was constructed by using the concentration set and its full absorbance data consisting of 850 points from 220 to 305 nm in the range of 210-310 nm. These three methods were tested by analyzing the synthetic mixtures of the above drugs and they were applied to the real samples containing two commercial pharmaceutical preparations of subjected drugs. A comparative study was carried out by using the experimental results obtained from three analytical methodologies and precise and accurate results were obtained. PMID:15740918

Dinç, Erdal; Ozdemir, Abdil; Baleanu, Dumitru

2005-03-01

155

Studies on the solid acidity of heated and cation-exchanged montmorillonite using n-butylamine titration in non-aqueous system and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DRIFT) spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of heating and cation exchange on the solid acidity of montmorillonite were investigated using n-butylamine titration in non-aqueous system and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The number of total, Brønsted, and Lewis acid sites showed the same modulation tendency with increasing heating temperature, reaching a maximum at 120 °C and subsequently decreasing until it reaches a minimum at 600 °C. The Lewis acid sites result from unsaturated Al3+ cations, and their number increased with the heating temperature due to the dehydration and dehydroxylation of montmorillonite. The generation and evolution of Brønsted acidity were mainly related to interlayer-polarized water molecules. Water adsorbed on the unsaturated Al3+ ions also acted as a Brønsted acid. The acid strength of the Brønsted acid sites was dependent on the polarization ability of the exchangeable cation, the amount of interlayer water, and the degree of dissociation of the interlayer water coordinated to exchangeable cations. All cation-exchanged montmorillonites exhibited different numbers of acid sites and various distributions of acid strength. Brønsted acidity was predominant in Al3+-exchanged montmorillonite, whereas the Na+- and K+-exchanged montmorillonites showed predominantly Lewis acidity. Moreover, Mg2+- and Li+-exchanged montmorillonites exhibited approximately equal numbers of Brønsted and Lewis acid sites. The Brønsted acidity of cation-exchanged montmorillonite was positively correlated with the charge-to-radius ratios of the cations, whereas the Lewis acidity was highly dependent on the electronegativity of the cations. The acid strengths of Al3+- and Mg2+-exchanged montmorillonites were remarkably higher than those of monovalent cation-exchanged montmorillonites, showing the highest acid strength ( H 0 ? -3.0). Li+- and Na+-exchanged montmorillonites exhibited an acid strength distribution of -3.0 < H 0 ? 4.8, with the acid strength ranging primarily from 1.5 to 3.3 in Li+-exchanged montmorillonite, whereas only weaker-strength acid sites (1.5 < H 0 ? 4.8) were present in K+-exchanged montmorillonite. The results of the catalysis experiments indicated that montmorillonite promoted the thermal decomposition of the model organic. The catalytic activity showed a positive correlation with the solid acidity of montmorillonite and was affected by cation exchange, which occurs naturally in geological processes.

Liu, Hongmei; Liu, Dong; Yuan, Peng; Tan, Daoyong; Cai, Jingong; He, Hongping; Zhu, Jianxi; Song, Zhiguang

2013-06-01

156

Collection of VLE data for acid gas - alkanolamine systems using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Final report, September 29, 1990--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research from September 29, 1990 through September 30, 1996, involving the development a novel Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic apparatus and method for measuring vapor - liquid equilibrium (VLE) systems of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide with aqueous alkanolamine solutions. The original apparatus was developed and modified as it was used to collect VLE data on acid gas systems. Vapor and liquid calibrations were performed for spectral measurements of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in the vapor and in solution with aqueous diethanolamine (DEA) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). VLE measurements were made of systems of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in 20 wt % DEA at 50{degrees}C and 40{degrees}C. VLE measurements were made of systems of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in 50 wt% and 23 wt% MDEA at 40{degrees}C and in 23 wt% MDEA at 50{degrees}C. VLE measurements were made of systems of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in 35 wt% MDEA + 5 wt% DEA and in 35 wt% MDEA + 10 wt% DEA at 40{degrees}C and 50{degrees}C. Measurements were made of residual amounts of carbon dioxide in each VLE system. The new FTIR spectrometer is now a consistently working and performing apparatus.

Bullin, J.A.; Rogers, W.J.

1996-11-01

157

Occurrence and fate of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist transformation product valsartan acid in the water cycle--a comparative study with selected ?-blockers and the persistent anthropogenic wastewater indicators carbamazepine and acesulfame.  

PubMed

The substantial transformation of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist valsartan to the transformation product 2'-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid (referred to as valsartan acid) during the activated sludge process was demonstrated in the literature and confirmed in the here presented study. However, there was a severe lack of knowledge regarding the occurrence and fate of this compound in surface water and its behavior during drinking water treatment. In this work a comparative study on the occurrence and persistency of valsartan acid, three frequently used ?-blockers (metoprolol, atenolol, and sotalol), atenolol acid (one significant transformation product of atenolol and metoprolol), and the two widely distributed persistent anthropogenic wastewater indicators carbamazepine and acesulfame in raw sewage, treated wastewater, surface water, groundwater, and tap water is presented. Median concentrations of valsartan acid in the analyzed matrices were 101, 1,310, 69, <1.0, and 65 ng L(-1), respectively. Treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants were confirmed as significant source. Regarding concentration levels of pharmaceutical residues in surface waters valsartan acid was found just as relevant as the analyzed ?-blockers and the anticonvulsant carbamazepine. Regarding its persistency in surface waters it was comparable to carbamazepine and acesulfame. Furthermore, removal of valsartan acid during bank filtration was poor, which demonstrated the relevance of this compound for drinking water suppliers. Regarding drinking water treatment (Muelheim Process) the compound was resistant to ozonation but effectively eliminated (?90%) by subsequent activated carbon filtration. However, without applying activated carbon filtration the compound may enter the drinking water distribution system as it was demonstrated for Berlin tap water. PMID:24070867

Nödler, Karsten; Hillebrand, Olav; Idzik, Krzysztof; Strathmann, Martin; Schiperski, Ferry; Zirlewagen, Johannes; Licha, Tobias

2013-11-01

158

Interdependent genotoxic mechanisms of monomethylarsonous acid: Role of ROS-induced DNA damage and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibition in the malignant transformation of urothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of human bladder urothelial cells (UROtsa) to 50 nM of the arsenic metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}), for 12 weeks results in irreversible malignant transformation. The ability of continuous, low-level MMA{sup III} exposure to cause an increase in genotoxic potential by inhibiting repair processes necessary to maintain genomic stability is unknown. Following genomic insult within cellular systems poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger protein, is rapidly activated and recruited to sites of DNA strand breaks. When UROtsa cells are continuously exposed to 50 nM MMA{sup III}, PARP-1 activity does not increase despite the increase in MMA{sup III}-induced DNA single-strand breaks through 12 weeks of exposure. When UROtsa cells are removed from continuous MMA{sup III} exposure (2 weeks), PARP-1 activity increases coinciding with a subsequent decrease in DNA damage levels. Paradoxically, PARP-1 mRNA expression and protein levels are elevated in the presence of continuous MMA{sup III} indicating a possible mechanism to compensate for the inhibition of PARP-1 activity in the presence of MMA{sup III}. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 contain vicinal sulfhydryl groups which may act as a potential site for MMA{sup III} to bind, displace zinc ion, and render PARP-1 inactive. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates the ability of MMA{sup III} to bind a synthetic peptide representing the zinc-finger domain of PARP-1, and displace zinc from the peptide in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of continuous MMA{sup III} exposure, continuous 4-week zinc supplementation restored PARP-1 activity levels and reduced the genotoxicity associated with MMA{sup III}. Zinc supplementation did not produce an overall increase in PARP-1 protein levels, decrease the levels of MMA{sup III}-induced reactive oxygen species, or alter Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase levels. Overall, these results present two potential interdependent mechanisms in which MMA{sup III} may increase the susceptibility of UROtsa cells to genotoxic insult and/or malignant transformation: elevated levels of MMA{sup III}-induced DNA damage through the production of reactive oxygen species, and the direct MMA{sup III}-induced inhibition of PARP-1.

Wnek, Shawn M.; Kuhlman, Christopher L.; Camarillo, Jeannie M.; Medeiros, Matthew K. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Liu, Ke J. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Lau, Serrine S. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States) [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gandolfi, A.J., E-mail: wnek@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-11-15

159

Chloroplast transformation.  

PubMed

In this chapter we briefly review the developmental history and current research status of chloroplast transformation and introduce the merits of chloroplast transformation as compared with the nuclear genome transformation. Furthermore, according to the chloroplast transformation achieved in oilseed rape (Brassica napus), we introduce the preparation of explants, transformation methods, system selection, identification methods of the transplastomic plants, and experimental results. The technical points, the bottleneck, and the further research directions of the chloroplast transformation are discussed in the notes. PMID:16673924

Lu, Xiao-Mei; Yin, Wei-Bo; Hu, Zan-Min

2006-01-01

160

Cyp26b1 Regulates Retinoic Acid-Dependent Signals in T Cells and Its Expression Is Inhibited by Transforming Growth Factor-?  

PubMed Central

Background The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), plays important roles in the regulation of lymphocyte properties. Dendritic cells in gut-related lymphoid organs can produce RA, thereby imprinting gut-homing specificity on T cells and enhancing transforming growth factor (TGF)-?-dependent induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells upon antigen presentation. In general, RA concentrations in cells and tissues are regulated by its degradation as well. However, it remained unclear if T cells could actively catabolize RA. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed the expression of known RA-catabolizing enzymes in T cells from mouse lymphoid tissues. Antigen-experienced CD44+ T cells in gut-related lymphoid organs selectively expressed Cyp26b1, a member of the cytochrome P450 family 26. However, T cells in the spleen or skin-draining lymph nodes did not significantly express Cyp26b1. Accordingly, physiological levels of RA (1–10 nM) could induce Cyp26b1 expression in naïve T cells upon activation in vitro, but could not do so in the presence of TGF-?. Overexpression of Cyp26b1 significantly suppressed the RA effect to induce expression of the gut-homing receptor CCR9 on T cells. On the other hand, knocking down Cyp26b1 gene expression with small interfering RNA or inhibiting CYP26 enzymatic activity led to enhancement of the RA-induced CCR9 expression. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate a role for CYP26B1 in regulating RA-dependent signals in activated T cells but not during TGF-?-dependent differentiation to Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Aberrant expression of CYP26B1 may disturb T cell trafficking and differentiation in the gut and its related lymphoid organs. PMID:21249211

Takeuchi, Hajime; Yokota, Aya; Ohoka, Yoshiharu; Iwata, Makoto

2011-01-01

161

Transformations Preserving the Hankel Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We classify all polynomial transformations of integer sequences which preserve the Hankel transform, thus generalizing examples due to Layman and Spivey & Steil. We also show that such transformations form a group under composition.

French, Christopher

2007-07-01

162

Ergosteroids VII: perchloric acid-induced transformations of 7-oxygenated steroids and their bio-analytical applications—a liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfate esters of 7-oxo-?5-steroids can be selectively and quantitatively hydrolyzed to the corresponding free steroids in the presence of carboxylic acid esters by solvolysis with perchloric acid in ethyl acetate at room temperature. Sulfates as well as carboxylic acid esters, methyl ethers, and ketals can be quantitatively converted to the corresponding 3,5-diene-7-one derivatives by heating with perchloric acid in methanol

Ashok Marwah; Padma Marwah; Henry Lardy

2002-01-01

163

Enhanced downregulation of transforming growth factor??2 in rat retinal pigment epithelium cells by adeno?associated virus?mediated ribonucleic acid interference combined with ultrasound or microbubbles.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to determine the efficiency and safety of ultrasound (US) and/or US contrast agent microbubbles (MBs) in the delivery of type 2 recombinant adeno-associated virus?delivered transforming growth factor??2 short hairpin ribonucleic acid encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (rAAV2?TGF?2 shRNA?EGFP) and the downregulation of TGF?2 in rat retinal pigment epithelium (RPE?J) cells. The effects of US and/or MBs on the delivery of rAAV2?EGFP and rAAV2?TGF?2 shRNA?EGFP were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The potential toxicity of cell viability under various US or MB conditions was assessed by CellTiter 96® AQueous One solution cell proliferation assay. The level of TGF?2 mRNA in RPE?J cells under various conditions was estimated by reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results obtained demonstrated that low-intensity US (0.5 W/cm2 and 30 sec) or SonoVue (MB:cell ratio, 40:1) increased the delivery efficiency of rAAV2?EGFP and rAAV2?TGF?2 shRNA?EGFP to RPE?J cells, whereas the combination of US with MBs did not further increase but instead decreased rAAV transfection. Under the optimal conditions of rAAV delivery, enhanced TGF?2 gene silencing with a combination of US or SonoVue with rAAV2?TGF?2 shRNA resulted in a significant decrease in mRNA levels compared with rAAV2?TGF?2 shRNA alone. US or SonoVue was used safely to enhance the delivery of rAAV2?TGF?2 shRNA to RPE?J cells. A combination of the biological (rAAV2?TGF?2 shRNA) and physical (US or SonoVue) approaches downregulated the mRNA level of TGF?2 more effectively. PMID:25370502

Li, Hongli; Wan, Caifeng; Du, Lianfang; Li, Fenghua

2015-02-01

164

transformations: representations  

E-print Network

Overview 1. Number transformations: from one base to another 2. Integer representations 3. Real rate, caches... #12; ECS 50, Discussion on 4/25 2 Integer Transformation: From Decimal to Binary Let, Discussion on 4/25 3 Integer Transformation: From Binary to Decimal Compute the weight of each digit position

Nguyen, Dat H.

165

Transformation Composition  

E-print Network

Proc. AGTIVE'99, to appear in LNCS Graph Transformation Modules and their Composition ? Frank,knirsch,kreo,kuskeg@informatik.uni-bremen.de Abstract. In this paper, we investigate the notion of transformation modules as a structuring principle. Based on the notion of transformation units, a concept that allows to specify binary relations on graphs

Drewes, Frank

166

Transformation Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shapes are all over the place in geometry. One way we can move these shapes is with transformations. Use these games to help you practice and identify the three types of transformations: reflections, translations, and rotations. Just as a refresher, watch this video about transformational geometry: Gingerbread Transformer! When you are ready...start playing the games!! Take it to the court for Basketball Geometry! Once you type in your name and choose a player, pay attention to the coach for a review on the three types of transformations. While you play, ...

Mrs. Stroud

2010-09-01

167

Animating Transformations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In most introductory linear algebra courses, prominent applications of transformations or mappings are moving (rotating, reflecting, translating), resizing (contracting, expanding), changing the shape (shearing, projecting) objects in the plane. A typical problem in such courses is to write the matrix of a transformation that changes points in such prescribed ways. The goal of this demo is to help students more easily visualize such transformations on a wide class of plane objects.

Roberts, Lila F.

2003-01-24

168

Transformation Telepresence  

E-print Network

of enterprise video collaboration necessary to support business goals. By showing the key business pain points and most effective strategies for integrating video, this report will show end users how telepresence can be used to transform organizations. Why Does Your Business Need to Transform? Traditionally, organizations

Fisher, Kathleen

169

Molecular distribution, seasonal variation, chemical transformation and sources of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in atmospheric aerosols at remote marine Gosan site, Jeju Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

: A homologous series of C2-C12 ?, ?-dicarboxylic acids, ?-oxocarboxylic acids (C2-C9), pyruvic acid and ?-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) were detected in atmospheric aerosols collected between April 2003 and April 2004 from remote marine Gosan site (33°29? N, 126°16? E) located in Jeju Island, South Korea. They were determined using a GC-FID and GC/MS. Total diacid concentration ranged from 130 to 1911 ng m-3 (av. 642 ng m-3), whereas total oxoacid concentration ranged from 7 to 155 ng m-3 (av. 43 ng m-3), and pyruvic acid and ?-dicarbonyls ranged from 0.5 to 15 ng m-3 (av. 5 ng m-3) and 2-108 ng m-3 (av. 17.3 ng m-3), respectively. Oxalic (C2) acid was the most abundant in all seasons followed by malonic (C3) or succinic (C4) acid, and phthalic (Ph) acid. The concentration of diacids decreased with an increase in carbon number except for azelaic (C9) acid, which was more abundant than suberic (C8) acid. Glyoxylic acid was predominant ?-oxoacid contributing to 92% of total ?-oxoacid. Total diacids, oxoacids and dicarbonyls showed maximum concentrations in spring and occasionally in winter, while minimum concentrations were observed in summer. Air mass trajectory analysis suggests that either spring or winter maxima can be explained by strong continental outflow associated with cold front passages, while summer minima are associated with warm southerly flows, which transport clean marine air from low latitudes to Jeju Island. The comparison between total diacid concentration level of this study and other study results of urban and remote sites of East Asia reveals that Gosan site is more heavily influenced by the continental outflow from China. The seasonal variation of malonic/succinic (C3/C4), malic/succinic (hC4/C4), fumaric/maleic (F/M), oxalic/pyruvic (C2/Py) and oxalic/Glyoxal (C2/Gly) ratios showed maxima in summer due to an enhanced photo-production and degradation of diacids and related compounds. Throughout all seasons C3/C4 ratio at Gosan site, located between Chinese cities and Chichi-jima Island in Japan was observed higher than those in Chinese cities and lower than that of the Chichi-jima Island, pointing to the formation of diacid during long range transport. The lowest values of adipic/azelaic (C6/C9) and phthalic/azelaic (Ph/C9) were observed as a result of the overwhelming biogenic emission of the precursors (e.g., unsaturated fatty acids) of azelaic acid in summer.In this study, we will also discuss the sources and transport pathways of diacids and related compounds resolved using a hybrid receptor model, potential source contribution function (PSCF) and model results will be compared with available in-situ observations in East Asia.

Kundu, S.; Kawamura, K.; Lee, M.

2009-12-01

170

Molecular level description of the sorptive fractionation of a fulvic acid on aluminum oxide using electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We addressed here, by means of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with ultrahigh resolution, the molecular level fractionation of a reference fulvic acid (SRFA) during its sorption at an alumina surface, taken as a model for surfaces of natural aluminum oxide hydrates. Examination of ESI-MS spectra of a native SRFA solution and of supernatants collected in sorption experiments at acidic pH showed that the ?5700 compounds identified in the native solution were partitioned between the solution and alumina surface to quite varying degrees. Compounds showing the highest affinity for the surface were aromatic compounds with multiple oxygenated functionalities, polycyclic aromatic compounds depleted of hydrogen and carrying few oxygenated groups, and aliphatic compounds with very high O/C values, highlighting the fact that SRFA constituents were sorbed mainly via chemical sorption involving their oxygenated functionalities. We observed an inverse correlation between the degree of sorption of a molecule within a CH2 series and its number of CH2 groups and a positive correlation between the degree of sorption and the number of CO2 groups in a COO series, which was remarkable. These correlations provide evidence at the molecular scale that molecule acidity is the key parameter governing fulvic acid (FA) sorptive fractionation, and they are useful for predicting sorption of FA at a natural oxide surface. PMID:24905077

Galindo, Catherine; Del Nero, Mirella

2014-07-01

171

ATR-Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy for determination of trans fatty acids in ground cereal products without oil extraction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was investigated as a method for analysis of trans fatty acids (FA) in cereal products without oil extraction. Spectra were obtained with an ATR-FTIR spectrometer using ground samples pressed onto the diamond ATR surface and trans FA measured by a modification of AOAC Method 9...

172

ATR-FOURIER TRANSFORM MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FOR DETERMINATION OF TRANS FATTY ACIDS IN GROUND CEREAL PRODUCTS WITHOUT OIL EXTRACTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since FDA amended the rules for food labeling to include trans fatty acids (TFA), there has been a continued interest in development of optimized methods for determining TFA in foods. Traditional chromatographic methods are time-consuming and solvent based. Alternatively, spectroscopic methods invol...

173

Determination of rice herbicides, their transformation products and clofibric acid using on-line solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography with diode array and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection.  

PubMed

A simultaneous method for the trace determination of acidic, neutral herbicides and their transformation products in estuarine waters has been developed through an on-line solid-phase extraction method followed by liquid chromatography with diode array and mass spectrometric detection. An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface was used in the negative ionization mode after optimization of the main APCI parameters. Limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 0.02 ng/ml for 50 ml of acidified estuarine waters preconcentrated into polymeric precolumns and using time-scheduled selected ion monitoring mode. Two degradation products of the acidic herbicides (4-chloro-2-methylphenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol) did not show good signal response using APCI-MS at the concentration studied due to the higher fragmentor voltage needed for their determination. For molinate and the major degradation product of propanil, 3,4-dichloroaniline, positive ion mode was needed for APCI-MS detection. The proposed method was applied to the determination of herbicides in drainage waters from rice fields of the Delta del Ebro (Spain). During the 3-month monitoring of the herbicides, 8-hydroxybentazone and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid were successively found in those samples. PMID:10870691

Santos, T C; Rocha, J C; Barceló, D

2000-05-19

174

Transformative copy  

E-print Network

The ability to create an unlimited number of identical copies is a privilege of digital documents. What if that would not be the case, if each copy of a digital file would go along with some sort of transformation? This ...

Offenhuber, Dietmar

2008-01-01

175

Transformation Golf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game students use the isometric transformations (sliding, flipping and turning) to sink a golf ball into a cup. There are nine holes in the course and learners are challenged to meet or break a par score.

2011-01-01

176

Transformations of Toxic Metals and Metalloids by Pseudomonas stutzeri Strain KC and its Siderophore Pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid)Pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid) (pdtc)(pdtc) is a siderophore produced by Pseudomonas stutzeri KCPseudomonas stutzeri KC that plays a role in conditioning the bacterial environment. It serves as a siderophore in solubilizing ferric iron and other micronutrient metals, and as a thiol-containing compound, it reacts with toxic heavy metals and metalloids, reducing metals like Cr(VI), Se(IV), and Te(IV) and precipitating metals as sulfides (e.g., Hg(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and As(III)), rendering them insoluble and less toxic. Understanding the mechanism by which bacteria use pdtc to interact with metals may contribute to our understanding of metal cycling in the biosphere, and may have potential for use in bioremediationbioremediation of heavy metals.

Zawadzka, Anna M.; Paszczynski, Andrzej J.; Crawford, Ronald L.

177

Asymmetric synthesis of ?-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations.  

PubMed

The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of ?-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations. PMID:24888480

Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim

2014-09-01

178

Covariant Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dedicated to the memory of Cora Sadosky The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others.

Kisil, Vladimir V.

2011-03-01

179

DNA Transformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer's historic experiment used techniques to cut and paste DNA to create the first custom-made organism containing recombined or 'recombinant' DNA. Cohen and Boyer inserted the recombinant DNA molecule they created into E. coli bacteria by means of a plasmid, thereby inducing the uptake and expression of a foreign DNA sequence known as 'transformation.' This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents DNA transformation through a series of illustrations of the processes involved.

2012-04-06

180

Maize Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant genetic transformation technologies have brought fundamental changes to both plant biology laboratory research as well\\u000a as to modern agricultural field practices. Once a recalcitrant plant for tissue culture and gene delivery, maize is becoming\\u000a one of the most targeted cereal crops using genetic transformation for both basic and applied purposes. This chapter provides\\u000a a brief review of the history

Kan Wang; Bronwyn Frame; Yuji Ishida; Toshihiko Komari

181

Removal of diclofenac and mefenamic acid by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 and identification of their metabolites after fungal transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diclofenac (DCF) and mefenamic acid (MFA) were treated with the white rot fungus\\u000a Phanerochaete sordida YK-624. DCF completely disappeared and MFA decreased by about 90% after 6 days of treatment. It was also confirmed that the\\u000a fungus almost completely removed the acute lethal toxicity of DCF and MFA towards the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus after 6 days of

Takayuki Hata; Shingo Kawai; Hideo Okamura; Tomoaki Nishida

2010-01-01

182

Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) undergoing parr-smolt transformation and the effects of dietary linseed and rapeseed oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplicate groups of Atlantic salmon parr were fed diets containing either fish oil (FO), rapeseed oil (RO), linseed oil (LO) or linseed oil supplemented with arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; AA) (LOA) from October (week 0) to seawater transfer in March (week 19). From March to July (weeks 20–34) all fish were fed a fish oil-containing diet. Fatty acyl desaturation and elongation

D. R. Tocher; J. G. Bell; J. R. Dick; R. J. Henderson; F. McGhee; D. Michell; P. C. Morris

2000-01-01

183

8R-Lipoxygenase-catalyzed synthesis of a prominent cis-epoxyalcohol from dihomo-?-linolenic acid: a distinctive transformation compared with S-lipoxygenases[S  

PubMed Central

Conversion of fatty acid hydroperoxides to epoxyalcohols is a well known secondary reaction of lipoxygenases, described for S-specific lipoxygenases forming epoxyalcohols with a trans-epoxide configuration. Here we report on R-specific lipoxygenase synthesis of a cis-epoxyalcohol. Although arachidonic and dihomo-?-linolenic acids are metabolized by extracts of the Caribbean coral Plexaura homomalla via 8R-lipoxygenase and allene oxide synthase activities, 20:3?6 forms an additional prominent product, identified using UV, GC-MS, and NMR in comparison to synthetic standards as 8R,9S-cis-epoxy-10S-erythro-hydroxy-eicosa-11Z,14Z-dienoic acid. Both oxygens of 18O-labeled 8R-hydroperoxide are retained in the product, indicating a hydroperoxide isomerase activity. Recombinant allene oxide synthase formed only allene epoxide from 8R-hydroperoxy-20:3?6, whereas two different 8R-lipoxygenases selectively produced the epoxyalcohol.A biosynthetic scheme is proposed in which a partial rotation of the reacting intermediate is required to give the observed erythro epoxyalcohol product. This characteristic and the synthesis of cis-epoxy epoxyalcohol may be a feature of R-specific lipoxygenases. PMID:22158855

Jin, Jing; Boeglin, William E.; Cha, Jin K.; Brash, Alan R.

2012-01-01

184

Development of a multichannel Fourier-transform spectrometer to measure weak chemiluminescence: Application to the emission of singlet-oxygen dimol in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide with gallic acid and K 3[Fe(CN) 6  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Fourier-transform spectrometer equipped with a Savart-plate polarization interferometer was developed for observation of weak chemiluminescence and applied to a measurement of emission spectra in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide with gallic acid and K 3[Fe(CN) 6]. The band appearing at ˜580 nm in the chemiluminescence spectrum was assigned to the emission of singlet-oxygen dimol, the peak wavelength being shifted from that observed in the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with sodium hypochlorite, ˜633 nm. The band intensity was increased with the increasing concentration of K 3[Fe(CN) 6] up to ˜100 mM, and thereafter the peak wavelength was shifted from 580 to 700 nm with a decrease in the intensity.

Tsukino, Kazuo; Satoh, Toshihiro; Ishii, Hiroshi; Nakata, Munetaka

2008-05-01

185

SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: Spatial transformations  

E-print Network

SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: Spatial transformations Multiple Systems for Spatial Imagery: Transformations of Objects and Bodies Jeffrey M. Zacks* and Barbara Tversky * Washington COGNITION & COMPUTATION #12;SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 2 Abstract Problem-solving often requires imagining

Zacks, Jeffrey M.

186

Fourier Transform Pairs The Fourier transform transforms a function of  

E-print Network

Fourier Transform Pairs The Fourier transform transforms a function of time, f(t), into a function of frequency, F(s): F {f(t)}(s) = F(s) = Z - f(t)e- j2st dt. The inverse Fourier transform transforms a func. The inverse Fourier transform of the Fourier trans- form is the identity transform: f(t) = Z - Z - f()e- j2s

Masci, Frank

187

Effect of temperature on short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation and microbiological transformation in sludge alkaline fermentation with Ca(OH)? adjustment.  

PubMed

The effects of temperatures (15-55 °C) on the alkaline fermentation of sewage sludge were investigated in semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (semi - CSTR) at the pH of 10. The highest soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) yield was obtained at 55 °C (764.2 mg/(gVS L d)), while the highest short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) yield was observed at 35 °C (319.8 mg/(gVS L d)), 1.5 times higher than SCFAs yield at 55 °C (209.5 mg/(gVS L d)). The proportion of the intercellular organic substances being transferred to the slime layer of sludge flocs increased from 29% at 15 °C to 54% at 55 °C. But only a small part of soluble organic substances in the slime layers was converted to SCFAs at 55 °C. The dewaterability of sludge was better at 35 °C than that at 55 °C. Microbiological community analysis showed the acid-producing microorganisms at the medium temperatures (25 °C and 35 °C) were more diverse and abundant than those at the low (15 °C) and high temperatures (55 °C). Clodtridium and Bacillus in Firmicutes and Gamma proteobacterium in Proteobacteria were the dominant functional bacterial species for high SCFA accumulation. PMID:24880243

Li, XiaoLing; Peng, YongZhen; Ren, NanQi; Li, BaiKun; Chai, TongZhi; Zhang, Liang

2014-09-15

188

An experimental investigation of Lewis acid-base interactions of liquid carbon dioxide using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented here is an investigation into the solvent properties of liquid carbon dioxide by means of FT-IR spectroscopy. A high-pressure, circulation-type apparatus was designed and built specifically for this study. The spectra for the combination bands for carbon dioxide show that there are interactions between methanol and carbon dioxide. However, the spectra of the fundamental O-D vibration of deuterated methanol in liquid carbon dioxide indicate that there is no hydrogen bonding. Therefore. we conclude that the interactions between carbon dioxide and methanol are Lewis acid-base interactions rather than hydrogen bonding. This conclusion is supported by experiments where acetone is introduced into the CO2/methanol- d binary system. FT-IR measurements show that acetone hydrogen bonds with deuterated methanol.

Reilly, J. T.; Bokis, C. P.; Donohue, M. D.

1995-05-01

189

Quantitative Analysis of Long Chain Fatty Acids Present in a Type I Kerogen Using Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry: Compared with BF3/MeOH Methylation/GC-FID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are present in various natural samples and are easily detectable using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS) in negative ion mode. The capability of the ESI-FT-ICR-MS for quantifying LCFAs was evaluated by performing a standard addition followed by an internal standard methodology to several kerogen extracts using n-C20 fatty acid as standard. As the concentration of the standard increased, the magnitude of its peak ( m/z 311.29525) increased linearly but with two separate slopes, leaving the entire mass spectra relatively unchanged, which shows evidence of reproducibility. Response factors of other LCFAs are obtained using a standard addition approach. We employed five LCFA standards ( n-C15, n-C19, n-C24, n-C26, and n-C30) with different carbon numbers. This allowed us to determine the response factor of all fatty acids (with carbon number between 15 and 30) by plotting the slope of each standard versus its carbon number. With the observed response factors and use of the internal standard, the concentrations of LCFAs in four kerogen extracts were measured by ESI-FT-ICR-MS and compared with those from GC-FID. The carbon number distribution obtained by ESI-FT-ICR-MS matched well the GC-FID distribution (5%-50%) with the exception of C16 and C18, considering that ESI-FT-ICR-MS does not differentiate between normal and branched LCFAs, whereas GC-FID does. This allows one to quantitatively compare samples with a relatively similar matrix for specific compounds such as LCFAs with no need of time-consuming derivatization procedures. Moreover, the calibration can be extended to higher carbon numbers with ESI-FT-ICR-MS, beyond the capabilities of GC/MS.

Kamga, Albert W.; Behar, Fancoise; Hatcher, Patrick G.

2014-05-01

190

The Laplace Transform 1 Laplace transform and inverse transform  

E-print Network

The Laplace Transform Name: 1 Laplace transform and inverse transform Definition. Let f(t) be a function defined for t 0. Then the integral L {f(t)} = 0 e-st f(t)dt is said to be the Laplace transform of f provided the integral converges. Fill in the following Laplace transforms. L {tn } = L {eat } = L

Yengulalp, Lynne

191

Transforming IMAGINATION  

E-print Network

and translational research and help drive medical breakthroughs that will transform the health and well by rapid advances and breakthroughs on such fronts as genetics, genomics, immunology, informatics and stem and financial rewards of being the first to achieve major scientific breakthroughs. To compete effectively

Weber, David J.

192

Exploring Transformations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will explore transformations of an absolute value function. Step by step instructions guide students in using graphing calculators to examine the effect that stretching and translating has on the coordinates of the graph. Teacher notes and a worksheet are also included to aid in teaching this lesson.

2011-11-25

193

Transforming Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors in this book address the issues that relate to the crisis in American education and review some of the proposed solutions. To transform education, schools must be examined as social systems that are interrelated with families, communities, and the world of work. Following the introduction, section 1, "Conditions for Educational…

Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.

194

Humanitarianism Transformed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scale, scope, and significance of humanitarian action have expanded significantly since the late 1980s. This article reflects on two ways in which humanitarianism has been transformed. First, its purpose has been politicized. Whereas once humanitarian actors attempted to insulate themselves from the world of politics, they now work closely with states and attempt to eliminate the root causes of

Michael Barnett

2005-01-01

195

Transformation Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The program for the march by librarians on America's capital for the American Library Association (ALA) conference is predictably loaded with lobbying, legislation, and DC tours. It also abounds with professional opportunity and reflects the impact of Leslie Burger, one of the most activist ALA presidents in recent history. Her "Transformation"…

Berry, John N., III

2007-01-01

196

Transformation & Metamorphosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

Lott, Debra

2009-01-01

197

Preparative free-flow electrophoretic offline ESI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance/MS analysis of Suwannee River fulvic acid.  

PubMed

Free-flow electrophoresis (FFE), a preparative free zone electrophoretic method, was used offline in conjunction with ultrahigh-resolution FT/ion cyclotron resonance -MS to resolve the complexity of Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA). Before MS, the FFE separation conditions and the compatibility with ESI were optimized. The constituents in SRFA were effectively separated based on their charge states and sizes. The obtained mass spectra were compared by means of van Krevelen diagrams and the calculated aromaticity indices of the individual constituents were used to describe the distribution of aromatic/unsaturated structures across the FFE-fractionated samples. The consolidated number of ions observed within the individual SRFA fractions were much higher than those of the bulk samples alone, demonstrating extensive ion suppression effects in bulk SRFA likely also operating in the analysis of complex biogeochemical mixtures in flow injection mode. The FFE approach allows for producing sizable amounts of sample from dilute solutions, which can be easily fractionated into dozens of individual samples with the possibility of further in-depth characterization. PMID:20503201

Gaspar, Andras; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

2010-06-01

198

Collection of VLE data for acid gas---alkanolamine systems using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Phase 2, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The industrial standard process for the purification of natural gas is to remove acid gases, mainly hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, by the absorption and reaction of these gases with alkanolamines. Inadequate data for vapor--liquid equilibrium (VLE) hinder the industry from converting operations to more energy efficient amine mixtures and conserving energy. Some energy reductions have been realized in the past decade by applying such amine systems as ``hindered`` amines, methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and MDEA based amine mixtures. However, the lack of reliable and accurate fundamental VLE data impedes the commercial application of these more efficient alkanolamine systems. The first project objective is to improve the accuracy of vapor--liquid equilibrium measurements at low hydrogen sulfide concentrations. The second project objective is to measure the VLE for amine mixtures. By improving the accuracy of the VLE measurements on MDEA and mixtures with other amines, energy saving can be quickly and confidently implemented in the many existing absorption units already in use. If about 25% of the existing 95.3 billion SCFD gas purification capacity is converted to these new amine systems, the energy savings are estimated to be about 3 {times} 10{sup 14} BTU/yr.

Bullin, J.A.; Frazier, R.E.

1992-12-01

199

Transformations Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Different forms of communication have always had a tendency to transform interactions and everyday life in ways that have surprised people from many different backgrounds. Academics have long been interested in such dynamic transformations, and this electronic journal represents one of the responses to such processes. As their site notes, this journal is "dedicated to the exploration of ideas, issues and debates emerging out of contemporary global culture." Visitors to the site can read the complete version of every issue on the site, and they will be pleased to find such intriguing titles as "Rethinking Regionality", "Accidental Environments", and "Fleeing the City". Interested parties can also consult the site to learn about the journal's editorial board, their calls for papers, submission guidelines, and related links.

200

GEMAS: Prediction of solid-solution phase partitioning coefficients (Kd ) for oxoanions and boric acid in soils using mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The authors' aim was to develop rapid and inexpensive regression models for the prediction of partitioning coefficients (Kd ), defined as the ratio of the total or surface-bound metal/metalloid concentration of the solid phase to the total concentration in the solution phase. Values of Kd were measured for boric acid (B[OH]3 (0) ) and selected added soluble oxoanions: molybdate (MoO4 (2-) ), antimonate (Sb[OH](6-) ), selenate (SeO4 (2-) ), tellurate (TeO4 (2-) ) and vanadate (VO4 (3-) ). Models were developed using approximately 500 spectrally representative soils of the Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural Soils of Europe (GEMAS) program. These calibration soils represented the major properties of the entire 4813 soils of the GEMAS project. Multiple linear regression (MLR) from soil properties, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) using mid-infrared diffuse reflectance Fourier-transformed (DRIFT) spectra, and models using DRIFT spectra plus analytical pH values (DRIFT?+?pH), were compared with predicted log Kd?+?1 values. Apart from selenate (R(2) ?=?0.43), the DRIFT?+?pH calibrations resulted in marginally better models to predict log Kd?+?1 values (R(2) ?=?0.62-0.79), compared with those from PSLR-DRIFT (R(2) ?=?0.61-0.72) and MLR (R(2) ?=?0.54-0.79). The DRIFT?+?pH calibrations were applied to the prediction of log Kd?+?1 values in the remaining 4313 soils. An example map of predicted log Kd?+?1 values for added soluble MoO4 (2-) in soils across Europe is presented. The DRIFT?+?pH PLSR models provided a rapid and inexpensive tool to assess the risk of mobility and potential availability of boric acid and selected oxoanions in European soils. For these models to be used in the prediction of log Kd?+?1 values in soils globally, additional research will be needed to determine if soil variability is accounted on the calibration. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;9999:1-12. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25476926

Janik, Leslie J; Forrester, Sean T; Soriano-Disla, José M; Kirby, Jason K; McLaughlin, Michael J; Reimann, Clemens

2015-02-01

201

Macromolecular Synthesis in Newly Transformed Cells of Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

The capacity of newly transformed cells of Bacillus subtilis to synthesize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein has been determined by following the kinetics of suicide after their exposure to tritiated precursors of each of these macromolecules. Competent cells, whether transformed or not, are heterogeneous with respect to DNA synthesis. About 40 to 50% are latent in DNA synthesis. This latency may persist for 2.5 to 3 hr since transformants are resistant to thymineless death for this period after DNA addition. The remainder of the transformants synthesize DNA at one-half the rate of the cells of the total population. Synthesis of stable RNA does not occur at an appreciable rate in newly transformed cells. Newly transformed cells, however, do synthesize protein extensively, as demonstrated by the lethality of incorporated tritiated amino acids. Either chloramphenicol or actinomycin D treatment during the time of exposure to the tritiated amino acid prevented the suicide of transformants. PMID:4961411

McCarthy, Charlotte; Nester, E. W.

1967-01-01

202

Hamlet's Transformation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

Usher, P. D.

1997-12-01

203

Rotary Transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

1996-01-01

204

Corn transformed  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have produced fertile corn transformed with a foreign gene that makes the plants resistant to the herbicide bialaphos. This achievement, is the first report of fertile transgenic corn in the reviewed literature, and it is the capstone of almost a decade's efforts to genetically engineer this country's most important crop. The only other major crop to be so manipulated is rice. The ability produce transgenic corn gives biologists a valuable tool to probe the whys and hows of gene expression and regulation. It may also give plant breeders a way to develop new corn varieties with a speed and predictability that would be impossible with classical breeding techniques.

Moffat, A.S.

1990-08-10

205

Assisted inhibition effect of acetylcholinesterase with n-octylphosphonic acid and application in high sensitive detection of organophosphorous pesticides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple and practical approach to improve the sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibited method has been developed for monitoring organophosphorous (OP) pesticide residues. In this work, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS) was used to detect AChE activity. Due to its good salt-tolerance and low sample consumption, MALDI-FTMS facilitates rapid and high-throughput screening of OP pesticides. Here we describe a new method to obtain low detection limits via employing external reagents. Among candidate compounds, n-octylphosphonic acid (n-Octyl-PA) displays assistant effect to enhance AChE inhibition by OP pesticides. In presence of n-Octyl-PA, the percentages of AChE inhibition still kept correlation with OP pesticide concentrations. The detection limits were improved significantly even by 10(2)-10(3) folds in comparison with conventional enzyme-inhibited methods. Different detection limits of OP pesticides with different toxicities were as low as 0.005 ?g L(-1) for high toxic pesticides and 0.05 ?g L(-1) for low toxic pesticides. Besides, the reliability of results from this method to analyze cowpea samples had been demonstrated by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The application of this commercial available assistant agent shows great promise to detect OP compounds in complicated biological matrix and broadens the mind for high sensitivity detection of OP pesticide residues in agricultural products. PMID:22023864

Cai, Tingting; Zhang, Li; Wang, Haoyang; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Yinlong

2011-11-14

206

Testability Transformation --Program Transformation to Improve Testability  

E-print Network

Testability Transformation -- Program Transformation to Improve Testability Mark Harman1 , Andr, 26 Richmond Street, Glasgow G1 1XH, UK. Corresponding Author. Abstract. Testability transformation. The goal is to improve the testing process by transforming a program to one that is more amenable

Binkley, David W.

207

Testability Transformation: Program Transformation to Improve Testability  

E-print Network

Testability Transformation: Program Transformation to Improve Testability An Overview of Recent Author. Abstract. Testability transformation is a new form of program transfor- mation in which the goal to some chosen test adequacy criterion. The goal is to improve the testing process by transforming

Singer, Jeremy

208

Hough Transform from the Radon Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

An appropriate special case of a transform developed by J. Radon in 1917 is shown to have the major properties of the Hough transform which is useful for finding line segments in digital pictures. Such an observation may be useful in further efforts to generalize the Hough transform. Techniques for applying the Radon transform to lines and pixels are developed

Stanley R. Deans

1981-01-01

209

Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas  

DOEpatents

Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

2014-07-01

210

Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

1995-07-04

211

Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

Ohlrogge, John B. (Okemos, MI); Cahoon, Edgar B. (Lansing, MI); Shanklin, John (Upton, NY); Somerville, Christopher R. (Okemos, MI)

1995-01-01

212

Hadamard transform imaging  

SciTech Connect

We have constructed a Hadamard transform Raman microscopic imaging system, and have developed it to a high definition (64K pixel) technique. We have demonstrated multispectral Raman imaging and developed the first three-dimensional (digital confocal) Raman imaging. We have explored the systematic errors in Hadamard multiplexing techniques and developed corrections. We have used our Raman microscope techniques to explore defect distributions on graphite electrodes and damage effects on SERS-activated silver electrodes. We have used the microprobe capabilities of our instrument to investigate the kinetics of polyacrylamide formation in electrolysis capabilities. We have worked closely with a manufacture of holographic displays to develop and incorporate holographic filters and holographic beam splitters into Raman spectrographs and microscopes. Finally, we have developed Hadamard multiplexing techniques for densitometric measurements of protein or nucleic acid blots.

Morris, M.D.

1992-01-01

213

Transforming giants.  

PubMed

Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big. PMID:18271317

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

2008-01-01

214

Analyzing Signals Fourier transform  

E-print Network

Page 1 1 Analyzing Signals Fourier transform s frequency content s linear combination of sin frequency analysis s windowed Fourier transform 6 #12;Page 4 7 Gabor Transform function to analyze window Gabor Transform Spatial domain Gabor domain b #12;Page 5 9 Gabor Transform Problems s discrete version

Sweldens, Wim

215

Ursodeoxycholic acid, 7-ketolithocholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid are primary bile acids of the nutria (Myocastor coypus).  

PubMed

Because ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are interconverted in humans via 7-ketolithocholic acid, bile acid metabolism was studied in the nutria (Myocastor coypus), the bile of which is known to contain these three bile acids. Relative concentrations of ursodeoxycholic (37% +/- 20%), 7-ketolithocholic (33% +/- 17%), and chenodeoxycholic (17% +/- 9%) acids in gallbladder bile were unchanged by 5-20 h of complete biliary diversion (n = 7). Injection of either [14C]cholesterol, [14C]ursodeoxycholic, [14C]7-ketolithocholic acid, or a mixture of [7 beta-3H]chenodeoxycholic acid and [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid into bile fistula nutria demonstrated that all three bile acids can be synthesized hepatically from cholesterol, that they are interconverted sparingly (2%-5%) by the liver, but that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate in the hepatic transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid. An animal that had been fed antibiotics showed an unusually elevated concentration of ursodeoxycholic acid in gallbladder and hepatic bile, suggesting that bacterial transformation of ursodeoxycholic acid in the intestine may be a source of some biliary chenodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid. PMID:3943698

Tint, G S; Bullock, J; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G

1986-03-01

216

transform your thinking transform your environment  

E-print Network

are looking for problem- solvers. And the ability to think critically--and creatively-- tops the lists in the classroom and equip students with the rigorous critical- thinking skills needed to attack complex businessMBA #12;transform your thinking 2 transform your environment 18 transform your career 26 start your

Subramanian, Venkat

217

Transformers Transformer device used to raise (for  

E-print Network

Transformers Transformer ­ device used to raise (for transmission) and lower (for use) the ac voltage in a circuit, keeping iV constant Has 2 coils (primary and secondary) wound on same iron core with different #s of turns #12;Transformers Alternating primary current induces alternating magnetic flux in iron

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

218

GIS TRANSFORMATIONS Conference Presentation  

E-print Network

GIS TRANSFORMATIONS Conference Presentation Waldo Tobler Geography Department University, line, area, or field phenomena, then the sixteen common classes of transformation are: point -> point (scalar, vector, tensor) data, to obtain eighty distinct possible classes of transformation. The common

Tobler, Waldo

219

Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C–H stretching mode regions

Johannes Kiefer; Kristina Noack; Juergen Bartelmess; Christian Walter; Heike Dörnenburg; Alfred Leipertz

2010-01-01

220

Discrete Cosine Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discrete cosine transform (DCT) is defined and an algorithm to compute it using the fast Fourier transform is developed. It is shown that the discrete cosine transform can be used in the area of digital processing for the purposes of pattern recognition and Wiener filtering. Its performance is compared with that of a class of orthogonal transforms and is

N. Ahmed; T. Natarajan; K. R. Rao

1974-01-01

221

transformation languages Introduction  

E-print Network

transformation languages Introduction Transformation languages are widely used for to process can I change / transform the design of a certain task without changing it's logic The common/and hierarchical or/and abstract set of information. It can even be a stream of data. · The transformation engine

Nierstrasz, Oscar

222

Hadamard transform image coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the fast Fourier transform algorithm has led to the development of the Fourier transform image coding technique whereby the two-dimensional Fourier transform of an image is transmitted over a channel rather than the image itself. This devlopement has further led to a related image coding technique in which an image is transformed by a Hadamard matrix operator.

W. K. Pratt; J. Kane; H. C. Andrews

1969-01-01

223

The Funk transform as a Penrose transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Funk transform is the integral transform from the space of smooth even functions on the unit sphere S2[subset or is implied by][open face R]3 to itself defined by integration over great circles. One can regard this transform as a limit in a certain sense of the Penrose transform from [open face C][open face P]2 to [open face C][open face P]*ast;2. We exploit this viewpoint by developing a new proof of the bijectivity of the Funk transform which proceeds by considering the cohomology of a certain involutive (or formally integrable) structure on an intermediate space. This is the simplest example of what we hope will prove to be a general method of obtaining results in real integral geometry by means of complex holomorphic methods derived from the Penrose transform.

Bailey, Toby N.; Eastwood, Michael G.; Gover, A. Rod; Mason, Lionel J.

1999-01-01

224

Perfect NOT transformation and conjugate transformation  

E-print Network

The perfect NOT transformation, probabilistic perfect NOT transformation and conjugate transformation are studied. Perfect NOT transformation criteria on a quantum state set $S$ of a qubit are obtained. Two necessary and sufficient conditions for realizing a perfect NOT transformation on $S$ are derived. When these conditions are not satisfied we discuss a probabilistic perfect NOT transformation (gate). We construct a probabilistic perfect NOT machine (gate) by a general unitary-reduction operation. With a postselection of the measurement outcomes, the probabilistic NOT gate yields perfectly complements of the input states. We prove that one can realize probabilistically the NOT gate of the input states secretly chosen from a certain set $S=\\{|\\Psi_1>, |\\Psi_2>,..., |\\Psi_n>\\}$ if and only if $|\\Psi_1>, |\\Psi_2>,...,$ and $|\\Psi_n>$ are linearly independent. We also generalize the probabilistic NOT transformation to the conjugate transformation in the multi-level quantum system. The lower bound of the best possible efficiencies attained by a probabilistic perfect conjugate transformation are obtained.

Fengli Yan; Ting Gao; Zhichao Yan

2012-03-15

225

Fatty Acid Engineering 2011 p. 1 Lipid signals: jasmonic acid & green leaf volatiles  

E-print Network

to prime other inducible defense #12;Fatty Acid Engineering 2011 p. 2 Fatty Acids and Genetic EngineeringFatty Acid Engineering 2011 p. 1 Lipid signals: jasmonic acid & green leaf volatiles i. Jasmonic occurrence of modified 'specialty' FAs - genetic transformation technology available (NB: oil seeds amenable

Constabel, Peter

226

Optical separable wavelet transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Optical wavelet transform has some advantages over discrete wavelet transform, but the mother wavelets to used are very few. That limits the signal processing ability of optical wavelet transform. Without scaling functions, the multiresolution analysis of a mother wavelet is not complete. In this paper, almost all the mother wavelets used in discrete wavelet transform are introduced into optical wavelet transform. Based on the analysis, we find whether the mother wavelets have analytical forms is not a necessary condition for implementing them in optical wavelet transform. Optical wavelet transform only needs to obtain the 2D approximations of wavelet functions. Then, with the cascade algorithm, the 1D approximations of scaling and wavelet functions are computed. By the scheme of 2D separable wavelet transform, the approximations of 2D scaling and wavelet functions are constructed. So mother wavelets frequently utilized in discrete wavelet transform are introduced into optical wavelet transform. With the increase of mother wavelet for selection, it is natural to classify optical wavelet transform into separable and non-separable cases as it does in discrete wavelet transform. Since the mothers introduced by the method in this paper are separable, they are included in the separable optical wavelet transform. And the advantages of the separable mothers are listed with corresponding examples.

Cai, De; Tan, Qiaofeng; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan; He, Qingsheng

2004-11-01

227

Applying Improved Efficiency Transformers  

E-print Network

for reducing transformer losses is based on the evaluation meeting or exceeding a specified internal rate of return (IRR). Proposals for selection and application of improved efficiency transformers are presented as part of the overall summary...

Haggerty, N. K.; Malone, T. P.

228

28-Channel rotary transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

Mclyman, W. T.

1981-01-01

229

Equations For Rotary Transformers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

1988-01-01

230

Metrics for enterprise transformation  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to depict the role of metrics in the evolving journey of enterprise transformation. To this end, three propositions are explored: (i) metrics and measurement systems drive transformation, ...

Blackburn, Craig D. (Craig David), S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

231

Entangled symplectic wavelet transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The symplectic wavelet transformation proposed in Opt. Lett. 31, 3432 (2006), which is related to the optical Fresnel transform in the quantum optics version, is developed into an entangled symplectic wavelet transformation (ESWT) after pointing out the contrast between the single-mode Fresnel operator and the entangled Fresnel operator. The ESWT possesses well-behaved properties and corresponds to the entangled Fresnel transform [Phys. Lett. A334, 132 (2005)].

Fan, Hong-Yi; Liu, Shu-Guang

2007-06-01

232

Discrete radon transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the discrete Radon transform (DRT) and the exact inversion algorithm for it. Similar to the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the DRT is defined for periodic vector-sequences and studied as a transform in its own right. Casting the forward transform as a matrix-vector multiplication, the key observation is that the matrix-although very large-has a block-circulant structure. This observation

GREGORY BEYLKIN

1987-01-01

233

Transformer design tradeoffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In space, power system transformer components are frequently the heaviest and bulkiest items in the power conversion circuit. They also have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system. Accordingly, the design of such transformers has an important effect on overall system weight, power-inversion efficiency, and cost. Relationships were between the parameters used by transformer designers

W. T. McLyman

1977-01-01

234

LAPPED TRANSFORMS COMPRESSION  

E-print Network

Chapter 6 LAPPED TRANSFORMS FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION Ricardo L. de Queiroz Digital Imaging Technology aspects of lapped transforms and their applications to image compression. It is a subject that has been extensively studied mainly because lapped transforms are closely related to filter banks, wavelets, and time

de Queiroz, Ricardo L.

235

Transformations - Composition (NLVM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet enables learners to explore compositions of two transformations (among sliding, flipping and turning) both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the transformations to see the effect on a transformed image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.

2011-01-01

236

Animating Transformations Michael Kazhdan  

E-print Network

Animating Transformations Michael Kazhdan (600.357 / 600.457) HB A.6 FvDFH 21.1.3 #12;Recall;Rotations What are rotations? #12;Rotations What are rotations? · A rotation R is a linear transformation? · A rotation R is a linear transformation that has determinant one and preserves angles: Recall that the dot

Kazhdan, Michael

237

Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acids (AKBA), a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health. PMID:19951413

2009-01-01

238

Amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

239

Transformational volume holography.  

PubMed

We analyze the bulk elastic transformation of volume holograms as a general approach for three-dimensional pupil engineering. The physical relationship between transformation and the resulting point spread function is discussed by deriving the corresponding analytical expressions. For affine transformations, an analytical solution is directly possible. However, for nonaffine transformations, the analytical solution is not straightforward and we must turn to quasi-analytical solutions using the approximation of the stationary phase. Transformational volume holography offers richer design flexibility and real-time adjustment capabilities for imaging systems. PMID:25401442

Gao, Hanhong; Barbastathis, George

2014-09-01

240

The Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Ketones: A Repeated Discovery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conversion of carboxylic acids to ketones is a useful chemical transformation with a long history. Several chemists have claimed that they discovered the conversion of carboxylic acids to ketones yet in fact the reaction is actually known for centuries.

Nicholson, John W.; Wilson, Alan D.

2004-01-01

241

A FURTHER EVALUATION OF MICROCOULOMETRY FOR ATMOSPHERIC NITRIC ACID MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

A coulometric instrument for measuring gaseous nitric acid is modified to improve response time characteristics and simplify operation. Possible interferences were investigated and found minimal. Comparison measurements of nitric acid by long path Fourier Transform infrared analy...

242

Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

Kleiner, Charles T.

1994-01-01

243

Amplified quantum transforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we investigate two new Amplified Quantum Transforms. In particular we create and analyze the Amplified Quantum Fourier Transform (Amplified-QFT) and the Amplified-Haar Wavelet Transform. The Amplified-QFT algorithm is used to solve the Local Period Problem. We calculate the probabilities of success and compare this algorithm with the QFT and QHS algorithms. We also examine the Amplified-QFT algorithm for solving the Local Period Problem with Error Stream. We use the Amplified-Haar Wavelet Transform for solving the Local Constant or Balanced Signal Decision Problem which is a generalization of the Deutsch-Jozsa problem.

Cornwell, David J.

244

Effect of fatty acids on phase behavior of hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer: saturated versus unsaturated fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of some fatty acids on the phase behavior of hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer was investigated with special interest in possible difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The phase behavior of hydrated DPPC bilayer was followed by a differential scanning calorimetry and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The addition of palmitic acid (PA) increased the bilayer phase transition

Tohru Inoue; Shin-ichi Yanagihara; Yasuhito Misono; Masao Suzuki

2001-01-01

245

Shiftable multiscale transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthogonal wavelet transforms have recently become a popular representation for multiscalesignal and image analysis. One of the major drawbacks of these representations istheir lack of translation invariance: the content of wavelet subbands is unstable under translationsof the input signal. Wavelet transforms are also unstable with respect to dilationsof the input signal, and in two dimensions, rotations of the input signal.

Eero P. Simoncelli; William T. Freeman; Edward H. Adelson; David J. Heeger

1992-01-01

246

Direct current transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (inventors)

1979-01-01

247

Exploring Functional Mellin Transforms  

E-print Network

We define functional Mellin transforms within a scheme for functional integration proposed in [1]. Functional Mellin transforms can be used to define functional traces, logarithms, and determinants. The associated functional integrals are useful tools for probing function spaces in general and $C^\\ast$-algebras in particular. Several interesting aspects are explored.

J. LaChapelle

2015-01-08

248

Transformer design tradeoffs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical memorandum includes transformer area product numbers, which are used to summarize dimensional and electrical properties of C-cores, pot cores, lamination, powder cores, and tape-wound cores. To aid in core selection, comparison of five common core materials is presented to indicate their influence on overall transformer efficiency and weight.

Mclyman, W. T.

1977-01-01

249

Genetic Transformation of Bacteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An activity in which students transform an ampicillin-sensitive strain of E. coli with a plasmid containing a gene for ampicillin resistance is described. The procedure for the preparation of competent cells and the transformation of competent E. coli is provided. (KR)

Moss, Robert.

1991-01-01

250

Conformal transformation optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of transformation optics shows that media containing gradients in optical properties are equivalent to curved geometries of spacetime for the propagation of light. Conformal transformation optics -- a particular variant of this feature -- can be used to design devices with novel functionalities from inhomogeneous, isotropic dielectric media.

Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang

2015-01-01

251

Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

Not Available

2012-04-01

252

A Transformation Called "Twist"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transformations found in secondary mathematics curriculum are typically limited to stretches and translations (e.g., ACARA, 2010). Advanced students may find the transformation, twist, to be of further interest. As most available resources are written for professional-level readers, this article is intended to be an introduction accessible to…

Hwang, Daniel

2010-01-01

253

Biochemical transformation of coals  

DOEpatents

A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

1999-03-23

254

Biochemical transformation of coals  

DOEpatents

A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

1999-03-23

255

Adaptive Wavelet Transforms  

SciTech Connect

Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

1996-12-31

256

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

257

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

258

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... acid Description Folic acid, or folate, is a B vitamin found in many beans, grains, fortified breakfast cereals, ... for use? Folic acid, or folate, is a B vitamin. It is promoted mainly as part of a ...

259

Biotransformation of linoleic acid by Clavibacter sp. ALA2: heterocyclic and heterobicyclic fatty acids.  

PubMed

Clavibacter sp. ALA2 transformed linoleic acid into a variety of oxylipins. In previous work, three novel fatty acids were identified, (9Z)-12, 13, 17-trihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid and two tetrahydrofuran-(di)hydroxy fatty acids. In this report, we confirm the structures of the tetrahydrofuran-(di)hydroxy fatty acids by nuclear magnetic resonance as (9Z)-12-hydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid and (9Z)-7,12-dihydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid. Three other products of the biotransformation were identified as novel heterobicyclic fatty acids, (9Z)-12,17;13, 17-diepoxy-9-octadecenoic acid, (9Z)-7-hydroxy-12,17;13,17-diepoxy-9-octadecenoic acid, and (9Z)-12,17;13,17-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid. Thus, Clavibacter ALA2 effectively oxidized linoleic acid at C-7, -12, -13, -16, and/or -17. PMID:11104009

Gardner, H W; Hou, C T; Weisleder, D; Brown, W

2000-10-01

260

Amplified Quantum Transforms  

E-print Network

In this thesis we investigate two new Amplified Quantum Transforms. In particular we create and analyze the Amplified Quantum Fourier Transform (Amplified-QFT) and the Amplified-Haar Wavelet Transform. First, we provide a brief history of quantum mechanics and quantum computing. Second, we examine the Amplified-QFT in detail and compare it against the Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) and Quantum Hidden Subgroup (QHS) algorithms for solving the Local Period Problem. We calculate the probabilities of success of each algorithm and show the Amplified-QFT is quadratically faster than the QFT and QHS algorithms. Third, we examine the Amplified-QFT algorithm for solving The Local Period Problem with an Error Stream. Fourth, we produce an uncertainty relation for the Amplified-QFT algorithm. Fifth, we show how the Amplified-Haar Wavelet Transform can solve the Local Constant or Balanced Signal Decision Problem which is a generalization of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm.

David Cornwell

2014-06-01

261

Logarithmic transformation of response Logarithmic transformation of response  

E-print Network

Logarithmic transformation of response Logarithmic transformation of response Often, support S of Y is S = (0, ). Logarithm is then one of transformations to consider when trying to obtain a correct (wrong. Model Building 1. Transformation of response #12;Logarithmic transformation of response When does

Komarek, Arnost

262

IMAGINED TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: IMAGINED TRANSFORMATION OF BODIES  

E-print Network

IMAGINED TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: IMAGINED TRANSFORMATION OF BODIES Imagined Transformations TRANSFORMATIONS 2 Abstract A number of spatial reasoning problems can be solved by performing an imagined transformation of one's egocentric perspective. A series of experiments were carried out to characterize

Zacks, Jeffrey M.

263

Program Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation  

E-print Network

Program Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation with a Survey of Existing Transformation Systems Jonne van Wijngaarden Eelco Visser UU-CS-2003-048 Institute Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation with a Survey of Existing

Utrecht, Universiteit

264

Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

1994-01-01

265

Pattern Transformation with DNA Circuits  

PubMed Central

Readily programmable chemical networks are important tools as the scope of chemistry expands from individual molecules to larger molecular systems. While many complex systems have been constructed using conventional organic and inorganic chemistry, the programmability of biological molecules such as nucleic acids allows for precise, high-throughput, and automated design, as well as simple, rapid, and robust implementation. Here we show that systematic and quantitative control over the diffusivity and reactivity of DNA molecules yields highly programmable chemical reaction networks (CRNs) that execute at the macroscale. In particular, we design and implement non-enzymatic DNA circuits capable of performing pattern transformation algorithms such as edge detection. We also show that it is possible to fine-tune and multiplex such circuits. We believe these strategies will provide programmable platforms for prototyping CRNs, for discovering bottom-up construction principles, and for generating patterns in materials. PMID:24256862

Chirieleison, Steven M.; Allen, Peter B.; Simpson, Zack B.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Chen, Xi

2014-01-01

266

Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

2014-03-11

267

A discrete fractional random transform  

E-print Network

We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.

Zhengjun Liu; Haifa Zhao; Shutian Liu

2006-05-20

268

Overview of transformer platform showing three original stepup transformer (center), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of transformer platform showing three original step-up transformer (center), steel switchback (right), and modern step-down transformer (foreground), view to northwest - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Dam and Powerhouse, Morony Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

269

Lorentz transformation by mimicking the Lorentz transformation  

E-print Network

We show that starting with the fact that special relativity theory is concerned with a distortion of the observed length of a moving rod, without mentioning if it is a "contraction" or "dilation", we can derive the Lorentz transformations for the spacetime coordinates of the same event. This derivation is based on expressing the length of the moving rod as a sum of components with all the lengths involved in this summation being measured by the observers of the same inertial reference frame.

Bernhard Rothenstein; Stefan Popescu

2007-09-24

270

Transformation in Aspergillus ochraceus.  

PubMed

Mutants (lysine requiring) of Aspergillus ochraceus were kept under starvation conditions for 15 days and finally were treated with DNA of a 40-h-old culture of the wild strain. The donor DNA-treated mutant conidia were then grown on plates containing minimal medium at 28 degrees C for 4 days. The number of transformed cells was estimated by colony counting and hence percentage transformants. The transforming activity of the donor DNA was found to be inhibited by the action of heat and variation of pH, and also varied with the period of starvation and with the concentration of donor DNA. PMID:7765888

Saha, D; Das, T K

1995-02-01

271

Biolistics Transformation of Wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

272

Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid  

PubMed Central

A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

1985-01-01

273

Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

Openshaw, Peter

1987-01-01

274

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When

1980-01-01

275

25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND KNIFE SWITCHES - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

276

Transforming California's Freight Transport System  

E-print Network

Transforming California's Freight Transport System Policy Forum on the Role of Freight Transport Standard #12;2050 Vision- Key Conceptual Outcomes Technology Transformation Early Action Cleaner Combustion Multiple Strategies Federal Action Efficiency Gains Energy Transformation 9 #12;Further reduce localized

California at Davis, University of

277

The Quantum Mellin transform  

E-print Network

We uncover a new type of unitary operation for quantum mechanics on the half-line which yields a transformation to ``Hyperbolic phase space''. We show that this new unitary change of basis from the position x on the half line to the Hyperbolic momentum $p_\\eta$, transforms the wavefunction via a Mellin transform on to the critial line $s=1/2-ip_\\eta$. We utilise this new transform to find quantum wavefunctions whose Hyperbolic momentum representation approximate a class of higher transcendental functions, and in particular, approximate the Riemann Zeta function. We finally give possible physical realisations to perform an indirect measurement of the Hyperbolic momentum of a quantum system on the half-line.

J. Twamley; G. J. Milburn

2007-02-12

278

Transformation inverse design  

E-print Network

We present a new technique for the design of transformation-optics devices based on large-scale optimization to achieve the optimal effective isotropic dielectric materials within prescribed index bounds, which is ...

Liu, David

279

Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

2011-01-01

280

Mathieu integral transforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orthogonality and completeness relations are presented for the quasiorthogonal (i.e., orthogonal with respect to a discontinuous weight function) eigenfunctions of a singular (in the sense of Sturm-Liouville theory) boundary-value problem involving the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation in elliptic-cylinder coordinates. These relations yield as special cases integral transforms whose kernels are products of periodic Mathieu functions and modified Mathieu functions of integral order. The new transforms are analogs of the Weber-Orr transform and of a recently published [J. Math. Phys. 30, 41 (1989)] generalized Hankel transform, and would be applicable to boundary-value problems with elliptical geometries. The proof of the orthogonality and completeness relations is surprisingly simple and is based on a novel application of the Sokhotski-Plemelj equations of distribution theory.

Inayat-Hussain, A. A.

1991-03-01

281

A Classical Science Transformed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how satellites and other tools of space technology have transformed classical geodesy into the science of space geodynamics. The establishment and the activities of the French Center for Geodynamic and Astronomical Research Studies (CERGA) are also included. (HM)

Kovalevsky, Jean

1979-01-01

282

Effect of the amino chain length and the transformation into citric acid salts of aryl-diphenyl-butenes and ferrocenyl-diphenyl-butenes bearing two dimethylaminoalkyl chains on their antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

In a previous work we have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of ferrocenyl or phenyl derivatives of diphenyl butene series. This finding has opened a new area of applications of organometallic compounds. In order to improve these activities, we have synthesized new organic and organometallic diaryl butene compounds with different lengths of their amino chains. These new compounds, and also their ammonium salts, were tested against man pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) and Enterococcus hirae (ATCC 10541). It emerged from the tests that the Gram+ bacteria are more sensitive to the compounds than Gram-, and the compounds with 3 carbon amino chains have a better antimicrobial activity than the one having a chain of 2 or 4 carbons. The transformation of compounds to citrate salts was accompanied by a significant regression of antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, for both organic and ferrocenic molecules. This resistance problem has been solved using hydrochlorides salts rather than citrates one. PMID:24133651

Jellali, Karim; Pigeon, Pascal; Trigui, Fatma; Top, Siden; Aifa, Sami; Jaouen, Gérard; El Arbi, Mehdi

2013-01-01

283

Functional Mellin Transforms  

E-print Network

Functional integrals are defined in terms of locally compact topological groups and their associated Banach-valued Haar integrals. This approach generalizes the functional integral scheme of Cartier and DeWitt-Morette. The definition allows a construction of functional Mellin transforms. In turn, the functional Mellin transforms can be used to define functional traces, logarithms, and determinants. The associated functional integrals are useful tools for probing function spaces in general and $C^\\ast$-algebras in particular. Several interesting aspects are explored.

J. LaChapelle

2015-01-07

284

Plant transformation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant transformation has its roots in the research on Agrobacterium that was being undertaken in the early 1980s. The last two decades have seen significant developments in plant transformation\\u000a technology, such that a large number of transgenic crop plants have now been released for commercial production. Advances\\u000a in the technology have been due to development of a range of Agrobacterium-mediated

Christine A. Newell

2000-01-01

285

Transformation superplasticity of zirconium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tensile strain of 270 pct was achieved for coarse-grained zirconium subjected to transformation superplasticity conditions, where strain increments are accumulated upon repeated thermal cycling around the allotropic transformation temperature under the biasing effect of a uniaxial tensile stress. The strain increment per cycle was found to consist of two equal contributions from transformations on heating and cooling and to increase linearly with the applied stress. The measured strain increments are in good quantitative agreement with predictions based on the average internal stress during the transformation, which was determined independently from experimental transformation times. As the cycling frequency is raised, the average strain rate increases (a maximum value of 1.3·10-4 s-1 was measured), but the strain increment per cycle decreases above a critical cycling frequency, for which the sample gage section undergoes only a partial phase transformation. The resulting reduction in internal mismatch and increase in internal stress are modeled using the experimental observation that ?-Zr deforms by a mixture of diffusional and dislocation creep in the stress range of interest.

Zwigl, Peter; Dunand, David C.

1998-10-01

286

Structure of acid-stable carmine.  

PubMed

Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound. PMID:11998314

Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

2002-02-01

287

From transformation traces to transformation rules: Assisting Model Driven Engineering  

E-print Network

From transformation traces to transformation rules: Assisting Model Driven Engineering approach. In this paper we are interested in semi-automatically gen- erating labelled graph (model) transformations conform to a particu- lar syntax (meta-model). Those transformations are basic operations in model driven

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

288

APPENDIX F. TRANSFORMS, COMPLEX ANALYSIS 1 Transforms, Complex  

E-print Network

APPENDIX F. TRANSFORMS, COMPLEX ANALYSIS 1 Appendix F Transforms, Complex Analysis This appendix discusses Fourier and Laplace transforms as they are used in plasma physics and this book. Also, key properties of complex variable theory that are needed for understanding and inverting these transforms

Callen, James D.

289

Optical transformation from chirplet to fractional Fourier transformation kernel  

E-print Network

We find a new integration transformation which can convert a chirplet function to fractional Fourier transformation kernel, this new transformation is invertible and obeys Parseval theorem. Under this transformation a new relationship between a phase space function and its Weyl-Wigner quantum correspondence operator is revealed.

Hong-yi Fan; Li-yun Hu

2009-02-11

290

Laplace Transforms An integral transform is an operator  

E-print Network

9­28­1998 Laplace Transforms An integral transform is an operator F (s) = Z b a K(s; t)f(t) dt: The input to the transform is the function f(t); the output is the function F (s). (By convention, small letters denote the inputs to a transform, and the corresponding capital letters denote the corresponding

Ikenaga, Bruce

291

Analogue to digital transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESDU 92044 examines the replacement of an analog controller element by an equivalent digital controller element while retaining for the new hybrid system performance characteristics that are acceptably similar to those of the original continuous system. The main features are described of a system containing both analog and digital elements within the same loop, and the analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog components that are then necessarily a part of the system. The frequency response characteristics of transformation are discussed, introducing the problem of aliasing whereby a digital output can be matched by continuous sine waves of different frequencies that are then indistinguishable to the digital sampler. The need to avoid aliasing is considered and the concept of a folding frequency introduced below which aliasing is impossible. Two transformation methods for designing digital filters equivalent to analog filters are discussed: the impulse invariance and bilinear transformations. They are compared by examining digital equivalents of such analogue filters as simple and compound first-order lag and lead filters, second-order lag filters and first-order notch filters. The methods are compared for two sampling rates using Bode plots illustrating the gain and phase variation with frequency. An example based on an electromechanical instrument servo illustrates the transformation of an analog lag-lead controller using the bilinear transformation.

1992-12-01

292

Secoiridoids and antifungal aromatic acids from Gentiana algida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractionation of an aqueous acetone extract of the whole herb of Gentiana algida gave one new [2?-(o,m-dihydroxybenzyl)sweroside] and five known secoiridoids, together with anofinic acid, fomannoxin acid, sitosterol, daucosterol, stigmasterol, oleanolic acid, orientin and gentianose. The structures were determined by spectral methods and a few chemical transformations. Anofinic acid and fomannoxin acid were found to be active against Cladosporium cucumerinum,

R. X. Tan; J.-L. Wolfender; W. G. Ma; L. X. Zhang; K. Hostettmann

1996-01-01

293

A Review of Transformer Losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an extensive survey of current research on the transformer loss problem, particularly from the view of practical engineering applications. It reveals that the transformer loss problem remains an active research area. This article classified the transformer loss problem into three main groups: (a) tank losses due to high-current bushings, (b) losses in transformer core joints, and (c)

Juan C. Olivares-Galván; Pavlos S. Georgilakis; Rodrigo Ocon-Valdez

2009-01-01

294

Aminocaproic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

295

Ethacrynic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

296

Mefenamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

297

Transformation based endorsement systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidential reasoning techniques classically represent support for a hypothesis by a numeric value or an evidential interval. The combination of support is performed by an arithmetic rule which often requires restrictions to be placed on the set of possibilities. These assumptions usually require the hypotheses to be exhausitive and mutually exclusive. Endorsement based classification systems represent support for the alternatives symbolically rather than numerically. A framework for constructing endorsement systems is presented in which transformations are defined to generate and update the knowledge base. The interaction of the knowledge base and transformations produces a non-monotonic reasoning system. Two endorsement based reasoning systems are presented to demonstrate the flexibility of the transformational approach for reasoning with ambiguous and inconsistent information.

Sudkamp, Thomas

1988-01-01

298

Plastid transformation in tomato.  

PubMed

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important vegetable crops and has long been an important model species in plant biology. Plastid biology in tomato is especially interesting due to the chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion occurring during fruit ripening. Moreover, as tomato represents a major food crop with an edible fruit that can be eaten raw, the development of a plastid transformation protocol for tomato was of particular interest to plant biotechnology. Recent methodological improvements have made tomato plastid transformation more efficient and facilitated applications in metabolic engineering and molecular farming. This article describes the basic methods involved in the generation and analysis of tomato plants with transgenic chloroplast genomes and summarizes current applications of tomato plastid transformation. PMID:24599859

Ruf, Stephanie; Bock, Ralph

2014-01-01

299

Plastid transformation in eggplant.  

PubMed

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important vegetable crop of tropical and temperate regions of the world. Here we describe a procedure for eggplant plastid transformation, which involves preparation of explants, biolistic delivery of plastid transformation vector into green stem segments, selection procedure, and identification of the transplastomic plants. Shoot buds appear from cut ends of the stem explants following 5-6 weeks of spectinomycin selection after bombardment with the plastid transformation vector containing aadA gene as selectable marker. Transplastomic lines are obtained after the regenerated shoots are subjected to several rounds of spectinomycin selection over a period of 9 weeks. Homoplasmic transplastomic lines are further confirmed by spectinomycin and streptomycin double selection. The transplastomic technology development in this plant species will open up exciting possibilities for improving crop performance, metabolic engineering, and the use of plants as factories for producing biopharmaceuticals. PMID:24599862

Bansal, Kailash C; Singh, Ajay K

2014-01-01

300

Shikimic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The molecule for this month comes from the article Isolation of Shikimic Acid from Star Aniseed by Richard Payne and Michael Edmonds. Shikimic acid plays a key role in the biosynthesis of many important natural products including aromatic amino acids, alkaloids, phenolics, and phenylpropanoids. It plays such an important role that one of the key biosynthetic pathways is referred to as the shikimate pathway.

301

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and

1980-01-01

302

Genetic Transformation of Switchgrass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a highly productive warm-season C4 species that is being developed into a dedicated biofuel crop. This chapter describes a protocol that allows the generation of transgenic switchgrass plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calluses induced from caryopses or inflorescences were used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) was used as the selectable marker and hygromycin was used as the selection agent. Calluses resistant to hygromycin were obtained after 5-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown switchgrass plants were regenerated about 6 months after callus induction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

Xi, Yajun; Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

303

Coordinate transformations in quaternion spaces  

E-print Network

The quaternion spaces can be used to describe the property of electromagnetic field and gravitational field. In the quaternion space, some coordinate transformations can be deduced from the feature of quaternions, including Lorentz transformation and Galilean transformation etc., when the coordinate system is transformed into others. And some coordinate transformations with variable speed of light can be obtained in the electromagnetic field and gravitational field.

Zihua Weng

2009-05-15

304

Transformation of plant biochemicals to geological macromolecules during early diagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and isotopic changes in plant biochemicals that were transformed into organic geochemicals have been measured in\\u000a anaerobic, freshwater marsh environments. In two litter bag studies, plant biochemicals decayed extensively in the first year,\\u000a as recorded by dry weight, C:N ratios, ?15N of bulk tissue and amino acids, and ?13C of individual amino acids. Molecular analyses of Rubisco revealed that

Marilyn L. Fogel; Noreen Tuross

1999-01-01

305

Enhanced anaerobic transformations of carbon tetrachloride by soil organic matter  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic, reductive dehalogenation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Shewanella putrefaciens 200 is enhanced by the presence of a high-organic-carbon soil. In microbial incubations without soil, 29% of the initial 3 ppm CT was transformed after 33 h, whereas 64% was transformed after only 18 h when soil was present. In sterile, biomimetic systems using a chemical reductant, 20 mM dithiothreitol, similar results were observed, suggesting that abiotic electron-transfer mediators in the soil were catalyzing the reaction. Destruction of 62% of the soil organic carbon by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} resulted in a soil that was less effective in enhancing CT dechlorination. Following separation of the soil organic matter into three humic fractions, the humic acid (HA) fraction catalyzed the dechlorination reaction to a greater extent than did the fulvic acid (FA) fraction, and both were more effective than the fraction containing humin and inorganic minerals. The results are consistent with a mechanism involving humic functional groups that serve as electron-transfer mediators able to enhance the reductive transformation of CT in the presence of a microbial or chemical reductant. Humic functional group analyses showed that the FA contained more total acidity and carboxylic acidity than did the HA; however, both fractions contained similar amounts of total carbonyl groups and quinone carbonyls. Abiotic, HA-mediated CT transformation was observed regardless of whether dithiothreitol was present or not. At circumneutral pH, HA-mediated CT transformation required the presence of dithiothreitol. At pH 8.7, HA-mediated reductive CT transformation occurred both in the absence or presence of dithiothreitol although the transformation was greater in the presence of a reductant. Trichloromethane (chloroform [CF]) production at pH 8.7 was much lower than at circumneutral pH, and volatile organic compounds other than CF were not detected as products in any case.

Collins, R.; Picardal, F.

1999-12-01

306

Transforming Data into Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School systems can be data rich and information poor if they do not understand and manage their data effectively. The task for school leaders is to put existing data into a format that lends itself to answering questions and improving outcomes for the students. Common barriers to transforming data into knowledge in education settings often include…

Mills, Lane

2006-01-01

307

Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage…

Layton, William

2014-01-01

308

Teaching, Caring, and Transformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educator Bell Hooks acknowledged the fundamental truth that teaching, caring, and transformation are closely linked, that is, that true teaching must be accompanied by a deep level of care in order for learning to take place. No matter how young or old, no matter the subject matter, and no matter where teaching and learning take place--a…

Nieto, Sonia

2012-01-01

309

NOVEL CATALYTIC TRANSFORMATIONS FOR  

E-print Network

NOVEL CATALYTIC TRANSFORMATIONS FOR THE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CO2 CNRS JULY 09 ­ 2013 CEA / DSM selectivity large kinetics low pressure, low temperature high selectivity use of earth abundant materials use of non-toxic materials tolerant to impurities (NOx, SOx, M, etc.) atmospheric pressure of CO2 high

Canet, Léonie

310

Imagination & Transformative Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research was conducted to gain insight into both the facilitators of consciousness-raising and the nature of this emancipatory process. Consciousness-raising was defined as a transformation of consciousness in which individuals experience critical reflection and action that develops a deepened consciousness of their situation leading them to…

Loughlin, Kathleen A.

311

Transforming American Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors accept as a given the National Education Technology Plan's vision of a transformed education system powered by technology such that learners receive personalized and engaging learning experiences, and where assessment, teaching, infrastructure, and productivity are redefined. The article analyzes this vision of a…

Horn, Michael B.; Mackey, Katherine

2011-01-01

312

Transformer and Meter Tester  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

Stoms, R. M.

1984-01-01

313

Fixture for winding transformers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bench-mounted fixture assists operator in winding toroid-shaped transformer cores. Toroid is rigidly held in place as wires are looped around. Arrangement frees both hands for rapid winding and untangling of wires that occurs when core is hand held.

Mclyman, M. T.

1980-01-01

314

Computerized toroidal transformer design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program designs transformers which have one primary /center tap permissible/ and up to 20 untapped secondaries, and which can handle up to 500 V across any one winding. Computer determines total secondary power, core type, primary turns, secondary turns, and wire sizes for primary and secondary windings.

1970-01-01

315

Transformations: Rotation (NLVM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet enables learners to explore the rotation transformation both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the center and angle of rotation to see the effect on a rotated image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.

2011-01-01

316

Transformations: Reflection (NLVM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet enables learners to explore the reflection transformation both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the axis of symmetry (the mirror) to see the effect on a reflected image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.

2011-01-01

317

Watermass transformations in Storfjorden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recurrent polynya is known to form in Storfjorden in winter time with associated formation of brine-enriched shelf water (BSW). Hydrographic observations made in spring and autumn 1998 to 2002 are studied to reveal watermass compositions and transformations in Storfjorden and to document the seasonal formation, build-up and subsequent drainage of BSW in the fjord basin. A new compiled bathymetry

R. Skogseth; P. M. Haugan; M. Jakobsson

2005-01-01

318

Transforming Young Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussions of transformational change pervade the field of business but are rare in work with young people at risk--those most in need of deep change. Instead, the nation seems preoccupied with punishing or medicating problem behavior. Some propose the alternative of "rehabilitation," but that term means "to restore to former…

Larson, Scott

2014-01-01

319

Transforming Education at Einstein  

E-print Network

of Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University #12;2 EinstEin : WintEr/spring 2012 Meet Our trANsfOrMiNg eDuCAtiON At eiNsteiN Education at Albert Einstein College of Medicine is undergoing the magazine for alumni, faculty, students, friends and supporters of Albert einstein College of Medicine

Yates, Andrew

320

Flexible Power Electronic Transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new modular flexible power electronic transformer (FPET). The proposed FPET is flexible enough to meet future needs of power electronic centralized systems. The main feature of the FPET is the independent operation of modules each of which contains one port. Each port can be considered as input or output, because bidirectional power flow is provided. The

Mehran Sabahi; Ali Yazdanpanah Goharrizi; Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Mohammad Bagher Bana Sharifian; Gevorg B. Gharehpetian

2010-01-01

321

LEADING, TRANSFORMING, STRATEGIC PLAN  

E-print Network

that supports best educational practices and the LSU national flagship agenda. Values The guiding philosophy education, research, and service. These values include Embracing the ideals of equality, socialLEADING, TRANSFORMING, EMPOWERING FIVE YEAR STRATEGIC PLAN 2008-2013 #12;2 Vision, Values, Mission

322

Transformations: Translation (NLVM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet enables learners to explore the translation transformation (sliding) both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the ends of a translation vector to see the effect on a translated image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.

2011-01-01

323

Rainbow Fourier Transform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

2012-01-01

324

Rainbow Fourier transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135° and 165° exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

2012-12-01

325

125. TRANSFORMER SUBSTATIONS ON NORTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (112), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

125. TRANSFORMER SUBSTATIONS ON NORTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (112), FACING SOUTH - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

326

Linear Transformations, Canonoid Transformations and BiHamiltonian Structures  

E-print Network

We give a characterization of linear canonoid transformations on symplectic manifolds and we use it to generate biHamiltonian structures for some mechanical systems. Utilizing this characterization we also study the behavior of quadratic superintegrable systems under canonoid transformations. We present a description of canonoid transformations due to E.T. Whittaker, and we show that it leads, in a natural way, to the modern, coordinate-independent definition of canonoid transformations. We also generalize canonoid transformations to Poisson manifolds by introducing Poissonoid transformations. We give examples of such transformations for Euler's equations of the rigid body (on $ \\mathfrak{ so}^\\ast (3) $ and $ \\mathfrak{ so}^\\ast (4)$) and for an integrable case of Kirchhoff's equations for the motion of a rigid body immersed in an ideal fluid. We study the relationship between biHamiltonian structures and Poissonoid transformations for these examples.

Giovanni Rastelli; Manuele Santoprete

2014-07-19

327

Bijective transformation circular codes and nucleotide exchanging RNA transcription.  

PubMed

The C(3) self-complementary circular code X identified in genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is a set of 20 trinucleotides enabling reading frame retrieval and maintenance, i.e. a framing code (Arquès and Michel, 1996; Michel, 2012, 2013). Some mitochondrial RNAs correspond to DNA sequences when RNA transcription systematically exchanges between nucleotides (Seligmann, 2013a,b). We study here the 23 bijective transformation codes ?X of X which may code nucleotide exchanging RNA transcription as suggested by this mitochondrial observation. The 23 bijective transformation codes ?X are C(3) trinucleotide circular codes, seven of them are also self-complementary. Furthermore, several correlations are observed between the Reading Frame Retrieval (RFR) probability of bijective transformation codes ?X and the different biological properties of ?X related to their numbers of RNAs in GenBank's EST database, their polymerization rate, their number of amino acids and the chirality of amino acids they code. Results suggest that the circular code X with the functions of reading frame retrieval and maintenance in regular RNA transcription, may also have, through its bijective transformation codes ?X, the same functions in nucleotide exchanging RNA transcription. Associations with properties such as amino acid chirality suggest that the RFR of X and its bijective transformations molded the origins of the genetic code's machinery. PMID:24565870

Michel, Christian J; Seligmann, Hervé

2014-04-01

328

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION KINETICS OF XENOBIOTICS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The microbiological transformation rates of four organic compounds, the butoxy-ethylester of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-DBE), p-cresol, alpha-naphthol and quinoline, added to natural water samplers were examined in laboratory experiments. Graphical analysis of the data w...

329

Transformation of the Plant Growth Regulator Daminozide (Alar) and  

E-print Network

,N- Dimethylsuccinamic acid (SA), in contrast, breaks down via a hydrolytic mechanism. Introduction The plant growthTransformation of the Plant Growth Regulator Daminozide (Alar) and Structurally Related Compounds heavily used plant growth regulators in the U.S. (5). In addition to daminozide, the hydrazide moiety

Huang, Ching-Hua

330

Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation from hypocotyls slices of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supp...

331

EFFECTS OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS ON TRANSFORMATION RATES OF XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of culture filtrates, mixed populations, and common microbial exudates on bacterial transformations of three agricultural and industrial chemicals were investigated. Test chemicals included methyl parathion, diethyl phthalate, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butoxy...

332

134. VIEW OF TRANSFORMER CABINETS ON NORTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

134. VIEW OF TRANSFORMER CABINETS ON NORTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (212), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING SOUTH. POWER PANEL B AT EAST SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (212), FACING WEST, AT RIGHT IN PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

333

Center for Academic Transformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pew Foundation founded the Center for Academic Transformation "to serve as a source of expertise and support for those in higher education who wish to take advantage of the capabilities of information technology to transform their academic practices." Featuring several initiatives, the Center Website offers concise information on The Pew Learning and Technology Program (including a grant program, a symposium, and a newsletter), The Leadership Forum (which includes workshops and resources for academic leaders), and -- the heart of the site -- Center Resources, a collection of articles, monographs, and Websites. The more than two dozen articles cover (broadly) the theory and implementation of technology into the classroom; monographs cover the implications of virtual learning and academic productivity; and Websites point users to dozens of useful sites.

334

A DC Transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A component level dc transformer is described in which no alternating currents or voltages are present. It operates by combining features of a homopolar motor and a homopolar generator, both de devices, such that the output voltage of a de power supply can be stepped up (or down) with a corresponding step down (or up) in current. The basic theory for this device is developed, performance predictions are made, and the results from a small prototype are presented. Based on demonstrated technology in the literature, this de transformer should be scalable to low megawatt levels, but it is more suited to high current than high voltage applications. Significant development would be required before it could achieve the kilovolt levels needed for de power transmission.

Youngquist, Robert C.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Starr, Stanley O.

2013-01-01

335

Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage may help to clear up this confusion.

Layton, William

2014-10-01

336

Sparse generalized Fourier transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block-diagonalization of sparse equivariant discretization matrices is studied. Such matrices typically arise when partial\\u000a differential equations that evolve in symmetric geometries are discretized via the finite element method or via finite differences.\\u000a \\u000a By considering sparse equivariant matrices as equivariant graphs, we identify a condition for when block-diagonalization via\\u000a a sparse variant of a generalized Fourier transform (GFT) becomes particularly simple

Krister Åhlander; Daniel Henriksson

2007-01-01

337

Transforming revenue management.  

PubMed

Healthcare organizations that want to undertake a patient administrative/revenue management transformation should: Define the vision with underlying business objectives and key performance measures. Strategically partner with key vendors for business process development and technology design. Create a program organization and governance infrastructure. Develop a corporate design model that defines the standards for operationalizing the vision. Execute the vision through technology deployment and corporate design model implementation. PMID:18990839

Silveria, Richard; Alliegro, Debra; Nudd, Steven

2008-11-01

338

Laminated piezoelectric transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

2006-01-01

339

Bacterial transformation of terpenoids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references.

Grishko, V. V.; Nogovitsina, Y. M.; Ivshina, I. B.

2014-04-01

340

Basically Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

University of Houston,

341

Transformer Abdullah Al-Otaibi  

E-print Network

induces a changing voltage in the secondary. II. HISTORY Michael Faraday demonstrated the principle of the transformer in 1831. The transformer is used by Faraday only to demonstrate the principle of electromagnetic

Masoudi, Husain M.

342

Transformative Wave Technologies Kent, Washington  

E-print Network

Transformative Wave Technologies Kent, Washington www.transformativewave.com #12;#12;North America are shifted to off peak times #12;#12;Transformative Wave Technologies www.transformativewave.com #12

California at Davis, University of

343

RECENT ADVANCES IN BARLEY TRANSFORMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...

344

Chemical Transformations of Nanosilver in Biological Environments  

PubMed Central

The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in consumer and medical products provides strong motivation for a careful assessment of their environmental and human health risks. Recent studies have shown that Ag-NPs released to the natural environment undergo profound chemical transformations that can affect silver bioavailability, toxicity, and risk. Less is known about Ag-NP chemical transformations in biological systems, though the medical literature clearly reports that chronic silver ingestion produces argyrial deposits consisting of silver-, sulfur-, and selenium-containing particulate phases. Here we show that Ag-NPs undergo a rich set of biochemical transformations, including accelerated oxidative dissolution in gastric acid, thiol binding and exchange, photoreduction of thiol- or protein-bound silver to secondary zero-valent Ag-NPs, and rapid reactions between silver surfaces and reduced selenium species. Selenide is also observed to rapidly exchange with sulfide in preformed Ag2S solid phases. The combined results allow us to propose a conceptual model for Ag-NP transformation pathways in the human body. In this model, argyrial silver deposits are not translocated engineered Ag-NPs, but rather secondary particles formed by partial dissolution in the GI tract followed by ion uptake, systemic circulation as organo-Ag complexes and immobilization as zero-valent Ag-NPs by photoreduction in light affected skin regions. The secondary Ag-NPs then undergo detoxifying transformations into sulfides, and further into selenides or Se/S mixed phases through exchange reactions. The formation of secondary particles in biological environments implies that Ag-NPs are not only a product of industrial nanotechnology, but have long been present in the human body following exposure to more traditional chemical forms of silver. PMID:23046098

Liu, Jingyu; Wang, Zhongying; Liu, Frances D.; Kane, Agnes B.; Hurt, Robert H.

2012-01-01

345

Thin-Film Power Transformers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

Katti, Romney R.

1995-01-01

346

Nonlocal conservation laws and related Bäcklund transformations via reciprocal transformations  

E-print Network

A set of infinitely many nonlocal conservation laws are revealed for (1+1)-dimensional evolution equations. For some special known integrable systems, say, the KdV and Dym equations, it is found that different nonlocal conservation laws can lead to same new integrable systems via reciprocal transformation. On the other hand, it can be considered as one solution of the new model obtained via reciprocal transformation(s) can be changed to different solutions of the original model. The fact indicates also that two or more different (local and nonlocal) conservation laws can be used to find implicit auto-B\\"acklund transformations via reciprocal transformation to other systems.

Sen-Yue Lou

2014-06-08

347

Quality as Transformation: Educational Metamorphosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion of "quality as transformation" has been widely used in the higher education sector. However, both quality and transformation are elusive terms. There is little research exploring how quality could be equated to transformation in the learning process. This paper will provide an insight into the relationship between quality and…

Cheng, Ming

2014-01-01

348

Generalized Transforms and Special Functions  

E-print Network

We study the properties of different type of transforms by means of operational methods and discuss the relevant interplay with many families of special functions. We consider in particular the binomial transform and its generalizations. A general method, based on the use of the Fourier transform technique, is proposed for the study of the properties of functions of operators.

G. Dattoli; E. Sabia

2010-10-08

349

Compositions of Tree Series Transformations  

E-print Network

Compositions of Tree Series Transformations A. Maletti Institute of Theoretical Computer Science Germany URL: http://www.inf.tu-dresden.de/ #12;#12;Compositions of Tree Series Transformations Andreas@tcs.inf.tu-dresden.de Abstract Tree series transformations computed by bottom-up and top-down tree series transducers are called

Reyle, Uwe

350

Lightning Protection for Distribution Transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usual methods of connecting arresters for the protection of distribution transformers are often inadequate. In service some transformers still flash over although the arrester, in itself, is capable of protecting the transformer with a large margin of safety. Surge current flowing to ground through the ground lead of the arrester gives rise to inductive drop and resistance drop voltages. These

A. M. Opsahl; A. S. Brookes; R. N. Southgate

1932-01-01

351

Vinyl hydrogen acidities of two stereoisomers.  

PubMed

The gas-phase acidities of the vinyl hydrogens of cis- and trans-2-butene were measured by the silane kinetic method in a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer. The acidities of ethene and the secondary vinyl hydrogen of propene were measured by the same method. The method was calibrated using the known acidities of methane and benzene. The vinyl hydrogens of trans-2-butene are more acidic than the vinyl hydrogens of cis-2-butene by 4.5 kcal/mol; the acidities of ethene and the secondary vinyl hydrogen of propene are between those of the two butenes. The acidity of cis-2-butene is 409 +/- 2 kcal/mol, and the acidity of trans-2-butene is 405 +/- 2 kcal/mol. Density functional theory calculations are in good agreement with the experiments. The results are discussed in terms of steric interactions, polarizabilities, dipole-dipole interactions, and charge-dipole interactions. PMID:17256827

Walthall, David A; Brauman, John I

2007-02-22

352

Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". We will observe the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with three acid solutions. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

353

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

White, J.C. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (US))

1988-01-01

354

Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the acidity of rain and snow reveal that in parts of the eastern U.S. and of western Europe precipitation has changed from a nearly neutral solution 200 years ago to a dilute solution of sulfuric and nitric acids today. The trend is a result of the emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere accompanying the rise

Gene E. Likens; Richard F. Wright; James N. Galloway; Thomas J. Butler

1979-01-01

355

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

Elsworth, S.

1985-01-01

356

Acid test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking soda can be used as an indicator of how much acid a substance contains. Lemons and limes have more acid in them than grapefruits and oranges. Indophenol can be used as an indicator of how much vitamin C is in a substance.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

357

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

The acid rain problem in the northeastern U.S. has been growing in severity and geographical areas affected. Acid rain has damaged, or will result in damage to visibility, physical structures and materials, aquatic life, timber, crops, and soils. The principal causes of acid rain in the northeastern U.S. are sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from large power plants and smelters in the Ohio River Valley. Immediate corrective action and appropriate research are needed to reduce acid precipitation. Short-term programs that will define the rate of environmental deterioration, remaining environmental capacity to resist sudden deterioration, mechanisms of acid rain formation, and costs of various control options must be developed. (3 maps, 13 references, 1 table)

Bess, F.D.

1980-01-01

358

Stability of Pyrimidine Nucleic Acid Bases with Respect to Intra- and Intermolecular Proton Transfer Reactions Induced by Excess Electrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically transformed nucleic acid bases are considered as sources of point mutations in genetic material. Our computational results and photoelectron spectra provide information about chemical transformations of pyrimidine bases induced by excess electrons. The isolated pyrimidine bases as well as their complexes with X (X= amino acid, carboxylic acid, or alcohol) have been studied with the B3LYP and MPW1K density

Iwona Dabkowska; Maciej Haranczyk; Janusz Rak; Maciej Gutowski; Shoujun Xu; J. Michael Nilles; Dunja Radisic; Kit H. Bowen

2003-01-01

359

Computer simulation of martensitic transformations  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of martensitic transformations in solids are largely determined by the elastic strain that develops as martensite particles grow and interact. To study the development of microstructure, a finite-element computer simulation model was constructed to mimic the transformation process. The transformation is athermal and simulated at each incremental step by transforming the cell which maximizes the decrease in the free energy. To determine the free energy change, the elastic energy developed during martensite growth is calculated from the theory of linear elasticity for elastically homogeneous media, and updated as the transformation proceeds.

Xu, Ping

1993-11-01

360

Fourier-transform lidar.  

PubMed

We propose a new method based on the differential absorption lidar technique for multipollutant detection. A broadband laser is sent into the atmosphere in a wavelength range in which several pollutants absorb. The backscattered light is analyzed by a Fourier-transform spectrometer with time resolution. This mode of detection provides both spatial and high spectral resolution down to 0.01 cm(-1), allowing range-resolved measurements of several pollutants simultaneously. To demonstrate the feasibility of this method, we have measured water vapor concentration by using more than 10 individual lines in the 720-nm absorption band. The potential and the limitations are discussed critically. PMID:19862277

Douard, M; Bacis, R; Rambaldi, P; Ross, A; Wolf, J P; Fabre, G; Stringat, R

1995-10-15

361

Thermal energy transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For use in combination with a heat engine, a thermal energy transformer is presented. It is comprised of a flux receiver having a first wall defining therein a radiation absorption cavity for converting solar flux to thermal energy, and a second wall defining an energy transfer wall for the heat engine. There is a heat pipe chamber interposed between the first and second walls having a working fluid disposed within the chamber and a wick lining the chamber for conducting the working fluid from the second wall to the first wall. Thermal energy is transferred from the radiation absorption cavity to the heat engine.

Berdahl, C. M.; Thiele, C. L. (inventors)

1979-01-01

362

Banded transformer cores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

Mclyman, C. W. T. (inventor)

1974-01-01

363

Metasurface transformation optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transformation optics has been recently proposed as a powerful method to manipulate electromagnetic fields by using anisotropic inhomogeneous volumetric media. This method can be extended to design anisotropic modulated metasurfaces (MTSs) able to control the propagation path of surface waves. In this paper, this extension is formalized by defining a systematic procedure that can be applied to design a large number of planar devices, with a significant technological simplification with respect to the realization based on volumetric media. Practical MTS designs are also presented.

Mencagli, M., Jr.; Martini, E.; González-Ovejero, D.; Maci, S.

2014-12-01

364

Industrial Transformation Science Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change, this "Industrial Transformation Science Plan" incorporates a multidisciplinary research effort which is "based on the assumption that important changes in production and consumption systems will be required in order to meet the needs and aspirations of a growing world population while using environmental resources in a sustainable manner." The plan has combined the input of experts in a wide range of social science disciplines with that of experts from both life and physical sciences.

365

Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

Yi, Jian (East Lansing, MI); Kleff, Susanne (East Lansing, MI); Guettler, Michael V. (Holt, MI)

2012-02-21

366

Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

2013-04-30

367

Contamination of the transformer oil of power transformers and shunting reactors by metal-containing colloidal particles  

SciTech Connect

The results of a measurement of the contamination of the oil in 66 transformers by metal-containing colloidal particles, formed as a result of the interaction of the oil with the structural materials (the copper of the windings, the iron of the tank and core etc.), and also the results of measurements of the optical turbidity of the oil in 136 transformers when they were examined at the Power Engineering Research and Development Center Company are presented. Methods of determining the concentration of copper and iron in transformer oil are considered. The limiting values of the optical turbidity factors, the copper and iron content are determined. These can serve as a basis for taking decisions on whether to replace the silica gel of the filters for continuously purifying the oil of power transformers and the shunting reactors in addition to the standardized oil contamination factors, namely, the dielectric loss tangent and the acidity number of the oil.

L'vov, S. Yu. [LLC 'Presselektro' (Russian Federation); Komarov, V. B.; Bondareva, V. N.; Seliverstov, A. F. [A. N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IFCE of RAS) (Russian Federation); Lyut'ko, E. O.; L'vov, Yu. N. [JSC 'R and D Centre for Power Engineering' (Russian Federation); Ershov, B. G. [A. N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IFCE of RAS) (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15

368

Chemical transformations of Populus trichocarpa during dilute acid pretreatment  

E-print Network

a renaissance in the development of renewable and sustainable energy options. The utilization of non-food and methoxyl group content and these changes were accompanied with an increase in condensed lignin. The dilute. Introduction Increasing concerns about diminishing fossil fuel resources and energy security have spurred

California at Riverside, University of

369

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Due to the presence of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide, rainfall is naturally acidic. The release of other gases and chemicals such as sulfur dioxide during the combustion of coal and oil can cause rainfall to become even more acidic, sometimes to the point of toxicity. In this activity, students will measure the pH of local rainfall to see what effect these gases have in their region. They will also check an online resource to see how the releases of acid rain-causing chemicals have varied over the past 20 years, and answer questions about the information they uncover.

Fox, Chris

370

Energy: Energy Transformations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the second of four Science Objects in the Energy SciPack. It provides a conceptual and real-world understanding of how energy is transferred, from object to object and from one form of energy to another. Although the various forms of energy appear different, each can be measured in a closed system. This makes it possible to keep track of how much of one form of energy is converted into another form. Most of what goes on in the universe--from exploding stars and biological growth to the operation of machines and the motion of people--involves some form of energy being transformed into another form. The law of conservation of energy states that whenever the amount of energy in one place (or form) decreases, the amount of energy in other places (or forms) increases by the same amount. Learning Outcomes:� Recognize that there are ways to measure the amount of different kinds of energy that allow us to track how much of one form is changed into another.� Recognize that energy is conserved, meaning it is not "used up" and does not appear out of nowhere.� Give examples of transformation of energy, including recognizing the forms of energy involved.� Construct an argument against an example that claims to be a perpetual motion machine.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

371

TRANSFORMATION VS. GOVERNMENT AUTOMATION  

E-print Network

e-Government is a major policy issue that countries throughout the world are grappling with. Developing countries under the impetus of world policy bodies are trying to get onto the e-government bandwagon the correct way. However and though they will usually stake claims to developing a citizen-centric e-government, in reality their principal aim is to develop a transactional form of government, hence foregoing what many developed countries are on their way of achieving, namely holistic or transformative government. Through the evaluation of major e-government projects from the Gulf region, this paper illustrates how Gulf e-governments were never planned to transform the inner working of government. However and based on the design-reality gap theory, Bahrain’s egovernment is shown to be an exemplary success when design mirrors reality. The paper draws a list of challenges that Gulf e-government projects and programs are facing or will likely face and makes concrete suggestions for dealing with them. Along with citizen and customer involvement in the design of e-government solutions, the absence of research and evaluation of current e-government initiatives is one of the biggest challenges identified. The paper concludes with a set of statements about e-government that are purported to apply throughout the region. Keywords: Design-reality gap, e-Government strategy, e-Government models, e-Government research & evaluation. 1

unknown authors

372

Spectrophotometric, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic and theoretical studies of the charge-transfer complexes between methyldopa [(S)-2 amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl propanoic acid] and the acceptors (chloranilic acid, o-chloranil and dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone) in acetonitrile and their thermodynamic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methyldopa is a much used antihypertensive drug. It is the subject matter of study mostly for the determination and estimation of methyldopa in pharmaceutical properties. These considerations led us to study the charge-transfer interactions between methyldopa, a centrally acting antihypertensive agent of limited use with the known acceptors like o-chloranil (o-ClN), chloranilic acid (ClA) and dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ). Methyldopa (MDP) formed beautifully colored complexes (having absorption maxima at 581 nm and 368 nm; 519 nm; 583.5 nm, 547 nm and 346 nm, respectively) with the acceptors mentioned before. The physico-chemical properties of the complexes were studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry and FTIR measurements. The composition, the accurate association constants and thermodynamics of the complexes were determined spectrophotometrically. Attempts were made to interpret the thermodynamics of complexes in terms of IDV, EAV and h?CT. Solid CT complexes between MDP + o-ClN, MDP + ClA and MDP + DDQ were prepared and FTIR spectra of the complexes were studied. The energies h?CT of the charge-transfer complexes and vertical ionization potential IDV of methyldopa were compared with the theoretical values of h?CT obtained from HOMO and LUMO of the donors and acceptors calculated using Density Function Theory utilizing different basis sets. The agreement between the results can be regarded to be reasonable. Oscillator strengths and dipole strengths of the complexes were determined theoretically and experimentally and the limitations of the calculations were outlined.

Sharma, K.; Sharma, S. P.; Lahiri, S. C.

373

Lorentz-transformation and Galileo-transformation windows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define Lorentz-transformation windows as windows that change the direction of transmitted light rays like a Lorentz transformation. Similarly, Galileo-transformation windows change the direction of transmitted light rays like a Galileo transformation. This light-ray-direction change distorts the scene seen through such a window in the same way in which the scene would be distorted in a photo taken with a camera moving through the scene. Lorentz-transformation windows can also undo the distortion of the scene when moving at relativistic velocity relative to it. For small angles between the direction of the light rays and the direction of the velocity, Galileo-transformation windows can be realised with relatively simple telescope windows, which consist of arrays of identical micro-telescopes.

Oxburgh, Stephen; Gray, Norman; Hendry, Martin; Courtial, Johannes

2014-09-01

374

DE MAGNO MAGNETE TELLURE O VELIK EM MAGNETU ZEMSK EM  

E-print Network

#12;Historick´y ´uvod De magnete De magnete -- Gilbert a jeho n´asledovn´ici 1600 William Gilbert: De´asledovn´ici 1600 William Gilbert: De Magnete shrnul predchoz´i pozorov´an´i inklinace a deklinace zkoumal magnete De magnete -- Gilbert a jeho n´asledovn´ici 1600 William Gilbert: De Magnete shrnul predchoz

Cerveny, Vlastislav

375

ACID RAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

376

Tranexamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this ...

377

LU transformation invariant operators and LU transformation invariant  

E-print Network

We proposed a concept of LU transformation invariant operators. By using this operator, arbitrary multi-qubit states LU transformation invariant and SLOCC invariant could be easily obtained. And we find that presences two kinds of invariant operators and corresponding invariants. One kind of operators yields LU invariants and the other operators results in SLOCC invariants. For three-qubit states, all independence LU transformation invariant are obtained. Furthermore, by this system method, arbitrary multi-qubit states invariants can be given.

Xin-wei Zha; Chun-min Zhang

2007-02-06

378

Acidic precipitation  

SciTech Connect

The authors present an overview of the environmental chemistry and transport phenomena of air pollutants, biological and ecological effects of acidic precipitation, mitigation of acidified aquatic ecosystems, and modelling approaches. This book reviews what is known about the impact of acidic deposition in the biota and processes in complex ecosystems such as lakes, streams, and forests. The specific effects on crops, trees, fish, and microorganisms are also discussed.

Adriano, D.C. (Georgia Univ., Aiken, SC (USA)); Johnson, A.H. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-01-01

379

Spectrophotometric, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic and theoretical studies of the charge-transfer complexes between methyldopa [(S)-2 amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl propanoic acid] and the acceptors (chloranilic acid, o-chloranil and dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone) in acetonitrile and their thermodynamic properties.  

PubMed

Methyldopa is a much used antihypertensive drug. It is the subject matter of study mostly for the determination and estimation of methyldopa in pharmaceutical properties. These considerations led us to study the charge-transfer interactions between methyldopa, a centrally acting antihypertensive agent of limited use with the known acceptors like o-chloranil (o-ClN), chloranilic acid (ClA) and dichlorodicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ). Methyldopa (MDP) formed beautifully colored complexes (having absorption maxima at 581 nm and 368 nm; 519 nm; 583.5 nm, 547 nm and 346 nm, respectively) with the acceptors mentioned before. The physico-chemical properties of the complexes were studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry and FTIR measurements. The composition, the accurate association constants and thermodynamics of the complexes were determined spectrophotometrically. Attempts were made to interpret the thermodynamics of complexes in terms of I(D)(V), E(A)(V) and h?(CT). Solid CT complexes between MDP+o-ClN, MDP+ClA and MDP+DDQ were prepared and FTIR spectra of the complexes were studied. The energies h?(CT) of the charge-transfer complexes and vertical ionization potential I(D)(V) of methyldopa were compared with the theoretical values of h?(CT) obtained from HOMO and LUMO of the donors and acceptors calculated using Density Function Theory utilizing different basis sets. The agreement between the results can be regarded to be reasonable. Oscillator strengths and dipole strengths of the complexes were determined theoretically and experimentally and the limitations of the calculations were outlined. PMID:22446770

Sharma, K; Sharma, S P; Lahiri, S C

2012-06-15

380

z Transform Chapter Intended Learning Outcomes  

E-print Network

z Transform Chapter Intended Learning Outcomes: (i) Understanding the relationship between transform and the Fourier transform for discrete-time signals (ii) Understanding the characteristics and properties of transform (iii) Ability to compute transform and inverse transform (iv) Ability to apply

So, Hing-Cheung

381

Application of Electronic Transformers in Digital Substation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embarking from the sensing principle of electronic transformer, the paper introduced the type and the constitution of electronic current transformer and electronic voltage transformer. By comparing the active and passive optical transformer in our country, we pointed out that the passive optical transformer have excellent measurement quality, it also have the same practical conditions as the active optical transformer. The

Hongxing Wang; Guoqing Zhang; Zhizhong Guo; Jiaying Wang; Xingguo Cai

2008-01-01

382

A piezoelectric transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work describes a modeling and design method whereby a piezoelectric system is formulated by two sets of second-order equations, one for the mechanical system, and the other for the electrical system, coupled through the piezoelectric effect. The solution to this electromechanical coupled system gives a physical interpretation of the piezoelectric effect as a piezoelectric transformer that is a part of the piezoelectric system, which transfers the applied mechanical force into a force-controlled current source, and short circuit mechanical compliance into capacitance. It also transfers the voltage source into a voltage-controlled relative velocity input, and free motional capacitance into mechanical compliance. The formulation and interpretation simplify the modeling of smart structures and lead to physical insight that aids the designer. Due to its physical realization, the smart structural system can be unconditional stable and effectively control responses. This new concept has been demonstrated in three numerical examples for a simple piezoelectric system.

Won, C. C.

1993-01-01

383

Improving facilities, transforming attitudes.  

PubMed

Providing an effective healing environment for patients facing a wide range of mental health issues, while balancing their needs with security, safety, and affordability considerations, will be key area of focus at this year's Design in Mental Health (DIMH) conference and exhibition, taking place from 13-14 May at the National Motorcycle Museum in Bickenhill near Solihull. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports, conference speakers will include the director of estates and new business at the Priory Group; the chief executive of mental health charity, Mind; architects and designers with substantial mental healthcare experience; top academics, and service-users--all with their own perspective on the 2014 conference theme, 'Improving facilities, transforming attitudes'. PMID:24783329

Baillie, Jonathan

2014-04-01

384

Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The operating principles of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such instruments with respect to alternative imaging spectrometers are discussed. The primary advantages of the IFTS are the capacity to acquire more than an order of magnitude more spectral channels than alternative systems with more than an order of magnitude greater etendue than for alternative systems. The primary disadvantage of IFTS, or FTS in general, is the sensitivity to temporal fluctuations, either random or periodic. Data from the IRIFTS (ir IFTS) prototype instrument, sensitive in the infrared, are presented having a spectral sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units, a spectral resolution of 6 cm{sup {minus}1} over the range 0 to 7899 cm{sup {minus}1}, and a spatial resolution of 2.5 mr.

Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

1993-04-14

385

Transforming Cities With Transit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are cities transformed by the creation of new transit lines? How can existing transit lines be modified to create new land use opportunities for housing and commercial properties? These subjects are covered by a 172-page conference edition of a forthcoming paper from the World Bank. The paper was authored by Hiroaki Suzuki, Robert Cervero, and Kanako Iuchi. Visitors will note that the work focuses on "identifying barriers to and opportunities for effective coordination of transport infrastructure and urban development." The work takes on a number of global best practices of transit-oriented metropolises that have direct relevance to cities in developing countries and offers both analysis and suggestions for future projects. Sections here include "Lessons from Sustainable Transit-Oriented Cities," "Integrating Transit and Urban Development in Cities in the Developing World," and "Toward Sustainable Urban Futures."

Cervero, Robert.; Iuchi, Kanako; Suzuki, Hiroaki

386

Infrared transform spectral imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dispersive transform spectral imager named FAROS (FAst Reconfigurable Optical Sensor) has been developed for high frame rate, moderate-to-high resolution hyperspectral imaging. A programmable digital micromirror array (DMA) modulator makes it possible to adjust spectral, temporal and spatial resolution in real time to achieve optimum tradeoff for dynamic monitoring requirements. The system's F/2.8 collection optics produces diffraction-limited images in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) spectral region. The optical system is based on a proprietary dual-pass Offner configuration with a single spherical mirror and a confocal spherical diffraction grating. FAROS fulfills two functions simultaneously: one output produces two-dimensional polychromatic imagery at the full focal plane array (FPA) frame rate for fast object acquisition and tracking, while the other output operates in parallel and produces variable-resolution spectral images via Hadamard transform encoding to assist in object discrimination and classification. The current version of the FAROS spectral imager is a multispectral technology demonstrator that operates in the MWIR with a 320 x 256 pixel InSb FPA running at 478 frames per second resulting in time resolution of several tens of milliseconds per hypercube. The instrument has been tested by monitoring small-scale rocket engine firings in outdoor environments. The instrument has no macro-scale moving parts, and conforms to a robust, small-volume and lightweight package, suitable for integration with small surveillance vehicles. The technology is also applicable to multispectral/hyperspectral imaging applications in diverse areas such as atmospheric contamination monitoring, agriculture, process control, and biomedical imaging, and can be adapted for use in any spectral domain from the ultraviolet (UV) to the LWIR region.

Vujkovic-Cvijin, Pajo; Lee, Jamine; Gregor, Brian; Goldstein, Neil; Panfili, Raphael; Fox, Marsha

2012-10-01

387

Mechanisms of iron oxide transformations in hydrothermal systems.  

SciTech Connect

Coexistence of magnetite and hematite in hydrothermal systems has often been used to constrain the redox potential of fluids, assuming that the redox equilibrium is attained among all minerals and aqueous species. However, as temperature decreases, disequilibrium mineral assemblages may occur due to the slow kinetics of reaction involving the minerals and fluids. In this study, we conducted a series of experiments in which hematite or magnetite was reacted with an acidic solution under H2-rich hydrothermal conditions (T = 100 250 C,) to investigate the kinetics of redox and non-redox transformations between hematite and magnetite, and the mechanisms of iron oxide transformation under hydrothermal conditions. The formation of euhedral crystals of hematite in 150 and 200 C experiments, in which magnetite was used as the starting material, indicates that non-redox transformation of magnetite to hematite occurred within 24 h. The chemical composition of the experimental solutions was controlled by the non-redox transformation between magnetite and hematite throughout the experiments. While solution compositions were controlled by the non-redox transformation in the first 3 days in a 250 C experiment, reductive dissolution of magnetite became important after 5 days and affected the solution chemistry. At 100 C, the presence of maghemite was indicated in the first 7 days. Based on these results, equilibrium constants of non-redox transformation between magnetite and hematite and those of non-redox transformation between magnetite and maghemite were calculated. Our results suggest that the redox transformation of hematite to magnetite occurs in the following steps: (1) reductive dissolution of hematite to and (2) non-redox transformation of hematite and to magnetite.

Otake, Tsubasa [Pennsylvania State University; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL; Ohmoto, Hiroshi [Pennsylvania State University

2010-01-01

388

Mechanisms of iron oxide transformation in hydrothermal systems.  

SciTech Connect

Coexistence of magnetite and hematite in hydrothermal systems has often been used to constrain the redox potential of fluids, assuming that the redox equilibrium is attained among all minerals and aqueous species. However, as temperature decreases, disequilibrium mineral assemblages may occur due to the slow kinetics of reaction involving the minerals and fluids. In this study, we conducted a series of experiments in which hematite or magnetite was reacted with an acidic solution under H{sub 2}-rich hydrothermal conditions (T = 100-250 C, P{sub H{sub 2}} = 0.05-5 MPa) to investigate the kinetics of redox and non-redox transformations between hematite and magnetite, and the mechanisms of iron oxide transformation under hydrothermal conditions. The formation of euhedral crystals of hematite in 150 and 200 C experiments, in which magnetite was used as the starting material, indicates that non-redox transformation of magnetite to hematite occurred within 24 h. The chemical composition of the experimental solutions was controlled by the non-redox transformation between magnetite and hematite throughout the experiments. While solution compositions were controlled by the non-redox transformation in the first 3 days in a 250 C experiment, reductive dissolution of magnetite became important after 5 days and affected the solution chemistry. At 100 C, the presence of maghemite was indicated in the first 7 days. Based on these results, equilibrium constants of non-redox transformation between magnetite and hematite and those of non-redox transformation between magnetite and maghemite were calculated. Our results suggest that the redox transformation of hematite to magnetite occurs in the following steps: (1) reductive dissolution of hematite to Fe{sub (aq)}{sup 2+} and (2) non-redox transformation of hematite and Fe{sub (aq)}{sup 2+} to magnetite.

Otake, Tsubasa [Pennsylvania State University; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL

2010-11-01

389

Quasi-discrete Hankel transform.  

PubMed

A quasi-discrete Hankel transform (QDHT) is presented as a new and efficient framework for numerical evaluation of the zero-order Hankel transform. A discrete form of Parseval's theorem is obtained for the first time to the authors' knowledge, and the transform matrix is discussed. It is shown that the S factor, defined as the products of a truncated radius, is critical to building the QDHT. PMID:18084527

Yu, L; Huang, M; Chen, M; Chen, W; Huang, W; Zhu, Z

1998-03-15

390

Transformation Systems at NASA Ames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we describe the experiences of the Automated Software Engineering Group at the NASA Ames Research Center in the development and application of three different transformation systems. The systems span the entire technology range, from deductive synthesis, to logic-based transformation, to almost compiler-like source-to-source transformation. These systems also span a range of NASA applications, including solving solar system geometry problems, generating data analysis software, and analyzing multi-threaded Java code.

Buntine, Wray; Fischer, Bernd; Havelund, Klaus; Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, TOm; Roach, Steve; Robinson, Peter; VanBaalen, Jeffrey

1999-01-01

391

Bacterial Transformations of Naphthothiophenes  

PubMed Central

Naphthothiophenes are minor components of fossil fuels, and they can enter the environment from oil spills. Naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene, naphtho[2,3-b]thiophene, and 1-methylnaphtho[2,1-b]thiophene were synthesized and used in biodegradation studies with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN)-degrading Pseudomonas strains W1, F, and BT1. Cultures were incubated with one of the naphthothiophenes with or without 1-MN, acidified, and extracted with CH(inf2)Cl(inf2). The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame photometric and mass detectors to characterize sulfur-containing metabolites and with an atomic emission detector for quantification. Only strain W1 was able to grow on naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene, but strains F and BT1 cometabolized this compound if 1-MN was present. 1-MN was required by all three strains to metabolize naphtho[2,3-b]thiophene, which was more resistant to biodegradation than the [2,1-b] isomer. Two metabolites of naphtho [2,1-b]thiophene were purified, analyzed by (sup1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and found to be 4-hydroxybenzothiophene-5-carboxylic acid (metabolite I) and 5-hydroxybenzothiophene-4-carboxylic acid (metabolite II). In cultures of strain W1 grown for 7 days on 52 (mu)mol of naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene, >84% of the substrate was degraded and metabolites I and II accounted for 19 and 9%, respectively, of the original amount of naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene. When 1-MN was present, strain W1 degraded >97% of the naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene and similar amounts of metabolite II were produced, but metabolite I did not accumulate. 1-MN was shown to promote the further degradation of metabolite I, but not of metabolite II, by strain W1. Thus, 1-MN enhanced the biodegradation of naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene. Approximately 70% of the 1-methylnaphtho [2,1-b]thiophene added to cultures of strain W1 with 1-MN was recovered as 4-hydroxy-3-methylbenzothiophene-5-carboxylic acid, the 3-methyl analog of metabolite I. The methyl substitution hindered further metabolism of 3-methyl-metabolite I even in the presence of 1-MN. Cometabolism of naphtho[2,3-b]thiophene yielded two products that were tentatively identified as 5-hydroxybenzothiophene-6-carboxylic and 6-hydroxybenzothiophene-5-carboxylic acids. PMID:16535687

Kropp, K. G.; Andersson, J. T.; Fedorak, P. M.

1997-01-01

392

Bacterial transformations of naphthothiophenes.  

PubMed

Naphthothiophenes are minor components of fossil fuels, and they can enter the environment from oil spills. Naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene, naphtho[2,3-b]thiophene, and 1-methylnaphtho[2,1-b]thiophene were synthesized and used in biodegradation studies with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN)-degrading Pseudomonas strains W1, F, and BT1. Cultures were incubated with one of the naphthothiophenes with or without 1-MN, acidified, and extracted with CH(inf2)Cl(inf2). The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame photometric and mass detectors to characterize sulfur-containing metabolites and with an atomic emission detector for quantification. Only strain W1 was able to grow on naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene, but strains F and BT1 cometabolized this compound if 1-MN was present. 1-MN was required by all three strains to metabolize naphtho[2,3-b]thiophene, which was more resistant to biodegradation than the [2,1-b] isomer. Two metabolites of naphtho [2,1-b]thiophene were purified, analyzed by (sup1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and found to be 4-hydroxybenzothiophene-5-carboxylic acid (metabolite I) and 5-hydroxybenzothiophene-4-carboxylic acid (metabolite II). In cultures of strain W1 grown for 7 days on 52 (mu)mol of naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene, >84% of the substrate was degraded and metabolites I and II accounted for 19 and 9%, respectively, of the original amount of naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene. When 1-MN was present, strain W1 degraded >97% of the naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene and similar amounts of metabolite II were produced, but metabolite I did not accumulate. 1-MN was shown to promote the further degradation of metabolite I, but not of metabolite II, by strain W1. Thus, 1-MN enhanced the biodegradation of naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene. Approximately 70% of the 1-methylnaphtho [2,1-b]thiophene added to cultures of strain W1 with 1-MN was recovered as 4-hydroxy-3-methylbenzothiophene-5-carboxylic acid, the 3-methyl analog of metabolite I. The methyl substitution hindered further metabolism of 3-methyl-metabolite I even in the presence of 1-MN. Cometabolism of naphtho[2,3-b]thiophene yielded two products that were tentatively identified as 5-hydroxybenzothiophene-6-carboxylic and 6-hydroxybenzothiophene-5-carboxylic acids. PMID:16535687

Kropp, K G; Andersson, J T; Fedorak, P M

1997-09-01

393

Color image encryption based on gyrator transform and Arnold transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A color image encryption scheme using gyrator transform and Arnold transform is proposed, which has two security levels. In the first level, the color image is separated into three components: red, green and blue, which are normalized and scrambled using the Arnold transform. The green component is combined with the first random phase mask and transformed to an interim using the gyrator transform. The first random phase mask is generated with the sum of the blue component and a logistic map. Similarly, the red component is combined with the second random phase mask and transformed to three-channel-related data. The second random phase mask is generated with the sum of the phase of the interim and an asymmetrical tent map. In the second level, the three-channel-related data are scrambled again and combined with the third random phase mask generated with the sum of the previous chaotic maps, and then encrypted into a gray scale ciphertext. The encryption result has stationary white noise distribution and camouflage property to some extent. In the process of encryption and decryption, the rotation angle of gyrator transform, the iterative numbers of Arnold transform, the parameters of the chaotic map and generated accompanied phase function serve as encryption keys, and hence enhance the security of the system. Simulation results and security analysis are presented to confirm the security, validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

Sui, Liansheng; Gao, Bo

2013-06-01

394

Photodissociation dynamics of hydroxybenzoic acids  

SciTech Connect

Aromatic amino acids have large UV absorption cross-sections and low fluorescence quantum yields. Ultrafast internal conversion, which transforms electronic excitation energy to vibrational energy, was assumed to account for the photostability of amino acids. Recent theoretical and experimental investigations suggested that low fluorescence quantum yields of phenol (chromophore of tyrosine) are due to the dissociation from a repulsive excited state. Radicals generated from dissociation may undergo undesired reactions. It contradicts the observed photostability of amino acids. In this work, we explored the photodissociation dynamics of the tyrosine chromophores, 2-, 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in a molecular beam at 193 nm using multimass ion imaging techniques. We demonstrated that dissociation from the excited state is effectively quenched for the conformers of hydroxybenzoic acids with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Ab initio calculations show that the excited state and the ground state potential energy surfaces change significantly for the conformers with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. It shows the importance of intramolecular hydrogen bond in the excited state dynamics and provides an alternative molecular mechanism for the photostability of aromatic amino acids upon irradiation of ultraviolet photons.

Yang Yilin; Dyakov, Yuri; Lee, Y. T.; Ni, Chi-Kung [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Sun Yilun; Hu Weiping [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

2011-01-21

395

Uric acid - urine  

MedlinePLUS

The urine uric acid test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... to choose the best medicine to lower uric acid level in the blood. Uric acid is a ...

396

Plasmid transformation of Weissella paramesenteroides DX by electroporation.  

PubMed

The present investigation sought to provide a reliable and highly efficient electrotransformation method for the lactic acid bacterium Weissella paramesenteroides DX. Experiments were carried out with the shuttle vectors pVS44 (2910 bps), pTRKH3 (7766 bps) and its derivative pTRKH3-1 (4855 bps). Several parameters, including the concentration of transforming plasmid DNA, plasmid size, electric field strength, age of the culture, cell density, and the pretreatment of cells with dl-threonine, lysozyme, and combined treatment with lithium acetate and dithiothreitol, were investigated and proved to influence the efficiency of transformation. Electrocompetence was found to peak in the early stationary phase (OD600 1.2). Other optimized conditions included: the concentration of 10 ?g/ml transforming DNA, the cell density of 10(10) cells/ml, a high-density electric field pulse of 2.5 kV, 25 ?F and 200 ?, pretreatment of cells with 40 mM dl-threonine and 2000 U/ml lysozyme, and yielded 3.5 × 10(4) transformants/?g DNA for pVS44 while 1.2 × 10(4) transformants/?g DNA for the large plasmid TRKH3. Compared to previously reported data, the obtained transformation efficiencies provided an 8.75-fold increase for pVS44 and ensured plasmid stability for 120 generations in non-selective medium. PMID:25199701

Papagianni, Maria; Papamichael, Emmanuel M

2014-12-01

397

Transformation of the artificial sweetener acesulfame by UV light.  

PubMed

The transformation of the artificial sweetener acesulfame by direct photolysis was investigated at various pH values, in different water types and at various concentration levels. Main photodegradation products of acesulfame were elucidated and analyzed both in laboratory experiments and in a full-scale waterworks using UV treatment for disinfection purposes. The degradation of acesulfame was found to be independent of the pH (range 5-11) and followed pseudo first order kinetics in a concentration range between 1 ?g?L(-1) and 10 mg?L(-1). Calculated rate constants were in the range between 5.4·10(-3)s(-1) and 7.4·10(-3)s(-1). The main photodegradation products of acesulfame were separated by ion exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography and were identified as hydroxylated acesulfame and iso-acesulfame by high resolution mass spectrometry and fragmentation experiments. In the case of iso-acesulfame an intramolecular rearrangement is assumed as the transformation product has a higher polarity and different product ions after MS fragmentation compared to acesulfame. Minor transformation products were identified as amidosulfonic acid and sulfate by comparison with analytical standards. The transformation pathway was found to be transferable to drinking water production as the identified transformation products were also detected to a similar extent in fortified tap water. In a Swiss full-scale waterworks acesulfame concentrations were reduced by approximately 30% and one of the main UV transformation products could be qualitatively detected. PMID:24631604

Scheurer, Marco; Schmutz, Beat; Happel, Oliver; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen; Wülser, Richard; Storck, Florian Rüdiger

2014-05-15

398

Salicylic acids  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

2012-01-01

399

Acid Stomach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is intended for a high-school, introductory chemistry class or health class. The lesson begins with an article on the history of the development of aspirin. Students will then complete a lab that compares the reaction of regular aspirin, buffered aspirin, and enteric aspirin in neutral, acidic, and basic solutions. They will then analyze the results of the experiment to gain insight into how this information was used by researchers to solve some of the problems associated with aspirin. To complete the lesson, students must understand acids and bases.

Science Netlinks

2003-08-07

400

Preparation of chitosan nanoparticles using methacrylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the preparation of chitosan nanoparticle was investigated using methacrylic acid in different conditions and studied by particle size analyzer, zeta-potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size was dependent on the chitosan concentration used during the preparation method. Nanoparticles with sizes as small as 60 nm were

Márcia R. de Moura; Fauze A. Aouada; Luiz H. C. Mattoso

2008-01-01

401

Database Transformations for Biological Applications  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop tools to facilitate data transformations between heterogeneous data sources found throughout biomedical applications. Such transformations are necessary when sharing data between different groups working on related problems as well as when querying data spread over different databases, files and software analysis packages.

Overton, C.; Davidson, S. B.; Buneman, P.; Tannen, V.

2001-04-11

402

Transformations of Gauss hypergeometric functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper classifies algebraic transformations of Gauss hypergeometric functions and pull-back trans- formations between hypergeometric dierential equations. This classification recovers the classical trans- formations of degree 2, 3, 4, 6, and finds other transformations of some special classes of the Gauss hypergeometric function.

Raimundas Vidunas

403

Transformational Grammar and Cognitive Psycholinguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of Noam Chomsky's theories about transformational grammar and phonology is given. Since Chomsky was interested in characterizing what it is to know a language, the ways in which we demonstrate knowledge of our native language are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on describing how the transformational approach actually…

Lester, Mark

1973-01-01

404

Cell transformation by Herpesvirus saimiri.  

PubMed

Herpesvirus saimiri (Saimiriine herpesvirus-2), a gamma2-herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) of non-human primates, causes T-lymphoproliferative diseases in susceptible organisms and transforms human and non-human T lymphocytes to continuous growth in vitro in the absence of stimulation. T cells transformed by H. saimiri retain many characteristics of intact T lymphocytes, such as the sensitivity to interleukin-2 and the ability to recognize the corresponding antigens. As a result, H. saimiri is widely used in immunobiology for immortalization of various difficult-to-obtain and/or -to-maintain T cells in order to obtain useful experimental models. In particular, H. saimiri-transformed human T cells are highly susceptible to infection with HIV-1 and -2. This makes them a convenient tool for propagation of poorly replicating strains of HIV, including primary clinical isolates. Therefore, the mechanisms mediating transformation of T cells by H. saimiri are of considerable interest. A single transformation-associated protein, StpA or StpB, mediates cell transformation by H. saimiri strains of group A or B, respectively. Strains of group C, which exhibit the highest oncogenic potential, have two proteins involved in transformation-StpC and Tip. Both proteins have been shown to dramatically affect signal transduction pathways leading to the activation of crucial transcription factors. This review is focused on the biological effects and molecular mechanisms of action of proteins involved in H. saimiri-dependent transformation. PMID:15389624

Tsygankov, Alexander Y

2005-05-01

405

Will Technology Transform Music Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides historical information about music education, focusing on musical composition and its lack of inclusion within public education. Discusses two ways technology is utilized within music education, either for efficiency or for transformative purposes. Asserts that transformation in musical composition can lead to more educational…

Beckstead, David

2001-01-01

406

Data compression by wavelet transforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wavelet transform algorithm is applied to image compression. It is observed that the algorithm does not suffer from the blockiness characteristic of the DCT-based algorithms at compression ratios exceeding 25:1, but the edges do not appear as sharp as they do with the latter method. Some suggestions for the improved performance of the wavelet transform method are presented.

Shahshahani, M.

1992-01-01

407

Fast-Polynomial-Transform Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program uses fast-polynomial-transformation (FPT) algorithm applicable to two-dimensional mathematical convolutions. Two-dimensional cyclic convolutions converted to one-dimensional convolutions in polynomial rings. Program decomposes cyclic polynomials into polynomial convolutions of same length. Only FPT's and fast Fourier transforms of same length required. Modular approach saves computional resources. Program written in C.

Truong, T. K.; Hsu, I. S.; Chu, Y. F.

1987-01-01

408

Travel and Adult Transformative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

Lindstrom, Steven K.

2011-01-01

409

Presidential address Geomycology: biogeochemical transformations  

E-print Network

­soil interface. The geochemical transformations that take place can influence plant productivity and the mobilityPresidential address Geomycology: biogeochemical transformations of rocks, minerals, metals history: Received 21 November 2006 Received in revised form 26 November 2006 Accepted 12 December 2006

Ahmad, Sajjad

410

Adaptive transformer thermal overload protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a report of the same title, prepared by Working Group K3 of the Substation Protection Subcommittee of the Power System Relaying Committee of the Power Engineering Society of the IEEE. The paper begins with background information on the causes, measurement techniques, and consequences of overheating in mineral-oil-immersed power transformers. Then techniques for adaptive transformer thermal

G. W. Swift; E. S. Zocholl; M. Bajpai; J. F. Burger; C. H. Castro; S. R. Chano; F. Cobelo; P. de Sa; E. C. Fennell; J. G. Gilbert; S. E. Grier; R. W. Haas; W. G. Hartmann; R. A. Hedding; P. Kerrigan; S. Mazumdar; D. H. Miller; P. G. Mysore; M. Nagpal; R. V. Rebbapragada; M. V. Thaden; J. T. Uchiyama; S. M. Usman; J. D. Wardlow; M. Yalla

2001-01-01

411

Conformal Transformations and Space Travel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conformal transformations are applied to the motion of a space ship experiencing a constant acceleration. The role of proper time is interpreted in terms of atomic periods, and the relationship between the conformal transformations and the general theory of relativity is clarified.

Suraj N. Gupta

1961-01-01

412

A Transformational View of Cartography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cartographic transformations are applied to locative geographic data and to substantive geographic data. Conversion between locative aliases are between points, lines, and areas. Substantive transformations occur in map interpolation, filtering, and generalization, and in map reading. The theoretical importance of the inverses is in the study of error propagation effects. Leonard Bernstein, in a recent television lecture, made an exciting,

W. R. Tobler

1979-01-01

413

Lightning Protection for Distribution Transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a five year history of the results of lightning arrester protection for distribution transformers in New England where the normal ground electrode resistance is much higher than in most other parts of this country. The experience shows that the trouble rate of the protected transformers has consistently been materially less than that of those not protected, notwithstanding

T. H. Haines; C. A. Corney

1932-01-01

414

Transformational Leadership And Organizational Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine types of organizational cultures are defined in terms of the extent transformational and transactional leadership and their effects form accepted ways of behaving. The Organizational Description Questionnaire (ODQ) is used by members of the organizations to describe their cultures.The nine types of organizations include the high-contrast culture with both strong transformational and transactional qualities to the \\

Bernard M. Bass; Bruce J. Avolio

1994-01-01

415

Transformation of Wave Height Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier models of random wave transformation are reviewed in the first section. Then the transformation of waves, including dissipation due to breaking and bottom friction, is described by an energy flux balance model. The wave height pdf of all waves (broken and unbroken) is shown by the field data to be well described by the Rayleigh distribution everywhere. The observed

Edward B. Thornton; R. T. Guza

1983-01-01

416

Transformations in Society and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Breaking with past conceptions of change as a pendulum swing based upon dichotomies, this paper offers a model which depicts change as sequential, emergent, and transformational. Patterns of change identified in the fields of technology and science are also identified in the field of education, and a three stage paradigm depicting transformational

McBeath, Ron J.

417

Identification of New Metabolites of Bacterial Transformation of Indole by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

PubMed Central

Arthrobacter sp. SPG transformed indole completely in the presence of an additional carbon source. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-glyoxylic acid, and indole-3-aldehyde as biotransformation products. This is the first report of the formation of indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-glyoxylic acid, and indole-3-aldehyde from indole by any bacterium.

Arora, Pankaj Kumar

2014-01-01

418

Inversion of the star transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define the star transform as a generalization of the broken ray transform introduced by us in previous work. The advantages of using the star transform include the possibility to reconstruct the absorption and the scattering coefficients of the medium separately and simultaneously (from the same data) and the possibility to utilize scattered radiation which, in the case of conventional x-ray tomography, is discarded. In this paper, we derive the star transform from physical principles, discuss its mathematical properties and analyze numerical stability of inversion. In particular, it is shown that stable inversion of the star transform can be obtained only for configurations involving odd number of rays. Several computationally-efficient inversion algorithms are derived and tested numerically.

Zhao, Fan; Schotland, John C.; Markel, Vadim A.

2014-10-01

419

Inversion of the star transform  

E-print Network

We define the star transform as a generalization of the broken ray transform introduced by us in previous work. The advantages of using the star transform include the possibility to reconstruct the absorption and the scattering coefficients of the medium separately and simultaneously (from the same data) and the possibility to utilize scattered radiation which, in the case of the conventional X-ray tomography, is discarded. In this paper, we derive the star transform from physical principles, discuss its mathematical properties and analyze numerical stability of inversion. In particular, it is shown that stable inversion of the star transform can be obtained only for configurations involving odd number of rays. Several computationally-efficient inversion algorithms are derived and tested numerically.

Fan Zhao; John C. Schotland; Vadim A. Markel

2014-05-06

420

Metabolic Engineering of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acids are the most abundant form of reduced carbon chains available from nature and have diverse uses ranging from food to industrial feedstocks. Plants represent a significant renewable source of fatty acids because many species accumulate them in the form of triacylglycerol as major storage components in seeds. With the advent of plant transformation technology, metabolic engineering of oilseed

Jay J. Thelen; John B. Ohlrogge

2002-01-01

421

The interaction of Bromophenol Blue with proteins in acidic solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of Bromophenol Blue (BPB) with bovine serum albumin and ?-globulin in acidic solutions were investigated by a spectrophotometric method. It was considered that the electrostatic force is the main binding force, and that the color change during the combination is due to the transformation of dye species of free acidic form into bound basic form as well as

Yong-ju Wei; Ke-an Li; Shen-yang Tong

1996-01-01

422

Amino Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Featured Molecules this month are the 20 standard ?-amino acids found in proteins and serve as background to the paper by Barone and Schmidt on the Nonfood Applications of Proteinaceous Renewable Materials. The molecules are presented in two formats, the neutral form and the ionized form found in solution at physiologic pH.

423

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online examination into acid rain and sulfur dioxide emissions. Students research which states have succeeded in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions between 1980 and 1999, and which states emissions have increased. This activity is accompanied by a page of websites for further information.

424

Acid Attack  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore the effect of chemical erosion on statues and monuments. They use chalk to see what happens when limestone is placed in liquids with different pH values. They also learn several things that engineers are doing to reduce the effects of acid rain.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

425

Tandem shock waves to enhance genetic transformation of Aspergillus niger.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi are used in several industries and in academia to produce antibiotics, metabolites, proteins and pharmaceutical compounds. The development of valuable strains usually requires the insertion of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid; however, the protocols to transfer DNA to fungal cells are highly inefficient. Recently, underwater shock waves were successfully used to genetically transform filamentous fungi. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that the efficiency of transformation can be improved significantly by enhancing acoustic cavitation using tandem (dual-pulse) shock waves. Results revealed that tandem pressure pulses, generated at a delay of 300 ?s, increased the transformation efficiency of Aspergillus niger up to 84% in comparison with conventional (single-pulse) shock waves. This methodology may also be useful to obtain new strains required in basic research and biotechnology. PMID:24680880

Loske, Achim M; Fernández, Francisco; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

2014-08-01

426

Dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformations of ?-stereogenic ?-ketoesters by direct aldolization.  

PubMed

Dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformations (DyKAT) of racemic ?-bromo-?-keto esters by direct aldolization of nitromethane and acetone provide access to fully substituted ?-glycolic acid derivatives bearing a ?-stereocenter. The aldol adducts are obtained in excellent yield with high relative and absolute stereocontrol under mild reaction conditions. Mechanistic studies determined that the reactions proceed through a facile catalyst-mediated racemization of the ?-bromo-?-keto esters under a DyKAT Type I manifold. PMID:24222195

Corbett, Michael T; Johnson, Jeffrey S

2014-01-01

427

Characterization of Microbial Communities Transforming and Removing Nitrogen in Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The community structure of bacteria responsible for transformation and removal of nitrogen species from farmyard runoff within\\u000a two different full-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems was studied. Microbial communities in litter and sediment\\u000a components were investigated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and band sequencing of the 16S ribosomal\\u000a ribonucleic acid gene fragments of putative ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and the nitrite

Atif Mustafa; Miklas Scholz

2011-01-01

428

The determination of peroxide value by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid method for the quantitative determination of peroxide value (PV) of vegetable oils by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)\\u000a transmission spectroscopy is described. Calibration standards were prepared by the addition oft-butyl hydroperoxide to a series of vegetable oils, along with random amounts of oleic acid and water. Additional standards\\u000a were derived through the addition of mono- and diglyceride spectral contributions,

F. R. van de Voort; A. A. Ismail; J. Sedman; J. Dubois; T. Nicodemo

1994-01-01

429

Formal Transformations and WSL Martin Ward  

E-print Network

Formal Transformations and WSL Part Two Martin Ward STRL Senior Research Fellow Royal Society of Transformations #12;Types of Transformations A Syntactic Transformation changes the syntax of the program but preserves the exact sequence of operations carried out by the program. Many restructuring transformations

Singer, Jeremy

430

Germ-line transformation of Arabidopsis lasiocarpa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In planta transformation methods have opened up the possibility of transforming plant species for which no regeneration protocols currently exist. In this study, the suitability of the germ-line transformation method developed for Arabidopsis thaliana was examined for four taxa in the Brassicaceae that have not been previously transformed: Arabidopsis griffithiana, Arabidopsis lasiocarpa, Arabidopsis petraea and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Numerous transformants were

Brian W. Tague

2001-01-01

431

Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are triterpenoid compounds that exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. This review summarizes the pharmacological studies on these two triterpenoids. Both oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are effective in protecting against chemically induced liver injury in laboratory animals. Oleanolic acid has been marketed in China as an oral drug for human liver

Jie Liu

1995-01-01

432

The gene transformer-2 of Sciara (Diptera, Nematocera) and its effect on Drosophila sexual development  

PubMed Central

Background The gene transformer-2, which is involved in sex determination, has been studied in Drosophila, Musca, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Lucilia. All these members of Diptera belong to the suborder Brachycera. In this work, it is reported the isolation and characterisation of genes transformer-2 of the dipterans Sciara ocellaris and Bradysia coprophila (formerly Sciara coprophila), which belong to the much less extensively analysed Sciaridae Family of the Suborder Nematocera, which is paraphyletic with respect to Suborder Brachycera. Results The transformer-2 genes of the studied Sciara species were found to be transcribed in both sexes during development and adult life, in both the soma and germ lines. They produced a single primary transcript, which follows the same alternative splicing in both sexes, giving rise to different mRNAs isoforms. In S. ocellaris the most abundant mRNA isoform encoded a full-length protein of 251 amino acids, while that of B. coprophila encoded a protein of 246 amino acids. Both showed the features of the SR protein family. The less significant mRNA isoforms of both species encoded truncated, presumably non-functional Transformer-2 proteins. The comparison of the functional Sciara Transformer-2 proteins among themselves and those of other insects revealed the greatest degree of conservation in the RRM domain and linker region. In contrast, the RS1 and RS2 domains showed extensive variation with respect to their number of amino acids and their arginine-serine (RS) dipeptide content. The expression of S. ocellaris Transformer-2 protein in Drosophila XX pseudomales lacking the endogenous transformer-2 function caused their partial feminisation. Conclusions The transformer-2 genes of both Sciaridae species encode a single protein in both sexes that shares the characteristics of the Transformer-2 proteins of other insects. These proteins showed conserved sex-determination function in Drosophila; i.e., they were able to form a complex with the endogenous Drosophila Transformer protein that controls the female-specific splicing of the Drosophila doublesex pre-mRNA. However, it appears that the complex formed between the Drosophila Transformer protein and the Sciara Transformer-2 protein is less effective at inducing the female-specific splicing of the endogenous Drosophila doublesex pre-mRNA than the DrosophilaTransformer-Transformer2 complex. This suggests the existence of species-specific co-evolution of the Transformer and Transformer-2 proteins. PMID:21406087

2011-01-01

433

HYDROFLUORIC ACID Safety Office  

E-print Network

acids like Sulfuric and Hydrochloric. Hydrofluoric Acid is an acid like no other. It is so potentHYDROFLUORIC ACID SAFETY Safety Office University ofTennessee Space Institute Tullahoma, TN #12;What is Hydrofluoric Acid ? Hydrofluoric acid is a "weak" inorganic acid. Primarily used

Davis, Lloyd M.

434

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-08-01

435

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-05-01

436

Wavelet transforms for infrared applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wavelet transform has gained much in popularity recently. Although the concepts underlying the wavelet transform have been used for some time, it is only in the last seven years that it began to have an impact, especially on signal and image processing. Wavelets have applications in differential equations, signal processing, image and video compression, and many other domains. We provide a brief introduction to wavelets and wavelet analysis, and compare the wavelet and Fourier transforms. The wavelet transform allows us to analyze nonstationary signals, which the Fourier transform cannot. This is a very important property of wavelets. A wavelet decomposition makes it possible to analyze a signal both in time (or space) and frequency domains and is appropriate for multiresolution analysis. One interesting application of wavelets is image fusion. For this application we take the wavelet transform of images coming from different sensors (e.g., visible and infrared). This provides us with a multiresolution description of visible and infrared images. The two images are then merged at each level of resolution. Applying the inverse wavelet transform on the resulting image generates a new image which is a composite of the two original ones. This concept can be applied to more than two images whether they are in the same spectral band or not. Some results are presented and compared with the classical pyramidal algorithms of Burt and Toet.

Lejeune, Claude

1995-09-01

437

Enhancers of Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation of Tibouchina semidecandra Selected on the Basis of GFP Expression.  

PubMed

Genetic engineering is a powerful tool for the improvement of plant traits. Despite reported successes in the plant kingdom, this technology has barely scratched the surface of the Melastomataceae family. Limited studies have led to some optimisation of parameters known to affect the transformation efficiency of these plants. The major finding of this study was to optimise the presence of selected enhancers [e.g., monosaccharides (D-glucose, D-galactose and D-fructose), tyrosine, aluminium chloride (AICI3) and ascorbic acid] to improve the transformation efficiency of Tibouchina semidecandra. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the disarmed plasmid pCAMBIA1304 was used to transform shoots and nodes of T. semidecandra. Different concentrations of the transformation enhancers were tested by using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. The results obtained were based on the percentage of GFP expression, which was observed 14 days post-transformation. A combination of 120 ?M galactose and 100 ?M tyrosine supplemented with 600 ?M AICI3 in the presence of 15 mg/l ascorbic acid gave the highest percentage of positive transformants for T. semidecandra shoots. Whereas 60 ?M galactose and 50 ?M tyrosine with 200 ?M AICI3 in the presence of 15 mg/l ascorbic acid was optimum for T. semidecandra nodes. The presence of the hygromycin phosphotransferase II (hptII) transgene in the genomic DNA of putative T. semidecandra transformants was verified by PCR amplification with specific primers. PMID:24575204

Yong, Wilson Thau Lym; Henry, Erle Stanley; Abdullah, Janna Ong

2010-12-01

438

Enhancers of Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation of Tibouchina semidecandra Selected on the Basis of GFP Expression  

PubMed Central

Genetic engineering is a powerful tool for the improvement of plant traits. Despite reported successes in the plant kingdom, this technology has barely scratched the surface of the Melastomataceae family. Limited studies have led to some optimisation of parameters known to affect the transformation efficiency of these plants. The major finding of this study was to optimise the presence of selected enhancers [e.g., monosaccharides (D-glucose, D-galactose and D-fructose), tyrosine, aluminium chloride (AICI3) and ascorbic acid] to improve the transformation efficiency of Tibouchina semidecandra. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the disarmed plasmid pCAMBIA1304 was used to transform shoots and nodes of T. semidecandra. Different concentrations of the transformation enhancers were tested by using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. The results obtained were based on the percentage of GFP expression, which was observed 14 days post-transformation. A combination of 120 ?M galactose and 100 ?M tyrosine supplemented with 600 ?M AICI3 in the presence of 15 mg/l ascorbic acid gave the highest percentage of positive transformants for T. semidecandra shoots. Whereas 60 ?M galactose and 50 ?M tyrosine with 200 ?M AICI3 in the presence of 15 mg/l ascorbic acid was optimum for T. semidecandra nodes. The presence of the hygromycin phosphotransferase II (hptII) transgene in the genomic DNA of putative T. semidecandra transformants was verified by PCR amplification with specific primers. PMID:24575204

Yong, Wilson Thau Lym; Henry, Erle Stanley; Abdullah, Janna Ong

2010-01-01

439

Biophotonic probing of macromolecular transformations during apoptosis  

PubMed Central

We introduce here multiplex nonlinear optical imaging as a powerful tool for studying the molecular organization and its transformation in cellular processes, with the specific example of apoptosis. Apoptosis is a process of self-initiated cell death, critically important for physiological regulation and elimination of genetic disorders. Nonlinear optical microscopy, combining the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF), has been used for analysis of spatial distribution of major types of biomolecules: proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids in the cells while monitoring their changes during apoptosis. CARS imaging revealed that in the nuclei of proliferating cells, the proteins are distributed nearly uniformly, with local accumulations in several nuclear structures. We have found that this distribution is abruptly disrupted at the onset of apoptosis and is transformed to a progressively irregular pattern. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies indicate that pronounced aggregation of proteins in the nucleoplasm of apoptotic cells coincides with a gradual reduction in their mobility. PMID:20615987

Pliss, Artem; Kuzmin, Andrey N.; Kachynski, Aliaksandr V.; Prasad, Paras N.

2010-01-01

440

Natural transformation of Gallibacterium anatis.  

PubMed

Gallibacterium anatis is a pathogen of poultry. Very little is known about its genetics and pathogenesis. To enable the study of gene function in G. anatis, we have established methods for transformation and targeted mutagenesis. The genus Gallibacterium belongs to the Pasteurellaceae, a group with several naturally transformable members, including Haemophilus influenzae. Bioinformatics analysis identified G. anatis homologs of the H. influenzae competence genes, and natural competence was induced in G. anatis by the procedure established for H. influenzae: transfer from rich medium to the starvation medium M-IV. This procedure gave reproducibly high transformation frequencies with G. anatis chromosomal DNA and with linearized plasmid DNA carrying G. anatis sequences. Both DNA types integrated into the G. anatis chromosome by homologous recombination. Targeted mutagenesis gave transformation frequencies of >2 × 10(-4) transformants CFU(-1). Transformation was also efficient with circular plasmid containing no G. anatis DNA; this resulted in the establishment of a self-replicating plasmid. Nine diverse G. anatis strains were found to be naturally transformable by this procedure, suggesting that natural competence is common and the M-IV transformation procedure widely applicable for this species. The G. anatis genome is only slightly enriched for the uptake signal sequences identified in other pasteurellaceaen genomes, but G. anatis did preferentially take up its own DNA over that of Escherichia coli. Transformation by electroporation was not effective for chromosomal integration but could be used to introduce self-replicating plasmids. The findings described here provide important tools for the genetic manipulation of G. anatis. PMID:22582057

Kristensen, Bodil M; Sinha, Sunita; Boyce, John D; Bojesen, Anders M; Mell, Joshua C; Redfield, Rosemary J

2012-07-01

441

Natural Transformation of Gallibacterium anatis  

PubMed Central

Gallibacterium anatis is a pathogen of poultry. Very little is known about its genetics and pathogenesis. To enable the study of gene function in G. anatis, we have established methods for transformation and targeted mutagenesis. The genus Gallibacterium belongs to the Pasteurellaceae, a group with several naturally transformable members, including Haemophilus influenzae. Bioinformatics analysis identified G. anatis homologs of the H. influenzae competence genes, and natural competence was induced in G. anatis by the procedure established for H. influenzae: transfer from rich medium to the starvation medium M-IV. This procedure gave reproducibly high transformation frequencies with G. anatis chromosomal DNA and with linearized plasmid DNA carrying G. anatis sequences. Both DNA types integrated into the G. anatis chromosome by homologous recombination. Targeted mutagenesis gave transformation frequencies of >2 × 10?4 transformants CFU?1. Transformation was also efficient with circular plasmid containing no G. anatis DNA; this resulted in the establishment of a self-replicating plasmid. Nine diverse G. anatis strains were found to be naturally transformable by this procedure, suggesting that natural competence is common and the M-IV transformation procedure widely applicable for this species. The G. anatis genome is only slightly enriched for the uptake signal sequences identified in other pasteurellaceaen genomes, but G. anatis did preferentially take up its own DNA over that of Escherichia coli. Transformation by electroporation was not effective for chromosomal integration but could be used to introduce self-replicating plasmids. The findings described here provide important tools for the genetic manipulation of G. anatis. PMID:22582057

Kristensen, Bodil M.; Sinha, Sunita; Boyce, John D.; Mell, Joshua C.; Redfield, Rosemary J.

2012-01-01

442

Discrete implementations of scale transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scale as a physical quantity is a recently developed concept. The scale transform can be viewed as a special case of the more general Mellin transform and its mathematical properties are very applicable in the analysis and interpretation of the signals subject to scale changes. A number of single-dimensional applications of scale concept have been made in speech analysis, processing of biological signals, machine vibration analysis and other areas. Recently, the scale transform was also applied in multi-dimensional signal processing and used for image filtering and denoising. Discrete implementation of the scale transform can be carried out using logarithmic sampling and the well-known fast Fourier transform. Nevertheless, in the case of the uniformly sampled signals, this implementation involves resampling. An algorithm not involving resampling of the uniformly sampled signals has been derived too. In this paper, a modification of the later algorithm for discrete implementation of the direct scale transform is presented. In addition, similar concept was used to improve a recently introduced discrete implementation of the inverse scale transform. Estimation of the absolute discretization errors showed that the modified algorithms have a desirable property of yielding a smaller region of possible error magnitudes. Experimental results are obtained using artificial signals as well as signals evoked from the temporomandibular joint. In addition, discrete implementations for the separable two-dimensional direct and inverse scale transforms are derived. Experiments with image restoration and scaling through two-dimensional scale domain using the novel implementation of the separable two-dimensional scale transform pair are presented.

Djurdjanovic, Dragan; Williams, William J.; Koh, Christopher K.

1999-11-01

443

Type-II Bäcklund transformations via gauge transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of type II Bäcklund transformation for the sine-Gordon and the Tzitzéica-Bullough-Dodd models are obtained from gauge transformation. An infinite number of conserved quantities are constructed from the defect matrices. This guarantees that the introduction of type II defects for these models does not spoil their integrability. In particular, modified energy and momentum are derived and compared with those presented in recent literature.

Aguirre, A. R.; Araujo, T. R.; Gomes, J. F.; Zimerman, A. H.

2011-12-01

444

DNA Uptake by Transformable Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

Lacks, Sanford A.

1999-03-31

445

Spacecraft transformer and inductor design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conversion process in spacecraft power electronics requires the use of magnetic components which frequently are the heaviest and bulkiest items in the conversion circuit. This handbook pertains to magnetic material selection, transformer and inductor design tradeoffs, transformer design, iron core dc inductor design, toroidal power core inductor design, window utilization factors, regulation, and temperature rise. Relationships are given which simplify and standardize the design of transformers and the analysis of the circuits in which they are used. The interactions of the various design parameters are also presented in simplified form so that tradeoffs and optimizations may easily be made.

Mclyman, W. T.

1977-01-01

446

Intelligent Transformer: Possibilities and Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper covers the concept of an intelligent transformer that is a good candidate to replace a conventional low frequency transformer in the microgrids. As the power production and consumption can vary in a wide range, the new substations have to meet many requirements to guarantee reliable energy management in the autonomous networks. Different topologies of intelligent transformers can be used to meet these requirements. Therefore the advantages and disadvantages of the existing topologies were analyzed. The future trends and challenges are also discussed.

Viktor, Beldjajev; Indrek, Roasto; Tõnu, Lehtla

2011-01-01

447

Hydration of pyruvic acid to its geminal-diol, 2,2-dihydroxypropanoic acid, in a water-restricted environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present the spectroscopic characterization of 2,2-dihydroxypropanoic acid and its water complexes. Based on this information the water-mediated hydration between pyruvic acid and its geminal diol counterpart, 2,2-dihydroxypropanoic acid, was investigated at very low water concentration at ambient temperatures, using Fourier-transform mid-infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). We experimentally observed large concentrations of 2,2-dihydroxypropanoic acid in this water-restricted environment of the carbon tetrachloride matrix. Our observation can be explained by the role of hydrogen-bonded water clusters in promoting the hydration of the carbonyl in pyruvic acid.

Maro?, Marta K.; Takahashi, Kaito; Shoemaker, Richard K.; Vaida, Veronica

2011-09-01

448

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly detailed chemical information page features domoic acid, a toxin associated with Amnesic shellfish poisoning and naturally produced by the red algae Chondria armata and diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Created by the International Programme on Chemical Safety, this web page organizes information under the following sections: Name, Summary, Physio-Chemical Properties, Uses, Routes of Entry, Kinetics, Toxicology, Toxicological and Biomedical Investigations, Clinical Effects, Management, Illustrative Cases, Additional Information, References, and Authors.

INCHEM

449

Nicotinuric Acid  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Metabolic syndrome is a multiplex disorder and puts patients on the road to type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. However, a surrogate biomarker in plasma or urine in fully reflecting features of metabolic syndrome has not been explored. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Urine metabolomics has potential utility in metabolic profiling because urine metabolites analysis reflects global outflux of metabolic change. Accordingly, we collected data on subjects (n = 99) with overweight, dyslipidemia, hypertension or impaired glucose tolerance and took a metabolomics approach to analyze the metabolites of urine revealed in metabolic syndrome by high-performance liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry and elicit potential biomarkers to picture metabolic syndrome. RESULTS Our results revealed that the urine nicotinuric acid value of subjects with diabetes (HbA1c ?6.5% or those receiving diabetes medications) (n = 25) was higher than subjects without diabetes (n = 37) (221 ± 31 vs. 152 ± 13 × 103 mAU, P = 0.0268). Moreover, urinary nicotinuric acid level was positively correlated with body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein, but negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study, to our knowledge, to propose that nicotinuric acid represents an important pathogenic mechanism in process from metabolic syndrome to diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:23275373

Huang, Chun-Feng; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Fan, Chun-Ming; Hong, Chuang-Ye; Shiao, Ming-Shi

2013-01-01

450

Choline Supplementation Inhibits Diethanolamine-Induced Morphological Transformation in Syrian Hamster Embryo Cells: Evidence for a Carcinogenic Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

DEA, an amino alcohol, and its fatty acid condensates are widely used in commerce. DEA is hepatocarcinogenic in mice, but shows no evidence of mutagenicity or clastogenicity in a standard testing battery. However, it increased the number of morphologi- cally transformed colonies in the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell morphologic transformation assay. The goal of this work was to test

L. D. Lehman-McKeeman

2000-01-01

451

BIOLISTIC TRANSFORMATION OF SUGAR BEET CELL SUSPENSIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nonproprietary sugar beet transformation methods are plagued by low transformation frequencies and lack of reproducibility. In efforts to optimize the methods, we established highly embryogenic sugar beet cell suspension cultures for transformation by the particle bombardment method. Callus obtain...

452

TRANSFORMING ACADEMIA Historical Developments, Contemporary Perspectives and  

E-print Network

ISyE 8803A TRANSFORMING ACADEMIA Historical Developments, Contemporary Perspectives independence and this organizational structure represent the first major transformation of academia. These characteristics of academia have persisted for over 900 years and seem immutable. Yet, notable transformations

Li, Mo

453

10 CFR 429.47 - Distribution transformers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Distribution transformers. 429.47 Section 429.47 Energy...Certification § 429.47 Distribution transformers. (a) Sampling plan for selection...11 are applicable to distribution transformers; and (2) For each basic...

2014-01-01

454

10 CFR 429.47 - Distribution transformers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Distribution transformers. 429.47 Section 429.47 Energy...Certification § 429.47 Distribution transformers. (a) Sampling plan for selection...11 are applicable to distribution transformers; and (2) For each basic...

2013-01-01

455

Transforms for the Motion Compensation Residual  

E-print Network

The Discrete-Cosine-Transform (DCT) is the most widely used transform in image and video compression. Its use in image compression is often justified by the notion that it is the statistically optimal transform for first-order ...

Kamisli, Fatih

456

Local Principal Components Analysis for Transform Coding  

E-print Network

both, the transform coding by Karhunen-Loeve Transform and LBG vector quantisation. I. Introduction-Loeve Transform (KLT) [3] and LBG vector quantisation [9]. II. Algorithm for LPCA Local Principal Component

Vialatte, François

457

ABIOTIC TRANSFORMATION IN WATER, SEDIMENTS, AND SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Both abiotic and biotic transformations of pesticides occur simultaneously in the environment. lthough the dominance of abiotic transformations was demonstrated in some cases, it often was assumed that biotic transformations control the degradation of pesticides in natural system...

458

Transformations of measures via their generalized densities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note we describe algorithms for obtaining formulae for transformations of measures on infinite dimensional topological vector spaces or manifolds, generated by transformations of the domains of the measures and by transformations of the range.

Montaldi, J.; Smolyanov, O. G.

2014-07-01

459

Transformation 1 - Plant Tissue Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains the technique of tissue culture as used in plant transformation. It discusses important issues, such as the use of selectable markers, genotype specificity, and tissue culture alternatives.

460

Lightweight, high-frequency transformers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 25-kVA space transformer was developed under contract by Thermal Technology Laboratory, Buffalo, N. Y. The NASA Lewis transformer technology program attempted to develop the baseline technology. For the 25-kVA transformer the input voltage was chosen as 200 V, the output voltage as 1500 V, the input voltage waveform as square wave, the duty cycle as continuous, the frequency range (within certain constraints) as 10 to 40 kHz, the operating temperatures as 85 deg. and 130 C, the baseplate temperature as 50 C, the equivalent leakage inductance as less than 10 micro-h, the operating environment as space, and the life expectancy as 10 years. Such a transformer can also be used for aircraft, ship and terrestrial applications.

Schwarze, G. E.

1983-01-01

461

Transformational leadership in nursing practice.  

PubMed

Traditionally, nurses have been over-managed and led inadequately, yet today they face unprecedented challenges and opportunities. Organisations constantly face changes that require an increasingly adaptive and flexible leadership. This type of adaptive leadership is referred to as 'transformational'; under it, environments of shared responsibilities that influence new ways of knowing are created. Transformational leadership motivates followers by appealing to higher ideas and moral values, where the leader has a deep set of internal values and ideas. This leads to followers acting to sustain the greater good, rather than their own interests, and supportive environments where responsibility is shared. This article focuses on transformational leadership and its application to nursing through the four components of transformational leadership. These are: idealised influence; inspirational motivation; intellectual stimulation; and individual consideration. PMID:23132001

Doody, Owen; Doody, Catriona M

462

Cognitive Transformations and Extended Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expertise is extended by becoming immersed in cultural practices. We look at an example of mathematical expertise in which immersion in cognitive practices results in the transformation of expert performance.

Menary, Richard; Kirchhoff, Michael

2014-01-01

463

The Fast Lifting Wavelet Transform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A tutorial on wavelet filters aimed at engineers. Focusses on "lifting," a technique for creating a general framework to design filters for every possible wavelet transform. May be read online or downloaded in PostScript format.

Valens, C.

464

Symmetry breaking from Lorentz transformation  

E-print Network

Symmetry breaking is discussed in this paper which comes from the Lorentz transformation of special relativity and changes our view that two relatively moving bodies always have the relative speed equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. An appeal was made for the test of Lorentz transformation in a multimedia environment which has the fundamental significance that it may reveal the origin of symmetry breaking in many physical phenomena.

Bin-Guang Ma

2005-08-10

465

Rotary Transformer Seals Power In  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotary transformer originally developed for spacecraft transfers electrical power from stationary primary winding to rotating secondary without sliding contacts and very little leakage of electromagnetic radiation. Transformer has two stationary primary windings connected in parallel. Secondary, mounted on a shaft that extends out of housing, rotates between two windings of primary. Shaft of secondary is composed of electrically conducting inner and outer parts separated by an insulator. Electrical contact is made from secondary winding, through shaft, to external leads.

Studer, P. A.; Paulkovich, J.

1982-01-01

466

Physical transformations between quantum states  

E-print Network

Given two sets of quantum states {A_1, ..., A_k} and {B_1, ..., B_k}, represented as sets of density matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of a physical transformation T, represented as a trace-preserving completely positive map, such that T(A_i) = B_i for i = 1, ..., k. General completely positive maps without the trace-preserving requirement, and unital completely positive maps transforming the states are also considered.

Zejun Huang; Chi-Kwong Li; Edward Poon; Nung-Sing Sze

2012-10-26

467

Volumetric Transformation of Brain Anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents diffeomorphic transformations of three-dimensional (3-D) anatomical image data of the macaque occipital lobe and whole brain cryosection imagery and of deep brain structures in human brains as imaged via magnetic reso- nance imagery. These transformations are generated in a hierar- chical manner, accommodating both global and local anatomical detail. The initial low-dimensional registration is accomplished by constraining

Gary E. Christensen; Sarang C. Joshi; Michael I. Miller

1997-01-01

468

CAT scan and Radon/X-ray transform Relations with the Fourier transform. Dual Radon  

E-print Network

CAT scan and Radon/X-ray transform Relations with the Fourier transform. Dual Radon Radon transform of Tomographic Type #12;CAT scan and Radon/X-ray transform Relations with the Fourier transform. Dual Radon Radon one may want to ask 2 Tomography 3 CAT scan and Radon/X-ray transform 4 Relations with Fourier

469

On the broken ray transform  

E-print Network

This PhD thesis studies the broken ray transform, a generalization of the geodesic X-ray transform where geodesics are replaced with broken rays that reflect on a part of the boundary. The fundamental question is whether this transform is injective. We employ four different methods to approach this question, and each of them gives interesting results. Direct calculation can be used in a ball, where the geometry is particularly simple. If the reflecting part of the boundary is (piecewise) flat, a reflection argument can be used to reduce the problem to the usual X-ray transform. In some geometries one can use broken rays near the boundary to determine the values of the unknown function at the reflector, and even construct its Taylor series. One can also use energy estimates -- which in this context are known as Pestov identities -- to show injectivity in the presence of one convex reflecting obstacle. Many of these methods work also on Riemannian manifolds. We also discuss the periodic broken ray transform, where the integrals are taken over periodic broken rays. The broken ray transform and its periodic version have applications in other inverse problems, including Calder\\'on's problem and problems related to spectral geometry. A more detailed abstract can be found in the PDF file. This version only contains the introductory parts of the thesis. The full thesis also contains five articles.

Joonas Ilmavirta

2014-09-26

470

Volumetric transformation of brain anatomy.  

PubMed

This paper presents diffeomorphic transformations of three-dimensional (3-D) anatomical image data of the macaque occipital lobe and whole brain cryosection imagery and of deep brain structures in human brains as imaged via magnetic resonance imagery. These transformations are generated in a hierarchical manner, accommodating both global and local anatomical detail. The initial low-dimensional registration is accomplished by constraining the transformation to be in a low-dimensional basis. The basis is defined by the Green's function of the elasticity operator placed at predefined locations in the anatomy and the eigenfunctions of the elasticity operator. The high-dimensional large deformations are vector fields generated via the mismatch between the template and target-image volumes constrained to be the solution of a Navier-Stokes fluid model. As part of this procedure, the Jacobian of the transformation is tracked, insuring the generation of diffeomorphisms. It is shown that transformations constrained by quadratic regularization methods such as the Laplacian, biharmonic, and linear elasticity models, do not ensure that the transformation maintains topology and, therefore, must only be used for coarse global registration. PMID:9533586

Christensen, G E; Joshi, S C; Miller, M I

1997-12-01

471

Ion exchange properties of humus acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion exchange equilibriums in a complex of brown humic acids (HAs) and related fulvic acids (FAs) with cations (H+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, and Al3+) have been studied, and the activity coefficients of the acid monoionic forms have been determined. The composition of the stoichiometric cell in the system of black and brown HAs and related FAs in a leached chernozem of the Ob' region has been calculated with consideration for the earlier studies of the ion exchange properties of black HAs and related FAs. It has been shown that hydrogen, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, and iron are the major components in the exchange complex of humus acids in the leached chernozem with the other cations being of subordinate importance. In spite of some differences between the analytical and calculated compositions of the humus acids, the results of the calculations can be considered satisfactory. They indicate that calculations are feasible for such complex objects as soils, and their accuracy will improve with the expansion of the experimental studies. The physicochemical simulation of the transformation of the humus acid composition under different acid-base conditions shows that the contents of most cations decrease under alkalization, and hydroxides or carbonates become the most stable forms of these cations. Under the acidification of solutions, the binding of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements by humus acids decreases and the adsorption of iron and aluminum by humus acids increases.

Shoba, V. N.; Chudnenko, K. V.

2014-08-01

472

-Amino acids, although less abundant than their -analogues, are also present in peptides and other natural  

E-print Network

-Amino acids, although less abundant than their -analogues, are also present in peptides and other. A number of methods for synthesis and transformations leading to -amino acids in diastereomerically and enantiomerically enriched forms have been reported.1 The synthesis of modified peptides containing -amino acids

473

Specific Locations of Hydrophilic Amino Acids in Constructed Transmembrane Ligands of the Platelet-  

E-print Network

Specific Locations of Hydrophilic Amino Acids in Constructed Transmembrane Ligands of the Platelet University, New Haven CT 06510, USA The 44 amino acid E5 transmembrane protein is the primary oncogene in cellular transformation. To investigate the role of transmembrane hydrophilic amino acids in receptor

474

SHORT-TERM CHANGES IN THE BASE NEUTRALIZING CAPACITY OF AN ACID ADIRONDACK LAKE, NEW YORK  

EPA Science Inventory

Concern and controversy over the effects of acidic deposition on low ionic strength surface wa ters has led to much discussion on the nature and extent of proton transformations within acid sensitive ecosystems. The source of base neutralizing capacity(BNC) within acid surface wa...

475

Seeing the Fisher Z-Transformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1915, statisticians have been applying Fisher's Z-transformation to Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. We offer new geometric interpretations of this transformation. (Contains 9 figures.)

Bond, Charles F., Jr.; Richardson, Ken

2004-01-01

476

Folic acid - test  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

477

Methylmalonic acid blood test  

MedlinePLUS

... acid is a substance produced when proteins (called amino acids) in the body break down. A test can ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

478

The geology of the Oceanographer Transform: The transform domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dives in submersible ALVIN and four deep-towed camera lowerings have been made along the transform valley of the Oceanographer Transform. These data constrain our understanding of the processes that create and shape the distinctive morphology that is characteristic of slowly slipping ridge-transform-ridge (RTR) plate boundaries. Our data suggest that the locus of strike-slip tectonism, called the transform fault zone (TFZ), is confined to a narrow swath (<4 km) that is centered along the axis of maximum depth. The TFZ is flanked by the inward facing slopes of the transform valley. The lower portions of the valley walls are characterized by broad sloping exposures of undisrupted sediment but at higher elevations the walls are made up of inward facing scarps and terraces of variable dimensions. Although the scarps have been badly degraded by mass wasting, there is no evidence to suggest that these scarps have accommodated significant amounts of strike-slip motion. Plutonic and ultramafic rocks are exposed on these scarps and the occurrence of this diverse assemblage on small-throw faults indicates that the crust is thin and/or discontinuous in this environment. We suggest that this complex igneous assemblage is the product of anomalous accretionary processes that are characteristic of slowly-slipping RTR plate boundaries.

Fox, P. J.; Moody, R. H.; Karson, J. A.; Bonatti, E.; Kidd, W. S. F.; Crane, K.; Gallo, D. G.; Stroup, J. B.; Fornari, D. J.; Elthon, D.; Hamlyn, P.; Casey, J. F.; Needham, D.; Sartori, R.

1985-09-01

479

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

480

Fourier transform-infrared studies of thin HâSOâ\\/HâO films: Formation, water uptake, and solid-liquid phase changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to examine films representative of stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosols. Thin films of sulfuric acid were formed in situ by the condensed phase reaction of SOâ with HâO. FTIR spectra show that the sulfuric acid films absorb water while cooling in the presence of water vapor. Using stratospheric water pressures, the most dilute solutions observed

Ann M. Middlebrook; Laura T. Iraci; Laurie S. Mcneill; Birgit G. Koehler; Margaret A. Wilson; Ole W. Saastad; Margaret A. Tolbert; David R. Hanson

1993-01-01

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