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1

Net ecosystem productivity of temperate grasslands in northern China: An upscaling study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grassland is one of the widespread biome types globally, and plays an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. We examined net ecosystem production (NEP) for the temperate grasslands in northern China from 2000 to 2010. We combined flux observations, satellite data, and climate data to develop a piecewise regression model for NEP, and then used the model to map NEP for grasslands in northern China. Over the growing season, the northern China's grassland had a net carbon uptake of 158 ± 25 g C m?2 during 2000–2010 with the mean regional NEP estimate of 126 Tg C. Our results showed generally higher grassland NEP at high latitudes (northeast) than at low latitudes (central and west) because of different grassland types and environmental conditions. In the northeast, which is dominated by meadow steppes, the growing season NEP generally reached 200–300 g C m?2. In the southwest corner of the region, which is partially occupied by alpine meadow systems, the growing season NEP also reached 200–300 g C m?2. In the central part, which is dominated by typical steppe systems, the growing season NEP generally varied in the range of 100–200 g C m?2. The NEP of the northern China's grasslands was highly variable through years, ranging from 129 (2001) to 217 g C m?2 growing season?1 (2010). The large interannual variations of NEP could be attributed to the sensitivity of temperate grasslands to climate changes and extreme climatic events. The droughts in 2000, 2001, and 2006 reduced the carbon uptake over the growing season by 11%, 29%, and 16% relative to the long-term (2000–2010) mean. Over the study period (2000–2010), precipitation was significantly correlated with NEP for the growing season (R2 = 0.35, p-value < 0.1), indicating that water availability is an important stressor for the productivity of the temperate grasslands in semi-arid and arid regions in northern China. We conclude that northern temperate grasslands have the potential to sequester carbon, but the capacity of carbon sequestration depends on grassland types and environmental conditions. Extreme climate events like drought can significantly reduce the net carbon uptake of grasslands.

Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Jia, Gensuo; Wylie, Bruce; Gilmanov, Tagir; Howard, Daniel M.; Ji, Lei; Xiao, Jingfeng; Li, Jing; Yuan, Wenping; Zhao, Tianbao; Chen, Shiping; Zhou, Guangsheng; Kato, Tomomichi

2014-01-01

2

Environmental Controls and Management Effects on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in Two Grazed Temperate Grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate grasslands constitute over 30% of the Earth's naturally-occurring biomes and make an important contribution towards the partial mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by terrestrial ecosystems. Accumulation of carbon (C) in grassland systems predominantly takes place in below-ground repositories, enhanced by the presence of a stable soil environment with low carbon turnover rates, active rhizodeposition and high levels of residue and organic inputs. However, this C sequestration is strongly influenced by soil characteristics and climatic variables. Furthermore, in managed pasture systems, carbon exchange across the soil-atmosphere boundary is additionally affected by management activities, such as biomass removal, grazing events and the deposition or application of organic amendments. These biotic and abiotic factors contribute greatly towards the large uncertainty associated with the carbon balance of grassland ecosystems and demand further analysis. In the present study, the controls and drivers of carbon dynamics in two rotationally-grazed grasslands in Ireland were examined. The sites experience similar temperate climatic regimes but differ in soil texture classification and stocking rate. Eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange of carbon were complemented by regular assessment of standing biomass, leaf cover, harvest exports and organic amendment inputs. Our study showed that mild weather conditions and an extended growing season sustained net C accumulation at both sites for at least ten months of the year. Despite differing soil drainage characteristics, winter fluxes of net carbon exchange and its component fluxes, gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration, were highly comparable between the two sites. Management practices during the active growing season exerted a strong influence on both the direction and the rate of C exchange in the grassland systems, with a strong dependence, however, on the timing and intensity of the management effect. Harvest-induced reductions in productivity and net C uptake were generally greater than grazing-induced shifts, however the effects were at times mediated by environmental conditions. Our research highlighted the complex nature of the investigated grasslands resulting from the heterogeneous footprint induced by rotational grazing, grass harvesting and intensive management practices. Further work will focus on the applicability of different gap-filling methodologies for capturing the temporal and spatial variability observed. The potential of vegetation indices as a means of tracking sward development will also be investigated, with the aim of improving our understanding of the impact of vegetation dynamics on measured ecosystem carbon fluxes.

Ni Choncubhair, O.; Humphreys, J.; Lanigan, G.

2013-12-01

3

Impact of inter-annual climatic variability on ecosystem carbon exchange in two grazed temperate grasslands with contrasting drainage regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate grasslands constitute over 30% of the Earth's naturally-occurring biomes and make an important contribution towards the partial mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by terrestrial ecosystems. Accumulation of carbon (C) in grassland systems predominantly takes place in below-ground repositories, enhanced by the presence of a stable soil environment with low carbon turnover rates, active rhizodeposition and high levels of residue and organic inputs. Predicted future warming is expected to increase productivity in temperate zones, thereby enhancing rates of terrestrial carbon sequestration. However, the susceptibility of many ecosystems, including grasslands, to extreme climatic events and inter-annual variability has been demonstrated previously. Temperature anomalies as well as modifications in the temporal pattern and quantity of precipitation alter the balance between carbon uptake and release processes and a mechanistic understanding of ecosystem response to such changes is still lacking. In the present study, the impact of extreme inter-annual variability in summer rainfall and temperature on carbon dynamics in two rotationally-grazed grasslands in Ireland was examined. The sites experience similar temperate climatic regimes but differ in soil drainage characteristics. Eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange of carbon were complemented by regular assessment of standing biomass, leaf cover, harvest exports and organic amendment inputs. The summers of 2012 and 2013 showed contrasting climatic conditions, with summer precipitation 93% higher and 25% lower respectively than long-term means. In addition, soil temperatures were 7% lower and 11% higher than expected. Cool, wet conditions in 2012 facilitated net carbon uptake for more than ten months of the year at the poorly-drained site, however the ecosystem switched to a net source of carbon in 2013 during months with significantly reduced rainfall. In contrast, net C accumulation continued at the well-drained site despite the summer drought conditions. Total cumulative annual ecosystem respiration was 20% higher at the poorly-drained site than at the well-drained site in 2013, while a more modest increase in cumulative gross production (9.6%) was observed at the poorly-drained site for the same period. This research highlights the susceptibility of poorly-drained soils to accelerated efflux of carbon during soil drying cycles and points towards potential negative impacts of future warming scenarios, with significant carbon balance implications for grassland ecosystems.

Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Humphreys, James; Lanigan, Gary

2014-05-01

4

Interacting effects of temperature, soil moisture and plant biomass production on ecosystem respiration in a northern temperate grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chamber measurements of total ecosystem respiration (TER) in a native Canadian grassland ecosystem were made during two study years with different precipitation. The growing season (April–September) precipitation during 2001 was less than one-half of the 30-year mean (1971–2000), while 2002 received almost double the normal growing season precipitation. As a consequence soil moisture remained higher in 2002 than 2001 during

Lawrence B. Flanagan; Bruce G. Johnson

2005-01-01

5

Regional patterns and controls of ecosystem salinization with grassland afforestation along a rainfall gradient  

E-print Network

Regional patterns and controls of ecosystem salinization with grassland afforestation along salinization with grassland afforestation along a rainfall gradient, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB2015, doi climatic gradient in temperate South America. [3] Grassland afforestation, mainly with fast growing species

Jackson, Robert B.

6

Declining Birds in Grassland Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the grassland ecosystem with respect to declining bird species. This report is the effort of a number of agencies to develop a strategy for addressing grassland bird information needs. Grasslands are the most imperiled ecosystem worldwide, and birds associated with this ecosystem are on a decline. This report addresses monitoring issues, species in concern, and the effects of habitat and landscape on grassland birds.

7

Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a temperate mountain grassland: Effects of weather and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role and relative importance of weather and cutting for the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of a temperate mountain grassland was investigated. Eddy covariance CO2 flux data and associated measurements of the green plant area index and the major environmental driving forces acquired during 2001-2006 at the study site Neustift (Austria) were analyzed. Driven by three cutting events per year which kept the investigated grassland in a stage of vigorous growth, the seasonal variability of NEE was primarily modulated by gross primary productivity (GPP). The role of environmental parameters in modulating the seasonal variability of NEE was obscured by the strong response of GPP to changes in the amount of green plant area, as well as the cutting-mediated decoupling of phenological development and the seasonal course of environmental drivers. None of the environmental and management metrics examined was able to explain the inter-annual variability of annual NEE. This is thought to result from (1) a high covariance between GPP and ecosystem respiration (Reco) at the annual timescale which results in a comparatively small inter-annual variation of NEE, (2) compensating effects between carbon exchange during and outside the management period, and (3) changes in the biotic response to rather than the environmental variables per se. GPP was more important in modulating inter-annual variations in NEE in spring and before the first and second cut, while Reco explained a larger fraction of the inter-annual variability of NEE during the remaining periods, in particular the post-cut periods.

Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Bahn, Michael; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Cernusca, Alexander

2008-04-01

8

Abstract Fire can cause severe nitrogen (N) losses from grassland, chaparral, and temperate and boreal forest  

E-print Network

, chaparral, and temperate and boreal forests (Koslowski and Ahlgren 1974). As a result of fire, nutrientsAbstract Fire can cause severe nitrogen (N) losses from grassland, chaparral, and temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Paradoxically, soil ammonium levels are markedly increased by fire, resulting

Bruns, Tom

9

Relation of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Sensitive Reflectance Ratios to Carbon Flux Measurements of Montanne Grassland and Norway Spruce Forest Ecosystems in the Temperate Zone  

PubMed Central

We explored ability of reflectance vegetation indexes (VIs) related to chlorophyll fluorescence emission (R686/R630, R740/R800) and de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle pigments (PRI, calculated as (R531 ? R570)/(R531 ? R570)) to track changes in the CO2 assimilation rate and Light Use Efficiency (LUE) in montane grassland and Norway spruce forest ecosystems, both at leaf and also canopy level. VIs were measured at two research plots using a ground-based high spatial/spectral resolution imaging spectroscopy technique. No significant relationship between VIs and leaf light-saturated CO2 assimilation (AMAX) was detected in instantaneous measurements of grassland under steady-state irradiance conditions. Once the temporal dimension and daily irradiance variation were included into the experimental setup, statistically significant changes in VIs related to tested physiological parameters were revealed. ?PRI and ?(R686/R630) of grassland plant leaves under dark-to-full sunlight transition in the scale of minutes were significantly related to AMAX (R2 = 0.51). In the daily course, the variation of VIs measured in one-hour intervals correlated well with the variation of Gross Primary Production (GPP), Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), and LUE estimated via the eddy-covariance flux tower. Statistical results were weaker in the case of the grassland ecosystem, with the strongest statistical relation of the index R686/R630 with NEE and GPP. PMID:22701368

A?, Alexander; Malenovský, Zbyn?k; Urban, Otmar; Hanuš, Jan; Zitová, Martina; Navrátil, Martin; Vráblová, Martina; Olejní?ková, Julie; Špunda, Vladimír; Marek, Michal

2012-01-01

10

How generalist herbivores exploit belowground plant diversity in temperate grasslands.  

PubMed

Belowground herbivores impact plant performance, thereby inducing changes in plant community composition, which potentially leads to cascading effects onto higher trophic levels and ecosystem processes and productivity. Among soil-living insects, external root-chewing generalist herbivores have the strongest impact on plants. However, the lack of knowledge on their feeding behaviour under field conditions considerably hampers achieving a comprehensive understanding of how they affect plant communities. Here, we address this gap of knowledge by investigating the feeding behaviour of Agriotes click beetle larvae, which are common generalist external root-chewers in temperate grassland soils. Utilizing diagnostic multiplex PCR to assess the larval diet, we examined the seasonal patterns in feeding activity, putative preferences for specific plant taxa, and whether species identity and larval instar affect food choices of the herbivores. Contrary to our hypothesis, most of the larvae were feeding-active throughout the entire vegetation period, indicating that the grassland plants are subjected to constant belowground feeding pressure. Feeding was selective, with members of Plantaginaceae and Asteraceae being preferred; Apiaceae were avoided. Poaceae, although assumed to be most preferred, had an intermediate position. The food preferences exhibited seasonal changes, indicating a fluctuation in plant traits important for wireworm feeding choice. Species- and instar-specific differences in dietary choice of the Agriotes larvae were small, suggesting that species and larval instars occupy the same trophic niche. According to the current findings, the food choice of these larvae is primarily driven by plant identity, exhibiting seasonal changes. This needs to be considered when analysing soil herbivore-plant interactions. PMID:24188592

Wallinger, Corinna; Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Juen, Anita; Traugott, Michael

2014-08-01

11

How generalist herbivores exploit belowground plant diversity in temperate grasslands  

PubMed Central

Belowground herbivores impact plant performance, thereby inducing changes in plant community composition, which potentially leads to cascading effects onto higher trophic levels and ecosystem processes and productivity. Among soil-living insects, external root-chewing generalist herbivores have the strongest impact on plants. However, the lack of knowledge on their feeding behaviour under field conditions considerably hampers achieving a comprehensive understanding of how they affect plant communities. Here, we address this gap of knowledge by investigating the feeding behaviour of Agriotes click beetle larvae, which are common generalist external root-chewers in temperate grassland soils. Utilizing diagnostic multiplex PCR to assess the larval diet, we examined the seasonal patterns in feeding activity, putative preferences for specific plant taxa, and whether species identity and larval instar affect food choices of the herbivores. Contrary to our hypothesis, most of the larvae were feeding-active throughout the entire vegetation period, indicating that the grassland plants are subjected to constant belowground feeding pressure. Feeding was selective, with members of Plantaginaceae and Asteraceae being preferred; Apiaceae were avoided. Poaceae, although assumed to be most preferred, had an intermediate position. The food preferences exhibited seasonal changes, indicating a fluctuation in plant traits important for wireworm feeding choice. Species- and instar-specific differences in dietary choice of the Agriotes larvae were small, suggesting that species and larval instars occupy the same trophic niche. According to the current findings, the food choice of these larvae is primarily driven by plant identity, exhibiting seasonal changes. This needs to be considered when analysing soil herbivore–plant interactions. PMID:24188592

Wallinger, Corinna; Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Juen, Anita; Traugott, Michael

2014-01-01

12

Predictors of nitrogen-fixing activity across a local gradient in fire history for a temperate semiarid grassland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since nitrogen is the primary limiting nutrient in terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the regulators of nitrogen (N2) fixation is critical. Our aim was to identify predictors of free-living N2-fixer activity across a fire history gradient in a temperate semiarid grassland. We predicted that rec...

13

Soil community composition and the regulation of grazed temperate grassland.  

PubMed

The effect of the community composition of soil microbes on ecosystem processes has received relatively little attention. Here we examined the variation in soil microbial composition in a Yellowstone National Park grassland and the effect of that variation on the growth, in a greenhouse, of the dominant grass in the community. Plants and their rhizospheric soil were collected from paired, Poa pratensis-dominated grassland plots located inside and outside a 40-year-old exclosure. P. pratensis aboveground, belowground, and whole plant growth were greater in pots with soil communities from grazed grassland compared to fenced grassland, indicating (1) soil microbial communities differed, and (2) this difference influenced the growth of the plant that dominated both grasslands. Treating pots with fungicide (benomyl) suppressed the soil community influence, indicating that different fungal communities caused the soil microbe effect. In addition, two lines of evidence are consistent with the hypothesis that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species composition affected P. pratensis: (1) a divergence in AMF spore communities in the two field soils, and (2) little evidence of pathogenic fungi. These findings emphasize the need to examine the role that the composition of the soil microbial community plays in controlling terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:14513350

Frank, Douglas A; Gehring, Catherine A; Machut, Leonard; Phillips, Mark

2003-12-01

14

Methyl bromide emissions to the atmosphere from temperate woodland ecosystems  

E-print Network

, data obtained here consistently point to the conclusion that the temperate forest soil/litter ecosystemMethyl bromide emissions to the atmosphere from temperate woodland ecosystems J U L I A D R E W E R change on global CH3Br concentrations. Measurements of CH3Br flux in temperate woodland ecosystems

Heal, Kate

15

Soil Respiration and Organic Carbon Dynamics with Grassland Conversions to Woodlands in Temperate China  

PubMed Central

Soils are the largest terrestrial carbon store and soil respiration is the second-largest flux in ecosystem carbon cycling. Across China's temperate region, climatic changes and human activities have frequently caused the transformation of grasslands to woodlands. However, the effect of this transition on soil respiration and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics remains uncertain in this area. In this study, we measured in situ soil respiration and SOC storage over a two-year period (Jan. 2007–Dec. 2008) from five characteristic vegetation types in a forest-steppe ecotone of temperate China, including grassland (GR), shrubland (SH), as well as in evergreen coniferous (EC), deciduous coniferous (DC) and deciduous broadleaved forest (DB), to evaluate the changes of soil respiration and SOC storage with grassland conversions to diverse types of woodlands. Annual soil respiration increased by 3%, 6%, 14%, and 22% after the conversion from GR to EC, SH, DC, and DB, respectively. The variation in soil respiration among different vegetation types could be well explained by SOC and soil total nitrogen content. Despite higher soil respiration in woodlands, SOC storage and residence time increased in the upper 20 cm of soil. Our results suggest that the differences in soil environmental conditions, especially soil substrate availability, influenced the level of annual soil respiration produced by different vegetation types. Moreover, shifts from grassland to woody plant dominance resulted in increased SOC storage. Given the widespread increase in woody plant abundance caused by climate change and large-scale afforestation programs, the soils are expected to accumulate and store increased amounts of organic carbon in temperate areas of China. PMID:24058408

Wang, Wei; Zeng, Wenjing; Chen, Weile; Zeng, Hui; Fang, Jingyun

2013-01-01

16

Soil respiration and organic carbon dynamics with grassland conversions to woodlands in temperate china.  

PubMed

Soils are the largest terrestrial carbon store and soil respiration is the second-largest flux in ecosystem carbon cycling. Across China's temperate region, climatic changes and human activities have frequently caused the transformation of grasslands to woodlands. However, the effect of this transition on soil respiration and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics remains uncertain in this area. In this study, we measured in situ soil respiration and SOC storage over a two-year period (Jan. 2007-Dec. 2008) from five characteristic vegetation types in a forest-steppe ecotone of temperate China, including grassland (GR), shrubland (SH), as well as in evergreen coniferous (EC), deciduous coniferous (DC) and deciduous broadleaved forest (DB), to evaluate the changes of soil respiration and SOC storage with grassland conversions to diverse types of woodlands. Annual soil respiration increased by 3%, 6%, 14%, and 22% after the conversion from GR to EC, SH, DC, and DB, respectively. The variation in soil respiration among different vegetation types could be well explained by SOC and soil total nitrogen content. Despite higher soil respiration in woodlands, SOC storage and residence time increased in the upper 20 cm of soil. Our results suggest that the differences in soil environmental conditions, especially soil substrate availability, influenced the level of annual soil respiration produced by different vegetation types. Moreover, shifts from grassland to woody plant dominance resulted in increased SOC storage. Given the widespread increase in woody plant abundance caused by climate change and large-scale afforestation programs, the soils are expected to accumulate and store increased amounts of organic carbon in temperate areas of China. PMID:24058408

Wang, Wei; Zeng, Wenjing; Chen, Weile; Zeng, Hui; Fang, Jingyun

2013-01-01

17

Temperate mountain grasslands: a climate-herbivore hypothesis for origins and persistence  

PubMed Central

Temperate montane grasslands and their unique biotas are declining worldwide as they are increasingly being invaded by forests. The origin and persistence of these landscapes have been the focus of such controversy that in many areas their conservation is in doubt. In the USA some biologists have largely dismissed the grass balds of the Southern Appalachians as human artifacts or anomalous and transitory elements of regional geography, worthy of only limited preservation efforts. On the basis of information from biogeography, community ecology, regional history and palaeontology and from consideration of two other montane grassland ecosystems—East Carpathian poloninas and Oregon Coast Range grass balds—we hypothesize that these landscapes are more widespread than was formerly recognized; they are, in many cases, natural and ancient and largely owe their origin and persistence to past climatic extremes and the activities of large mammalian herbivores. PMID:24118866

Weigl, Peter D; Knowles, Travis W

2014-01-01

18

No evidence of complementary water use along a plant species richness gradient in temperate experimental grasslands.  

PubMed

Niche complementarity in resource use has been proposed as a key mechanism to explain the positive effects of increasing plant species richness on ecosystem processes, in particular on primary productivity. Since hardly any information is available for niche complementarity in water use, we tested the effects of plant diversity on spatial and temporal complementarity in water uptake in experimental grasslands by using stable water isotopes. We hypothesized that water uptake from deeper soil depths increases in more diverse compared to low diverse plant species mixtures. We labeled soil water in 8 cm (with 18O) and 28 cm depth (with ²H) three times during the 2011 growing season in 40 temperate grassland communities of varying species richness (2, 4, 8 and 16 species) and functional group number and composition (legumes, grasses, tall herbs, small herbs). Stable isotope analyses of xylem and soil water allowed identifying the preferential depth of water uptake. Higher enrichment in 18O of xylem water than in ²H suggested that the main water uptake was in the upper soil layer. Furthermore, our results revealed no differences in root water uptake among communities with different species richness, different number of functional groups or with time. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of increased complementarity in water use in more diverse than in less diverse communities of temperate grassland species. PMID:25587998

Bachmann, Dörte; Gockele, Annette; Ravenek, Janneke M; Roscher, Christiane; Strecker, Tanja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Buchmann, Nina

2015-01-01

19

No Evidence of Complementary Water Use along a Plant Species Richness Gradient in Temperate Experimental Grasslands  

PubMed Central

Niche complementarity in resource use has been proposed as a key mechanism to explain the positive effects of increasing plant species richness on ecosystem processes, in particular on primary productivity. Since hardly any information is available for niche complementarity in water use, we tested the effects of plant diversity on spatial and temporal complementarity in water uptake in experimental grasslands by using stable water isotopes. We hypothesized that water uptake from deeper soil depths increases in more diverse compared to low diverse plant species mixtures. We labeled soil water in 8 cm (with 18O) and 28 cm depth (with ²H) three times during the 2011 growing season in 40 temperate grassland communities of varying species richness (2, 4, 8 and 16 species) and functional group number and composition (legumes, grasses, tall herbs, small herbs). Stable isotope analyses of xylem and soil water allowed identifying the preferential depth of water uptake. Higher enrichment in 18O of xylem water than in ²H suggested that the main water uptake was in the upper soil layer. Furthermore, our results revealed no differences in root water uptake among communities with different species richness, different number of functional groups or with time. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of increased complementarity in water use in more diverse than in less diverse communities of temperate grassland species. PMID:25587998

Bachmann, Dörte; Gockele, Annette; Ravenek, Janneke M.; Roscher, Christiane; Strecker, Tanja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Buchmann, Nina

2015-01-01

20

Effects of liming on soil properties and plant performance of temperate mountainous grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of lime or liming materials to acid-soil grasslands might help mitigate soil acidity, a major constraint to forage productivity in many temperate mountainous grasslands. Nowadays, in these mountainous grasslands, it is essential to promote agricultural practices to increase forage yield and nutritive value while preserving biodiversity and agroecosystem functioning. Two different field experiments were conducted in the Gorbeia

Iker Mijangos; Isabel Albizu; Lur Epelde; Ibone Amezaga; Sorkunde Mendarte; Carlos Garbisu

2010-01-01

21

The Effects of Warming and Nitrogen Addition on Soil Nitrogen Cycling in a Temperate Grassland, Northeastern China  

PubMed Central

Background Both climate warming and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are predicted to affect soil N cycling in terrestrial biomes over the next century. However, the interactive effects of warming and N deposition on soil N mineralization in temperate grasslands are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A field manipulation experiment was conducted to examine the effects of warming and N addition on soil N cycling in a temperate grassland of northeastern China from 2007 to 2009. Soil samples were incubated at a constant temperature and moisture, from samples collected in the field. The results showed that both warming and N addition significantly stimulated soil net N mineralization rate and net nitrification rate. Combined warming and N addition caused an interactive effect on N mineralization, which could be explained by the relative shift of soil microbial community structure because of fungal biomass increase and strong plant uptake of added N due to warming. Irrespective of strong intra- and inter-annual variations in soil N mineralization, the responses of N mineralization to warming and N addition did not change during the three growing seasons, suggesting independence of warming and N responses of N mineralization from precipitation variations in the temperate grassland. Conclusions/Significance Interactions between climate warming and N deposition on soil N cycling were significant. These findings will improve our understanding on the response of soil N cycling to the simultaneous climate change drivers in temperate grassland ecosystem. PMID:22096609

Ma, Lin-Na; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Liu, Yang; Guo, Ji-Xun; Zhang, Nan-Yi; Yang, Jian-Qin; Wang, Ren-Zhong

2011-01-01

22

Soil water retention after natural and simulated rainfall on a temperate grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent climate change scenarios resulting from elevated trace gasses may alter environmental temperature and moisture. The ecological consequences, however, are uncertain requiring an understanding of how soil-plant systems will respond to different conditions. This study examines the temporal characteristics of soil water retention in a temperate grassland following natural and simulated summer showers. We have used weighting lysimeters located in grassland stands of 360 m2, 2.25 m2 and lone lysimeters measuring 0.07 m2. Water deposited from natural summer rainfall on these grasslands is likely to be lost in less than two days because 92% of the rainshowers are < 10 mm having residence times of less than two days. Showers > 10 mm did, however, consistently remain in the soil-plant system for periods longer than light showers. When the largest plots (360 m2) were wetted by small (< 3 mm) natural rainfall events covering a portion of the entire valley (30 70 km2), soil water depletion rates were not significantly different than if just the 360 m2 plots were wetted by irrigations of the same size. If anthopogenetic changes occur in the rainfall amounts of summer showers in the Northern Great Plains, our results support the contention that soil water retention and associated ecosystem processes may be significantly altered in Agropyron smithii (Rybd.) grasslands.

Welker, J. M.; McClelland, S.; Weaver, T.

1991-09-01

23

Increasing land-use intensity decreases floral colour diversity of plant communities in temperate grasslands.  

PubMed

To preserve biodiversity and ecosystem functions in a globally changing world it is crucial to understand the effect of land use on ecosystem processes such as pollination. Floral colouration is known to be central in plant-pollinator interactions. To date, it is still unknown whether land use affects the colouration of flowering plant communities. To assess the effect of land use on the diversity and composition of flower colours in temperate grasslands, we collected data on the number of flowering plant species, blossom cover and flower reflectance spectra from 69 plant communities in two German regions, Schwäbische Alb (SA) and Hainich-Dün (HD). We analysed reflectance data of flower colours as they are perceived by honeybees and studied floral colour diversity based upon spectral loci of each flowering plant species in the Maxwell triangle. Before the first mowing, flower colour diversity decreased with increasing land-use intensity in SA, accompanied by a shift of mean flower colours of communities towards an increasing proportion of white blossom cover in both regions. By changing colour characteristics of grasslands, we suggest that increasing land-use intensity can affect the flower visitor fauna in terms of visitor behaviour and diversity. These changes may in turn influence plant reproduction in grassland plant communities. Our results indicate that land use is likely to affect communication processes between plants and flower visitors by altering flower colour traits. PMID:23568710

Binkenstein, Julia; Renoult, Julien P; Schaefer, H Martin

2013-10-01

24

Climate forcings and the nonlinear dynamics of grassland ecosystems  

E-print Network

The nonlinear interaction of climate forcings and ecosystem variables is instrumental in creating the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of grasslands. Ecosystem processes are a product of these interactions and vary in ...

Petrie, Matthew D.

2010-04-28

25

Patterns of Plant Biomass Allocation in Temperate Grasslands across a 2500-km Transect in Northern China  

PubMed Central

Plant biomass allocation between below- and above-ground parts can actively adapt to the ambient growth conditions and is a key parameter for estimating terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) stocks. To investigate how climatic variations affect patterns of plant biomass allocation, we sampled 548 plants belonging to four dominant genera (Stipa spp., Cleistogenes spp., Agropyron spp., and Leymus spp.) along a large-scale (2500 km) climatic gradient across the temperate grasslands from west to east in northern China. Our results showed that Leymus spp. had the lowest root/shoot ratios among the each genus. Root/shoot ratios of each genera were positively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT), and negatively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP) across the transect. Temperature contributed more to the variation of root/shoot ratios than precipitation for Cleistogenes spp. (C4 plants), whereas precipitation exerted a stronger influence than temperature on their variations for the other three genera (C3 plants). From east to west, investment of C into the belowground parts increased as precipitation decreased while temperature increased. Such changes in biomass allocation patterns in response to climatic factors may alter the competition regimes among co-existing plants, resulting in changes in community composition, structure and ecosystem functions. Our results suggested that future climate change would have great impact on C allocation and storage, as well as C turnover in the grassland ecosystems in northern China. PMID:23977135

Luo, Wentao; Jiang, Yong; Lü, Xiaotao; Wang, Xue; Li, Mai-He; Bai, Edith; Han, Xingguo; Xu, Zhuwen

2013-01-01

26

Patterns of plant biomass allocation in temperate grasslands across a 2500-km transect in northern China.  

PubMed

Plant biomass allocation between below- and above-ground parts can actively adapt to the ambient growth conditions and is a key parameter for estimating terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) stocks. To investigate how climatic variations affect patterns of plant biomass allocation, we sampled 548 plants belonging to four dominant genera (Stipa spp., Cleistogenes spp., Agropyron spp., and Leymus spp.) along a large-scale (2500 km) climatic gradient across the temperate grasslands from west to east in northern China. Our results showed that Leymus spp. had the lowest root/shoot ratios among the each genus. Root/shoot ratios of each genera were positively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT), and negatively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP) across the transect. Temperature contributed more to the variation of root/shoot ratios than precipitation for Cleistogenes spp. (C4 plants), whereas precipitation exerted a stronger influence than temperature on their variations for the other three genera (C3 plants). From east to west, investment of C into the belowground parts increased as precipitation decreased while temperature increased. Such changes in biomass allocation patterns in response to climatic factors may alter the competition regimes among co-existing plants, resulting in changes in community composition, structure and ecosystem functions. Our results suggested that future climate change would have great impact on C allocation and storage, as well as C turnover in the grassland ecosystems in northern China. PMID:23977135

Luo, Wentao; Jiang, Yong; Lü, Xiaotao; Wang, Xue; Li, Mai-He; Bai, Edith; Han, Xingguo; Xu, Zhuwen

2013-01-01

27

Sustaining multiple ecosystem functions in grassland communities requires higher biodiversity  

E-print Network

Sustaining multiple ecosystem functions in grassland communities requires higher biodiversity Erika (sent for review July 27, 2009) Society places value on the multiple functions of ecosystems from ecosystems to provide threshold levels of up to eight ecosystem functions simultaneously. Across years

Zavaleta, Erika

28

Potential soil carbon sequestration in overgrazed grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive grazing pressure is detrimental to plant productivity and may lead to declines in soil organic matter. Soil organic matter is an important source of plant nutrients and can enhance soil aggregation, limit soil erosion, and can also increase cation exchange and water holding capacities, and is, therefore, a key regulator of grassland ecosystem processes. Changes in grassland management which

Richard T. Conant; Keith Paustian

2002-01-01

29

Conservation of biological diversity in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regions of the world most uniformly and extensively modified by human activities are the temperate zones. Settlement and development of these productive and hospitable regions have a long history and have often resulted in dramatic impacts on biological diversity. Temperate and boreal forest ecosystems have not avoided these impacts. Impacts on biodiversity have occurred at the ecosystem, species, population

Tony W. Norton

1996-01-01

30

Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal patterns of winter ecosystem respiration (Reco) of northern ecosystems are poorly understood. For this reason, we analyzed eddy covariance flux data from 57 ecosystem sites ranging from ~35° N to ~70° N. Deciduous forests were characterized by the highest winter Reco rates (0.90 ± 0.39 g C m-2 d-1), when winter is defined as the period during which daily air temperature remains below 0 °C. By contrast, arctic wetlands had the lowest winter Reco rates (0.02 ± 0.02 g C m-2 d-1). Mixed forests, evergreen needle-leaved forests, grasslands, croplands and boreal wetlands were characterized by intermediate winter Reco rates (g C m-2 d-1) of 0.70(±0.33), 0.60(±0.38), 0.62(±0.43), 0.49(±0.22) and 0.27(±0.08), respectively. Our cross site analysis showed that winter air (Tair) and soil (Tsoil) temperature played a dominating role in determining the spatial patterns of winter Reco in both forest and managed ecosystems (grasslands and croplands). Besides temperature, the seasonal amplitude of the leaf area index (LAI), inferred from satellite observation, or growing season gross primary productivity, which we use here as a proxy for the amount of recent carbon available for Reco in the subsequent winter, played a marginal role in winter CO2 emissions from forest ecosystems. We found that winter Reco sensitivity to temperature variation across space (QS) was higher than the one over time (interannual, QT). This can be expected because QS not only accounts for climate gradients across sites but also for (positively correlated) the spatial variability of substrate quantity. Thus, if the models estimate future warming impacts on Reco based on QS rather than QT, this could overestimate the impact of temperature changes.

Wang, T.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S. L.; Ottlé, C.; Brender, P.; Maignan, F.; Arain, A.; Cescatti, A.; Gianelle, D.; Gough, C.; Gu, L.; Lafleur, P.; Laurila, T.; Marcolla, B.; Margolis, H.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Saigusa, N.; Vesala, T.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Koven, C.; Black, A.; Dellwik, E.; Don, A.; Hollinger, D.; Knohl, A.; Monson, R.; Munger, J.; Suyker, A.; Varlagin, A.; Verma, S.

2011-07-01

31

Acetaldehyde exchange above a managed temperate mountain grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of acetaldehyde exchange above a managed temperate mountain grassland in Austria over four growing seasons is presented. The meadow acted as a net source of acetaldehyde in all 4 years, emitting between 7 and 28 mg C m-2 over the whole growing period. The cutting of the meadow resulted in huge acetaldehyde emission bursts of up to 16.5 nmol m-2 s-1 on the day of harvesting or 1 day later. During undisturbed conditions both periods with net uptake and net emissions of acetaldehyde were observed. The bidirectional nature of acetaldehyde fluxes was also reflected by clear diurnal cycles during certain time periods, indicating strong deposition processes before the first cut and emission towards the end of the growing season. The analysis of acetaldehyde compensation points revealed a complex relationship between ambient acetaldehyde mixing ratios and respective fluxes, significantly influenced by multiple environmental parameters and variable throughout the year. As a major finding of this study, we identified both a positive and negative correlation between concentration and flux on a daily scale, where soil temperature and soil water content were the most significant factors in determining the direction of the slope. In turn, this bidirectional relationship on a daily scale resulted in compensation points between 0.40 and 0.54 ppbv, which could be well explained by collected ancillary data. We conclude that in order to model acetaldehyde fluxes at the site in Neustift on a daily scale over longer time periods, it is crucial to know the type of relationship, i.e., the direction of the slope, between mixing ratios and fluxes on a given day.

Hörtnagl, L.; Bamberger, I.; Graus, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Walser, M.; Unterberger, A.; Hansel, A.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2014-06-01

32

Acetaldehyde exchange above a managed temperate mountain grassland  

PubMed Central

An overview of acetaldehyde exchange above a managed temperate mountain grassland in Austria over four growing seasons is presented. The meadow acted as a net source of acetaldehyde in all four years, emitting between 7 and 28 mg C m?2 over the whole growing period. The cutting of the meadow resulted in huge acetaldehyde emission bursts on the day of harvesting or one day later. During undisturbed conditions, both uptake and emission fluxes were recorded. The bidirectional nature of acetaldehyde fluxes was also reflected by clear diurnal cycles during certain time periods, indicating strong deposition processes before the 1st cut and emission towards the end of the growing season. The analysis of acetaldehyde compensation points revealed a complex relationship between ambient acetaldehyde mixing ratios and respective fluxes, significantly influenced by multiple environmental parameters and variable throughout the year. As a major finding of this study, we identified both a positive and negative correlation between concentration and flux on a daily scale, where soil temperature and soil water content were the most significant factors in determining the direction of the slope. In turn, this bidirectional relationship on a daily scale resulted in compensation points between 0.40 ppbv and 0.54 ppbv, which could be well explained by collected ancillary data. We conclude that in order to model acetaldehyde fluxes at the site in Neustift on a daily scale over longer time periods, it is crucial to know the type of relationship, i.e. the direction of the slope, between mixing ratios and fluxes on a given day. PMID:24363666

Hörtnagl, L.; Bamberger, I.; Graus, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Walser, M.; Unterberger, A.; Hansel, A.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2013-01-01

33

[Effects of artificial Ulmus pumila forest on plant diversity of temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia].  

PubMed

Based on field survey, the effects of artificial Ulmus pumila forest on the species diversity of temperate grassland in Siziwang Banner of Inner Mongolia were studied. The results showed that U. pumila forest had obvious effects on the species diversity of grassland. With increasing density of U. pumila, the Patrick's richness, Pielou's evenness and Shannon-Wiener index of grass species under the forest had a decreasing trend, and were higher nearby the forest than far from the forest. The habitat inside the forest was favorable to Silene jenisseensis, while that nearby the forest was favorable to Heteropappus altaicus, Pocockia ruthenia, Potentilla bifurca, Leymus secalinus and Cleistogenes squarrosa, suggesting that to blindly exclude forestation on grassland could be less scientific, while properly afforesting U. pumila on the sides with relatively abundant soil moisture should be available to the conservation of plant diversity in temperate grassland regions. PMID:18808008

Yang, Hong-Xiao; Wang, Xue-Quan; Yang, Wen-Bin; Lu, Qi

2008-06-01

34

Biotic, abiotic and management controls on methanol exchange above a temperate mountain grassland  

PubMed Central

Methanol (CH3OH) fluxes were quantified above a managed temperate mountain grassland in the Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) during the growing seasons 2008 and 2009. Half-hourly methanol fluxes were calculated by means of the virtual disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) method using 3-dimensional wind data from a sonic anemometer and methanol volume mixing ratios measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). During (undisturbed) mature and growing phases methanol fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle with close-to-zero fluxes during nighttime and emissions, up to 10 nmol m?2 s?1, which followed the diurnal course of radiation and air temperature. Management events were found to represent the largest perturbations of methanol exchange at the studied grassland ecosystem: Peak emissions of 144.5 nmol m?2 s?1 were found during/after cutting of the meadow reflecting the wounding of the plant material and subsequent depletion of the leaf internal aqueous methanol pools. After the application of organic fertilizer, elevated methanol emissions of up to 26.7 nmol m?2 s?1 were observed, likely reflecting enhanced microbial activity associated with the applied manure. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses revealed air temperature and radiation as the dominant abiotic controls, jointly explaining 47 % and 70 % of the variability in half-hourly and daily methanol fluxes. In contrast to published leaf-level laboratory studies, the surface conductance and the daily change in the amount of green plant area, used as ecosystem-scale proxies for stomatal conductance and growth, respectively, were found to exert only minor biotic controls on methanol exchange. PMID:24349901

Hörtnagl, Lukas; Bamberger, Ines; Graus, Martin; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Müller, Markus; Hansel, Armin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

2013-01-01

35

Carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange in a warm temperate grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grasslands cover about 40% of the ice-free global terrestrial surface, but their contribution to local and regional water and carbon fluxes and sensitivity to climatic perturbations such as drought remains uncertain. Here, we assess the direction and magnitude of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) and its components, ecosystem carbon assimilation ( A c) and ecosystem respiration ( R E), in

K. A. Novick; P. C. Stoy; G. G. Katul; D. S. Ellsworth; M. B. S. Siqueira; J. Juang; R. Oren

2004-01-01

36

Drought Experiment of a Mongolian Grassland Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent large-scale climate change including global warming has likely been manifested as frequent and/or intensive drought occurrences in inland, arid Asia such as Mongolia. In order to investigate the response of a Mongolian grassland ecosystem to such a drought, an artificial drought experiment was conducted at Bayan Unjuul (105.95E, 47.04N) in the Mongolian typical steppe region during the growing season of 2005. The climatological (1995-2004) annul precipitation is 172.9mm, concentrated on the summer months of May- August, while the annual mean temperature is 0.1degC, with soil freezing during the winter. This study site is codominated by perennial grasses such as Stipa krylovii, Agropyron cristatum, and Cleistogenes squarrosa and annual forbs such as Artemisia adamsii and Chenopodium album. An area of 300m w300m in size was surrounded by a fence for protecting this area from grazing. The plots inside and outside of the area are referred to as no-grazing (NG) and grazing (G) plots, respectively. In the NG plot, two plots of 30m w30m with drought (D plot) and mowing (M plot) manipulations are allocated in the southwest part of the NG plot. The drought manipulation was conducted using a rainout shelter with a transparent polyethylene roof, open on all sides during the major growing season from late May to early August 2005. The total precipitation of 60.3mm in the annual total of 96.9mm (that is, a severe drought year) was excluded from the D plot. Thus, natural severe drought and artificial very severe drought conditions were produced in this year. To study the vegetation impact on thermal and moisture conditions at the ground surface, the mowing has been carried out on a monthly basis during the growing season. The initial conditions for each plot were examined during the late growing seasons of 2003 and 2004, showing no significant difference in terms of vegetation (above-/below-ground biomass and species diversity) and physical and chemical soil properties. Comprehensive observations including meteorological, vegetation, and soil elements for each plot have been made to examine two hypothetical processes of how the vegetation-soil system responds to the drought; that is, positive or negative feedback to atmosphere.

Shinoda, M.; Tsunekawa, A.; Nemoto, M.; Nachinshonhor, G. U.; Nakano, T.; Tamura, K.; Asano, M.; Erdenetsetseg, D.

2006-12-01

37

Ecosystem Consequences of Exotic Earthworm Invasion of North Temperate Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasion of north temperate forests by exotic species of earthworms is an important issue that has been overlooked in the study and management of these forests. We initiated research to address the hypothesis that earthworm invasion will have large consequences for nutrient retention and uptake in these ecosystems. In this special feature of Ecosystems, we present five papers describing

Patrick J. Bohlen; Peter M. Groffman; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Esteban Suarez; Derek M. Pelletier; Robert T. Fahey

2004-01-01

38

Biogenic VOCs emission inventory development of temperate grassland vegetation in Xilin River basin, Inner Mongolia, China.  

PubMed

Given the key role of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to tropospheric chemistry and regional air quality, it is important to generate accurate VOCs emission inventories. However, only a less fraction of plant species, in temperate grassland of Inner Mongolia, has been characterized by quantitative measurements. A taxonomic methodology, which assigns VOCs measurements to unmeasured species, is an applicable and inexpensive alternation for extensive VOCs emission survey, although data are needed for additional plant families and genera to further validate the taxonomic approach in grassland vegetation. In this experiment, VOCs emission rates of 178 plant species were measured with a portable photoionization detector (PID). The results showed the most of genera and some families have consistent feature of their VOCs emission, especially for isoprene, and provide the basic premise of taxonomic methodology to develop VOCs emission inventories for temperate grassland. Then, the taxonomic methodology was introduced into assigning emission rate to other 96 species, which no measured emission rates available here. A systematical emission inventory of temperate grassland vegetation in Inner Mongolia was provided and further evidence that taxonomy relationship can serve as a useful guide for generalizing the emissions behavior of many, but not all, plant families and genera to grassland vegetation. PMID:15900743

He, Nian-Peng; Han, Xing-Guo; Sun, Wei; Pan, Qing-Min

2004-01-01

39

Water, temperature, and vegetation controls on halomethane fluxes from semiarid temperate grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) are the dominant carriers of organic bromine and chlorine to the upper atmosphere, where they catalyze stratospheric ozone loss. Prior experiments indicate that temperate grasslands may be a significant sink for these gases, although large uncertainties exist regarding the range and magnitude of fluxes. Here we report the results of a combined field

Y. Teh; R. Rhew; T. Abel

2006-01-01

40

ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS OF BIODIVERSITY MANIPULATIONS IN EUROPEAN GRASSLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We present a multisite analysis of the relationship between,plant diversity and,ecosystem,functioning,within,the European,BIODEPTH network,of plant-diversity manipulation,experiments.,We report results of the analysis,of 11 variables addressing several aspects of key ecosystem processes like biomass production, resource use (space, light, and nitrogen), and decomposition, measured across three years in plots of varying plant species richness at eight different European,grassland,field sites. Differences among sites

E. M. Spehn; A. Hector; J. Joshi; M. Scherer-Lorenzen; B. Schmid; E. Bazeley-White; C. Beierkuhnlein; M. C. Caldeira; M. Diemer; P. G. Dimitrakopoulos; J. A. Finn; H. Freitas; P. S. Giller; J. Good; R. Harris; P. Högberg; K. Huss-Danell; A. Jumpponen; J. Koricheva; P. W. Leadley; M. Loreau; A. Minns; C. P. H. Mulder; G. O'Donovan; S. J. Otway; C. Palmborg; J. S. Pereira; A. B. Pfisterer; A. Prinz; D. J. Read; E.-D. Schulze; A.-S. D. Siamantziouras; A. C. Terry; A. Y. Troumbis; F. I. Woodward; S. Yachi; J. H. Lawton

2005-01-01

41

Potential soil carbon sequestration in overgrazed grassland ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excessive grazing pressure is detrimental to plant productivity and may lead to declines in soil organic matter. Soil organic matter is an important source of plant nutrients and can enhance soil aggregation, limit soil erosion, and can also increase cation exchange and water holding capacities, and is, therefore, a key regulator of grassland ecosystem processes. Changes in grassland management which reverse the process of declining productivity can potentially lead to increased soil C. Thus, rehabilitation of areas degraded by overgrazing can potentially sequester atmospheric C. We compiled data from the literature to evaluate the influence of grazing intensity on soil C. Based on data contained within these studies, we ascertained a positive linear relationship between potential C sequestration and mean annual precipitation which we extrapolated to estimate global C sequestration potential with rehabilitation of overgrazed grassland. The GLASOD and IGBP DISCover data sets were integrated to generate a map of overgrazed grassland area for each of four severity classes on each continent. Our regression model predicted losses of soil C with decreased grazing intensity in drier areas (precipitation less than 333 mm yr-1), but substantial sequestration in wetter areas. Most (93%) C sequestration potential occurred in areas with MAP less than 1800 mm. Universal rehabilitation of overgrazed grasslands can sequester approximately 45 Tg C yr-1, most of which can be achieved simply by cessation of overgrazing and implementation of moderate grazing intensity. Institutional level investments by governments may be required to sequester additional C.

Conant, Richard T.; Paustian, Keith

2002-12-01

42

Sustainable management of insect herbivores in grassland ecosystems: New perspectives in grasshopper control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grasshoppers are insect herbivores commonly found in grassland ecosystems worldwide. They are important components of biodiversity, contribute significantly to grassland function, and periodically exhibit large-scale outbreaks. Under outbreak conditions, they can be important competitors with verteb...

43

Response of grassland ecosystems to prolonged soil moisture deficit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture is commonly used for predictions of plant response and productivity. Climate change is predicted to cause an increase in the frequency and duration of droughts over the next century, which will result in prolonged periods of below-normal soil moisture. This, in turn, is expected to impact regional plant production, erosion and air quality. In fact, the number of consecutive months of soil moisture content below the drought-period mean has recently been linked to regional tree and shrub mortality in the southwest United States. This study investigated the effects of extended periods of below average soil moisture on the response of grassland ANPP to precipitation. Grassland ecosystems were selected for this study because of their ecological sensitivity to precipitation patterns. It has been postulated that the quick ecological response of grasslands to droughts can provide insight to large scale functional responses of regions to predicted climate change. The study sites included 21 grassland biomes throughout arid-to-humid climates in the United States with continuous surface soil moisture records for 2-13 years during the drought period from 2000-2013. Annual net primary production (ANPP) was estimated from the 13-year record of NASA MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index extracted for each site. Prolonged soil moisture deficit was defined as a period of at least 10 consecutive months during which soil moisture was below the drought-period mean. ANPP was monitored before, during and after prolonged soil moisture deficit to quantify shifts in the functional response of grasslands to precipitation, and in some cases, new species assemblages that included invasive species. Preliminary results indicated that when altered climatic conditions on grasslands led to an increase in the duration of soil water deficit, then the precipitation-to-ANPP relation became non-linear. Non-linearity was associated with extreme grassland dieback and changes in the historic species assemblage. The magnitude of change was related to the precipitation regime, where grasslands in hyper-arid and humid regimes were least likely to be affected by prolonged soil moisture deficit, and semiarid and mesic grasslands were most likely to be impacted, depending on the duration of the deficit. These results were applied to a large grassland region in Australia with soil moisture estimates from the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) sensor to demonstrate the continental-scale potential of this application with satellite measurements. These results are even more relevant for application with the higher-resolution NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) products to be available in 2015.

Ross, Morgan A.; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E.; Barnes, Mallory L.; Hottenstein, John D.; Moran, M. Susan

2014-05-01

44

Recurrent winter warming pulses enhance nitrogen cycling and soil biotic activity in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winter air temperatures are projected to increase in the temperate zone, whereas snow cover is projected to decrease, leading to more extreme soil temperature variability, and potentially to changes in nutrient cycling. Therefore, we applied six winter warming pulses by infra-red heating lamps and surface heating wires in a field experiment over one winter in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms. The experiment was replicated at two sites, a colder mountainous upland site with high snow accumulation and a warmer and dryer lowland site. Winter warming pulses enhanced soil biotic activity for both sites during winter, as indicated by 35% higher nitrogen (N) availability in the soil solution, 40% higher belowground decomposition and a 25% increase in the activity of the enzyme cellobiohydrolase. The mobilization of N differed between sites, and the incorporation of 15N into leaves was reduced by 31% in response to winter warming pulses, but only at the cold site, with significant reductions occurring for three of four tested plant species at this site. Furthermore, there was a trend of increased N leaching in response to the recurrent winter warming pulses. Overall, projected winter climate change in the temperate zone, with less snow and more variable soil temperatures, appears important for shifts in ecosystem functioning (i.e. nutrient cycling). While the effects of warming pulses on plant N mobilization did not differ among sites, reduced plant 15N incorporation at the colder temperate site suggests that frost damage may reduce plant performance in a warmer world, with important implications for nitrogen cycling and nitrogen losses from ecosystems.

Schuerings, J.; Jentsch, A.; Hammerl, V.; Lenz, K.; Henry, H. A. L.; Malyshev, A. V.; Kreyling, J.

2014-06-01

45

Plant Functional Group Composition Modifies the Effects of Precipitation Change on Grassland Ecosystem Function  

PubMed Central

Temperate grassland ecosystems face a future of precipitation change, which can alter community composition and ecosystem functions through reduced soil moisture and waterlogging. There is evidence that functionally diverse plant communities contain a wider range of water use and resource capture strategies, resulting in greater resistance of ecosystem function to precipitation change. To investigate this interaction between composition and precipitation change we performed a field experiment for three years in successional grassland in southern England. This consisted of two treatments. The first, precipitation change, simulated end of century predictions, and consisted of a summer drought phase alongside winter rainfall addition. The second, functional group identity, divided the plant community into three groups based on their functional traits- broadly described as perennials, caespitose grasses and annuals- and removed these groups in a factorial design. Ecosystem functions related to C, N and water cycling were measured regularly. Effects of functional groupidentity were apparent, with the dominant trend being that process rates were higher under control conditions where a range of perennial species were present. E.g. litter decomposition rates were significantly higher in plots containing several perennial species, the group with the highest average leaf N content. Process rates were also very strongly affected by the precipitation change treatmentwhen perennial plant species were dominant, but not where the community contained a high abundance of annual species and caespitose grasses. This contrasting response could be attributable to differing rooting patterns (shallower structures under annual plants, and deeper roots under perennials) and faster nutrient uptake in annuals compared to perennials. Our results indicate that precipitation change will have a smaller effect on key process rates in grasslandscontaining a range of perennial and annual species, and that maintaining the presence of key functional groups should be a crucial consideration in future grassland management. PMID:23437300

Fry, Ellen L.; Manning, Pete; Allen, David G. P.; Hurst, Alex; Everwand, Georg; Rimmler, Martin; Power, Sally A.

2013-01-01

46

Plant functional group composition modifies the effects of precipitation change on grassland ecosystem function.  

PubMed

Temperate grassland ecosystems face a future of precipitation change, which can alter community composition and ecosystem functions through reduced soil moisture and waterlogging. There is evidence that functionally diverse plant communities contain a wider range of water use and resource capture strategies, resulting in greater resistance of ecosystem function to precipitation change. To investigate this interaction between composition and precipitation change we performed a field experiment for three years in successional grassland in southern England. This consisted of two treatments. The first, precipitation change, simulated end of century predictions, and consisted of a summer drought phase alongside winter rainfall addition. The second, functional group identity, divided the plant community into three groups based on their functional traits- broadly described as perennials, caespitose grasses and annuals- and removed these groups in a factorial design. Ecosystem functions related to C, N and water cycling were measured regularly. Effects of functional groupidentity were apparent, with the dominant trend being that process rates were higher under control conditions where a range of perennial species were present. E.g. litter decomposition rates were significantly higher in plots containing several perennial species, the group with the highest average leaf N content. Process rates were also very strongly affected by the precipitation change treatmentwhen perennial plant species were dominant, but not where the community contained a high abundance of annual species and caespitose grasses. This contrasting response could be attributable to differing rooting patterns (shallower structures under annual plants, and deeper roots under perennials) and faster nutrient uptake in annuals compared to perennials. Our results indicate that precipitation change will have a smaller effect on key process rates in grasslandscontaining a range of perennial and annual species, and that maintaining the presence of key functional groups should be a crucial consideration in future grassland management. PMID:23437300

Fry, Ellen L; Manning, Pete; Allen, David G P; Hurst, Alex; Everwand, Georg; Rimmler, Martin; Power, Sally A

2013-01-01

47

Ecosystem Respiration in a Cool Temperate Bog Depends on Peat  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Respiration in a Cool Temperate Bog Depends on Peat Temperature But Not Water Table P-summer (July-August). As anticipated, there was a strong relationship between ER and peat temperatures (r2 = 0-table depth (r2 = 0.11). A laboratory incubation of peat cores at different moisture contents showed that CO2

Roulet, Nigel T.

48

Ecosystem Carbon and Nitrogen Accumulation after Grazing Exclusion in Semiarid Grassland  

PubMed Central

The grazing exclusion in degraded grassland has been extensively used to prevent the loss of grassland resources and to improve grassland services. The effects of grazing exclusion on C and N balance, however, have not been well addressed but are essential for assessing grassland C sinks, the sustainable use of grassland resources and the support of grassland services. To understand the response of ecosystem C and N to grazing exclusion in semiarid grassland, we determined the C and N in litter, aboveground biomass, roots and soils from ungrazed grassland fenced at different times in northwest China. Our results showed that the aboveground biomass, root biomass and plant litter were 70–92%, 56–151% and 59–141% higher, respectively, in grazer excluded grassland than in grazed grassland. Grazing exclusion significantly increased C and N stored in plant biomass and litter and increased the concentrations and stocks of C and N in soils. Grazing exclusion thus significantly increased the C and N stored in grassland ecosystems. The increase in C and N stored in soil contributed to more than 95% and 97% of the increases in ecosystem C and N storage. The highest C and N stocks in ecosystems were observed in 17-year grazer excluded grassland. The results from this study indicate that grazing exclusion has the potential to increase C and N storage in degraded semiarid grassland and that the recovery of ecosystem C and N was mainly due to the accumulation of C and N in soils. PMID:23383191

Qiu, Liping; Wei, Xiaorong; Zhang, Xingchang; Cheng, Jimin

2013-01-01

49

Grazing increases the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition in a temperate grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tested the effects of ungulate grazing and nutrient availability on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions in semi-natural temperate grassland. To do this, soil taken from long term grazed and ungrazed grassland was incubated at four temperatures (4, 10, 15 and 20?°C) with two levels of nutrient (NP) addition. The results showed that the variation in soil CO2 and CH4 emissions was explained by temperature and grazing, with grazing increasing the temperature sensitivity of CO2 and CH4 production by between 15 and 20?°C. This response was constrained by nutrient availability for CO2, but not CH4. These findings suggest that grazing could potentially have important impacts on the temperature sensitivity of greenhouse gas emissions in nutrient limited grasslands.

Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Medina-Roldán, Eduardo; Ostle, Nick J.; McNamara, Niall P.; Bardgett, Richard D.

2012-03-01

50

Differences in SOM Decomposition and Temperature Sensitivity among Soil Aggregate Size Classes in a Temperate Grasslands  

PubMed Central

The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C) quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT) hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250–2000 ?m), microaggregates (MI, 53–250 ?m), and mineral fractions (MF, <53 ?m) collected from an Inner Mongolian temperate grassland. The results showed that temperature and aggregate size significantly affected on SOM decomposition, with notable interactive effects (P<0.0001). For 2 weeks, the decomposition rates of bulk soil and soil aggregates increased with increasing incubation temperature in the following order: MA>MF>bulk soil >MI(P <0.05). The Q10 values were highest for MA, followed (in decreasing order) by bulk soil, MF, and MI. Similarly, the activation energies (Ea) for MA, bulk soil, MF, and MI were 48.47, 33.26, 27.01, and 23.18 KJ mol?1, respectively. The observed significant negative correlations between Q10 and C quality index in bulk soil and soil aggregates (P<0.05) suggested that the CQT hypothesis is applicable to soil aggregates. Cumulative C emission differed significantly among aggregate size classes (P <0.0001), with the largest values occurring in MA (1101 ?g g?1), followed by MF (976 ?g g?1) and MI (879 ?g g?1). These findings suggest that feedback from SOM decomposition in response to changing temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios. PMID:25692291

Wang, Qing; Wang, Dan; Wen, Xuefa; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Rongfu

2015-01-01

51

Differences in SOM Decomposition and Temperature Sensitivity among Soil Aggregate Size Classes in a Temperate Grasslands.  

PubMed

The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C) quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT) hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 ?m), microaggregates (MI, 53-250 ?m), and mineral fractions (MF, <53 ?m) collected from an Inner Mongolian temperate grassland. The results showed that temperature and aggregate size significantly affected on SOM decomposition, with notable interactive effects (P<0.0001). For 2 weeks, the decomposition rates of bulk soil and soil aggregates increased with increasing incubation temperature in the following order: MA>MF>bulk soil >MI(P <0.05). The Q10 values were highest for MA, followed (in decreasing order) by bulk soil, MF, and MI. Similarly, the activation energies (Ea) for MA, bulk soil, MF, and MI were 48.47, 33.26, 27.01, and 23.18 KJ mol-1, respectively. The observed significant negative correlations between Q10 and C quality index in bulk soil and soil aggregates (P<0.05) suggested that the CQT hypothesis is applicable to soil aggregates. Cumulative C emission differed significantly among aggregate size classes (P <0.0001), with the largest values occurring in MA (1101 ?g g-1), followed by MF (976 ?g g-1) and MI (879 ?g g-1). These findings suggest that feedback from SOM decomposition in response to changing temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios. PMID:25692291

Wang, Qing; Wang, Dan; Wen, Xuefa; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Rongfu

2015-01-01

52

Extensive Management Promotes Plant and Microbial Nitrogen Retention in Temperate Grassland  

PubMed Central

Leaching losses of nitrogen (N) from soil and atmospheric N deposition have led to widespread changes in plant community and microbial community composition, but our knowledge of the factors that determine ecosystem N retention is limited. A common feature of extensively managed, species-rich grasslands is that they have fungal-dominated microbial communities, which might reduce soil N losses and increase ecosystem N retention, which is pivotal for pollution mitigation and sustainable food production. However, the mechanisms that underpin improved N retention in extensively managed, species-rich grasslands are unclear. We combined a landscape-scale field study and glasshouse experiment to test how grassland management affects plant and soil N retention. Specifically, we hypothesised that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands of high conservation value would have lower N loss and greater N retention than intensively managed, species-poor grasslands, and that this would be due to a greater immobilisation of N by a more fungal-dominated microbial community. In the field study, we found that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands had lower N leaching losses. Soil inorganic N availability decreased with increasing abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, although the best predictor of soil N leaching was the C/N ratio of aboveground plant biomass. In the associated glasshouse experiment we found that retention of added 15N was greater in extensively than in intensively managed grasslands, which was attributed to a combination of greater root uptake and microbial immobilisation of 15N in the former, and that microbial immobilisation increased with increasing biomass and abundance of fungi. These findings show that grassland management affects mechanisms of N retention in soil through changes in root and microbial uptake of N. Moreover, they support the notion that microbial communities might be the key to improved N retention through tightening linkages between plants and microbes and reducing N availability. PMID:23227252

de Vries, Franciska T.; Bloem, Jaap; Quirk, Helen; Stevens, Carly J.; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D.

2012-01-01

53

Extensive management promotes plant and microbial nitrogen retention in temperate grassland.  

PubMed

Leaching losses of nitrogen (N) from soil and atmospheric N deposition have led to widespread changes in plant community and microbial community composition, but our knowledge of the factors that determine ecosystem N retention is limited. A common feature of extensively managed, species-rich grasslands is that they have fungal-dominated microbial communities, which might reduce soil N losses and increase ecosystem N retention, which is pivotal for pollution mitigation and sustainable food production. However, the mechanisms that underpin improved N retention in extensively managed, species-rich grasslands are unclear. We combined a landscape-scale field study and glasshouse experiment to test how grassland management affects plant and soil N retention. Specifically, we hypothesised that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands of high conservation value would have lower N loss and greater N retention than intensively managed, species-poor grasslands, and that this would be due to a greater immobilisation of N by a more fungal-dominated microbial community. In the field study, we found that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands had lower N leaching losses. Soil inorganic N availability decreased with increasing abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, although the best predictor of soil N leaching was the C/N ratio of aboveground plant biomass. In the associated glasshouse experiment we found that retention of added (15)N was greater in extensively than in intensively managed grasslands, which was attributed to a combination of greater root uptake and microbial immobilisation of (15)N in the former, and that microbial immobilisation increased with increasing biomass and abundance of fungi. These findings show that grassland management affects mechanisms of N retention in soil through changes in root and microbial uptake of N. Moreover, they support the notion that microbial communities might be the key to improved N retention through tightening linkages between plants and microbes and reducing N availability. PMID:23227252

de Vries, Franciska T; Bloem, Jaap; Quirk, Helen; Stevens, Carly J; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D

2012-01-01

54

Belowground nematode herbivores are resistant to elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations in grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grasslands are considered to be one of the most sensitive ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, since, in addition to direct effects of elevated CO2 on plant growth, indirect increases in water availability as an effect of elevated CO2 may enhance primary production and alter plant community composition in these typically dry ecosystems. Moreover, grasslands support large populations of belowground

Edward Ayres; Diana H. Wall; Breana L. Simmons; Christopher B. Field; Daniel G. Milchunas; Jack A. Morgan; Jacques Roy

2008-01-01

55

Environmental controls on photosynthetic production and ecosystem respiration in semi-arid grasslands of Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mongolian steppe zone comprises a major part of East Asian grasslands. The objective of this study was to separately evaluate the quantitative dependencies of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) on the environmental variables of temperature, moisture, radiation, and plant biomass in a semi-arid grassland ecosystem. We determined GPP and Reco using transparent and opaque closed chambers

Tomoko Nakano; Manabu Nemoto; Masato Shinoda

2008-01-01

56

Acetone and Acetaldehyde Exchange Above a Managed Temperate Mountain Grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exchange of acetone and acetaldehyde was measured above an intensively managed hay meadow in the Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) during the growing seasons in 2008 and 2009. Half-hourly fluxes of both compounds were calculated by means of the virtual disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) method by combining the 3-dimensional wind data from a sonic anemometer with the compound specific volume mixing ratios quantified with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). The cutting of the meadow resulted in the largest perturbation of the VOC exchange rates. Peak emissions for both VOC species were observed during and right after the cutting of the meadow, with rates of up to 12.1 and 10.1 nmol m-2 s-1 for acetaldehyde and acetone, respectively, reflecting the drying of the wounded plant material. During certain time periods, undisturbed by management events, both compounds exhibited a clear diurnal cycle. Emission rates of up to 3.7 nmol m-2 s-1 for acetaldehyde and 3.2 nmol m-2 s-1 for acetone were measured in October 2008, while a uptake of both compounds with rates of up to 1.8 and 2.1 nmol m-2 s-1, respectively, could be observed in May 2009, when also clear compensation points of 0.3 ppb for acetaldehyde and 1.0 ppb for acetone were observed. In an effort to explore the controls on observed exchange patterns, a simple and multiple linear regression analysis was conducted. A clear interconnection between VOC concentrations and VOC exchange could be seen only in May 2009, when concentration values alone explained 30.6% and 11.7% of the acetaldehyde and acetone flux variance, respectively. However, when trying to predict the observed exchange patterns of both VOC species in a multiple linear regression based on supporting environmental measurements - including air and soil temperature, soil water content and PAR among others - the analysis yielded unsatisfactory results, accounting for 10% and 4% of the observed acetaldehyde and acetone flux variance over both measurement campaigns and during undisturbed conditions. The shortcomings in predicting VOC fluxes might be a consequence of missing parameters that were not captured by our meteorological data. The identification and quantification of biochemical cycles associated with soil and plant root processes and the possible influence of insect life cycles on VOC exchange might provide important information during the development and parameterization of VOC models. The total amount of carbon associated with the VOC flux of the two compounds was low: the grassland was a net source of acetaldehyde in both years with emissions of 21.8 mg C m-2 and 10.2 mg C m-2 in 2008 and 2009, respectively, while the meadow was a source of acetone in 2008 with 14.6 mg C m-2 and a sink in 2009 with a cumulative uptake of 5.0 mg C m-2.

Hörtnagl, L. J.; Bamberger, I.; Graus, M.; Ruuskanen, T.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2011-12-01

57

Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Species Turnover in Temperate Grasslands in Northern China  

PubMed Central

Global nitrogen (N) deposition and climate change have been identified as two of the most important causes of current plant diversity loss. However, temporal patterns of species turnover underlying diversity changes in response to changing precipitation regimes and atmospheric N deposition have received inadequate attention. We carried out a manipulation experiment in a steppe and an old-field in North China from 2005 to 2009, to test the hypothesis that water addition enhances plant species richness through increase in the rate of species gain and decrease in the rate of species loss, while N addition has opposite effects on species changes. Our results showed that water addition increased the rate of species gain in both the steppe and the old field but decreased the rates of species loss and turnover in the old field. In contrast, N addition increased the rates of species loss and turnover in the steppe but decreased the rate of species gain in the old field. The rate of species change was greater in the old field than in the steppe. Water interacted with N to affect species richness and species turnover, indicating that the impacts of N on semi-arid grasslands were largely mediated by water availability. The temporal stability of communities was negatively correlated with rates of species loss and turnover, suggesting that water addition might enhance, but N addition would reduce the compositional stability of grasslands. Experimental results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that water and N availabilities differed in the effects on rate of species change in the temperate grasslands, and these effects also depend on grassland types and/or land-use history. Species gain and loss together contribute to the dynamic change of species richness in semi-arid grasslands under future climate change. PMID:22768119

Xu, Zhuwen; Wan, Shiqiang; Ren, Haiyan; Han, Xingguo; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Weixin; Jiang, Yong

2012-01-01

58

Biotic, abiotic and management controls on methanol fluxes above a temperate mountain grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was previously hypothesised that (i) stomatal conductance and plant growth play a key role in the emission of methanol (Hüve et al. 2007, Niinemets et al. 2004), (ii) methanol fluxes increase with air temperature (Niinemets and Reichstein 2003), and (iii) during cutting (leaf wounding) events and during drying high amounts of methanol are emitted into the atmosphere (Davison et al. 2008). Methanol fluxes were measured above a managed, temperate mountain grassland in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) during two growing seasons (2008 and 2009). Half-hourly flux values were calculated by means of the disjunct eddy covariance method using 3-dimensional wind-data of a sonic anemometer and mixing ratios of methanol measured with a proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS). The surface conductance to water vapour was derived from measured evapotranspiration by inverting the Penman-Monteith combination equation (Wohlfahrt et al., 2009) for dry canopy conditions and used as a proxy for canopyscale stomatal conductance. Methanol fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle with closetozero fluxes during nighttime and emissions, up to 10 nmol m-2 s-1, which followed the diurnal course of radiation and air temperature during daytime. Higher emissions of up to 30 nmol m-2 s-1were observed during cut events and spreading of organic manure. Methanol fluxes showed positive correlations with air temperature, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), confirming previous studies (e.g. Niinemets and Reichstein 2003). All three previously mentioned factors combined together were able to explain 40% of the observed flux variability. The influence of rapid changes in stomatal conductance on methanol fluxes, pointed out in earlier studies at the leaf-level (e.g. Niinemets and Reichstein 2003), could not be confirmed on ecosystem scale, possibly due to within-canopy gradients in stomatal conductance and the fact that fluxes were determined as half-hourly averages. As methanol is produced in expanding cell walls, the change in the measured green area index (?GAI) was used as a proxy for plant growth. However ?GAI was poorly correlated with methanol fluxes, possible explanations will be discussed. References: Davison, B., Brunner, A., Amman, C., Spirig, C., Jocher, M., Neftel, A. Cut-induced VOC emissions from agricultural grasslands. Plant Biol. 10, 76-85, 2008. Harley, P., Greenberg, J., Niinemets, Ü., and Guenther, A..: Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves. Biogeosciences, 4, 1083-1099, 2007. Hüve, K., Christ, M., Kleist, E., Uerlings, R., Niinemets, Ü., Walter, A. and Wildt, J.: Simultaneous growth and emission measurements demonstrate an interactive control of methanol release by leaf expansion and stomata. doi:10.1093/jxb/erm038, Journal of Experimental Botany, 2007. Niinemets, Ü. and Reichstein, M.: Controls on the emission of plant volatiles through stomata: A sensitivity analysis. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4211, doi:10.1029/2002JD002626, 2003. Niinemets, Ü., Loreto, F. and Reichstein, M.: Physiological and physicochemical controls on foliar volatile organic compound emissions. Trends in Plant Science,9, 2004. Wohlfahrt G., Haslwanter A., Hörtnagl L., Jasoni R.L., Fenstermaker L.F., Arnone J.A. III, Hammerle A. (2009) On the consequences of the energy imbalance for calculating surface conductance to water vapour. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 149, 15561559.

Hörtnagl, Lukas; Bamberger, Ines; Graus, Martin; Ruuskanen, Taina; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Müller, Markus; Hansel, Armin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

2010-05-01

59

Inter-annual variability of carbon and water exchange of managed temperate grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed grassland ecosystems form a significant part of the European land cover. However, long-term flux monitoring on grassland sites are still rare in comparison to forest sites. Beside climatic factors, also the management regime (and history) have an influence on the carbon and energy exchange of agricultural ecosystems. We have monitored the carbon and water cycle of a sown grassland site on the Swiss Central Plateau since 2002 within the European flux network projects GreenGrass, CarboEurope-IP and NitroEurope-IP. The experimental field has been divided in two plots, one undergoing intensive management (high nitrogen input), the other extensive management (no fertilization). Continuous eddy covariance measurements of the CO2 exchange and the quantification of carbon export and import by harvest and manure application allow for the assessment of the complete carbon budget of both plots. Over the entire 7-year period, the intensive management led to a significant carbon sequestration, while the extensive management caused a net carbon loss. Although the different management led to a systematic difference between the two fields, it had only little influence on the inter-annual variation of the carbon budget. The latter shows a positive correlation with the net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and with the harvest yield. They mainly depend on the spring temperature and the length of the growing season as well as on the soil moisture content during summer. Thus carbon sequestration in the grassland soil was most favoured in wet years with an early spring: 2002, 2004, and 2007. The variation in the annual water use efficiency was mainly driven by the plant assimilation while the evapotranspiration showed only a minor reaction to the varying precipitation and soil moisture. It was found, that even during the very dry period of the summer 2003 the grass roots were mostly able to take up water from deeper soil layers although plant growth was strongly limited.

Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.; Calanca, P.; Fuhrer, J.

2009-04-01

60

Regional patterns and controls of ecosystem salinization with grassland afforestation along a rainfall gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation change affects water fluxes and influences the direction and intensity of salt exchange between ecosystems and groundwater. In some conditions it can also lead to an intense accumulation of salts in soils and aquifers, as has been documented for the conversion of native grassland to tree plantations in the plains of Argentina, Hungary and Russia. In this paper we present a hierarchical framework to predict salt accumulation following vegetation change that is based on climatic, hydrogeological and biological factors. We evaluated this spatially explicit framework in temperate South America using a network of 32 pairs of adjacent plantation and grassland stands studied with detailed field measurements and remotely sensed imagery from MODIS. Our sites cover a broad precipitation gradient (770 to 1500 mm a-1) and are underlain by shallow water tables (<2.5 m of depth). At the regional scale, geoelectric surveying revealed that the salinization of plantation soils depended strongly on climate, occurring only where the annual water balance (mean precipitation-Penman-Monteith potential evapotranspiration) was <100 mm a-1 (p < 0.0001, n = 24). At the local scale, we observed that groundwater salinities observed under ˜50-year old plantations of different species were associated with their tolerance to salinity (p < 0.001, n = 10). Salinization occurred rapidly where rainfall was insufficient to meet the water requirements of tree plantations and where groundwater use compensated for this deficit, driving salt accumulating in the ecosystem. A general understanding of the vegetation-groundwater relationship will help predict and manage the negative and positive consequences of groundwater use from stand to regional levels of analysis.

Nosetto, M. D.; JobbáGy, E. G.; Tóth, T.; Jackson, R. B.

2008-06-01

61

Convergence of potential net ecosystem production among contrasting C3 grasslands  

PubMed Central

Metabolic theory and body size dependent constraints on biomass production and decomposition suggest that differences in the intrinsic potential net ecosystem production (NEPPOT) should be small among contrasting C3 grasslands and therefore unable to explain the wide range in the annual apparent net ecosystem production (NEPAPP) reported by previous studies. We estimated NEPPOT for nine C3 grasslands under contrasting climate and management regimes using multi-year eddy covariance data. NEPPOT converged within a narrow range suggesting little difference in the net carbon dioxide uptake capacity across C3 grasslands. Our results indicate a unique feature of C3 grasslands compared to other terrestrial ecosystems and suggest a state of stability in NEPPOT due to tightly coupled production and respiration processes. Consequently, the annual NEPAPP of C3 grasslands is primarily a function of seasonal and short-term environmental and management constraints, and therefore especially susceptible to changes in future climate patterns and associated adaptation of management practices. PMID:23346985

Peichl, Matthias; Sonnentag, Oliver; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Kiely, Gerard; Galvagno, Marta; Gianelle, Damiano; Marcolla, Barbara; Pio, Casimiro; Migliavacca, Mirco; Jones, Michael B.; Saunders, Matthew

2013-01-01

62

Rapid Response of a Grassland Ecosystem to an Experimental Manipulation of a Keystone Rodent and Domestic Livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Megaherbivores and small burrowing mammals commonly coexist and play important functional roles in grassland ecosystems worldwide. The interactive effects of these two functional groups of herbivores in shaping the structure and function of grassland ecosystems are poorly understood. In North America's central grasslands, domestic cattle (Bos taurus) have supplanted bison (Bison bison), and now coexist with prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.),

Ed L. Frederickson; Eduardo Ponce; Dave Lightfoot; Ed Fredrickson; James Brown; Juan Cruzado; Sandra Brantley; Rodrigo Sierra; Rurik List; David Toledo; Gerardo Ceballos

2010-01-01

63

Changes in autumn vegetation dormancy onset date and the climate controls across temperate ecosystems in China from 1982 to 2010.  

PubMed

Vegetation phenology is a sensitive indicator of the dynamic response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. In this study, the spatiotemporal pattern of vegetation dormancy onset date (DOD) and its climate controls over temperate China were examined by analysing the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index and concurrent climate data from 1982 to 2010. Results show that preseason (May through October) air temperature is the primary climatic control of the DOD spatial pattern across temperate China, whereas preseason cumulative precipitation is dominantly associated with the DOD spatial pattern in relatively cold regions. Temporally, the average DOD over China's temperate ecosystems has delayed by 0.13 days per year during the past three decades. However, the delay trends are not continuous throughout the 29-year period. The DOD experienced the largest delay during the 1980s, but the delay trend slowed down or even reversed during the 1990s and 2000s. Our results also show that interannual variations in DOD are most significantly related with preseason mean temperature in most ecosystems, except for the desert ecosystem for which the variations in DOD are mainly regulated by preseason cumulative precipitation. Moreover, temperature also determines the spatial pattern of temperature sensitivity of DOD, which became significantly lower as temperature increased. On the other hand, the temperature sensitivity of DOD increases with increasing precipitation, especially in relatively dry areas (e.g. temperate grassland). This finding stresses the importance of hydrological control on the response of autumn phenology to changes in temperature, which must be accounted in current temperature-driven phenological models. PMID:25430658

Yang, Yuting; Guan, Huade; Shen, Miaogen; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Lei

2015-02-01

64

The impact of human-environment interactions on the stability of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems can exhibit alternative stables states, whereby under the same environmental conditions, the ecosystem could equally well reside either in one state or another, depending on the initial conditions. We develop a mathematical model that couples a simplified forest-grassland mosaic model to a dynamic model of opinions about conservation priorities in a population, based on perceptions of ecosystem rarity. Weak human influence increases the region of parameter space where alternative stable states are possible. However, strong human influence precludes bistability, such that forest and grassland either co-exist at a single, stable equilibrium, or their relative abundance oscillates. Moreover, a perturbation can shift the system from a stable state to an oscillatory state. We conclude that human-environment interactions can qualitatively alter the composition of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems. The human role in such systems should be viewed as dynamic, responsive element rather than as a fixed, unchanging entity. PMID:24048359

Innes, Clinton; Anand, Madhur; Bauch, Chris T.

2013-01-01

65

Dynamics of evapotranspiration in semiarid grassland and shrubland ecosystems during the summer monsoon season, central  

E-print Network

Dynamics of evapotranspiration in semiarid grassland and shrubland ecosystems during the summer in semiarid environments, we measured temporal fluctuations of evapotranspiration (ET) and identified key is inappropriate in the semiarid environments studied here. INDEX TERMS: 1818 Hydrology: Evapotranspiration; 1833

Small, Eric

66

Prairie dog decline reduces the supply of ecosystem services and leads to desertification of semiarid grasslands.  

PubMed

Anthropogenic impacts on North American grasslands, a highly endangered ecosystem, have led to declines of prairie dogs, a keystone species, over 98% of their historical range. While impacts of this loss on maintenance of grassland biodiversity have been widely documented, much less is known about the consequences on the supply of ecosystem services. Here we assessed the effect of prairie dogs in the supply of five ecosystem services by comparing grasslands currently occupied by prairie dogs, grasslands devoid of prairie dogs, and areas that used to be occupied by prairie dogs that are currently dominated by mesquite scrub. Groundwater recharge, regulation of soil erosion, regulation of soil productive potential, soil carbon storage and forage availability were consistently quantitatively or qualitatively higher in prairie dog grasslands relative to grasslands or mesquite scrub. Our findings indicate a severe loss of ecosystem services associated to the absence of prairie dogs. These findings suggest that contrary to a much publicize perception, especially in the US, prairie dogs are fundamental in maintaining grasslands and their decline have strong negative impacts in human well - being through the loss of ecosystem services. PMID:24130691

Martínez-Estévez, Lourdes; Balvanera, Patricia; Pacheco, Jesús; Ceballos, Gerardo

2013-01-01

67

Prairie Dog Decline Reduces the Supply of Ecosystem Services and Leads to Desertification of Semiarid Grasslands  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic impacts on North American grasslands, a highly endangered ecosystem, have led to declines of prairie dogs, a keystone species, over 98% of their historical range. While impacts of this loss on maintenance of grassland biodiversity have been widely documented, much less is known about the consequences on the supply of ecosystem services. Here we assessed the effect of prairie dogs in the supply of five ecosystem services by comparing grasslands currently occupied by prairie dogs, grasslands devoid of prairie dogs, and areas that used to be occupied by prairie dogs that are currently dominated by mesquite scrub. Groundwater recharge, regulation of soil erosion, regulation of soil productive potential, soil carbon storage and forage availability were consistently quantitatively or qualitatively higher in prairie dog grasslands relative to grasslands or mesquite scrub. Our findings indicate a severe loss of ecosystem services associated to the absence of prairie dogs. These findings suggest that contrary to a much publicize perception, especially in the US, prairie dogs are fundamental in maintaining grasslands and their decline have strong negative impacts in human well – being through the loss of ecosystem services. PMID:24130691

Martínez-Estévez, Lourdes; Balvanera, Patricia; Pacheco, Jesús; Ceballos, Gerardo

2013-01-01

68

Ecosystem Change in California Grasslands: Impacts of Species Invasion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grassland ecosystems of California have undergone dramatic changes, resulting in the almost complete replacement of native perennial grasses by non-native annuals across millions of hectares of grassland habitat. Our research investigates the effects of this community shift on carbon, water and energy cycles at two sites in northern coastal California. Our goal was to understand how changes to California’s grasslands have affected climate through 1. shifting the balance of carbon storage between terrestrial stocks and the atmosphere, and 2. altering the water and energy regimes that heat or cool the earth's surface. To compare the processes that govern material exchange before and after annual grass invasion, we made use of sites where native vegetation is found adjacent to locations that have undergone non-native invasion. In plots of each vegetation type, we monitored whole plant productivity, root and litter decay rates and soil respiration, as well as soil climatic controls on these processes. At one site, we also measured surface albedo and the components of the surface energy balance in each grass community, using the surface renewal method. Although seemingly subtle, the shift in California grassland communities from native perennial to non-native annual grass dominance has had profound consequences for ecosystem biogeochemical, radiative and hydrological cycles. Soil carbon storage was found to be significantly greater in native perennial grass communities. Across both study sites, we found that non-native grass invasion has resulted in the transfer of from 3 to 6 tons of carbon per hectare from the soil to the atmosphere, dependent on site and species. A soil density fractionation and a radiocarbon analysis also revealed the carbon to be more recalcitrant in native grass dominated locations. The primary plant traits that help explain why soil carbon losses follow annual grass invasion are: 1. differences between annual and perennial grasses in above/ belowground allocation, 2. differences in growth plasticity in response to inter-annual precipitation variability, and 3. the effect of differences in rooting depth and aboveground morphology on soil moisture content and soil respiration. Over the years 2004-2006, we found energy partitioning into latent and sensible heat flux to be similar among annual and perennial grass communities during periods of sufficient soil moisture availability. When water becomes scarce in the late spring, however, and annual grasses die, the ratio of latent to sensible heat loss is reduced in annual grass communities relative to perennials. The deep roots of perennial grasses prolong the period over which transpiration occurs. We also found that albedo differs year-round between perennial and annual grasses, tracking differences in grass phenology. Albedo differences are at a maximum during the summer and autumn months. At this time, the lower albedo in non-native annual communities can raise near surface temperatures up to 6 oC midday relative to native perennials.

Koteen, L. E.; Harte, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.

2009-12-01

69

Leaf area controls on energy partitioning of a temperate mountain grassland  

PubMed Central

Using a six year data set of eddy covariance flux measurements of sensible and latent heat, soil heat flux, net radiation, above-ground phytomass and meteorological driving forces energy partitioning was investigated at a temperate mountain grassland managed as a hay meadow in the Stubai Valley (Austria). The main findings of the study were: (i) Energy partitioning was dominated by latent heat, followed by sensible heat and the soil heat flux; (ii) When compared to standard environmental forcings, the amount of green plant matter, which due to three cuts varied considerably during the vegetation period, explained similar, and partially larger, fractions of the variability in energy partitioning; (iii) There were little, if any, indications of water stress effects on energy partitioning, despite reductions in soil water availability in combination with high evaporative demand, e.g. during the summer drought of 2003. PMID:24348583

Hammerle, A.; Haslwanter, A.; Tappeiner, U.; Cernusca, A.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2013-01-01

70

Exploring the Relationships Among Canopy Structure, Stand Productivity, and Biodiversity of Temperate Forest Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of human activity on forest ecosystems are most pronounced in the temperate region. Simplification of stand structure has resulted in diminished ecosystem function and biodiversity decline, raising much debate over future management policies. Ecosystem functions and biodiversity may be enhanced by managing forests for increased structural complexity. However, processes that determine relationships among structural complexity, ecosystem functions, and biodiversity

Hiroaki T. Ishii; Shin-ichi Tanabe; Tsutom Hiura

2004-01-01

71

Effect of degradation intensity on grassland ecosystem services in the alpine region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.  

PubMed

The deterioration of alpine grassland has great impact on ecosystem services in the alpine region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. However, the effect of grassland degradation on ecosystem services and the consequence of grassland deterioration on economic loss still remains a mystery. So, in this study, we assessed four types of ecosystem services following the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment classification, along a degradation gradient. Five sites of alpine grassland at different levels of degradation were investigated in Guoluo Prefecture of Qinghai Province, China. The species composition, aboveground biomass, soil total organic carbon (TOC), and soil total nitrogen (TN) were tested to evaluate major ecological services of the alpine grassland. We estimated the value of primary production, carbon storage, nitrogen recycling, and plant diversity. The results show the ecosystem services of alpine grassland varied along the degradation gradient. The ecosystem services of degraded grassland (moderate, heavy and severe) were all significantly lower than non-degraded grassland. Interestingly, the lightly degraded grassland provided more economic benefit from carbon maintenance and nutrient sequestration compared to non-degraded. Due to the destruction of the alpine grassland, the economic loss associated with decrease of biomass in 2008 was $198/ha. Until 2008, the economic loss caused by carbon emissions and nitrogen loss on severely degraded grassland was up to $8 033/ha and $13 315/ha, respectively. Urgent actions are required to maintain or promote the ecosystem services of alpine grassland in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. PMID:23469278

Wen, Lu; Dong, Shikui; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaoyan; Shi, Jianjun; Wang, Yanlong; Liu, Demei; Ma, Yushou

2013-01-01

72

Molecular Investigation of the Short-term Sequestration of Natural Abundance 13C -labelled Cow Dung in the Surface Horizons of a Temperate Grassland Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adequate understanding of the carbon (C) sequestration potential of grasslands requires that the quantity and residence times of C inputs be measured. Herbivore dung is largely comprised of plant cell wall material, a significant source of stable C in intensively grazed temperate grassland ecosystems that contributes to the soil carbon budget. Our work uses compound-specific isotope analysis to identify the pattern of input of dung-derived compounds from natural abundance 13C/-labelled cow dung into the surface horizons of a temperate grassland soil over one year. C4 dung (? 13C \\-12.6 ‰ ) from maize fed cows was applied to a temperate grassland surface (? 13C \\-29.95 ‰ ) at IGER-North Wyke (Devon, UK), and dung remains and soil cores beneath the treatments collected at ? = 7, 14, 28, 56, 112, 224 and 372 days. Bulk dung carbon present in the 0\\-1 cm and 1\\-5 cm surface horizons of a grassland soil over one year was estimated using ? 13C between C4 dung and C3 dung, after Bol {\\et al.} (2000). The major biochemical components of dung were quantified using proximate forage fibre analyses, after Goering and Van Soest (1970) and identified using `wet' chemical and GC-MS methods. Plant cell wall polysaccharides and lignin were found to account for up to 67 {%} of dung dry matter. Hydrolysed polysaccharides were prepared as alditol acetates for analyses (after Docherty {\\et al.}, 2001), and a novel application of an off-line pyrolysis method applied to measure lignin-derived phenolic compounds (after Poole & van Bergen, 2002). This paper focuses on major events in the incorporation of dung carbon, estimated using natural abundance 13C&-slash;labelling technique. This revealed a major bulk input of dung carbon after a period of significant rainfall with a consequent decline in bulk soil ? 13C values until the end of the experiment (Dungait {\\et al.}, submitted). Findings will be presented revealing contribution of plant cell wall polysaccharides and lignin to these bulk ? 13C values, and their potential for sequestration considered. References: Bol, R., Amelung, W., Friedrich, C. Ostle, N. (2000). Tracing dung-derived carbon in temperate grassland using 13C natural abundance measurements. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 1337-1343. Goering and Van Soest (1970). Forage fibre analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications). In: USDA-ARS Agricultural Handbook, 379. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. Docherty, G., Jones, V. and Evershed, R.P. (2001). Practical and theoretical considerations in the gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry ? 13C analysis of small polyfunctional compounds. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 15, 730-738. Poole, I. & van Bergen, P. F. (2002). Carbon isotope ratio analysis of organic moieties from fossil mummified wood: establishing optimum conditions for off-line pyrolysis extraction using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 16, 1976-1981. Dungait, J. A. J., Bol, R. and Evershed, R.P. (submitted). The Fate of Dung Carbon in Temperate Grassland Soil: 1. Preliminary Findings Based on Bulk Stable Carbon Isotope Determinations. Isotopes in Health and Environmental Studies

Dungait, J.; Bol, R.; Evershed, R. P.

2004-12-01

73

Independent Evolution of Leaf and Root Traits within and among Temperate Grassland Plant Communities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we used data from temperate grassland plant communities in Alberta, Canada to test two longstanding hypotheses in ecology: 1) that there has been correlated evolution of the leaves and roots of plants due to selection for an integrated whole-plant resource uptake strategy, and 2) that trait diversity in ecological communities is generated by adaptations to the conditions in different habitats. We tested the first hypothesis using phylogenetic comparative methods to test for evidence of correlated evolution of suites of leaf and root functional traits in these grasslands. There were consistent evolutionary correlations among traits related to plant resource uptake strategies within leaf tissues, and within root tissues. In contrast, there were inconsistent correlations between the traits of leaves and the traits of roots, suggesting different evolutionary pressures on the above and belowground components of plant morphology. To test the second hypothesis, we evaluated the relative importance of two components of trait diversity: within-community variation (species trait values relative to co-occurring species; ? traits) and among-community variation (the average trait value in communities where species occur; ? traits). Trait diversity was mostly explained by variation among co-occurring species, not among-communities. Additionally, there was a phylogenetic signal in the within-community trait values of species relative to co-occurring taxa, but not in their habitat associations or among-community trait variation. These results suggest that sorting of pre-existing trait variation into local communities can explain the leaf and root trait diversity in these grasslands. PMID:21687704

Kembel, Steven W.; Cahill, James F.

2011-01-01

74

Water relations in grassland and desert ecosystems exposed to elevated atmospheric CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment may stimulate plant growth directly through (1) enhanced photosynthesis or indirectly, through (2) reduced plant water consumption and hence slower soil moisture depletion, or the combination of both. Herein we describe gas exchange, plant biomass and species responses of five native or semi-native temperate and Mediterranean grasslands and three semi-arid systems to CO 2 enrichment, with

J. A. Morgan; D. E. Pataki; C. Körner; H. Clark; S. J. Del Grosso; J. M. Grünzweig; A. K. Knapp; A. R. Mosier; P. C. D. Newton; P. A. Niklaus; J. B. Nippert; R. S. Nowak; W. J. Parton; H. W. Polley; M. R. Shaw

2004-01-01

75

Future scenarios of soil water availability at managed grassland ecosystems in the Austrian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available soil water is a major constraint for numerous ecosystem functions and is likely to be considerably affected by projected shifts in temperature and precipitation. Quantifying likely future changes in soil water content is therefore essential for assessing impacts of climate change on ecosystem functions. We present a data fusion approach addressing changes in soil water content of temperate grasslands in the Austrian Alps under future climate scenarios. We use a simple soil bucket model, characterized by an efficient structure and minimal requirements regarding meteorological inputs (solar radiation, precipitation and air temperature). The model is therefore suitable for the analysis of a wide range of ecological datasets. Model parameter were constrained by up to three different datasets (soil water content, evapotranspiration and snow water equivalent) using a Bayesian inversion scheme. Given a repository of data collected at ten sites in the Eastern Alps as well as a set of downscaled and error corrected (quantile mapping) regional climate scenarios, developed for the years 1961 - 2050 with 5 different regional/global climate models (CNRMRM, AITCCLM, KNMIRACMO, DMIHIRHAM, ETHZCLM) we simulated soil water content conditions under these future climate scenarios. Despite the simple model structure calibrated model runs do show a very good performance at the majority of investigated sites. Results show that if any trend can be found, the investigated ecosystems tend to higher soil water contents on average, associated with a distinct decrease in snow cover duration under future climate conditions. Regardless of these average trends some climate models cause an increasing frequency and a longer duration of extreme dry soil water conditions under future climate scenarios.

Hammerle, Albin; Calanca, Pierluigi; Themessl, Matthias; Gobiet, Andreas; Wohlfahrt, Georg

2014-05-01

76

Winter photosynthetic activity of twenty temperate semi-desert sand grassland species.  

PubMed

The winter photosynthetic activity (quantified by net CO(2) assimilation rates and chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence parameters) of 20 plant species (including two lichens and two mosses) of a Hungarian temperate semi-desert sand grassland was determined on one occasion per year in 1984, 1989 and 1994. Throughout winter, the overwintering green shoots, leaves or thalli were regularly exposed to below zero temperatures at night and daytime temperatures of 0-5 degrees C. In situ tissue temperature varied between -2.1 and +6.9 degrees C and the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) between 137 and 351 micromol m(-2)s(-1). Under these conditions 18 of the grassland species exhibited photosynthetic CO(2) uptake (range: vascular plants ca. 0.2-3.8 micromol m(-2)s(-1), cryptogams 0.3-2.79 micromol kg(-1)s(-1)) and values of 0.9-5.1 of the Chl fluorescence decrease ratio R(Fd). In 1984, Festuca vaginata and Sedum sexangulare had net CO(2) assimilation at leaf temperatures of -0.85 to -1.2 degrees C. In 1989, all species except Cladonia furcata showed net CO(2) assimilation at tissue temperatures of 0 to +3.3 degrees C, with the highest rates observed in Poa bulbosa and F. vaginata. The latter showed a net CO(2) assimilation saturation at a PPFD of 600 micromol m(-2)s(-1) and a temperature optimum between +5 and +18 degrees C. At the 1994 measurements, the photosynthetic rates were higher at higher tissue water contents. The two mosses and lichens had a net photosynthesis (range: 1.1-2.79 micromol CO(2)kg(-1)s(-1)) at 2 degrees C tissue temperature and at 4-5 degrees C air temperature. Ca. 80% of the vascular grassland plant species maintained a positive C-balance during the coldest periods of winter, with photosynthetic rates of 1.5-3.8 micromol CO(2)m(-2)s(-1). In an extremely warm beginning March of the relatively warm winter of 2006/2007, the dicotyledonous plants had much higher CO(2) assimilation rates on a Chl (range 6-14.9 micromol g(-1)Chl s(-1)) and on a dry weight basis (9-48 micromol kg(-1)dw s(-1)) than in the cold winter of 1994. However, the assimilation rates of the three investigated cryptogams (Tortula and two Cladonia) and the two grasses Festuca and Poa were not affected by this increase. The results indicate that the photosynthetic activity of temperate semi-desert sand grassland species can help somewhat in slowing the general CO(2) rise in winter and function as a potential carbon sink of the investigated semi-desert Hungarian grassland species. PMID:18346813

Tuba, Zoltán; Csintalan, Zsolt; Szente, Kálmán; Nagy, Zoltán; Fekete, Gábor; Larcher, Walter; Lichtenthaler, Hartmut K

2008-09-29

77

Changes in nitrogen resorption traits of six temperate grassland species along a multi-level N addition gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) resorption from senescing leaves is an important mechanism of N conservation for terrestrial plant species, but\\u000a changes in N-resorption traits over wide-range and multi-level N addition gradients have not been well characterized. Here,\\u000a a 3-year N addition experiment was conducted to determine the effects of N addition on N resorption of six temperate grassland\\u000a species belonging to three

Ju-Ying Huang; Xiao-Guang Zhu; Zhi-You Yuan; Shi-Huan Song; Xin Li; Ling-Hao Li

2008-01-01

78

Ungulate and topographic control of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore community composition in a temperate grassland.  

PubMed

Large herbivores and topo-edaphic gradients are well-documented, major determinants of grassland plant production and species composition. In contrast, there is limited information about how these factors together may influence the composition of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) communities associated with plants. AMF are a common component of grassland ecosystems where they can influence plant productivity, diversity, and soil stability. In this study, AMF community composition was analyzed in paired plots located inside and outside 40-44-year-old ungulate exclosures at six grassland sites in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), USA, that varied in soil moisture and the availability of soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). AMF spore abundance, species richness, and the relative abundance of AMF species were determined from soil samples collected (1) randomly (n = 5 samples) within each of the 12 plots and (2) from beneath the dominant grass (n = 5 samples per plot) at each site. Randomly collected soil samples explored the effects of ungulates and topographic position on AMF composition at the plant community level, subsuming potential effects of ungulates on plant species composition. Dominant plant samples examined how grazers, in particular, influenced AMF communities, while controlling for host-plant identity. Grazing decreased AMF spore abundance across the landscape (examined by random sampling) but increased the AMF species richness associated with dominant plants. Grazing influenced the AMF species composition at the plant community level and at the host-plant level by shifting the relative abundances of individual AMF species. Individual AMF species responded differently to grazing and N and P availability. Our results demonstrate how soil moisture and N and P availability across the landscape interact with grazing to influence AMF species composition. PMID:20426339

Murray, Tanya R; Frank, Douglas A; Gehring, Catherine A

2010-03-01

79

Long term CO2 enrichment in a temperate grassland increases soil respiration during late autumn and winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil respiration of terrestrial ecosystems, a major component in the global carbon cycle may comprise a potential positive feedback to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, analyses reflecting seasonal variability of soil CO2 fluxes under long term CO2 enrichment including winter soil respiration are rare. At the Giessen free-air CO2 enrichment in a temperate grassland (Gi-FACE), adding +20% to the ambient CO2 concentration since 1998, we analyzed the seasonal dynamics of soil respiration including dormant seasons. We defined five seasons, with respect to management practices and phenological cycles. For a period of three years (2008-2010), we performed weekly measurements of soil respiration with an LI-8100 soil CO2 efflux survey chamber from four vegetation-free subplots per FACE or control plot and tested for a CO2 effect within the defined seasons. The results revealed a pronounced and repeated increase of soil respiration during winter dormancy. However, during spring and summer season, characterized by strong above- and below-ground plant growth, no significant change in soil respiration was observed at the Gi-FACE under elevated CO2. This suggests (i) that measuring soil respiration only during the vegetative growth period in CO2 enrichment experiments may underestimate the true soil-respiratory CO2 loss (i.e. overestimate the C sequestered), (ii) that additional C assimilated by plants during the growing period, getting transferred below-ground until autumn, will quickly be lost again via enhanced heterotrophic respiration during the off-season, driving the increased winter soil respiration under elevated CO2.

Keidel, Lisa; Moser, Gerald; Kammann, Claudia; Grünhage, Ludger; Müller, Christoph

2014-05-01

80

Effects of plant pathogens on population dynamics and community composition in grassland ecosystems: two case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grassland ecosystems comprise a major portion of the earth’s terrestrial surface, ranging from high-input cultivated monocultures or simple species-mixtures to relatively unmanaged but dynamic systems. Plant pathogens are a component of these systems with their impact dependent on many interacting factors, including grassland species population dynamics and community composition, the topics covered in this paper. Plant pathogens are affected by

Michael J. Jeger; Nabeil K. G. Salama; Michael Shaw; F. van den Berg; Frank Van Den Bosch

2014-01-01

81

China's grazed temperate grasslands are a net source of atmospheric methane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A budget for the methane (CH 4) cycle in the Xilin River basin of Inner Mongolia is presented. The annual CH 4 budget in this region depends primarily on the sum of atmospheric CH 4 uptake by upland soils, emission from small wetlands, and emission from grazing ruminants (sheep, goats, and cattle). Flux rates for these processes were averaged over multiple years with differing summer rainfall. Although uplands constitute the vast majority of land area, they consume much less CH 4 per unit area than is emitted by wetlands and ruminants. Atmospheric CH 4 uptake by upland soils was -3.3 and -4.8 kg CH 4 ha -1 y -1 in grazed and ungrazed areas, respectively. Average CH 4 emission was 791.0 kg CH 4 ha -1 y -1 from wetlands and 8.6 kg CH 4 ha -1 y -1 from ruminants. The basin area-weighted average of all three processes was 6.8 kg CH 4 ha -1 y -1, indicating that ruminant production has converted this basin to a net source of atmospheric CH 4. The total CH 4 emission from the Xilin River basin was 7.29 Gg CH 4 y -1. The current grazing intensity is about eightfold higher than that which would result in a net zero CH 4 flux. Since grazing intensity has increased throughout western China, it is likely that ruminant production has converted China's grazed temperate grasslands to a net source of atmospheric CH 4 overall.

Wang, Zhi-Ping; Song, Yang; Gulledge, Jay; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Hong-Sheng; Han, Xing-Guo

82

Warming and Nitrogen Addition Increase Litter Decomposition in a Temperate Meadow Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Background Litter decomposition greatly influences soil structure, nutrient content and carbon sequestration, but how litter decomposition is affected by climate change is still not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A field experiment with increased temperature and nitrogen (N) addition was established in April 2007 to examine the effects of experimental warming, N addition and their interaction on litter decomposition in a temperate meadow steppe in northeastern China. Warming, N addition and warming plus N addition reduced the residual mass of L. chinensis litter by 3.78%, 7.51% and 4.53%, respectively, in 2008 and 2009, and by 4.73%, 24.08% and 16.1%, respectively, in 2010. Warming, N addition and warming plus N addition had no effect on the decomposition of P. communis litter in 2008 or 2009, but reduced the residual litter mass by 5.58%, 15.53% and 5.17%, respectively, in 2010. Warming and N addition reduced the cellulose percentage of L. chinensis and P. communis, specifically in 2010. The lignin percentage of L. chinensis and P. communis was reduced by warming but increased by N addition. The C, N and P contents of L. chinensis and P. communis litter increased with time. Warming and N addition reduced the C content and C:N ratios of L. chinensisand P. communis litter, but increased the N and P contents. Significant interactive effects of warming and N addition on litter decomposition were observed (P<0.01). Conclusion/Significance The litter decomposition rate was highly correlated with soil temperature, soil water content and litter quality. Warming and N addition significantly impacted the litter decomposition rate in the Songnen meadow ecosystem, and the effects of warming and N addition on litter decomposition were also influenced by the quality of litter. These results highlight how climate change could alter grassland ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents in soil by influencing litter decomposition. PMID:25774776

Gong, Shiwei; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Tao; Guo, Jixun

2015-01-01

83

Transfer parameter values in temperate forest ecosystems: a review.  

PubMed

Compared to agricultural lands, forests are complex ecosystems as they can involve diverse plant species associations, several vegetative strata (overstorey, shrubs, herbaceous and other annual plant layer) and multi-layered soil profiles (forest floor, hemi-organic and mineral layers). A high degree of variability is thus generally observed in radionuclide transfers and redistribution patterns in contaminated forests. In the long term, the soil compartment represents the major reservoir of radionuclides which can give rise to long-term plant and hence food contamination. For practical reasons, the contamination of various specific forest products has commonly been quantified using the aggregated transfer factor (T(ag) in m(2)kg(-1)) which integrates various environmental parameters including soil and plant type, root distribution as well as nature and vertical distribution of the deposits. Long lasting availability of some radionuclides was shown to be the source of much higher transfer in forest ecosystems than in agricultural lands. This study aimed at reviewing the most relevant quantitative information on radionuclide transfers to forest biota including trees, understorey vegetation, mushrooms, berries and game animals. For both radiocaesium and radiostrontium in trees, the order of magnitude of mean T(ag) values was 10(-3)m(2)kg(-1) (dry weight). Tree foliage was usually 2-12 times more contaminated than trunk wood. Maximum contamination of tree components with radiocaesium was associated with (semi-)hydromorphic areas with thick humus layers. The transfer of radionuclides to mushrooms and berries is high, in comparison with foodstuffs grown in agricultural systems. Concerning caesium uptake by mushrooms, the transfer is characterized by a very large variability of T(ag), from 10(-3) to 10(1)m(2)kg(-1) (dry weight). For berries, typical values are around 0.01-0.1 m(2)kg(-1) (dry weight). Transfer of radioactive caesium to game animals and reindeer and the rate of activity reduction, quantified as an ecological half-life, reflect the soil and pasture conditions at individual locations. Forests in temperate and boreal regions differ with respect to soil type and vegetation, and a faster decline of muscle activity concentrations in deer occurs in the temperate zone. However, in wild boar the caesium activity concentration shows no decline because of its special feeding habits. In the late phase, i.e. at least a few months since the external radionuclide contamination on feed plants has been removed, a T(ag) value of 0.01 m(2)kg(-1) (fresh weight) is common for (137)Cs in the muscles of adult moose and terrestrial birds living in boreal forests, and 0.03 m(2)kg(-1) (fresh weight) for arctic hare. Radiocaesium concentrations in reindeer muscle in winter may exceed the summer content by a factor of more than two, the mean T(ag) values for winter ranging from 0.02 to 0.8 m(2)kg(-1) (fresh weight), and in summer from 0.04 to 0.4m(2)kg(-1). The highest values are found in the year of initial contamination, followed by a gradual reduction. In waterfowl a relatively fast decline in uptake of (137)Cs has been found, with T(ag) values changing from 0.01 to 0.002 m(2)kg(-1) (fresh weight) in the three years after the contaminating event, the rate being determined by the dynamics of (137)Cs in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:19100665

Calmon, Philippe; Thiry, Yves; Zibold, Gregor; Rantavaara, Aino; Fesenko, Sergei

2009-09-01

84

Rapid response of a grassland ecosystem to an experimental manipulation of a keystone rodent and domestic livestock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Megaherbivores and small burrowing mammals commonly co-exist and play important functional roles in grassland ecosystems worldwide. The interactive effects of these two functional groups of herbivores in shaping the structure and function of grassland ecosystems are poorly understood. In North Ameri...

85

Collembolan response to experimental perturbations of litter supply in a temperate forest ecosystem  

E-print Network

communities of Collembola (Insecta, Apterygota) in a mixed deciduous forest in France were studied for fourCollembolan response to experimental perturbations of litter supply in a temperate forest ecosystem communities within forest ecosystems can be estimated through studies on the effects of clear

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Nitrogen effects on net ecosystem carbon exchange in a temperate steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has widely been documented that nitrogen (N) enrichment stimulates plant growth and net primary production. However, there is still dispute on how N addition affects net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which represents the balance between ecosystem carbon (C) uptake and release. We conducted an experimental study to examine effects of N addition on NEE in a temperate steppe in

SHULI NIU; J IANGY ANG X IA; HAIJUN YANG; SHIQIANG WAN

2009-01-01

87

Mediterranean grassland soil fungi: Patterns of biodiversity, functional redundancy and soil carbon storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter is a relevant carbon reservoir and CO2 sink in temperate grassland ecosystems and increased carbon uptake may mitigate climate change. Relatively little is known about the relationship between ecosystem function and soil fungal biodiversity in grasslands. However, this relationship is important because the saprotrophic microorganisms within the decomposer chain may, given their important role in the decomposition

A. M. Persiani; O. Maggi; J. Montalvo; M. A. Casado; F. D. Pineda

2008-01-01

88

Spatial scaling of CO2 efflux in a temperate grazed grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding CO2 efflux from soil at different scales is important when up-scaling CO2 measurements from plot to larger scales, but there have been few studies investigating spatial CO2 efflux in temperate environments. We conducted a nested analysis of variation to explore how the CO2 efflux variation occurs between different spatial scales. Ninety-six manual dynamic chamber flux measurements of CO2 were undertaken during three, four hour surveys within seven grouped sites, each containing an optimised nested design with lag distances of 0.3m, 1m, 3m and 9m across six hectares of grazed hillslope grassland. This design also included continuous logging soil moisture sensors (plus conductivity and temperature) at 10cm soil depth. A previous study showed at this site that the variation of soil moisture is divided relatively equally between the four spatial scales <0.3m, 0.3-3m, 3-9m and >9m. The proportion of large-scale (>9m) variation increased after rainfall. In contrast in the three surveys analysed to date, the vast majority of the variation in CO2 flux occurred over the two smallest scales. No significant correlation between CO2 and soil moisture was observed over any of the spatial scales. All of these three surveys were conducted on relatively dry soils. We also investigated whether there were significant temporal variations in CO2 efflux over a period of three weeks using an automated soil flux system. These data showed there was no significant temporal variability between 10:00 to 16:00 hrs during late summer. There has recently been substantial rainfall at the field site and we are now conducting additional surveys to examine how the total CO2 fluxes and their spatial variation is effected by these wetter conditions.

Archer, Nicole; Rawlins, Barry; Marchand, Benjamin

2014-05-01

89

Environmental effects of oil and gas lease sites in a grassland ecosystem.  

PubMed

The northern Great Plains of Saskatchewan is one of the most significantly modified landscapes in Canada. While the majority of anthropogenic disturbances to Saskatchewan's grasslands are the result of agricultural practices, development of petroleum and natural gas (PNG) resources is of increasing concern for grassland conservation. Although PNG developments require formal assessment and regulatory approval, follow-up and monitoring of the effects of PNG development on grasslands is not common practice. Consequently, the effects of PNG activity on grasslands and the spatial and temporal extent of such impacts are largely unknown. This paper examines the spatial and temporal extent of PNG development infrastructure from 1955 to 2006 in a grassland ecosystem in southwest Saskatchewan. The effects of PNG development on grassland ecology were assessed from measurements of ground cover characteristics, soil properties, and plant community composition at 31 sites in the study area. PNG lease sites were found to have low cover of herbaceous plants, club moss (Lycopodiaceae), litter, and shallow organic (Ah) horizons. Lease sites were also characterized by low diversity of desirable grassland plants and low range health values compared to off-lease reference sites. These impacts were amplified at active and highly productive lease sites. Impacts of PNG development persisted for more than 50 years following well site construction, and extended outward 20 m-25 m beyond the direct physical footprint of PNG well infrastructure. These results have significant implications with regard to the current state of monitoring and follow-up of PNG development, and the cumulative effective of PNG activity on grassland ecosystems over space and time. PMID:20880628

Nasen, Lawrence C; Noble, Bram F; Johnstone, Jill F

2011-01-01

90

Ecosystem development in roadside grasslands: Biotic control, plant-soil interactions, and dispersal limitations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roadside grasslands undergoing secondary succession are abundant, and represent ecologically meaningful examples of novel, human-created ecosystems. Interactions between plant and soil communities (hereafter plant-soil interactions) are of major importance in understanding the role of biotic control in ecosystem functioning, but little is known about these links in the context of ecosystem restoration and succession. The assessment of the key biotic communities and interactions driving ecosystem development will help practitioners to better allocate the limited resources devoted to roadside grassland restoration. We surveyed roadside grasslands from three successional stages (0-2, 7-9, and > 20 years) in two Mediterranean regions of Spain. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate how interactions between plants, biological soil crusts (BSCs), and soil microbial functional diversity (soil microorganisms) affect indicators of ecosystem development and restoration: plant similarity to the reference ecosystem, erosion control, and soil C storage and N accumulation. Changes in plant community composition along the successional gradient exerted the strongest influence on these indicators. High BSC cover was associated with high soil stability, and high soil microbial functional diversity from late-successional stages was associated with high soil fertility. Contrary to our expectations, the indirect effects of plants, mediated by either BSCs or soil microorganisms, were very weak in both regions, suggesting a minor role for plant-soil interactions upon ecosystem development indicators over long periods. Our results suggest that natural vegetation dynamics effectively improved ecosystem development within a time frame of 20 years in the grasslands evaluated. They also indicate that this time could be shortened if management actions focus on: (1) maintaining wellconserved natural areas close to roadsides to enhance plant compositional changes towards late-successional stages, (2) increasing BSC cover in areas under strong erosion risk, to avoid soil loss, and (3) enhancing soil microbial functional diversity in resource-limited areas, to enhance soil C and N accumulation. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

Garcia-Palacios, P.; Bowker, M.A.; Maestre, F.T.; Soliveres, S.; Valladares, F.; Papadopoulos, J.; Escudero, A.

2011-01-01

91

Ecosystem development in roadside grasslands: biotic control, plant–soil interactions and dispersal limitations  

PubMed Central

Roadside grasslands undergoing secondary succession are abundant, and represent ecologically meaningful examples of novel, human-created ecosystems. Interactions between plant and soil communities (hereafter plant–soil interactions) are of major importance in understanding the role of biotic control in ecosystem functioning, but little is known about these links in the context of ecosystem restoration and succession. The assessment of the key biotic communities and interactions driving ecosystem development will help practitioners to better allocate the limited resources devoted to roadside grassland restoration. We surveyed roadside grasslands from three successional stages (0–2, 7–9 and > 20 years) in two Mediterranean regions of Spain. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate how interactions between plants, biological soil crusts [BSCs], and soil microbial functional diversity [soil microorganisms] affect indicators of ecosystem development and restoration: plant similarity to the reference ecosystem, erosion control and soil C storage and N accumulation. Changes in plant community composition along the successional gradient exerted the strongest influence on these indicators. High BSC cover was associated with high soil stability, and high soil microbial functional diversity from late-successional stages was associated with high soil fertility. Contrary to our expectations, the indirect effects of plants, mediated by either BSCs or soil microorganisms, were very weak in both regions, suggesting a minor role for plant–soil interactions upon ecosystem development indicators over long periods. Our results suggest that natural vegetation dynamics effectively improved ecosystem development within a time frame of 20 years in the grasslands evaluated. They also indicate that this time could be shortened if management actions focus on: 1) maintain well-conserved natural areas close to roadsides to enhance plant compositional changes towards late-successional stages, 2) increase BSC cover in areas under strong erosion risk, to avoid soil loss, and 3) enhance soil microbial functional diversity in resource-limited areas, to enhance soil C and N accumulation. PMID:22073661

García-Palacios, Pablo; Bowker, Matthew A.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Soliveres, Santiago; Valladares, Fernando; Papadopoulos, Jorge; Escudero, Adrián

2015-01-01

92

Contrasting responses of terrestrial ecosystem production to hot temperature extreme regimes between grassland and forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past several decades, observational data have shown a faster increase in hot temperature extremes than the change in mean temperature. Increasingly high extreme temperatures are expected to affect terrestrial ecosystem function. The ecological impact of hot extremes on vegetation production, however, remains uncertain across biomes in natural climatic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of hot temperature extremes on vegetation production by combining the MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data set and in situ climatic records during the period 2000 to 2009 from 12 long-term experimental sites across biomes and climate. Our results show that higher mean annual maximum temperatures (Tmax) greatly reduced grassland production, and yet enhanced forest production after removing the effect of precipitation. The relative decrease in vegetation production was 16% for arid grassland and 7% for mesic grassland, and the increase was 5% for forest. We also observed a significantly positive relationship between interannual aboveground net primary production (ANPP) and Tmax for the forest biome (R2 = 0.79, P < 0.001). This line of evidence suggests that hot temperature extremes lead to contrasting ecosystem-level responses of vegetation production between grassland and forest biomes. Given that many terrestrial ecosystem models use average daily temperature as input, predictions of ecosystem production should consider such contrasting responses to increasingly hot temperature extreme regimes associated with climate change.

Zhang, Y.; Voigt, M.; Liu, H.

2015-01-01

93

Contrasting responses of terrestrial ecosystem production to hot temperature extreme regimes between grassland and forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational data during the past several decades show faster increase of hot temperature extremes over land than changes in mean temperature. Towards more extreme temperature is expected to affect terrestrial ecosystem function. However, the ecological impacts of hot extremes on vegetation production remain uncertain across biomes in natural climatic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of hot temperature extremes on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) by combining MODIS EVI dataset and in situ climatic records during 2000 to 2009 from 12 long-term experimental sites across biomes and climates. Our results showed that higher mean annual maximum temperatures (Tmax) greatly reduced grassland production, and yet enhanced forest production after removing the effects of precipitation. Relative decreases in ANPP were 16% for arid grassland and 7% for mesic grassland, and the increase were 5% for forest. We also observed a significant positive relationship between interannual ANPP and Tmax for forest biome (R2 = 0.79, P < 0.001). This line of evidence suggests that hot temperature extreme leads to contrasting ecosystem-level response of vegetation production to warming climate between grassland and forest. Given that many terrestrial ecosystem models use average daily temperature as input, predictions of ecosystem production should consider these contrasting responses to more hot temperature extreme regimes associated with climate change.

Zhang, Y.; Voigt, M.; Liu, H.

2014-04-01

94

Ecosystem response to rainfall variability and warming in a mesic grassland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grassland ecosystems are strongly responsive to climatic variability, and many fundamental aspects of their structure and function are tied to spatial and temporal variation in precipitation. The pulsed nature of precipitation inputs- short periods of rainfall separated by longer periods during whic...

95

Propagule pools mediate community assembly and diversity-ecosystem regulation along a grassland productivity gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 The relative importance of regional species pools and local ecological processes in governing landscape variation in plant species diversity and productivity was evaluated in a Kansas grassland. 2 We examined the impact of multispecies sowing treatments and experimental canopy disturbances on plant species diversity and ecosystem processes along a complex natural gradient of plant standing crop. 3 Data

BRYAN L. FOSTER; TIMOTHY L. DICKSON; CHERYL A. MURPHY; IRENE S. KAREL; VAL H. SMITH

2004-01-01

96

Recovery of soil microbial community structure after fire in a sagebrush-grassland ecosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recovery of the soil microbial community after fire in a sagebrush-grassland ecosystem was examined using a chronosequence of four sites ranging in time since fire from 3-39 years. The successional stage communities examined included Recent Burn (3 years since fire, ysf), Establishment (7 ysf), Expa...

97

Understanding the importance wet, unimproved Culm grasslands have for the provision of multiple ecosystem services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is increasingly recognised that catchments must be carefully managed for the provision of multiple, sometimes conflicting ecosystem services. This requires an increased interdisciplinary environmental understanding to inform management policy and practices by government, landowners and stakeholders. The Culm National Character Area (NCA) covers 3,500 square kilometres in South West England with Culm grasslands consisting of wet unimproved, species rich pastures, typically on poorly drained soils. Since the 1960's, policy changes have encouraged the drainage of large areas of land for agricultural improvement and consequently Culm grassland sites have become highly fragmented. There are currently 575 Culm grassland sites in the Culm NCA with a mean area of 7 ha. Traditionally, Culm grasslands have been managed by light grazing and scrub management. Since 2008, Devon Wildlife Trust's Working Wetlands project has been working with farmers and landowners to manage and restore and recreate Culm grasslands. It is part of South West Water's Upstream Thinking initiative and is now augmented by the Northern Devon Nature Improvement Area programme. However, from a hydrological perspective, Culm and similar unimproved grasslands remain poorly understood. In addition to their recognised conservation and biodiversity importance; unimproved grasslands such as Culm are thought to have a high water storage capacity, reducing runoff and therefore flooding during wet periods, whilst slowly releasing and filtering water to help maintain water quality, and base river flows during dry periods. Therefore, if properly understood and managed Culm soils have the potential to play an important role in the management of catchment water resources. Furthermore, Culm grassland soils are thought to have a high potential for the sequestration and storage of carbon, an increasingly valuable ecosystem service. This study aims to increase understanding of the influence Culm grasslands have upon water and soil resources, relative to other land uses and land covers (wet woodland, scrub and intensively managed grassland). Results will be presented demonstrating that relative to intensively managed grassland, Culm soils have a higher water holding capacity, exhibit a more attenuated response to rainfall events and have higher carbon concentrations. Additionally, results show water leaving a Culm dominated sub-catchment is of a higher quality (i.e. exhibiting lower suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon and phosphate loads) than comparable intensively managed agricultural catchments.

Brazier, Richard; Elliot, Mark; Warren, Susan; Puttock, Alan

2014-05-01

98

The impacts of drainage, nutrient status and management practice on the full carbon balance of grasslands on organic soils in a maritime temperate zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate grasslands on organic soils are diverse due to edaphic properties but also to regional management practices and this heterogeneity is reflected in the wide range of greenhouse gas (GHG) flux values reported in the literature. In Ireland, most grasslands on organic soils were drained several decades ago and are managed as extensive pastures with little or no fertilisation. This study describes a 2-year study of the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) of two such sites. We determined GHG fluxes and waterborne carbon (C) emissions in a nutrient-rich grassland and compared it with values measured from two nutrient-poor organic soils: a deep-drained and a shallow-drained site. Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were determined using the chamber technique, and fluvial C fluxes were estimated by combining drainage water concentrations and flows. The nutrient-rich site was an annual source of CO2 (233 g C m-2 yr-1), CH4 neutral, and a small source of N2O (0.16 g N2O-N m-2 yr-1). Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at the shallow-drained nutrient-poor site was -89 and -99 g C m-2 yr-1 in Years 1 and 2 respectively, and NEE at the deep-drained nutrient-poor site was 85 and -26 g C m-2 yr-1 respectively. Low CH4 emissions (1.3 g C m-2 yr-1) were recorded at the shallow-drained nutrient-poor site. Fluvial exports from the nutrient-rich site totalled 69.8 g C m-2 yr-1 with 54% as dissolved organic C. Waterborne C losses from the nutrient-poor site reflected differences in annual runoff totalling 44 g C m-2 yr-1 in Year 1 and 30.8 g C m-2 yr-1 in Year 2. The NECB of the nutrient-rich grassland was 663 g C m-2 yr-1 with biomass exports being the major component accounting for 53%. The NECB of the nutrient-poor deep-drained site was less than half of the nutrient-rich site (2-year mean 267 g C m-2 yr-1). Although NEE at the nutrient-poor shallow-drained site was negative in both years, high biomass export meant it was a net C source (2-year mean NECB 103 g C m-2 yr-1). While the impacts of the nutrient and drainage status on NEE, biomass exports and fluvial C losses were confirmed, inter-regional differences in management practice and climate were also significant factors which impacted on the overall NECB of these ecosystems. Contrary to expectation, the NECB of nutrient-poor drained organic soils under grasslands is not necessarily a large C source and this has implications for Ireland's choice of national GHG inventory reporting methodologies. This study can also aid the development of strategies to deliver reduced emissions tailored to local grassland types.

Renou-Wilson, F.; Barry, C.; Müller, C.; Wilson, D.

2014-08-01

99

Tropical freshwater ecosystems have lower bacterial growth efficiency than temperate ones  

PubMed Central

Current models and observations indicate that bacterial respiration should increase and growth efficiency (BGE) should decrease with increasing temperatures. However, these models and observations are mostly derived from data collected in temperate regions, and the tropics are under-represented. The aim of this work was to compare bacterial metabolism, namely bacterial production (BP) and respiration (BR), bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) and bacterial carbon demand (BCD) between tropical and temperate ecosystems via a literature review and using unpublished data. We hypothesized that (1) tropical ecosystems have higher metabolism than temperate ones and, (2) that BGE is lower in tropical relative to temperate ecosystems. We collected a total of 498 coupled BP and BR observations (Ntotal = 498; Ntemperate = 301; Ntropical = 197), calculated BGE (BP/(BP+BR)) and BCD (BP+BR) for each case and examined patterns using a model II regression analysis and compared each parameter between the two regions using non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test. We observed a significant positive linear regression between BR and BP for the whole dataset, and also for tropical and temperate data separately. We found that BP, BR and BCD were higher in the tropics, but BGE was lower compared to temperate regions. Also, BR rates per BP unit were at least two fold higher in the tropics than in temperate ecosystems. We argue that higher temperature, nutrient limitation, and light exposure all contribute to lower BGE in the tropics, mediated through effects on thermodynamics, substrate stoichiometry, nutrient availability and interactions with photochemically produced compounds. More efforts are needed in this study area in the tropics, but our work indicates that bottom-up (nutrient availability and resource stoichiometry) and top-down (grazer pressure) processes, coupled with thermodynamic constraints, might contribute to the lower BGE in the tropics relative to temperate regions. PMID:23801986

Amado, André M.; Meirelles-Pereira, Frederico; Vidal, Luciana O.; Sarmento, Hugo; Suhett, Albert L.; Farjalla, Vinicius F.; Cotner, James B.; Roland, Fabio

2013-01-01

100

Nitrogen controls plant canopy Light-Use-Efficiency in temperate and boreal ecosystems.  

E-print Network

Nitrogen controls plant canopy Light-Use-Efficiency in temperate and boreal ecosystems. 1 2 3 4 5 6.kergoat@cesbio.cnes.fr8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 2 Forest Research Agency, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, GU10 4LH, UK 3 Dep. These results showed that plant canopies in the temperate, boreal and arctic zones fit into a general scheme

Boyer, Edmond

101

Evaluating Ecosystem Services Provided by Non-Native Species: An Experimental Test in California Grasslands  

PubMed Central

The concept of ecosystem services – the benefits that nature provides to human's society – has gained increasing attention over the past decade. Increasing global abiotic and biotic change, including species invasions, is threatening the secure delivery of these ecosystem services. Efficient evaluation methods of ecosystem services are urgently needed to improve our ability to determine management strategies and restoration goals in face of these new emerging ecosystems. Considering a range of multiple ecosystem functions may be a useful way to determine such strategies. We tested this framework experimentally in California grasslands, where large shifts in species composition have occurred since the late 1700's. We compared a suite of ecosystem functions within one historic native and two non-native species assemblages under different grazing intensities to address how different species assemblages vary in provisioning, regulatory and supporting ecosystem services. Forage production was reduced in one non-native assemblage (medusahead). Cultural ecosystem services, such as native species diversity, were inherently lower in both non-native assemblages, whereas most other services were maintained across grazing intensities. All systems provided similar ecosystem services under the highest grazing intensity treatment, which simulated unsustainable grazing intensity. We suggest that applying a more comprehensive ecosystem framework that considers multiple ecosystem services to evaluate new emerging ecosystems is a valuable tool to determine management goals and how to intervene in a changing ecosystem. PMID:25222028

Stein, Claudia; Hallett, Lauren M.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Suding, Katharine N.

2014-01-01

102

The biogeochemistry of a north-temperate grassland with native ungulates: Nitrogen dynamics in Yellowstone National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient dynamics of large grassland ecosystems possessing abundant migratory grazers are poorly understood. We examined N cycling on the northern winter range of Yellowstone National Park, home for large herds of free-roaming elk (Cervus elaphus) and bison (Bison bison). Plant and soil N, net N mineralization, and the deposition of ungulate fecal-N were measured at five sites, a ridgetop, mid-slope

Douglas A. Frank; Richard S. Inouye; Nancy Huntly; G. WAYNE MINSHALL; Jay E. Anderson

1994-01-01

103

Diversity Promotes Temporal Stability across Levels of Ecosystem Organization in Experimental Grasslands  

PubMed Central

The diversity–stability hypothesis states that current losses of biodiversity can impair the ability of an ecosystem to dampen the effect of environmental perturbations on its functioning. Using data from a long-term and comprehensive biodiversity experiment, we quantified the temporal stability of 42 variables characterizing twelve ecological functions in managed grassland plots varying in plant species richness. We demonstrate that diversity increases stability i) across trophic levels (producer, consumer), ii) at both the system (community, ecosystem) and the component levels (population, functional group, phylogenetic clade), and iii) primarily for aboveground rather than belowground processes. Temporal synchronization across studied variables was mostly unaffected with increasing species richness. This study provides the strongest empirical support so far that diversity promotes stability across different ecological functions and levels of ecosystem organization in grasslands. PMID:20967213

Proulx, Raphaël; Wirth, Christian; Voigt, Winfried; Weigelt, Alexandra; Roscher, Christiane; Attinger, Sabine; Baade, Jussi; Barnard, Romain L.; Buchmann, Nina; Buscot, François; Eisenhauer, Nico; Fischer, Markus; Gleixner, Gerd; Halle, Stefan; Hildebrandt, Anke; Kowalski, Esther; Kuu, Annely; Lange, Markus; Milcu, Alex; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Oelmann, Yvonne; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Sabais, Alexander; Scherber, Christoph; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Scheu, Stefan; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Schumacher, Jens; Schwichtenberg, Guido; Soussana, Jean-François; Temperton, Vicky M.; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Schmid, Bernhard

2010-01-01

104

Leaf and ecosystem response to soil water availability in mountain grasslands  

PubMed Central

Climate change is expected to affect the Alps by increasing the frequency and intensity of summer drought events with negative impacts on ecosystem water resources. The response of CO2 and H2O exchange of a mountain grassland to natural fluctuations of soil water content was evaluated during 2001-2009. In addition, the physiological performance of individual mountain forb and graminoid plant species under progressive soil water shortage was explored in a laboratory drought experiment. During the 9-year study period the natural occurrence of moderately to extremely dry periods did not lead to substantial reductions in net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration. Laboratory drought experiments confirmed that all the surveyed grassland plant species were insensitive to progressive soil drying until very low soil water contents (<0.01 m3 m?3) were reached after several days of drought. In field conditions, such a low threshold was never reached. Re-watering after a short-term drought event (5±1 days) resulted in a fast and complete recovery of the leaf CO2 and H2O gas exchange of the investigated plant species. We conclude that the present-day frequency and intensity of dry periods does not substantially affect the functioning of the investigated grassland ecosystem. During dry periods the observed “water spending” strategy employed by the investigated mountain grassland species is expected to provide a cooling feedback on climate warming, but may have negative consequences for down-stream water users. PMID:24465071

Brilli, Federico; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Hansel, Armin; Loreto, Francesco; Wohlfahrt, Georg

2014-01-01

105

Soil ecosystem function under native and exotic plant assemblages as alternative states of successional grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Old fields often become dominated by exotic plants establishing persistent community states. Ecosystem functioning may differ widely between such novel communities and the native-dominated counterparts. We evaluated soil ecosystem attributes in native and exotic (synthetic) grass assemblages established on a newly abandoned field, and in remnants of native grassland in the Inland Pampa, Argentina. We asked whether exotic species alter soil functioning through the quality of the litter they shed or by changing the decomposition environment. Litter decomposition of the exotic dominant Festuca arundinacea in exotic assemblages was faster than that of the native dominant Paspalum quadrifarium in native assemblages and remnant grasslands. Decomposition of a standard litter (Triticum aestivum) was also faster in exotic assemblages than in native assemblages and remnant grasslands. In a common garden, F. arundinacea showed higher decay rates than P. quadrifarium, which reflected the higher N content and lower C:N of the exotic grass litter. Soil respiration rates were higher in the exotic than in the native assemblages and remnant grasslands. Yet there were no significant differences in soil N availability or net N mineralization between exotic and native assemblages. Our results suggest that exotic grass dominance affected ecosystem function by producing a more decomposable leaf litter and by increasing soil decomposer activity. These changes might contribute to the extended dominance of fast-growing exotic grasses during old-field succession. Further, increased organic matter turnover under novel, exotic communities could reduce the carbon storage capacity of the system in the long term.

Spirito, Florencia; Yahdjian, Laura; Tognetti, Pedro M.; Chaneton, Enrique J.

2014-01-01

106

The influence of abiotic controls and management intensity on phosphorus cycling in established grassland and forest ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly assumed that the bioavailability and cycling of phosphorus (P) is mainly controlled by abiotic soil properties including soil pH and the concentrations and reactivities of clay minerals, CaCO3 and Al/Fe oxides In managed ecosystems, kind, timing and duration of P additions and type and amount of harvested biomass are the major input and output fluxes. Our objective was to disentangle the effects of abiotic controls, and type and intensity of management on the P cycle in soils of temperate grasslands and forests of different management intensity in three regions across Germany in the frame of the Biodiversity Exploratories project. The pH value was the most important variable explaining P concentrations and partitioning in soil and changes in pH are the main mechanism how land-use is affecting the P cycle. However, after the influence of pH was accounted for in a sequential statistical approach, land-use intensity, classified according to the extent of annual biomass removal, explained a significant (P < 0.05) part of the variance in the contributions of several P fractions to total P (TP) among all studied regions and land-use types. In grassland soils of highly diverse systems (up to 57 plant species) in one of the study regions, the Schwäbische Alb, a mid-range mountain area on limestone where soils showed a limited variation in pH in the carbonate buffer range, pedogenic Fe oxide concentrations, fertilizer-P application rates, and TP concentrations in soil explained more than half of the variation in bioavailable inorganic (Pi) concentrations extracted with NaHCO3 in soil. Our results demonstrate that mainly soil pH and mineralogical composition, and intensity of management of the managed ecosystems are significant controls of the P cycle determining the size of bioavailable P pool in soil.

Alt, F.; Oelmann, Y.; Wilcke, W.

2011-12-01

107

Assessment of the nitrogen and carbon budget of two managed temperate grassland fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenhouse gas budgets as well as the productivity of grassland systems are closely related to the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles. Within the framework of the CarboEurope and NitroEurope projects we have measured C and N exchange on the field scale at the grassland site Oensingen previously converted from arable rotation. The site is located on the Swiss Central

Christof Ammann; Christoph Spirig; Jens Leifeld; Albrecht Neftel

2009-01-01

108

Vegetation composition, dynamics, and management of a bracken-grassland and northern-dry forest ecosystem.  

PubMed

We investigated differences in vegetation composition and dynamics for two globally rare ecosystems, bracken-grasslands and northern-dry forests of northern Wisconsin. These ecosystems commonly have been viewed as degraded pine barrens. Bracken-grasslands contained a high dominance of exotic species, low native richness, and no obvious prairie species, suggesting logging-era anthropogenic origins. Differences in cover for common plants among ecosystems were examined using Mann-Whitney U tests of equivalence. Cover of all 8 graminoid species, 4 of 5 Ericaceae and Myricaceae species, and 10 of 17 species of forbs were significantly different between ecosystems. Vegetation changes over a 4-year period were examined through detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) repeated measures. DCA analyses of community composition failed to detect significant temporal trends within individual management units, although differences were apparent between ecosystems, regardless of sample year. In addition, no apparent patterns could be detected between years when comparing dominant individual species to management history (prescribed fire). This is contrary to what would be expected for a degraded pine barrens and questions the efficacy of using repeated prescribed fire as a management tool in bracken-grasslands. Methods for conservation and restoration of xeric ecosystems of northern Wisconsin have historically relied heavily on single species (e.g., sharp-tailed grouse) wildlife models, without full consideration of other factors. We suggest that stakeholders involved in these restoration projects examine historic processes and reference conditions prior to formulating management goals. Greater attention to the differentiation and individual management needs of pine barrens, northern-dry forests, and bracken-grasslands is needed. PMID:14565700

Nielsen, Scott E; Haney, Alan

2003-06-01

109

Grassland diversity and ecosystem services within a Platte River agroecosystem  

E-print Network

replicates, or plots, per treatment) 2008 Resistance to non-native and weedy plant species Low diversity, low and ecosystems: avoiding the costs of going too far. P. 233-277 in D. Molden, ed. Water for Food, Water for Life ecosystem services to Treatments · Each plot received one of 4 tallgrass prairie seed mixes (there were 6

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

110

ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS OF BIODIVERSITY MANIPULATIONS IN EUROPEAN GRASSLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a multisite analysis of the relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning within the European BIODEPTH network of plant-diversity manipulation experiments. We report results of the analysis of 11 variables addressing several aspects of key ecosystem processes like biomass production, resource use (space, light, and nitrogen), and decomposition, measured across three years in plots of varying plant species

E. M. SPEHN; A. HECTOR; J. JOSHI; M. SCHERER-LORENZEN; B. SCHMID; E. BAZELEY-WHITE; J. H. LAWTON

111

Partitioning European grassland net ecosystem CO 2 exchange into gross primary productivity and ecosystem respiration using light response function analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tower CO2 flux measurements from 20 European grasslands in the EUROGRASSFLUX data set covering a wide range of environmental and management conditions were analyzed with respect to their ecophysiological characteristics and CO2 exchange (gross primary production, Pg, and ecosystem respiration, Re) using light-response function analysis. Photosynthetically active radiation (Q) and top-soil temperature (Ts) were identified as key factors controlling CO2

T. G. Gilmanov; J. F. Soussana; L. Aires; V. Allard; C. Ammann; M. Balzarolo; Z. Barcza; C. Bernhofer; C. L. Campbell; A. Cernusca; A. Cescatti; J. C. Clifton-Brown; B. O. M. Dirks; S. Dore; W. Eugster; J. Fuhrer; C. Gimeno; T. Gruenwald; L. Haszpra; A. Hensen; A. Ibrom; A. F. G. Jacobs; M. B. Jones; G. Lanigan; T. Laurila; A. Lohila; G. Manca; B. Marcolla; Z. Nagy; K. Pilegaard; K. Pinter; C. Pio; A. Raschi; N. Rogiers; M. J. Sanz; P. Stefani; M. Sutton; Z. Tuba; R. Valentini; M. L. Williams; G. Wohlfahrt

2007-01-01

112

Estimation of aboveground biomass using in situ hyperspectral measurements in five major grassland ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims There are numerous grassland ecosystem types on the Tibetan Pla- teau. These include the alpine meadow and steppe and degraded al- pine meadow and steppe. This study aimed at developing a method to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) for these grasslands from hyperspectral data and to explore the feasibility of applying air\\/sat- ellite-borne remote sensing techniques to AGB estimation at

Miaogen Shen; Yanhong Tang; Julia Klein; Pengcheng Zhang; Song Gu; Ayako Shimono; Jin Chen

2008-01-01

113

Access to land, livestock production and ecosystem conservation in the Brazilian Campos biome: The natural grasslands dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to improve access to land and livestock production in synergy with ecosystem conservation? The paradigm occurring in natural grasslands of the Southern Brazilian Campos biome is used to illustrate the dilemma. This paper aims to contribute by addressing the technical bases being used by legislations concerning access to land and incentive to production and their consequences for natural grassland

Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho; Caterina Batello

2009-01-01

114

The impacts of drainage, nutrient status and management practice on the full carbon balance of grasslands on organic soils in a maritime temperate zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate grasslands on organic soils are diverse due to edaphic properties but also to regional management practices and this heterogeneity is reflected in the wide range of greenhouse gas flux values reported in the literature. In Ireland, most grasslands on organic soils were drained several decades ago and are managed as extensive pastures with little or no fertilisation. This study describes a two-year study of the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) of two such sites. We determined greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and waterborne carbon emissions in a nutrient rich grassland and compared it with values measured from two nutrient poor organic soils: a deep drained and a shallow drained site. GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) were determined using the chamber technique, and fluvial C fluxes were estimated by combining drainage water concentrations and flows. The nutrient rich site was an annual source of CO2 (NEE 233 g C m-2yr-1), CH4 neutral, and a small source of nitrous oxide (1.6 kg N2O-N ha-1yr-1). NEE at the shallow drained site was -89 and -99 g C m-2yr-1 in Years 1 and 2 respectively, and NEE at the deep drained site was +85 and -26 g C m-2yr-1 respectively. Low CH4 emissions (1.3 g C m-2yr-1) were recorded at the shallow drained nutrient poor site. Fluvial exports from the nutrient rich site totalled 69.8 g C m-2yr-1 with 54% as dissolved organic C (DOC). Waterborne C losses from the nutrient poor site reflected differences in annual runoff totalling 44 g C m-2yr-1 in Year 1 and 30.8 g C m-2yr-1 in Year 2. The NECB of the nutrient rich grassland was 663 g C m-2yr-1 with biomass exports being the major component accounting for 53%. The NECB of the nutrient poor deep drained site was less than half of the nutrient rich site (2 year mean 267 g C m-2yr-1). Although NEE at the nutrient poor shallow drained site was negative in both years, high biomass export meant it was a net C source (2 year mean NECB 103 g C m-2yr-1). While the impacts of the nutrient and drainage status on NEE, biomass exports and fluvial C losses were confirmed, inter-regional differences in management practice and climate are also significant factors which impact on the overall NECB of these ecosystems. Contrary to expectation, the NECB of nutrient poor drained organic soils under grasslands is not necessarily a large C source and this has implications for Ireland's choice of national GHG inventory reporting methodologies. This study can also aid the development of strategies to deliver reduced emissions tailored to local grassland types.

Renou-Wilson, F.; Barry, C.; Müller, C.; Wilson, D.

2014-04-01

115

Representing the effects of alpine grassland vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics by ecosystem  

E-print Network

dynamics by ecosystem models applied to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau S. Yi,1 N. Li,2 B. Xiang,3 X. Wang,1 B. In ecosystem, permafrost, and hydrology models, the consideration of soil surface temperature is generally and atmospheric factors on the estimation of soil surface temperature for alpine grassland ecosystems

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

116

Effects of species evenness and dominant species identity on multiple ecosystem functions in model grassland communities.  

PubMed

Ecosystems provide multiple services upon which humans depend. Understanding the drivers of the ecosystem functions that support these services is therefore important. Much research has investigated how species richness influences functioning, but we lack knowledge of how other community attributes affect ecosystem functioning. Species evenness, species spatial arrangement, and the identity of dominant species are three attributes that could affect ecosystem functioning, by altering the relative abundance of functional traits and the probability of synergistic species interactions such as facilitation and complementary resource use. We tested the effect of these three community attributes and their interactions on ecosystem functions over a growing season, using model grassland communities consisting of three plant species from three functional groups: a grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), a forb (Plantago lanceolata), and a N-fixing forb (Lotus corniculatus). We measured multiple ecosystem functions that support ecosystem services, including ecosystem gas exchange, water retention, C and N loss in leachates, and plant biomass production. Species evenness and dominant species identity strongly influenced the ecosystem functions measured, but spatial arrangement had few effects. By the end of the growing season, evenness consistently enhanced ecosystem functioning and this effect occurred regardless of dominant species identity. The identity of the dominant species under which the highest level of functioning was attained varied across the growing season. Spatial arrangement had the weakest effect on functioning, but interacted with dominant species identity to affect some functions. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the role of multiple community attributes in driving ecosystem functioning. PMID:24213721

Orwin, Kate H; Ostle, Nick; Wilby, Andrew; Bardgett, Richard D

2014-03-01

117

The water balance of grassland ecosystems in the Austrian Alps.  

PubMed

The altitudinal variation of precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff was quantified at 16 different grassland sites between 580 and 2550 m a.s.l. in the Austrian Alps. Along this altitudinal transect annual evapotranspiration decreased from roughly 690 mm at low elevation sites to 210 - 220 mm at the upper limit of the alpine grassland belt. A detailed analysis of the data showed that the observed reduction in the annual sum of evapotranspiration could be mainly explained by the altitudinal decline of the length of the snow free period (i.e. the vegetation period). Daily mean sums of evapotranspiration showed no altitudinal trend and averaged 2.2 mm d(-1) independent of elevation, although the leaf area index, growing season mean air temperature, and vapour pressure deficit declined with increasing altitude. As precipitation increased with elevation, evapotranspiration seems to be of secondary importance when compared to runoff. Inter-annual variability of evapotranspiration was fairly low across contrasting dry and wet years (coefficient of variation = 7 %), indicating that even during dry years water availability was not limiting evapotranspiration. PMID:24348098

Wieser, Gerhard; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

2008-05-01

118

Land use affects the net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its components in mountain grasslands  

PubMed Central

Changes in land use and management have been strongly affecting mountain grassland, however, their effects on the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and its components have not yet been well documented. We analysed chamber-based estimates of NEE, gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (R) and light use efficiency (LUE) of six mountain grasslands differing in land use and management, and thus site fertility, for the growing seasons of 2002 to 2008. The main findings of the study are that: (1) land use and management affected seasonal NEE, GPP and R, which all decreased from managed to unmanaged grasslands; (2) these changes were explained by differences in leaf area index (LAI), biomass and leaf-area-independent changes that were likely related to photosynthetic physiology; (3) diurnal variations of NEE were primarily controlled by photosynthetically active photon flux density and soil and air temperature; seasonal variations were associated with changes in LAI; (4) parameters of light response curves were generally closely related to each other, and the ratio of R at a reference temperature/ maximum GPP was nearly constant across the sites; (5) similarly to our study, maximum GPP and R for other grasslands on the globe decreased with decreasing land use intensity, while their ratio remained remarkably constant. We conclude that decreasing intensity of management and, in particular, abandonment of mountain grassland lead to a decrease in NEE and its component processes. While GPP and R are generally closely coupled during most of the growing season, GPP is more immediately and strongly affected by land management (mowing, grazing) and season. This suggests that management and growing season length, as well as their possible future changes, may play an important role for the annual C balance of mountain grassland. PMID:23293657

Schmitt, M.; Bahn, M.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Tappeiner, U.; Cernusca, A.

2011-01-01

119

Effects of management of ecosystem carbon pools and fluxes in grassland ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grasslands represent a large land-use footprint and have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil. Climate policies and C markets may provide incentives for land managers to pursue strategies that optimize soil C storage, yet we lack robust understanding of C sequestration in grasslands. Previous research has shown that management approaches such as organic amendments or vertical subsoiling can lead to larger soil C pools. These management approaches can both directly and indirectly affect soil C pools. We used well-replicated field experiments to explore the effects of these management strategies on ecosystem C pools and fluxes in two bioclimatic regions of California (Sierra Foothills Research and Extension Center (SFREC) and Nicasio Ranch). Our treatments included an untreated control, compost amendments, plowed (vertical subsoil), and compost + plow. The experiment was conducted over two years allowing us to compare dry (360 mm) and average (632 mm) rainfall conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured weekly using a LI-8100 infrared gas analyzer. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were measured monthly using static flux chambers. Aboveground and belowground biomass were measured at the end of the growing season as an index of net primary productivity (NPP) in the annual plant dominated system. Soil moisture and temperature were measured continuously and averaged on hourly and daily timescales. Soil organic C and N concentrations were measured prior to the application of management treatments and at the ends of each growing season. Soils were collected to a 10 cm depth in year one and at four depth increments (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, and 50-100 cm) in year two. Soil C and N concentrations were converted to content using bulk density values for each plot. During both growing seasons, soil respiration rates were higher in the composted plots and lower in the plowed plots relative to controls at both sites. The effects on C loss via soil respiration were stronger in the first year, with compost soils experiencing a 21 ± 1 % greater cumulative loss at SFREC and 16 ± 3 % more at Nicasio. The second year showed a similar trend, but with a lower magnitude loss. Aboveground NPP responded positively to compost additions and negatively to plowing at both sites. At SFREC, we measured 58 % more ANPP in composted relative to control plots in year one (369 vs 230 g C/m2) and 56 % more in year two (327 vs 209 g C/m2). Aboveground NPP on plowed plots was 129 g C/m2 in year one, and 185 g C/m2 in year two. Plowed soils also showed a significant decline in soil C and N concentrations (C= 2.67 ± 0.13%, N = 0.20 ± 0.01%). Compost additions increased soil C and N concentrations (C= 3.92 ± 0.29%, N = 0.32 ± 0.02%) relative to control soils (C= 3.52 ± 0.20%, N = 0.27 ± 0.07%). Throughout the experiment, we did not detect significant treatment differences in CH4 or N2O fluxes, nor did we detect significant differences at any individual sampling point. These results suggest that compost addition can lead to an increase in ecosystem C storage, with a small offset from elevated soil respiration.

Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

2010-12-01

120

Sustainable Management of Insect Herbivores in Grassland Ecosystems: New Perspectives in Grasshopper Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from Bioscience journal is about the use of grasshoppers in grassland ecosystems. Grasshoppers are insect herbivores common to grassland ecosystems worldwide. They comprise important components of biodiversity, contribute significantly to grassland function, and periodically exhibit both local and large-scale outbreaks. Because of grasshoppers' potential economic importance as competitors with ungulate grazers for rangeland forage, periodic grasshopper outbreaks in western US rangeland often elicit intervention over large areas in the form of chemical control. Available information combined with alternative underlying conceptual frameworks suggests that new approaches for sustainable management of grasshopper outbreaks in US rangeland should be pursued. There are many reasons to believe that approaches to grasshopper management that aim to reduce or prevent outbreaks are possible. These habitat manipulation tactics maintain existing ecological feedbacks responsible for sustaining populations at economically nonthreatening levels. Sustainable strategies to minimize the likelihood and extent of grasshopper outbreaks while limiting the need for chemical intervention are a rational and attainable goal for managing grasslands as renewable resources.

DAVID H. BRANSON, ANTHONY JOERN, and GREGORY A. SWORD (; )

2006-09-01

121

SOIL MICROBES COMPETE EFFECTIVELY WITH PLANTS FOR ORGANIC-NITROGEN INPUTS TO TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although agricultural grassland soils have inherently high rates of net ni- trogen (N) mineralization, they often have soil concentrations of soluble organic N that are comparable to inorganic N. We set out to examine in situ the significance of organic N for plant nutrition in grasslands of differing management intensity and soil fertility. Using in situ dual-labeling techniques (glycine-2-13C-15N) we

Richard D. Bardgett; Tania C. Streeter; Roland Bol

2003-01-01

122

Current Distribution of Ecosystem Functional Types in Temperate South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We described, classified, and mapped the functional heterogeneity of temperate South America using the seasonal dynamics of\\u000a the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NOAA\\/AVHRR satellites for a 10-year period. From the seasonal curves\\u000a of NDVI, we calculated (a) the annual integral (NDVI-1), used as an estimate of the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation\\u000a absorbed by the canopy and hence

José M. Paruelo; Esteban G. Jobbágy; Osvaldo E. Sala

2001-01-01

123

Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China  

PubMed Central

We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID:25766381

Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C.; Sang, Weiguo

2015-01-01

124

Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning.

Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C.; Sang, Weiguo

2015-03-01

125

Asymmetric warming significantly affects net primary production, but not ecosystem carbon balances of forest and grassland ecosystems in northern China.  

PubMed

We combine the process-based ecosystem model (Biome-BGC) with climate change-scenarios based on both RegCM3 model outputs and historic observed trends to quantify differential effects of symmetric and asymmetric warming on ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of six ecosystem types representing different climatic zones of northern China. Analysis of covariance shows that NPP is significant greater at most ecosystems under the various environmental change scenarios once temperature asymmetries are taken into consideration. However, these differences do not lead to significant differences in NEP, which indicates that asymmetry in climate change does not result in significant alterations of the overall carbon balance in the dominating forest or grassland ecosystems. Overall, NPP, Rh and NEP are regulated by highly interrelated effects of increases in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentrations and precipitation changes, while the magnitude of these effects strongly varies across the six sites. Further studies underpinned by suitable experiments are nonetheless required to further improve the performance of ecosystem models and confirm the validity of these model predictions. This is crucial for a sound understanding of the mechanisms controlling the variability in asymmetric warming effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. PMID:25766381

Su, Hongxin; Feng, Jinchao; Axmacher, Jan C; Sang, Weiguo

2015-01-01

126

Ungulates in temperate forest ecosystems: perspectives and recommendations for future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper was prepared as a synthesis with which to draw together into fuller context the various contributions of this special issue of Forest Ecology and Management on Ungulates in Temperate Forest Ecosystems. From a largely European standpoint it explores the normal role that ungulates may play in the ecological functioning of natural woodland systems and reviews the potential conflicts

R. J. Putman

1996-01-01

127

Productivity and sustainability influenced by biodiversity in grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE functioning and sustainability of ecosystems may depend on their biological diversity1-8. Elton's9 hypothesis that more diverse ecosystems are more stable has received much attention1,3,6,7,10-14, but Darwin's proposal6,15 that more diverse plant communities are more productive, and the related conjectures4,5,16,17 that they have lower nutrient losses and more sustainable soils, are less well studied4-6,8,17,18. Here we use a well-replicated field

David Tilman; David Wedin; Johannes Knops

1996-01-01

128

History and restoration of the longleaf pine-grassland ecosystem: Implications for species at risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longleaf pine-grassland (Pinus palustris-Poaceae) ecosystem occupied over 30 million ha in the southeastern United States at the time of European discovery. Frequent low- to moderate-intensity surface fires ignited by both lightning and native Americans sustained open diverse stands in a fire climax and prevented succession to mixed hardwood forests. Disruption of pre-historical and historical fire regimes, coupled with land

David H. Van Lear; W. D. Carroll; P. R. Kapeluck; Rhett Johnson

2005-01-01

129

Modeling Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange of Alpine Grasslands with a Satellite-Driven Model  

PubMed Central

Estimate of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, the balance of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) has significant importance for studying the regional and global carbon cycles. Using models driven by satellite data and climatic data is a promising approach to estimate NEE at regional scales. For this purpose, we proposed a semi-empirical model to estimate NEE in this study. In our model, the component GPP was estimated with a light response curve of a rectangular hyperbola. The component Reco was estimated with an exponential function of soil temperature. To test the feasibility of applying our model at regional scales, the temporal variations in the model parameters derived from NEE observations in an alpine grassland ecosystem on Tibetan Plateau were investigated. The results indicated that all the inverted parameters exhibit apparent seasonality, which is in accordance with air temperature and canopy phenology. In addition, all the parameters have significant correlations with the remote sensed vegetation indexes or environment temperature. With parameters estimated with these correlations, the model illustrated fair accuracy both in the validation years and at another alpine grassland ecosystem on Tibetan Plateau. Our results also indicated that the model prediction was less accurate in drought years, implying that soil moisture is an important factor affecting the model performance. Incorporating soil water content into the model would be a critical step for the improvement of the model. PMID:25849325

Zhao, Yuping; Zhang, Xianzhou; Fan, Yuzhi; Shi, Peili; He, Yongtao; Yu, Guirui; Li, Yingnian

2015-01-01

130

Effects of repeated fires on ecosystem C and N stocks along a fire induced forest/grassland gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repeated fires might have different effect on ecosystem carbon storage than a single fire event, but information on repeated fires and their effects on forest ecosystems and carbon storage is scarce. However, changes in climate, vegetation composition, and human activities are expected to make forests more susceptible to fires that recur with relatively high frequency. In this study, the effects of repeated fires on ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks were examined along a fire-induced forest/grassland gradient wherein the fire events varied from an unburned forest to repeatedly burned grassland. Results from the study show repeated fires drastically decreased ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks along the forest/grassland gradient. The reduction began with the disappearance of living tree biomass, and followed by the loss of soil carbon and nitrogen. Within 4 years of the onset of repeated fires on the unburned forest, the original ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks were reduced by 42% and 21%, respectively. Subsequent fires caused cumulative reductions in ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks by 68% and 44% from the original ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks, respectively. The analyses of carbon budgets calculated by vegetation composition and stable isotopic ?13C values indicate that 84% of forest-derived carbon is lost at grassland, whereas the gain of grass-derived carbon only compensates 18% for this loss. Such significant losses in ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks suggest that the effects of repeated fires have substantial impacts on ecosystem and soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Lin, Chau-Chih; Menyailo, Oleg V.

2013-03-01

131

Litter Decomposition in Temperate Peatland Ecosystems: The Effect of  

E-print Network

cases. Within each site, the rate of decomposition at the surface was gener- ally Typha latifolia leaves-quality model initial quality (q0) values ranging from 1.0 (arbitrarily set for Typha leaves) to 0.7 (Sphagnum, com- pared to most well-drained ecosystems. Three litters, roots of sedge and a shrub and Typha leaves

Moore, Tim

132

Transfer parameter values in temperate forest ecosystems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to agricultural lands, forests are complex ecosystems as they can involve diverse plant species associations, several vegetative strata (overstorey, shrubs, herbaceous and other annual plant layer) and multi-layered soil profiles (forest floor, hemi-organic and mineral layers). A high degree of variability is thus generally observed in radionuclide transfers and redistribution patterns in contaminated forests. In the long term, the

Philippe Calmon; Yves Thiry; Gregor Zibold; Aino Rantavaara; Sergei Fesenko

2009-01-01

133

Land use change in a temperate grassland soil: afforestation effects on chemical properties and their ecological and mineralogical implications.  

PubMed

The current change in land use of grassland in the temperate region of South America is a process associated with the worldwide expansion of annual crops and afforestation with fast growing exotic species. This last cultivation has particularly been the subject of numerous studies showing its negative effects on soil (acidification, loss of organic matter and base cations, among others). However its effects on the mineral fraction are not yet known, as it is generally considered as one of the slowest responses to changes. This stimulated the present study in order to assess whether the composition of clay minerals could be altered together with some of the physicochemical parameters affected by afforestation. This study compares the mineralogical composition of clays by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in a grassland soil (Argiudolls) under natural coverage and under Eucalyptus grandis cultivation implanted 25 years ago in a sector of the same grassland. The tendency of some physicochemical parameters, common to other studies was also compared. XRD results showed, as a most noticeable difference in A(11) and A(12) subhorizons (~20 cm) under eucalyptus, the fall of the 10Å spectrum minerals (illite-like minerals), which are the main reservoir of K in the soil. Meanwhile, the physicochemical parameters showed significant changes (p<0.01) to highly significant ones under eucalyptus, particularly in these subhorizons, where on average soil organic matter decreased by 43%; K(+) by 34%; Ca(2+) by 44%, while the pH dropped to this level by half a point. Our results show that the exportation of some nutrients is not compensated due to the turnover of organic forestry debris; the process of soil acidification was not directly associated with the redistribution of cations, but with an incipient podzolization process; the loss of potassium together with soil acidification, leads to a drastic change in clay mineralogy, which would be irreversible. PMID:23064181

Céspedes-Payret, Carlos; Piñeiro, Gustavo; Gutiérrez, Ofelia; Panario, Daniel

2012-11-01

134

Plant species richness drives the density and diversity of Collembola in temperate grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declining biodiversity is one of the most important aspects of anthropogenic global change phenomena, but the implications of plant species loss for soil decomposers are little understood. We used the experimental grassland community of the Jena Experiment to assess the response of density and diversity of Collembola to varying plant species richness, plant functional group richness and plant functional group

Alexander C. W. Sabais; Stefan Scheu; Nico Eisenhauer

2011-01-01

135

Spatial and temporal scaling of beta diversity in grazed temperate grasslands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grazed grasslands contribute greatly to the economy and environment of the northeastern United States, though their ecology has not been extensively studied. Plant community composition was sampled in five to seven fields in each of five grazing farms: two in New York, two in Pennsylvania, and one i...

136

Perennial grasslands enhance biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services in bioenergy landscapes  

PubMed Central

Agriculture is being challenged to provide food, and increasingly fuel, for an expanding global population. Producing bioenergy crops on marginal lands—farmland suboptimal for food crops—could help meet energy goals while minimizing competition with food production. However, the ecological costs and benefits of growing bioenergy feedstocks—primarily annual grain crops—on marginal lands have been questioned. Here we show that perennial bioenergy crops provide an alternative to annual grains that increases biodiversity of multiple taxa and sustain a variety of ecosystem functions, promoting the creation of multifunctional agricultural landscapes. We found that switchgrass and prairie plantings harbored significantly greater plant, methanotrophic bacteria, arthropod, and bird diversity than maize. Although biomass production was greater in maize, all other ecosystem services, including methane consumption, pest suppression, pollination, and conservation of grassland birds, were higher in perennial grasslands. Moreover, we found that the linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem services is dependent not only on the choice of bioenergy crop but also on its location relative to other habitats, with local landscape context as important as crop choice in determining provision of some services. Our study suggests that bioenergy policy that supports coordinated land use can diversify agricultural landscapes and sustain multiple critical ecosystem services. PMID:24474791

Werling, Ben P.; Dickson, Timothy L.; Isaacs, Rufus; Gaines, Hannah; Gratton, Claudio; Gross, Katherine L.; Liere, Heidi; Malmstrom, Carolyn M.; Meehan, Timothy D.; Ruan, Leilei; Robertson, Bruce A.; Robertson, G. Philip; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Schrotenboer, Abbie C.; Teal, Tracy K.; Wilson, Julianna K.; Landis, Douglas A.

2014-01-01

137

Comparison of Seasonal Soil Microbial Process in Snow-Covered Temperate Ecosystems of Northern China  

PubMed Central

More than half of the earth's terrestrial surface currently experiences seasonal snow cover and soil frost. Winter compositional and functional investigations in soil microbial community are frequently conducted in alpine tundra and boreal forest ecosystems. However, little information on winter microbial biogeochemistry is known from seasonally snow-covered temperate ecosystems. As decomposer microbes may differ in their ability/strategy to efficiently use soil organic carbon (SOC) within different phases of the year, understanding seasonal microbial process will increase our knowledge of biogeochemical cycling from the aspect of decomposition rates and corresponding nutrient dynamics. In this study, we measured soil microbial biomass, community composition and potential SOC mineralization rates in winter and summer, from six temperate ecosystems in northern China. Our results showed a clear pattern of increased microbial biomass C to nitrogen (N) ratio in most winter soils. Concurrently, a shift in soil microbial community composition occurred with higher fungal to bacterial biomass ratio and gram negative (G-) to gram positive (G+) bacterial biomass ratio in winter than in summer. Furthermore, potential SOC mineralization rate was higher in winter than in summer. Our study demonstrated a distinct transition of microbial community structure and function from winter to summer in temperate snow-covered ecosystems. Microbial N immobilization in winter may not be the major contributor for plant growth in the following spring. PMID:24667929

Zhang, Xinyue; Wang, Wei; Chen, Weile; Zhang, Naili; Zeng, Hui

2014-01-01

138

The effects of global climate change on the species composition and ecosystem function in the central grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations to the Earth`s environment are projected to be of an amplitude not experienced in the recent biological history. How ecosystems will respond to these changes is a matter of great uncertainty. Using the ecosystem model CENTURY, we evaluated the responses of five grass species, common to the Central Grasslands Region to changing climates. The altered climates used in this

M. B. Falkner; D. S. Ojima; W. J. Parton

1995-01-01

139

Dormancy patterns, germination ecology, and seed-bank types of twenty temperate fen grassland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germination ecology, including primary and secondary dormancy, mortality of seeds, and seed-bank type, of 20 fen grassland\\u000a species from Northern Germany was investigated using a combination of burial and germination experiments. To analyze primary\\u000a dormancy and effects of after-ripening (dry storage for 28 days) on freshly matured seeds, germination was measured at two\\u000a fluctuating temperature regimes (15\\/25°C and 5\\/15°C)

Kai Jensen

2004-01-01

140

Limitations of net CO 2 uptake in plant species of a temperate dry loess grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible limitations of net CO2 assimilation (PN) in four drought stressed loess grassland species (Festuca rupicola, Salvia nemorosa, Euphorbia pannonica, all three C3 plants, and Bothriochloa ischaemum, a C4 plant) were characterised using data from measurements of CO2 gas exchange (PN, intercellular CO2 concentration Ci and stomatal conductance Gs) and the slow kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence (variable Chl fluorescence decrease

Zoltán Nagy; Zoltán Takács; Kálmán Szente; Zsolt Csintalan; Hartmut K. Lichtenthaler; Zoltán Tuba

1998-01-01

141

Photosynthesis of a temperate fallow C3 herbaceous ecosystem: measurements and model simulations at the leaf and canopy levels  

E-print Network

- 1 - Photosynthesis of a temperate fallow C3 herbaceous ecosystem: measurements and model, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 1, France Abstract The objectives of the study were to characterize photosynthesis of temperate fallow C3 herbaceous species and examine the performance of a simple photosynthesis model (based

Boyer, Edmond

142

Potential climate change impacts on temperate forest ecosystem processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large changes in atmospheric CO2, temperature and precipitation are predicted by 2100, yet the long-term consequences for carbon, water, and nitrogen cycling in forests are poorly understood. We applied the PnET-CN ecosystem model to compare the long-term effects of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 on productivity, evapotranspiration, runoff, and net nitrogen mineralization in current Great Lakes forest types. We used two statistically downscaled climate projections, PCM B1 (warmer and wetter) and GFDL A1FI (hotter and drier), to represent two potential future climate and atmospheric CO2 scenarios. To separate the effects of climate and CO2, we ran PnET-CN including and excluding the CO2 routine. Our results suggest that, with rising CO2 and without changes in forest type, average regional productivity could increase from 67% to 142%, changes in evapotranspiration could range from –3% to +6%, runoff could increase from 2% to 22%, and net N mineralization could increase 10% to 12%. Ecosystem responses varied geographically and by forest type. Increased productivity was almost entirely driven by CO2 fertilization effects, rather than by temperature or precipitation (model runs holding CO2 constant showed stable or declining productivity). The relative importance of edaphic and climatic spatial drivers of productivity varied over time, suggesting that productivity in Great Lakes forests may switch from being temperature to water limited by the end of the century.

Peters, Emily B.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Zhang, Shuxia; Bradford, John B.; Reich, Peter B.

2013-01-01

143

Predicting zooplankton response to environmental changes in a temperate estuarine ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel strategy that allows to predict the responses of zooplanktonic species to environmental conditions in an estuarine\\u000a temperate ecosystem (Mondego estuary) is presented. It uses 12 indicator species from the zooplanktonic Mondego database (102\\u000a species) that are common members of the different habitats, characterized by their specific hydrological conditions. Indicator-species\\u000a analysis (ISA) was used to define and describe which

Sónia Cotrim Marques; Ulisses Miranda Azeiteiro; Sérgio Miguel Leandro; Henrique Queiroga; Ana Lígia Primo; Filipe Martinho; Ivan Viegas; Miguel Ângelo Pardal

2008-01-01

144

Estimating Daytime Ecosystem Respiration to Improve Estimates of Gross Primary Production of a Temperate Forest  

PubMed Central

Leaf respiration is an important component of carbon exchange in terrestrial ecosystems, and estimates of leaf respiration directly affect the accuracy of ecosystem carbon budgets. Leaf respiration is inhibited by light; therefore, gross primary production (GPP) will be overestimated if the reduction in leaf respiration by light is ignored. However, few studies have quantified GPP overestimation with respect to the degree of light inhibition in forest ecosystems. To determine the effect of light inhibition of leaf respiration on GPP estimation, we assessed the variation in leaf respiration of seedlings of the dominant tree species in an old mixed temperate forest with different photosynthetically active radiation levels using the Laisk method. Canopy respiration was estimated by combining the effect of light inhibition on leaf respiration of these species with within-canopy radiation. Leaf respiration decreased exponentially with an increase in light intensity. Canopy respiration and GPP were overestimated by approximately 20.4% and 4.6%, respectively, when leaf respiration reduction in light was ignored compared with the values obtained when light inhibition of leaf respiration was considered. This study indicates that accurate estimates of daytime ecosystem respiration are needed for the accurate evaluation of carbon budgets in temperate forests. In addition, this study provides a valuable approach to accurately estimate GPP by considering leaf respiration reduction in light in other ecosystems. PMID:25419844

Sun, Jinwei; Wu, Jiabing; Guan, Dexin; Yao, Fuqi; Yuan, Fenghui; Wang, Anzhi; Jin, Changjie

2014-01-01

145

The Effects of Warming-Shifted Plant Phenology on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange Are Regulated by Precipitation in a Semi-Arid Grassland  

PubMed Central

Background The longer growing season under climate warming has served as a crucial mechanism for the enhancement of terrestrial carbon (C) sink over the past decades. A better understanding of this mechanism is critical for projection of changes in C cycling of terrestrial ecosystems. Methodology/Principal Findings A 4-year field experiment with day and night warming was conducted to examine the responses of plant phenology and their influences on plant coverage and ecosystem C cycling in a temperate steppe in northern China. Greater phenological responses were observed under night than day warming. Both day and night warming prolonged the growing season by advancing phenology of early-blooming species but without changing that of late-blooming species. However, no warming response of vegetation coverage was found for any of the eight species. The variances in species-level coverage and ecosystem C fluxes under different treatments were positively dependent upon the accumulated precipitation within phenological duration but not the length of phenological duration. Conclusions/Significance These plants' phenology is more sensitive to night than day warming, and the warming effects on ecosystem C exchange via shifting plant phenology could be mediated by precipitation patterns in semi-arid grasslands. PMID:22359660

Xia, Jianyang; Wan, Shiqiang

2012-01-01

146

A review of nitrous oxide mitigation by farm nitrogen management in temperate grassland-based agriculture.  

PubMed

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from grassland-based agriculture is an important source of atmospheric N2O. It is hence crucial to explore various solutions including farm nitrogen (N) management to mitigate N2O emissions without sacrificing farm profitability and food supply. This paper reviews major N management practices to lower N2O emission from grassland-based agriculture. Restricted grazing by reducing grazing time is an effective way to decrease N2O emissions from excreta patches. Balancing the protein-to-energy ratios in the diets of ruminants can also decrease N2O emissions from excreta patches. Among the managements of synthetic fertilizer N application, only adjusting fertilizer N rate and slow-released fertilizers are proven to be effective in lowering N2O emissions. Use of bedding materials may increase N2O emissions from animal houses. Manure storage as slurry, manipulating slurry pH to values lower than 6 and storage as solid manure under anaerobic conditions help to reduce N2O emissions during manure storage stage. For manure land application, N2O emissions can be mitigated by reducing manure N inputs to levels that satisfy grass needs. Use of nitrification inhibitors can substantially lower N2O emissions associated with applications of fertilizers and manures and from urine patches. N2O emissions from legume based grasslands are generally lower than fertilizer-based systems. In conclusion, effective measures should be taken at each step during N flow or combined options should be used in order to mitigate N2O emission at the farm level. PMID:23880433

Li, Dejun; Watson, Catherine J; Yan, Ming Jia; Lalor, Stan; Rafique, Rashid; Hyde, Bernard; Lanigan, Gary; Richards, Karl G; Holden, Nicholas M; Humphreys, James

2013-10-15

147

Increased winter soil temperature variability enhances nitrogen cycling and soil biotic activity in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winter air temperatures are projected to increase in the temperate zone, whereas snow cover is projected to decrease, leading to increased soil temperature variability, and potentially to changes in nutrient cycling. Here, we experimentally evaluated the effects of increased winter soil temperature variability on selected aspects of the N-cycle in mesocosms containing different plant community compositions. The experiment was replicated at two sites, a colder mountainous upland site with high snow accumulation and a warmer and drier lowland site. Increased soil temperature variability enhanced soil biotic activity for both sites during winter, as indicated by 35% higher nitrogen (N) availability in the soil solution, 40% higher belowground decomposition and a 25% increase in the potential activity of the enzyme cellobiohydrolase. The mobilization of N differed between sites, and the 15N signal in leaves was reduced by 31% in response to winter warming pulses, but only at the cold site, with significant reductions occurring for three of four tested plant species at this site. Furthermore, there was a trend of increased N leaching in response to the recurrent winter warming pulses. Overall, projected winter climate change in the temperate zone, with less snow and more variable soil temperatures, appears important for shifts in ecosystem functioning (i.e. nutrient cycling). While the effects of warming pulses on plant N mobilization did not differ among sites, reduced plant 15N incorporation at the colder temperate site suggests that frost damage may reduce plant N uptake in a warmer world, with important implications for nitrogen cycling and nitrogen losses from ecosystems.

Schuerings, J.; Jentsch, A.; Hammerl, V.; Lenz, K.; Henry, H. A. L.; Malyshev, A. V.; Kreyling, J.

2014-12-01

148

Biotic, abiotic, and management controls on methanol exchange above a temperate mountain grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management actions were the largest perturbations of the methanol exchangeA direct control of methanol emissions by PAR is proposedA gap exists in transferring leaf-level laboratory knowledge to ecosystem scale

Lukas Hörtnagl; Ines Bamberger; Martin Graus; Taina M. Ruuskanen; Ralf Schnitzhofer; Markus Müller; Armin Hansel; Georg Wohlfahrt

2011-01-01

149

Testing the Link between Functional Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning in a Minnesota Grassland Experiment  

PubMed Central

The functional diversity of a community can influence ecosystem functioning and reflects assembly processes. The large number of disparate metrics used to quantify functional diversity reflects the range of attributes underlying this concept, generally summarized as functional richness, functional evenness, and functional divergence. However, in practice, we know very little about which attributes drive which ecosystem functions, due to a lack of field-based tests. Here we test the association between eight leading functional diversity metrics (Rao’s Q, FD, FDis, FEve, FDiv, convex hull volume, and species and functional group richness) that emphasize different attributes of functional diversity, plus 11 extensions of these existing metrics that incorporate heterogeneous species abundances and trait variation. We assess the relationships among these metrics and compare their performances for predicting three key ecosystem functions (above- and belowground biomass and light capture) within a long-term grassland biodiversity experiment. Many metrics were highly correlated, although unique information was captured in FEve, FDiv, and dendrogram-based measures (FD) that were adjusted by abundance. FD adjusted by abundance outperformed all other metrics in predicting both above- and belowground biomass, although several others also performed well (e.g. Rao’s Q, FDis, FDiv). More generally, trait-based richness metrics and hybrid metrics incorporating multiple diversity attributes outperformed evenness metrics and single-attribute metrics, results that were not changed when combinations of metrics were explored. For light capture, species richness alone was the best predictor, suggesting that traits for canopy architecture would be necessary to improve predictions. Our study provides a comprehensive test linking different attributes of functional diversity with ecosystem function for a grassland system. PMID:23300787

Butterfield, Bradley J.; Reich, Peter B.

2012-01-01

150

Responses of desert, semi-arid grassland and scrub-oak ecosystems to elevated CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared observations from free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments at dry (desert, semi-arid grassland and scrub-oak) sites, to predictions from a suite of ecosystem models with differing complexity, ranging from a parsimonious forest growth model (GDAY) to a comprehensive land surface model (OCN). Dry ecosystems have often been predicted to increase in net primary productivity (NPP) and net C uptake over time in response to elevated CO2 (eCO2) because of increased N fixation, and alleviation of drought-stress due to reduced stomatal conductance. However, experiments at the Nevada Desert FACE (NDFF), the semi-arid prairie grassland FACE (PHACE), and the scrub-oak Kennedy Space Center open-top chamber experiment (KSCO), have revealed that dry ecosystems display a more complex biogeochemical response to eCO2. Insights into the processes determining the responses of dry ecosystems to eCO2 were gained by evaluating model estimates against site data, and by dissecting model responses to eCO2. Site level findings at PHACE indicated that eCO2 enabled more rapid C turnover, resulting in a net ecosystem C loss. Conversely, at PHACE, models such as OCN simulated a decrease in N leaching and an increase in NPP because of eCO2, leading to increased C storage. Leaf cover and NPP at KSCO initially increased with eCO2 before declining due to reduced N fixation and increased N leaching. At NDFF, eCO2 only increased plant growth during one abnormally wet year; in subsequent years, soil crust cyanobacteria decreased in abundance, and gains in biomass were not sustained. In OCN simulations at NDFF, eCO2 increased water-use efficiency and NPP in years with average to above-average precipitation. Through examination of the reasons for discrepancies between observed and modeled ecosystem responses to eCO2, processes determining the biogeochemical responses of dry ecosystems to eCO2 were elucidated.

Luus, Kristina; Walker, Anthony; de Kauwe, Martin; Hungate, Bruce; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Lu, Meng; Fenstermaker, Lynn; Nowak, Robert; Morgan, Jack; Medlyn, Belinda; Norby, Richard; Zaehle, Sönke

2014-05-01

151

How plant functional traits cascade to microbial function and ecosystem services in mountain grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. There is growing evidence that plant functional diversity and microbial communities of soil are tightly coupled, and that this coupling influences a range of ecosystem functions. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that changes in the nature of interactions between plant functional diversity and microbial communities along environmental gradients contributes to variation in the delivery of ecosystem services. Although there is empirical support for such relationships using broad plant and microbial functional classifications, or from studies of plant monocultures, such relationships and their consequences for ecosystem services have not been quantified under complex field conditions with diverse plant communities. 2. We aimed to provide an explicit quantification of how plant and microbial functional properties interplay to determine key ecosystem functions underlying ecosystem services provided by grasslands. At three mountain grassland sites in the French Alps, Austrian Tyrol and northern England, we quantified, along gradients of management intensity, (i) plant functional diversity, (ii) soil microbial community composition and parameters associated with nitrogen cycling, and (iii) key ecosystem processes related to the carbon and nitrogen cycles including aboveground biomass production, standing litter, litter decomposition, soil organic matter and nitrate and ammonium leaching . Considering that plants strongly determine microbial communities, we used a hierarchical approach that considered first direct effects of plant traits and then effects of soil microorganisms on processes, to determine the relative effects of plant and microbial functional parameters on key ecosystem properties. 3. We identified a gradient of relative effects of plant and microbial traits from properties controlled mostly by aboveground processes, such as plant biomass production and standing litter, to properties controlled mostly by microbial processes, such as soil leaching of inorganic N (NO3 or NH4). Soil organic matter illustrated an intermediate situations with joint control by plant and microbial traits. 4. Across all sites, we found that increasing management intensity, and concomitant changes in soil fertility, was associated with more exploitative plant strategies (high Specific Leaf Area and Leaf Nitrogen Concentration) and taller vegetation. These vegetation functional properties provided the benefit of greater production, but at the cost of poor carbon and nutrient retention, notably because they were associated with microbial communities dominated by bacteria and with rapid rates of nitrification. Conversely, decreasing management intensity resulted in dominance by plants with conservative strategies (high Leaf Dry Matter Content and C/N ratio), usually low production, but benefits for carbon sequestration and soil nutrient retention by favouring microbial communities dominated by fungi co-occuring with bacteria with slow activities.

Lavorel, S.; Grigulis, K.; Krainer, U.; Legay, N.; Turner, C.; Dumont, M.; Kastl, E.; Arnoldi, C.; Bardgett, R.; Poly, F.; Pommier, T.; Schloter, M.; Tappeiner, U.; Bahn, M.; Clément, J.-C.

2012-04-01

152

Growth response of temperate mountain grasslands to inter-annual variations of snow cover duration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A remote sensing approach is used to examine the direct and indirect effects of snow cover duration and weather conditions on the growth response of mountain grasslands located above the tree line in the French Alps. Time-integrated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVIint), used as a surrogate for aboveground primary productivity, and snow cover duration were derived from a 13 year long time series of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS). A regional-scale meteorological forcing that accounted for topographical effects was provided by the SAFRAN-Crocus-MEPRA model chain. A hierarchical path analysis was developed to analyze the multivariate causal relationships between forcing variables and proxies of primary productivity. Inter-annual variations in primary productivity were primarily governed by year-to-year variations in the length of the snow-free period and to a much lesser extent by temperature and precipitation during the growing season. A prolonged snow cover reduces the number and magnitude of frost events during the initial growth period but this has a negligeable impact on NDVIint as compared to the strong negative effect of a delayed snow melting. The maximum NDVI slightly responded to increased summer precipitation and temperature but the impact on productivity was weak. The period spanning from peak standing biomass to the first snowfall accounted for two thirds of NDVIint and this explained the high sensitivity of NDVIint to autumn temperature and autumn rainfall that control the timing of the first snowfall. The ability of mountain plants to maintain green tissues during the whole snow-free period along with the relatively low responsiveness of peak standing biomass to summer meteorological conditions led to the conclusion that the length of the snow-free period is the primary driver of the inter-annual variations in primary productivity of mountain grasslands.

Choler, P.

2015-02-01

153

Determining the relative importance of climatic drivers on spring phenology in grassland ecosystems of semi-arid areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding climate controls on spring phenology in grassland ecosystems is critically important in predicting the impacts of future climate change on grassland productivity and carbon storage. The third-generation Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS3g) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data were applied to derive the start of the growing season (SOS) from 1982-2010 in grassland ecosystems of Ordos, a typical semi-arid area in China. Then, the conditional Granger causality method was utilized to quantify the directed functional connectivity between key climatic drivers and the SOS. The results show that the asymmetric Gaussian (AG) function is better in reducing noise of NDVI time series than the double logistic (DL) function within our study area. The southeastern Ordos has earlier occurrence and lower variability of the SOS, whereas the northwestern Ordos has later occurrence and higher variability of the SOS. The research also reveals that spring precipitation has stronger causal connectivity with the SOS than other climatic factors over different grassland ecosystem types. There is no statistically significant trend across the study area, while the similar pattern is observed for spring precipitation. Our study highlights the link of spring phenology with different grassland types, and the use of coupling remote sensing and econometric tools. With the dramatic increase in global change research, Granger causality method augurs well for further development and application of time-series modeling of complex social-ecological systems at the intersection of remote sensing and landscape changes.

Zhu, Likai; Meng, Jijun

2015-02-01

154

Transfer of a cyanobacterial neurotoxin within a temperate aquatic ecosystem suggests pathways for human exposure  

PubMed Central

?-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid produced by most cyanobacteria, has been proposed to be the causative agent of devastating neurodegenerative diseases on the island of Guam in the Pacific Ocean. Because cyanobacteria are widespread globally, we hypothesized that BMAA might occur and bioaccumulate in other ecosystems. Here we demonstrate, based on a recently developed extraction and HPLC-MS/MS method and long-term monitoring of BMAA in cyanobacterial populations of a temperate aquatic ecosystem (Baltic Sea, 2007–2008), that BMAA is biosynthesized by cyanobacterial genera dominating the massive surface blooms of this water body. BMAA also was found at higher concentrations in organisms of higher trophic levels that directly or indirectly feed on cyanobacteria, such as zooplankton and various vertebrates (fish) and invertebrates (mussels, oysters). Pelagic and benthic fish species used for human consumption were included. The highest BMAA levels were detected in the muscle and brain of bottom-dwelling fishes. The discovery of regular biosynthesis of the neurotoxin BMAA in a large temperate aquatic ecosystem combined with its possible transfer and bioaccumulation within major food webs, some ending in human consumption, is alarming and requires attention. PMID:20439734

Jonasson, Sara; Eriksson, Johan; Berntzon, Lotta; Spá?il, Zden?k; Ilag, Leopold L.; Ronnevi, Lars-Olof; Rasmussen, Ulla; Bergman, Birgitta

2010-01-01

155

Rapid response of a grassland ecosystem to an experimental manipulation of a keystone rodent and domestic livestock.  

PubMed

Megaherbivores and small burrowing mammals commonly coexist and play important functional roles in grassland ecosystems worldwide. The interactive effects of these two functional groups of herbivores in shaping the structure and function of grassland ecosystems are poorly understood. In North America's central grasslands, domestic cattle (Bos taurus) have supplanted bison (Bison bison), and now coexist with prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), a keystone burrowing rodent. Understanding the ecological relationships between cattle and prairie dogs and their independent and interactive effects is essential to understanding the ecology and important conservation issues affecting North American grassland ecosystems. To address these needs, we established a long-term manipulative experiment that separates the independent and interactive effects of prairie dogs and cattle using a 2 x 2 factorial design. Our study is located in the Janos-Casas Grandes region of northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico, which supports one of the largest remaining complexes of black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus). Two years of posttreatment data show nearly twofold increases in prairie dog abundance on plots grazed by cattle compared to plots without cattle. This positive effect of cattle on prairie dogs resulted in synergistic impacts when they occurred together. Vegetation height was significantly lower on the plots where both species co-occurred compared to where either or both species was absent. The treatments also significantly affected abundance and composition of other grassland animal species, including grasshoppers and banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis). Our results demonstrate that two different functional groups of herbivorous mammals, burrowing mammals and domestic cattle, have distinctive and synergistic impacts in shaping the structure and function of grassland ecosystems. PMID:21141180

Davidson, Ana D; Ponce, Eduardo; Lightfoot, David C; Fredrickson, Ed L; Brown, James H; Cruzado, Juan; Brantley, Sandra L; Sierra-Corona, Rodrigo; List, Rurik; Toledo, David; Ceballos, Gerardo

2010-11-01

156

The expansion of grassland ecosystems in Africa in relation to mammalian evolution and the origin of the genus Homo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between climatic change and human evolution can be framed in terms of three major hypotheses. A modern version of the long-held savanna hypothesis posits that the expansion of grassland ecosystems in Africa was driven by global climatic change and led to the divergence of hominins from the apes and to the origin of the Homo clade. A related

Anna K. Behrensmeyer

2004-01-01

157

Plant and soil microbial responses to defoliation in temperate semi-natural grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much interest in understanding the nature of feedback mechanisms between plants and soil organisms in grazed ecosystems.\\u000a In this study, we examine the effects of different intensities of defoliation on the growth of three dominant grass species,\\u000a and observe how these plant responses relate to the biomass and activity of the microbial community in the root zone. Our

Ramon Guitian; Richard D. Bardgett

2000-01-01

158

Plant species richness drives the density and diversity of Collembola in temperate grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Declining biodiversity is one of the most important aspects of anthropogenic global change phenomena, but the implications of plant species loss for soil decomposers are little understood. We used the experimental grassland community of the Jena Experiment to assess the response of density and diversity of Collembola to varying plant species richness, plant functional group richness and plant functional group identity. We sampled the experimental plots in spring and autumn four years after establishment of the experimental plant communities. Collembola density and diversity significantly increased with plant species and plant functional group richness highlighting the importance of the singular hypothesis for soil invertebrates. Generally, grasses and legumes beneficially affected Collembola density and diversity, whereas effects of small herbs usually were detrimental. These impacts were largely consistent in spring and autumn. By contrast, in the presence of small herbs the density of hemiedaphic Collembola and the diversity of Isotomidae increased in spring whereas they decreased in autumn. Beneficial impacts of plant diversity as well as those of grasses and legumes were likely due to increased root and microbial biomass, and elevated quantity and quality of plant residues serving as food resources for Collembola. By contrast, beneficial impacts of small herbs in spring probably reflect differences in microclimatic conditions, and detrimental effects in autumn likely were due to low quantity and quality of resources. The results point to an intimate relationship between plants and the diversity of belowground biota, even at small spatial scales, contrasting the findings of previous studies. The pronounced response of soil animals in the present study was presumably due to the fact that plant communities had established over several years. As decomposer invertebrates significantly impact plant performance, changes in soil biota density and diversity are likely to have major feedbacks on plant community productivity and composition.

Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

2011-05-01

159

The Role of Photodegradation in Surface Litter Decomposition Across a Grassland  

E-print Network

in temper- ature, moisture, and litter chemistry alone. We hypothesized that ultraviolet (UV) radiation en, semiarid, and arid grassland ecosystems, respectively. Two common grass leaf litter types of contrasting on temperature, moisture, and litter chemistry, but these models tend to underestimate rates in arid ecosystems

Minnesota, University of

160

Simulated water fluxes during the growing season in semiarid grassland ecosystems under severe drought conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To help improve understanding of how changes in climate and land cover affect water fluxes, water budgets, and the structure and function of regional grassland ecosystems, the Grassland Landscape Productivity Model (GLPM) was used to simulate spatiotemporal variation in primary water fluxes. The study area was a semiarid region in Inner Mongolia, China, in 2002, when severe drought was experienced. For Stipa grandis steppe, Leymus chinensis steppe, shrubland, and croplands, the modeled total, daily and monthly averaged, and maximum evapotranspiration during the growing season and the modeled water deficits were similar to those measured in Inner Mongolia under similar precipitation conditions. The modeled temporal variations in daily evaporation rate, transpiration rate, and evapotranspiration rate for the typical steppes also agreed reasonably well with measured trends. The results demonstrate that water fluxes varied in response to spatiotemporal variations in environmental factors and associated changes in the phenological and physiological characteristics of plants. It was also found that transpiration and evapotranspiration (rather than precipitation) were the primary factors controlling differences in water deficit among land cover types. The results also demonstrate that specific phenomena occur under severe drought conditions; these phenomena are considerably different to those occurring under normal or well-watered conditions. The findings of the present study will be useful for evaluating day-scale water fluxes and their relationships with climate change, hydrology, land cover, and vegetation dynamics.

Zhang, Na; Liu, Chengyu

2014-05-01

161

Net ecosystem carbon and water fluxes of a calcareous grassland under elevated CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

In 1994 we initiated a long term study on the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on ecosystem function and biodiversity in a species rich grassland near Basel, Switzerland. Natural vegetation was exposed to ambient and elevated (600{mu}l 1{sup -1}) CO{sub 2} using open-top chambers. We measured ecosystem carbon and water fluxes for several 24hr. periods during the growing season by partially closing the top of the chambers. During the first 3 months of CO{sub 2} enrichment, mean net ecosystem carbon uptake at high photon flux density increased by 37%. The relative photosynthetic gain was diminished as photon flux density decreased. Dark respiration, and midday soil CO{sub 2}-evolution did not differ between treatments. Midday evapotranspiration decreased by 17%, probably due to stomatal responses, since LAI did not change. Since the extra carbon has not yet appeared in either aboveground, belowground, or microbial biomass, we hypothesize that a major part of the extra carbon was sequestered into the soil compartment.

Stocker, R.; Leadley, P.; Niklaus, P. [Univ. of Basel (Switzerland)

1995-06-01

162

[Differences in soil respiration between cropland and grassland ecosystems and factors influencing soil respiration on the Loess Plateau].  

PubMed

Understanding the effect of land-use change on soil respiration rates becomes critical in predicting soil carbon cycling under conversion of arable into grassland on the Loess Plateau. From July 2010 to December 2011, CO2 efflux from the soil surface was measured between 08:00 to 10:00 am in clear days by a Licor-8100 closed chamber system (Li-COR, Lincoln, NE, US). Also, soil temperature and soil moisture at the 5-cm depth was measured using a Li-Cor thermocouple and a hand-held frequency-domain reflectometer (ML2x, Delta-T Devices Ltd, UK) at each PVC collar, respectively. We found marked differences (P < 0.05) in soil respiration related to different land-use: the mean cropland soil respiration [1.35 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1)] was 24% (P < 0.05) less than the paired grassland soil respiration [1.67 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1)] (P < 0.05) during the period of experiment and the cumulative CO2-C emissions in grassland (856 g x m(-2)) was 23% (P < 0.05) higher than that in cropland (694 g x m(-2)). Soil moisture from 0-5 cm depth was much drier in cropland and significantly different between cropland and grassland except for winter. However, there were no clear relationships between soil moisture and soil respiration. Soil temperature at 5-cm depth was 2.5 degress C higher in grassland during the period of experiment (P < 0.05). Regression of soil temperature vs. soil respiration indicated significant exponential relationships both in grassland and cropland. Besides, there were intrinsic differences in response of soil respiration to temperature between the cropland and grassland ecosystems: grassland and cropland respiration response was significantly different at the alpha = 0.05 level, also expressed by a higher temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) in cropland (2.30) relative to grassland (1.74). Soil temperature of cropland and grassland can explain 79% of the variation in the soil respiration in grassland, compared to 82% in cropland. Therefore, land-use change can alter soil CO2 efflux under similar edaphic and climate conditions in the gully region of the Loess Plateau. The soil temperature difference between cropland and grassland can explain the soil respiration difference caused by land-use change, which was confirmed by the validation results. PMID:23745411

Zhou, Xiao-Gang; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Nan, Ya-Fang; Liu, Qing-Fang; Guo, Sheng-Li

2013-03-01

163

Impacts of N-depostion on biodiversity in a grassland ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen deposition threatens biodiversity in many ecosystems across the globe, and poses a range of scientific and policy challenges. Grassland ecosystems on nutrient-poor serpentine soils provide a model system for understanding local and regional impacts of N-deposition on biodiversity. A population of the threatened Bay checkerspot butterfly crashed from 3500 butterflies in 1997 to likely extinction in 2003. Non-native annual grass crowded out larval hostplants over much of the habitat, primarily driven by nitrogen deposition from tailpipe emissions of NH3 from 100,000 vehicles per day on a roadway bisecting the habitat. NH3 levels (measured with passive monitors) are elevated adjacent to the roadway, but are near background levels 400 m away. Grass cover was higher closer to and downwind of the road, and hostplant cover was inversely related to grass cover. Results from a first-order model show that N-deposition levels adjacent to the roadway are similar (>10 kg-N ha-1 yr-1) to levels downwind of the heavily urbanized Santa Clara Valley (where grass invasions have led to the extinction of large populations via vigorous grass invasions). This local butterfly extinction is unexpected fallout of the adoption of three-way catalytic converters in 1990s. The only known occurrence of an endangered plant, Pentachaeta bellidiflora, exists west of the freeway and may be at long term risk. Invasions of nitrophilous grasses and other weedy species into N-limited grasslands and shrublands appear to be a common response to increased atmospheric deposition in semi-arid areas.

Weiss, S.; Luth, D.

2003-12-01

164

Relationship between soil chemical factors and grassland diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies carried out during these last few years have focused on the factors influencing plant diversity in species-rich grasslands. This is due to the fact that these ecosystems, among the most diversified in temperate climates, are extremely threatened; in some areas, they have almost disappeared. The re-establishment of these habitats implies to know the living conditions of the associations

F. Janssens; A. Peeters; J. R. B. Tallowin; J. P. Bakker; R. M. Bekker; F. Fillat; M. J. M. Oomes

1998-01-01

165

Prerequisites for application of hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation on managed grasslands and alternative net ecosystem exchange flux partitioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relaxed eddy accumulation is still applied in ecosystem sciences for measuring trace gas fluxes. On managed grasslands, the length of time between management events and the application of relaxed eddy accumulation has an essential influence on the determination of the proportionality factor b and thus on the resulting flux. In this study this effect is discussed for the first time. Also, scalar similarity between proxy scalars and scalars of interest is affected until the ecosystem has completely recovered. Against this background, CO2 fluxes were continuously measured and 13CO2 isofluxes were determined with a high measurement precision on two representative days in summer 2010. Moreover, a common method for the partitioning of the net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration based on temperature and light response was compared with an isotopic approach directly based on the isotope discrimination of the biosphere. This approach worked well on the grassland site and could enhance flux partitioning results by better reproducing the environmental conditions.

Riederer, M.; Hübner, J.; Ruppert, J.; Brand, W. A.; Foken, T.

2014-12-01

166

Water- and Plant-Mediated Responses of Ecosystem Carbon Fluxes to Warming and Nitrogen Addition on the Songnen Grassland in Northeast China  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding how grasslands are affected by a long-term increase in temperature is crucial to predict the future impact of global climate change on terrestrial ecosystems. Additionally, it is not clear how the effects of global warming on grassland productivity are going to be altered by increased N deposition and N addition. Methodology/Principal Findings In-situ canopy CO2 exchange rates were measured in a meadow steppe subjected to 4-year warming and nitrogen addition treatments. Warming treatment reduced net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and increased ecosystem respiration (ER); but had no significant impacts on gross ecosystem productivity (GEP). N addition increased NEE, ER and GEP. However, there were no significant interactions between N addition and warming. The variation of NEE during the four experimental years was correlated with soil water content, particularly during early spring, suggesting that water availability is a primary driver of carbon fluxes in the studied semi-arid grassland. Conclusion/Significance Ecosystem carbon fluxes in grassland ecosystems are sensitive to warming and N addition. In the studied water-limited grassland, both warming and N addition influence ecosystem carbon fluxes by affecting water availability, which is the primary driver in many arid and semiarid ecosystems. It remains unknown to what extent the long-term N addition would affect the turn-over of soil organic matter and the C sink size of this grassland. PMID:23028848

Jiang, Li; Guo, Rui; Zhu, Tingcheng; Niu, Xuedun; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei

2012-01-01

167

Ecosystem properties of semiarid savanna grassland in West Africa and its relationship with environmental variability.  

PubMed

The Dahra field site in Senegal, West Africa, was established in 2002 to monitor ecosystem properties of semiarid savanna grassland and their responses to climatic and environmental change. This article describes the environment and the ecosystem properties of the site using a unique set of in situ data. The studied variables include hydroclimatic variables, species composition, albedo, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), hyperspectral characteristics (350-1800 nm), surface reflectance anisotropy, brightness temperature, fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (FAPAR), biomass, vegetation water content, and land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon (NEE) and energy. The Dahra field site experiences a typical Sahelian climate and is covered by coexisting trees (~3% canopy cover) and grass species, characterizing large parts of the Sahel. This makes the site suitable for investigating relationships between ecosystem properties and hydroclimatic variables for semiarid savanna ecosystems of the region. There were strong interannual, seasonal and diurnal dynamics in NEE, with high values of ~-7.5 g C m(-2)  day(-1) during the peak of the growing season. We found neither browning nor greening NDVI trends from 2002 to 2012. Interannual variation in species composition was strongly related to rainfall distribution. NDVI and FAPAR were strongly related to species composition, especially for years dominated by the species Zornia glochidiata. This influence was not observed in interannual variation in biomass and vegetation productivity, thus challenging dryland productivity models based on remote sensing. Surface reflectance anisotropy (350-1800 nm) at the peak of the growing season varied strongly depending on wavelength and viewing angle thereby having implications for the design of remotely sensed spectral vegetation indices covering different wavelength regions. The presented time series of in situ data have great potential for dryland dynamics studies, global climate change related research and evaluation and parameterization of remote sensing products and dynamic vegetation models. PMID:25204271

Tagesson, Torbern; Fensholt, Rasmus; Guiro, Idrissa; Rasmussen, Mads Olander; Huber, Silvia; Mbow, Cheikh; Garcia, Monica; Horion, Stéphanie; Sandholt, Inge; Holm-Rasmussen, Bo; Göttsche, Frank M; Ridler, Marc-Etienne; Olén, Niklas; Lundegard Olsen, Jørgen; Ehammer, Andrea; Madsen, Mathias; Olesen, Folke S; Ardö, Jonas

2015-01-01

168

Partitioning of evapotranspiration through oxygen isotopic measurements of water pools and fluxes in a temperate grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopic measurements of water provide a promising tool for partitioning of ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET). This approach, however, is still facing some challenges due to the uncertainties in estimating the isotopic compositions of ET and its components. In this study, a tunable diode laser analyzer was deployed for in situ measurements of the oxygen isotopic compositions of water vapor. Using these measurements together with samples of water in plant and soil pools, we partitioned ET via estimating the oxygen isotopic compositions of ET (?ET) and that of its two components, i.e., plant transpiration (?T) and soil water evaporation (?E). A new ?T model was developed in this study, which illustrated consistent estimations with the traditional model. Most of the variables and parameters in the new model can be measured directly with high accuracy, making its potential to be used at other sites high. Our results indicate that the ratio of plant transpiration to evapotranspiration (T/ET) illustrates a "U" shape diurnal pattern. Mean T/ET at 0630-1830 during the sampling days was 83%. Soil depth of 15 cm is a reasonable depth for soil water sampling for estimating ?E at this site. We also investigated the uncertainties in estimating these three terms and their effects on partitioning. Overall, in terms of partitioning, the uncertainties are relatively small from ?T and ?E but quite large from ?ET. Quantifying and improving the precision of ?ET should be a priority in future endeavors of ET partitioning via the stable isotopic approach.

Hu, Zhongmin; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin; Li, Linghao; Yu, Guirui; Lee, Xuhui; Li, Shenggong

2014-03-01

169

Wind and water erosion and transport in semi-arid shrubland, grassland and forest ecosystems: quantifying dominance of horizontal wind-driven transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil erosion is an important process in dryland ecosystems, yet measurements and comparisons of wind and water erosion within and among such ecosystems are lacking. Here we compare wind erosion and transport field measurements with water erosion and transport from rainfall-simulation for three different semi-arid ecosystems: a shrubland near Carlsbad, New Mexico; a grassland near Denver, Colorado; and a forest

David D. Breshears; Jeffrey J. Whicker; Mathew P. Johansen; John E. Pinder

2003-01-01

170

Using Elemental Budgets to Determine Effects of Simulated Climate Change on Phosphorus Cycling in a Grassland Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment is to find out the effects of climate change on a terrestrial grassland ecosystem. The different treatments include increased carbon dioxide, nitrogen deposition, temperature, and precipitation. A portion of the above ground biomass of each plot was harvested, and an abundant species chosen to analyze. The goal of this project was to investigate the effects of climate change on phosphorus cycling in the grassland vegetation. Total phosphorus content of each sample was determined by combustion and acid digestion along with optical emission spectrometry. Total nitrogen and carbon was determined via flash combustion in an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. This information was combined to evaluate the limitation of phosphorus in each treatment and better understand how climate change may affect phosphorus cycling in terrestrial grasslands.

Yoo, S.; Paytan, A.; Mellett, T.

2013-12-01

171

The ecosystem carbon accumulation after conversion of grasslands to pine plantations in subtropical red soil of South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1980s, afforestation in China has led to the establishment of over 0.53 × 108 ha of new plantation forests. While this leads to rapid accumulation of carbon (C) in vegetation, the effects of afforestation on soil C are poorly understood. In this study, a new version of the Atmosphere-Vegetation Interaction Model (AVIM2) was used to examine how changes in plant C inputs following afforestation might lead to changes in soil C at one of the Chinaflux sites and to estimate the effect of afforestation on ex-grassland. The potential total C accumulation of tree plantation was also predicted. The model was calibrated by net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (RE) and gross primary production (GPP) based on eddy-covariance measurements. The simulated vegetation C and soil C stocks were compared with the filed observations. The simulates indicate that after 22 yr of conversion of grassland to needle leaf forests (Pinus massoniana and Pinus elliottii), the net carbon accumulation in tree ecosystem was 1.96 times more than that in grassland. The soil C in the initial 7 yr of planting decreased at a rate of 0.1871 kg C m-2 yr-1, and after that it increased at a rate of 0.090 kg C m-2 yr-1. The C accumulation in the studied plantation ecosystem is estimated to be 76-81% of that value in equilibrium state (the net ecosystem productivity approaches to zero). Sensitivity analyses show that conversion from grassland to plantation caused an initial (7 or 8 yr) periods of decrease in soil C stocks in wider red soil area of southern China. The soil C stocks were reduced between 19.2 and 20.4% in the initial decreasing period. After 7 or 8 yr C loss, the increased in soil C stocks was predicted to be between 0.073 and 0.074 kg C m-2 yr-1.

Huang, Mei; Ji, Jinjun; Li, Kerang; Liu, Yunfeng; Yang, Fengting; Tao, Bo

2007-07-01

172

Climate change impacts on stream carbon export from coastal temperate rainforest ecosystems in Alaska (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal temperate rainforests (CTR) in Alaska contain about 10% of the total carbon in the forests of the conterminous United States. CTR ecosystems span a large environmental gradient that ranges from icefields mantling the Coast Mountains to carbon-rich conifer forests along the coastal margin and within the islands of the Alexander Archipelago in the Gulf of Alaska. Riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export from Alaskan CTR ecosystems, which can exceed 2 Tg C yr-1, is large relative to other northern ecosystems as a result of high rates of specific discharge (~2.5 m yr-1) and an abundance of organic soils found in peatlands and forested wetlands. Runoff from glaciers, which are rapidly thinning and retreating, has also been shown to an important contributor to land-to-ocean fluxes of DOC in this region. Downscaled regional climate models suggest that CTR ecosystems in Alaska will become warmer and wetter in coming decades, with uncertain effects on riverine organic matter (OM) export. Changes in watershed OM export are likely to be driven by changes in both hydrology and the availability of OM in terrestrial source pools. However, the impacts of these climate driven changes will vary with watershed landcover across the continuum from icefields to coastal temperate forests. Expected hydrological perturbations include changes in the timing and magnitude of streamflow associated with shifts in: 1) the extent and duration of seasonal snowcover and 2) the mass balance of glaciers and icefields in the Coast Mountains. The availability of OM for export along hydrologic flowpaths will likely be altered by increased soil temperatures and shifts in water table elevations during the summer/fall runoff season. This will be particularly true for organic carbon export from peatlands in which changes in temperature and oxygen availability can strongly impact rates of organic matter decomposition. This talk will explore how climate-driven changes in hydrology and terrestrial organic matter stocks are expected to interact and modify riverine organic carbon export from CTR watersheds to near-shore marine ecosystems along the Gulf of Alaska.

Hood, E. W.

2013-12-01

173

Will anticipated future climatic conditions affect belowground C utilization? - Insights into the role of microbial functional groups in a temperate heath/grassland.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global terrestrial soil organic matter stock is the biggest terrestrial carbon pool (1500 Pg C) of which about 4 % is turned over annually. Thus, terrestrial ecosystems have the potential to accelerate or diminish atmospheric climate change effects via belowground carbon processes. We investigated the effect of elevated CO2 (510 ppm), prolonged spring/summer droughts and increased temperature (1 ?C) on belowground carbon allocation and on the recovery of carbon by the soil microbial community. An in-situ 13C-carbon pulse-labeling experiment was carried out in a temperate heath/grassland (Denmark) in May 2011. Recently assimilated 13C-carbon was traced into roots, soil and microbial biomass 1, 2 and 8 days after pulse-labeling. The importance of the microbial community in C utilization was investigated using 13C enrichment patterns in microbial functional groups on the basis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in roots. Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were distinguished from the decomposer groups of actinomycetes (belonging to the group of gram-positive bacteria) and saprophytic fungi. Mycorrhizal fungi specific PLFAs were not detected probably due to limited sample size in combination with restricted sensitivity of the used GC-c-IRMS setup. Climate treatments did not affect 13C allocation into roots, soil and microbial biomass carbon and also the total microbial biomass size stayed unchanged as frequently observed. However, climate treatments changed the composition of the microbial community: elevated CO2 significantly reduced the abundance of gram-negative bacteria (17:0cy) but did not affect the abundance of decomposers. Drought favored the bacterial community whereas increased temperatures showed reduced abundance of gram-negative bacteria (19:0cy) and changed the actinomycetes community (10Me16:0, 10Me18:0). However, not only the microbial community composition was affected by the applied climatic conditions, but also the activity of microbial functional groups in their utilization of recently assimilated carbon. Particularly the negative effect of the future treatment combination (CO2×T×D) on actinomycetes activity was surprising. By means of activity patterns of gram-negative bacteria, we observed the fastest carbon turnover rate under elevated CO2, and the slowest under extended drought conditions. A changed soil microbial community in combination with altered activities of different microbial functional groups leads to the conclusion that carbon allocation belowground was different under ambient and future climatic conditions and indicated reduced utilization of soil organic matter in the future due to a change of actinomycetes abundance and activity.

Reinsch, Sabine; Michelsen, Anders; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Egsgaard, Helge; Kappel Schmidt, Inger; Jakobsen, Iver; Ambus, Per

2013-04-01

174

Ecosystem Respiration in an Undisturbed, Old-Growth, Temperate Rain Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Old-growth forests are usually close to carbon neutral, and climate change may push them towards becoming net carbon sources. Ecosystem carbon exchange and its component fluxes, were measured in a temperate rainforest in South Westland, New Zealand. The forest, which receives over 3 m of rain a year, is dominated by 400 year-old podocarp trees, and is on a low nutrient, acidic, peat soil. Nighttime respiration measurements using eddy covariance were problematic due to katabatic induced CO2 drainage flows near the ground and low turbulence. Instead of the friction velocity filtering technique, we used the maximum eddy flux within a few hours of sunset to derive a function relating nighttime ecosystem respiration to soil temperature. The function was then used to calculate respiration for the nighttime periods. Soil respiration was measured at regular intervals during the growing season. Soil temperature was regulated by incoming radiation and changes in the soil heat capacity. The water table was typically only 160 mm below the ground surface. Soil respiration (mean = 2.9 ?mol m-2 s-1) increased strongly with both an increase in soil temperature and an increase in the depth to the water table, and accounted for approximately 50% of ecosystem respiration. Changes in the water table depth caused by altered rainfall regime, evaporation and drainage are likely to have a significant effect on the soil respiration rate and carbon balance of this old-growth forest. Foliage and stem respiration were also measured and integrated to the canopy scale using a model. The model was then used to decompose ecosystem respiration measurements into its components. A combination of measured and modelled data indicates that the ecosystem is a net source for carbon (-0.34 kg C m&-2 yr-1).

Hunt, J. E.; Walcroft, A. S.; McSeveny, T. M.; Rogers, G. N.; Whitehead, D.

2008-12-01

175

Relationships between Plant Diversity and the Abundance and ?-Diversity of Predatory Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Mature Asian Temperate Forest Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

A positive relationship between plant diversity and both abundance and diversity of predatory arthropods is postulated by the Enemies Hypothesis, a central ecological top-down control hypothesis. It has been supported by experimental studies and investigations of agricultural and grassland ecosystems, while evidence from more complex mature forest ecosystems is limited. Our study was conducted on Changbai Mountain in one of the last remaining large pristine temperate forest environments in China. We used predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as target taxon to establish the relationship between phytodiversity and their activity abundance and diversity. Results showed that elevation was the only variable included in both models predicting carabid activity abundance and ?-diversity. Shrub diversity was negatively and herb diversity positively correlated with beetle abundance, while shrub diversity was positively correlated with beetle ?-diversity. Within the different forest types, a negative relationship between plant diversity and carabid activity abundance was observed, which stands in direct contrast to the Enemies Hypothesis. Furthermore, plant species density did not predict carabid ?-diversity. In addition, the density of herbs, which is commonly believed to influence carabid movement, had little impact on the beetle activity abundance recorded on Changbai Mountain. Our study indicates that in a relatively large and heterogeneous mature forest area, relationships between plant and carabid diversity are driven by variations in environmental factors linked with altitudinal change. In addition, traditional top-down control theories that are suitable in explaining diversity patterns in ecosystems of low diversity appear to play a much less pronounced role in highly complex forest ecosystems. PMID:24376582

Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Bai, Fan; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

2013-01-01

176

Effects of ocean acidification on temperate coastal marine ecosystems and fisheries in the northeast pacific.  

PubMed

As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA). Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC), sport (recreational) fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry). Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed) and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH) waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2-3 (where most local fishery-income is generated), little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty. PMID:25671596

Haigh, Rowan; Ianson, Debby; Holt, Carrie A; Neate, Holly E; Edwards, Andrew M

2015-01-01

177

Effects of Ocean Acidification on Temperate Coastal Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries in the Northeast Pacific  

PubMed Central

As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA). Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC), sport (recreational) fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry). Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed) and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH) waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2–3 (where most local fishery-income is generated), little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty. PMID:25671596

Haigh, Rowan; Ianson, Debby; Holt, Carrie A.; Neate, Holly E.; Edwards, Andrew M.

2015-01-01

178

The origin of the indigenous grasslands of southeastern South Island in relation to pre-human woody ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immediately before human settlement, dense tall podocarp-angiosperm forest dominated the moist Southland and southern coastal Otago districts. Open, discontinuous podocarp-angiosperm forest bordered the central Otago dry interior, extending along the north Otago coast. Grassland was mostly patchy within these woody ecosystems, occurring on limited areas of droughty or low-nutrient soils and wetlands, or temporarily after infrequent fire or other disturbance.

M. S. McGlone

2001-01-01

179

Litter decomposition and nutrient release as affected by soil nitrogen availability and litter quality in a semiarid grassland ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen availability is critically important to litter decomposition, especially in arid and semiarid areas where N is limiting.\\u000a We studied the relative contributions of litter quality and soil N to litter decomposition of two dominant grassland species,\\u000a Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigida, in a semiarid typical steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, China. The study had four different rates of N

Ping Liu; Jianhui Huang; Osbert Jianxin Sun; Xingguo Han

2010-01-01

180

FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL CONVERGENCE OF TEMPERATE GRASSLAND AND SHRUBLAND ECOSYSTEMS. (R824993)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

181

Satellite-based analysis of evapotranspiration and water balance in the grassland ecosystems of Dryland East Asia.  

PubMed

The regression tree method is used to upscale evapotranspiration (ET) measurements at eddy-covariance (EC) towers to the grassland ecosystems over the Dryland East Asia (DEA). The regression tree model was driven by satellite and meteorology datasets, and explained 82% and 76% of the variations of ET observations in the calibration and validation datasets, respectively. The annual ET estimates ranged from 222.6 to 269.1 mm yr(-1) over the DEA region with an average of 245.8 mm yr(-1) from 1982 through 2009. Ecosystem ET showed decreased trends over 61% of the DEA region during this period, especially in most regions of Mongolia and eastern Inner Mongolia due to decreased precipitation. The increased ET occurred primarily in the western and southern DEA region. Over the entire study area, water balance (the difference between precipitation and ecosystem ET) decreased substantially during the summer and growing season. Precipitation reduction was an important cause for the severe water deficits. The drying trend occurring in the grassland ecosystems of the DEA region can exert profound impacts on a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes and functions. PMID:24845063

Xia, Jiangzhou; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Linghao; Cai, Wenwen; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yang; Zhao, Tianbao; Feng, Jinming; Ma, Zhuguo; Ma, Mingguo; Liu, Shaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Asanuma, Jun; Chen, Shiping; Du, Mingyuan; Davaa, Gombo; Kato, Tomomichi; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Suhong; Li, Shenggong; Shao, Changliang; Tang, Yanhong; Zhao, Xiang

2014-01-01

182

Satellite-Based Analysis of Evapotranspiration and Water Balance in the Grassland Ecosystems of Dryland East Asia  

PubMed Central

The regression tree method is used to upscale evapotranspiration (ET) measurements at eddy-covariance (EC) towers to the grassland ecosystems over the Dryland East Asia (DEA). The regression tree model was driven by satellite and meteorology datasets, and explained 82% and 76% of the variations of ET observations in the calibration and validation datasets, respectively. The annual ET estimates ranged from 222.6 to 269.1 mm yr?1 over the DEA region with an average of 245.8 mm yr?1 from 1982 through 2009. Ecosystem ET showed decreased trends over 61% of the DEA region during this period, especially in most regions of Mongolia and eastern Inner Mongolia due to decreased precipitation. The increased ET occurred primarily in the western and southern DEA region. Over the entire study area, water balance (the difference between precipitation and ecosystem ET) decreased substantially during the summer and growing season. Precipitation reduction was an important cause for the severe water deficits. The drying trend occurring in the grassland ecosystems of the DEA region can exert profound impacts on a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes and functions. PMID:24845063

Xia, Jiangzhou; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Linghao; Cai, Wenwen; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yang; Zhao, Tianbao; Feng, Jinming; Ma, Zhuguo; Ma, Mingguo; Liu, Shaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Asanuma, Jun; Chen, Shiping; Du, Mingyuan; Davaa, Gombo; Kato, Tomomichi; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Suhong; Li, Shenggong; Shao, Changliang; Tang, Yanhong; Zhao, Xiang

2014-01-01

183

Turnover of Grassland Roots in Mountain Ecosystems Revealed by Their Radiocarbon Signature: Role of Temperature and Management  

PubMed Central

Root turnover is an important carbon flux component in grassland ecosystems because it replenishes substantial parts of carbon lost from soil via heterotrophic respiration and leaching. Among the various methods to estimate root turnover, the root’s radiocarbon signature has rarely been applied to grassland soils previously, although the value of this approach is known from studies in forest soils. In this paper, we utilize the root’s radiocarbon signatures, at 25 plots, in mountain grasslands of the montane to alpine zone of Europe. We place the results in context of a global data base on root turnover and discuss driving factors. Root turnover rates were similar to those of a subsample of the global data, comprising a similar temperature range, but measured with different approaches, indicating that the radiocarbon method gives reliable, plausible and comparable results. Root turnover rates (0.06–1.0 y-1) scaled significantly and exponentially with mean annual temperatures. Root turnover rates indicated no trend with soil depth. The temperature sensitivity was significantly higher in mountain grassland, compared to the global data set, suggesting additional factors influencing root turnover. Information on management intensity from the 25 plots reveals that root turnover may be accelerated under intensive and moderate management compared to low intensity or semi-natural conditions. Because management intensity, in the studied ecosystems, co-varied with temperature, estimates on root turnover, based on mean annual temperature alone, may be biased. A greater recognition of management as a driver for root dynamics is warranted when effects of climatic change on belowground carbon dynamics are studied in mountain grasslands. PMID:25734640

Leifeld, Jens; Meyer, Stefanie; Budge, Karen; Sebastia, Maria Teresa; Zimmermann, Michael; Fuhrer, Juerg

2015-01-01

184

Turnover of grassland roots in mountain ecosystems revealed by their radiocarbon signature: role of temperature and management.  

PubMed

Root turnover is an important carbon flux component in grassland ecosystems because it replenishes substantial parts of carbon lost from soil via heterotrophic respiration and leaching. Among the various methods to estimate root turnover, the root's radiocarbon signature has rarely been applied to grassland soils previously, although the value of this approach is known from studies in forest soils. In this paper, we utilize the root's radiocarbon signatures, at 25 plots, in mountain grasslands of the montane to alpine zone of Europe. We place the results in context of a global data base on root turnover and discuss driving factors. Root turnover rates were similar to those of a subsample of the global data, comprising a similar temperature range, but measured with different approaches, indicating that the radiocarbon method gives reliable, plausible and comparable results. Root turnover rates (0.06-1.0 y-1) scaled significantly and exponentially with mean annual temperatures. Root turnover rates indicated no trend with soil depth. The temperature sensitivity was significantly higher in mountain grassland, compared to the global data set, suggesting additional factors influencing root turnover. Information on management intensity from the 25 plots reveals that root turnover may be accelerated under intensive and moderate management compared to low intensity or semi-natural conditions. Because management intensity, in the studied ecosystems, co-varied with temperature, estimates on root turnover, based on mean annual temperature alone, may be biased. A greater recognition of management as a driver for root dynamics is warranted when effects of climatic change on belowground carbon dynamics are studied in mountain grasslands. PMID:25734640

Leifeld, Jens; Meyer, Stefanie; Budge, Karen; Sebastia, Maria Teresa; Zimmermann, Michael; Fuhrer, Juerg

2015-01-01

185

Separating drought effects from roof artifacts on ecosystem processes in a grassland drought experiment.  

PubMed

1: Given the predictions of increased drought probabilities under various climate change scenarios, there have been numerous experimental field studies simulating drought using transparent roofs in different ecosystems and regions. Such roofs may, however, have unknown side effects, called artifacts, on the measured variables potentially confounding the experimental results. A roofed control allows the quantification of potential artifacts, which is lacking in most experiments. 2: We conducted a drought experiment in experimental grasslands to study artifacts of transparent roofs and the resulting effects of artifacts on ecosystems relative to drought on three response variables (aboveground biomass, litter decomposition and plant metabolite profiles). We established three drought treatments, using (1) transparent roofs to exclude rainfall, (2) an unroofed control treatment receiving natural rainfall and (3) a roofed control, nested in the drought treatment but with rain water reapplied according to ambient conditions. 3: Roofs had a slight impact on air (+0.14°C during night) and soil temperatures (-0.45°C on warm days, +0.25°C on cold nights), while photosynthetically active radiation was decreased significantly (-16%). Aboveground plant community biomass was reduced in the drought treatment (-41%), but there was no significant difference between the roofed and unroofed control, i.e., there were no measurable roof artifact effects. 4: Compared to the unroofed control, litter decomposition was decreased significantly both in the drought treatment (-26%) and in the roofed control treatment (-18%), suggesting artifact effects of the transparent roofs. Moreover, aboveground metabolite profiles in the model plant species Medicago x varia were different from the unroofed control in both the drought and roofed control treatments, and roof artifact effects were of comparable magnitude as drought effects. 5: Our results stress the need for roofed control treatments when using transparent roofs for studying drought effects, because roofs can cause significant side effects. PMID:23936480

Vogel, Anja; Fester, Thomas; Eisenhauer, Nico; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Schmid, Bernhard; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Weigelt, Alexandra

2013-01-01

186

Spatial relationships among soil biota in a contaminated grassland ecosystem at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

Spatial relationships among soil nematodes and soil microorganisms were investigated in a grassland ecosystem contaminated with heavy metals in the US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground. The study quantified fungal and bacterial biomass, the abundance of soil protozoa, and nematodes. Geostatistical techniques were used to determine spatial distributions of these parameters and to evaluate various cross-correlations. The cross-correlations among soil biota numbers were analyzed using two methods: a cross general relative semi-variogram and an interactive graphical data representation using geostatistically estimated data distributions. Both the visualization technique and the cross general relative semi-variogram and an interactive graphical data representation using geostatistically estimated data distributions. Both the visualization technique and the cross general relative semi-variogram showed a negative correlation between the abundance of fungivore nematodes and fungal biomass, the abundance of bacterivore nematodes and bacterial biomass, the abundance of omnivore/predator nematodes and numbers of protozoa, and between numbers of protozoa and both fungal and bacterial biomass. The negative cross-correlation between soil biota and metal concentrations showed that soil fungi were particularly sensitive to heavy metal concentrations and can be used for quantitative ecological risk assessment of metal-contaminated soils. This study found that geostatistics are a useful tool for describing and analyzing spatial relationships among components of food webs in the soil community.

Kuperman, R. [Army ERDEC, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Williams, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Parmelee, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

187

Nitorgen Deposition Impacts on a Sensitive Grassland Ecosystem: Conservation, Management, and Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have greatly increased the flux of reactive nitrogen in the biosphere, altering many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In the San Francisco Bay Area, CA, grasslands on nutrient-poor serpentinitic soils are being invaded by nutrient-demanding introduced annual grasses, driven by dry N-deposition on the order of 10 kg ha-1 yr-1. These grass invasions threaten the rich native biodiversity of the serpentinitic grasslands, including the federally-protected Bay checkerspot butterfly and several endemic plant species. A passive monitoring network for reactive nitrogen gases (NOx, NO2, NH3, HNO3, and O3) has been set up to investigate regional and local N-deposition gradients. The regional gradient extends from clean coastal areas to inland valleys downwind of the highly urbanized Santa Clara Valley, driven by prevailing NW winds. A local gradient extends upwind and downwind of an 8-lane freeway carrying 100,000 cars/day, located in a relatively clean near-coastal area. Plant surveys at the clean-air site bisected by the freeway show greater grass invasion closer to the freeway, but only on the downwind side (controlling for soil depth, the other main factor affecting grass density). Grassed-over areas build up thatch that suppresses native plants. Restoration experiments include mowing, goat grazing, and prescribed fire. Carefully-timed mowing appears to be an effective treatment for small areas. Removal of cuttings removes 5-8 kg-N/ha, the same order of magnitude as the estimated N-inputs from the freeway. Additional NOx and NH3 sources planned for the region include a 600 MW natural gas fired power plant, industrial parks that may eventually draw 20,000 to 50,000 additional cars per day, 25,000 housing units, and associated highway improvements. Mitigation proposals include purchase and long-term management of hundreds of hectares of habitat. Management of the larger areas necessitates continued moderate cattle grazing. Cattle selectively crop nitrogen-rich annual grasses, and remove N from the system, while redistributing N within the system as feces and urine. This case study highlights the complexities of habitat management in the face of N-deposition and invasive species.

Weiss, S. B.; Luth, D. C.

2002-12-01

188

Defining grassland fire events and the response of perennial plants to annual fire in temperate grasslands of south-eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species-rich Themeda triandra grasslands in south-eastern Australia have been burnt annually in summer as a land management practice for decades. The characteristics of annual fires (maximum surface temperatures, maximum soil temperature changes at 10 mm depth, Byram fire intensity and duration of surface heating) were compared to fires that occur less frequently (2, 4 or 7-year inter-fire interval). The impacts

John W. Morgan

1999-01-01

189

Role of vegetation in modulating rainfall interception and soil water flux in ecosystems under transition from grassland to woodland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation exerts strong control on the hydrological budget by shielding the soil from rainfall through interception and modulating water transmission in the soil by altering soil properties and rooting zone water extraction. Therefore, a change in vegetation alters the water cycle by a combination of a passive, rainfall redistribution mechanism controlled by the physical dimensions of vegetation and active, water extracting processes resulting from physiological attributes of different plants. As a result, the role of vegetation on the water cycle is likely to change where vegetation is under transition such as in the southern Great Plains of USA due to woody plant encroachment. However, it remains largely unknown how this physiognomic transformation from herbaceous cover to woody canopy alters rainfall influx, soil water transmission and efflux from the soil profile and consequently alters historic patterns of runoff and groundwater recharge. This knowledge is critical for both water resource and ecosystem management. We conducted a comprehensive, 5-year study involving direct quantification of throughfall and stemflow for grassland and encroached juniper woodland (Juniperus virginiana), water efflux through transpiration using an improved Granier thermal dissipation method (trees) and ET chamber (grassland), soil moisture storage and dynamics (capacitance probe) and streamflow (small catchment). We calibrated a prevailing hydrological model (SWAT) based on observed data to simulate potential change in runoff and recharge for the Cimarron River basin (study site located within this basin) under various phases of grassland to woodland transition. Our results show that juniper encroachment reduces throughfall reaching the soil surface compared with grassland under moderate grazing. The evergreen junipers transpired water year-round including fall and winter when the warm season grasses were senescent. As a result, soil water content and soil water storage on the encroached catchment were generally lower than on the grassland catchment, especially proceeding the seasons of peak rainfall in spring and fall. Frequency and magnitude of streamflow events was observed to be substantially reduced in the encroached catchment. Model simulation suggests that conversion of all existing grassland to juniper in the Cimarron River basin will increase overall water efflux through evapotranspiration sufficient to substantially reduce water yield for streamflow. Rapid transformation of mesic grasslands to a woodland state with juniper encroachment, if not confined, has the potential to reduce soil water, streamflow and flow duration of ephemeral streams. Slowing the expansion of woody encroachment into grasslands might be considered as a land-based strategy to sustain or even augment streamflow and groundwater recharge to meet the increase in water demand under increasing climate variability and population growth in the southern Great Plains of USA

Zou, Chris; Will, Rodney; Stebler, Elaine; Qiao, Lei

2014-05-01

190

Ecosystem carbon exchange over a warm-temperate mixed plantation in the lithoid hilly area of the North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, forest area in China increased rapidly by afforestation and reforestation, especially in its temperate parts. However, lack of information on carbon exchange in temperate plantations in China reduced the accuracy of estimation on regional carbon budget. In this study, CO2 flux was measured using the eddy covariance method over a broadleaf dominant mixed plantation in the lithoid hilly area of the North China. The results showed that annual maximum photosynthetic capacity (Amax) varied from 0.81 to 1.22 mg CO2 m-2 s-1 and annual initial light use efficiency (?) from 0.014 to 0.026. Net CO2 uptake was depressed when vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was more than 2.5 kPa. Annual temperature sensitivity coefficient (Q10) for ecosystem respiration, ranged from 1.84 to 2.35, was negatively correlated with base ecosystem respiration (R0) (P < 0.05). Annual R0 decreased but Q10 increased evidently when winter drought occurred. From 2006 to 2010, annual net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE), Gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Rec) were -355 ± 34, 1196 ± 21 and 841 ± 43 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively. The warm-temperate mixed plantation in the lithoid hilly area of the North China was a strong carbon sink of the atmosphere, which was usually weaken when spring drought happened.

Tong, Xiaojuan; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jinsong; Li, Jun; Zheng, Ning; Huang, Hui

2012-03-01

191

Environmental effects of oil and gas lease sites in a grassland ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern Great Plains of Saskatchewan is one of the most significantly modified landscapes in Canada. While the majority of anthropogenic disturbances to Saskatchewan’s grasslands are the result of agricultural practices, development of petroleum and natural gas (PNG) resources is of increasing concern for grassland conservation. Although PNG developments require formal assessment and regulatory approval, follow-up and monitoring of the

Lawrence C. Nasen; Bram F. Noble; Jill F. Johnstone

2011-01-01

192

Aeolian process effects on vegetation communities in an arid grassland ecosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many arid grassland communities are changing from grass dominance to shrub dominance, but the mechanisms involved in this conversion process are not completely understood. Aeolian processes likely contribute to this conversion from grassland to shrubland. The purpose of this research is to provide i...

193

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Rapid Inventory of the Ant Assemblage in a Temperate Hardwood  

E-print Network

to dramatic changes in vegetation structure in temperate forests. Pests and pathogens are causing widespread(Cornwall,NY),wecarriedoutarapidassessmentoftheantassemblageina10-haexperimental area. We also determined the efÞcacy in a northern temperate forest of Þve and composition of ant assemblages in northern temperate forests. Using new, unbiased estimators, we project

Gotelli, Nicholas J.

194

Predicting the response of a temperate forest ecosystem to atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase. Final report, 1984--1995  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the most recent progress made in several areas of the project. Details of individual experiments in the following areas are provided: (1) the impact of soil volume on the physiological acclimation of temperate deciduous trees in elevated CO{sub 2}; (2) growth under elevated CO{sub 2}: the shape as well as the size of pots is important; (3) a survey of growth responses of temperate deciduous trees to elevated CO{sub 2}; (4) a survey of closely related birch species; (5) the response of temperate deciduous tress to CO{sub 2} in variable light and nutrients conditions; (6) elevated CO{sub 2} differentially alters the response of birch and maple seedlings to a moisture gradient; (7) population dynamics; (8) heat shock in elevated CO{sub 2}: is there a change in temperature sensitivity; (9) response of temperate deciduous trees to CO{sub 2} in variable light and nutrient conditions; (10) changes in tree community composition and their consequences to ecosystem productivity; and (11) species diversity and ecosystem response to carbon dioxide fertilization.

Bazzaz, F.A.

1995-12-31

195

Partitioning Evapotranspiration in Semiarid Grassland and Shrubland Ecosystems Using Diurnal Surface Temperature Variation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The encroachment of woody plants in grasslands across the Western U.S. will affect soil water availability by altering the contributions of evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) to total evapotranspiration (ET). To study this phenomenon, a network of flux stations is in place to measure ET in grass- and shrub-dominated ecosystems throughout the Western U.S. A method is described and tested here to partition the daily measurements of ET into E and T based on diurnal surface temperature variations of the soil and standard energy balance theory. The difference between the mid-afternoon and pre-dawn soil surface temperature, termed Apparent Thermal Inertia (I(sub A)), was used to identify days when E was negligible, and thus, ET=T. For other days, a three-step procedure based on energy balance equations was used to estimate Qe contributions of daily E and T to total daily ET. The method was tested at Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in southeast Arizona based on Bowen ratio estimates of ET and continuous measurements of surface temperature with an infrared thermometer (IRT) from 2004- 2005, and a second dataset of Bowen ratio, IRT and stem-flow gage measurements in 2003. Results showed that reasonable estimates of daily T were obtained for a multi-year period with ease of operation and minimal cost. With known season-long daily T, E and ET, it is possible to determine the soil water availability associated with grass- and shrub-dominated sites and better understand the hydrologic impact of regional woody plant encroachment.

Moran, M. Susan; Scott, Russell L.; Keefer, Timothy O.; Paige, Ginger B.; Emmerich, William E.; Cosh, Michael H.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

2007-01-01

196

Drivers of long-term variability in CO2 net ecosystem exchange in a temperate peatland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) in peatlands exhibits marked seasonal and inter-annual variability, which subsequently affects the carbon sink strength of catchments across multiple temporal scales. Long-term studies are needed to fully capture the natural variability and therefore identify the key hydrometeorological drivers in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. NEE has been measured continuously by eddy-covariance at Auchencorth Moss, a temperate lowland peatland in central Scotland, since 2002. Hence this is one of the longest peatland NEE studies to date. For 11 yr, the site was a consistent, yet variable, atmospheric CO2 sink ranging from -5.2 to -135.9 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 (mean of -64.1 ± 33.6 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1). Inter-annual variability in NEE was positively correlated to the length of the growing season. Mean winter air temperature explained 87% of the inter-annual variability in the sink strength of the following summer, indicating a phenological memory-effect. Plant productivity exhibited a marked hysteresis with respect to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) over the growing season, indicative of two separate growth regimes. Ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross primary productivity (GPP) were closely correlated (ratio 0.74), suggesting that autotrophic processes were dominant. Whilst the site was wet most of the year (water table depth <5 cm) there were indications that heterotrophic respiration was enhanced by drought, which also depressed GPP. NEE was compared to 5 other peatland sites which have published long-term NEE records. The CO2 uptake rate during the growing season was comparable to 3 other European sites, however the emission rate during the dormant season was significantly higher.

Helfter, C.; Campbell, C.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Drewer, J.; Coyle, M.; Anderson, M.; Skiba, U.; Nemitz, E.; Billett, M. F.; Sutton, M. A.

2014-10-01

197

Drivers of long-term variability in CO2 net ecosystem exchange in a temperate peatland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) in peatlands exhibits marked seasonal and inter-annual variability, which subsequently affects the carbon (C) sink strength of catchments across multiple temporal scales. Long-term studies are needed to fully capture the natural variability and therefore identify the key hydrometeorological drivers in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. Since 2002, NEE has been measured continuously by eddy-covariance at Auchencorth Moss, a temperate lowland peatland in central Scotland. Hence this is one of the longest peatland NEE studies to date. For 11 years, the site was a consistent, yet variable, atmospheric CO2 sink ranging from -5.2 to -135.9 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 (mean of -64.1 ± 33.6 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1). Inter-annual variability in NEE was positively correlated to the length of the growing season. Mean winter air temperature explained 87% of the inter-annual variability in the sink strength of the following summer, indicating an effect of winter climate on local phenology. Ecosystem respiration (Reco) was enhanced by drought, which also depressed gross primary productivity (GPP). The CO2 uptake rate during the growing season was comparable to three other sites with long-term NEE records; however, the emission rate during the dormant season was significantly higher. To summarise, the NEE of the peatland studied is modulated by two dominant factors: - phenology of the plant community, which is driven by winter air temperature and impacts photosynthetic potential and net CO2 uptake during the growing season (colder winters are linked to lower summer NEE), - water table level, which enhanced soil respiration and decreased GPP during dry spells. Although summer dry spells were sporadic during the study period, the positive effects of the current climatic trend towards milder winters on the site's CO2 sink strength could be offset by changes in precipitation patterns especially during the growing season.

Helfter, C.; Campbell, C.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Drewer, J.; Coyle, M.; Anderson, M.; Skiba, U.; Nemitz, E.; Billett, M. F.; Sutton, M. A.

2015-03-01

198

Microbial Enzymatic Response to Reduced Precipitation and Added Nitrogen in a Southern California Grassland Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial enzymes play a fundamental role in ecosystem processes and nutrient mineralization. Although there have been many studies concluding that global climate change affects plant communities, the effects on microbial communities in leaf litter have been much less studied. We measured extracellular enzyme activities in litter decomposing in plots with either reduced precipitation or increased nitrogen in a grassland ecosystem in Loma Ridge National Landmark in Southern California. We used a reciprocal transplant design to examine the effects of plot treatment, litter origin, and microbial community origin on litter decomposition and extracellular enzyme activity. Our hypothesis was that increased nitrogen would increase activity because nitrogen often limits microbial growth, while decreased precipitation would decrease activity due to lower litter moisture levels. Samples were collected in March 2011 and analyzed for the activities of cellobiohydrolase (CBH), ?-glucosidase (BG), ?-glucosidase (AG), N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), ?-xylosidase (BX), acid phosphatase (AP), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). None of the factors in the nitrogen manipulation had a significant effect on any of the enzymes, although BG, CBH, and NAG increased marginally significantly in plots with nitrogen addition (p = 0.103, p = 0.082, and p = 0.114, respectively). For the precipitation manipulation, AG, BG, BX, CBH, and NAG significantly increased in plots with reduced precipitation (p = 0.015, p <0.001, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively) while LAP significantly decreased (p = 0.002). LAP catalyzes the hydrolysis of polypeptides, so reduced LAP activity could result in lower rates of enzyme turnover in the reduced precipitation treatment. We also observed that AP significantly increased (p = 0.014) in litter originating from reduced precipitation plots, while AG, BX, and LAP significantly decreased (p = 0.011, p = 0.031, and 0.005, respectively). There were no significant correlations found between fungal or bacterial mass and enzymatic activity with either of the treatment types. Our results suggest that increased enzymatic activity due to drought could mitigate negative effects of moisture limitation on decomposition. However, this mitigating effect may be offset by declines in enzyme activity due to changes in plant community composition and associated litter chemistry in response to drought.

Alster, C. J.; German, D.; Allison, S. D.

2011-12-01

199

A Transmission Model for the Ecology of an Avian Blood Parasite in a Temperate Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Most of our knowledge about avian haemosporidian parasites comes from the Hawaiian archipelago, where recently introduced Plasmodiumrelictum has contributed to the extinction of many endemic avian species. While the ecology of invasive malaria is reasonably understood, the ecology of endemic haemosporidian infection in mainland systems is poorly understood, even though it is the rule rather than the exception. We develop a mathematical model to explore and identify the ecological factors that most influence transmission of the common avian parasite, Leucocytozoonfringillinarum (Apicomplexa). The model was parameterized from White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichialeucophrys) and S. silvestre / craigi black fly populations breeding in an alpine ecosystem. We identify and examine the importance of altricial nestlings, the seasonal relapse of infected birds for parasite persistence across breeding seasons, and potential impacts of seasonal changes in black fly emergence on parasite prevalence in a high elevation temperate system. We also use the model to identify and estimate the parameters most influencing transmission dynamics. Our analysis found that relapse of adult birds and young of the year birds were crucial for parasite persistence across multiple seasons. However, distinguishing between nude nestlings and feathered young of the year was unnecessary. Finally, due to model sensitivity to many black fly parameters, parasite prevalence and sparrow recruitment may be most affected by seasonal changes in environmental temperature driving shifts in black fly emergence and gonotrophic cycles. PMID:24073288

Murdock, Courtney C.; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Simon, Carl P.

2013-01-01

200

Plant and arthropod community sensitivity to rainfall manipulation but not nitrogen enrichment in a successional grassland ecosystem.  

PubMed

Grasslands provide many ecosystem services including carbon storage, biodiversity preservation and livestock forage production. These ecosystem services will change in the future in response to multiple global environmental changes, including climate change and increased nitrogen inputs. We conducted an experimental study over 3 years in a mesotrophic grassland ecosystem in southern England. We aimed to expose plots to rainfall manipulation that simulated IPCC 4th Assessment projections for 2100 (+15% winter rainfall and -30% summer rainfall) or ambient climate, achieving +15% winter rainfall and -39% summer rainfall in rainfall-manipulated plots. Nitrogen (40 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) was also added to half of the experimental plots in factorial combination. Plant species composition and above ground biomass were not affected by rainfall in the first 2 years and the plant community did not respond to nitrogen enrichment throughout the experiment. In the third year, above-ground plant biomass declined in rainfall-manipulated plots, driven by a decline in the abundances of grass species characteristic of moist soils. Declining plant biomass was also associated with changes to arthropod communities, with lower abundances of plant-feeding Auchenorrhyncha and carnivorous Araneae indicating multi-trophic responses to rainfall manipulation. Plant and arthropod community composition and plant biomass responses to rainfall manipulation were not modified by nitrogen enrichment, which was not expected, but may have resulted from prior nitrogen saturation and/or phosphorus limitation. Overall, our study demonstrates that climate change may in future influence plant productivity and induce multi-trophic responses in grasslands. PMID:25224801

Lee, Mark A; Manning, Pete; Walker, Catherine S; Power, Sally A

2014-12-01

201

Exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS), a potential tracer of gross primary productivity, between grassland ecosystem components and the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, measurements of carbonyl sulfide (COS) exchange have been used as an independent constraint for estimates of gross primary productivity over terrestrial ecosystems and continents. CO2 is both taken up and released by plants, whereas COS is usually only consumed and at a predictable ratio to CO2. Most of the underlying theoretical assumptions of this method have been verified, however the problem of parsing leaf exchange from other terrestrial sources and sinks of COS is still under investigation. In ecosystems that experience distinct periods of growing and senescence, it is possible to assess COS fluxes in situ when no green plants are present and compare to measurements during the growing season. Taking advantage of this seasonal pattern, we have investigated COS exchange from March 2012 to March 2013 in a Mediterranean grassland outside of Santa Cruz, CA, U.S.A (37.0°N, 122°W). Through lab-based incubation experiments, we found that net COS uptake of grassland soil can be reduced by increased soil moisture. We evaluated this claim in the field with monthly field deployments of static flux chambers over the in-tact soil and plant system. In the dry summer, artificial rain amendments caused COS net uptake to decrease, sometimes leading to overall net production to the atmosphere, in agreement with lab experiments. During the wet growing season, water additions caused over 2x increase in COS uptake from the atmosphere. Contrary to what has been previously claimed, soil exchange of COS is not negligible in grassland ecosystems.

Whelan, M.; Rhew, R. C.

2013-12-01

202

The abundance, richness and functional role of soil meso- and macrofauna in temperate grassland—A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the abundance and species richness, and factors that cause these parameters to vary, of mesofauna and macrofauna in an upland grassland soil studied intensively under the NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme. The concept that competitive exclusion does not act within soil communities is reviewed in light of these findings, which are placed in the context of the wider

Lisa Cole; Mark A. Bradford; Peter J. A. Shaw; Richard D. Bardgett

2006-01-01

203

Arsenic concentrations and speciation in a temperateArsenic concentrations and speciation in a temperate mangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australiamangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australia  

E-print Network

Arsenic concentrations and speciation in a temperateArsenic concentrations and speciation, Australia Received 4 September 2001; Accepted 17 December 2001 Total arsenic concentrations and species were. Mean arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 55 mg gÃ?1 dry mass. Epiphytic algae/fungi associated

Canberra, University of

204

Identifying grasslands suitable for cellulosic feedstock crops in the Greater Platte River Basin: dynamic modeling of ecosystem performance with 250 m eMODIS  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study dynamically monitors ecosystem performance (EP) to identify grasslands potentially suitable for cellulosic feedstock crops (e.g., switchgrass) within the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB). We computed grassland site potential and EP anomalies using 9-year (2000–2008) time series of 250 m expedited moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data, geophysical and biophysical data, weather and climate data, and EP models. We hypothesize that areas with fairly consistent high grassland productivity (i.e., high grassland site potential) in fair to good range condition (i.e., persistent ecosystem overperformance or normal performance, indicating a lack of severe ecological disturbance) are potentially suitable for cellulosic feedstock crop development. Unproductive (i.e., low grassland site potential) or degraded grasslands (i.e., persistent ecosystem underperformance with poor range condition) are not appropriate for cellulosic feedstock development. Grassland pixels with high or moderate ecosystem site potential and with more than 7 years ecosystem normal performance or overperformance during 2000–2008 are identified as possible regions for future cellulosic feedstock crop development (ca. 68 000 km2 within the GPRB, mostly in the eastern areas). Long-term climate conditions, elevation, soil organic carbon, and yearly seasonal precipitation and temperature are important performance variables to determine the suitable areas in this study. The final map delineating the suitable areas within the GPRB provides a new monitoring and modeling approach that can contribute to decision support tools to help land managers and decision makers make optimal land use decisions regarding cellulosic feedstock crop development and sustainability.

Gu, Yingxin; Boyte, Stephen P.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Tieszen, Larry L.

2012-01-01

205

Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms  

DOE PAGESBeta

Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We report on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.

Phillips, Claire L. [TERA; Gregg, Jillian W. [TERA; Wilson, John K. [TERA

2011-11-01

206

The tropicalization of temperate marine ecosystems: climate-mediated changes in herbivory and community phase shifts  

PubMed Central

Climate-driven changes in biotic interactions can profoundly alter ecological communities, particularly when they impact foundation species. In marine systems, changes in herbivory and the consequent loss of dominant habitat forming species can result in dramatic community phase shifts, such as from coral to macroalgal dominance when tropical fish herbivory decreases, and from algal forests to ‘barrens’ when temperate urchin grazing increases. Here, we propose a novel phase-shift away from macroalgal dominance caused by tropical herbivores extending their range into temperate regions. We argue that this phase shift is facilitated by poleward-flowing boundary currents that are creating ocean warming hotspots around the globe, enabling the range expansion of tropical species and increasing their grazing rates in temperate areas. Overgrazing of temperate macroalgae by tropical herbivorous fishes has already occurred in Japan and the Mediterranean. Emerging evidence suggests similar phenomena are occurring in other temperate regions, with increasing occurrence of tropical fishes on temperate reefs. PMID:25009065

Vergés, Adriana; Steinberg, Peter D.; Hay, Mark E.; Poore, Alistair G. B.; Campbell, Alexandra H.; Ballesteros, Enric; Heck, Kenneth L.; Booth, David J.; Coleman, Melinda A.; Feary, David A.; Figueira, Will; Langlois, Tim; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.; Mizerek, Toni; Mumby, Peter J.; Nakamura, Yohei; Roughan, Moninya; van Sebille, Erik; Gupta, Alex Sen; Smale, Dan A.; Tomas, Fiona; Wernberg, Thomas; Wilson, Shaun K.

2014-01-01

207

Bromus tectorum invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an undisturbed arid grassland ecosystem.  

PubMed

The nonnative annual grass Bromus tectorum has successfully replaced native vegetation in many arid and semiarid ecosystems. Initial introductions accompanied grazing and agriculture, making it difficult to separate the effects of invasion from physical disturbance. This study examined N dynamics in two recently invaded, undisturbed vegetation associations (C3 and C4). The response of these communities was compared to an invaded/ disturbed grassland. The invaded/disturbed communities had higher surface NH4+ input in spring, whereas there were no differences for surface input of NO3-. Soil inorganic N was dominated by NH4+, but invaded sites had greater subsurface soil NO3-. Invaded sites had greater total soil N at the surface four years post-invasion in undisturbed communities, but total N was lower in the invaded/disturbed communities. Soil delta15N increased with depth in the noninvaded and recently invaded communities, whereas the invaded/disturbed communities exhibited the opposite pattern. Enriched foliar delta15N values suggest that Bromus assimilated subsurface NO3-, whereas the native grasses were restricted to surface N. A Rayleigh distillation model accurately described decomposition patterns in the noninvaded communities where soil N loss is accompanied by increasing soil delta15N; however, the invaded/ disturbed communities exhibited the opposite pattern, suggesting redistribution of N within the soil profile. This study suggests that invasion has altered the mechanisms driving nitrogen dynamics. Bromus litter decomposition and soil NO3- concentrations were greater in the invaded communities during periods of ample precipitation, and NO3- leached from the surface litter, where it was assimilated by Bromus. The primary source of N input in these communities is a biological soil crust that is removed with disturbance, and the lack of N input by the biological soil crust did not balance N loss, resulting in reduced total N in the invaded/disturbed communities. Bromus produced a positive feedback loop by leaching NO3- from decomposing Bromus litter to subsurface soil layers, accessing that deepsoil N pool with deep roots and returning that N to the surface as biomass and subsequent litter. Lack of new inputs combined with continued loss will result in lower total soil N, evidenced by the lower total soil N in the invaded/disturbed communities. PMID:16602290

Sperry, L J; Belnap, J; Evans, R D

2006-03-01

208

Bromus tectorum invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an undisturbed arid grassland ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nonnative annual grass Bromus tectorum has successfully replaced native vegetation in many arid and semiarid ecosystems. Initial introductions accompanied grazing and agriculture, making it difficult to separate the effects of invasion from physical disturbance. This study examined N dynamics in two recently invaded, undisturbed vegetation associations (C3 and C4). The response of these communities was compared to an invaded/disturbed grassland. The invaded/disturbed communities had higher surface NH4+ input in spring, whereas there were no differences for surface input of NO3-. Soil inorganic N was dominated by NH4+, but invaded sites had greater subsurface soil NO3-. Invaded sites had greater total soil N at the surface four years post-invasion in undisturbed communities, but total N was lower in the invaded/disturbed communities. Soil ??15N increased with depth in the noninvaded and recently invaded communities, whereas the invaded/disturbed communities exhibited the opposite pattern. Enriched foliar ??15N values suggest that Bromus assimilated subsurface NO3-, whereas the native grasses were restricted to surface N. A Rayleigh distillation model accurately described decomposition patterns in the noninvaded communities where soil N loss is accompanied by increasing soil ??15N; however, the invaded/disturbed communities exhibited the opposite pattern, suggesting redistribution of N within the soil profile. This study suggests that invasion has altered the mechanisms driving nitrogen dynamics. Bromus litter decomposition and soil NO3- concentrations were greater in the invaded communities during periods of ample precipitation, and NO3- leached from the surface litter, where it was assimilated by Bromus. The primary source of N input in these communities is a biological soil crust that is removed with disturbance, and the lack of N input by the biological soil crust did not balance N loss, resulting in reduced total N in the invaded/disturbed communities. Bromus produced a positive feedback loop by leaching NO3- from decomposing Bromus litter to subsurface soil layers, accessing that deep-soil N pool with deep roots and returning that N to the surface as biomass and subsequent litter. Lack of new inputs combined with continued loss will result in lower total soil N, evidenced by the lower total soil N in the invaded/disturbed communities. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

Sperry, L.J.; Belnap, J.; Evans, R.D.

2006-01-01

209

Invasive C4 Perennial Grass Alters Net Ecosystem Exchange in Mixed C3/C4 Savanna Grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The invasion of ecosystems by non-native plants that differ from native plants in physiological characteristics and phenology has the potential to alter ecosystem function. In Texas and other regions of the southern central plains of the United States, the introduced C4 perennial grass, Bothriochloa ischaemum, invades C3/C4 mixed grasslands and savannas, resulting in decreased plant community diversity (Gabbard 2003; Harmoney et al 2004). The objective of this study was to quantify how the conversion of these mixed grass communities to C4 dominated, B. ischaemum monocultures impacts carbon cycling and sequestration. Seasonal measurements of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of CO2, leaf level gas exchange and soil respiration were compared between savanna grassland plots composed of either naturally occurring B. ischaemum monocultures or native mixed grasses (n=16). NEE was measured using a closed system chamber that attached to permanently installed stainless steel bases. Temperature, soil moisture, aerial percent species cover and leaf area index were also monitored in plots to explain variability in measured responses. Results showed that NEE differed seasonally between invaded and native plots due to 1) greater leaf surface area per unit ground area in invaded plots, 2) differences in phenological patterns of plant activity and 3) differences in responses to water limitation between invaded and native plots. Cold season and summer drought NEE were driven primarily by belowground respiration in both plot types, however spring uptake activity commenced two months later in invaded plots. This later start in invaded plots was compensated for by greater uptake throughout the growing season and in particular during the drier summer months. Differences in NEE between plot types were not due to differences in soil respiration nor were they due to greater leaf level photosynthetic capabilities of B. ischaemum relative to the dominant native grasses. NEE, soil respiration and biomass accumulation were limited by temperature and soil moisture in both native and invaded plots; however, invaded areas were less sensitive to both higher temperatures and lower soil moisture. Preliminary modeling results suggest that from January-August 2006, invaded grasslands stored approximately one third more carbon than native grasslands, making them 20% less of a carbon source than native plots during this year of record high temperatures and drought. Gabbard, BL. 2003. The Population Dynamics and Distribution of the Exotic Grass,Bothriochloa ischaemum, PhD Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin, TX Harmoney et al. 2004. Herbicide Effects on Established Yellow Old World Bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum). Weed Technology 18:545 550

Basham, T. S.; Litvak, M.

2006-12-01

210

High prevalence of diffusive uptake of CO2 by macroalgae in a temperate subtidal ecosystem.  

PubMed

Productivity of most macroalgae is not currently considered limited by dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), as the majority of species have CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCM) allowing the active uptake of DIC. The alternative, diffusive uptake of CO2 (non-CCM), is considered rare (0-9 % of all macroalgal cover in a given ecosystem), and identifying species without CCMs is important in understanding factors controlling inorganic carbon use by eukaryotic algae. CCM activity has higher energetic requirements than diffusive CO2 uptake, therefore when light is low, CCM activity is reduced in favour of diffusive CO2 uptake. We hypothesized that the proportional cover of macroalgae without CCMs (red and green macroalgae) would be low (<10 %) across four sites in Tasmania, southern Australia at two depths (4-5 and 12-14 m); the proportion of species lacking CCMs would increase with decreasing depth; the ?(13)C values of macroalgae with CCMs would be more depleted with depth. We found the proportion of non-CCM species ranged from 0 to 90 % and included species from all three macroalgal phyla: 81 % of red (59 species), 14 % of brown (three species) and 29 % of green macroalgae (two species). The proportion of non-CCM species increased with depth at three of four sites. 35 % of species tested had significantly depleted ?(13)C values at deeper depths. Non-CCM macroalgae are more abundant in some temperate reefs than previously thought. If ocean acidification benefits non-CCM species, the ramifications for subtidal macroalgal assemblages could be larger than previously considered. PMID:25739900

Cornwall, Christopher E; Revill, Andrew T; Hurd, Catriona L

2015-05-01

211

Short-term bioavailability of carbon in soil organic matter fractions of different particle sizes and densities in grassland ecosystems.  

PubMed

The quality, stability and availability of organic carbon (OC) in soil organic matter (SOM) can vary widely between differently managed ecosystems. Several approaches have been developed for isolating SOM fractions to examine their ecological roles, but links between the bioavailability of the OC of size-density fractions and soil microbial communities have not been previously explored. Thus, in the presented laboratory study we investigated the potential bioavailability of OC and the structure of associated microbial communities in different particle-size and density fractions of SOM. For this we used samples from four grassland ecosystems with contrasting management intensity regimes and two soil types: a Haplic Cambisol and a typical Chernozem. A combined size-density fractionation protocol was applied to separate clay-associated SOM fractions (CF1, <1 ?m; CF2, 1-2 ?m) from light SOM fractions (LF1, <1.8 g cm(-3); LF2, 1.8-2.0 g cm(-3)). These fractions were used as carbon sources in a respiration experiment to determine their potential bioavailability. Measured CO2-release was used as an index of substrate accessibility and linked to the soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis. Several key factors controlling decomposition processes, and thus the potential bioavailability of OC, were identified: management intensity and the plant community composition of the grasslands (both of which affect the chemical composition and turnover of OC) and specific properties of individual SOM fractions. The PLFA patterns highlighted differences in the composition of microbial communities associated with the examined grasslands, and SOM fractions, providing the first broad insights into their active microbial communities. From observed interactions between abiotic and biotic factors affecting the decomposition of SOM fractions we demonstrate that increasing management intensity could enhance the potential bioavailability of OC, not only in the active and intermediate SOM pools, but also in the passive pool. PMID:25112822

Breulmann, Marc; Masyutenko, Nina Petrovna; Kogut, Boris Maratovich; Schroll, Reiner; Dörfler, Ulrike; Buscot, François; Schulz, Elke

2014-11-01

212

? 13C of ecosystem-respired CO2 along a gradient of C3 woody-plant encroachment into C4 grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Woody plant encroachment into grassland has the potential to affect net primary production, in part by changing the sensitivities of photosynthesis and respiration to precipitation. Encroachment of mesquite (Prosopis) into floodplain sacaton (Sporobolus) grassland along the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona has altered the magnitude and seasonal pattern of net ecosystem carbon exchange and ecosystem respiration. We hypothesized that because mesquite accesses ground water in these floodplain environments, its advancement and dominance in former grassland reduces the sensitivities of photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration to inputs of growing season precipitation. The observed elevated rates of ecosystem respiration following rainfall inputs are likely to result from microbial decomposition of labile organic matter derived from the highly productive mesquite trees. We used the Keeling plot method to monitor carbon-13 composition of nocturnal ecosystem-respired CO2 (? 13CR) during the growing seasons of 2005 and 2006 at three sites spanning a gradient of mesquite invasion: C4 sacaton grassland, mixed mesquite/grass shrubland and C3 mesquite woodland. ? 13CR in the C4 grassland increased from -18.8‰ during the dry premonsoon period to -16.7‰ after the onset of summer rains, whereas ? 13CR in the mixed shrub/grass and woodland ecosystems declined from -20.9‰ to - 24‰ and from -20.8‰ to -24.7‰, respectively, following the onset of summer rains. The ? 13CR of respired CO2 was collected separately from soil, roots, leaves and surface litter to evaluate the contribution of each of these components to ecosystem respiration. Partitioning of ecosystem respiration using these isotope end-members and responses to short-term (days) changes in shallow (0-5cm) soil moisture content suggest that in former grassland now occupied by mesquite woodland, rainfall inputs primarily stimulate microbial decomposition and have little effect on autotrophic respiration. Autotrophic respiration in grassland was stimulated by rainfall inputs to a much greater degree than in woodland. As expected, ecosystem respiration responses to rainfall at the mixed shrubland site was complicated by the heterogeneous plant cover and microsite variation. Partitioning ecosystem respiration into component fluxes is necessary to model and forecast the sensitivity of net primary production to climate and land-use changes.

Sun, W.; Scott, R. L.; Resco, V.; Cable, J. M.; Huxman, T. E.; Williams, D. G.

2006-12-01

213

Evidence of Physiological Decoupling from Grassland Ecosystem Drivers by an Encroaching Woody Shrub  

PubMed Central

Shrub encroachment of grasslands is a transformative ecological process by which native woody species increase in cover and frequency and replace the herbaceous community. Mechanisms of encroachment are typically assessed using temporal data or experimental manipulations, with few large spatial assessments of shrub physiology. In a mesic grassland in North America, we measured inter- and intra-annual variability in leaf ?13C in Cornus drummondii across a grassland landscape with varying fire frequency, presence of large grazers and topographic variability. This assessment of changes in individual shrub physiology is the largest spatial and temporal assessment recorded to date. Despite a doubling of annual rainfall (in 2008 versus 2011), leaf ?13C was statistically similar among and within years from 2008-11 (range of ?28 to ?27‰). A topography*grazing interaction was present, with higher leaf ?13C in locations that typically have more bare soil and higher sensible heat in the growing season (upland topographic positions and grazed grasslands). Leaf ?13C from slopes varied among grazing contrasts, with upland and slope leaf ?13C more similar in ungrazed locations, while slopes and lowlands were more similar in grazed locations. In 2011, canopy greenness (normalized difference vegetation index – NDVI) was assessed at the centroid of individual shrubs using high-resolution hyperspectral imagery. Canopy greenness was highest mid-summer, likely reflecting temporal periods when C assimilation rates were highest. Similar to patterns seen in leaf ?13C, NDVI was highest in locations that typically experience lowest sensible heat (lowlands and ungrazed). The ability of Cornus drummondii to decouple leaf physiological responses from climate variability and fire frequency is a likely contributor to the increase in cover and frequency of this shrub species in mesic grassland and may be generalizable to other grasslands undergoing woody encroachment. PMID:24339950

Nippert, Jesse B.; Ocheltree, Troy W.; Orozco, Graciela L.; Ratajczak, Zak; Ling, Bohua; Skibbe, Adam M.

2013-01-01

214

Evidence of physiological decoupling from grassland ecosystem drivers by an encroaching woody shrub.  

PubMed

Shrub encroachment of grasslands is a transformative ecological process by which native woody species increase in cover and frequency and replace the herbaceous community. Mechanisms of encroachment are typically assessed using temporal data or experimental manipulations, with few large spatial assessments of shrub physiology. In a mesic grassland in North America, we measured inter- and intra-annual variability in leaf ?(13)C in Cornus drummondii across a grassland landscape with varying fire frequency, presence of large grazers and topographic variability. This assessment of changes in individual shrub physiology is the largest spatial and temporal assessment recorded to date. Despite a doubling of annual rainfall (in 2008 versus 2011), leaf ?(13)C was statistically similar among and within years from 2008-11 (range of -28 to -27‰). A topography*grazing interaction was present, with higher leaf ?(13)C in locations that typically have more bare soil and higher sensible heat in the growing season (upland topographic positions and grazed grasslands). Leaf ?(13)C from slopes varied among grazing contrasts, with upland and slope leaf ?(13)C more similar in ungrazed locations, while slopes and lowlands were more similar in grazed locations. In 2011, canopy greenness (normalized difference vegetation index - NDVI) was assessed at the centroid of individual shrubs using high-resolution hyperspectral imagery. Canopy greenness was highest mid-summer, likely reflecting temporal periods when C assimilation rates were highest. Similar to patterns seen in leaf ?(13)C, NDVI was highest in locations that typically experience lowest sensible heat (lowlands and ungrazed). The ability of Cornus drummondii to decouple leaf physiological responses from climate variability and fire frequency is a likely contributor to the increase in cover and frequency of this shrub species in mesic grassland and may be generalizable to other grasslands undergoing woody encroachment. PMID:24339950

Nippert, Jesse B; Ocheltree, Troy W; Orozco, Graciela L; Ratajczak, Zak; Ling, Bohua; Skibbe, Adam M

2013-01-01

215

Plant trait-based models identify direct and indirect effects of climate change on bundles of grassland ecosystem services  

PubMed Central

Land use and climate change are primary causes of changes in the supply of ecosystem services (ESs). Although the consequences of climate change on ecosystem properties and associated services are well documented, the cascading impacts of climate change on ESs through changes in land use are largely overlooked. We present a trait-based framework based on an empirical model to elucidate how climate change affects tradeoffs among ESs. Using alternative scenarios for mountain grasslands, we predicted how direct effects of climate change on ecosystems and indirect effects through farmers’ adaptations are likely to affect ES bundles through changes in plant functional properties. ES supply was overall more sensitive to climate than to induced management change, and ES bundles remained stable across scenarios. These responses largely reflected the restricted extent of management change in this constrained system, which was incorporated when scaling up plot level climate and management effects on ecosystem properties to the entire landscape. The trait-based approach revealed how the combination of common driving traits and common responses to changed fertility determined interactions and tradeoffs among ESs. PMID:25225382

Lamarque, Pénélope; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouchet, Maud; Quétier, Fabien

2014-01-01

216

Plant trait-based models identify direct and indirect effects of climate change on bundles of grassland ecosystem services.  

PubMed

Land use and climate change are primary causes of changes in the supply of ecosystem services (ESs). Although the consequences of climate change on ecosystem properties and associated services are well documented, the cascading impacts of climate change on ESs through changes in land use are largely overlooked. We present a trait-based framework based on an empirical model to elucidate how climate change affects tradeoffs among ESs. Using alternative scenarios for mountain grasslands, we predicted how direct effects of climate change on ecosystems and indirect effects through farmers' adaptations are likely to affect ES bundles through changes in plant functional properties. ES supply was overall more sensitive to climate than to induced management change, and ES bundles remained stable across scenarios. These responses largely reflected the restricted extent of management change in this constrained system, which was incorporated when scaling up plot level climate and management effects on ecosystem properties to the entire landscape. The trait-based approach revealed how the combination of common driving traits and common responses to changed fertility determined interactions and tradeoffs among ESs. PMID:25225382

Lamarque, Pénélope; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouchet, Maud; Quétier, Fabien

2014-09-23

217

Responses of Plant Community Composition and Biomass Production to Warming and Nitrogen Deposition in a Temperate Meadow Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and biomass production are not well understood. A four-year field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and biomass production in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental warming had no significant effect on plant species richness, evenness, and diversity, while N addition highly reduced the species richness and diversity. Warming tended to reduce the importance value of graminoid species but increased the value of forbs, while N addition had the opposite effect. Warming tended to increase the belowground biomass, but had an opposite tendency to decrease the aboveground biomass. The influences of warming on aboveground production were dependent upon precipitation. Experimental warming had little effect on aboveground biomass in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed aboveground biomass in dry years. Our results suggest that warming had indirect effects on plant production via its effect on the water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and below-ground production, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors determining plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of warming plus N addition on belowground biomass were also detected. Our observations revealed that environmental changes (warming and N deposition) play significant roles in regulating plant community composition and biomass production in temperate meadow steppe ecosystem in northeast China. PMID:25874975

Gao, Song; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei

2015-01-01

218

Comparison of Carbon Sequestration Rates and Energy Balance of Turf in the Denver Urban Ecosystem and an Adjacent Native Grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban ecosystems are currently characterized by rapid growth, are expected to continually expand and, thus, represent an important driver of land use change. A significant component of urban ecosystems is lawns, potentially the single largest irrigated "crop" in the U.S. Beginning in March of 2011 (ahead of the growing season), eddy covariance measurements of net carbon exchange and evapotranspiration along with energy balance fluxes were conducted for a well-watered, fertilized lawn (rye-bluegrass-mix) in metropolitan Denver and for a nearby tallgrass prairie (big bluestem, switchgrass, cheatgrass, blue grama). Due to the semi-arid climate conditions of the Denver region, differences in management (i.e., irrigation and fertilization) are expected to have a discernible impact on ecosystem productivity and thus on carbon sequestration rates, evapotranspiration, and the sensible and latent heat partitioning of the energy balance. By mid-July, preliminary data indicated that cumulative evapotranspiration was approximately 270 mm and 170 mm for urban and native grasslands, respectively, although cumulative carbon sequestration at that time was similar for both (approximately 40 mg/m2). However, the pattern of carbon exchange differed between the grasslands. Both sites showed daily net uptake of carbon starting in late May, but the urban lawn displayed greater diurnal variability as well as greater uptake rates in general, especially following fertilization in mid-June. In contrast, the trend of carbon uptake at the prairie site was occasionally reversed following strong convective precipitation events, resulting in a temporary net release of carbon. The continuing acquisition of data and investigation of these relations will help us assess the potential impact of urban growth on regional carbon sequestration.

Thienelt, T. S.; Anderson, D. E.; Powell, K. M.

2011-12-01

219

Understanding coupled climatic and ecosystem responses to global climate change in the Central Grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term National Park Service research program to assess the potential effect of global climate change on the Central Grasslands Biogeographic Area is underway. The program consists of two integrated projects: Projecting climate and vegetation change at regional to landscape scales; and Predicting the effect of global change on vegetation in park landscapes at the plot to landscape scales. Together,

M. B. Falkner; J. Detling; D. Ojima; R. A. Pielke; T. J. Stohlgren; T. G. F. Kittel; J. Lenihan; R. Neilson; W. Reiners

1993-01-01

220

Impacts of altered rainfall timing and warming in a mesic grassland ecosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grasslands are highly responsive to inter- and intra-annual variability in precipitation and temperature, which interact to affect soil water dynamics and the plant and soil processes mediated by soil water availability. In the U.S. Central Plains mean temperatures are expected to increase and rain...

221

Productivity, Respiration, and Light-Response Parameters of World Grassland and1 Agro-Ecosystems Derived From Flux-Tower Measurements2  

E-print Network

Productivity, Respiration, and Light-Response Parameters of World Grassland and1 Agro-Ecosystems CO2 m-2 s-1 )4 CumNEE ­ cumulative net ecosystem CO2 exchange (g CO2 m-2 )5 Fc ­ net CO2 flux (mg CO2 m-2 s-1 ; g CO2 m-2 d-1 )6 GPP ­ annual gross primary production (g CO2 m-2 yr-1 )7 kT ­ coefficient

Boyer, Edmond

222

Response of plant community composition and productivity to warming and nitrogen deposition in a temperate meadow ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change has profound influences on plant community composition and ecosystem functions. However, its effects on plant community composition and net primary productivity are not well understood. A field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of warming, nitrogen (N) addition, and their interactions on plant community composition and productivity in a temperate meadow ecosystem in northeast China. Experimental warming significantly increased species richness, evenness and diversity, by contrast, N addition highly reduced species richness, evenness and diversity. Warming reduced the importance value of gramineous species but increased in forbs, N addition had the opposite effect. Warming had a significant positive effect on belowground productivity, but had a negative effect on aboveground biomass. The influences of warming on aboveground productivity were dependent on precipitation. Experimental warming had little effect on aboveground productivity in the years with higher precipitation, but significantly suppressed the growth of aboveground in dry years. Our results suggest that warming had indirect effects on plant productivity via altering water availability. Nitrogen addition significantly increased above- and belowground productivity, suggesting that N is one of the most important limiting factors which determine plant productivity in the studied meadow steppe. Significant interactive effects of warming plus N addition on belowground productivity were also detected. Our observations revealed that climate changes (warming and N deposition) plays significant roles in regulating plant community composition and productivity in temperate meadow steppe.

Zhang, T.; Guo, R.; Gao, S.; Guo, J. X.; Sun, W.

2014-05-01

223

On the relationship between ecosystem-scale hyperspectral reflectance and CO2 exchange in European mountain grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we explore the use of hyperspectral reflectance measurements and vegetation indices (VIs) derived therefrom in estimating carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes (net ecosystem exchange - NEE; gross primary production - GPP), and some key ecophysiological variables related to NEE and GPP (light use efficiency - ?; initial quantum yield - ?; and GPP at saturating light - GPPmax) for grasslands. Hyperspectral reflectance data (400-1000 nm), CO2 fluxes and biophysical parameters were measured at three grassland sites located in European mountain regions. The relationships between CO2 fluxes, ecophysiological variables and VIs derived using all two-band combinations of wavelengths available from the whole hyperspectral data space were analysed. We found that hyperspectral VIs generally explained a large fraction of the variability in the investigated dependent variables and that they generally exhibited more skill in estimating midday and daily average GPP and NEE, as well as GPPmax, than ? and ?. Relationships between VIs and CO2 fluxes and ecophysiological parameters were site-specific, likely due to differences in soils, vegetation parameters and environmental conditions. Chlorophyll and water content related VIs (e.g. CI, NPCI, WI), reflecting seasonal changes in biophysical parameters controlling the photosynthesis process, explained the largest fraction of variability in most of the dependent variables. A limitation of the hyperspectral sensors is that their cost is still high and the use laborious. At the eddy covariance with a limited budget and without technical support, we suggest to use at least dual or four channels low cost sensors in the the following spectral regions: 400-420 nm; 500-530 nm; 750-770 nm; 780-800 nm and 880-900 nm. In addition, our findings have major implications for up-scaling terrestrial CO2 fluxes to larger regions and for remote and proximal sensing sampling and analysis strategies and call for more cross-site synthesis studies linking ground-based spectral reflectance with ecosystem-scale CO2 fluxes.

Balzarolo, M.; Vescovo, L.; Hammerle, A.; Gianelle, D.; Papale, D.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2014-07-01

224

Testing functional trait-based mechanisms underpinning plant responses to grazing and linkages to ecosystem functioning in grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abundant evidence has shown that grazing alters plant functional traits, ecological strategies, community structure, and ecosystem functioning of grasslands. Few studies, however, have examined how plant responses to grazing are mediated by resource availability and functional group identity. We test functional trait-based mechanisms underlying the responses of different life forms to grazing and linkages to ecosystem functioning along a soil moisture gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on 9 traits × 276 species matrix showed that the plant size spectrum (i.e., individual biomass), leaf economics spectrum (leaf N content and leaf density), and light competition spectrum (height and stem-leaf biomass ratio) distinguished plant species responses to grazing. The three life forms exhibited differential strategies as indicated by trait responses to grazing. The annuals and biennials adopted grazing-tolerant strategies associated with high growth rate, reflected by high leaf N content and specific leaf area. The perennial grasses exhibited grazing-tolerant strategies associated with great regrowth capacity and high palatability scores, whereas perennial forbs showed grazing-avoidant strategies with short stature and low palatability scores. In addition, the dominant perennial bunchgrasses exhibited mixed tolerance-resistance strategies to grazing and mixed acquisitive-conservative strategies in resource utilization. Grazing increased the relative abundance of perennial forbs with low palatability in the wet and fertile meadow, but it promoted perennial grasses with high palatability in the dry and infertile typical steppe. Our findings suggest that the effects of grazing on plant functional traits are dependent on both the abiotic (e.g., soil moisture) and biotic (e.g., plant functional group identity and composition) factors. Grazing-induced shifts in functional group composition are largely dependent on resource availability, particularly water availability.

Zheng, S. X.; Li, W. H.; Lan, Z. C.; Ren, H. Y.; Wang, K. B.; Bai, Y. F.

2014-09-01

225

Nitrogen and carbon cycling in a grassland community ecosystem as affected by elevated atmospheric CO2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing global atmospheric CO2 concentration has led to concerns regarding its potential effects on terrestrial ecosystem and the long-term storage of C and N in soil. This study examined responses to elevated CO2 in a grass ecosystem invaded with a leguminous shrub Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd (...

226

GRAZING IMPACTS ON ECOSYSTEM CARBON STORAGE ALONG A PRECIPITATION GRADIANT IN GREAT PLAINS GRASSLANDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Livestock grazing is the most prevalent land use in rangelands, and has the potential to alter carbon (C) storage through grazing-induced changes in ecosystem structure and function. We assessed the impact of long-term moderate livestock grazing on ecosystem C-storage along an east-west precipitatio...

227

Plant diversity effects on soil heterotrophic activity in experimental grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of plant species from terrestrial ecosystems may cause changes in soil decomposer communities and in decomposition of organic material with potential further consequences for other ecosystem processes. This was tested in experimental communities of 1, 2, 4, 8, 32 plant species and of 1, 2 or 3 functional groups (grasses, legumes and non-leguminous forbs). As plant species richness

Eva M. Spehn; Jasmin Joshi; Bernhard Schmid; Jörn Alphei; Christian Körner

2000-01-01

228

The decline of an endangered temperate ecosystem: the ruil (Nothofagus alessandrii) forest in central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the current state of the ruil (Nothofagus alessandrii) forest, a rare and endemic temperate forest in central Chile. Because of a long history of land-use, the ruil forest has suffered intense deforestation and fragmentation. By 1991, there remained 352.2 ha of forest in 183 fragments, most of them small and regular and a few large and irregular. From

Ramiro O. Bustamante; Carmen Castor

1998-01-01

229

Seasonal patterns of ammonium and nitrate uptake in nine temperate forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Seasonal patterns of net N mineralization and nitrification in the 0–10 cm mineral soil of 9 temperate forest sites were analyzed using approximately monthlyin situ soil incubations. Measured nitrification rates in incubated soils were found to be good estimates of nitrification in surrounding forest soils. Monthly net N mineralization rates and pools of ammonium-N in soil fluctuated during the

Knute J. Nadelhoffer; John D. Aber; Jerry M. Melillo

1984-01-01

230

The impact of extreme summer drought on the short-term carbon coupling of photosynthesis to soil CO2 efflux in a temperate grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with predicted climate change, increased risks for summer drought are projected for Central Europe. However, large knowledge gaps exist in terms of how drought events influence the short-term ecosystem carbon cycle. Here, we present results from 13CO2 pulse labeling experiments at an intensively managed lowland grassland in Switzerland. We investigated the effect of extreme summer drought on the short-term coupling of freshly assimilated photosynthates in shoots to roots as well as to soil CO2 efflux. Summer drought was simulated using rainout shelters during two field seasons (2010 and 2011). Soil CO2 efflux and its isotopic composition were measured with custom-built chambers coupled to a quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLAS-ISO, Aerodyne Research Inc., MA, USA). During the 90 min pulse labeling experiments, we added 99.9 atom % 13CO2 to the grass sward. In addition to the isotopic analysis of soil CO2 efflux, this label was traced over 31 days into bulk shoots, roots and soil. Drought reduced the incorporation of recently fixed carbon into the shoots, but increased the relative allocation of fresh assimilates below ground compared to the control grasslands. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find a change of allocation speed in response to drought. Although drought clearly reduced soil CO2 efflux rates, about 75% of total tracer uptake in control plots was lost via soil CO2 efflux during 19 days after pulse labeling, compared to only about 60% under drought conditions. Thus, the short-term coupling of above- and below-ground processes was reduced in response to summer drought. The occurrence of a natural spring drought in 2011 lead to comparable albeit weaker drought responses increasing the confidence in the generalizability of our findings.

Burri, S.; Sturm, P.; Prechsl, U. E.; Knohl, A.; Buchmann, N.

2014-02-01

231

Modeled effect of warming on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics within grassland/old-field ecosystems along a moisture gradient  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a consequence of steadily increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere, average world-wide surface temperature is expected to increase 1.5-6.4°C by the end of the 21st Century. Results from manipulative field experiments and ecosystem modeling indicate that plants and soil...

232

Changes in grassland ecosystem function due to extreme rainfall events: implications for responses to climate change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Climate change driven by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is causing measurable changes in precipitation patterns. Most climate change scenarios forecast continuing increases in extreme precipitation patterns for North American terrestrial ecosystems, manifest as larger precipitation event...

233

Sediment deposition and soil nutrient heterogeneity in two desert grassland ecosystems, southern New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of wind in changing the spatial heterogeneity of soil resources in erosion-dominated semiarid ecosystems is well\\u000a known. Yet the effect of windblown sediment deposition on soil nutrient distribution and ecosystem dynamics at local and landscape scales\\u000a has received little attention. We examined the effects of enhanced sediment deposition on the spatial distribution of soil\\u000a nutrients at the Jornada

Junran Li; Gregory S. Okin; Lorelei J. Alvarez; Howard E. Epstein

2009-01-01

234

Climate Extreme Effects on the Chemical Composition of Temperate Grassland Species under Ambient and Elevated CO2: A Comparison of Fructan and Non-Fructan Accumulators  

PubMed Central

Elevated CO2 concentrations and extreme climate events, are two increasing components of the ongoing global climatic change factors, may alter plant chemical composition and thereby their economic and ecological characteristics, e.g. nutritional quality and decomposition rates. To investigate the impact of climate extremes on tissue quality, four temperate grassland species: the fructan accumulating grasses Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, and the nitrogen (N) fixing legumes Medicago lupulina and Lotus corniculatus were subjected to water deficit at elevated temperature (+3°C), under ambient CO2 (392 ppm) and elevated CO2 (620 ppm). As a general observation, the effects of the climate extreme were larger and more ubiquitous in combination with elevated CO2. The imposed climate extreme increased non-structural carbohydrate and phenolics in all species, whereas it increased lignin in legumes and decreased tannins in grasses. However, there was no significant effect of climate extreme on structural carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and mineral contents and stoichiometric ratios. In combination with elevated CO2, climate extreme elicited larger increases in fructan and sucrose content in the grasses without affecting the total carbohydrate content, while it significantly increased total carbohydrates in legumes. The accumulation of carbohydrates in legumes was accompanied by higher activity of sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase. In the legumes, elevated CO2 in combination with climate extreme reduced protein, phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) contents and the total element:N ratio and it increased phenol, lignin, tannin, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) contents and C:N, C:P and N:P ratios. On the other hand, the tissue composition of the fructan accumulating grasses was not affected at this level, in line with recent views that fructans contribute to cellular homeostasis under stress. It is speculated that quality losses will be less prominent in grasses (fructan accumulators) than legumes under climate extreme and its combination with elevated CO2 conditions. PMID:24670435

Zinta, Gaurav; Van den Ende, Wim; Janssens, Ivan A.; Asard, Han

2014-01-01

235

Climate extreme effects on the chemical composition of temperate grassland species under ambient and elevated CO2: a comparison of fructan and non-fructan accumulators.  

PubMed

Elevated CO2 concentrations and extreme climate events, are two increasing components of the ongoing global climatic change factors, may alter plant chemical composition and thereby their economic and ecological characteristics, e.g. nutritional quality and decomposition rates. To investigate the impact of climate extremes on tissue quality, four temperate grassland species: the fructan accumulating grasses Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, and the nitrogen (N) fixing legumes Medicago lupulina and Lotus corniculatus were subjected to water deficit at elevated temperature (+3°C), under ambient CO2 (392 ppm) and elevated CO2 (620 ppm). As a general observation, the effects of the climate extreme were larger and more ubiquitous in combination with elevated CO2. The imposed climate extreme increased non-structural carbohydrate and phenolics in all species, whereas it increased lignin in legumes and decreased tannins in grasses. However, there was no significant effect of climate extreme on structural carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and mineral contents and stoichiometric ratios. In combination with elevated CO2, climate extreme elicited larger increases in fructan and sucrose content in the grasses without affecting the total carbohydrate content, while it significantly increased total carbohydrates in legumes. The accumulation of carbohydrates in legumes was accompanied by higher activity of sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase. In the legumes, elevated CO2 in combination with climate extreme reduced protein, phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) contents and the total element:N ratio and it increased phenol, lignin, tannin, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) contents and C:N, C:P and N:P ratios. On the other hand, the tissue composition of the fructan accumulating grasses was not affected at this level, in line with recent views that fructans contribute to cellular homeostasis under stress. It is speculated that quality losses will be less prominent in grasses (fructan accumulators) than legumes under climate extreme and its combination with elevated CO2 conditions. PMID:24670435

AbdElgawad, Hamada; Peshev, Darin; Zinta, Gaurav; Van den Ende, Wim; Janssens, Ivan A; Asard, Han

2014-01-01

236

Litter decomposition and nutrient release as affected by soil nitrogen availability and litter quality in a semiarid grassland ecosystem.  

PubMed

Nitrogen availability is critically important to litter decomposition, especially in arid and semiarid areas where N is limiting. We studied the relative contributions of litter quality and soil N to litter decomposition of two dominant grassland species, Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigida, in a semiarid typical steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, China. The study had four different rates of N addition (0, 8, 32, and 64 g N m(-2) year(-1)), and litter samples were decomposed under varying site conditions and by litter types. Litter-mixing effects of the two species were also examined. We found that N addition increased litter N concentration and thus enhanced litter decomposition by improving substrate quality. This increase, however, was offset by the negative effect of increased soil N, resulting in a diminished effect of increased soil N availability on in situ litter decomposition. The positive effects of improved litter quality slightly out-performed the negative effects of increased soil N. Our further analysis revealed that the negative effect of increasing soil N on litter decomposition could be partially explained by reduced soil microbial biomass and activity. Decomposition was significantly faster for litters of a two-species mixture than litters of the single species, but the rate of litter decomposition did not differ much between the two species, suggesting that compositional balance, rather than changes in the dominance between Stipa and Artemisia, is more critical for litter decomposition, hence nutrient cycling in this ecosystem. This semiarid steppe ecosystem may become more conservative in nutrient use with switching of dominance from Artemisia to Stipa with increasing soil N, because Stipa has a slower decomposition rate and a higher nutrient retention rate than Artemisia. PMID:19921269

Liu, Ping; Huang, Jianhui; Sun, Osbert Jianxin; Han, Xingguo

2010-03-01

237

Conversion of temperate forests into heaths: Role of ecosystem disturbance and ericaceous plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire and logging in nutrient-poor temperate forests with certain ericaceous understory plants may convert the forests into heaths. The process of disturbance-induced heath formation is documented by using examples of Calluna in western Europe, Kalmia in Newfoundland, and Gaultheria (salal) in coastal British Columbia. In a cool, temperate climate, rapid vegetative growth of Calluna, Kalmia, and salal following disturbance results in increasing organic accumulation (paludification), nutrient sequestration, soil acidification, and allelochemicals. These are thought to be the main reasons to conifer regeneration failure in disturbed habitats. If continuation in forest is a land-use objective, then temperate forests with an ericaceous understory should not be logged unless effective silvicultural methods are devised to control the ericaceous plants and restore forest regeneration. Preharvest vegetation control may be considered as an option. Failure to control the understory plants may lead to a long-term vegetation shift, from forest to heathland, particularly in nutrient-poor sites. Successful methods of controlling Kalmia and Gaultheria, however, have yet to be developed. While the Kalmia- and Gaultheria- dominated heathlands are undesirable in Canada and the Pacific Northwest, a wide range of Calluna heathlands of western Europe are being conserved as natural and seminatural vegetation.

Mallik, A. U.

1995-09-01

238

Increased temperature and precipitation interact to affect root production, mortality, and turnover in a temperate steppe: implications for ecosystem C cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine root production and turnover play important roles in regulating carbon (C) cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. In order to examine effects of climate change on root production and turnover, a field experiment with increased temperature and precipitation had been conducted in a semiarid temperate steppe in northern China since April 2005. Experi- mental warming decreased annual root production, mortality, and

WENMING B AI; S HULI N IU; W EIXING L IU; QIBING WANG; W ENHAO Z HANG

2009-01-01

239

Metagenomic Insights into the Evolution, Function, and Complexity of the Planktonic Microbial Community of Lake Lanier, a Temperate Freshwater Ecosystem ?†  

PubMed Central

Lake Lanier is an important freshwater lake for the southeast United States, as it represents the main source of drinking water for the Atlanta metropolitan area and is popular for recreational activities. Temperate freshwater lakes such as Lake Lanier are underrepresented among the growing number of environmental metagenomic data sets, and little is known about how functional gene content in freshwater communities relates to that of other ecosystems. To better characterize the gene content and variability of this freshwater planktonic microbial community, we sequenced several samples obtained around a strong summer storm event and during the fall water mixing using a random whole-genome shotgun (WGS) approach. Comparative metagenomics revealed that the gene content was relatively stable over time and more related to that of another freshwater lake and the surface ocean than to soil. However, the phylogenetic diversity of Lake Lanier communities was distinct from that of soil and marine communities. We identified several important genomic adaptations that account for these findings, such as the use of potassium (as opposed to sodium) osmoregulators by freshwater organisms and differences in the community average genome size. We show that the lake community is predominantly composed of sequence-discrete populations and describe a simple method to assess community complexity based on population richness and evenness and to determine the sequencing effort required to cover diversity in a sample. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity and metabolic potential of a temperate planktonic freshwater community and advances approaches for comparative metagenomics. PMID:21764968

Oh, Seungdae; Caro-Quintero, Alejandro; Tsementzi, Despina; DeLeon-Rodriguez, Natasha; Luo, Chengwei; Poretsky, Rachel; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.

2011-01-01

240

Soil N and 15N variation with time in a California annual grassland ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The %N and ? 15N values of soils and plants were measured along a chronosequence spanning 3 to 3000 Ky in a California annual grassland. Total soil N decreased with increasing soil age (1.1 to 0.4 kg N m -2) while the mean ? 15N values of the soil N increased by several ‰ from the youngest to oldest sites (+3.5 to +6.2 ‰). The ? 15N values of plants varied along the gradient, reflecting changing soil N pools and differences in the form of N uptake. The decline in total N storage with time is hypothesized to be due to a shift from N to P limitation with increasing soil age. The general increase in ? 15N values with time is interpreted using a N mass balance model, and appears to reflect a shift toward an increasing proportional losses of inorganic mineral forms of N (vs. organic forms) with increasing soil age. We develop a quantitative index of this trend (mineral vs. organic forms of N loss) using mass balance considerations and parameters. The %N and ? 15N values along the California age gradient were compared to the published data for a comparably aged chronosequence in Hawaii. Most striking in this comparison is the observation that the California soil and plant ? 15N values are several ‰ greater than those on comparably aged Hawaiian sites. Multiple explanations are plausible, but assuming the sites have a similar range in ? 15N values of atmospheric inputs, the isotopic differences suggest that N may be, at least seasonally, in greater excess in the strongly seasonal, semi-arid, California grassland.

Brenner, Dana L.; Amundson, Ronald; Baisden, W. Troy; Kendall, Carol; Harden, Jennifer

2001-11-01

241

Trace gas and particulate emissions from biomass burning in temperate ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions measured from fires in graminoid wetlands, Mediterranean chaparrals, and boreal forests, suggest that such ecosystemic parameters as fuel size influence combustion emissions in ways that are broadly predictable. The degree of predictability is most noticeable when wetland fire-related results are compared with boreal forest emissions; the inorganic fraction of the particulate emissions is close in composition irrespective of the ecosystem. It is found that both aerosol and trace gas emissions are influenced by the phase of combustion.

Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Winstead, Edward L.; Stocks, Brian J.

1991-01-01

242

Influence of local air pollution on the deposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate to a nutrient-poor natural grassland ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry deposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is known to have a phytotoxic impact on plants under photochemical smog conditions, but it may also lead to higher productivity and threaten species richness of vulnerable ecosystems in remote regions. However, underlying mechanisms or controlling factors for PAN deposition are not well understood and studies on dry deposition of PAN are limited. In this study, we investigate the impact of PAN deposition on a nutrient-poor natural grassland ecosystem situated at the edge of an urban and industrialized region in Germany. PAN mixing ratios were measured within a 3.5 months summer to early autumn period. In addition, PAN fluxes were determined with the modified Bowen ratio technique for a selected period. The evaluation of both stomatal and non-stomatal deposition pathways was used to model PAN deposition over the entire summer-autumn period. We found that air masses at the site were influenced by two contrasting pollution regimes, which led to median diurnal PAN mixing ratios ranging between 50 and 300 ppt during unpolluted and between 200 and 600 ppt during polluted episodes. The measured PAN fluxes showed a clear diurnal cycle with maximal deposition fluxes of ~-0.1 nmol m-2 s-1 (corresponding to a deposition velocity of 0.3 cm s-1) during daytime and a significant non-stomatal contribution was found. The ratio of PAN to ozone deposition velocities was found to be ~0.1, which is much larger than assumed by current deposition models. The modelled PAN flux over the entire period revealed that PAN deposition over an entire day was 333 ?g m-2 d-1 under unpolluted and 518 ?g m-2 d-1 under polluted episodes. Additionally, thermochemical decomposition PAN deposition accounted for 32% under unpolluted episodes and 22% under polluted episodes of the total atmospheric PAN loss. However, the impact of PAN deposition as a nitrogen source to the nutrient-poor grassland was estimated to be only minor, under both unpolluted and polluted episodes.

Moravek, A.; Stella, P.; Foken, T.; Trebs, I.

2015-01-01

243

Influence of local air pollution on the deposition of peroxyacteyl nitrate to a nutrient-poor natural grassland ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry deposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is known to have a phytotoxic impact on plants under photochemical smog conditions, but it may also lead to higher productivity and threaten species richness of vulnerable ecosystems in remote regions. However, underlying mechanisms or controlling factors for PAN deposition are not well understood and studies on dry deposition of PAN are limited. In this study, we investigate the impact of PAN deposition on a nutrient-poor natural grassland ecosystem situated at the edge of an urban and industrialized region in Germany. PAN mixing ratios were measured within a 3.5 months summer to early autumn period. In addition, PAN fluxes were determined with the modified Bowen ratio technique for a selected period. The evaluation of both stomatal and non-stomatal deposition pathways was used to model PAN deposition over the entire summer-autumn period. We found that air masses at the site were influenced by two contrasting pollution regimes, which lead to median diurnal PAN mixing ratios ranging between 50 and 300 ppt during unpolluted and between 200 and 600 ppt during polluted episodes. The measured PAN fluxes showed a clear diurnal cycle with maximal deposition fluxes of ~ -0.1 nmol m-2 s-1 (corresponding to a deposition velocity of 0.3 cm s-1) during daytime and a significant non-stomatal contribution was found. The ratio of PAN to ozone deposition velocities was found to be ~0.1, which is much larger than assumed by current deposition models. The modelled PAN flux over the entire period revealed that PAN deposition over an entire day was 333 ?g m-2 d-1 under unpolluted and 518 ?g m-2 d-1 under polluted episodes. Besides, thermochemical decomposition PAN deposition accounted for 32% under unpolluted episodes and 22% under polluted episodes of the total atmospheric PAN loss. However, the impact of PAN deposition as a nitrogen source to the nutrient-poor grassland was estimated to be only minor, under both unpolluted and polluted episodes.

Moravek, A.; Stella, P.; Foken, T.; Trebs, I.

2014-08-01

244

THE ROLE OF WATER RELATIONS IN DRIVING GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES TO RISING ATMOSPHERIC CO2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rangeland Carbon fluxes are highly variable in both space and time. In the Northern Great Plains, rainfall is an important determinant of whether this ecosystem will be a carbon sink or source. Given the large areas of rangelands and their significant soil organic matter stocks, understanding how th...

245

Oldest Evidence of Toolmaking Hominins in a Grassland-Dominated Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Major biological and cultural innovations in late Pliocene hominin evolution are frequently linked to the spread or fluctuating presence of C4 grass in African ecosystems. Whereas the deep sea record of global climatic change provides indirect evidence for an increase in C4 vegetation with a shift towards a cooler, drier and more variable global climatic regime beginning approximately 3

Thomas W. Plummer; Peter W. Ditchfield; Laura C. Bishop; John D. Kingston; Joseph V. Ferraro; David R. Braun; Fritz Hertel; Richard Potts

2009-01-01

246

THE ROLE OF WATER RELATIONS IN DRIVING GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES TO RISING ATMOSPHERIC CO2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While rising atmospheric CO2 is known to be an important contributor to radiative forcing of Earth’s climate, more direct effects of this gas on photosynthesis and plant water relations have been underway for more than a century, and likely have already contributed to important ecosystem changes. In...

247

grassland/savanna ecosystems are closely linked with seasonally dry forests. The latter  

E-print Network

are covered: population growth, urbanization, agriculture and fisheries, pollution, climate change forests the reader is informed that this ecosystem is home to nearly two-thirds of the plant species in the world and that plant-animal interactions have developed there to an extraordinary extent. Moreover

Northampton, University of

248

Predicting the response of a temperate forest ecosystem to atmospheric CO[sub 2] increase  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the second year of research progress. Included are progress reports for the following studies: the responses of temperate forest tree to 3 years of exposure to elevated carbon dioxide, and high and low nutrient and light levels; pot-size limitations in carbon dioxide studies, interactive effects of carbon dioxide and soil moisture availability on tree seedling's tissue water relations, growth, and niche characteristics; individual versus population responses to elevated carbon dioxide levels in two species of annual weeds; and the development of gypsy moth larvae raised on gray and yellow birth foliage grown in ambient and elevated carbon dioxide environments.

Bazzaz, F.A.

1993-01-01

249

Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem.  

PubMed

Understanding ecosystem responses to global and local anthropogenic impacts is paramount to predicting future ecosystem states. We used an ecosystem modeling approach to investigate the independent and cumulative effects of fishing, marine protection, and ocean acidification on a coastal ecosystem. To quantify the effects of ocean acidification at the ecosystem level, we used information from the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of ocean acidification. Using an Ecopath with Ecosim ecosystem model for the Wellington south coast, including the Taputeranga Marine Reserve (MR), New Zealand, we predicted ecosystem responses under 4 scenarios: ocean acidification + fishing; ocean acidification + MR (no fishing); no ocean acidification + fishing; no ocean acidification + MR for the year 2050. Fishing had a larger effect on trophic group biomasses and trophic structure than ocean acidification, whereas the effects of ocean acidification were only large in the absence of fishing. Mortality by fishing had large, negative effects on trophic group biomasses. These effects were similar regardless of the presence of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification was predicted to indirectly benefit certain species in the MR scenario. This was because lobster (Jasus edwardsii) only recovered to 58% of the MR biomass in the ocean acidification + MR scenario, a situation that benefited the trophic groups lobsters prey on. Most trophic groups responded antagonistically to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and marine protection (46%; reduced response); however, many groups responded synergistically (33%; amplified response). Conservation and fisheries management strategies need to account for the reduced recovery potential of some exploited species under ocean acidification, nonadditive interactions of multiple factors, and indirect responses of species to ocean acidification caused by declines in calcareous predators. PMID:25354555

Cornwall, Christopher E; Eddy, Tyler D

2015-02-01

250

Biodiversity effects on yield and unsown species invasion in a temperate forage ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Current agricultural practices are based on growing monocultures or binary mixtures over large areas, with a resultant impoverishing effect on biodiversity at several trophic levels. The effects of increasing the biodiversity of a sward mixture on dry matter yield and unsown species invasion were studied. Methods A field experiment involving four grassland species [two grasses – perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) – and two legumes – red clover (Trifolium pratense) and white clover (Trifolium repens)], grown in monocultures and mixtures in accordance with a simplex design, was carried out. The legumes were included either as single varieties or as one of two broad genetic-base composites. The experiment was harvested three times a year over three years; dry matter yield and yield of unsown species were determined at each harvest. Yields of individual species and interactions between all species present were estimated through a statistical modelling approach. Key Results Species diversity produced a strong positive yield effect that resulted in transgressive over-yielding in the second and third years. Using broad genetic-base composites of the legumes had a small impact on yield and species interactions. Invasion by unsown species was strongly reduced by species diversity, but species identity was also important. Cocksfoot and white clover (with the exception of one broad genetic-base composite) reduced invasion, while red clover was the most invaded species. Conclusions The results show that it is possible to increase, and stabilize, the yield of a grassland crop and reduce invasion by unsown species by increasing its species diversity. PMID:19168861

Frankow-Lindberg, B. E.; Brophy, C.; Collins, R. P.; Connolly, J.

2009-01-01

251

Progressive nitrogen limitation of ecosystem processes under elevated CO2 in a warm-temperate forest.  

PubMed

A hypothesis for progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL) proposes that net primary production (NPP) will decline through time in ecosystems subjected to a step-function increase in atmospheric CO2. The primary mechanism driving this response is a rapid rate of N immobilization by plants and microbes under elevated CO2 that depletes soils of N, causing slower rates of N mineralization. Under this hypothesis, there is little long-term stimulation of NPP by elevated CO2 in the absence of exogenous inputs of N. We tested this hypothesis using data on the pools and fluxes of C and N in tree biomass, microbes, and soils from 1997 through 2002 collected at the Duke Forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment. Elevated CO2 stimulated NPP by 18-24% during the first six years of this experiment. Consistent with the hypothesis for PNL, significantly more N was immobilized in tree biomass and in the O horizon under elevated CO2. In contrast to the PNL hypothesis, microbial-N immobilization did not increase under elevated CO2, and although the rate of net N mineralization declined through time, the decline was not significantly more rapid under elevated CO2. Ecosystem C-to-N ratios widened more rapidly under elevated CO2 than ambient CO2 indicating a more rapid rate of C fixation per unit of N, a processes that could delay PNL in this ecosystem. Mass balance calculations demonstrated a large accrual of ecosystem N capital. Is PNL occurring in this ecosystem and will NPP decline to levels under ambient CO2? The answer depends on the relative strength of tree biomass and O-horizon N immobilization vs. widening C-to-N ratios and ecosystem-N accrual as processes that drive and delay PNL, respectively. Only direct observations through time will definitively answer this question. PMID:16634293

Finzi, Adrien C; Moore, David J P; DeLucia, Evan H; Lichter, John; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Jackson, Robert B; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Matamala, Roser; McCarthy, Heather R; Oren, Ram; Pippen, Jeffrey S; Schlesinger, William H

2006-01-01

252

Scale effects on the controls on mountain grassland leaf stomatal and ecosystem surface conductance to water vapour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stomata are the major pathway by which plants exert control on the exchange of trace gases and water vapour with the aerial environment and thus provide a key link between the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and the state and composition of the atmosphere. Understanding the nature of this control, i.e. how stomatal conductance differs between plant species and ecosystems and how it varies in response to external and internal forcings, is key to predicting feedbacks plants may be providing to changing climatic conditions. Despite a long history of research on stomatal functioning, a fully mechanistic understanding of how stomata function in response to biotic and abiotic controls is still elusive which has led to the development of a large number of (semi-)empirical models of varying complexity. Two of the most widely used models go back to Jarvis (1976) and Ball, Woodrow and Berry (1987), termed J-model and BWB-model, respectively, in the following. The J-model simulates stomatal conductance as some maximal value attenuated by a series of multiplicative functions which are bound between zero and unity, while the BWB-model predicts stomatal conductance as a linear function of photosynthesis, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentration in the leaf boundary layer. Both models were developed for the prediction of leaf-scale stomatal conductance to water vapour, but have been applied for simulating ecosystem-scale surface conductance as well. The objective of the present paper is to compare leaf- and ecosystem-scale conductances to water vapour and to assess the respective controls using the two above-mentioned models as analysis frameworks. To this end leaf-level stomatal conductance has been measured by means of leaf-gas exchange methods and ecosystem-scale surface conductance by inverting eddy covariance evapotranspiration estimates at a mountain grassland site in Austria. Our major findings are that the proportionality parameter in the BWB-model is scale-consistent, i.e. does not differ significantly between the leaf- and ecosystem scale, while the residual conductance (at zero light) scales with the amount of above-ground transpiring plant area. Among the environmental forcings, air humidity (either relative humidity or vapour pressure deficit) and carbon dioxide concentration in the boundary layer explained most of the variability of stomatal conductance at the leaf level, while the photosynthetic photon flux density was by far the dominant control at the ecosystem-level. References: Ball J.T., Woodrow I.E., Berry J.A., 1987. A model predicting stomatal conductance and its contribution to the control of photosynthesis under different environmental conditions. In: J. Biggens (Editor), Progress in Photosynthesis Research, Vol. IV. Proceedings of the VII International Congress on Photosynthesis. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp. 221-224. Jarvis P.G., 1976. The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London 273(B), 593-610.

Haslwanter, Alois; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

2010-05-01

253

Impact of Fire Disturbance on Regional Net Ecosystem Exchange for a Sub-Humid Woodland and Grassland Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildland fire is a major disturbance in many ecosystems and increases flux of CO2 and CO to the atmosphere. These emission episodes cause short term atmospheric carbon concentration variation as vegetation and soil processes are perturbed. The Tall Tower Network, developed to monitor regional long-term carbon flux and related-gas in the continental boundary layer by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), detects these emissions. For this study, we used the CO2 mixing ratio data from the WKT Tall Tower site in Moody, Texas to study the impact of fire disturbance on immediate and long term regional Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) from 2001 to 2009. To detect individual potential fire events, we used products from the MODIS Active Fire Mapping Program to identify point locations of fires and Landsat data to estimate area burned based on spectral indices within the footprint of the Tall Tower. Next, we quantified carbon emission derived from fires by identifying daily NEE variations that exceeded threshold values based on seasonal averages from the Tall Tower data for each major fire event. Carbon emission from fires were also estimated based on total area burned, pre-fire biomass, and fire severity derived from the remote sensing data. We found that that the size and severity of individual fire were highly correlated with the amount of short-term regional NEE variation. Regional NEE showed a short term flux of carbon to the atmosphere following fire disturbance, but reverted to a carbon sink due to the removal of excess fuel load and increased primary productivity. The total fire-derived carbon emission calculated from ground and remote sensing data was slightly more than that estimated from the detected elevated carbon signals by the Tall Tower. This is explained by charcoal formation which remained on site. Wildland fires were expected to increase regional carbon storage by transforming biomass into more decay-resistant charcoal. This study potentially indicates a new method of estimating charcoal formation by fires using combined atmospheric monitoring and remote sensing data.

Yao, J.; White, J. D.

2010-12-01

254

Integrating Climate and Ecosystem-Response Sciences in Temperate Western North American Mountains: The CIRMOUNT Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain regions are uniquely sensitive to changes in climate, vulnerable to climate effects on biotic and physical factors of intense social concern, and serve as critical early-warning systems of climate impacts. Escalating demands on western North American (WNA) mountain ecosystems increasingly stress both natural resources and rural community capacities; changes in mountain systems cascade to issues of national concern. Although WNA has long been a focus for climate- and climate-related environmental research, these efforts remain disciplinary and poorly integrated, hindering interpretation into policy and management. Knowledge is further hampered by lack of standardized climate monitoring stations at high-elevations in WNA. An initiative is emerging as the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT) whose primary goal is to improve knowledge of high-elevation climate systems and to better integrate physical, ecological, and social sciences relevant to climate change, ecosystem response, and natural-resource policy in WNA. CIRMOUNT seeks to focus research on climate variability and ecosystem response (progress in understanding synoptic scale processes) that improves interpretation of linkages between ecosystem functions and human processing (progress in understanding human-environment integration), which in turn would yield applicable information and understanding on key societal issues such as mountains as water towers, biodiversity, carbon forest sinks, and wildland hazards such as fire and forest dieback (progress in understanding ecosystem services and key thresholds). Achieving such integration depends first on implementing a network of high-elevation climate-monitoring stations, and linking these with integrated ecosystem-response studies. Achievements since 2003 include convening the 2004 Mountain Climate Sciences Symposium (1, 2) and several special sessions at technical conferences; initiating a biennial mountain climate research symposium (MTNCLIM), the first to be held in spring 2005; developing a strategy for climate-monitoring in WNA; installing and networking high-elevation (>3000m) climate-monitoring stations; and completing three target regions (Glacier National Park, MT; Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, CA) of the international GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) plant-monitoring project, the first in WNA. CIRMOUNT emphasizes integration at the regional scale in WNA, collaborating with and complementing projects such as the Western Mountain Initiative, whose mandate is more targeted than CIRMOUNT's, and global programs such as GLORIA and the international Mountain Research Initiative. Achievement of continuing success in WNA hinges on the capacity to secure long-term funding and institutional investment. (1) See associated URL for paper and poster pdfs (2) Discussing the future of western U.S. mountains, climate change, and ecosystems. EOS 31 August 2004, 85(35), p. 329

Millar, C. I.; Fagre, D. B.

2004-12-01

255

An Integrated Mercury Monitoring Program for Temperate Estuarine and Marine Ecosystems on the North American Atlantic Coast  

PubMed Central

During the past century, anthropogenic activities have altered the distribution of mercury (Hg) on the earth’s surface. The impacts of such alterations to the natural cycle of Hg can be minimized through coordinated management, policy decisions, and legislative regulations. An ability to quantitatively measure environmental Hg loadings and spatiotemporal trends of their fate in the environment is critical for science-based decision making. Here, we outline a Hg monitoring program for temperate estuarine and marine ecosystems on the Atlantic Coast of North America. This framework follows a similar, previously developed plan for freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems in the United States. Methylmercury (MeHg) is the toxicologically relevant form of Hg, and its ability to bioaccumulate in organisms and biomagnify in food webs depends on numerous biological and physicochemical factors that affect its production, transport, and fate. Therefore, multiple indicators are needed to fully characterize potential changes of Hg loadings in the environment and MeHg bioaccumulation through the different marine food webs. In addition to a description of how to monitor environmental Hg loads for air, sediment, and water, we outline a species-specific matrix of biotic indicators that include shellfish and other invertebrates, fish, birds and mammals. Such a Hg monitoring template is applicable to coastal areas across the Northern Hemisphere and is transferable to arctic and tropical marine ecosystems. We believe that a comprehensive approach provides an ability to best detect spatiotemporal Hg trends for both human and ecological health, and concurrently identify food webs and species at greatest risk to MeHg toxicity. PMID:19294469

Evers, David C.; Mason, Robert P.; Kamman, Neil C.; Chen, Celia Y.; Bogomolni, Andrea L.; Taylor, David L.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Jones, Stephen H.; Burgess, Neil M.; Munney, Kenneth; Parsons, Katharine C.

2008-01-01

256

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Grassland Ecosystems of the Central Lithuania: Multi-Criteria Evaluation on a Basis of the ARAS Method  

PubMed Central

N2O, CH4, and CO2 are potential greenhouse gas (GHG) contributing to climate change; therefore, solutions have to be sought to reduce their emission from agriculture. This work evaluates GHG emission from grasslands submitted to different mineral fertilizers during vegetation period (June–September) in two experimental sites, namely, seminatural grassland (8 treatments of mineral fertilizers) and cultural pasture (intensively managed) in the Training Farm of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture. Chamber method was applied for evaluation of GHG emissions on the field scale. As a result, soil chemical composition, compactness, temperature, and gravimetric moisture as well as biomass yield of fresh and dry biomass and botanical composition, were assessed during the research. Furthermore, a simulation of multi-criteria assessment of sustainable fertilizers management was carried out on a basis of ARAS method. The multicriteria analysis of different fertilizing regimes was based on a system of environmental and productivity indices. Consequently, agroecosystems of cultural pasture (N180P120K150) and seminatural grassland fertilizing rates N180P120K150 and N60P40K50 were evaluated as the most sustainable alternatives leading to reduction of emissions between biosphere-atmosphere and human-induced biogenic pollution in grassland ecosystems, thus contributing to improvement of countryside environment. PMID:22645463

Balezentiene, Ligita; Kusta, Albinas

2012-01-01

257

Forest and grassland ecosystem studies using the advanced solid-state array spectroradiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced solid-state array spectroradiometer (ASAS) is an airborne, off-nadir pointing imaging spectroradiometer used to acquire bidirectional radiance data for terrestrial targets. As its platform aircraft flies over a target the sensor can image the target through a sequence of at least seven fore-to-aft view directions ranging up to 45 deg on either side of nadir. ASAS acquires data for 29 spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum with a resolution of 15 nm. ASAS data were recently acquired for a prairie ecosystem and a northern forest ecosystem. The data demonstrate the combined effects of reflectance anisotropy and increased atmospheric path length on off-nadir observations. One result of these effects is a variation in vegetation indices as a function of view direction. Normalized-difference-vegetation-indices for prairie grass, coniferous, and deciduous canopies varied up to 14 percent, 23 percent, and 6 percent, respectively, relative to nadir as a function of view zenith angle along the solar principal plane.

Irons, James R.; Ranson, K. Jon; Williams, Darrel L.; Irish, Richard R.

1989-01-01

258

Representing the effects of alpine grassland vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics by ecosystem models applied to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil surface temperature is a critical boundary condition for the simulation of soil temperature by environmental models. It is influenced by atmospheric and soil conditions and by vegetation cover. In sophisticated land surface models, it is simulated iteratively by solving surface energy budget equations. In ecosystem, permafrost, and hydrology models, the consideration of soil surface temperature is generally simple. In this study, we developed a methodology for representing the effects of vegetation cover and atmospheric factors on the estimation of soil surface temperature for alpine grassland ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Our approach integrated measurements from meteorological stations with simulations from a sophisticated land surface model to develop an equation set for estimating soil surface temperature. After implementing this equation set into an ecosystem model and evaluating the performance of the ecosystem model in simulating soil temperature at different depths in the soil profile, we applied the model to simulate interactions among vegetation cover, freeze-thaw cycles, and soil erosion to demonstrate potential applications made possible through the implementation of the methodology developed in this study. Results showed that (1) to properly estimate daily soil surface temperature, algorithms should use air temperature, downward solar radiation, and vegetation cover as independent variables; (2) the equation set developed in this study performed better than soil surface temperature algorithms used in other models; and (3) the ecosystem model performed well in simulating soil temperature throughout the soil profile using the equation set developed in this study. Our application of the model indicates that the representation in ecosystem models of the effects of vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics has the potential to substantially improve our understanding of the vulnerability of alpine grassland ecosystems to changes in climate and grazing regimes.

Yi, S.; Li, N.; Xiang, B.; Wang, X.; Ye, B.; McGuire, A.D.

2013-01-01

259

Representing the effects of alpine grassland vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics by ecosystem models applied to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

surface temperature is a critical boundary condition for the simulation of soil temperature by environmental models. It is influenced by atmospheric and soil conditions and by vegetation cover. In sophisticated land surface models, it is simulated iteratively by solving surface energy budget equations. In ecosystem, permafrost, and hydrology models, the consideration of soil surface temperature is generally simple. In this study, we developed a methodology for representing the effects of vegetation cover and atmospheric factors on the estimation of soil surface temperature for alpine grassland ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Our approach integrated measurements from meteorological stations with simulations from a sophisticated land surface model to develop an equation set for estimating soil surface temperature. After implementing this equation set into an ecosystem model and evaluating the performance of the ecosystem model in simulating soil temperature at different depths in the soil profile, we applied the model to simulate interactions among vegetation cover, freeze-thaw cycles, and soil erosion to demonstrate potential applications made possible through the implementation of the methodology developed in this study. Results showed that (1) to properly estimate daily soil surface temperature, algorithms should use air temperature, downward solar radiation, and vegetation cover as independent variables; (2) the equation set developed in this study performed better than soil surface temperature algorithms used in other models; and (3) the ecosystem model performed well in simulating soil temperature throughout the soil profile using the equation set developed in this study. Our application of the model indicates that the representation in ecosystem models of the effects of vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics has the potential to substantially improve our understanding of the vulnerability of alpine grassland ecosystems to changes in climate and grazing regimes.

Yi, S.; Li, N.; Xiang, B.; Wang, X.; Ye, B.; McGuire, A. D.

2013-07-01

260

The Ecological Significance of the Herbaceous Layer in Temperate Forest Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from the November 2007 issue of BioScience examines the importance of the herbaceous layer of the forest ecosystem. Despite a growing awareness that the herbaceous layer serves a special role in maintaining the structure and function of forests, this stratum remains an underappreciated aspect of forest ecosystems. In this article I review and synthesize information concerning the herb layer's structure, composition, and dynamics to emphasize its role as an integral component of forest ecosystems. Because species diversity is highest in the herb layer among all forest strata, forest biodiversity is largely a function of the herb-layer community. Competitive interactions within the herb layer can determine the initial success of plants occupying higher strata, including the regeneration of dominant overstory tree species. Furthermore, the herb layer and the overstory can become linked through parallel responses to similar environmental gradients. These relationships between strata vary both spatially and temporally. Because the herb layer responds sensitively to disturbance across broad spatial and temporal scales, its dynamics can provide important information regarding the site characteristics of forests, including patterns of past land-use practices. Thus, the herb layer has a significance that belies its diminutive stature.

Frank Gilliam (; )

2007-11-01

261

Modelling grassland phenology and growth using near-surface remote sensing derived time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the size and the duration of rain events have a significant influence on the phenology and growth of grasslands. This pulse-response nature of grasslands makes quantifying intra and inter-annual variability in grassland growth challenging and large uncertainties remain on which precipitation characteristics have the greatest influence on grassland phenology, growth and ecosystem productivity. Here we present modeled results of soil water content and grassland growth on a daily timestep from 16 grassland sites (40 site years) across arid, temperate and tropical biomes. We build upon a simple threshold-delay concept with provisions for influences of soil temperature and photoperiod on plant growth. Modelled soil water content and grassland growth are based upon limited set of widely available climatic drivers such as daily precipitation, minimum and maximum temperature, to facilitate scaling, and validated against near-surface remote sensing (PhenoCam) data of vegetation greenness. This simple model framework allows us to explore future effects of changes in the size and duration of precipitation events as well as temperature on grassland phenology and growth across different biome types.

Hufkens, Koen; Chen, Min; Richardson, Andrew D.

2014-05-01

262

The Janos grassland ecosystem: 20 years of synthesis and experimental research revealing new insights for conservation and management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Janos grasslands are part of the Sky Islands, a unique region of more than 40 isolated mountain ridges surrounded by dry grasslands that straddles the México/Arizona/New Mexico border. It is one of America’s great hotspots for wildlife diversity. It is a transition zone between the Chihuahuan Dese...

263

The role of plants and land management in sequestering soil carbon in temperate arable and grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate change and concerns about soil quality have led to a widespread interest in the opportunities that are available to sequester carbon in soils. To achieve a better understanding of the changes in C storage, we need to be able to accurately measure and model inputs and losses of C from soils. This in turn requires a thorough understanding

R. M. Rees; I. J. Bingham; J. A. Baddeley; C. A. Watson

2005-01-01

264

Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.  

PubMed

The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. PMID:23866037

Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

2013-08-01

265

Remote sensing of canopy chemistry and nitrogen cycling in temperate forest ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of images acquired by the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer, an experimental high-spectral resolution imaging sensor developed by NASA, to estimate the lignin concentration of whole forest canopies in Wisconsin is reported. The observed strong relationship between canopy lignin concentration and nitrogen availability in seven undisturbed forest ecosystems on Blackhawk Island, Wisconsin, suggests that canopy lignin may serve as an index for site nitrogen status. This predictive relationship presents the opportunity to estimate nitrogen-cycling rates across forested landscapes through remote sensing.

Wessman, Carol A.; Aber, John D.; Peterson, David L.; Melillo, Jerry M.

1988-01-01

266

Tree-ring ? 13C tracks flux tower ecosystem productivity estimates in a NE temperate forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated relationships between tree-ring ?13C and growth, and flux tower estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) at Harvard Forest from 1992 to 2010. Seasonal variations of derived photosynthetic isotope discrimination (?13C) and leaf intercellular CO2 concentration (c i ) showed significant increasing trends for the dominant deciduous and coniferous species. ?13C was positively correlated to growing-season GPP and is primarily controlled by precipitation and soil moisture indicating that site conditions maintained high stomatal conductance under increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Increasing ?13C over the 1992-2010 period is attributed to increasing annual and summer water availability identified at Harvard Forest and across the region. Higher ?13C is coincident with an enhancement in growth and ecosystem-level net carbon uptake. This work suggests that tree-ring ?13C could serve as a measure of forest GPP and be used to improve the calibration and predictive skill of ecosystem and carbon cycle models.

Belmecheri, Soumaya; Stockton Maxwell, R.; Taylor, Alan H.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Munger, William J.

2014-07-01

267

Grassland/atmosphere response to changing climate: Coupling regional and local scales. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the study were: to evaluate the response of grassland ecosystems to atmospheric change at regional and site scales, and to develop multiscaled modeling systems to relate ecological and atmospheric models with different spatial and temporal resolutions. A menu-driven shell was developed to facilitate use of models at different temporal scales and to facilitate exchange information between models at different temporal scales. A detailed ecosystem model predicted that C{sub 3} temperate grasslands wig respond more strongly to elevated CO{sub 2} than temperate C{sub 4} grasslands in the short-term while a large positive N-PP response was predicted for a C{sub 4} Kenyan grassland. Long-term climate change scenarios produced either decreases or increases in Colorado plant productivity (NPP) depending on rainfall, but uniform increases in N-PP were predicted in Kenya. Elevated CO{sub 2} is likely to have little effect on ecosystem carbon storage in Colorado while it will increase carbon storage in Kenya. A synoptic climate classification processor (SCP) was developed to evaluate results of GCM climate sensitivity experiments. Roughly 80% agreement was achieved with manual classifications. Comparison of lx and 2xCO{sub 2} GCM Simulations revealed relatively small differences.

Coughenour, M.B.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Pielke, R.A.; Eastman, J.

1993-10-01

268

Community Assembly of Biological Soil Crusts of Different Successional Stages in a Temperate Sand Ecosystem, as Assessed by Direct Determination and Enrichment Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In temperate regions, biological soil crusts (BSCs: complex communities of cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, bryophytes, and\\u000a lichens) are not well investigated regarding community structure and diversity. Furthermore, studies on succession are rare.\\u000a For that reason, the community assembly of crusts representing two successional stages (initial, 5 years old; and stable,\\u000a >20 years old) were analyzed in an inland sand ecosystem in Germany in

Tanja Margrit Langhans; Christian Storm; Angelika Schwabe

2009-01-01

269

The importance of phenology for the evaluation of impact of climate change on growth of boreal, temperate and Mediterranean forests ecosystems: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of the phenological models relevant for boreal coniferous, temperate-zone deciduous and Mediterranean\\u000a coniferous forest ecosystems. The phenology of the boreal forests is mainly driven by temperature, affecting the timing of\\u000a the start of the growing season and thereby its duration, and the level of frost hardiness and thereby the reduction of foliage\\u000a area and photosynthetic capacity

K. Kramer; I. Leinonen; D. Loustau

2000-01-01

270

GPP/RE Partitioning of Long-term Network Flux Data as a Tool for Estimating Ecosystem-scale Ecophysiological Parameters of Grasslands and Croplands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physiologically based model of canopy CO2 exchange by Thornly and Johnson (2000) modified to incorporate vapor pressure deficit (VPD) limitation of photosynthesis is a robust tool for partitioning tower network net CO2 exchange data into gross photosynthesis (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) (Gilmanov et al. 2013a, b). In addition to 30-min and daily photosynthesis and respiration values, the procedure generates daily estimates and uncertainties of essential ecosystem-scale parameters such as apparent quantum yield ALPHA, photosynthetic capacity AMAX, convexity of light response THETA, gross ecological light-use efficiency LUE, daytime ecosystem respiration rate RDAY, and nighttime ecosystem respiration rate RNIGHT. These ecosystem-scale parameters are highly demanded by the modeling community and open opportunities for comparison with the rich data of leaf-level estimates of corresponding parameters available from physiological studies of previous decades. Based on the data for 70+ site-years of flux tower measurements at the non-forest sites of the Ameriflux network and the non-affiliated sites, we present results of the comparative analysis and multi-site synthesis of the magnitudes, uncertainties, patterns of seasonal and yearly dynamics, and spatiotemporal distribution of these parameters for grasslands and croplands of the conterminous United States (CONUS). Combining this site-level parameter data set with the rich spatiotemporal data sets of a remotely sensed vegetation index, weather and climate conditions, and site biophysical and geophysical features (phenology, photosynthetically active radiation, and soil water holding capacity) using methods of multivariate analysis (e.g., Cubist regression tree) offers new opportunities for predictive modeling and scaling-up of ecosystem-scale parameters of carbon cycling in grassland and agricultural ecosystems of CONUS (Zhang et al. 2011; Gu et al. 2012). REFERENCES Gilmanov TG, Baker JM, Bernacchi CJ, Billesbach DP, Burba GG, et al. (2013a). Productivity and CO2 exchange of the leguminous crops: Estimates from flux tower measurements. Agronomy J (submitted). Gilmanov TG, Wylie BK, Tieszen LL, Meyers TP, Baron VS, et al. (2013b). CO2 uptake and ecophysiological parameters of the grain crops of midcontinent North America: Estimates from flux tower measurements. Agric Ecosyst Environm 164: 162-175 Gu Y, Howard DM, Wylie BK, and Zhang L (2012). Mapping carbon flux uncertainty and selecting optimal locations for future flux towers in the Great Plains: Landscape Ecology, 27: 319-326. Thornley JHM., Johnson IR (2000). Plant and crop modelling. A mathematical approach to plant and crop physiology. The Blackburn Press, Caldwell, New Jersey. Zhang L, Wylie BK, Ji L, Gilmanov TG, Tieszen LL, Howard DM (2011). Upscaling carbon fluxes over the Great Plains grasslands: Sinks and sources. J Geophys Res G: Biogeosciences 116: G00J3

Gilmanov, T. G.; Wylie, B. K.; Gu, Y.; Howard, D. M.; Zhang, L.

2013-12-01

271

Applicability of the flood-pulse concept in a temperate floodplain river ecosystem: Thermal and temporal components  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual growth increments were calculated for blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) from the lower Mississippi River (LMR) to assess hypothesized relationships between fish growth and floodplain inundation as predicted by the Flood-Pulse Concept. Variation in catfish growth increment was high for all age classes of both species, and growth increments were not consistently related to various measures of floodplain inundation. However, relationships became stronger, and usually direct, when water temperature was integrated with area and duration of floodplain inundation. Relationships were significant for four of six age classes for blue catfish, a species known to utilize floodplain habitats. Though similar in direction, relationships were weaker for flathead catfish, which is considered a more riverine species. Our results indicate the Flood-Pulse Concept applies more strongly to temperate floodplain-river ecosystems when thermal aspects of flood pulses are considered. We recommend that future management of the LMR should consider ways to 'recouple' the annual flood and thermal cycles. An adaptive management approach will allow further determination of important processes affecting fisheries production in the LMR. Copyright ?? John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Schramm, H.L., Jr.; Eggleton, M.A.

2006-01-01

272

Effects of nutrient supply on intrinsic water-use efficiency of temperate semi-natural grassland under rising atmospheric CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

C3 plants generally increase photosynthesis (A) and decrease stomatal conductance (gs) under elevated CO2 [1]. However, nitrogen limitation has been shown to constrain the response of A [2] and could thus limit the increase in intrinsic water-use efficiency Wi. Stable carbon isotope studies on trees have shown that Wi increased in forests during the last century. Recently we showed that Wi has also increased in nutrient limited grassland ecosystems [3, 4]. We have now examined a 50 year-long record of Wi from community-level carbon isotope discrimination (13?) derived from archived hay and herbage samples (Park Grass Continuous Hay Experiment, Rothamsted, England [5]). We tested the hypothesis that plant responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 have resulted in a greater increase in Wi where plants received adequate nutrient inputs, because of the expected stronger increase in A with higher nutrient supply. We examined whether the response to rising CO2 was uniform across fertilizer treatments. Archived samples from five plots on Park Grass with different annual fertilizer applications (1. No N or PK; 2. 48 kg N ha-1, No PK; 3. No N +PK; 4. 48 kg N ha-1 +PK; 5. 96 kg N ha-1 +PK), covering the 1960 - 2009 period, were used. During the study period, atmospheric CO2 concentration increased by 22%. 13? was calculated from carbon isotope composition ?13C (= [(Rsample/Rstandard) - 1], with R the 13C/12C ratio in the sample or standard). 13? is a proxy of the leaf-level coupling of CO2 and transpiration fluxes, and a measure of Wi, with Wi = A/gs = ca (1 - ci / ca) / 1.6 and ci / ca = (13? - a) / (b - a), (a=4.4‰, b=27‰). Linear regression showed significant 13? increases: 0.1‰ per 10 ppm CO2 increase on the control (P<0.05), the PK treatment (P<0.001) and the low N, PK treatment (P<0.05). On the low N treatment, the increase was only significant at the 10% level. On the high N, PK treatment 13? increased by 0.04‰ per 10 ppm, but this was not significant (P = 0.18). Slopes did not differ significantly. Kernel regression showed increasing Wi on all treatments. As Wi was derived from 13?, it was apparent that there were no significant differences in plant responses to rising CO2 on plots with different fertilizer inputs. This indicates that the regulation of A and gs under the recent increase in atmospheric CO2 did not differ between the treatments. No increases in yields were observed on the studied plots. Thus, if an increase in A occurred, it did not result in an increase in above ground biomass, even on the well fertilized plot. We suggest that the increase in Wi was achieved mainly by a decrease in gs. This could lead to decreased transpiration of water and increased surface run-off or drainage from this grassland. [1] Ainsworth, E.A. & Rogers, A. (2007) Plant Cell Environ 30, 258-270 [2] Stitt & Krapp (1999) Plant Cell Environ 22, 583-621 [3] Barbosa et al. (2010) Glob Change Biol 16, 1171-1180 [4] Köhler et al. (2010) Glob Change Biol 16, 1531-1541 [5] Silvertown et al. (2006) J Ecol 94, 801-814

Koehler, I. H.; MacDonald, A.; Poulton, P.; Auerswald, K.; Schnyder, H.

2010-12-01

273

Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasions have increased the size of regional species pools, but are typically assumed to reduce native diversity. However, global-scale tests of this assumption have been elusive because of the focus on exotic species richness, rather than relative abundance. This is problematic because low invader richness can indicate invasion resistance by the native community or, alternatively, dominance by a single exotic species. Here, we used a globally replicated study to quantify relationships between exotic richness and abundance in grass-dominated ecosystems in 13 countries on six continents, ranging from salt marshes to alpine tundra. We tested effects of human land use, native community diversity, herbivore pressure, and nutrient limitation on exotic plant dominance. Despite its widespread use, exotic richness was a poor proxy for exotic dominance at low exotic richness, because sites that contained few exotic species ranged from relatively pristine (low exotic richness and cover) to almost completely exotic-dominated ones (low exotic richness but high exotic cover). Both exotic cover and richness were predicted by native plant diversity (native grass richness) and land use (distance to cultivation). Although climate was important for predicting both exotic cover and richness, climatic factors predicting cover (precipitation variability) differed from those predicting richness (maximum temperature and mean temperature in the wettest quarter). Herbivory and nutrient limitation did not predict exotic richness or cover. Exotic dominance was greatest in areas with low native grass richness at the site- or regional-scale. Although this could reflect native grass displacement, a lack of biotic resistance is a more likely explanation, given that grasses comprise the most aggressive invaders. These findings underscore the need to move beyond richness as a surrogate for the extent of invasion, because this metric confounds monodominance with invasion resistance. Monitoring species' relative abundance will more rapidly advance our understanding of invasions

Seabloom, Eric; Borer, Elizabeth; Buckley, Yvonne; Cleland, Elsa E.; Davies, Kendi; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric M.; MacDougall, Andrew; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Adler, Peter; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Caldeira, Maria; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Dickman, Chris R.; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A.; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andrew; Helm, Aveliina; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Humphries, Hope C.; Iribarne, Oscar; Jin, Virginia L.; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Ladwig, Laura M.; Lambrinos; John, G.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; McCulley, Rebecca; Melbourne, Brett; Mitchell; Charles, E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Pärtel, Meelis; Pascual, Jesús; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda; Stevens, Carly; Sullivan, Lauren; Wardle, Glenda M.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

2013-01-01

274

Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness?  

SciTech Connect

Invasions have increased the size of regional species pools, but are typically assumed to reduce native diversity. However, global-scale tests of this assumption have been elusive because of the focus on exotic species richness, rather than relative abundance. This is problematic because low invader richness can indicate invasion resistance by the native community or, alternatively, dominance by a single exotic species. Here, we used a globally replicated study to quantify relationships between exotic richness and abundance in grass-dominated ecosystems in 13 countries on six continents, ranging from salt marshes to alpine tundra. We tested effects of human land use, native community diversity, herbivore pressure, and nutrient limitation on exotic plant dominance. Despite its widespread use, exotic richness was a poor proxy for exotic dominance at low exotic richness, because sites that contained few exotic species ranged from relatively pristine (low exotic richness and cover) to almost completely exotic-dominated ones (low exotic richness but high exotic cover). Both exotic cover and richness were predicted by native plant diversity (native grass richness) and land use (distance to cultivation). Although climate was important for predicting both exotic cover and richness, climatic factors predicting cover (precipitation variability) differed from those predicting richness (maximum temperature and mean temperature in the wettest quarter). Herbivory and nutrient limitation did not predict exotic richness or cover. Exotic dominance was greatest in areas with low native grass richness at the site- or regional-scale. Although this could reflect native grass displacement, a lack of biotic resistance is a more likely explanation, given that grasses comprise the most aggressive invaders. These findings underscore the need to move beyond richness as a surrogate for the extent of invasion, because this metric confounds monodominance with invasion resistance. Monitoring species’ relative abundance will more rapidly advance our understanding of invasions.

Seabloom, Eric W. [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of MN, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA

2013-08-14

275

Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness?  

PubMed

Invasions have increased the size of regional species pools, but are typically assumed to reduce native diversity. However, global-scale tests of this assumption have been elusive because of the focus on exotic species richness, rather than relative abundance. This is problematic because low invader richness can indicate invasion resistance by the native community or, alternatively, dominance by a single exotic species. Here, we used a globally replicated study to quantify relationships between exotic richness and abundance in grass-dominated ecosystems in 13 countries on six continents, ranging from salt marshes to alpine tundra. We tested effects of human land use, native community diversity, herbivore pressure, and nutrient limitation on exotic plant dominance. Despite its widespread use, exotic richness was a poor proxy for exotic dominance at low exotic richness, because sites that contained few exotic species ranged from relatively pristine (low exotic richness and cover) to almost completely exotic-dominated ones (low exotic richness but high exotic cover). Both exotic cover and richness were predicted by native plant diversity (native grass richness) and land use (distance to cultivation). Although climate was important for predicting both exotic cover and richness, climatic factors predicting cover (precipitation variability) differed from those predicting richness (maximum temperature and mean temperature in the wettest quarter). Herbivory and nutrient limitation did not predict exotic richness or cover. Exotic dominance was greatest in areas with low native grass richness at the site- or regional-scale. Although this could reflect native grass displacement, a lack of biotic resistance is a more likely explanation, given that grasses comprise the most aggressive invaders. These findings underscore the need to move beyond richness as a surrogate for the extent of invasion, because this metric confounds monodominance with invasion resistance. Monitoring species' relative abundance will more rapidly advance our understanding of invasions. PMID:24038796

Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Buckley, Yvonne; Cleland, Elsa E; Davies, Kendi; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric; MacDougall, Andrew; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Adler, Peter; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori A; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Caldeira, Maria; Chu, Chengjin; Crawley, Michael J; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I; D'Antonio, Carla M; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Dickman, Chris R; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andrew; Helm, Aveliina; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Humphries, Hope C; Iribarne, Oscar; Jin, Virginia L; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Ladwig, Laura M; Lambrinos, John G; Leakey, Andrew D B; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; McCulley, Rebecca; Melbourne, Brett; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Pärtel, Meelis; Pascual, Jesús; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda; Stevens, Carly; Sullivan, Lauren; Wardle, Glenda M; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

2013-12-01

276

The relation between productivity and species diversity in temperate-Arctic marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Energy variables, such as evapotranspiration, temperature, and productivity explain significant variation in the diversity of many groups of terrestrial plants and animals at local to global scales. Although the ocean represents the largest continuous habitat on earth with a vast spectrum of primary productivity and species richness, little is known about how productivity influences species diversity in marine systems. To search for general relationships between productivity and species richness in the ocean, we analyzed data from three different benthic marine ecosystems (epifaunal communities on subtidal rock walls, on navigation buoys in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Canadian Arctic macrobenthos) across local to continental spatial scales (<20 to >1000 km) using a standardized proxy for productivity, satellite-derived chlorophyll a. Theoretically, the form of the function between productivity and species richness is either monotonically increasing or decreasing, or curvilinear (hump- or U-shaped). We found three negative linear and three hump-shaped relationships between chlorophyll a and species richness out of 10 independent comparisons. Scale dependence was suggested by more prevalent diversity-productivity relationships at smaller (local, landscape) than larger (regional, continental) spatial scales. Differences in the form of the functions were more closely allied with community type than with scale, as negative linear functions were restricted to sessile epifauna while hump-shaped functions occurred in Arctic macrobenthos (mixed epifauna, infauna). In two of the data sets, (St. Lawrence epifauna and Arctic macrobenthos) significant effects of chlorophyll a co-varied with the effects of salinity, suggesting that environmental stress as well as productivity influences diversity in these marine systems. The co-varying effect of salinity may commonly arise in broad-scale studies of productivity and diversity in marine ecosystems when attempting to sample the largest range of productivity, often encompassing a coastal-oceanic gradient. PMID:19097485

Witman, Jon D; Cusson, Mathieu; Archambault, Philippe; Pershing, Andrew J; Mieszkowska, Nova

2008-11-01

277

Interactive effects of elevated CO2, warming, and drought on photosynthesis of Deschampsia flexuosa in a temperate heath ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Global change factors affect plant carbon uptake in concert. In order to investigate the response directions and potential interactive effects, and to understand the underlying mechanisms, multifactor experiments are needed. The focus of this study was on the photosynthetic response to elevated CO2 [CO2; free air CO2 enrichment (FACE)], drought (D; water-excluding curtains), and night-time warming (T; infrared-reflective curtains) in a temperate heath. A/Ci curves were measured, allowing analysis of light-saturated net photosynthesis (Pn), light- and CO2-saturated net photosynthesis (Pmax), stomatal conductance (gs), the maximal rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), and the maximal rate of ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration (Jmax) along with leaf ?13C, and carbon and nitrogen concentration on a monthly basis in the grass Deschampsia flexuosa. Seasonal drought reduced Pn via gs, but severe (experimental) drought decreased Pn via a reduction in photosynthetic capacity (Pmax, Jmax, and Vcmax). The effects were completely reversed by rewetting and stimulated Pn via photosynthetic capacity stimulation. Warming increased early and late season Pn via higher Pmax and Jmax. Elevated CO2 did not decrease gs, but stimulated Pn via increased Ci. The T×CO2 synergistically increased plant carbon uptake via photosynthetic capacity up-regulation in early season and by better access to water after rewetting. The effects of the combination of drought and elevated CO2 depended on soil water availability, with additive effects when the soil water content was low and D×CO2 synergistic stimulation of Pn after rewetting. The photosynthetic responses appeared to be highly influenced by growth pattern. The grass has opportunistic water consumption, and a biphasic growth pattern allowing for leaf dieback at low soil water availability followed by rapid re-growth of active leaves when rewetted and possibly a large resource allocation capability mediated by the rhizome. This growth characteristic allowed for the photosynthetic capacity up-regulations that mediated the T×CO2 and D×CO2 synergistic effects on photosynthesis. These are clearly advantageous characteristics when exposed to climate changes. In conclusion, after 1 year of experimentation, the limitations by low soil water availability and stimulation in early and late season by warming clearly structure and interact with the photosynthetic response to elevated CO2 in this grassland species. PMID:21586430

Albert, K. R.; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Mikkelsen, T. N.; Michelsen, A.; van der Linden, L.; Beier, C.

2011-01-01

278

Interactive effects of elevated CO2, warming, and drought on photosynthesis of Deschampsia flexuosa in a temperate heath ecosystem.  

PubMed

Global change factors affect plant carbon uptake in concert. In order to investigate the response directions and potential interactive effects, and to understand the underlying mechanisms, multifactor experiments are needed. The focus of this study was on the photosynthetic response to elevated CO(2) [CO2; free air CO(2) enrichment (FACE)], drought (D; water-excluding curtains), and night-time warming (T; infrared-reflective curtains) in a temperate heath. A/C(i) curves were measured, allowing analysis of light-saturated net photosynthesis (P(n)), light- and CO(2)-saturated net photosynthesis (P(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), the maximal rate of Rubisco carboxylation (V(cmax)), and the maximal rate of ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration (J(max)) along with leaf ?(13)C, and carbon and nitrogen concentration on a monthly basis in the grass Deschampsia flexuosa. Seasonal drought reduced P(n) via g(s), but severe (experimental) drought decreased P(n) via a reduction in photosynthetic capacity (P(max), J(max), and V(cmax)). The effects were completely reversed by rewetting and stimulated P(n) via photosynthetic capacity stimulation. Warming increased early and late season P(n) via higher P(max) and J(max). Elevated CO(2) did not decrease g(s), but stimulated P(n) via increased C(i). The T×CO2 synergistically increased plant carbon uptake via photosynthetic capacity up-regulation in early season and by better access to water after rewetting. The effects of the combination of drought and elevated CO(2) depended on soil water availability, with additive effects when the soil water content was low and D×CO2 synergistic stimulation of P(n) after rewetting. The photosynthetic responses appeared to be highly influenced by growth pattern. The grass has opportunistic water consumption, and a biphasic growth pattern allowing for leaf dieback at low soil water availability followed by rapid re-growth of active leaves when rewetted and possibly a large resource allocation capability mediated by the rhizome. This growth characteristic allowed for the photosynthetic capacity up-regulations that mediated the T×CO2 and D×CO2 synergistic effects on photosynthesis. These are clearly advantageous characteristics when exposed to climate changes. In conclusion, after 1 year of experimentation, the limitations by low soil water availability and stimulation in early and late season by warming clearly structure and interact with the photosynthetic response to elevated CO(2) in this grassland species. PMID:21586430

Albert, K R; Ro-Poulsen, H; Mikkelsen, T N; Michelsen, A; van der Linden, L; Beier, C

2011-08-01

279

Ecosystem loss of soil inorganic carbon from agricultural conversion of native grasslands and woodlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil carbonates represent a quarter of the terrestrial carbon pool and are considered to be relatively stable, with fluxes significant only at geologic timescales. However, given the potential importance of water on carbonate chemistry, we propose that increased soil water fluxes from recent land-use changes may enhance dissolution of soil carbonates. To test rapid changes in soil carbonates with land-use changes, we assessed soil carbonate storage to 7.2 m depth in 4 triplets of native vegetation and rain-fed and irrigated cropland plots and 2 additional pairs of native vegetation and rain-fed cultivation plots across the southern Great Plains of United States and Pampas of Argentina, where large scale agricultural conversion typically increases soil water flux. Rain-fed and irrigated croplands had 513 and 906 Mg/ha less soil carbonate storage compared to their native vegetation pairs on average (P<0.0002), which were more than an order of magnitude larger than changes in ecosystem organic carbon at the sites. The eventual fate of the lost carbon (i.e. sequestration or emission of CO2), however, is unclear. Average soil carbonate contents from individual boreholes were negatively related to groundwater recharge estimates (site-specific; 0.00004

Kim, J. H.; Jobbagy, E. G.; Richter, D.; Jackson, R. B.

2013-12-01

280

Ecosystem Manipulation and Restoration on the Basis of Long-Term Conceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ecosystems are affected by anthopogenic activities at a global level and, thus, are manipulated world-wide. This chapter addresses\\u000a the impacts of apparent and non-apparent manipulations and restoration by human activities in Europe with a focus on the temperate\\u000a zone. Agricultural management practices induced evident site-specific modification of natural ecosystem structures and functions\\u000a whereas forests and natural grasslands and also aquatic

Oliver Dilly; Seth Nii-Annang; Joachim Schrautzer; Peter Schwartze; Vera Breuer; Eva-Maria Pfeiffer; Werner Gerwin; Wolfgang Schaaf; Dirk Freese; Maik Veste; Reinhard F. Hüttl

281

Communities of Endophytic Sebacinales Associated with Roots of Herbaceous Plants in Agricultural and Grassland Ecosystems Are Dominated by Serendipita herbamans sp. nov  

PubMed Central

Endophytic fungi are known to be commonly associated with herbaceous plants, however, there are few studies focusing on their occurrence and distribution in plant roots from ecosystems with different land uses. To explore the phylogenetic diversity and community structure of Sebacinales endophytes from agricultural and grassland habitats under different land uses, we analysed the roots of herbaceous plants using strain isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and co-cultivation experiments. A new sebacinoid strain named Serendipita herbamans belonging to Sebacinales group B was isolated from the roots of Bistorta vivipara, which is characterized by colourless monilioid cells (chlamydospores) that become yellow with age. This species was very common and widely distributed in association with a broad spectrum of herbaceous plant families in diverse habitats, independent of land use type. Ultrastructurally, the presence of S. herbamans was detected in the cortical cells of Plantago media, Potentilla anserina and Triticum aestivum. In addition, 13 few frequent molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) or species were found across agricultural and grassland habitats, which did not exhibit a distinctive phylogenetic structure. Laboratory-based assays indicate that S. herbamans has the ability to colonize fine roots and stimulate plant growth. Although endophytic Sebacinales are widely distributed across agricultural and grassland habitats, TEM and nested PCR analyses reinforce the observation that these microorganisms are present in low quantity in plant roots, with no evidence of host specificity. PMID:24743185

Riess, Kai; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Garnica, Sigisfredo

2014-01-01

282

A semi-mechanistic model of dead fine fuel moisture for Temperate and Mediterranean ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is a major disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems globally. It has an enormous economic and social cost, and leads to fatalities in the worst cases. The moisture content of the vegetation (fuel moisture) is one of the main determinants of fire risk. Predicting the moisture content of dead and fine fuel (< 2.5 cm in diameter) is particularly important, as this is often the most important component of the fuel complex for fire propagation. A variety of drought indices, empirical and mechanistic models have been proposed to model fuel moisture. A commonality across these different approaches is that they have been neither validated across large temporal datasets nor validated across broadly different vegetation types. Here, we present the results of a study performed at 6 locations in California, USA (5 sites) and New South Wales, Australia (1 site), where 10-hours fuel moisture content was continuously measured every 30 minutes during one full year at each site. We observed that drought indices did not accurately predict fuel moisture, and that empirical and mechanistic models both needed site-specific calibrations, which hinders their global application as indices of fuel moisture. We developed a novel, single equation and semi-mechanistic model, based on atmospheric vapor-pressure deficit. Across sites and years, mean absolute error (MAE) of predicted fuel moisture was 4.7%. MAE dropped <1% in the critical range of fuel moisture <10%. The high simplicity, accuracy and precision of our model makes it suitable for a wide range of applications: from operational purposes, to global vegetation models.

Resco de Dios, Víctor; Fellows, Aaron; Boer, Matthias; Bradstock, Ross; Nolan, Rachel; Goulden, Michel

2014-05-01

283

Seasonal Belowground Ecosystem and Eco-enzymatic Responses to Soil pH and Phosphorus Availability in Temperate Hardwood Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric acid deposition can increase phosphorus (P) limitation in temperate hardwood forests by increasing N availability, and therefore P demand, and/or by decreasing pH and occluding inorganic P. However, only recently have studies demonstrated that P limitation can occur in temperate forests and very little is known about the temporal aspects of P dynamics in acidic forest soils and how seasonal shifts in nutrient availability and demand influence microbial investment in extracellular enzymes. The objectives of this study were to investigate how P availability and soil pH influence seasonal patterns of nutrient cycling and soil microbial activity in hardwood forests that experience chronic acid deposition. We experimentally manipulated soil pH, P, or both for three years and examined soil treatment responses in fall, winter, spring, early summer, and late summer. We found that site (glaciated versus unglaciated) and treatment had the most significant influence on nutrient pools and cycling. In general, nutrient pools were higher in glaciated soils than unglaciated for measured nutrients, including total C and N (2-3 times higher), extractable inorganic nitrogen, and readily available P. Treatment had no impact on total C and N pools in either region, but did affect other measured nutrients such as ammonium, which was greatest in the elevated pH treatment for both sites. As expected, readily available P pools were highest in the elevated P treatments (3 fold increase in both sites), but raising pH decreased available P pools in the glaciated site. Raising soil pH increased both net N mineralization rates and net P mineralization rates, regardless of site. Nitrification responses were complex, but we observed an overall significant nitrification increase under elevated pH, particularly in the growing season. Extracellular enzyme activity showed more seasonal patterns than site and treatment effects, exhibiting significant growing season activity reductions for all enzymes measured. Phosphatase enzymes did not respond to our treatments and were generally greatest in the unglaciated soils, particularly in winter and spring. Enzyme stoichiometric relationships revealed that soil microbial populations in the glaciated site were consistently less P and N-limited than unglaciated sites but this difference was less pronounced during the growing season. The trajectory of nutrient limitation in response to soil pH and P availability was highly variable, but we observed that enzyme ratios in the early summer were particularly shifted relative to other seasons suggesting that both sites were increasingly P and N-limited during this period. Overall, our results suggest that ecosystem and microbial responses to soil pH and P availability vary with both season and site history and that more spatially and temporally explicit observations are needed to improve our understanding of ecosystem acidification, nutrient limitation, and the cost-benefit relationships of microbial investments in extracellular enzymes.

Smemo, K. A.; Deforest, J. L.; Petersen, S. L.; Burke, D.; Hewins, C.; Kluber, L. A.; Kyker, S. R.

2013-12-01

284

Scale-Dependent Effects of Grazing on Plant C: N: P Stoichiometry and Linkages to Ecosystem Functioning in the Inner Mongolia Grassland  

PubMed Central

Background Livestock grazing is the most prevalent land use of grasslands worldwide. The effects of grazing on plant C, N, P contents and stoichiometry across hierarchical levels, however, have rarely been studied; particularly whether the effects are mediated by resource availability and the underpinning mechanisms remain largely unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multi-organization-level approach, we examined the effects of grazing on the C, N, and P contents and stoichiometry in plant tissues (leaves and roots) and linkages to ecosystem functioning across three vegetation types (meadow, meadow steppe, and typical steppe) in the Inner Mongolia grassland, China. Our results showed that the effects of grazing on the C, N, and P contents and stoichiometry in leaves and roots differed substantially among vegetation types and across different hierarchical levels (species, functional group, and vegetation type levels). The magnitude of positive effects of grazing on leaf N and P contents increased progressively along the hierarchy of organizational levels in the meadow, whereas its negative effect on leaf N content decreased considerably along hierarchical levels in both the typical and meadow steppes. Grazing increased N and P allocation to aboveground in the meadow, while greater N and P allocation to belowground was found in the typical and meadow steppes. The differences in soil properties, plant trait-based resource use strategies, tolerance or defense strategies to grazing, and shifts in functional group composition are likely to be the key mechanisms for the observed patterns among vegetation types. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that the enhanced vegetation-type-level N contents by grazing and species compensatory feedbacks may be insufficient to prevent widespread declines in primary productivity in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Hence, it is essential to reduce the currently high stocking rates and restore the vast degraded steppes for sustainable development of arid and semiarid grasslands. PMID:23272158

Zheng, Shuxia; Ren, Haiyan; Li, Wenhuai; Lan, Zhichun

2012-01-01

285

Response of carbon dioxide emissions to sheep grazing and N application in an alpine grassland - Part 2: Effect of N application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread nitrogen (N) enrichment resulting from anthropogenic activities has led to great changes in carbon exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Grassland is one of the most sensitive ecosystems to N deposition. However, the effect of N deposition on ecosystem respiration (Re) in grasslands has been conducted mainly in temperate grasslands, which are limited largely by water availability, with few studies focused on alpine grasslands that are primarily constrained by low temperatures. Failure to assess the magnitude of the response in Re outside the growing season (NGS) in previous studies also limits our understanding of carbon exchange under N deposition conditions. To address these knowledge gaps we used a combination of static closed chambers and gas chromatography in an alpine grassland from 2010 to 2011 to test the effects of N application on ecosystem respiration (Re) both inside and outside the growing season. There was no significant change in CO2 emissions under N application. Re outside the growing season was at least equivalent to 9.4% of the CO2 fluxes during the growing season (GS). Annual Re was calculated to be 279.0-403.9 g CO2 m-2 yr-1 in Bayinbuluk alpine grasslands. In addition, our results indicate that soil temperature was the dominant abiotic factor regulating variation in Re in the cold and arid environment. Our results suggest that short-term N additions exert no significant effect on CO2 emissions in alpine grassland.

Gong, Y. M.; Mohammat, A.; Liu, X. J.; Li, K. H.; Christie, P.; Fang, F.; Song, W.; Chang, Y. H.; Han, W. X.; Lü, X. T.; Liu, Y. Y.; Hu, Y. K.

2014-04-01

286

Decomposition of Organic Carbon in Fine Soil Particles Is Likely More Sensitive to Warming than in Coarse Particles: An Incubation Study with Temperate Grassland and Forest Soils in Northern China  

PubMed Central

It is widely recognized that global warming promotes soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition, and soils thus emit more CO2 into the atmosphere because of the warming; however, the response of SOC decomposition to this warming in different soil textures is unclear. This lack of knowledge limits our projection of SOC turnover and CO2 emission from soils after future warming. To investigate the CO2 emission from soils with different textures, we conducted a 107-day incubation experiment. The soils were sampled from temperate forest and grassland in northern China. The incubation was conducted over three short-term cycles of changing temperature from 5°C to 30°C, with an interval of 5°C. Our results indicated that CO2 emissions from sand (>50 µm), silt (2–50 µm), and clay (<2 µm) particles increased exponentially with increasing temperature. The sand fractions emitted more CO2 (CO2-C per unit fraction-C) than the silt and clay fractions in both forest and grassland soils. The temperature sensitivity of the CO2 emission from soil particles, which is expressed as Q10, decreased in the order clay>silt>sand. Our study also found that nitrogen availability in the soil facilitated the temperature dependence of SOC decomposition. A further analysis of the incubation data indicated a power-law decrease of Q10 with increasing temperature. Our results suggested that the decomposition of organic carbon in fine-textured soils that are rich in clay or silt could be more sensitive to warming than those in coarse sandy soils and that SOC might be more vulnerable in boreal and temperate regions than in subtropical and tropical regions under future warming. PMID:24736659

Ding, Fan; Huang, Yao; Sun, Wenjuan; Jiang, Guangfu; Chen, Yue

2014-01-01

287

Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide.  

PubMed

Aboveground-belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m(2) plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity. PMID:25430889

Prober, Suzanne M; Leff, Jonathan W; Bates, Scott T; Borer, Elizabeth T; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Lind, Eric M; Seabloom, Eric W; Adler, Peter B; Bakker, Jonathan D; Cleland, Elsa E; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Kirkman, Kevin P; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; MacDougall, Andrew S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Mitchell, Charles E; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J; Williams, Ryan J; Fierer, Noah

2015-01-01

288

Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aboveground–belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m2 plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity.

Prober, Suzanne M.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Bates, Scott T.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Lind, Eric M.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Adler, Peter B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Cleland, Elsa E.; DeCrappeo, Nicole; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J.; Williams, Ryan J.; Fierer, Noah

2015-01-01

289

Testing mechanisms of N-enrichment-induced species loss in a semiarid Inner Mongolia grassland: critical thresholds and implications for long-term ecosystem responses.  

PubMed

The increase in nutrient availability as a consequence of elevated nitrogen (N) deposition is an important component of global environmental change. This is likely to substantially affect the functioning and provisioning of ecosystem services by drylands, where water and N are often limited. We tested mechanisms of chronic N-enrichment-induced plant species loss in a 10-year field experiment with six levels of N addition rate. Our findings on a semi-arid grassland in Inner Mongolia demonstrated that: (i) species richness (SR) declined by 16 per cent even at low levels of additional N (1.75 g N m(-2) yr(-1)), and 50-70% species were excluded from plots which received high N input (10.5-28 g N m(-2) yr(-1)); (ii) the responses of SR and above-ground biomass (AGB) to N were greater in wet years than dry years; (iii) N addition increased the inter-annual variations in AGB, reduced the drought resistance of production and hence diminished ecosystem stability; (iv) the critical threshold for chronic N-enrichment-induced reduction in SR differed between common and rare species, and increased over the time of the experiment owing to the loss of the more sensitive species. These results clearly indicate that both abundance and functional trait-based mechanisms operate simultaneously on N-induced species loss. The low initial abundance and low above-ground competitive ability may be attributable to the loss of rare species. However, shift from below-ground competition to above-ground competition and recruitment limitation are likely to be the key mechanisms for the loss of abundant species, with soil acidification being less important. Our results have important implications for understanding the impacts of N deposition and global climatic change (e.g. change in precipitation regimes) on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Inner Mongolian grassland and beyond. PMID:23045710

Lan, Zhichun; Bai, Yongfei

2012-11-19

290

Testing mechanisms of N-enrichment-induced species loss in a semiarid Inner Mongolia grassland: critical thresholds and implications for long-term ecosystem responses  

PubMed Central

The increase in nutrient availability as a consequence of elevated nitrogen (N) deposition is an important component of global environmental change. This is likely to substantially affect the functioning and provisioning of ecosystem services by drylands, where water and N are often limited. We tested mechanisms of chronic N-enrichment-induced plant species loss in a 10-year field experiment with six levels of N addition rate. Our findings on a semi-arid grassland in Inner Mongolia demonstrated that: (i) species richness (SR) declined by 16 per cent even at low levels of additional N (1.75 g N m–2 yr?1), and 50–70% species were excluded from plots which received high N input (10.5–28 g N m?2 yr?1); (ii) the responses of SR and above-ground biomass (AGB) to N were greater in wet years than dry years; (iii) N addition increased the inter-annual variations in AGB, reduced the drought resistance of production and hence diminished ecosystem stability; (iv) the critical threshold for chronic N-enrichment-induced reduction in SR differed between common and rare species, and increased over the time of the experiment owing to the loss of the more sensitive species. These results clearly indicate that both abundance and functional trait-based mechanisms operate simultaneously on N-induced species loss. The low initial abundance and low above-ground competitive ability may be attributable to the loss of rare species. However, shift from below-ground competition to above-ground competition and recruitment limitation are likely to be the key mechanisms for the loss of abundant species, with soil acidification being less important. Our results have important implications for understanding the impacts of N deposition and global climatic change (e.g. change in precipitation regimes) on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Inner Mongolian grassland and beyond. PMID:23045710

Lan, Zhichun; Bai, Yongfei

2012-01-01

291

ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO PRECIPITATION QUANTITY AND FREQUENCY IN GRASSLANDS: PATTERN AND PROCESS FROM THE GENE TO THE ECOSYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grasslands account for 40% of the U.S. land mass and are highly responsive to temperature and precipitation variability. Climate models and observations indicate warming and increased temporal variability in continental rainfall patterns resulting from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Gro...

292

Preferential uptake of soil nitrogen forms by grassland plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we assessed whether a range of temperate grassland species showed preferential uptake for different chemical forms of N, including inorganic N and a range of amino acids that commonly occur in temperate grassland soil. Preferential uptake of dual-labelled ( 13C and 15N) glycine, serine, arginine and phenylalanine, as compared to inorganic N, was tested using plants growing

Alexandra Weigelt; Roland Bol; Richard D. Bardgett

2005-01-01

293

Super High Resolution Airborne Remote Sensing for Evaluating the Decomposition Function of Ecosystem of Temperate Forest in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest ecosystem is sustained by nutrients cycle among trees, floor vegetation, litter, and soil etc. One of important driving mechanisms for such nutrients cycle is the decomposition of the fallen trees by fungi, and this process would play an important function in the biogeochemical cycle of the environment. This study challenged to identify the position and size of fallen trees in a temperate forest in Japan based on super high resolution (less than 1cm) visual images taken from a camera aboard a helicopter. Field campaign was carried out on November 29, 2011 at the experimental forest (6 ha, 300m x 200m, 36° 56' 10.5'N, 140° 35' 16.5'E) in Kitaibaraki, Ibaraki, Japan. According to the census survey of the forest, deciduous broad leave trees are dominant. There was almost no leaf in the forest crown on the day of the field campaign, and that brought a high visibility of the floor from the sky. The topography of the forest site is characterized by a small valley with a river flowing north to south at its bottom. An unmanned helicopter (Yamaha RMAX G1) flew over the forest in north-south lines with a speed of 3m/s at height of 30-70m from the ground surface. The interval between adjacent two lines was 20m. A consumer grade camera (Canon EOS Kiss X5 with 55mm lens; 5184 x 3456 pixels) was fixed with the vertically looking down direction on the helicopter. The camera took forest images with 5 seconds interval. The helicopter was also equipped by a laser range finder (LRF) (SkEyesBOX MP-1). Based on the point cloud created by the LRF measurement, 1 x 1m digital elevation model (DEM) of the ground surface was established by finding the lowest point value of the point cloud in each 1 x 1m grid of the forest. The forest was covered by 211 images taken by the camera. Each image was orthorectified by using the DEM and the data of the position and orientations of the helicopter, and then they were mosaicked into one image. Fallen trees with the diameter more than 10cm were targeted for the analysis, and we confirmed that some of fallen tree was easily to identify visually, but some of them was hard to identify because the branch and trunk of trees hided fallen trees. We are going develop the automatic detection algorithm by decision tree and object-based classifications, and then validate the algorithm with in situ information.

Suzuki, R.; Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Nagai, S.; Okabe, K.; Yamashita, S.; Taki, H.; Honda, Y.; Kajiwara, K.

2013-12-01

294

Soil warming effect on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide during the transition from winter carbon source to spring carbon sink in a temperate urban lawn.  

PubMed

The significant warming in urban environment caused by the combined effects of global warming and heat island has stimulated widely development of urban vegetations. However, it is less known of the climate feedback of urban lawn in warmed environment. Soil warming effect on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide during the transition period from winter to spring was investigated in a temperate urban lawn in Beijing, China. The NEE (negative for uptake) under soil warming treatment (temperature was about 5 degrees C higher than the ambient treatment as a control) was -0.71 micromol/(m2 x sec), the ecosytem was a CO2 sink under soil warming treatment, the lawn ecosystem under the control was a CO2 source (0.13 micromol/(m2 x sec)), indicating that the lawn ecosystem would provide a negative feedback to global warming. There was no significant effect of soil warming on nocturnal NEE (i.e., ecosystem respiration), although the soil temperature sensitivity (Q10) of ecosystem respiration under soil warming treatment was 3.86, much lower than that in the control (7.03). The CO2 uptake was significantly increased by soil warming treatment that was attributed to about 100% increase of alpha (apparent quantum yield) and Amax (maximum rate of photosynthesis). Our results indicated that the response of photosynthesis in urban lawn is much more sensitive to global warming than respiration in the transition period. PMID:23534206

Zhou, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaoke; Tong, Lei; Zhang, Hongxing; Lu, Fei; Zheng, Feixiang; Hou, Peiqiang; Song, Wenzhi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

2012-01-01

295

Elevated CO2 and warming influence ecosystem carbon dynamics and evapotranspiration in a semi-arid grassland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ecosystem carbon dynamics are sensitive to rising CO2 concentrations and warming, but the combined effects of these global change drivers on ecosystem carbon uptake and loss remain a critical uncertainty. Northern mixed grass prairie is expected to be among the most responsive ecosystems to the effe...

296

Consequences of cool-season drought induced plant mortality to Chihuahuan Desert grassland ecosystem and soil respiration dynamics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global climate change is predicted to increase the severity and frequency of cool-season drought across the arid Southwest US. We quantified net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) in response to interannual seasonal precip...

297

Population size and conservation of the last eastern remnants of the regal fritillary, Speyeria idalia (Drury) [Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae]; implications for temperate grassland restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We monitored the last remaining Pennsylvania population of the regal fritillary butterfly (Speyeria idalia) for 8 years (1997–2005) at Fort Indiantown Gap, a National Guard training facility located in south-central Pennsylvania,\\u000a USA. We observed demes of this population in five grassland areas, four of which received limited protection from anthropogenic\\u000a military activities (i.e., motorized vehicles were prohibited). The Pollard walk technique

Betty Ferster; Kevina Vulinec

2010-01-01

298

Effects of winter temperature and summer drought on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a temperate peatland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern peatlands are one of the most important global sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2); their ability to sequester C is a natural feedback mechanism controlled by climatic variables such as precipitation, temperature, length of growing season and period of snow cover. In the UK it has been predicted that peatlands could become a net source of carbon in response to climate change with climate models predicting a rise in global temperature of ca. 3oC between 1961-1990 and 2100. Land-atmosphere exchange of CO2in peatlands exhibits marked seasonal and inter-annual variations, which have significant short- and long-term effects on carbon sink strength. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 has been measured continuously by eddy-covariance (EC) at Auchencorth Moss (55° 47'32 N, 3° 14'35 W, 267 m a.s.l.), a temperate peatland in central Scotland, since 2002. Auchencorth Moss is a low-lying, ombrotrophic peatland situated ca. 20 km south-west of Edinburgh. Peat depth ranges from 5 m and the site has a mean annual precipitation of 1155 mm. The vegetation present within the flux measurement footprint comprises mixed grass species, heather and substantial areas of moss species (Sphagnum spp. and Polytrichum spp.). The EC system consists of a LiCOR 7000 closed-path infrared gas analyser for the simultaneous measurement of CO2 and water vapour and of a Gill Windmaster Pro ultrasonic anemometer. Over the 10 year period, the site was a consistent yet variable sink of CO2 ranging from -34.1 to -135.9 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1 (mean of -69.1 ± 33.6 g CO2-C m-2 yr-1). Inter-annual variability in NEE was positively correlated to the length of the growing seasons and mean winter air temperature explained 93% of the variability in summertime sink strength, indicating a phenological memory-effect. Plant development and productivity were stunted by colder winters causing a net reduction in the annual carbon sink strength of this peatland where autotrophic processes are thought to be dominant. The site is wet throughout most of the year (water table depth < 5 cm below the peat surface), but there are indications that drought enhanced heterotrophic respiration and depressed gross primary productivity (GPP); a sustained drought during the summer of 2010 (maximum water table depth 36 cm below surface) was accompanied by a two-fold increase in total respiration and a 30% decrease in GPP. The cold preceding winter could also have contributed to lowering GPP, and disentangling the confounding adverse effects of drought and winter climate on GPP is thus not straightforward. Whilst 2010 had the smallest NEE in the 2002-2012 period, the largest values were found for years with warm winters and relatively wet growing seasons. A simple parameterisation of the effects of PAR on GPP of and air temperature on ecosystem respiration, suggest that a rise in air temperature of 1° C between 2012 and 2065 could lead to a 73% increase in the carbon sink strength of the peatland, provided hydrological conditions remain unchanged. This demonstrates that climate change is not likely to change this peatland into a carbon source by 2100.

Helfter, Carole; Campbell, Claire; Dinsmore, Kerry; Drewer, Julia; Coyle, Mhairi; Anderson, Margaret; Skiba, Ute; Nemitz, Eiko; Billett, Michael; Sutton, Mark

2014-05-01

299

Development of simplified ecosystem models for applications in Earth system studies: The Century experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past decade, a growing need to conduct regional assessments of long-term trends of ecosystem behavior and the technology to meet this need have converged. The Century model is the product of research efforts initially intended to develop a general model of plant-soil ecosystem dynamics for the North American central grasslands. This model is now being used to simulate plant production, nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter dynamics for grassland, crop, forest, and shrub ecosystems in various regions of the world, including temperate and tropical ecosystems. This paper will focus on the philosophical approach used to develop the structure of Century. The steps included were model simplification, parameterization, and testing. In addition, the importance of acquiring regional data bases for model testing and the present regional application of Century in the Great Plains, which focus on regional ecosystem dynamics and the effect of altering environmental conditions, are discussed.

Parton, William J.; Ojima, Dennis S.; Schimel, David S.; Kittel, Timothy G. F.

1992-01-01

300

Effects of grazing on leaf traits and ecosystem functioning in Inner Mongolia grasslands: scaling from species to community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the mechanistic links between environmental drivers, human disturbance, plant functional traits, and ecosystem properties is a fundamental aspect of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research. Recent studies have focused mostly on leaf-level traits or community-level weighted traits to predict species responses to grazing and the consequent change in ecosystem functioning. However, studies of leaf-level traits or community-level weighted traits seldom identify the

S. X. Zheng; H. Y. Ren; Z. C. Lan; W. H. Li; K. B. Wang; Y. F. Bai

2010-01-01

301

Leaf Area Index Drives Soil Water Availability and Extreme Drought-Related Mortality under Elevated CO2 in a Temperate Grassland Model System  

PubMed Central

The magnitude and frequency of climatic extremes, such as drought, are predicted to increase under future climate change conditions. However, little is known about how other factors such as CO2 concentration will modify plant community responses to these extreme climatic events, even though such modifications are highly likely. We asked whether the response of grasslands to repeat extreme drought events is modified by elevated CO2, and if so, what are the underlying mechanisms? We grew grassland mesocosms consisting of 10 co-occurring grass species common to the Cumberland Plain Woodland of western Sydney under ambient and elevated CO2 and subjected them to repeated extreme drought treatments. The 10 species included a mix of C3, C4, native and exotic species. We hypothesized that a reduction in the stomatal conductance of the grasses under elevated CO2 would be offset by increases in the leaf area index thus the retention of soil water and the consequent vulnerability of the grasses to extreme drought would not differ between the CO2 treatments. Our results did not support this hypothesis: soil water content was significantly lower in the mesocosms grown under elevated CO2 and extreme drought-related mortality of the grasses was greater. The C4 and native grasses had significantly higher leaf area index under elevated CO2 levels. This offset the reduction in the stomatal conductance of the exotic grasses as well as increased rainfall interception, resulting in reduced soil water content in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Our results suggest that projected increases in net primary productivity globally of grasslands in a high CO2 world may be limited by reduced soil water availability in the future. PMID:24632832

Manea, Anthony; Leishman, Michelle R.

2014-01-01

302

HYDRO-MICROMETEOROLOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS ACROSS MOUNTAIN ISLAND FOREST, GRASSLAND AND RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEMS OF A SEMI-ARID BASIN 1760  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Observations from a sky Island forested ecosystem in the semi-arid southwestern U.S.established that the type of ecosystems represented by the Mt Bigelow site in the Santa Catalina Mountain Ranges, NE of Tucson Arizona, respond to an annual wet-dry cycle instead of a hot-cold (summer-winter) cycle t...

303

Some insights on grassland health assessment based on remote sensing.  

PubMed

Grassland ecosystem is one of the largest ecosystems, which naturally occurs on all continents excluding Antarctica and provides both ecological and economic functions. The deterioration of natural grassland has been attracting many grassland researchers to monitor the grassland condition and dynamics for decades. Remote sensing techniques, which are advanced in dealing with the scale constraints of ecological research and provide temporal information, become a powerful approach of grassland ecosystem monitoring. So far, grassland health monitoring studies have mostly focused on different areas, for example, productivity evaluation, classification, vegetation dynamics, livestock carrying capacity, grazing intensity, natural disaster detecting, fire, climate change, coverage assessment and soil erosion. However, the grassland ecosystem is a complex system which is formed by soil, vegetation, wildlife and atmosphere. Thus, it is time to consider the grassland ecosystem as an entity synthetically and establish an integrated grassland health monitoring system to combine different aspects of the complex grassland ecosystem. In this review, current grassland health monitoring methods, including rangeland health assessment, ecosystem health assessment and grassland monitoring by remote sensing from different aspects, are discussed along with the future directions of grassland health assessment. PMID:25643060

Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin

2015-01-01

304

Different Land Use Intensities in Grassland Ecosystems Drive Ecology of Microbial Communities Involved in Nitrogen Turnover in Soil  

PubMed Central

Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM), intensely used mown pastures (IP) and extensively used pastures (EP), respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK). The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation) might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity. PMID:24039974

Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

2013-01-01

305

Spatial and temporal variability of bacterial 16S rDNA-based T-RFLP patterns derived from soil of two Wyoming grassland ecosystems.  

PubMed

Abstract Spatial and temporal variability of soil bacterial 16S rDNA terminal restriction fragment (TRF) size variation was evaluated in a homogeneous grassland (HG) dominated by the turf-forming grass Bouteloua gracilis and in a shrubland (SL) dominated by Artemisia tridentata (Wyoming big sagebrush). Temporal variability was also evaluated on the HG site over a growing season. No trends toward dissimilarity were detected with temporal (180 days) or spatial (up to 100 m) distance in the HG system. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of the SL site exhibited pronounced small-scale spatial variability (<70 cm), although spatial analysis indicated weak spatial autocorrelation to distances greater than 36 cm. While shrub-induced nutrient localization was shown to significantly influence T-RFLP profiles, very little of the variability could be accounted for on the basis of spatial characteristics, suggesting that soil bacterial 16S rDNA composition of this site is predominantly controlled at scales other than those measured. Average dissimilarity values differed greatly between the two sites (0.27 and 0.59 for HG and SL sites, respectively). These results suggest that plant community structure strongly influences bacterial community composition in these semiarid ecosystems, highlighting the importance of considering spatial variability when designing field studies related to bacterial diversity in ecosystems having patchy or heterogeneous plant cover. PMID:19719588

Mummey, Daniel L; Stahl, Peter D

2003-10-01

306

Dew water isotopic ratios and their relationships to ecosystem water pools and fluxes in a cropland and a grassland in China.  

PubMed

Dew formation has the potential to modulate the spatial and temporal variations of isotopic contents of atmospheric water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the isotopic interactions between dew water and ecosystem water pools and fluxes through two field experiments in a wheat/maize cropland and in a short steppe grassland in China. Measurements were made during 94 dew events of the D and (18)O compositions of dew, atmospheric vapor, leaf, xylem and soil water, and the whole ecosystem water flux. Our results demonstrate that the equilibrium fractionation played a dominant role over the kinetic fractionation in controlling the dew water isotopic compositions. A significant correlation between the isotopic compositions of leaf water and dew water suggests a large role of top-down exchange with atmospheric vapor controlling the leaf water turnover at night. According to the isotopic labeling, dew water consisted of a downward flux of water vapor from above the canopy (98%) and upward fluxes originated from soil evaporation and transpiration of the leaves in the lower canopy (2%). PMID:21822725

Wen, Xue-Fa; Lee, Xuhui; Sun, Xiao-Min; Wang, Jian-Lin; Hu, Zhong-Min; Li, Sheng-Gong; Yu, Gui-Rui

2012-02-01

307

Controls on the fate, structure and function of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in a California grassland, oak woodland and conifer ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In California, oak woodlands and grasslands, have been expanding their geographic range over the past 100 years, and are projected to extend upward along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada foothills in response to climate change. Since vegetation type plays a large role in soil formation and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, shifts in vegetation distribution could impact C and N storage and processing. This study was designed to determine if dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) production, composition, biodegradation and sorption in the mineral soil of a grassland, oak woodland and conifer ecosystem is related to the type of plant material from which it is derived and how these processes are correlated with temperature. A field experiment where leachates from transplanted soil columns were collected over two rainy seasons at a grassland, oak woodland and conifer field location was combined with laboratory batch adsorption and biodegradation using litter and soil from the same sites. Specific ultra-violet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA 254), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) and fractionation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into hydrophilic and hydrophobic factions was used to determine the structural composition of the DOC solutions. In the laboratory, surface litter from the grass, oak and a conifer site were incubated with de-ionized water for 5, 15 or 96 hours at 4, 20 or 30oC. Incubation time had little effect on DOC structure while vegetation type and temperature had significant effects on DOC functional groups. Increased incubation time and temperature significantly increased DOC and DON concentration. Percent biodegradable DOC was positively correlated to increasing heteroaliphatic functional groups. Since grass, oak and pine DOM solutions had the highest levels of biodegradation using soil inoculums from the sites where the surface litter originated, biodegradation appears to be related to site microbial activity. In batch adsorption studies, an increase in incubation temperature is related to an increase in sorption and biodegradation. There were no significant correlations between adsorption and DOC functional groups. Soil iron and aluminum content were found to play a larger role in DOC adsorption than DOC functional group concentration. Therefore, sorption appears to be primarily controlled by ecosystem soil characteristics and a thermodynamic relationship with temperature rather than surface litter type. In the field experiment, neither DOC, DON nor SUVA 254 values of column leachates differed significantly with surface litter or soil type. However, the 15 month incubation of the soil columns containing all three soil types at all three field locations resulted in several significant changes in soil C and N parameters. Percent C, water extractable DOC and soil C:N all increased in the soil from the pine location that was incubated at the oak and grass location. These changes indicate that the soils at mixed conifer sites in the Sierra Nevada foothills could store increased levels of soil C if grassland and oak woodland vegetation shift into the areas currently dominated by mixed conifers.

Pittiglio, S. L.; Zasoski, R.

2010-12-01

308

Gross primary production and net ecosystem exchange of a cool-temperate deciduous forest estimated by the eddy covariance method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eddy covariance measurement system was installed to measure long-term turbulent fluxes of heat, water vapor, and CO2 over a cool-temperate deciduous forest in the central part of Japan. Previous to a long-term measurement, a comparison of flux measurements using open- and closed-path type infrared gas analyzers was conducted for CO2 and water vapor. The closure of the energy budget

Nobuko Saigusa; Susumu Yamamoto; Shohei Murayama; Hiroaki Kondo; Noboru Nishimura

2002-01-01

309

The impacts of land-use change from grassland to bioenergy Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) Willow on the crop and ecosystem greenhouse gas balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this research is to better understand the greenhouse gas balance of land-use transition to bioenergy cropping systems in a UK context. Given limited land availability, addressing the food-energy-water nexus remains a challenge, and it is imperative that bioenergy crops are sited appropriately and that competition with food crops is minimized. Here we present the results of a years' worth of soil and GHG data for a conversion from ex-set aside grassland to short rotation coppice (SRC) willow for bioenergy on a commercial scale. Initial results indicate that willow was a net sink for CO2 in comparison to grassland which was a net source of CO2. This provides evidence that the GHG balance of transitions to SRC bioenergy crops will potentially result in increased soil carbon. The empirical findings from this study have been combined with modelled estimates for the site to both test and validate the ECOSSE model. Initial comparisons show that the model is able to accurately predict the respiration occurring at the field site, suggesting that it is a valuable approach for up-scaling from point sites such as this to wider geographical areas and for considering future climate scenarios. The modelling output will also provide a user-friendly tool for land owners which will determine the GHG and soil carbon effects of changing land to bioenergy for UK. This work is based on the Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project, which was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI). This work was also jointly funded by the Carbo Biocrop Project.

Harris, Zoe M.; Alberti, Giorgio; Dondini, Marta; Smith, Pete; Taylor, Gail

2014-05-01

310

The likely impact of elevated [CO2], nitrogen deposition, increased temperature, and management on carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. A literature review  

SciTech Connect

Temperate and Boreal forest ecosystems contain a large part of the carbon stored on land, both in the form of biomass and soil organic matter. Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, increasing temperatures, elevated nitrogen deposition, and intensified management will change this carbon store. We review current literature and conclude that northern forests will acquire extra carbon as a result of an increasing length of the growing season (the main temperature response), higher leaf area index (the main nitrogen deposition response) and higher photosynthetic rate (the main [CO2] response). Simultaneously, forests will lose soil carbon as a result of higher temperatures, but nitrogen deposition may slow down soil carbon turnover. The prediction of the net effect is complicated because of a multitude of interactions between variables at different scales. Management has, however, a considerable potential for controlling the carbon store.

Norby, Richard J [ORNL

2007-01-01

311

Fire effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycling in a Californian bishop pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire can cause severe nitrogen (N) losses from grassland, chaparral, and temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Paradoxically,\\u000a soil ammonium levels are markedly increased by fire, resulting in high rates of primary production in re-establishing plant\\u000a communities. In a manipulative experiment, we examined the influence of wild-fire ash residues on soil, microbial and plant\\u000a N pools in a recently burned Californian

P. Grogan; T. D. Burns; F. S. Chapin III

2000-01-01

312

Effects of an increase in summer precipitation on leaf, soil, and ecosystem fluxes of CO 2 and H 2 O in a sotol grassland in Big Bend National Park, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate models predict that in the next century precipitation in desert regions of the USA will increase, which is\\u000a anticipated to affect biosphere\\/atmosphere exchanges of both CO2 and H2O. In a sotol grassland ecosystem in the Chihuahuan Desert at Big Bend National Park, we measured the response of leaf-level\\u000a fluxes of CO2 and H2O 1 day before and up to

Lisa Patrick; Jessica Cable; Daniel Potts; Danielle Ignace; Greg Barron-Gafford; Alden Griffith; Holly Alpert; Natasja Van Gestel; Traesha Robertson; Travis E. Huxman; John Zak; Michael E. Loik; David Tissue

2007-01-01

313

Incorporating grassland management in ORCHIDEE: model description and evaluation at 11 eddy-covariance sites in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes how management of grasslands is included in the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) process-based ecosystem model designed for large-scale applications, and how management affects modeled grassland-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. The new model, ORCHIDEE-GM (grassland management) is enabled with a management module inspired from a grassland model (PaSim, version 5.0), with two grassland management practices being considered, cutting and grazing. The evaluation of the results from ORCHIDEE compared with those of ORCHIDEE-GM at 11 European sites, equipped with eddy covariance and biometric measurements, shows that ORCHIDEE-GM can realistically capture the cut-induced seasonal variation in biometric variables (LAI: leaf area index; AGB: aboveground biomass) and in CO2 fluxes (GPP: gross primary productivity; TER: total ecosystem respiration; and NEE: net ecosystem exchange). However, improvements at grazing sites are only marginal in ORCHIDEE-GM due to the difficulty in accounting for continuous grazing disturbance and its induced complex animal-vegetation interactions. Both NEE and GPP on monthly to annual timescales can be better simulated in ORCHIDEE-GM than in ORCHIDEE without management. For annual CO2 fluxes, the NEE bias and RMSE (root mean square error) in ORCHIDEE-GM are reduced by 53% and 20%, respectively, compared to ORCHIDEE. ORCHIDEE-GM is capable of modeling the net carbon balance (NBP) of managed temperate grasslands (37 ± 30 gC m-2 yr-1 (P < 0.01) over the 11 sites) because the management module contains provisions to simulate the carbon fluxes of forage yield, herbage consumption, animal respiration and methane emissions.

Chang, J. F.; Viovy, N.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Wang, T.; Cozic, A.; Lardy, R.; Graux, A.-I.; Klumpp, K.; Martin, R.; Soussana, J.-F.

2013-12-01

314

Predicting the response of a temperate forest ecosystem to atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase. Annual report, 1992--1993  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the second year of research progress. Included are progress reports for the following studies: the responses of temperate forest tree to 3 years of exposure to elevated carbon dioxide, and high and low nutrient and light levels; pot-size limitations in carbon dioxide studies, interactive effects of carbon dioxide and soil moisture availability on tree seedling`s tissue water relations, growth, and niche characteristics; individual versus population responses to elevated carbon dioxide levels in two species of annual weeds; and the development of gypsy moth larvae raised on gray and yellow birth foliage grown in ambient and elevated carbon dioxide environments.

Bazzaz, F.A.

1993-03-01

315

Effects of grazing on leaf traits and ecosystem functioning in Inner Mongolia grasslands: scaling from species to community  

Microsoft Academic Search

More attention has focused on using some easily measured plant functional traits to predict grazing influence on plant growth and ecosystem functioning. However, there has been much controversy on leaf traits response to grazing, thus more research should be conducted at the species level. Here we investigated the leaf area, leaf mass and specific leaf area (SLA) of 263 species

S. X. Zheng; H. Y. Ren; Z. C. Lan; W. H. Li; Y. F. Bai

2009-01-01

316

Shrub encroachment in North American grasslands: Shifts in growth form dominance rapidly alters control of ecosystem carbon inputs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shrub encroachment into grass-dominated biomes is occurring globally due to a variety of anthropogenic activities, but the consequences for carbon (C) inputs, storage and cycling remain unclear. We studied eight North American graminoid-dominated ecosystems invaded by shrubs, from arctic tundra to ...

317

Soil-specific C and N responses to changing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in a mesic grassland ecosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term increases in ecosystem productivity under elevated atmospheric CO2 can be expected only when the increased assimilation of carbon (C) is not limited by soil nutrients, namely nitrogen (N). We examined how changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations affect C and N dynamics in a mesic grasslan...

318

Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in native Leymus chinensis grasslands along a 1000 km longitudinal transect in northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unprecedented variations in global precipitation regime could profoundly impact terrestrial ecosystem structure and function, with consequent feedback to climatic change. However, little is known about complexity in precipitation effects on grassland ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) processes at regional scales. We investigated the patterns of shoot and root biomass, litter mass, soil C and N content, microbial community composition and C and N mineralization at 18 sites along a 1000 km precipitation gradient in native Leymus chinensis grasslands of northeastern China. The results show that, with increasing mean annual precipitation (MAP), the biomass of total plant, shoot and litter gradually increased while root biomass remained nearly constant along the gradient. Surprisingly, both soil C and N mineralization rates showed quadratic relationships with MAP, likely due to the relative changes in temperature, soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi biomass and N availability. Although soil total C and N content presented sustained increases with water availability, heavy fractions of C and N content reached stable and saturated phases in mesic sites. Overall, ecosystem C and N sequestration enhanced with water availability in terms of C and N storage in shoot, root, litter, and soil along the precipitation gradient. It was concluded from the current study that regional precipitation regime and the indirect effects of precipitation on changes in soil properties and microbial communities would strongly influence on ecosystem C and N dynamics. The temperate grasslands of northeastern China could be utilized as significant ecosystem C and N sinks in the context of mitigating climate change.

Ma, L.; Guo, C.; Yuan, S.; Wang, R.

2014-08-01

319

Cascading effects of artificial light at night: resource-mediated control of herbivores in a grassland ecosystem.  

PubMed

Artificial light at night has a wide range of biological effects on both plants and animals. Here, we review mechanisms by which artificial light at night may restructure ecological communities by modifying the interactions between species. Such mechanisms may be top-down (predator, parasite or grazer controlled), bottom-up (resource-controlled) or involve non-trophic processes, such as pollination, seed dispersal or competition. We present results from an experiment investigating both top-down and bottom-up effects of artificial light at night on the population density of pea aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum in a diverse artificial grassland community in the presence and absence of predators and under low-level light of different spectral composition. We found no evidence for top-down control of A. pisum in this system, but did find evidence for bottom-up effects mediated through the impact of light on flower head density in a leguminous food plant. These results suggest that physiological effects of light on a plant species within a diverse plant community can have detectable demographic effects on a specialist herbivore. PMID:25780243

Bennie, Jonathan; Davies, Thomas W; Cruse, David; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J

2015-05-01

320

Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Flora in Forest, Grassland and Common Land Ecosystems of Western Chitwan, Nepal  

PubMed Central

This paper describes changes of species composition and population of flora in space and time in western Chitwan, Nepal. This paper also discusses on the changes in flora due to flood and human activities. To illustrate these changes, we used survey data collected from January to April of 1996, 2000, and 2007 from the Barandabhar forest, National Park forest and the forests along the Narayani River banks, grasslands of National Park and common lands of western Chitwan as a part of longitudinal study on “reciprocal relation of population and the environment”. From these data, density values were calculated to analyze spatial and temporal changes in flora species composition and population. We also noted the changes of top species in time and space in due course of time. If the species and its rank not changed, their densities (population) values of flora species changed. We found that changes in species composition, population, appearance or disappearance of flora from a particular space (research plot) were noted as a result of natural forces or human activities. PMID:25061414

DANGOL, Dharma Raj; MAHARJAN, Keshav Lall

2013-01-01

321

The significance of agricultural vs. natural ecosystem pathways in temperate climates in assessments of long-term radiological impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in performance assessment biosphere models have begun to emphasise the importance of natural accumulation pathways. In contrast to the agricultural pathways, the database for natural ecosystem pathways is less well developed, leading to a mismatch in quality of representations of the two types of system. At issue is the lack of reliable soil–plant and animal ingestion transfer factors

Richard K?os; Achim Albrecht

2005-01-01

322

Methane fluxes in wetland and forest soils, beaver ponds, and low-order streams of a temperate forest ecosystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study was conducted to determine whether temperate wetlands and forests play important roles in the global balances of atmospheric methane. Flux measurements for methane in several different wetland, forest, and open-water (e.g., beaver pond and low-order stream) sites were determined using collection chambers placed over the soil- or water-air interface. All of the sites were located in the Appalachian Mountain region of West Virginia and western Maryland. Between June 1987 and April 1989 the wetland sites acted as small sources of atmospheric methane, with emission rates for methane usually lower than 200 mg CH4/sq m per day; consumption of atmospheric methane in the wetland soils was observed frequently.

Yavitt, J. B.; Lang, G. E.; Sexstone, A. J.

1990-01-01

323

Using an ecosystem process model to examine effects of increased atmospheric N deposition on soil carbon storage in northern temperate forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although atmospheric nitrogen deposition can increase primary productivity in nitrogen limited northern temperate forests, the potential for nitrogen deposition to increase soil carbon storage through decreased decomposition has gone unexplored in biogeochemical models. We modeled carbon and nitrogen cycling in sugar maple forests along a nitrogen deposition gradient using an ecosystem process model. Our goal was to better understand how elevated atmospheric nitrogen deposition is affecting decomposition in forest soils and how such an effect integrates with other aspects of forest C and N cycling, potentially altering ecosystem C storage. Previous field research in four Michigan forests dominated by sugar maple demonstrates greater soil carbon storage under simulated increased nitrogen deposition;. however, this response did not occur via greater above- or belowground litter production. The accumulation of soil organic matter in forest floor and surface soil coincided with declines in soil respiration, the activity of microbial extracellular enzymes mediating lignocellulose degradation, and forest floor turnover rates. To explore ecosystem feedbacks and interactions mediating these responses, we used the TRACE (Tracer Redistributions Among Compartments in Ecosystems) ecosystem process model. TRACE was developed to examine fluxes of carbon and nitrogen (including nitrogen stable isotopes) and currently allows for interactions between climate and litter lignin content to control decomposition rates. For the present research, we parameterized TRACE using field data from four sugar maple dominated forest stands along a gradient of nitrogen deposition in Michigan. We calibrated carbon and nitrogen cycling within the model using field data from one of the four stands. We then compared modeled biogeochemical processes within all four stands to field data for control stands and stands with simulated elevated nitrogen deposition. Model results from sites with higher nitrogen deposition stored proportionally more carbon in vegetation and proportionally less carbon in organic and mineral soil carbon pools for both treatments than model results from sites with relatively low nitrogen deposition. For the control treatment, TRACE accurately modeled vegetation production as well as carbon storage in vegetation and soil carbon pools. However TRACE overestimates foliar and fine root nitrogen concentrations. Unlike field results, modeled results did not show increased soil carbon storage with experimentally elevated nitrogen deposition. However, experimentally elevated nitrogen deposition decreased C:N ratios in modeled forest floor organic matter from all stands. In future, we will alter TRACE to allow atmospheric nitrogen deposition to interact with lignin decomposition.

Whittinghill, K. A.; Currie, W. S.; Zak, D. R.

2010-12-01

324

Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems.  

PubMed

The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed to quantify GHG emissions and explore climate change mitigation strategies for livestock systems. This paper analyses the limitations and strengths of the different existing approaches for modelling GHG mitigation by considering basic model structures, approaches for simulating GHG emissions from various farm components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services. PMID:23739478

Del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, J E; Rotz, C A

2013-06-01

325

A biophysical NPZ model with iron for the Gulf of Alaska: Reproducing the differences between an oceanic HNLC ecosystem and a classical northern temperate shelf ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling the coastal Gulf of Alaska (CGOA) is complicated by the highly diverse physical and biological features influencing productivity and energy flow through the region. The GOA consists of the offshore oceanic environment, characterized by iron limitation, high-nutrients and low-chlorophyll. The coastal environment is consistently downwelling, with high iron levels from glacial melt water and runoff, but lower concentrations of macronutrients, and with a spring bloom, nutrient depletion cycle (low-nutrient, high-chlorophyll). Cross-shelf movement of water masses mixes coastal and oceanic ecosystem elements. Simulations and field data indicate that the minimum model complexity necessary to characterize lower trophic-level production and biomass in the offshore and coastal regions includes 10 boxes: iron, nitrate, ammonium, small phytoplankton, large phytoplankton, small microzooplankton, large microzooplankton, small copepods, large oceanic copepods and detritus, with copepod mortality as a model closure term. We present the model structure, equations required (and initial parameters used) to simulate onshore and offshore lower trophic-level production in the Gulf of Alaska, along with the information from field data and simulations used to construct the model. We show the results of simulations with and without iron, and with and without two size classes of phytoplankton. These simulations indicate that our method of inclusion of iron works well to distinguish the coastal and the oceanic ecosystems, and that the inclusion of two size categories of phytoplankton is also necessary to generate the differences between these two ecosystems.

Hinckley, S.; Coyle, K. O.; Gibson, G.; Hermann, A. J.; Dobbins, E. L.

2009-12-01

326

Evaluation of grassland dynamics in the northern-tibet plateau of china using remote sensing and climate data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The grassland ecosystem in the Northern-Tibet Plateau (NTP) of China is very sensitive to weather and climate conditions of the region. In this study, we investigate the spatial and temporal variations of the grassland ecosystem in the NTP using the NOAA/AVHRR ten-day maximum NDVI composite data of 1981-2001. The relationships among Vegetation Peak-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (VP-NDVI) and climate variables were quantified for six counties within the NTP. The notable and uneven alterations of the grassland in response to variation of climate and human impact in the NTP were revealed. Over the last two decades of the 20th century, the maximum greenness of the grassland has exhibited high increase, slight increase, no-change, slight decrease and high decrease, each occupies 0.27%, 8.71%, 77.27%, 13.06% and 0.69% of the total area of the NTP, respectively. A remarkable increase (decrease) in VP-NDVI occurred in the central-eastern (eastern) NTP whereas little change was observed in the western and northwestern NTP. A strong negative relationship between VP-NDVI and ET 0 was found in sub-frigid, semi-arid and frigid- arid regions of the NTP (i.e., Nakchu, Shantsa, Palgon and Amdo counties), suggesting that the ETo is one limiting factor affecting grassland degradation. In the temperate-humid, sub-frigid and sub-humid regions of the NTP (Chali and Sokshan counties), a significant inverse correlation between VP-NDVI and population indicates that human activities have adversely affected the grassland condition as was previously reported in the literature. Results from this research suggest that the alteration and degradation of the grassland in the lower altitude of the NTP over the last two decades of the 20th century are likely caused by variations of climate and anthropogenic activities. ?? 2007 by MDPI.

Zhang, J.; Yao, F.; Zheng, L.; Yang, L.

2007-01-01

327

Net ecosystem productivity of temperate and boreal forests after clearcutting-a Fluxnet-Canada measurement and modelling synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACT Clearcutting strongly affects subsequent forest net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Hypotheses for ecological controls on NEP in the ecosystem model ecosys were tested with CO2 fluxes measured by eddy covariance (EC) in three post-clearcut conifer chronosequences in different ecological zones across Canada. In the model, microbial colonization of postharvest fine and woody debris drove heterotrophic respiration (Rh), and hence decomposition, microbial growth, N mineralization and asymbiotic N2 fixation. These processes controlled root N uptake, and thereby CO2 fixation in regrowing vegetation. Interactions among soil and plant processes allowed the model to simulate hourly CO2 fluxes and annual NEP within the uncertainty of EC measurements from 2003 to 2007 over forest stands from 1 to 80 yr of age in all three chronosequences without site- or species-specific parameterization. The model was then used to study the impacts of increasing harvest removals on subsequent C stocks at one of the chronosequence sites. Model results indicated that increasing harvest removals would hasten recovery of NEP during the first 30 yr after clearcutting, but would reduce ecosystem C stocks by about 15% of the increased removals at the end of an 80-yr harvest cycle.

Grant, R. F.; Barr, A. G.; Black, T. A.; Margolis, H. A.; McCaughey, J. H.; Trofymow, J. A.

2010-11-01

328

Net Ecosystem Productivity of Temperate and Boreal Forests after Clearcutting - a Fluxnet-Canada Measurement and Modelling Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clearcutting strongly affects subsequent forest net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Hypotheses for ecological controls on NEP in the ecosystem model ecosys were tested with CO2 fluxes measured by eddy covariance (EC) in three post-clearcut conifer chronosequences in different ecological zones across Canada. In the model, microbial growth drove colonization of postharvest fine and woody debris and hence determined the time course of heterotrophic respiration (Rh), and hence decomposition, microbial growth, N mineralization and asymbiotic N2 fixation. These processes controlled the time course of root N uptake, and thereby CO2 fixation in regrowing vegetation. Interactions among soil and plant processes allowed the model to simulate hourly CO2 fluxes and annual NEP within the uncertainty of EC measurements from 2003 through 2007 over forest stands from 1 to 80 years of age in all three chronosequences without site- or species-specific parameterization. The model was then used to study the impacts of increasing harvest removals on subsequent C stocks at one of the chronosequence sites. Model results indicated that increasing harvest removals would hasten recovery of NEP during the first 30 years after clearcutting, but would reduce ecosystem C stocks by about 15% of the increased removals at the end of an 80 year harvest cycle.

Grant, R. F.; Barr, A. G.; Black, T. A.; Margolis, H. A.; McCaughey, J. H.; Trofymow, J. A.

2010-12-01

329

Net ecosystem productivity of temperate and boreal forests after clearcutting - a Fluxnet-Canada measurement and modelling synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clearcutting strongly affects subsequent forest net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Hypotheses for ecological controls on NEP in the ecosystem model ecosys were tested with CO2 fluxes measured by eddy covariance (EC) in three post-clearcut conifer chronosequences. An algorithm for microbial colonization of fine and woody debris allowed the model to reproduce sigmoidal declines in debris observed after clearcutting. In the model, Rh drove debris decomposition that drove microbial growth, N mineralization and asymbiotic N2 fixation. These processes controlled root N uptake, and thereby CO2 fixation in regrowing vegetation. Interactions among soil and plant processes allowed the model to simulate hourly CO2 fluxes and annual NEP within the uncertainty of EC measurements from 2003 through 2007 over forest stands from 1 to 80 years of age in all three chronosequences without site- or species-specific parameterization. The model was then used to study the impacts of increasing harvest removals on subsequent C stocks at one of the chronosequence sites. Model results indicated that increasing harvest removals would hasten recovery of NEP during the first 30 years after clearcutting, but would reduce ecosystem C stocks by about 15% of the increased removals at the end of an 80 year harvest cycle.

Grant, R. F.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.; Margolis, H. A.; McCaughey, J. H.; Trofymow, J. A.

2010-05-01

330

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine ecosystem introduction to shorelines, temperate oceans, and tropical oceans. Shoreline topics cover sandy and rocky shores, barrier islands, tide pools, estuaries, salt marshes, mud flats, mangrove forests, tides, waves, currents, and shoreline animals. Students can learn about temperate ocean zonation, light, forests, patterns, and animals. The tropical oceans chapter features coral reefs and tropical ocean animals. This site would provide a comprehensive introduction for a marine ecosystems or an ocean science unit.

331

Late Quaternary vegetation, biodiversity and fire dynamics on the southern Brazilian highland and their implication for conservation and management of modern Araucaria forest and grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaeoecological background information is needed for management and conservation of the highly diverse mosaic of Araucaria forest and Campos (grassland) in southern Brazil. Questions on the origin of Araucaria forest and grasslands; its development, dynamic and stability; its response to environmental change such as climate; and the role of human impact are essential. Further questions on its natural stage of

Hermann Behling; Valério DePatta Pillar

2007-01-01

332

Comprehensive ecosystem model-experiment synthesis using multiple datasets at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment experiments: model performance and compensating biases  

SciTech Connect

Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments provide a remarkable wealth of data to test the sensitivities of terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs). In this study, a broad set of 11 TEMs were compared to 22 years of data from two contrasting FACE experiments in temperate forests of the south eastern US the evergreen Duke Forest and the deciduous Oak Ridge forest. We evaluated the models' ability to reproduce observed net primary productivity (NPP), transpiration and Leaf Area index (LAI) in ambient CO2 treatments. Encouragingly, many models simulated annual NPP and transpiration within observed uncertainty. Daily transpiration model errors were often related to errors in leaf area phenology and peak LAI. Our analysis demonstrates that the simulation of LAI often drives the simulation of transpiration and hence there is a need to adopt the most appropriate of hypothesis driven methods to simulate and predict LAI. Of the three competing hypotheses determining peak LAI (1) optimisation to maximise carbon export, (2) increasing SLA with canopy depth and (3) the pipe model the pipe model produced LAI closest to the observations. Modelled phenology was either prescribed or based on broader empirical calibrations to climate. In some cases, simulation accuracy was achieved through compensating biases in component variables. For example, NPP accuracy was sometimes achieved with counter-balancing biases in nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen uptake. Combined analysis of parallel measurements aides the identification of offsetting biases; without which over-confidence in model abilities to predict ecosystem function may emerge, potentially leading to erroneous predictions of change under future climates.

Walker, Anthony P [ORNL] [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL] [ORNL; DeKauwe, Martin G [Macquarie University] [Macquarie University; Medlyn, Belinda [Macquarie University] [Macquarie University; Zaehle, S [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry] [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Asao, Shinichi [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Hickler, Thomas [Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany] [Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany; Huntinford, Chris [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom] [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom; Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lomas, Mark [University of Sheffield] [University of Sheffield; Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma] [University of Oklahoma; McCarthy, Heather R [Duke University] [Duke University; Parton, William [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Prentice, I. Collin [Macquarie University] [Macquarie University; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Shusen [Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS)] [Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS); Wang, Yingping [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research] [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Warlind, David [Lund University, Sweden] [Lund University, Sweden; Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman] [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL] [ORNL; Woodward, F. Ian [University of Sheffield] [University of Sheffield; Oren, Ram [Duke University] [Duke University; Norby, Richard J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

333

Effects of Increased Nitrogen Deposition and Precipitation on Seed and Seedling Production of Potentilla tanacetifolia in a Temperate Steppe Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Background The responses of plant seeds and seedlings to changing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and precipitation regimes determine plant population dynamics and community composition under global change. Methodology/Principal Findings In a temperate steppe in northern China, seeds of P. tanacetifolia were collected from a field-based experiment with N addition and increased precipitation to measure changes in their traits (production, mass, germination). Seedlings germinated from those seeds were grown in a greenhouse to examine the effects of improved N and water availability in maternal and offspring environments on seedling growth. Maternal N-addition stimulated seed production, but it suppressed seed mass, germination rate and seedling biomass of P. tanacetifolia. Maternal N-addition also enhanced responses of seedlings to N and water addition in the offspring environment. Maternal increased-precipitation stimulated seed production, but it had no effect on seed mass and germination rate. Maternal increased-precipitation enhanced seedling growth when grown under similar conditions, whereas seedling responses to offspring N- and water-addition were suppressed by maternal increased-precipitation. Both offspring N-addition and increased-precipitation stimulated growth of seedlings germinated from seeds collected from the maternal control environment without either N or water addition. Our observations indicate that both maternal and offspring environments can influence seedling growth of P. tanacetifolia with consequent impacts on the future population dynamics of this species in the study area. Conclusion/Significance The findings highlight the importance of the maternal effects on seed and seedling production as well as responses of offspring to changing environmental drivers in mechanistic understanding and projecting of plant population dynamics under global change. PMID:22194863

Li, Yang; Yang, Haijun; Xia, Jianyang; Zhang, Wenhao; Wan, Shiqiang; Li, Linghao

2011-01-01

334

Recovery of coastal ecosystems after large tsunamis in various climatic zones - review of cases from tropical, temperate and polar zones (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large tsunamis cause significant changes in coastal ecosystems. They include modifications in shoreline position, sediment erosion and deposition, new initial soil formation, salination of soils and waters, removal of vegetation, as well as direct impact on humans and infrastructure. The processes and rate of coastal zone recovery from large tsunamis has been little studied but during the last decade a noteworthy progress has been made. This study focus on comparison of recovery processes in various climatic zones, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zone. It is based on own observation and monitoring in areas affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in Japan and 2000 Paatuut landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland), as well as on review of published studies from those areas. The particular focus is on physical and biological recoveries of beaches, recovery of coastal vegetation, new soil formation in eroded areas and those covered by tsunami deposits, marine salt removal from soils, surface- and groundwater, as well as landscape adjustment after the tsunamis. The beach zone - typically the most tsunami-eroded zone, has been recovered already within weeks to months and has been observed to be in the pre-tsunami equilibrium stage within one year in all the climate zones, except for sediment-starved environments. The existing data on beach ecosystems point also to relatively fast recovery of meio- and macrofauna (within weeks to several months). The recovery of coastal vegetation depends on the rate of salt removal from soils or on the rate of soil formation in case of its erosion or burial by tsunami deposits. The salt removal have been observed to depend mainly on precipitation and effective water drainage. In tropical climate with seasonal rainfall of more 3000 mm the salt removal was fast, however, in temperate climate with lower precipitation and flat topography the salinities still exceeded the recommended concentrations for freshwater plants after one year. The new soil formation and vegetation recovery depends mainly on the rate of biological production. In tropical climate the vegetation largely recovered already after the first rainy season and supported the new soil formation. In temperate climate this process was much slower, in particular in flat lying areas and on coastal dunes with poor sandy soils. In polar climate only limited vegetation recovery (mainly of Salix species) has been observed after 12 years and vegetation withered due to salt stress still marked the tsunami inundation limit and the new soil formation was very slow and focused on low lying, wet areas buried with thin tsunami deposits cover. The post-tsunami recovery processes may be grouped into climate-related (vegetation recovery, removal of salts from soils) and non climate-related (e.g. beach recovery) or modified by climatic and local factors (for instance, the rate of tsunami deposits reworking and thus new soil formation). The rate of recovery varies from days / weeks as in case of beach recovery to several decades as in case of new soil formation on tsunami deposits. The study was partly funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. The review results from studies in collaboration with number of researchers from Australia, Japan, Poland, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States to whom I express sincere thanks.

Szczucinski, W.

2013-12-01

335

MANAGING GRASSLAND AS A CO2 SINK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) rates tend to be low in most grasslands, especially native grasslands, these regions occupy a large portion of Earth’s terrestrial surface and thus represent a potentially large and significant sink or source for C. Herein we report on findings from several ...

336

Effects of elevated CO?, warming and drought episodes on plant carbon uptake in a temperate heath ecosystem are controlled by soil water status.  

PubMed

The impact of elevated CO?, periodic drought and warming on photosynthesis and leaf characteristics of the evergreen dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris in a temperate heath ecosystem was investigated. Photosynthesis was reduced by drought in midsummer and increased by elevated CO? throughout the growing season, whereas warming only stimulated photosynthesis early in the year. At the beginning and end of the growing season, a T × CO? interaction synergistically stimulated plant carbon uptake in the combination of warming and elevated CO?. At peak drought, the D × CO? interaction antagonistically down-regulated photosynthesis, suggesting a limited ability of elevated CO? to counteract the negative effect of drought. The response of photosynthesis in the full factorial combination (TDCO?) could be explained by the main effect of experimental treatments (T, D, CO?) and the two-factor interactions (D × CO?, T × CO?). The interactive responses in the experimental treatments including elevated CO? seemed to be linked to the realized range of treatment variability, for example with negative effects following experimental drought or positive effects following the relatively higher impact of night-time warming during cold periods early and late in the year. Longer-term experiments are needed to evaluate whether photosynthetic down-regulation will dampen the stimulation of photosynthesis under prolonged exposure to elevated CO?. PMID:21410715

Albert, K R; Ro-Poulsen, H; Mikkelsen, T N; Michelsen, A; Van Der Linden, L; Beier, C

2011-07-01

337

Chapter 15 Saprotrophic basidiomycetes in grasslands: Distribution and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural and semi-natural grasslands dominate many terrestrial ecosystems, with succession prevented by herbivore grazing, low rainfall and fire. Inputs to grassland soils are typically low in lignin, often comminuted and in the form of dung with below-ground inputs from roots being important. The several hundred basidiomycete species which are preferentially found in grassland can be placed into four functional groupings:

Gareth W. Griffith; Kevin Roderick

2008-01-01

338

Patterns and mechanisms of soil acidification in the conversion of grasslands to forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grassland to forest conversions currently affect some of the world's most productive regions and have the potential to modify many soil properties. We used afforestation of native temperate humid grassland in the Pampas with eucalypts as an experimental system to 1) isolate forest and grassland imprints on soil acidity and base cation cycling and 2) evaluate the mechanisms of soil

ESTEBAN G. JOBBÁGY; ROBERT B. JACKSON

2003-01-01

339

Equilibrium carbon storage in North American ecosystems as estimated by the Terrestruak Ecosystem Model for pre-industrial CO[sub 2]: Soil C storage along gradients of temperature, moisture, and texture  

SciTech Connect

The Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), a process-based model, estimates a total C storage of 410 PgC (10[sup 15] gC) for undisturbed North American ecosystems at preindustrial CO[sub 2], of which soil C is 59%. Conifer forests and moist tundra account for the most vegetation and soil C storage, 31% and 18%, respectively. Along a temperature gradient in eastern North America, soil C storage decreases from 16200 to 6200 gC m[sup [minus]2] between the northern limit of moist tundra and the southern limit of temperate forest. Along a moisture gradient at 40[degrees]N, soil C storage increases from 3000 to 11000 gC m[sup [minus]2] between the western end of temperate grasslands and the eastern end of temperate forests. The model estimates that finer textured soils store more carbon under the same climatic conditions.

McGuire, A.D.; Melillo, J.M.; Joyce, L.A.; Kicklighter, D.W. (The Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States) Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ft. Colling, CO (United States))

1993-06-01

340

Biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity loss can affect ecosystem functions and services. Individual ecosystem functions generally show a positive asymptotic relationship with increasing biodiversity, suggesting that some species are redundant. However, ecosystems are managed and conserved for multiple functions, which may require greater biodiversity. Here we present an analysis of published data from grassland biodiversity experiments, and show that ecosystem multifunctionality does require greater

Andy Hector; Robert Bagchi

2007-01-01

341

Precipitation patterns alter growth of temperate vegetation Jingyun Fang,1  

E-print Network

major temperate biomes in China: grassland, deciduous broadleaf forest, and deciduous coniferous forest. With increased precipitation, NDVI of grassland and deciduous broadleaf forest increased, but that of deciduous and deciduous broadleaf forest, but did not alter that of deciduous coniferous forest at low precipitation

Myneni, Ranga B.

342

Disentangling root responses to climate change in a semiarid grassland.  

PubMed

Future ecosystem properties of grasslands will be driven largely by belowground biomass responses to climate change, which are challenging to understand due to experimental and technical constraints. We used a multi-faceted approach to explore single and combined impacts of elevated CO2 and warming on root carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in a temperate, semiarid, native grassland at the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment experiment. To investigate the indirect, moisture mediated effects of elevated CO2, we included an irrigation treatment. We assessed root standing mass, morphology, residence time and seasonal appearance/disappearance of community-aggregated roots, as well as mass and N losses during decomposition of two dominant grass species (a C3 and a C4). In contrast to what is common in mesic grasslands, greater root standing mass under elevated CO2 resulted from increased production, unmatched by disappearance. Elevated CO2 plus warming produced roots that were longer, thinner and had greater surface area, which, together with greater standing biomass, could potentially alter root function and dynamics. Decomposition increased under environmental conditions generated by elevated CO2, but not those generated by warming, likely due to soil desiccation with warming. Elevated CO2, particularly under warming, slowed N release from C4-but not C3-roots, and consequently could indirectly affect N availability through treatment effects on species composition. Elevated CO2 and warming effects on root morphology and decomposition could offset increased C inputs from greater root biomass, thereby limiting future net C accrual in this semiarid grassland. PMID:24643718

Carrillo, Yolima; Dijkstra, Feike A; LeCain, Dan; Morgan, Jack A; Blumenthal, Dana; Waldron, Sarah; Pendall, Elise

2014-06-01

343

Community assembly of biological soil crusts of different successional stages in a temperate sand ecosystem, as assessed by direct determination and enrichment techniques.  

PubMed

In temperate regions, biological soil crusts (BSCs: complex communities of cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, bryophytes, and lichens) are not well investigated regarding community structure and diversity. Furthermore, studies on succession are rare. For that reason, the community assembly of crusts representing two successional stages (initial, 5 years old; and stable, >20 years old) were analyzed in an inland sand ecosystem in Germany in a plot-based approach (2 x 18 plots, each 20 x 20 cm). Two different methods were used to record the cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae in these communities comprehensively: determination directly out of the soil and enrichment culture techniques. Additionally, lichens, bryophytes, and phanerogams were determined. We examine four hypotheses: (1) A combination of direct determination and enrichment culture technique is necessary to detect cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae comprehensively. In total, 45 species of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae were detected in the study area with both techniques, including 26 eukaryotic algae and 19 cyanobacteria species. With both determination techniques, 22 identical taxa were detected (11 eukaryotic algae and 11 cyanobacteria). Thirteen taxa were only found by direct determination, and ten taxa were only found in enrichment cultures. Hence, the hypothesis is supported. Additionally, five lichen species (three genera), five bryophyte species (five genera), and 24 vascular plant species occurred. (2) There is a clear difference between the floristic structure of initial and stable crusts. The different successional stages are clearly separated by detrended correspondence analysis, showing a distinct structure of the community assembly in each stage. In the initial crusts, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Klebsormidium cf. klebsii, and Stichococcus bacillaris were important indicator species, whereas the stable crusts are especially characterized by Tortella inclinata. (3) The biodiversity of BSC taxa and vascular plant species increases from initial to stable BSCs. There are significantly higher genera and species numbers of cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae in initial BSCs. Stable BSCs are characterized by significantly higher species numbers of bryophytes and vascular plant species. The results show that, in the investigated temperate region, the often-assumed increase of biodiversity in the course of succession is clearly taxa-dependent. Both successional stages of BSCs are diversity "hot spots" with about 29 species of all taxa per 20 x 20 cm plot. (4) Nitrogen and chlorophyll a concentrations increase in the course of succession. The chlorophyll a content of the crusts (cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, bryophyte protonemata) is highly variable across the studied samples, with no significant differences between initial and stable BSCs; nor were ecologically significant differences in soil nutrient contents observed. According to our results, we cannot confirm this hypothesis; the age difference between our two stages is probably not big enough to show such an increase. PMID:19479305

Langhans, Tanja Margrit; Storm, Christian; Schwabe, Angelika

2009-08-01

344

Observed and modeled ecosystem isoprene fluxes from an oak-dominated temperate forest and the influence of drought stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem fluxes of isoprene emissions were measured during the majority of the 2011 growing season at the University of Missouri's Baskett Wildlife Research and Education Area in central Missouri, USA (38.7° N, 92.2° W). This broadleaf deciduous forest is typical of forests common in the Ozarks region of the central United States. The goal of the isoprene flux measurements was to test our understanding of the controls on isoprene emission from the hourly to the seasonal timescale using a state-of-the-art emission model, MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Isoprene emission rates from the forest were very high with a maximum of 53.3 mg m-2 h-1 (217 nmol m-2 s-1), which to our knowledge exceeds all other reports of canopy-scale isoprene emission. The fluxes showed a clear dependence on the previous temperature and light regimes, which was successfully captured by the existing algorithms in MEGAN. During a period of drought, MEGAN was unable to reproduce the time-dependent response of isoprene emission to water stress. Overall, the performance of MEGAN was robust and could explain 90% of the observed variance in the measured fluxes, but the response of isoprene emission to drought stress is a major source of uncertainty.

Potosnak, Mark J.; LeStourgeon, Lauren; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Gu, Lianhong; Karl, Thomas; Geron, Chris; Guenther, Alex B.

2014-02-01

345

Observed and modeled ecosystem isoprene fluxes from an oak-dominated temperate forest and the influence of drought stress  

SciTech Connect

Ecosystem fluxes of isoprene emission were measured during the majority of the 2011 growing season at the University of Missouri's Baskett Wildlife Research and Education Area in centralMissouri, USA (38.7° N, 92.2° W). This broadleaf deciduous forest is typical of forests common in theOzarks region of the central United States. The goal of the isoprene flux measurements was to test ourunderstanding of the controls on isoprene emission from the hourly to the seasonal timescale using a state-of-the-art emission model, MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Isoprene emission rates were very high from the forest with a maximum of 50.9 mg m-2 hr-1 (208 nmol m-2 s-1), which to our knowledge exceeds all other reports of canopy-scale isoprene emission. The fluxes showed a clear dependence on the previous temperature and light regimes which was successfully captured by the existing algorithms in MEGAN. During a period of drought, MEGAN was unable to reproduce the time-dependent response of isoprene emission to water stress. Overall, the performance of MEGAN was robust and could explain 87% of the observed variance in the measured fluxes, but the response of isoprene emission to drought stress is a major source of uncertainty.

Potosnak, M.; LeStourgeon, Lauren; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Gu, Lianghong; Karl, Thomas; Geron, Chris; Guenther, Alex B.

2014-02-19

346

Biological soil crusts are the main contributor to winter soil respiration in a temperate desert ecosystem of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are a key biotic component of desert ecosystems worldwide. However, most studies carried out to date on carbon (fluxes) in these ecosystems, such as soil respiration (RS), have neglected them. Also, winter RS is reported to be a significant component of annual carbon budget in other ecosystems, however, we have less knowledge about winter RS of BSCs in winter and its contribution to carbon cycle in desert regions. Therefore, the specific objectives of this study were to: (i) quantify the effects of different BSCs types (moss crust, algae crust, physical crust) on the winter RS; (ii) explore relationships of RS against soil temperature and water content for different BSCs, and (iii) assess the relative contribution of BSCs to the annual amount of C released by RS at desert ecosystem level. Methods Site Description The study sites are located at the southeast fringe of the Tengger Desert in the Shapotou region of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region [37°32'N and 105°02'E, at 1340 m above mean sea level (a.m.s.l.)], western China. The mean daily temperature in January is -6.9°C , while it is 24.3°C in July. The mean annual precipitation is 186 mm, approximately 80% of which falls between May and September. The annual potential evaporation is 2800 mm. The landscape of the Shapotou region is characterized by large and dense reticulate barchans chains of sand dunes that migrate south-eastward at a velocity of 3-6 m per year. The soil is loose, infertile and mobile and can thus be classified as orthic sierozem and Aeolian sandy soil. Additionally, the soil has a consistent gravimetric water content that ranges from 3 to 4%. The groundwater in the study area is too deep (>60 m) to support large areas of the native vegetation cover; therefore, precipitation is usually the only source of freshwater. The predominant native plants are Hedysarum scoparium Fisch. and Agriophyllum squarrosum Moq., Psammochloa cillosa Bor, which scattered distribute with cover about 1% of the entire study area. Prior to revegetation, straw-checkerboards approximately 1×1 m2 in area were constructed using wheat or rice straw to stabilize the dune surface and allow time for the planted xerophytic shrubs to adapt to the new environment. In 1956, the following 2-year-old xerophytic shrub seedlings were planted within the checkerboard at a density of 16 individuals per 100 m2 and grown without irrigation: Artemisia ordosica Krasch, H. scoparium Fisch, Calligonum mongolicum Turc'z, Caragana microphylla Lam., Caragana korshinskii Kom, Salix gordejevii and Atraphaxis bracteata A.Los. The stabilized area was then expanded to parallel areas in 1964 and 1982 using the same method and species. As a result, the initial stages of change that have occurred at these sites were similar. After more than fifties years succession, the predominant plants are semi-shrubs, shrubs, forbs, and grasses at present and BSCs formed. The common BSCs in the region may be dominated by cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, or any combination of these organisms. Cyanobacteria species include Microcolous vaginatus Gom., Hydrocoleus violacens Gom., Lyngbya crytoraginatus Schk., Phormidium amblgum Gom., P. autumnale (Ag.) Gom., P. foveolarum (Mont.) Gom. and Phormidium luridum (Kutz) Gom. etc; algal species mainly include Anabaena azotica Ley, Euglena sp., Hantzschia amphioxys var capitata Grum, Oscillatoria obscura Gom., O. pseudogeminate G. Schm. And Scytonema javanicum (Kutz) Bornet Flash etc; lichen species include Collema tenax (Sw.) Ach., Endocarpon pusillum Hedw.; and moss species are dominated by Bryum argenteum Hedw., Didymodon constrictus (Mitt.) Saito., Tortula bidentata Bai Xue Liang and T. desertorum Broth.. Experimental Design and Rs measurements On October 2010, We selected the moss-dominated BSCs at four revegetation sites and natural vegetation sites, in which 3 replicated plots were selected randomly. In each plot, olyvinyl chloride (PVC) collar (lenth 10 cm, internal diameter 10cm ) were inserted 7 cm into the soil. During the

He, M. Z.

2012-04-01

347

Alien species in a brackish water temperate ecosystem: annual-scale dynamics in response to environmental variability.  

PubMed

Alien species contribute to global change in all marine ecosystems. Environmental variability can affect species distribution and population sizes, and is therefore expected to influence alien species. In this study, we have investigated temporal variability of 11 alien species representing different trophic levels and ecological functions in two gulfs of the brackish Baltic Sea in relation to environmental change. Independent of the invasion time, organism group or the life-history stage, abundance and/or biomass of the investigated alien species was either stable or displayed abrupt increases over time. Timing in population shifts was species-specific and exhibited no generic patterns, indicating that the observed large shifts in environmental parameters have no uniform consequences to the alien biota. In general, the inter-annual dynamics of alien and native species was not largely different, though native species tended to exhibit more diverse variability patterns compared to the alien species. There were no key environmental factors that affected most of the alien species, instead, the effects varied among the studied gulfs and species. Non-indigenous species have caused prominent structural changes in invaded communities as a result of exponential increase in the most recent invasions, as well as increased densities of the already established alien species. PMID:21440890

Ojaveer, Henn; Kotta, Jonne; Põllumäe, Arno; Põllupüü, Maria; Jaanus, Andres; Vetemaa, Markus

2011-10-01

348

Variability of annual CO2 exchange from Dutch Grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intercomparison is made of the Net Ecosystem Exchange of CO2, NEE, for eight Dutch grassland sites; four natural grasslands, two production grasslands and two meteorological stations within a rotational grassland region. At all sites the NEE was determined during at least 10 months per site, using the eddy-covariance (EC) technique, but in different years. The photosynthesis-light response analysis technique

C. M. J. Jacobs; A. F. G. Jacobs; F. C. Bosveld; D. M. D. Hendriks; A. Hensen; P. S. Kroon; E. J. Moors; L. Nol; A. P. Schrier-Uijl; E. M. Veenendaal

2007-01-01

349

The effect of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on germination and seedling development of plant species occurring in a dune grassland ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germination of seeds of seven plant species occurring in a dune grassland vegetation of the Netherlands, was studied at four levels of UV-B radiation simulating unto 45% stratospheric ozone reduction during April. With the exception of seeds of Senecio jacobaea, germination of the dune grassland species was not affected by enhanced UV-B irradiance. Although a clear UV-B fluence-response relationship

Marcel Tosserams; Esther Bolink; Jelte Rozema

1997-01-01

350

Phytoplankton Diversity and Community Composition along the Estuarine Gradient of a Temperate Macrotidal Ecosystem: Combined Morphological and Molecular Approaches  

PubMed Central

Microscopical and molecular analyses were used to investigate the diversity and spatial community structure of spring phytoplankton all along the estuarine gradient in a macrotidal ecosystem, the Baie des Veys (eastern English Channel). Taxa distribution at high tide in the water column appeared to be mainly driven by the tidal force which superimposed on the natural salinity gradient, resulting in a two-layer flow within the channel. Lowest taxa richness and abundance were found in the bay where Teleaulax-like cryptophytes dominated. A shift in species composition occurred towards the mouth of the river, with the diatom Asterionellopsis glacialis dramatically accumulating in the bottom waters of the upstream brackish reach. Small thalassiosiroid diatoms dominated the upper layer river community, where taxa richness was higher. Through the construction of partial 18S rDNA clone libraries, the microeukaryotic diversity was further explored for three samples selected along the surface salinity gradient (freshwater - brackish - marine). Clone libraries revealed a high diversity among heterotrophic and/or small-sized protists which were undetected by microscopy. Among them, a rich variety of Chrysophyceae and other lineages (e.g. novel marine stramenopiles) are reported here for the first time in this transition area. However, conventional microscopy remains more efficient in revealing the high diversity of phototrophic taxa, low in abundances but morphologically distinct, that is overlooked by the molecular approach. The differences between microscopical and molecular analyses and their limitations are discussed here, pointing out the complementarities of both approaches, for a thorough phytoplankton community description. PMID:24718653

Bazin, Pauline; Jouenne, Fabien; Friedl, Thomas; Deton-Cabanillas, Anne-Flore; Le Roy, Bertrand; Véron, Benoît

2014-01-01

351

Impacts of Diffuse Radiation on Light Use Efficiency across Terrestrial Ecosystems Based on Eddy Covariance Observation in China  

PubMed Central

Ecosystem light use efficiency (LUE) is a key factor of production models for gross primary production (GPP) predictions. Previous studies revealed that ecosystem LUE could be significantly enhanced by an increase on diffuse radiation. Under large spatial heterogeneity and increasing annual diffuse radiation in China, eddy covariance flux data at 6 sites across different ecosystems from 2003 to 2007 were used to investigate the impacts of diffuse radiation indicated by the cloudiness index (CI) on ecosystem LUE in grassland and forest ecosystems. Our results showed that the ecosystem LUE at the six sites was significantly correlated with the cloudiness variation (0.24?R2?0.85), especially at the Changbaishan temperate forest ecosystem (R2?=?0.85). Meanwhile, the CI values appeared more frequently between 0.8 and 1.0 in two subtropical forest ecosystems (Qianyanzhou and Dinghushan) and were much larger than those in temperate ecosystems. Besides, cloudiness thresholds which were favorable for enhancing ecosystem carbon sequestration existed at the three forest sites, respectively. Our research confirmed that the ecosystem LUE at the six sites in China was positively responsive to the diffuse radiation, and the cloudiness index could be used as an environmental regulator for LUE modeling in regional GPP prediction. PMID:25393629

Huang, Kun; Wang, Shaoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Huimin; Zhang, Junhui; Yan, Junhua; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yanfen; Shi, Peili

2014-01-01

352

Grassland agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture in grassland environments is facing multiple stresses from: shifting demographics, declining and fragmented agricultural landscapes, declining environmental quality, variable and changing climate, volatile and increasing energy costs, marginal economic returns, and globalization. Degrad...

353

Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on ecosystems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

354

The impacts of land cover change on surface energy fluxes and radiometric surface temperature in the temperate zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation is an important control on the surface energy balance, but the impacts of land use and land cover change on changes to surface energy fluxes and radiometric surface temperature (Tsurf) in the temperate zone remain the subject of active research. We quantified the mechanisms driving changes in Tsurf following landcover changes using paired ecosystem case studies from the Ameriflux database. A differential analysis of models of varying complexity was used to quantify the change in Tsurf attributable to structural and functional ecosystem changes. Results support previous findings that deciduous and coniferous forests in the Duke Forest, NC, are about 1 °C cooler than an adjacent field on an annual basis because an aerodynamic and ecophysiological cooling of ca. 2 °C outweighs an albedo-related warming of ca. 1 °C upon transition to forest. A 50-70% reduction in the aerodynamic resistance to sensible and latent heat exchange in the forested ecosystems dominated the cooling effect. In northern Arizona, a grassland ecosystem that succeeded a stand-replacing ponderosa pine fire was ca. 1 °C warmer than unburned stands for similar mechanisms to the Duke Forest case study; a 1.5 °C aerodynamic warming offset a slight surface cooling due to greater albedo and soil heat flux. In southern Arizona, ecosystems dominated by mesquite shrub encroachment were nearly 2 °C warmer than a native grassland ecosystem because aerodynamic and albedo-related warming outweighed a small cooling effect due to changes in soil heat flux. Further to these findings, an investigation of over 8 million data points in the FLUXNET database revealed that surface temperature increased less per unit net radiation in forests than in short-statured ecosystems globally. Together, these results suggest that temperate forests tend to cool the land surface in addition to their high CO2 sequestration potential.

Stoy, P. C.; Jammet, M.; Luyssaert, S.; Katul, G. G.; Juang, J.-Y.; Siqueira, M. B. S.; Novick, K. A.; Dore, S.; Kolb, T. E.; Montes-Helu, M. C.; Scott, R. L.

2012-04-01

355

Comprehensive ecosystem model-data synthesis using multiple data sets at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment experiments: Model performance at ambient CO2 concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments provide a remarkable wealth of data which can be used to evaluate and improve terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs). In the FACE model-data synthesis project, 11 TEMs were applied to two decadelong FACE experiments in temperate forests of the southeastern U.S.—the evergreen Duke Forest and the deciduous Oak Ridge Forest. In this baseline paper, we demonstrate our approach to model-data synthesis by evaluating the models' ability to reproduce observed net primary productivity (NPP), transpiration, and leaf area index (LAI) in ambient CO2 treatments. Model outputs were compared against observations using a range of goodness-of-fit statistics. Many models simulated annual NPP and transpiration within observed uncertainty. We demonstrate, however, that high goodness-of-fit values do not necessarily indicate a successful model, because simulation accuracy may be achieved through compensating biases in component variables. For example, transpiration accuracy was sometimes achieved with compensating biases in leaf area index and transpiration per unit leaf area. Our approach to model-data synthesis therefore goes beyond goodness-of-fit to investigate the success of alternative representations of component processes. Here we demonstrate this approach by comparing competing model hypotheses determining peak LAI. Of three alternative hypotheses—(1) optimization to maximize carbon export, (2) increasing specific leaf area with canopy depth, and (3) the pipe model—the pipe model produced peak LAI closest to the observations. This example illustrates how data sets from intensive field experiments such as FACE can be used to reduce model uncertainty despite compensating biases by evaluating individual model assumptions.

Walker, Anthony P.; Hanson, Paul J.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Zaehle, Sönke; Asao, Shinichi; Dietze, Michael; Hickler, Thomas; Huntingford, Chris; Iversen, Colleen M.; Jain, Atul; Lomas, Mark; Luo, Yiqi; McCarthy, Heather; Parton, William J.; Prentice, I. Colin; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Shusen; Wang, Ying-Ping; Warlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Woodward, F. Ian; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J.

2014-05-01

356

Carbon storage potential of managed mountain grasslands under future conditions - Inverse modelling and uncertainty analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical models are often difficult to calibrate due to their complex structure and/or their large number of parameters. To provide reliable results as well as defensible estimations of uncertainty any data-fusion approach has to account for and quantify all errors consisting of input, model structural and parameter estimation errors. Here we present a study of the carbon cycling of managed temperate mountain grasslands in the Austrian Alps and their carbon storage potential under future conditions using a data model fusion approach enabled to handle these uncertainties. Provided multiple data sets of different managed grassland ecosystems (consisting of micrometeorological variables, carbon dioxide fluxes, aboveground biomass and soil water content) the grassland adapted DALEC model, a big-leaf photosynthesis model as well as a soil moisture model were applied to model the carbon balance of these ecosystems. Parameter estimation of these models is done using a Bayesian inversion scheme. A vital part of this study is the correct residual handling and representation in the inverse parameter estimation scheme in order to provide a robust parameter- and predictive uncertainty estimation. This estimation is achieved by using a generalized likelihood function that, in contrast to the formal approach, does not rely on independent and identically distributed errors according to a normal distribution, with zero mean and constant variance, which does not hold in many ecological applications. Once calibrated these models are used to explore the carbon storage potential of managed grassland ecosystems under different future management- and climate-scenarios. Given these model results optimal management strategies can be provided to maximize the carbon storage potential without compromising yield.

Hammerle, A.; Williams, M. D.; Schoups, G.; Themessl, M. J.; Gobiet, A.; Calanca, P. S.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2012-12-01

357

Grazing Management of Temperate Grasslands and Fallows  

E-print Network

farmers who are finding it difficult to compete with lowland farmers in the production of agriculture crops. Dukpa et al (1997) estimated that silvopastoral systems combining the fast growing blue pine with dairy production could generate cash... advantage of new regulations introduced. Herders/farmers are not motivated to optimize production of tsamdrog. Tsamdro which cannot be utilized due to logistic problems (distance) are not available for other herders/farmers. Communal resources...

Roder, Walter

2002-01-01

358

Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Ecosystems" module has four units of instruction. The units include: natural selection, population balance, exchange cycles, and environmental protection. Each module has a "Hazards" link that leads to a menu of study units on various environmental hazards (such as oil spills, farm runoff, insecticides, and so on).

W. R. Klemm

2002-01-01

359

Recurrent soil freeze-thaw cycles enhance grassland productivity.  

PubMed

Ongoing global warming will increase the frequency of soil freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) in cool-temperate and other high-latitude regions. The spatial relevance of seasonally frozen ground amounts to c. 55% of the total land area of the northern hemisphere. Evidence suggests that FTCs contribute to nutrient dynamics. Knowledge of their effects on plant communities is scarce, although plants may be the decisive factor in controlling ecosystem functions such as nutrient retention. Here, the effects are analysed of five additional FTCs in winter for the above- and below-ground productivity of experimental grassland communities and soil enzymatic activity over the following growing season. Freeze-thaw cycles increased the above-ground productivity but reduced root length over the whole subsequent growing season. In summer, no changes in soil enzymatic activities representing the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles were observed in the FTC-manipulated plots, except for an increased cellobiohydrolase activity. Changes in productivity resulting in an increased shoot-to-root ratio and shifts in timing are capable of altering ecosystem stability and ecosystem services, such as productivity and nutrient retention. PMID:18069954

Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Pritsch, Karin; Schloter, Michael; Jentsch, Anke

2008-01-01

360

Microbial biomass, and C and N mineralization, in litter and mineral soil of adjacent montane ecosystems in a southern beech ( Nothofagus) forest and a tussock grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons were made of total and microbial C and N pools and C and N metabolism in litter and mineral soil of a mountain beech (Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides) forest, ca. 100 m below timberline, and an adjacent tussock grassland (dominated by Chionochloa pallens), ca. 100 m above timberline, in Canterbury, New Zealand. Mean annual precipitation at the sites is

D. J. Ross; K. R. Tate; C. W. Feltham

1996-01-01

361

Gross primary production variability associated with meteorology, physiology, leaf area, and water supply in contrasting woodland and grassland semiarid riparian ecosystems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchanges in dryland environments has been more challenging than in mesic environments, likely due to more pronounced nonlinear responses of ecosystem processes to environmental variation. To better understand diurnal to interannual variation in gross primar...

362

SOIL AND CANOPY CONTROL OVER ECOSYSTEM CARBON AND WATER FLUXES IN A DESERT GRASSLAND: PATTERNS FROM A RAINFALL MANIPULATION EXPERIMENT 1791  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While plant canopies are important controllers over water and carbon fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, in water limited ecosystems soils have important direct and indirect effects on ecosystem fluxes. Using whole-ecosystem assessments of water and carbon exchanges in large plots exposed t...

363

Ecosystem-level water-use efficiency inferred from eddy covariance data: definitions, patterns and spatial up-scaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation we discuss ways to infer and to interpret water-use efficiency at ecosystem level (WUEe) from eddy covariance flux data and possibilities for scaling these patterns to regional and continental scale. In particular we convey the following: WUEe may be computed as a ratio of integrated fluxes or as the slope of carbon versus water fluxes offering different chances for interpretation. If computed from net ecosystem exchange and evapotranspiration on has to take of counfounding effects of respiration and soil evaporation. WUEe time-series at diurnal and seasonal scale is a valuable ecosystem physiological diagnostic for example about ecosystem-level responses to drought. Most often WUEe decreases during dry periods. The mean growing season ecosystem water-use efficiency of gross carbon uptake (WUEGPP) is highest in temperate broad-leaved deciduous forests, followed by temperate mixed forests, temperate evergreen conifers, Mediterranean broad-leaved deciduous forests, Mediterranean broad-leaved evergreen forests and Mediterranean evergreen conifers and boreal, grassland and tundra ecosystems. Water-use efficiency exhibits a temporally quite conservative relation with atmospheric water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) that is modified between sites by leaf area index (LAI) and soil quality, such that WUEe increases with LAI and soil water holding capacity which is related to texture. This property and tight coupling between carbon and water cycles is used to estimate catchment-scale water-use efficiency and primary productivity by integration of space-borne earth observation and river discharge data.

Reichstein, M.; Beer, C.; Kuglitsch, F.; Papale, D.; Soussana, J. A.; Janssens, I.; Ciais, P.; Baldocchi, D.; Buchmann, N.; Verbeeck, H.; Ceulemans, R.; Moors, E.; Köstner, B.; Schulze, D.; Knohl, A.; Law, B. E.

2007-12-01

364

Soil Carbon Recovery of Degraded Steppe Ecosystems of the Mongolian Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mongolian steppe grassland systems are critical source of ecosystem services to societal groups in temperate East Asia. These systems are characterized by their arid and semiarid environments where rainfall tends to be too variable or evaporative losses reduce water availability to reliably support cropping systems or substantial forest cover. These steppe ecosystems have supported land use practices to accommodate the variable rainfall patterns, and seasonal and spatial patterns of forage production displayed by the nomadic pastoral systems practiced across Asia. These pastoral systems are dependent on grassland ecosystem services, including forage production, wool, skins, meat and dairy products, and in many systems provide critical biodiversity and land and water protection services which serve to maintain pastoral livelihoods. Precipitation variability and associated drought conditions experienced frequently in these grassland systems are key drivers of these systems. However, during the past several decades climate change and grazing and land use conversion have resulted in degradation of ecosystem services and loss of soil organic matter. Recent efforts in China and Mongolia are investigating different grazing management practices to restore soil organic matter in these degraded systems. Simulation modeling is being applied to evaluate the long-term benefits of different grazing management regimes under various climate scenarios.

Ojima, D. S.; Togtohyn, C.; Qi, J.

2013-12-01

365

Spatial and temporal variability of bacterial 16S rDNA-based T-RFLP patterns derived from soil of two Wyoming grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal variability of soil bacterial 16S rDNA terminal restriction fragment (TRF) size variation was evaluated in a homogeneous grassland (HG) dominated by the turf-forming grass Bouteloua gracilis and in a shrubland (SL) dominated by Artemisia tridentata (Wyoming big sagebrush). Temporal variability was also evaluated on the HG site over a growing season. No trends toward dissimilarity were detected

Daniel L Mummey; Peter D Stahl

2003-01-01

366

Regional variability of grassland CO2 fluxes in Tyrol/Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FLUXNET project [1] aims at quantifying the magnitude and controls on the CO2, H2O and energy exchange of terrestrial ecosystems. Ideally, the various biomes of the Earth would be sampled in proportion to their spatial extent - in reality, however, study site selection is usually based on other (more practical) criteria so that a bias exists towards certain biomes and ecosystem types. This may be problematic because FLUXNET data are used to calibrate/parameterize models at various scales - if certain ecosystems are poorly replicated this may bias model predictions. Here we present data from a project in Tyrol/Austria where we have been investigating the CO2, H2O and energy exchange of five grassland sites during 2005-2007. The five permanent grassland sites were exposed to similar climate, but differed slightly in management. In a FLUXNET style approach, any of these sites might have been selected for making long-term flux measurements - the aim of this project was to examine the representativeness of these sites and, if evident, elucidate the causes for and controls on differences between sites. To this end we conducted continuous eddy covariance flux measurements at one (anchor) site [2, 3], and episodic, month long flux measurements at the four additional sites using a roving eddy covariance tower. These data were complemented by measurements of environmental drivers, the amount of above ground phytomass and basic data on vegetation and soil type, as well as management. Data are subject to a rigorous statistical analysis in order to quantify significant differences in the CO2, H2O and energy exchange between the sites and to identify the factors which are responsible for these differences. In the present contribution we report results on CO2 fluxes. Our major findings are that (i) site-identity of the surveyed grassland ecosystems was a significant factor for the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), somewhat less for gross primary production (GPP) and not for ecosystem respiration (RECO), (ii) GPP depended mainly on the amount of incident photosynthetically active radiation and the amount of green plant matter, the scale of influence of these two factors varying fourfold between the sites, and not so much on the available water, (iii) RECO was mainly affected by the soil temperature, but some evidence for priming effects was also found, (iv) the NEE was mainly influenced by GPP and to a lower extent by RECO. Taken together our results indicate that even within the same ecosystem type exposed to similar climate and land use, site selection may strongly affect the resulting NEE estimates. References: [1] D.D. Baldocchi, "Breathing of the terrestrial biosphere: lessons learned from a global network of carbon dioxide flux measurement systems", Australian Journal of Botany vol.56 (2008) pp. 1-26. [2] A. Hammerle, A. Haslwanter, U. Tappeiner, A. Cernusca, G. Wohlfahrt, "Leaf area controls on energy partitioning of a temperate mountain grassland", Biogeosciences vol.5 (2008) pp. 421 431. [3] G. Wohlfahrt, A. Hammerle, A. Haslwanter, M. Bahn, U. Tappeiner, A. Cernusca, "Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a temperate mountain grassland: effects of weather and management", Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (2008) D08110, doi:10.1029/2007JD009286.

Irschick, Christoph; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Wohlfahrt, Georg

2010-05-01

367

Grassland birds: An overview of threats and recommended management strategies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grassland ecosystems are dependent on periodic disturbance for habitat maintenance. Historically, grazing by native herbivores and prairie fires were the agents principally responsible for maintaining grassland areas. However, elimination of native herbivores, wide-spread fire suppression, and conversion for agriculture have greatly altered grasslands in the United States and Canada. Because of these landscape changes, many grassland birds are increasingly dependent on land managers for habitat creation, maintenance, and health. Grazing, prescribed burning, and mowing/haying are the most frequently used, and versatile, grassland management techniques. Grassland birds prefer a wide range of grass heights and densities, with some species preferring short sparse vegetation, and others preferring taller, more dense vegetation. Due to differences in species habitat preferences and regional differences in soils and floristics, the responses of individual grassland species to specific grassland management practices can be variable and often are regionally dependent. As a result, management of grassland areas is best directed toward the creation of a mosaic of grassland habitat types. This habitat mosaic is probably best maintained through some type of rotational management system in which sections of large grassland areas receive management on a regular schedule. Such a rotational system would provide a variety of habitat types in every year, would ensure the availability of suitable habitat for birds at either end of the grassland management spectrum, and also would provide habitat for birds whose preferences lie between these extremes.

Vickery, P.D.; Herkert, J.R.; Knopf, F.L.; Ruth, J.; Keller, C.E.

2000-01-01

368

Biodiversity and stability in grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

ONE of the ecological tenets justifying conservation of biodiversity is that diversity begets stability. Impacts of biodiversity on population dynamics and ecosystem functioning have long been debated1-7, however, with many theoretical explorations2-6,8-11 but few field studies12-15. Here we describe a long-term study of grasslands16,17 which shows that primary productivity in more diverse plant communities is more resistant to, and recovers

David Tilman; John A. Downing

1994-01-01

369

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics of Temperate and Subarctic Heath  

E-print Network

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics of Temperate and Subarctic Heath Ecosystems with Emphasis on Cold-season cycling of carbon and nitrogen in temperate and subarctic heath ecosystems. Over the last three years, I of the carbon flux studies............................................................ 14 3. The nitrogen cycle