These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Temperate Grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The temperate-grassland biome occupies a large portion of the planet. Temperate grasslands represent the potential natural\\u000a vegetation of an area of 49 × 106km2, which is equivalent to 36% of the earth’s surface (Shantz 1954). This estimate of the area occupied by grasslands excludes savannas, but it does include grass and shrub deserts. The area\\u000a covered exclusively by grasslands is

Osvaldo E. Sala

2

Accounting for variability in soil microbial communities of temperate upland grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the factors which regulate soil microbial community organisation and function in temperate upland grassland ecosystems. Soil microbial biomass (Cmic), activity (respiration and potential carbon utilisation) and community structure (phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, culturing and community level physiological profiles (CLPP) (Biolog®)) were measured across a gradient of three upland grassland types; Festuca–Agrostis–Galium grassland (unimproved grassland,

S. J. Grayston; G. S. Griffith; J. L. Mawdsley; C. D. Campbell; R. D. Bardgett

2001-01-01

3

Carbon Dioxide and Energy Exchanges in a Temperate Grassland Ecosystem.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A micrometeorological study was conducted from May to October in 1987 to evaluate the surface exchanges of carbon dioxide and energy at a temperate grassland site in northeastern Kansas. The fluxes of CO_2 (F_{rm c}), latent heat (LE), sensible heat (H) and momentum were measured using the eddy correlation technique. Pertinent microclimatic, plant and soil variables were also monitored through the season. The prairie was dominated by three C_4 grass species: Andropogon gerardii, Sorghastrum nutans, Panicum virgatum. The energy partitioning was controlled mainly by net radiation (R_{rm n} ) and by soil water availability. On sunny days with no moisture stress, about 58 to 83% of R_ {rm n} was consumed in evapotranspiration during midday. The midday canopy surface conductance averaged about 15 mm s^{-1}. Under moisture stress conditions the magnitude of midday LE/R _{rm n} ranged from 0.35 to 0.45 whereas the canopy surface conductance was less than 3 mm s^{-1}. Considerable daily and seasonal variability of Co_2 flux was observed. The midday F_{rm c} reached a seasonal peak of 1.3 mg m^{-2} (ground area) s^{-1} in early July and was near zero during a dry period in late July. The dependence of the daytime F_ {rm c} on pertinent controlling variables (e.g., light, temperature, vapor pressure deficit, soil water availability, and canopy surface conductance) was investigated. The magnitude of nocturnal F _{rm c}(soil plus plant respiration) averaged 0.4 mg m^{-2}s ^{-1} under well-watered conditions and was about 0.2 mg m^{ -2}s^{-1} during the dry period. A leaf stomatal conductance model was developed for the major grass species in this ecosystem, and was scaled up to a canopy level using a canopy radiative transfer model. Comparisons with field measurements indicated that the model provided reasonable estimates of canopy stomatal conductance for well-watered conditions. The modelled half-hourly values of LE agreed well(generally within 5%) with those measured, under these conditions. A biochemical leaf photosynthesis model was adapted to the major grass species studied here, and was scaled up to a canopy level. Comparisons with field measurements showed that the model realistically simulated the magnitudes and the diurnal variations of canopy photosynthesis under well-watered conditions. Although the modelled canopy photosynthesis overestimated the measured values by 0.2 -0.3 mg m^{-2}s ^{-1} under moisture stress conditions, the model did simulate the diurnal patterns adequately.

Kim, Joon

1990-01-01

4

Net ecosystem productivity of temperate grasslands in northern China: An upscaling study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grassland is one of the widespread biome types globally, and plays an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle. We examined net ecosystem production (NEP) for the temperate grasslands in northern China from 2000 to 2010. We combined flux observations, satellite data, and climate data to develop a piecewise regression model for NEP, and then used the model to map NEP for grasslands in northern China. Over the growing season, the northern China's grassland had a net carbon uptake of 158 ± 25 g C m?2 during 2000–2010 with the mean regional NEP estimate of 126 Tg C. Our results showed generally higher grassland NEP at high latitudes (northeast) than at low latitudes (central and west) because of different grassland types and environmental conditions. In the northeast, which is dominated by meadow steppes, the growing season NEP generally reached 200–300 g C m?2. In the southwest corner of the region, which is partially occupied by alpine meadow systems, the growing season NEP also reached 200–300 g C m?2. In the central part, which is dominated by typical steppe systems, the growing season NEP generally varied in the range of 100–200 g C m?2. The NEP of the northern China's grasslands was highly variable through years, ranging from 129 (2001) to 217 g C m?2 growing season?1 (2010). The large interannual variations of NEP could be attributed to the sensitivity of temperate grasslands to climate changes and extreme climatic events. The droughts in 2000, 2001, and 2006 reduced the carbon uptake over the growing season by 11%, 29%, and 16% relative to the long-term (2000–2010) mean. Over the study period (2000–2010), precipitation was significantly correlated with NEP for the growing season (R2 = 0.35, p-value < 0.1), indicating that water availability is an important stressor for the productivity of the temperate grasslands in semi-arid and arid regions in northern China. We conclude that northern temperate grasslands have the potential to sequester carbon, but the capacity of carbon sequestration depends on grassland types and environmental conditions. Extreme climate events like drought can significantly reduce the net carbon uptake of grasslands.

Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Jia, Gensuo; Wylie, Bruce; Gilmanov, Tagir; Howard, Danny; Ji, Lei; Xiao, Jingfeng; Li, Jing; Yuan, Wenping; Zhao, Tianbao; Chen, Shiping; Zhou, Guangsheng; Kato, Tomomichi

2014-01-01

5

Components of surface energy balance in a temperate grassland ecosystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eddy correlation measurements of moisture, heat, and momentum fluxes were made at a tall grassland site in Kansas during the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment. The fluxes, stomatal conductance, and leaf water potential of three grass species are reported. The species are big bluestem, indiangrass, and switchgrass. The daily and seasonal variation in the components of the surface energy balance and the aerodynamic and canopy surface conductances for prairie vegetation are examined.

Kim, Joon; Verma, Shashi B.

1990-01-01

6

Environmental Controls and Management Effects on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in Two Grazed Temperate Grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate grasslands constitute over 30% of the Earth's naturally-occurring biomes and make an important contribution towards the partial mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by terrestrial ecosystems. Accumulation of carbon (C) in grassland systems predominantly takes place in below-ground repositories, enhanced by the presence of a stable soil environment with low carbon turnover rates, active rhizodeposition and high levels of residue and organic inputs. However, this C sequestration is strongly influenced by soil characteristics and climatic variables. Furthermore, in managed pasture systems, carbon exchange across the soil-atmosphere boundary is additionally affected by management activities, such as biomass removal, grazing events and the deposition or application of organic amendments. These biotic and abiotic factors contribute greatly towards the large uncertainty associated with the carbon balance of grassland ecosystems and demand further analysis. In the present study, the controls and drivers of carbon dynamics in two rotationally-grazed grasslands in Ireland were examined. The sites experience similar temperate climatic regimes but differ in soil texture classification and stocking rate. Eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange of carbon were complemented by regular assessment of standing biomass, leaf cover, harvest exports and organic amendment inputs. Our study showed that mild weather conditions and an extended growing season sustained net C accumulation at both sites for at least ten months of the year. Despite differing soil drainage characteristics, winter fluxes of net carbon exchange and its component fluxes, gross photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration, were highly comparable between the two sites. Management practices during the active growing season exerted a strong influence on both the direction and the rate of C exchange in the grassland systems, with a strong dependence, however, on the timing and intensity of the management effect. Harvest-induced reductions in productivity and net C uptake were generally greater than grazing-induced shifts, however the effects were at times mediated by environmental conditions. Our research highlighted the complex nature of the investigated grasslands resulting from the heterogeneous footprint induced by rotational grazing, grass harvesting and intensive management practices. Further work will focus on the applicability of different gap-filling methodologies for capturing the temporal and spatial variability observed. The potential of vegetation indices as a means of tracking sward development will also be investigated, with the aim of improving our understanding of the impact of vegetation dynamics on measured ecosystem carbon fluxes.

Ni Choncubhair, O.; Humphreys, J.; Lanigan, G.

2013-12-01

7

Impact of inter-annual climatic variability on ecosystem carbon exchange in two grazed temperate grasslands with contrasting drainage regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate grasslands constitute over 30% of the Earth's naturally-occurring biomes and make an important contribution towards the partial mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by terrestrial ecosystems. Accumulation of carbon (C) in grassland systems predominantly takes place in below-ground repositories, enhanced by the presence of a stable soil environment with low carbon turnover rates, active rhizodeposition and high levels of residue and organic inputs. Predicted future warming is expected to increase productivity in temperate zones, thereby enhancing rates of terrestrial carbon sequestration. However, the susceptibility of many ecosystems, including grasslands, to extreme climatic events and inter-annual variability has been demonstrated previously. Temperature anomalies as well as modifications in the temporal pattern and quantity of precipitation alter the balance between carbon uptake and release processes and a mechanistic understanding of ecosystem response to such changes is still lacking. In the present study, the impact of extreme inter-annual variability in summer rainfall and temperature on carbon dynamics in two rotationally-grazed grasslands in Ireland was examined. The sites experience similar temperate climatic regimes but differ in soil drainage characteristics. Eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange of carbon were complemented by regular assessment of standing biomass, leaf cover, harvest exports and organic amendment inputs. The summers of 2012 and 2013 showed contrasting climatic conditions, with summer precipitation 93% higher and 25% lower respectively than long-term means. In addition, soil temperatures were 7% lower and 11% higher than expected. Cool, wet conditions in 2012 facilitated net carbon uptake for more than ten months of the year at the poorly-drained site, however the ecosystem switched to a net source of carbon in 2013 during months with significantly reduced rainfall. In contrast, net C accumulation continued at the well-drained site despite the summer drought conditions. Total cumulative annual ecosystem respiration was 20% higher at the poorly-drained site than at the well-drained site in 2013, while a more modest increase in cumulative gross production (9.6%) was observed at the poorly-drained site for the same period. This research highlights the susceptibility of poorly-drained soils to accelerated efflux of carbon during soil drying cycles and points towards potential negative impacts of future warming scenarios, with significant carbon balance implications for grassland ecosystems.

Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Humphreys, James; Lanigan, Gary

2014-05-01

8

TOWARD A STRATEGY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF THE WORLD'S TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperate grasslands are one of the world's great biomes and were once home to some of the largest assemblages of wildlife the earth has ever known. Today these grasslands are considered the most altered terrestrial ecosystem on the planet and are recognized as the most endangered ecosystem on most continents. While species and habitat declines continue, temperate grasslands have the

William D. Henwood

2010-01-01

9

Grazing Management of Temperate Grasslands and Fallows  

E-print Network

44 GRAZING MANAGEMENT OF TEMPERATE GRASSLAND AND FALLOWS Walter Roder* Introduction The paper provides a general overview of fodder resources and their management in temperate Bhutan (altitude range of 1500-3000m). The terms are used... as defined by RC-Jakar (RNR-RC-Jakar, 1996). As per these definitions, temperate pasture can include any kind of land used for grazing. When referring to registered grassland or tsamdro, only the term tsamdrog is used. Where possible, the term pasture...

Roder, Walter

2002-01-01

10

Declining Birds in Grassland Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the grassland ecosystem with respect to declining bird species. This report is the effort of a number of agencies to develop a strategy for addressing grassland bird information needs. Grasslands are the most imperiled ecosystem worldwide, and birds associated with this ecosystem are on a decline. This report addresses monitoring issues, species in concern, and the effects of habitat and landscape on grassland birds.

11

American Field Guide: The Formation and Value of Temperate Grasslands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website integrates video footage and information with lesson plans and activities to teach students about the Temperate Grasslands (Prairie) biome of North America. The activities in this unit are designed to give students an overview of the climate and organisms of this biome in order to better understand this endangered ecosystem. There are lesson plans, instruction sheets, and links for additional information.

12

Relation of chlorophyll fluorescence sensitive reflectance ratios to carbon flux measurements of montanne grassland and norway spruce forest ecosystems in the temperate zone.  

PubMed

We explored ability of reflectance vegetation indexes (VIs) related to chlorophyll fluorescence emission (R???/R???, R???/R???) and de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle pigments (PRI, calculated as (R???- R???)/(R???-R???) to track changes in the CO? assimilation rate and Light Use Efficiency (LUE) in montane grassland and Norway spruce forest ecosystems, both at leaf and also canopy level. VIs were measured at two research plots using a ground-based high spatial/spectral resolution imaging spectroscopy technique. No significant relationship between VIs and leaf light-saturated CO? assimilation (A(MAX)) was detected in instantaneous measurements of grassland under steady-state irradiance conditions. Once the temporal dimension and daily irradiance variation were included into the experimental setup, statistically significant changes in VIs related to tested physiological parameters were revealed. ?PRI and ?(R???/R???) of grassland plant leaves under dark-to-full sunlight transition in the scale of minutes were significantly related to A(MAX) (R² = 0.51). In the daily course, the variation of VIs measured in one-hour intervals correlated well with the variation of Gross Primary Production (GPP), Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), and LUE estimated via the eddy-covariance flux tower. Statistical results were weaker in the case of the grassland ecosystem, with the strongest statistical relation of the index R???/R??? with NEE and GPP. PMID:22701368

A?, Alexander; Malenovský, Zbyn?k; Urban, Otmar; Hanuš, Jan; Zitová, Martina; Navrátil, Martin; Vráblová, Martina; Olejní?ková, Julie; Spunda, Vladimír; Marek, Michal

2012-01-01

13

Climate change experiments in temperate grasslands: synthesis and future directions  

PubMed Central

The immediate need to understand the complex responses of grasslands to climate change, to ensure food supplies and to mitigate future climate change through carbon sequestration, necessitate a global, synthesized approach. Numerous manipulative experiments have altered temperature or precipitation, often in conjunction with other interacting factors such as grazing, to understand potential effects of climate change on the ecological integrity of temperate grasslands and understand the mechanisms of change. Although the different ways in which temperature and precipitation may change to effect grasslands were well represented, variability in methodology limited generalizations. Results from these experiments were also largely mixed and complex; thus, a broad understanding of temperate grassland responses to these factors remains elusive. A collaboration based on a set of globally dispersed, inexpensive experiments with consistent methodology would provide the data needed to better understand responses of temperate grassland to climate change. PMID:22048893

White, Shannon R.; Carlyle, Cameron N.; Fraser, Lauchlan H.; Cahill, James F.

2012-01-01

14

How generalist herbivores exploit belowground plant diversity in temperate grasslands.  

PubMed

Belowground herbivores impact plant performance, thereby inducing changes in plant community composition, which potentially leads to cascading effects onto higher trophic levels and ecosystem processes and productivity. Among soil-living insects, external root-chewing generalist herbivores have the strongest impact on plants. However, the lack of knowledge on their feeding behaviour under field conditions considerably hampers achieving a comprehensive understanding of how they affect plant communities. Here, we address this gap of knowledge by investigating the feeding behaviour of Agriotes click beetle larvae, which are common generalist external root-chewers in temperate grassland soils. Utilizing diagnostic multiplex PCR to assess the larval diet, we examined the seasonal patterns in feeding activity, putative preferences for specific plant taxa, and whether species identity and larval instar affect food choices of the herbivores. Contrary to our hypothesis, most of the larvae were feeding-active throughout the entire vegetation period, indicating that the grassland plants are subjected to constant belowground feeding pressure. Feeding was selective, with members of Plantaginaceae and Asteraceae being preferred; Apiaceae were avoided. Poaceae, although assumed to be most preferred, had an intermediate position. The food preferences exhibited seasonal changes, indicating a fluctuation in plant traits important for wireworm feeding choice. Species- and instar-specific differences in dietary choice of the Agriotes larvae were small, suggesting that species and larval instars occupy the same trophic niche. According to the current findings, the food choice of these larvae is primarily driven by plant identity, exhibiting seasonal changes. This needs to be considered when analysing soil herbivore-plant interactions. PMID:24188592

Wallinger, Corinna; Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Juen, Anita; Traugott, Michael

2014-08-01

15

How generalist herbivores exploit belowground plant diversity in temperate grasslands  

PubMed Central

Belowground herbivores impact plant performance, thereby inducing changes in plant community composition, which potentially leads to cascading effects onto higher trophic levels and ecosystem processes and productivity. Among soil-living insects, external root-chewing generalist herbivores have the strongest impact on plants. However, the lack of knowledge on their feeding behaviour under field conditions considerably hampers achieving a comprehensive understanding of how they affect plant communities. Here, we address this gap of knowledge by investigating the feeding behaviour of Agriotes click beetle larvae, which are common generalist external root-chewers in temperate grassland soils. Utilizing diagnostic multiplex PCR to assess the larval diet, we examined the seasonal patterns in feeding activity, putative preferences for specific plant taxa, and whether species identity and larval instar affect food choices of the herbivores. Contrary to our hypothesis, most of the larvae were feeding-active throughout the entire vegetation period, indicating that the grassland plants are subjected to constant belowground feeding pressure. Feeding was selective, with members of Plantaginaceae and Asteraceae being preferred; Apiaceae were avoided. Poaceae, although assumed to be most preferred, had an intermediate position. The food preferences exhibited seasonal changes, indicating a fluctuation in plant traits important for wireworm feeding choice. Species- and instar-specific differences in dietary choice of the Agriotes larvae were small, suggesting that species and larval instars occupy the same trophic niche. According to the current findings, the food choice of these larvae is primarily driven by plant identity, exhibiting seasonal changes. This needs to be considered when analysing soil herbivore–plant interactions. PMID:24188592

Wallinger, Corinna; Staudacher, Karin; Schallhart, Nikolaus; Mitterrutzner, Evi; Steiner, Eva-Maria; Juen, Anita; Traugott, Michael

2014-01-01

16

[Monitoring nitrogen deposition on temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia].  

PubMed

Nitrogen deposition on temperate steppe was monitored from November 2011 to October 2012 in Taipusi County, Inner Mongolia. The dry deposition of gaseous nitrogen compounds was calculated based on online-monitored atmospheric concentrations of NH3 and NO2 and dry deposition velocity simulated by CMAQ model. The wet deposition, dry deposition of particle, and throughfall deposition were also estimated by collecting rainfall, dust fall, and throughfall samples and the chemical analysis of NH4+ and NO3-concentrations. Results showed that the total deposition of nitrogen was up to 3.43 g x (m2 x a)(-1), which might be harmful to the ecosystem. The wet deposition accounted for about 44% of the total deposition, while dry deposition of gases and particle accounted for 38% and 18%, respectively. Since the deposition contributed more than wet deposition, a great attention should be paid on dry deposition monitoring. However, the very simple method for total deposition monitoring based on throughfall seemed not suitable for grassland because the monitored throughfall deposition was much lower than the total deposition. In addition, reduced nitrogen (NH4+ and NH3) contributed to 71% of the total deposition, while oxidation nitrogen (NO3- and NO2) was only 29%. Therefore, NH3 emission reduction should be considered as important as nitrogen oxides (NO3x) for controlling nitrogen deposition. PMID:24289004

Zhang, Ju; Kang, Rong-hua; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Yong-mei; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Duan, Lei

2013-09-01

17

Balancing Tradeoffs in Ecosystem Functions and Services in Grassland Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Managed grasslands are increasingly expected to provide ecosystem services beyond the traditional provision of food, feed, and fiber. Grassland systems can provide ecosystem services such as soil conservation, water quality protection, wildlife conservation, pleasing landscapes, soil carbon storage,...

18

Nitrogen relationships in intensively managed temperate grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Most studies of N relationships in grassland have used cut swards. These have shown that for annual inputs of 200 to 400 kg N\\/ha from fertilizer or fixation, 55 to 80% of the N is recovered in harvested herbage. Generally, no more than 5 to 15% is lost through leaching and denitrification with most of the remaining N incorporated

P. Roger Ball; J. C. Ryden

1984-01-01

19

China's grazed temperate grasslands are a net source of atmospheric methane Zhi-Ping Wang a  

E-print Network

China's grazed temperate grasslands are a net source of atmospheric methane Zhi-Ping Wang a , Yang that ruminant production has converted China's grazed temperate grasslands to a net source of atmospheric CH4 warming potential about 25-fold greater than that of CO2 over 100 years (IPCC, 2007). Upland grassland

Yu, Qiang

20

Drought Experiment of a Mongolian Grassland Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent large-scale climate change including global warming has likely been manifested as frequent and\\/or intensive drought occurrences in inland, arid Asia such as Mongolia. In order to investigate the response of a Mongolian grassland ecosystem to such a drought, an artificial drought experiment was conducted at Bayan Unjuul (105.95E, 47.04N) in the Mongolian typical steppe region during the growing season

M. Shinoda; A. Tsunekawa; M. Nemoto; G. U. Nachinshonhor; T. Nakano; K. Tamura; M. Asano; D. Erdenetsetseg

2006-01-01

21

No Evidence of Complementary Water Use along a Plant Species Richness Gradient in Temperate Experimental Grasslands.  

PubMed

Niche complementarity in resource use has been proposed as a key mechanism to explain the positive effects of increasing plant species richness on ecosystem processes, in particular on primary productivity. Since hardly any information is available for niche complementarity in water use, we tested the effects of plant diversity on spatial and temporal complementarity in water uptake in experimental grasslands by using stable water isotopes. We hypothesized that water uptake from deeper soil depths increases in more diverse compared to low diverse plant species mixtures. We labeled soil water in 8 cm (with 18O) and 28 cm depth (with ²H) three times during the 2011 growing season in 40 temperate grassland communities of varying species richness (2, 4, 8 and 16 species) and functional group number and composition (legumes, grasses, tall herbs, small herbs). Stable isotope analyses of xylem and soil water allowed identifying the preferential depth of water uptake. Higher enrichment in 18O of xylem water than in ²H suggested that the main water uptake was in the upper soil layer. Furthermore, our results revealed no differences in root water uptake among communities with different species richness, different number of functional groups or with time. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of increased complementarity in water use in more diverse than in less diverse communities of temperate grassland species. PMID:25587998

Bachmann, Dörte; Gockele, Annette; Ravenek, Janneke M; Roscher, Christiane; Strecker, Tanja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Buchmann, Nina

2015-01-01

22

No Evidence of Complementary Water Use along a Plant Species Richness Gradient in Temperate Experimental Grasslands  

PubMed Central

Niche complementarity in resource use has been proposed as a key mechanism to explain the positive effects of increasing plant species richness on ecosystem processes, in particular on primary productivity. Since hardly any information is available for niche complementarity in water use, we tested the effects of plant diversity on spatial and temporal complementarity in water uptake in experimental grasslands by using stable water isotopes. We hypothesized that water uptake from deeper soil depths increases in more diverse compared to low diverse plant species mixtures. We labeled soil water in 8 cm (with 18O) and 28 cm depth (with ²H) three times during the 2011 growing season in 40 temperate grassland communities of varying species richness (2, 4, 8 and 16 species) and functional group number and composition (legumes, grasses, tall herbs, small herbs). Stable isotope analyses of xylem and soil water allowed identifying the preferential depth of water uptake. Higher enrichment in 18O of xylem water than in ²H suggested that the main water uptake was in the upper soil layer. Furthermore, our results revealed no differences in root water uptake among communities with different species richness, different number of functional groups or with time. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of increased complementarity in water use in more diverse than in less diverse communities of temperate grassland species. PMID:25587998

Bachmann, Dörte; Gockele, Annette; Ravenek, Janneke M.; Roscher, Christiane; Strecker, Tanja; Weigelt, Alexandra; Buchmann, Nina

2015-01-01

23

The Effects of Warming and Nitrogen Addition on Soil Nitrogen Cycling in a Temperate Grassland, Northeastern China  

PubMed Central

Background Both climate warming and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are predicted to affect soil N cycling in terrestrial biomes over the next century. However, the interactive effects of warming and N deposition on soil N mineralization in temperate grasslands are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A field manipulation experiment was conducted to examine the effects of warming and N addition on soil N cycling in a temperate grassland of northeastern China from 2007 to 2009. Soil samples were incubated at a constant temperature and moisture, from samples collected in the field. The results showed that both warming and N addition significantly stimulated soil net N mineralization rate and net nitrification rate. Combined warming and N addition caused an interactive effect on N mineralization, which could be explained by the relative shift of soil microbial community structure because of fungal biomass increase and strong plant uptake of added N due to warming. Irrespective of strong intra- and inter-annual variations in soil N mineralization, the responses of N mineralization to warming and N addition did not change during the three growing seasons, suggesting independence of warming and N responses of N mineralization from precipitation variations in the temperate grassland. Conclusions/Significance Interactions between climate warming and N deposition on soil N cycling were significant. These findings will improve our understanding on the response of soil N cycling to the simultaneous climate change drivers in temperate grassland ecosystem. PMID:22096609

Ma, Lin-Na; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Liu, Yang; Guo, Ji-Xun; Zhang, Nan-Yi; Yang, Jian-Qin; Wang, Ren-Zhong

2011-01-01

24

Climate forcings and the nonlinear dynamics of grassland ecosystems  

E-print Network

The nonlinear interaction of climate forcings and ecosystem variables is instrumental in creating the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of grasslands. Ecosystem processes are a product of these interactions and vary in ...

Petrie, Matthew D.

2010-04-28

25

Patterns of Plant Biomass Allocation in Temperate Grasslands across a 2500-km Transect in Northern China  

PubMed Central

Plant biomass allocation between below- and above-ground parts can actively adapt to the ambient growth conditions and is a key parameter for estimating terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) stocks. To investigate how climatic variations affect patterns of plant biomass allocation, we sampled 548 plants belonging to four dominant genera (Stipa spp., Cleistogenes spp., Agropyron spp., and Leymus spp.) along a large-scale (2500 km) climatic gradient across the temperate grasslands from west to east in northern China. Our results showed that Leymus spp. had the lowest root/shoot ratios among the each genus. Root/shoot ratios of each genera were positively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT), and negatively correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP) across the transect. Temperature contributed more to the variation of root/shoot ratios than precipitation for Cleistogenes spp. (C4 plants), whereas precipitation exerted a stronger influence than temperature on their variations for the other three genera (C3 plants). From east to west, investment of C into the belowground parts increased as precipitation decreased while temperature increased. Such changes in biomass allocation patterns in response to climatic factors may alter the competition regimes among co-existing plants, resulting in changes in community composition, structure and ecosystem functions. Our results suggested that future climate change would have great impact on C allocation and storage, as well as C turnover in the grassland ecosystems in northern China. PMID:23977135

Luo, Wentao; Jiang, Yong; Lü, Xiaotao; Wang, Xue; Li, Mai-He; Bai, Edith; Han, Xingguo; Xu, Zhuwen

2013-01-01

26

Sustaining multiple ecosystem functions in grassland communities requires higher biodiversity  

E-print Network

Sustaining multiple ecosystem functions in grassland communities requires higher biodiversity Erika (sent for review July 27, 2009) Society places value on the multiple functions of ecosystems from ecosystems to provide threshold levels of up to eight ecosystem functions simultaneously. Across years

Zavaleta, Erika

27

Off-season carbon dioxide exchange of a temperate mountain grassland in a warmer future climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that warming leads to an earlier onset and delayed termination of seasonal plant activity in the Northern hemisphere. Whether this goes along with an increase or decrease in the carbon dioxide (CO2) sink strength of terrestrial ecosystems, however, is much more controversial. We used a simple model that considers temperature and day length to simulate the off-season, i.e. between the end and the start of the carbon uptake period (CUP), CO2 exchange of a temperate mountain grassland in Austria. The model was calibrated with a 10-year record of eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements. Our major findings were: The end of the CUP of this managed grassland was determined not by environmental conditions but by the timing of the final harvest, because the temperature response of daytime net carbon uptake in autumn was too weak to compensate for nighttime carbon losses. A critical day length, reached by the end of March, exists below which net carbon gain was impossible on a daily basis. Using five climate scenarios and comparing the periods 1961-1990 and 2021-2050 we were able to show that earlier onsets of the CUP under future warmer conditions (+1.0 to +1.7°C) were by far offset by earlier snow melting dates and thus a lengthening of the period before the critical day length was reached. In total however, off-season losses hardly differed between the two investigated periods, which was due to compensating effects of larger CO2 losses in autumn and spring and smaller losses during winter. Taken together our study suggests the off-season CO2 exchange of temperate mountain grasslands to be resilient against climate change scenarios predicted for the middle of the 21st century.

Wohlfahrt, G.; Gobiet, A.; Hammerle, A.; Haslwanter, A.; Hörtnagl, L.; Irschick, Ch.; Themeßl, M.

2012-04-01

28

Off-season carbon dioxide exchange of a temperate mountain grassland in a warmer future climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that warming leads to an earlier onset and delayed termination of seasonal plant activity in the Northern hemisphere. Whether this goes along with an increase or decrease in the carbon dioxide (CO2) sink strength of terrestrial ecosystems, however, is much more controversial. We used a simple model that considers temperature, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and day length to simulate the off-season, i.e. between the end and the start of the carbon uptake period (CUP), CO2 exchange of a temperate mountain grassland in Austria. The model was calibrated with a 10 year record of eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements. Our major findings were: The end of the CUP of this managed grassland was determined by the timing of the final harvest because the temperature response of daytime net carbon uptake in autumn was too weak to compensate for nighttime carbon losses. A critical day length, reached by the end of March, exists below which net carbon gain was impossible on a daily basis. Using five climate scenarios and comparing the periods 1961-1990 and 2021-2050 we were able to show that earlier onsets of the CUP under future warmer conditions (+1.0 to +1.7°C) were by far offset by earlier snow melting dates and thus a lengthening of the period before the critical day length was reached. In total however, off season losses hardly differed between the two investigated periods, which was due to compensating effects of larger CO2 losses in autumn and spring and smaller losses during winter. Taken together our study suggests the off-season CO2 exchange of temperate mountain grasslands to be resilient against climate change scenarios predicted for the middle of the 21st century.

Wohlfahrt, G.; Gobiet, A.; Hammerle, A.; Hörtnagl, L.; Irschick, C.; Themessl, M. J.

2012-12-01

29

Estimating carbon dioxide fluxes from temperate mountain grasslands using broad-band vegetation indices  

PubMed Central

The broad-band normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the simple ratio (SR) were calculated from measurements of reflectance of photosynthetically active and short-wave radiation at two temperate mountain grasslands in Austria and related to the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) measured concurrently by means of the eddy covariance method. There was no significant statistical difference between the relationships of midday mean NEE with narrow- and broad-band NDVI and SR, measured during and calculated for that same time window, respectively. The skill of broad-band NDVI and SR in predicting CO2 fluxes was higher for metrics dominated by gross photosynthesis and lowest for ecosystem respiration, with NEE in between. A method based on a simple light response model whose parameters were parameterised based on broad-band NDVI allowed to improve predictions of daily NEE and is suggested to hold promise for filling gaps in the NEE time series. Relationships of CO2 flux metrics with broad-band NDVI and SR however generally differed between the two studied grassland sites indicting an influence of additional factors not yet accounted for. PMID:24339832

Wohlfahrt, G.; Pilloni, S.; Hörtnagl, L.; Hammerle, A.

2013-01-01

30

Ecosystem Carbon Storage Across the GrasslandForest Transition  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Carbon Storage Across the Grassland­Forest Transition in the High Andes of Manu National San Antonio Abad, Cusco, Peru ABSTRACT Improved management of carbon storage by ter- restrial biomes forest­grassland transition of the high Andes in Manu National Park, Peru. Aboveground carbon densities

Silman, Miles R.

31

Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal patterns of winter ecosystem respiration (Reco) of northern ecosystems are poorly understood. For this reason, we analyzed eddy covariance flux data from 57 ecosystem sites ranging from ~35° N to ~70° N. Deciduous forests were characterized by the highest winter Reco rates (0.90 ± 0.39 g C m-2 d-1), when winter is defined as the period during which daily air temperature remains below 0 °C. By contrast, arctic wetlands had the lowest winter Reco rates (0.02 ± 0.02 g C m-2 d-1). Mixed forests, evergreen needle-leaved forests, grasslands, croplands and boreal wetlands were characterized by intermediate winter Reco rates (g C m-2 d-1) of 0.70(±0.33), 0.60(±0.38), 0.62(±0.43), 0.49(±0.22) and 0.27(±0.08), respectively. Our cross site analysis showed that winter air (Tair) and soil (Tsoil) temperature played a dominating role in determining the spatial patterns of winter Reco in both forest and managed ecosystems (grasslands and croplands). Besides temperature, the seasonal amplitude of the leaf area index (LAI), inferred from satellite observation, or growing season gross primary productivity, which we use here as a proxy for the amount of recent carbon available for Reco in the subsequent winter, played a marginal role in winter CO2 emissions from forest ecosystems. We found that winter Reco sensitivity to temperature variation across space (QS) was higher than the one over time (interannual, QT). This can be expected because QS not only accounts for climate gradients across sites but also for (positively correlated) the spatial variability of substrate quantity. Thus, if the models estimate future warming impacts on Reco based on QS rather than QT, this could overestimate the impact of temperature changes.

Wang, T.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S. L.; Ottlé, C.; Brender, P.; Maignan, F.; Arain, A.; Cescatti, A.; Gianelle, D.; Gough, C.; Gu, L.; Lafleur, P.; Laurila, T.; Marcolla, B.; Margolis, H.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Saigusa, N.; Vesala, T.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Koven, C.; Black, A.; Dellwik, E.; Don, A.; Hollinger, D.; Knohl, A.; Monson, R.; Munger, J.; Suyker, A.; Varlagin, A.; Verma, S.

2011-07-01

32

Simulation for NPP of grassland ecosystem in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau based on the process model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau plays an important role in estimating net primary productivity of grassland ecosystem for global carbon cycling research. In this paper, boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model was modified according to the characteristics of grassland canopy. A hypothesis of horizontal homogeneity and vertical layer was put forward for grassland canopy and BEPS was modified to GEPS (grassland ecosystem productivity

Peijuan Wang; Donghui Xie; Jinling Song; Jiahua Zhang; Qijiang Zhu

2010-01-01

33

Acetaldehyde exchange above a managed temperate mountain grassland  

PubMed Central

An overview of acetaldehyde exchange above a managed temperate mountain grassland in Austria over four growing seasons is presented. The meadow acted as a net source of acetaldehyde in all four years, emitting between 7 and 28 mg C m?2 over the whole growing period. The cutting of the meadow resulted in huge acetaldehyde emission bursts on the day of harvesting or one day later. During undisturbed conditions, both uptake and emission fluxes were recorded. The bidirectional nature of acetaldehyde fluxes was also reflected by clear diurnal cycles during certain time periods, indicating strong deposition processes before the 1st cut and emission towards the end of the growing season. The analysis of acetaldehyde compensation points revealed a complex relationship between ambient acetaldehyde mixing ratios and respective fluxes, significantly influenced by multiple environmental parameters and variable throughout the year. As a major finding of this study, we identified both a positive and negative correlation between concentration and flux on a daily scale, where soil temperature and soil water content were the most significant factors in determining the direction of the slope. In turn, this bidirectional relationship on a daily scale resulted in compensation points between 0.40 ppbv and 0.54 ppbv, which could be well explained by collected ancillary data. We conclude that in order to model acetaldehyde fluxes at the site in Neustift on a daily scale over longer time periods, it is crucial to know the type of relationship, i.e. the direction of the slope, between mixing ratios and fluxes on a given day. PMID:24363666

Hörtnagl, L.; Bamberger, I.; Graus, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Walser, M.; Unterberger, A.; Hansel, A.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2013-01-01

34

Biotic, abiotic and management controls on methanol exchange above a temperate mountain grassland  

PubMed Central

Methanol (CH3OH) fluxes were quantified above a managed temperate mountain grassland in the Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) during the growing seasons 2008 and 2009. Half-hourly methanol fluxes were calculated by means of the virtual disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) method using 3-dimensional wind data from a sonic anemometer and methanol volume mixing ratios measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). During (undisturbed) mature and growing phases methanol fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle with close-to-zero fluxes during nighttime and emissions, up to 10 nmol m?2 s?1, which followed the diurnal course of radiation and air temperature. Management events were found to represent the largest perturbations of methanol exchange at the studied grassland ecosystem: Peak emissions of 144.5 nmol m?2 s?1 were found during/after cutting of the meadow reflecting the wounding of the plant material and subsequent depletion of the leaf internal aqueous methanol pools. After the application of organic fertilizer, elevated methanol emissions of up to 26.7 nmol m?2 s?1 were observed, likely reflecting enhanced microbial activity associated with the applied manure. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses revealed air temperature and radiation as the dominant abiotic controls, jointly explaining 47 % and 70 % of the variability in half-hourly and daily methanol fluxes. In contrast to published leaf-level laboratory studies, the surface conductance and the daily change in the amount of green plant area, used as ecosystem-scale proxies for stomatal conductance and growth, respectively, were found to exert only minor biotic controls on methanol exchange. PMID:24349901

Hörtnagl, Lukas; Bamberger, Ines; Graus, Martin; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Müller, Markus; Hansel, Armin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

2013-01-01

35

Grazing, Environmental Heterogeneity, and Alien Plant Invasions in Temperate Pampa Grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperate humid grasslands are known to be particularly vulnerable to invasion by alien plant species when grazed by domestic livestock. The Flooding Pampa grasslands in eastern Argentina represent a well-documented case of a regional flora that has been extensively modified by anthropogenic disturbances and massive invasions over recent centuries. Here, we synthesise evidence from region-wide vegetation surveys and long-term exclosure

Enrique J. Chaneton; Susana B. Perelman; Marina Omacini; Rolando J. C. León

2002-01-01

36

Influence of organic and mineral N fertiliser on N 2O fluxes from a temperate grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to quantify N2O release from temperate grassland receiving different forms of N, and to assess the importance of controlling variables in the environment. In 2002 and 2003 three organic manures (sewage sludge pellets, poultry manure and cattle slurry) and two mineral fertilisers (NH4NO3 and urea) were applied to grassland in SE Scotland. All plots

S. K. Jones; R. M. Rees; U. M. Skiba; B. C. Ball

2007-01-01

37

Heat shock increases the reliability of a temperate calcareous grassland seed bank study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable assessment of the density and species richness of the viable seeds in the soil is essential to estimate the probability\\u000a of successful restoration of a particular plant community. Since temperate calcareous grasslands contain several thermophilous\\u000a species typical of fire prone habitats, heat shock can be expected to break dormancy of target species for calcareous grassland\\u000a restoration. We tested the

Beatrijs Bossuyt; Olivier Honnay

2008-01-01

38

Carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange in a warm temperate grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grasslands cover about 40% of the ice-free global terrestrial surface, but their contribution to local and regional water and carbon fluxes and sensitivity to climatic perturbations such as drought remains uncertain. Here, we assess the direction and magnitude of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) and its components, ecosystem carbon assimilation ( A c) and ecosystem respiration ( R E), in

K. A. Novick; P. C. Stoy; G. G. Katul; D. S. Ellsworth; M. B. S. Siqueira; J. Juang; R. Oren

2004-01-01

39

Competitive advantage of Rumex obtusifolius L. might increase in intensively managed temperate grasslands under drier climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate models predict decreasing amounts of precipitation for future summers in Switzerland. Since grasslands cover about one quarter of the area, severe consequences might be expected for Swiss agriculture, ranging from loss of grassland productivity to changes in vegetation composition. Since stressed ecosystems are also more susceptible to invasion, future drier conditions might favour the emergence of weeds. However, the

Anna K. Gilgen; Constant Signarbieux; Urs Feller; Nina Buchmann

2010-01-01

40

Drought Experiment of a Mongolian Grassland Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent large-scale climate change including global warming has likely been manifested as frequent and/or intensive drought occurrences in inland, arid Asia such as Mongolia. In order to investigate the response of a Mongolian grassland ecosystem to such a drought, an artificial drought experiment was conducted at Bayan Unjuul (105.95E, 47.04N) in the Mongolian typical steppe region during the growing season of 2005. The climatological (1995-2004) annul precipitation is 172.9mm, concentrated on the summer months of May- August, while the annual mean temperature is 0.1degC, with soil freezing during the winter. This study site is codominated by perennial grasses such as Stipa krylovii, Agropyron cristatum, and Cleistogenes squarrosa and annual forbs such as Artemisia adamsii and Chenopodium album. An area of 300m w300m in size was surrounded by a fence for protecting this area from grazing. The plots inside and outside of the area are referred to as no-grazing (NG) and grazing (G) plots, respectively. In the NG plot, two plots of 30m w30m with drought (D plot) and mowing (M plot) manipulations are allocated in the southwest part of the NG plot. The drought manipulation was conducted using a rainout shelter with a transparent polyethylene roof, open on all sides during the major growing season from late May to early August 2005. The total precipitation of 60.3mm in the annual total of 96.9mm (that is, a severe drought year) was excluded from the D plot. Thus, natural severe drought and artificial very severe drought conditions were produced in this year. To study the vegetation impact on thermal and moisture conditions at the ground surface, the mowing has been carried out on a monthly basis during the growing season. The initial conditions for each plot were examined during the late growing seasons of 2003 and 2004, showing no significant difference in terms of vegetation (above-/below-ground biomass and species diversity) and physical and chemical soil properties. Comprehensive observations including meteorological, vegetation, and soil elements for each plot have been made to examine two hypothetical processes of how the vegetation-soil system responds to the drought; that is, positive or negative feedback to atmosphere.

Shinoda, M.; Tsunekawa, A.; Nemoto, M.; Nachinshonhor, G. U.; Nakano, T.; Tamura, K.; Asano, M.; Erdenetsetseg, D.

2006-12-01

41

Ecosystem Consequences of Exotic Earthworm Invasion of North Temperate Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasion of north temperate forests by exotic species of earthworms is an important issue that has been overlooked in the study and management of these forests. We initiated research to address the hypothesis that earthworm invasion will have large consequences for nutrient retention and uptake in these ecosystems. In this special feature of Ecosystems, we present five papers describing

Patrick J. Bohlen; Peter M. Groffman; Timothy J. Fahey; Melany C. Fisk; Esteban Suarez; Derek M. Pelletier; Robert T. Fahey

2004-01-01

42

Year in Review: Spotlight on 2013 Research by the Grassland, Shrubland and Desert Ecosystems Science Program  

E-print Network

Year in Review: Spotlight on 2013 Research by the Grassland, Shrubland and Desert Ecosystems of the Grassland, Shrubland and Desert Ecosystems Science Program (GSD) that depict its strengths and focus areas Rocky Mountain Research Station Grassland, Shrubland and Desert Ecosystems Science Program GSDUpdate

43

Factors Controlling Decomposition Rates of Fine Root Litter in Temperate Forests and Grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine root decomposition contributes significantly to biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Recent studies suggest that root litter is stabilized preferentially compared to shoot litter, contributing in high amounts to soil organic matter. Land use and management may affect root litter decomposition through changes in plant species composition, effects on the decomposer community and differences in soil nutrient availability. We established a large scale root litter decomposition study in three German study regions using a combination of litterbags deployed in forest and grassland sites under different management and soil types. In all three study regions, we compared site-level differences in decomposition by deploying bags containing standardized forest litter in a total of 150 forest plots (50 in each of the three study regions). Bags with standardized grass litter, which had lower lignin content and lignin:N than standardized forest root litter, were similarly distributed across 50 grassland sites in each of the three regions. Standardized fine grass roots decomposed on average faster 23.5 × 6.3% compared to forest roots 11.7 × 4.4% (p < 0.001) when deployed in their respective land use. Fine root decomposition of standardized litter was affected by study region with higher mass losses in northern Germany followed by mass loss rates in central and southern Germany (p < 0.05). Given the standardized litter chemistry, these differences mainly reflect the influence of climate and soil differences between study regions. Within the central German region (Hainich-Dün), we also compared rates of mass loss of root litter collected on-site as part of a second, parallel litterbag deployment to tease apart the influences of litter quality from other factors (such as soil properties and climate) that affect mass loss rates. Despite differences in the initial fine root litter quality, the average mass lost during 12 months for on-site litter was similar to that of standardized root material for respective grasslands and forests. The main predictors of fine root decomposition for on-site litter in the HAI forest sites were the roots' initial lignin:N ratios followed by soil moisture and soil temperature. In addition to these factors, soil C:N ratios influenced on-site litter decomposition in the HAI grasslands. While in forests the lignin:N seems to be mainly related to the type and abundance of tree species, in grasslands it appears to be influenced by land management, especially fertilization, which acts to lower lignin:N ratios. These results, together with previous results showing the standing root biomass is made of older C on average in forests compared to grasslands, confirm that grasslands are cycling C faster belowground than forests in temperate regions.

Solly, E.; Schöning, I.; Trumbore, S.; Michalzik, B.; Schrumpf, M.

2013-12-01

44

Biogenic VOCs emission inventory development of temperate grassland vegetation in Xilin River basin, Inner Mongolia, China.  

PubMed

Given the key role of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to tropospheric chemistry and regional air quality, it is important to generate accurate VOCs emission inventories. However, only a less fraction of plant species, in temperate grassland of Inner Mongolia, has been characterized by quantitative measurements. A taxonomic methodology, which assigns VOCs measurements to unmeasured species, is an applicable and inexpensive alternation for extensive VOCs emission survey, although data are needed for additional plant families and genera to further validate the taxonomic approach in grassland vegetation. In this experiment, VOCs emission rates of 178 plant species were measured with a portable photoionization detector (PID). The results showed the most of genera and some families have consistent feature of their VOCs emission, especially for isoprene, and provide the basic premise of taxonomic methodology to develop VOCs emission inventories for temperate grassland. Then, the taxonomic methodology was introduced into assigning emission rate to other 96 species, which no measured emission rates available here. A systematical emission inventory of temperate grassland vegetation in Inner Mongolia was provided and further evidence that taxonomy relationship can serve as a useful guide for generalizing the emissions behavior of many, but not all, plant families and genera to grassland vegetation. PMID:15900743

He, Nian-Peng; Han, Xing-Guo; Sun, Wei; Pan, Qing-Min

2004-01-01

45

The carbon budget of newly established temperate grassland depends on management intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbon exchange of managed temperate grassland, previously converted from arable rotation, was quantified for two levels of management intensities over a period of 3 years. The original field on the Swiss Central Plateau had been separated into two plots of equal size, one plot was subjected to intensive management with nitrogen inputs of 200kgha?1year?1 and frequent cutting, and the

C. Ammann; C. R. Flechard; J. Leifeld; A. Neftel; J. Fuhrer

2007-01-01

46

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FIRE AND INVASIVE PLANTS IN TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS OF NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial number of invasive grasses, forbs and woody plants have invaded temperate grasslands in North America. Among the invading species are winter annuals, biennials, cool-season perennials, warm-season perennials, vines, shrubs, and trees. Many of these species have been deliberately introduced and widely planted; some are still used for range improvement, pastures, lawns, and as ornamentals, though many are listed

James B. Grace; Melinda D. Smith; Susan L. Grace; Scott L. Collins; Thomas J. Stohlgren

2002-01-01

47

Phytolith assemblages and opal concentrations from modern soils differentiate temperate grasslands of controlled composition on  

E-print Network

Phytolith assemblages and opal concentrations from modern soils differentiate temperate grasslands on their silica record in topsoil in a controlled experiment. The differences in total biogenic opal concentration reserved. 1. Introduction Phytoliths are silica (opal) microfossils produced in tissues of higher plants

Weiblen, George D

48

ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS OF BIODIVERSITY MANIPULATIONS IN EUROPEAN GRASSLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We present a multisite analysis of the relationship between,plant diversity and,ecosystem,functioning,within,the European,BIODEPTH network,of plant-diversity manipulation,experiments.,We report results of the analysis,of 11 variables addressing several aspects of key ecosystem processes like biomass production, resource use (space, light, and nitrogen), and decomposition, measured across three years in plots of varying plant species richness at eight different European,grassland,field sites. Differences among sites

E. M. Spehn; A. Hector; J. Joshi; M. Scherer-Lorenzen; B. Schmid; E. Bazeley-White; C. Beierkuhnlein; M. C. Caldeira; M. Diemer; P. G. Dimitrakopoulos; J. A. Finn; H. Freitas; P. S. Giller; J. Good; R. Harris; P. Högberg; K. Huss-Danell; A. Jumpponen; J. Koricheva; P. W. Leadley; M. Loreau; A. Minns; C. P. H. Mulder; G. O'Donovan; S. J. Otway; C. Palmborg; J. S. Pereira; A. B. Pfisterer; A. Prinz; D. J. Read; E.-D. Schulze; A.-S. D. Siamantziouras; A. C. Terry; A. Y. Troumbis; F. I. Woodward; S. Yachi; J. H. Lawton

2005-01-01

49

Identifying priority areas for ecosystem service management in South African grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grasslands provide many ecosystem services required to support human well-being and are home to a diverse fauna and flora. Degradation of grasslands due to agriculture and other forms of land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem services. Various efforts are underway around the world to stem these declines. The Grassland Programme in South Africa is one such initiative and is aimed

Benis N. Egoh; Belinda Reyers; Mathieu Rouget; David M. Richardson

2011-01-01

50

Recurrent winter warming pulses enhance nitrogen cycling and soil biotic activity in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winter air temperatures are projected to increase in the temperate zone, whereas snow cover is projected to decrease, leading to more extreme soil temperature variability, and potentially to changes in nutrient cycling. Therefore, we applied six winter warming pulses by infra-red heating lamps and surface heating wires in a field experiment over one winter in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms. The experiment was replicated at two sites, a colder mountainous upland site with high snow accumulation and a warmer and dryer lowland site. Winter warming pulses enhanced soil biotic activity for both sites during winter, as indicated by 35% higher nitrogen (N) availability in the soil solution, 40% higher belowground decomposition and a 25% increase in the activity of the enzyme cellobiohydrolase. The mobilization of N differed between sites, and the incorporation of 15N into leaves was reduced by 31% in response to winter warming pulses, but only at the cold site, with significant reductions occurring for three of four tested plant species at this site. Furthermore, there was a trend of increased N leaching in response to the recurrent winter warming pulses. Overall, projected winter climate change in the temperate zone, with less snow and more variable soil temperatures, appears important for shifts in ecosystem functioning (i.e. nutrient cycling). While the effects of warming pulses on plant N mobilization did not differ among sites, reduced plant 15N incorporation at the colder temperate site suggests that frost damage may reduce plant performance in a warmer world, with important implications for nitrogen cycling and nitrogen losses from ecosystems.

Schuerings, J.; Jentsch, A.; Hammerl, V.; Lenz, K.; Henry, H. A. L.; Malyshev, A. V.; Kreyling, J.

2014-06-01

51

Sustainable management of insect herbivores in grassland ecosystems: New perspectives in grasshopper control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grasshoppers are insect herbivores commonly found in grassland ecosystems worldwide. They are important components of biodiversity, contribute significantly to grassland function, and periodically exhibit large-scale outbreaks. Under outbreak conditions, they can be important competitors with verteb...

52

Response of grassland ecosystems to prolonged soil moisture deficit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture is commonly used for predictions of plant response and productivity. Climate change is predicted to cause an increase in the frequency and duration of droughts over the next century, which will result in prolonged periods of below-normal soil moisture. This, in turn, is expected to impact regional plant production, erosion and air quality. In fact, the number of consecutive months of soil moisture content below the drought-period mean has recently been linked to regional tree and shrub mortality in the southwest United States. This study investigated the effects of extended periods of below average soil moisture on the response of grassland ANPP to precipitation. Grassland ecosystems were selected for this study because of their ecological sensitivity to precipitation patterns. It has been postulated that the quick ecological response of grasslands to droughts can provide insight to large scale functional responses of regions to predicted climate change. The study sites included 21 grassland biomes throughout arid-to-humid climates in the United States with continuous surface soil moisture records for 2-13 years during the drought period from 2000-2013. Annual net primary production (ANPP) was estimated from the 13-year record of NASA MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index extracted for each site. Prolonged soil moisture deficit was defined as a period of at least 10 consecutive months during which soil moisture was below the drought-period mean. ANPP was monitored before, during and after prolonged soil moisture deficit to quantify shifts in the functional response of grasslands to precipitation, and in some cases, new species assemblages that included invasive species. Preliminary results indicated that when altered climatic conditions on grasslands led to an increase in the duration of soil water deficit, then the precipitation-to-ANPP relation became non-linear. Non-linearity was associated with extreme grassland dieback and changes in the historic species assemblage. The magnitude of change was related to the precipitation regime, where grasslands in hyper-arid and humid regimes were least likely to be affected by prolonged soil moisture deficit, and semiarid and mesic grasslands were most likely to be impacted, depending on the duration of the deficit. These results were applied to a large grassland region in Australia with soil moisture estimates from the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) sensor to demonstrate the continental-scale potential of this application with satellite measurements. These results are even more relevant for application with the higher-resolution NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) products to be available in 2015.

Ross, Morgan A.; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E.; Barnes, Mallory L.; Hottenstein, John D.; Moran, M. Susan

2014-05-01

53

Arsenic concentrations and speciation in a temperateArsenic concentrations and speciation in a temperate mangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australiamangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australia  

E-print Network

in a temperate mangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australiamangrove ecosystem, NSW, Australia²² J. Kirby, W. Maher*, A measured in the sediments, vegetation and tissues of marine animals from a temperate mangrove ecosystem with mangrove fine roots had relatively higher arsenic concentrations (12 � 3 mg g�1 ) than mangrove leaves

Canberra, University of

54

Extensive Management Promotes Plant and Microbial Nitrogen Retention in Temperate Grassland  

PubMed Central

Leaching losses of nitrogen (N) from soil and atmospheric N deposition have led to widespread changes in plant community and microbial community composition, but our knowledge of the factors that determine ecosystem N retention is limited. A common feature of extensively managed, species-rich grasslands is that they have fungal-dominated microbial communities, which might reduce soil N losses and increase ecosystem N retention, which is pivotal for pollution mitigation and sustainable food production. However, the mechanisms that underpin improved N retention in extensively managed, species-rich grasslands are unclear. We combined a landscape-scale field study and glasshouse experiment to test how grassland management affects plant and soil N retention. Specifically, we hypothesised that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands of high conservation value would have lower N loss and greater N retention than intensively managed, species-poor grasslands, and that this would be due to a greater immobilisation of N by a more fungal-dominated microbial community. In the field study, we found that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands had lower N leaching losses. Soil inorganic N availability decreased with increasing abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, although the best predictor of soil N leaching was the C/N ratio of aboveground plant biomass. In the associated glasshouse experiment we found that retention of added 15N was greater in extensively than in intensively managed grasslands, which was attributed to a combination of greater root uptake and microbial immobilisation of 15N in the former, and that microbial immobilisation increased with increasing biomass and abundance of fungi. These findings show that grassland management affects mechanisms of N retention in soil through changes in root and microbial uptake of N. Moreover, they support the notion that microbial communities might be the key to improved N retention through tightening linkages between plants and microbes and reducing N availability. PMID:23227252

de Vries, Franciska T.; Bloem, Jaap; Quirk, Helen; Stevens, Carly J.; Bol, Roland; Bardgett, Richard D.

2012-01-01

55

Monitoring Change in Temperate Coniferous Forest Ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary goal of this research was to improve monitoring of temperate forest change using remote sensing. In this context, change includes both clearing of forest due to effects such as fire, logging, or land conversion and forest growth and succession. The Landsat 7 ETM+ proved an extremely valuable research tool in this domain. The Landsat 7 program has generated an extremely valuable transformation in the land remote sensing community by making high quality images available for relatively low cost. In addition, the tremendous improvements in the acquisition strategy greatly improved the overall availability of remote sensing images. I believe that from an historical prespective, the Landsat 7 mission will be considered extremely important as the improved image availability will stimulate the use of multitemporal imagery at resolutions useful for local to regional mapping. Also, Landsat 7 has opened the way to global applications of remote sensing at spatial scales where important surface processes and change can be directly monitored. It has been a wonderful experience to have participated on the Landsat 7 Science Team. The research conducted under this project led to contributions in four general domains: I. Improved understanding of the information content of images as a function of spatial resolution; II. Monitoring Forest Change and Succession; III. Development and Integration of Advanced Analysis Methods; and IV. General support of the remote sensing of forests and environmental change. This report is organized according to these topics. This report does not attempt to provide the complete details of the research conducted with support from this grant. That level of detail is provided in the 16 peer reviewed journal articles, 7 book chapters and 5 conference proceedings papers published as part of this grant. This report attempts to explain how the various publications fit together to improve our understanding of how forests are changing and how to monitor forest change with remote sensing. There were no new inventions that resulted from this grant.

Williams, Darrel (Technical Monitor); Woodcock, Curtis E.

2004-01-01

56

Evidence of Physiological Decoupling from Grassland Ecosystem Drivers by an Encroaching Woody Shrub  

E-print Network

Evidence of Physiological Decoupling from Grassland Ecosystem Drivers by an Encroaching Woody Shrub of America Abstract Shrub encroachment of grasslands is a transformative ecological process by which native assessments of shrub physiology. In a mesic grassland in North America, we measured inter- and intra

Nippert, Jesse

57

Carbon dioxide budget in a temperature grassland ecosystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eddy correlation measurements of CO2 flux made during May-October 1987 and June-August 1989 were employed, in conjunction with simulated data, to examine the net exchange of CO2 in a temperature grassland ecosystem. Simulated estimates of CO2 uptake were used when flux measurements were not available. These estimates were based on daily intercepted photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, and extractable soil water. Soil CO2 flux and dark respiration of the aerial part of plants were estimated using the relationships developed by Norman et al. (1992) and Polley et al. (1992) at the study site. The results indicate that the CO2 exchange between this ecosystem and the atmosphere is highly variable. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange reached its peak value (12-18 g/sq m d) during the period when the leaf area index was maximum. Drought, a frequent occurrence in this region, can change this ecosystem from a sink to a source for atmospheric CO2. Comparison with data on dry matter indicated that the aboveground biomass accounted for about 45-70 percent of the net carbon uptake, suggesting the importance of the below ground biomass in estimating net primary productivity in this ecosystem.

Kim, Joon; Verma, Shashi B.; Clement, Robert J.

1992-01-01

58

Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Species Turnover in Temperate Grasslands in Northern China  

PubMed Central

Global nitrogen (N) deposition and climate change have been identified as two of the most important causes of current plant diversity loss. However, temporal patterns of species turnover underlying diversity changes in response to changing precipitation regimes and atmospheric N deposition have received inadequate attention. We carried out a manipulation experiment in a steppe and an old-field in North China from 2005 to 2009, to test the hypothesis that water addition enhances plant species richness through increase in the rate of species gain and decrease in the rate of species loss, while N addition has opposite effects on species changes. Our results showed that water addition increased the rate of species gain in both the steppe and the old field but decreased the rates of species loss and turnover in the old field. In contrast, N addition increased the rates of species loss and turnover in the steppe but decreased the rate of species gain in the old field. The rate of species change was greater in the old field than in the steppe. Water interacted with N to affect species richness and species turnover, indicating that the impacts of N on semi-arid grasslands were largely mediated by water availability. The temporal stability of communities was negatively correlated with rates of species loss and turnover, suggesting that water addition might enhance, but N addition would reduce the compositional stability of grasslands. Experimental results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that water and N availabilities differed in the effects on rate of species change in the temperate grasslands, and these effects also depend on grassland types and/or land-use history. Species gain and loss together contribute to the dynamic change of species richness in semi-arid grasslands under future climate change. PMID:22768119

Xu, Zhuwen; Wan, Shiqiang; Ren, Haiyan; Han, Xingguo; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Weixin; Jiang, Yong

2012-01-01

59

Biotic, abiotic and management controls on methanol fluxes above a temperate mountain grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was previously hypothesised that (i) stomatal conductance and plant growth play a key role in the emission of methanol (Hüve et al. 2007, Niinemets et al. 2004), (ii) methanol fluxes increase with air temperature (Niinemets and Reichstein 2003), and (iii) during cutting (leaf wounding) events and during drying high amounts of methanol are emitted into the atmosphere (Davison et al. 2008). Methanol fluxes were measured above a managed, temperate mountain grassland in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) during two growing seasons (2008 and 2009). Half-hourly flux values were calculated by means of the disjunct eddy covariance method using 3-dimensional wind-data of a sonic anemometer and mixing ratios of methanol measured with a proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS). The surface conductance to water vapour was derived from measured evapotranspiration by inverting the Penman-Monteith combination equation (Wohlfahrt et al., 2009) for dry canopy conditions and used as a proxy for canopyscale stomatal conductance. Methanol fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal cycle with closetozero fluxes during nighttime and emissions, up to 10 nmol m-2 s-1, which followed the diurnal course of radiation and air temperature during daytime. Higher emissions of up to 30 nmol m-2 s-1were observed during cut events and spreading of organic manure. Methanol fluxes showed positive correlations with air temperature, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), confirming previous studies (e.g. Niinemets and Reichstein 2003). All three previously mentioned factors combined together were able to explain 40% of the observed flux variability. The influence of rapid changes in stomatal conductance on methanol fluxes, pointed out in earlier studies at the leaf-level (e.g. Niinemets and Reichstein 2003), could not be confirmed on ecosystem scale, possibly due to within-canopy gradients in stomatal conductance and the fact that fluxes were determined as half-hourly averages. As methanol is produced in expanding cell walls, the change in the measured green area index (?GAI) was used as a proxy for plant growth. However ?GAI was poorly correlated with methanol fluxes, possible explanations will be discussed. References: Davison, B., Brunner, A., Amman, C., Spirig, C., Jocher, M., Neftel, A. Cut-induced VOC emissions from agricultural grasslands. Plant Biol. 10, 76-85, 2008. Harley, P., Greenberg, J., Niinemets, Ü., and Guenther, A..: Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves. Biogeosciences, 4, 1083-1099, 2007. Hüve, K., Christ, M., Kleist, E., Uerlings, R., Niinemets, Ü., Walter, A. and Wildt, J.: Simultaneous growth and emission measurements demonstrate an interactive control of methanol release by leaf expansion and stomata. doi:10.1093/jxb/erm038, Journal of Experimental Botany, 2007. Niinemets, Ü. and Reichstein, M.: Controls on the emission of plant volatiles through stomata: A sensitivity analysis. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4211, doi:10.1029/2002JD002626, 2003. Niinemets, Ü., Loreto, F. and Reichstein, M.: Physiological and physicochemical controls on foliar volatile organic compound emissions. Trends in Plant Science,9, 2004. Wohlfahrt G., Haslwanter A., Hörtnagl L., Jasoni R.L., Fenstermaker L.F., Arnone J.A. III, Hammerle A. (2009) On the consequences of the energy imbalance for calculating surface conductance to water vapour. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 149, 15561559.

Hörtnagl, Lukas; Bamberger, Ines; Graus, Martin; Ruuskanen, Taina; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Müller, Markus; Hansel, Armin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

2010-05-01

60

Components of surface energy balance in a temperate grassland ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eddy correlation measurements were made of fluxes of moisture, heat and momentum at a tallgrass prairie site near Manhattan, Kansas, U.S.A. during the First ISLSCP ISLSCP: International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (for details, see Sellers et al., 1988). Field Experiment (FIFE) in 1987. The study site is dominated by three C4 grass species: big bluestem ( Andropogon gerardii), indiangrass ( Sorghastrum nutans), and switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum). The stomatal conductance and leaf water potential of these grass species were also measured. In this paper, daily and seasonal variations in the components of the surface energy balance are examined. The aerodynamic and canopy surface conductances for the prairie vegetation are also evaluated.

Kim, Joon; Verma, Shashi B.

1990-06-01

61

Carbon dioxide exchange in a temperate grassland ecosystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbon dioxide exchange was measured, using the eddy correlation technique, over a tallgrass prairie in northeastern Kansas, U.S.A., during a six-month period in 1987. The diurnal patterns of daytime and nocturnal CO2 fluxes are presented on eight selected days. These days were distributed throughout most of the growing season and covered a wide range of meteorological and soil water conditions. The midday CO2 flux reached a maximum of 1.3 mg/sq m (ground area)/s during early July and was near zero during the dry period in late July. The dependence of the daytime carbon dioxide exchange on pertinent controlling variables, particularly photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and soil water content is discussed. The nocturnal CO2 flux (soil plus plant respiration) averaged -0.4 m sq m (ground area)/s during early July and was about -0.2 mg sq/m during the dry period.

Kim, Joon; Verma, Shashi B.

1990-01-01

62

Separating drought effects from roof artefacts on ecosystem processes in a grassland drought experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the predictions of increasing risk of long drought periods under various climate change scenarios, there have been numerous experimental field studies simulating drought using transparent roofs in different ecosystems and regions. Such roofs may, however, have unknown side effects, here called artefacts, on the response variables potentially confounding experimental results and misleading conclusions. Knowing the ecosystem response to such roof artefacts is therefore indispensible to correctly predict the effects of drought on the composition and functioning of ecosystems. We therefore aimed at filling this gap by studying the relevance of roof artefacts in a temperate grassland ecosystem. We compared pure drought effects to roof artefacts by measuring the response of three ecosystem properties (aboveground biomass, litter decomposition and plant metabolite profiles). We realized three treatments: a drought treatment simulated by means of transparent roofs, an unroofed control treatment receiving natural rainfall and a roofed control, with rain water applied according to ambient conditions. The roof constructions in our experiment caused a slight change in air (+0.14 °C during night) and soil (-0.45°C on warm days, +0.25 °C on cold nights) temperatures while photosynthetically active radiation was decreased (-16%) on bright days. Aboveground plant community biomass was reduced in the drought treatment (-41%), but there was no significant difference between the roofed and unroofed control, thus there was no measurable response of aboveground biomass to roof artefacts, but a considerable response to drought. Compared to the unroofed control, litter decomposition was decreased both in the drought treatment (-26%) and in the roofed control treatment (-18%), suggesting a response of litter decomposition to roof artefacts in addition to drought. Similarly, aboveground metabolite profiles in the model plant species Medicago x varia were significantly different from the unroofed control both in the drought and in the roofed control treatments. Our results stress the need for roofed control treatments when using transparent roofs for studying drought effects because of significant roof artefacts.

Vogel, Anja; Fester, Thomas; Eisenhauer, Nico; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Schmid, Bernhard; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Weigelt, Alexandra

2013-04-01

63

Identifying priority areas for ecosystem service management in South African grasslands.  

PubMed

Grasslands provide many ecosystem services required to support human well-being and are home to a diverse fauna and flora. Degradation of grasslands due to agriculture and other forms of land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem services. Various efforts are underway around the world to stem these declines. The Grassland Programme in South Africa is one such initiative and is aimed at safeguarding both biodiversity and ecosystem services. As part of this developing programme, we identified spatial priority areas for ecosystem services, tested the effect of different target levels of ecosystem services used to identify priority areas, and evaluated whether biodiversity priority areas can be aligned with those for ecosystem services. We mapped five ecosystem services (below ground carbon storage, surface water supply, water flow regulation, soil accumulation and soil retention) and identified priority areas for individual ecosystem services and for all five services at the scale of quaternary catchments. Planning for individual ecosystem services showed that, depending on the ecosystem service of interest, between 4% and 13% of the grassland biome was required to conserve at least 40% of the soil and water services. Thirty-four percent of the biome was needed to conserve 40% of the carbon service in the grassland. Priority areas identified for five ecosystem services under three target levels (20%, 40%, 60% of the total amount) showed that between 17% and 56% of the grassland biome was needed to conserve these ecosystem services. There was moderate to high overlap between priority areas selected for ecosystem services and already-identified terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity priority areas. This level of overlap coupled with low irreplaceability values obtained when planning for individual ecosystem services makes it possible to combine biodiversity and ecosystem services in one plan using systematic conservation planning. PMID:21334134

Egoh, Benis N; Reyers, Belinda; Rouget, Mathieu; Richardson, David M

2011-06-01

64

rizona's grassland ecosystems are an integral part of the regional ecology, and they provide important social and economic values  

E-print Network

A rizona's grassland ecosystems are an integral part of the regional ecology, and they provide European migrants arrived, grasslands covered about one-third of the area that is now Arizona. Significant to understand how valuable native grasslands ecosystems are to society. Resources will be required to conserve

65

Changes in autumn vegetation dormancy onset date and the climate controls across temperate ecosystems in China from 1982 to 2010.  

PubMed

Vegetation phenology is a sensitive indicator of the dynamic response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. In this study, the spatiotemporal pattern of vegetation dormancy onset date (DOD) and its climate controls over temperate China were examined by analysing the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index and concurrent climate data from 1982 to 2010. Results show that preseason (May through October) air temperature is the primary climatic control of the DOD spatial pattern across temperate China, whereas preseason cumulative precipitation is dominantly associated with the DOD spatial pattern in relatively cold regions. Temporally, the average DOD over China's temperate ecosystems has delayed by 0.13 days per year during the past three decades. However, the delay trends are not continuous throughout the 29-year period. The DOD experienced the largest delay during the 1980s, but the delay trend slowed down or even reversed during the 1990s and 2000s. Our results also show that interannual variations in DOD are most significantly related with preseason mean temperature in most ecosystems, except for the desert ecosystem for which the variations in DOD are mainly regulated by preseason cumulative precipitation. Moreover, temperature also determines the spatial pattern of temperature sensitivity of DOD, which became significantly lower as temperature increased. On the other hand, the temperature sensitivity of DOD increases with increasing precipitation, especially in relatively dry areas (e.g. temperate grassland). This finding stresses the importance of hydrological control on the response of autumn phenology to changes in temperature, which must be accounted in current temperature-driven phenological models. PMID:25430658

Yang, Yuting; Guan, Huade; Shen, Miaogen; Liang, Wei; Jiang, Lei

2015-02-01

66

Leaf area controls on energy partitioning of a temperate mountain grassland  

PubMed Central

Using a six year data set of eddy covariance flux measurements of sensible and latent heat, soil heat flux, net radiation, above-ground phytomass and meteorological driving forces energy partitioning was investigated at a temperate mountain grassland managed as a hay meadow in the Stubai Valley (Austria). The main findings of the study were: (i) Energy partitioning was dominated by latent heat, followed by sensible heat and the soil heat flux; (ii) When compared to standard environmental forcings, the amount of green plant matter, which due to three cuts varied considerably during the vegetation period, explained similar, and partially larger, fractions of the variability in energy partitioning; (iii) There were little, if any, indications of water stress effects on energy partitioning, despite reductions in soil water availability in combination with high evaporative demand, e.g. during the summer drought of 2003. PMID:24348583

Hammerle, A.; Haslwanter, A.; Tappeiner, U.; Cernusca, A.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2013-01-01

67

The impact of human-environment interactions on the stability of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems can exhibit alternative stables states, whereby under the same environmental conditions, the ecosystem could equally well reside either in one state or another, depending on the initial conditions. We develop a mathematical model that couples a simplified forest-grassland mosaic model to a dynamic model of opinions about conservation priorities in a population, based on perceptions of ecosystem rarity. Weak human influence increases the region of parameter space where alternative stable states are possible. However, strong human influence precludes bistability, such that forest and grassland either co-exist at a single, stable equilibrium, or their relative abundance oscillates. Moreover, a perturbation can shift the system from a stable state to an oscillatory state. We conclude that human-environment interactions can qualitatively alter the composition of forest-grassland mosaic ecosystems. The human role in such systems should be viewed as dynamic, responsive element rather than as a fixed, unchanging entity. PMID:24048359

Innes, Clinton; Anand, Madhur; Bauch, Chris T.

2013-01-01

68

Molecular Investigation of the Short-term Sequestration of Natural Abundance 13C -labelled Cow Dung in the Surface Horizons of a Temperate Grassland Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adequate understanding of the carbon (C) sequestration potential of grasslands requires that the quantity and residence times of C inputs be measured. Herbivore dung is largely comprised of plant cell wall material, a significant source of stable C in intensively grazed temperate grassland ecosystems that contributes to the soil carbon budget. Our work uses compound-specific isotope analysis to identify the pattern of input of dung-derived compounds from natural abundance 13C/-labelled cow dung into the surface horizons of a temperate grassland soil over one year. C4 dung (? 13C \\-12.6 ‰ ) from maize fed cows was applied to a temperate grassland surface (? 13C \\-29.95 ‰ ) at IGER-North Wyke (Devon, UK), and dung remains and soil cores beneath the treatments collected at ? = 7, 14, 28, 56, 112, 224 and 372 days. Bulk dung carbon present in the 0\\-1 cm and 1\\-5 cm surface horizons of a grassland soil over one year was estimated using ? 13C between C4 dung and C3 dung, after Bol {\\et al.} (2000). The major biochemical components of dung were quantified using proximate forage fibre analyses, after Goering and Van Soest (1970) and identified using `wet' chemical and GC-MS methods. Plant cell wall polysaccharides and lignin were found to account for up to 67 {%} of dung dry matter. Hydrolysed polysaccharides were prepared as alditol acetates for analyses (after Docherty {\\et al.}, 2001), and a novel application of an off-line pyrolysis method applied to measure lignin-derived phenolic compounds (after Poole & van Bergen, 2002). This paper focuses on major events in the incorporation of dung carbon, estimated using natural abundance 13C&-slash;labelling technique. This revealed a major bulk input of dung carbon after a period of significant rainfall with a consequent decline in bulk soil ? 13C values until the end of the experiment (Dungait {\\et al.}, submitted). Findings will be presented revealing contribution of plant cell wall polysaccharides and lignin to these bulk ? 13C values, and their potential for sequestration considered. References: Bol, R., Amelung, W., Friedrich, C. Ostle, N. (2000). Tracing dung-derived carbon in temperate grassland using 13C natural abundance measurements. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 1337-1343. Goering and Van Soest (1970). Forage fibre analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications). In: USDA-ARS Agricultural Handbook, 379. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. Docherty, G., Jones, V. and Evershed, R.P. (2001). Practical and theoretical considerations in the gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry ? 13C analysis of small polyfunctional compounds. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 15, 730-738. Poole, I. & van Bergen, P. F. (2002). Carbon isotope ratio analysis of organic moieties from fossil mummified wood: establishing optimum conditions for off-line pyrolysis extraction using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 16, 1976-1981. Dungait, J. A. J., Bol, R. and Evershed, R.P. (submitted). The Fate of Dung Carbon in Temperate Grassland Soil: 1. Preliminary Findings Based on Bulk Stable Carbon Isotope Determinations. Isotopes in Health and Environmental Studies

Dungait, J.; Bol, R.; Evershed, R. P.

2004-12-01

69

Independent Evolution of Leaf and Root Traits within and among Temperate Grassland Plant Communities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we used data from temperate grassland plant communities in Alberta, Canada to test two longstanding hypotheses in ecology: 1) that there has been correlated evolution of the leaves and roots of plants due to selection for an integrated whole-plant resource uptake strategy, and 2) that trait diversity in ecological communities is generated by adaptations to the conditions in different habitats. We tested the first hypothesis using phylogenetic comparative methods to test for evidence of correlated evolution of suites of leaf and root functional traits in these grasslands. There were consistent evolutionary correlations among traits related to plant resource uptake strategies within leaf tissues, and within root tissues. In contrast, there were inconsistent correlations between the traits of leaves and the traits of roots, suggesting different evolutionary pressures on the above and belowground components of plant morphology. To test the second hypothesis, we evaluated the relative importance of two components of trait diversity: within-community variation (species trait values relative to co-occurring species; ? traits) and among-community variation (the average trait value in communities where species occur; ? traits). Trait diversity was mostly explained by variation among co-occurring species, not among-communities. Additionally, there was a phylogenetic signal in the within-community trait values of species relative to co-occurring taxa, but not in their habitat associations or among-community trait variation. These results suggest that sorting of pre-existing trait variation into local communities can explain the leaf and root trait diversity in these grasslands. PMID:21687704

Kembel, Steven W.; Cahill, James F.

2011-01-01

70

Winter photosynthetic activity of twenty temperate semi-desert sand grassland species.  

PubMed

The winter photosynthetic activity (quantified by net CO(2) assimilation rates and chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence parameters) of 20 plant species (including two lichens and two mosses) of a Hungarian temperate semi-desert sand grassland was determined on one occasion per year in 1984, 1989 and 1994. Throughout winter, the overwintering green shoots, leaves or thalli were regularly exposed to below zero temperatures at night and daytime temperatures of 0-5 degrees C. In situ tissue temperature varied between -2.1 and +6.9 degrees C and the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) between 137 and 351 micromol m(-2)s(-1). Under these conditions 18 of the grassland species exhibited photosynthetic CO(2) uptake (range: vascular plants ca. 0.2-3.8 micromol m(-2)s(-1), cryptogams 0.3-2.79 micromol kg(-1)s(-1)) and values of 0.9-5.1 of the Chl fluorescence decrease ratio R(Fd). In 1984, Festuca vaginata and Sedum sexangulare had net CO(2) assimilation at leaf temperatures of -0.85 to -1.2 degrees C. In 1989, all species except Cladonia furcata showed net CO(2) assimilation at tissue temperatures of 0 to +3.3 degrees C, with the highest rates observed in Poa bulbosa and F. vaginata. The latter showed a net CO(2) assimilation saturation at a PPFD of 600 micromol m(-2)s(-1) and a temperature optimum between +5 and +18 degrees C. At the 1994 measurements, the photosynthetic rates were higher at higher tissue water contents. The two mosses and lichens had a net photosynthesis (range: 1.1-2.79 micromol CO(2)kg(-1)s(-1)) at 2 degrees C tissue temperature and at 4-5 degrees C air temperature. Ca. 80% of the vascular grassland plant species maintained a positive C-balance during the coldest periods of winter, with photosynthetic rates of 1.5-3.8 micromol CO(2)m(-2)s(-1). In an extremely warm beginning March of the relatively warm winter of 2006/2007, the dicotyledonous plants had much higher CO(2) assimilation rates on a Chl (range 6-14.9 micromol g(-1)Chl s(-1)) and on a dry weight basis (9-48 micromol kg(-1)dw s(-1)) than in the cold winter of 1994. However, the assimilation rates of the three investigated cryptogams (Tortula and two Cladonia) and the two grasses Festuca and Poa were not affected by this increase. The results indicate that the photosynthetic activity of temperate semi-desert sand grassland species can help somewhat in slowing the general CO(2) rise in winter and function as a potential carbon sink of the investigated semi-desert Hungarian grassland species. PMID:18346813

Tuba, Zoltán; Csintalan, Zsolt; Szente, Kálmán; Nagy, Zoltán; Fekete, Gábor; Larcher, Walter; Lichtenthaler, Hartmut K

2008-09-29

71

Changes in nitrogen resorption traits of six temperate grassland species along a multi-level N addition gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) resorption from senescing leaves is an important mechanism of N conservation for terrestrial plant species, but\\u000a changes in N-resorption traits over wide-range and multi-level N addition gradients have not been well characterized. Here,\\u000a a 3-year N addition experiment was conducted to determine the effects of N addition on N resorption of six temperate grassland\\u000a species belonging to three

Ju-Ying Huang; Xiao-Guang Zhu; Zhi-You Yuan; Shi-Huan Song; Xin Li; Ling-Hao Li

2008-01-01

72

Coherent assembly of phytoplankton communities in diverse temperate ocean ecosystems.  

PubMed

The annual cycle of phytoplankton cell abundance is coherent across diverse ecosystems in the temperate North Atlantic Ocean. In Bedford Basin, on the Scotian Shelf and in the Labrador Sea, the numerical abundance of phytoplankton is low in spring and high in autumn, thus in phase with the temperature cycle. Temperature aligns abundance on a common basis, effectively adjusting apparent cell discrepancies in waters that are colder or warmer than the regional norm. As an example of holistic simplicity arising from underlying complexity, the variance in a community variable (total abundance) is explained by a single predictor (temperature) to the extent of 75% in the marginal seas. In the estuarine basin, weekly averages of phytoplankton and temperature computed from a 13 year time-series yield a predictive relationship with 91% explained variance. Temperature-directed assembly of individual phytoplankton cells to form communities is statistically robust, consistent with observed biomass changes, amenable to theoretical analysis, and a sentinel for long-term change. Since cell abundance is a community property in the same units for all marine microbes at any trophic level and at any phylogenetic position, it promises to integrate biological oceanography into general ecology and evolution. PMID:16822757

Li, William K W; Harrison, W Glen; Head, Erica J H

2006-08-01

73

Coherent assembly of phytoplankton communities in diverse temperate ocean ecosystems  

PubMed Central

The annual cycle of phytoplankton cell abundance is coherent across diverse ecosystems in the temperate North Atlantic Ocean. In Bedford Basin, on the Scotian Shelf and in the Labrador Sea, the numerical abundance of phytoplankton is low in spring and high in autumn, thus in phase with the temperature cycle. Temperature aligns abundance on a common basis, effectively adjusting apparent cell discrepancies in waters that are colder or warmer than the regional norm. As an example of holistic simplicity arising from underlying complexity, the variance in a community variable (total abundance) is explained by a single predictor (temperature) to the extent of 75% in the marginal seas. In the estuarine basin, weekly averages of phytoplankton and temperature computed from a 13 year time-series yield a predictive relationship with 91% explained variance. Temperature-directed assembly of individual phytoplankton cells to form communities is statistically robust, consistent with observed biomass changes, amenable to theoretical analysis, and a sentinel for long-term change. Since cell abundance is a community property in the same units for all marine microbes at any trophic level and at any phylogenetic position, it promises to integrate biological oceanography into general ecology and evolution. PMID:16822757

Li, William K.W; Glen Harrison, W; Head, Erica J.H

2006-01-01

74

Representing the effects of alpine grassland vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal dynamics by ecosystem  

E-print Network

Representing the effects of alpine grassland vegetation cover on the simulation of soil thermal and atmospheric factors on the estimation of soil surface temperature for alpine grassland ecosystems has the potential to substantially improve our understanding of the vulnerability of alpine grassland

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

75

China's grazed temperate grasslands are a net source of atmospheric methane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A budget for the methane (CH 4) cycle in the Xilin River basin of Inner Mongolia is presented. The annual CH 4 budget in this region depends primarily on the sum of atmospheric CH 4 uptake by upland soils, emission from small wetlands, and emission from grazing ruminants (sheep, goats, and cattle). Flux rates for these processes were averaged over multiple years with differing summer rainfall. Although uplands constitute the vast majority of land area, they consume much less CH 4 per unit area than is emitted by wetlands and ruminants. Atmospheric CH 4 uptake by upland soils was -3.3 and -4.8 kg CH 4 ha -1 y -1 in grazed and ungrazed areas, respectively. Average CH 4 emission was 791.0 kg CH 4 ha -1 y -1 from wetlands and 8.6 kg CH 4 ha -1 y -1 from ruminants. The basin area-weighted average of all three processes was 6.8 kg CH 4 ha -1 y -1, indicating that ruminant production has converted this basin to a net source of atmospheric CH 4. The total CH 4 emission from the Xilin River basin was 7.29 Gg CH 4 y -1. The current grazing intensity is about eightfold higher than that which would result in a net zero CH 4 flux. Since grazing intensity has increased throughout western China, it is likely that ruminant production has converted China's grazed temperate grasslands to a net source of atmospheric CH 4 overall.

Wang, Zhi-Ping; Song, Yang; Gulledge, Jay; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Hong-Sheng; Han, Xing-Guo

76

Alternative states of a semiarid grassland ecosystem: implications for ecosystem services  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecosystems can shift between alternative states characterized by persistent differences in structure, function, and capacity to provide ecosystem services valued by society. We examined empirical evidence for alternative states in a semiarid grassland ecosystem where topographic complexity and contrasting management regimes have led to spatial variations in levels of livestock grazing. Using an inventory data set, we found that plots (n = 72) cluster into three groups corresponding to generalized alternative states identified in an a priori conceptual model. One cluster (biocrust) is notable for high coverage of a biological soil crust functional group in addition to vascular plants. Another (grass-bare) lacks biological crust but retains perennial grasses at levels similar to the biocrust cluster. A third (annualized-bare) is dominated by invasive annual plants. Occurrence of grass-bare and annualized-bare conditions in areas where livestock have been excluded for over 30 years demonstrates the persistence of these states. Significant differences among all three clusters were found for percent bare ground, percent total live cover, and functional group richness. Using data for vegetation structure and soil erodibility, we also found large among-cluster differences in average levels of dust emissions predicted by a wind-erosion model. Predicted emissions were highest for the annualized-bare cluster and lowest for the biocrust cluster, which was characterized by zero or minimal emissions even under conditions of extreme wind. Results illustrate potential trade-offs among ecosystem services including livestock production, soil retention, carbon storage, and biodiversity conservation. Improved understanding of these trade-offs may assist ecosystem managers when evaluating alternative management strategies.

Miller, Mark E.; Belote, R. Travis; Bowker, Matthew A.; Garman, Steven L.

2011-01-01

77

Measurement of net ecosystem production and ecosystem respiration in a Zoysia japonica grassland, central Japan, by the chamber method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring light, temperature, soil moisture, and growth provides a better understanding of net ecosystem production (NEP),\\u000a ecosystem respiration (R\\u000a eco), and their response functions. Here, we studied the variations in NEP and R\\u000a eco in a grassland dominated by a perennial warm-season C4 grass, Zoysia japonica. We used the chamber method to measure NEP and R\\u000a eco from August to

Deepa Dhital; Hiroyuki Muraoka; Yuichiro Yashiro; Yoko Shizu; Hiroshi Koizumi

2010-01-01

78

Nitrogen effects on net ecosystem carbon exchange in a temperate steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has widely been documented that nitrogen (N) enrichment stimulates plant growth and net primary production. However, there is still dispute on how N addition affects net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which represents the balance between ecosystem carbon (C) uptake and release. We conducted an experimental study to examine effects of N addition on NEE in a temperate steppe in

SHULI NIU; J IANGY ANG X IA; HAIJUN YANG; SHIQIANG WAN

2009-01-01

79

Carbon dioxide fluxes in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous temperate grassland.  

PubMed

Landscape position, grazing, and seasonal variation in precipitation and temperature create spatial and temporal variability in soil processes, and plant biomass and composition in grasslands. However, it is unclear how this variation in plant and soil properties affects carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of grazing, topographic position, and seasonal variation in soil moisture and temperature on plant assimilation, shoot and soil respiration, and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). Carbon dioxide fluxes, vegetation, and environmental variables were measured once a month inside and outside long-term ungulate exclosures in hilltop (dry) to slope bottom (mesic) grassland throughout the 2004 growing season in Yellowstone National Park. There was no difference in vegetation properties and CO2 fluxes between the grazed and the ungrazed sites. The spatial and temporal variability in CO2 fluxes were related to differences in aboveground biomass and total shoot nitrogen content, which were both related to variability in soil moisture. All sites were CO2 sinks (NEE>0) for all our measurements taken throughout the growing season; but CO2 fluxes were four- to fivefold higher at sites supporting the most aboveground biomass located at slope bottoms, compared to the sites with low biomass located at hilltops or slopes. The dry sites assimilated more CO2 per gram aboveground biomass and stored proportionally more of the gross-assimilated CO2 in the soil, compared to wet sites. These results indicate large spatio-temporal variability of CO2 fluxes and suggest factors that control the variability in Yellowstone National Park. PMID:16205950

Risch, Anita C; Frank, Douglas A

2006-03-01

80

Oldest Evidence of Toolmaking Hominins in a Grassland-Dominated Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Background Major biological and cultural innovations in late Pliocene hominin evolution are frequently linked to the spread or fluctuating presence of C4 grass in African ecosystems. Whereas the deep sea record of global climatic change provides indirect evidence for an increase in C4 vegetation with a shift towards a cooler, drier and more variable global climatic regime beginning approximately 3 million years ago (Ma), evidence for grassland-dominated ecosystems in continental Africa and hominin activities within such ecosystems have been lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We report stable isotopic analyses of pedogenic carbonates and ungulate enamel, as well as faunal data from ?2.0 Ma archeological occurrences at Kanjera South, Kenya. These document repeated hominin activities within a grassland-dominated ecosystem. Conclusions/Significance These data demonstrate what hitherto had been speculated based on indirect evidence: that grassland-dominated ecosystems did in fact exist during the Plio-Pleistocene, and that early Homo was active in open settings. Comparison with other Oldowan occurrences indicates that by 2.0 Ma hominins, almost certainly of the genus Homo, used a broad spectrum of habitats in East Africa, from open grassland to riparian forest. This strongly contrasts with the habitat usage of Australopithecus, and may signal an important shift in hominin landscape usage. PMID:19844568

Plummer, Thomas W.; Ditchfield, Peter W.; Bishop, Laura C.; Kingston, John D.; Ferraro, Joseph V.; Braun, David R.; Hertel, Fritz; Potts, Richard

2009-01-01

81

Monitoring an ecosystem at risk: what is the degree of grassland fragmentation in the Canadian Prairies?  

PubMed

Increasing fragmentation of grassland habitats by human activities is a major threat to biodiversity and landscape quality. Monitoring their degree of fragmentation has been identified as an urgent need. This study quantifies for the first time the current degree of grassland fragmentation in the Canadian Prairies using four fragmentation geometries (FGs) of increasing specificity (i.e. more restrictive grassland classification) and five types of reporting units (7 ecoregions, 50 census divisions, 1,166 municipalities, 17 sub-basins, and 108 watersheds). We evaluated the suitability of 11 datasets based on 8 suitability criteria and applied the effective mesh size (m(eff)) method to quantify fragmentation. We recommend the combination of the Crop Inventory Mapping of the Prairies and the CanVec datasets as the most suitable for monitoring grassland fragmentation. The grassland area remaining amounts to 87,570.45 km(2) in FG4 (strict grassland definition) and 183,242.042 km(2) in FG1 (broad grassland definition), out of 461,503.97 km(2) (entire Prairie Ecozone area). The very low values of m(eff) of 14.23 km(2) in FG4 and 25.44 km(2) in FG1 indicate an extremely high level of grassland fragmentation. The m(eff) method is supported in this study as highly suitable and recommended for long-term monitoring of grasslands in the Canadian Prairies; it can help set measurable targets and/or limits for regions to guide management efforts and as a tool for performance review of protection efforts, for increasing awareness, and for guiding efforts to minimize grassland fragmentation. This approach can also be applied in other parts of the world and to other ecosystems. PMID:24389841

Roch, Laura; Jaeger, Jochen A G

2014-04-01

82

Mediterranean grassland soil fungi: Patterns of biodiversity, functional redundancy and soil carbon storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter is a relevant carbon reservoir and CO2 sink in temperate grassland ecosystems and increased carbon uptake may mitigate climate change. Relatively little is known about the relationship between ecosystem function and soil fungal biodiversity in grasslands. However, this relationship is important because the saprotrophic microorganisms within the decomposer chain may, given their important role in the decomposition

A. M. Persiani; O. Maggi; J. Montalvo; M. A. Casado; F. D. Pineda

2008-01-01

83

Perennial grasslands enhance biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services in bioenergy landscapes  

E-print Network

Perennial grasslands enhance biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services in bioenergy landscapes, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824; b Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, US Department of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182; d Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, US Department of Energy

Landis, Doug

84

Recovery of soil microbial community structure after fire in a sagebrush-grassland ecosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recovery of the soil microbial community after fire in a sagebrush-grassland ecosystem was examined using a chronosequence of four sites ranging in time since fire from 3-39 years. The successional stage communities examined included Recent Burn (3 years since fire, ysf), Establishment (7 ysf), Expa...

85

Propagule pools mediate community assembly and diversity-ecosystem regulation along a grassland productivity gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 The relative importance of regional species pools and local ecological processes in governing landscape variation in plant species diversity and productivity was evaluated in a Kansas grassland. 2 We examined the impact of multispecies sowing treatments and experimental canopy disturbances on plant species diversity and ecosystem processes along a complex natural gradient of plant standing crop. 3 Data

BRYAN L. FOSTER; TIMOTHY L. DICKSON; CHERYL A. MURPHY; IRENE S. KAREL; VAL H. SMITH

2004-01-01

86

Contrasting responses of terrestrial ecosystem production to hot temperature extreme regimes between grassland and forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational data during the past several decades show faster increase of hot temperature extremes over land than changes in mean temperature. Towards more extreme temperature is expected to affect terrestrial ecosystem function. However, the ecological impacts of hot extremes on vegetation production remain uncertain across biomes in natural climatic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of hot temperature extremes on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) by combining MODIS EVI dataset and in situ climatic records during 2000 to 2009 from 12 long-term experimental sites across biomes and climates. Our results showed that higher mean annual maximum temperatures (Tmax) greatly reduced grassland production, and yet enhanced forest production after removing the effects of precipitation. Relative decreases in ANPP were 16% for arid grassland and 7% for mesic grassland, and the increase were 5% for forest. We also observed a significant positive relationship between interannual ANPP and Tmax for forest biome (R2 = 0.79, P < 0.001). This line of evidence suggests that hot temperature extreme leads to contrasting ecosystem-level response of vegetation production to warming climate between grassland and forest. Given that many terrestrial ecosystem models use average daily temperature as input, predictions of ecosystem production should consider these contrasting responses to more hot temperature extreme regimes associated with climate change.

Zhang, Y.; Voigt, M.; Liu, H.

2014-04-01

87

Interannual and seasonal variability of CH4 and N2O exchange over a temperate mountain grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantification and understanding of the greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is crucial when trying to assess the effect of anthropogenic and biogenic controls on a future climate. Using the eddy covariance method, fluxes of CO2 have been measured over a wide array of ecosystems, while measurements of the other two major GHG, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), were only conducted by few groups due to expensive scalar sensors and their time-consuming maintenance. These first measurments mainly focused on ecosystems that were believed to represent significant sources for CH4 (e.g. wetlands) or N2O (e.g. heavily fertilized crops). With CH4 and N2O measurement devices now being widely available, more measurements are made over sites that are characterized by relatively small and often close-to-zero fluxes, and despite recent advances in sensor sensitivity and stability, the quantification of these two GHG remains challenging. Here we report on the CO2, CH4 and N2O exchange measured over 2 years at a temperate mountain grassland managed as a hay meadow near the village Neustift in the Stubai Valley, Austria, by means of the eddy covariance method. The three wind components, the speed of sound and the CO2 mole densities were acquired at a time resolution of 20 Hz and used to calculate true eddy covariance CO2 fluxes. CH4 and N2O mixing ratios were recorded at 2 Hz by a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer (QCL-AS), resulting in a disjunct time series when compared to the 20 Hz wind data. Fluxes of both compounds were then calculated using the virtual disjunct eddy covariance method (vDEC). Mixing ratios of CH4 and N2O were then corrected for the cross-talk effect of water as described in earlier studies. The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 at the study site is monitored continously since 2001, while the measurement of CH4 and N2O fluxes started in April 2010. During the vegetation period, typical concentration values for CH4 and N2O were around 2.0 and 0.3 ppm, respectively, exhibiting distinct diurnal cycles. Emission and uptake could be observed for both compounds, and exchange rates showed a clear diurnal cycle during certain time periods. During the day, relatively large amounts of methane were emitted in September 2011, with peak emission rates of 24.9 nmol m-2 s-1 around noon, while relatively strong emissions of nitrous oxide could be observed in August 2011 (0.9 nmol m-2 s-1). However, during calm and stable nighttime conditions, mixing ratios of both compounds were often erratic with distinct spikes and high ambient concentration values, which propagated into the flux calculations and resulted in similarly erratic exchange rates, making further despiking necessary. The drivers of of CH4 and N2O exchange patterns during undisturbed conditions and the effect of management events like harvesting and the spreading of manure are investigated and set in relation to previously published studies on this matter.

Hörtnagl, L. J.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2012-12-01

88

Tropical freshwater ecosystems have lower bacterial growth efficiency than temperate ones  

PubMed Central

Current models and observations indicate that bacterial respiration should increase and growth efficiency (BGE) should decrease with increasing temperatures. However, these models and observations are mostly derived from data collected in temperate regions, and the tropics are under-represented. The aim of this work was to compare bacterial metabolism, namely bacterial production (BP) and respiration (BR), bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) and bacterial carbon demand (BCD) between tropical and temperate ecosystems via a literature review and using unpublished data. We hypothesized that (1) tropical ecosystems have higher metabolism than temperate ones and, (2) that BGE is lower in tropical relative to temperate ecosystems. We collected a total of 498 coupled BP and BR observations (Ntotal = 498; Ntemperate = 301; Ntropical = 197), calculated BGE (BP/(BP+BR)) and BCD (BP+BR) for each case and examined patterns using a model II regression analysis and compared each parameter between the two regions using non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test. We observed a significant positive linear regression between BR and BP for the whole dataset, and also for tropical and temperate data separately. We found that BP, BR and BCD were higher in the tropics, but BGE was lower compared to temperate regions. Also, BR rates per BP unit were at least two fold higher in the tropics than in temperate ecosystems. We argue that higher temperature, nutrient limitation, and light exposure all contribute to lower BGE in the tropics, mediated through effects on thermodynamics, substrate stoichiometry, nutrient availability and interactions with photochemically produced compounds. More efforts are needed in this study area in the tropics, but our work indicates that bottom-up (nutrient availability and resource stoichiometry) and top-down (grazer pressure) processes, coupled with thermodynamic constraints, might contribute to the lower BGE in the tropics relative to temperate regions. PMID:23801986

Amado, André M.; Meirelles-Pereira, Frederico; Vidal, Luciana O.; Sarmento, Hugo; Suhett, Albert L.; Farjalla, Vinicius F.; Cotner, James B.; Roland, Fabio

2013-01-01

89

Understanding the importance wet, unimproved Culm grasslands have for the provision of multiple ecosystem services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is increasingly recognised that catchments must be carefully managed for the provision of multiple, sometimes conflicting ecosystem services. This requires an increased interdisciplinary environmental understanding to inform management policy and practices by government, landowners and stakeholders. The Culm National Character Area (NCA) covers 3,500 square kilometres in South West England with Culm grasslands consisting of wet unimproved, species rich pastures, typically on poorly drained soils. Since the 1960's, policy changes have encouraged the drainage of large areas of land for agricultural improvement and consequently Culm grassland sites have become highly fragmented. There are currently 575 Culm grassland sites in the Culm NCA with a mean area of 7 ha. Traditionally, Culm grasslands have been managed by light grazing and scrub management. Since 2008, Devon Wildlife Trust's Working Wetlands project has been working with farmers and landowners to manage and restore and recreate Culm grasslands. It is part of South West Water's Upstream Thinking initiative and is now augmented by the Northern Devon Nature Improvement Area programme. However, from a hydrological perspective, Culm and similar unimproved grasslands remain poorly understood. In addition to their recognised conservation and biodiversity importance; unimproved grasslands such as Culm are thought to have a high water storage capacity, reducing runoff and therefore flooding during wet periods, whilst slowly releasing and filtering water to help maintain water quality, and base river flows during dry periods. Therefore, if properly understood and managed Culm soils have the potential to play an important role in the management of catchment water resources. Furthermore, Culm grassland soils are thought to have a high potential for the sequestration and storage of carbon, an increasingly valuable ecosystem service. This study aims to increase understanding of the influence Culm grasslands have upon water and soil resources, relative to other land uses and land covers (wet woodland, scrub and intensively managed grassland). Results will be presented demonstrating that relative to intensively managed grassland, Culm soils have a higher water holding capacity, exhibit a more attenuated response to rainfall events and have higher carbon concentrations. Additionally, results show water leaving a Culm dominated sub-catchment is of a higher quality (i.e. exhibiting lower suspended sediment, dissolved organic carbon and phosphate loads) than comparable intensively managed agricultural catchments.

Brazier, Richard; Elliot, Mark; Warren, Susan; Puttock, Alan

2014-05-01

90

The impacts of drainage, nutrient status and management practice on the full carbon balance of grasslands on organic soils in a maritime temperate zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate grasslands on organic soils are diverse due to edaphic properties but also to regional management practices and this heterogeneity is reflected in the wide range of greenhouse gas (GHG) flux values reported in the literature. In Ireland, most grasslands on organic soils were drained several decades ago and are managed as extensive pastures with little or no fertilisation. This study describes a 2-year study of the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) of two such sites. We determined GHG fluxes and waterborne carbon (C) emissions in a nutrient-rich grassland and compared it with values measured from two nutrient-poor organic soils: a deep-drained and a shallow-drained site. Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were determined using the chamber technique, and fluvial C fluxes were estimated by combining drainage water concentrations and flows. The nutrient-rich site was an annual source of CO2 (233 g C m-2 yr-1), CH4 neutral, and a small source of N2O (0.16 g N2O-N m-2 yr-1). Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at the shallow-drained nutrient-poor site was -89 and -99 g C m-2 yr-1 in Years 1 and 2 respectively, and NEE at the deep-drained nutrient-poor site was 85 and -26 g C m-2 yr-1 respectively. Low CH4 emissions (1.3 g C m-2 yr-1) were recorded at the shallow-drained nutrient-poor site. Fluvial exports from the nutrient-rich site totalled 69.8 g C m-2 yr-1 with 54% as dissolved organic C. Waterborne C losses from the nutrient-poor site reflected differences in annual runoff totalling 44 g C m-2 yr-1 in Year 1 and 30.8 g C m-2 yr-1 in Year 2. The NECB of the nutrient-rich grassland was 663 g C m-2 yr-1 with biomass exports being the major component accounting for 53%. The NECB of the nutrient-poor deep-drained site was less than half of the nutrient-rich site (2-year mean 267 g C m-2 yr-1). Although NEE at the nutrient-poor shallow-drained site was negative in both years, high biomass export meant it was a net C source (2-year mean NECB 103 g C m-2 yr-1). While the impacts of the nutrient and drainage status on NEE, biomass exports and fluvial C losses were confirmed, inter-regional differences in management practice and climate were also significant factors which impacted on the overall NECB of these ecosystems. Contrary to expectation, the NECB of nutrient-poor drained organic soils under grasslands is not necessarily a large C source and this has implications for Ireland's choice of national GHG inventory reporting methodologies. This study can also aid the development of strategies to deliver reduced emissions tailored to local grassland types.

Renou-Wilson, F.; Barry, C.; Müller, C.; Wilson, D.

2014-08-01

91

Evaluating Ecosystem Services Provided by Non-Native Species: An Experimental Test in California Grasslands  

PubMed Central

The concept of ecosystem services – the benefits that nature provides to human's society – has gained increasing attention over the past decade. Increasing global abiotic and biotic change, including species invasions, is threatening the secure delivery of these ecosystem services. Efficient evaluation methods of ecosystem services are urgently needed to improve our ability to determine management strategies and restoration goals in face of these new emerging ecosystems. Considering a range of multiple ecosystem functions may be a useful way to determine such strategies. We tested this framework experimentally in California grasslands, where large shifts in species composition have occurred since the late 1700's. We compared a suite of ecosystem functions within one historic native and two non-native species assemblages under different grazing intensities to address how different species assemblages vary in provisioning, regulatory and supporting ecosystem services. Forage production was reduced in one non-native assemblage (medusahead). Cultural ecosystem services, such as native species diversity, were inherently lower in both non-native assemblages, whereas most other services were maintained across grazing intensities. All systems provided similar ecosystem services under the highest grazing intensity treatment, which simulated unsustainable grazing intensity. We suggest that applying a more comprehensive ecosystem framework that considers multiple ecosystem services to evaluate new emerging ecosystems is a valuable tool to determine management goals and how to intervene in a changing ecosystem. PMID:25222028

Stein, Claudia; Hallett, Lauren M.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Suding, Katharine N.

2014-01-01

92

Analysis of the production stability of mixed grasslands. I. A conceptual framework for the qualification of production stability in grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased use of white clover in grasslands has led to new management challenges, as mixed pastures have been associated with unstable herbage production. The stability of mixed pastures depends on a complex of intrinsic ecosystem properties, on the variability of the environment, and on the spatial and temporal scale at which it is studied. In this paper, intrinsic ecosystem

R. P. O. Schulte; E. A. Lantinga; P. C. Struik

2003-01-01

93

An Ecosystem in Transition: Causes and Consequences of the Conversion of Mesic Grassland to Shrubland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer -reviewed article from BioScience investigates the change from grassland to shrubland in the central US. Woody plant expansion is one of the greatest contemporary threats to mesic grasslands of the central United States. In this article, we synthesize more than 20 years of research to elucidate the causes and consequences of the ongoing transition of C4-dominated grasslands to savanna-like ecosystems codominated by grasses and woody plants. This transition is contingent on fire-free intervals, which provide the opportunity for recruitment both of new individuals and of additional shrub and tree species into this grassland. Once shrubs establish, their cover increases regardless of fire frequency, and infrequent fires accelerate the spread of some shrub species. This process has resulted in a new dynamic state of shrubgrass coexistence in the mesic grasslands of North America. Important consequences of this shift in plant life-form abundance include alterations in plant productivity, species diversity, and carbon storage. Without drastic measures such as mechanical removal of shrubs, it is unlikely that management of fire and grazing regimes alone will be sufficient to restore historic grass dominance in these ecosystems.

JOHN M. BRIGGS, ALAN K. KNAPP, JOHN M. BLAIR, JANA L. HEISLER, GREG A. HOCH, MICHELLE S. LETT, and JAMES K. McCARRON (;)

2005-03-01

94

The rise of C4 grassland ecosystems, a climate puzzle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion of grasslands was one of the most profound ecological changes in the Cenozoic. Understanding the history of forest to grassland transitions, and the development of C4 grasslands in particular, is critical for understanding the relationship between land surface climate feedbacks, seasonality, and temperature. Modern distributions and ecological experiments demonstrate a strong correlation between C4 biogeography and high growing season temperatures and precipitation, as well as low pCO2 concentrations. The rise of C4 grasses in North America, as documented by carbonate nodule and mammal teeth ?13C values, began during a warm period with relatively stable pCO2 in the late Miocene. Surprisingly, C4 grasses continued to expand and then rose to dominance in the Great Plains as climates progressively cooled, moisture availability increased, and ice sheets formed further north on the continent. To understand this seemingly paradoxical scenario, we need constraints on the rate and character of increasing abundances of C4 vegetation. To this end, we use molecular and isotopic tools from terrestrial plant leaf wax n-alkanes extracted from carbonate nodules in the Meade Basin, Kansas and sites in Texas for the past 12 Ma. These records offer site-specific reconstructions tied directly to vegetation source. We compare our results to published continental-scale reconstructions of n-alkanes from the Mississippi River drainage basin and to climate records. From the distribution of C27 to C33 n-alkane abundances and patterns in ?13C values, we infer that C4 grasses coexisted with patches of C3 vegetation, including both grasses and trees. C4 grasses increasingly dominated the landscape, reaching modern abundances as ice sheets were reaching their southern limit in North America. Our results confirm that C4 grasslands emerged under cool and wet conditions, something we would not predict based on modern analogues, raising questions about our understanding of the climatic drivers on C4 vegetation distribution in the past.

Henderson, A.; Fox, D.; Freeman, K. H.

2011-12-01

95

The influence of abiotic controls and management intensity on phosphorus cycling in established grassland and forest ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly assumed that the bioavailability and cycling of phosphorus (P) is mainly controlled by abiotic soil properties including soil pH and the concentrations and reactivities of clay minerals, CaCO3 and Al/Fe oxides In managed ecosystems, kind, timing and duration of P additions and type and amount of harvested biomass are the major input and output fluxes. Our objective was to disentangle the effects of abiotic controls, and type and intensity of management on the P cycle in soils of temperate grasslands and forests of different management intensity in three regions across Germany in the frame of the Biodiversity Exploratories project. The pH value was the most important variable explaining P concentrations and partitioning in soil and changes in pH are the main mechanism how land-use is affecting the P cycle. However, after the influence of pH was accounted for in a sequential statistical approach, land-use intensity, classified according to the extent of annual biomass removal, explained a significant (P < 0.05) part of the variance in the contributions of several P fractions to total P (TP) among all studied regions and land-use types. In grassland soils of highly diverse systems (up to 57 plant species) in one of the study regions, the Schwäbische Alb, a mid-range mountain area on limestone where soils showed a limited variation in pH in the carbonate buffer range, pedogenic Fe oxide concentrations, fertilizer-P application rates, and TP concentrations in soil explained more than half of the variation in bioavailable inorganic (Pi) concentrations extracted with NaHCO3 in soil. Our results demonstrate that mainly soil pH and mineralogical composition, and intensity of management of the managed ecosystems are significant controls of the P cycle determining the size of bioavailable P pool in soil.

Alt, F.; Oelmann, Y.; Wilcke, W.

2011-12-01

96

Soil ecosystem function under native and exotic plant assemblages as alternative states of successional grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Old fields often become dominated by exotic plants establishing persistent community states. Ecosystem functioning may differ widely between such novel communities and the native-dominated counterparts. We evaluated soil ecosystem attributes in native and exotic (synthetic) grass assemblages established on a newly abandoned field, and in remnants of native grassland in the Inland Pampa, Argentina. We asked whether exotic species alter soil functioning through the quality of the litter they shed or by changing the decomposition environment. Litter decomposition of the exotic dominant Festuca arundinacea in exotic assemblages was faster than that of the native dominant Paspalum quadrifarium in native assemblages and remnant grasslands. Decomposition of a standard litter (Triticum aestivum) was also faster in exotic assemblages than in native assemblages and remnant grasslands. In a common garden, F. arundinacea showed higher decay rates than P. quadrifarium, which reflected the higher N content and lower C:N of the exotic grass litter. Soil respiration rates were higher in the exotic than in the native assemblages and remnant grasslands. Yet there were no significant differences in soil N availability or net N mineralization between exotic and native assemblages. Our results suggest that exotic grass dominance affected ecosystem function by producing a more decomposable leaf litter and by increasing soil decomposer activity. These changes might contribute to the extended dominance of fast-growing exotic grasses during old-field succession. Further, increased organic matter turnover under novel, exotic communities could reduce the carbon storage capacity of the system in the long term.

Spirito, Florencia; Yahdjian, Laura; Tognetti, Pedro M.; Chaneton, Enrique J.

2014-01-01

97

Leaf and ecosystem response to soil water availability in mountain grasslands  

PubMed Central

Climate change is expected to affect the Alps by increasing the frequency and intensity of summer drought events with negative impacts on ecosystem water resources. The response of CO2 and H2O exchange of a mountain grassland to natural fluctuations of soil water content was evaluated during 2001-2009. In addition, the physiological performance of individual mountain forb and graminoid plant species under progressive soil water shortage was explored in a laboratory drought experiment. During the 9-year study period the natural occurrence of moderately to extremely dry periods did not lead to substantial reductions in net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration. Laboratory drought experiments confirmed that all the surveyed grassland plant species were insensitive to progressive soil drying until very low soil water contents (<0.01 m3 m?3) were reached after several days of drought. In field conditions, such a low threshold was never reached. Re-watering after a short-term drought event (5±1 days) resulted in a fast and complete recovery of the leaf CO2 and H2O gas exchange of the investigated plant species. We conclude that the present-day frequency and intensity of dry periods does not substantially affect the functioning of the investigated grassland ecosystem. During dry periods the observed “water spending” strategy employed by the investigated mountain grassland species is expected to provide a cooling feedback on climate warming, but may have negative consequences for down-stream water users. PMID:24465071

Brilli, Federico; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Hansel, Armin; Loreto, Francesco; Wohlfahrt, Georg

2014-01-01

98

Biocenoses of Collembola in atlantic temperate grass-woodland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples (679) from various forest sites in the atlantic temperate region (lowlands in the northern half of France) have been studied. Their Collembolan species composition 145 species, with only 43 rare species) was analysed by Benzecri's correspondence analysis, a multivariate method. Five groups of species, each associated with a given habitat, were determined: above the ground surface a distinction is

J. F. Ponge

1993-01-01

99

The impacts of drainage, nutrient status and management practice on the full carbon balance of grasslands on organic soils in a maritime temperate zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperate grasslands on organic soils are diverse due to edaphic properties but also to regional management practices and this heterogeneity is reflected in the wide range of greenhouse gas flux values reported in the literature. In Ireland, most grasslands on organic soils were drained several decades ago and are managed as extensive pastures with little or no fertilisation. This study describes a two-year study of the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) of two such sites. We determined greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and waterborne carbon emissions in a nutrient rich grassland and compared it with values measured from two nutrient poor organic soils: a deep drained and a shallow drained site. GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) were determined using the chamber technique, and fluvial C fluxes were estimated by combining drainage water concentrations and flows. The nutrient rich site was an annual source of CO2 (NEE 233 g C m-2yr-1), CH4 neutral, and a small source of nitrous oxide (1.6 kg N2O-N ha-1yr-1). NEE at the shallow drained site was -89 and -99 g C m-2yr-1 in Years 1 and 2 respectively, and NEE at the deep drained site was +85 and -26 g C m-2yr-1 respectively. Low CH4 emissions (1.3 g C m-2yr-1) were recorded at the shallow drained nutrient poor site. Fluvial exports from the nutrient rich site totalled 69.8 g C m-2yr-1 with 54% as dissolved organic C (DOC). Waterborne C losses from the nutrient poor site reflected differences in annual runoff totalling 44 g C m-2yr-1 in Year 1 and 30.8 g C m-2yr-1 in Year 2. The NECB of the nutrient rich grassland was 663 g C m-2yr-1 with biomass exports being the major component accounting for 53%. The NECB of the nutrient poor deep drained site was less than half of the nutrient rich site (2 year mean 267 g C m-2yr-1). Although NEE at the nutrient poor shallow drained site was negative in both years, high biomass export meant it was a net C source (2 year mean NECB 103 g C m-2yr-1). While the impacts of the nutrient and drainage status on NEE, biomass exports and fluvial C losses were confirmed, inter-regional differences in management practice and climate are also significant factors which impact on the overall NECB of these ecosystems. Contrary to expectation, the NECB of nutrient poor drained organic soils under grasslands is not necessarily a large C source and this has implications for Ireland's choice of national GHG inventory reporting methodologies. This study can also aid the development of strategies to deliver reduced emissions tailored to local grassland types.

Renou-Wilson, F.; Barry, C.; Müller, C.; Wilson, D.

2014-04-01

100

Effects of species evenness and dominant species identity on multiple ecosystem functions in model grassland communities.  

PubMed

Ecosystems provide multiple services upon which humans depend. Understanding the drivers of the ecosystem functions that support these services is therefore important. Much research has investigated how species richness influences functioning, but we lack knowledge of how other community attributes affect ecosystem functioning. Species evenness, species spatial arrangement, and the identity of dominant species are three attributes that could affect ecosystem functioning, by altering the relative abundance of functional traits and the probability of synergistic species interactions such as facilitation and complementary resource use. We tested the effect of these three community attributes and their interactions on ecosystem functions over a growing season, using model grassland communities consisting of three plant species from three functional groups: a grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), a forb (Plantago lanceolata), and a N-fixing forb (Lotus corniculatus). We measured multiple ecosystem functions that support ecosystem services, including ecosystem gas exchange, water retention, C and N loss in leachates, and plant biomass production. Species evenness and dominant species identity strongly influenced the ecosystem functions measured, but spatial arrangement had few effects. By the end of the growing season, evenness consistently enhanced ecosystem functioning and this effect occurred regardless of dominant species identity. The identity of the dominant species under which the highest level of functioning was attained varied across the growing season. Spatial arrangement had the weakest effect on functioning, but interacted with dominant species identity to affect some functions. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the role of multiple community attributes in driving ecosystem functioning. PMID:24213721

Orwin, Kate H; Ostle, Nick; Wilby, Andrew; Bardgett, Richard D

2014-03-01

101

Nitrogen controls plant canopy Light-Use-Efficiency in temperate and boreal ecosystems.  

E-print Network

Nitrogen controls plant canopy Light-Use-Efficiency in temperate and boreal ecosystems. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Université Paris XI 91405 Orsay, France Running title: Light-Use Efficiency and leaf Nitrogen 1 ird-00392436 functional types (PFT) and leaf nitrogen concentration, in an attempt to characterize their variability

Boyer, Edmond

102

Biocenoses of Collembola in atlantic temperate grass-woodland ecosystems Jean-Francois Ponge  

E-print Network

Biocenoses of Collembola in atlantic temperate grass-woodland ecosystems Jean-Francois Ponge Museum 1943; Cassagnau 1961; Nosek 1967; Dunger 1975; Kaczmarek 1975; Ponge 1980; HÃ¥gvar 1982, 1983; Ponge. In a previous study (Ponge 1980), Collembolan communities were investigated in the Senart forest near Paris

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

103

Land use affects the net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its components in mountain grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in land use and management have been strongly affecting mountain grassland, however, their effects on the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and its components have not yet been well documented. We analysed chamber-based estimates of NEE, gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (R) and light use efficiency (LUE) of six mountain grasslands differing in land use and management, and thus site fertility, for the growing seasons of 2002 to 2008. The main findings of the study are that: (1) land use and management affected seasonal NEE, GPP and R, which all decreased from managed to unmanaged grasslands; (2) these changes were explained by differences in leaf area index (LAI), biomass and leaf-area-independent changes that were likely related to photosynthetic physiology; (3) diurnal variations of NEE were primarily controlled by photosynthetically active photon flux density and soil and air temperature; seasonal variations were associated with changes in LAI; (4) parameters of light response curves were generally closely related to each other, and the ratio of R at a reference temperature/ maximum GPP was nearly constant across the sites; (5) similarly to our study, maximum GPP and R for other grasslands on the globe decreased with decreasing land use intensity, while their ratio remained remarkably constant. We conclude that decreasing intensity of management and, in particular, abandonment of mountain grassland lead to a decrease in NEE and its component processes. While GPP and R are generally closely coupled during most of the growing season, GPP is more immediately and strongly affected by land management (mowing, grazing) and season. This suggests that management and growing season length, as well as their possible future changes, may play an important role for the annual C balance of mountain grassland.

Schmitt, M.; Bahn, M.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Tappeiner, U.; Cernusca, A.

2010-08-01

104

Effects of management of ecosystem carbon pools and fluxes in grassland ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grasslands represent a large land-use footprint and have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil. Climate policies and C markets may provide incentives for land managers to pursue strategies that optimize soil C storage, yet we lack robust understanding of C sequestration in grasslands. Previous research has shown that management approaches such as organic amendments or vertical subsoiling can lead to larger soil C pools. These management approaches can both directly and indirectly affect soil C pools. We used well-replicated field experiments to explore the effects of these management strategies on ecosystem C pools and fluxes in two bioclimatic regions of California (Sierra Foothills Research and Extension Center (SFREC) and Nicasio Ranch). Our treatments included an untreated control, compost amendments, plowed (vertical subsoil), and compost + plow. The experiment was conducted over two years allowing us to compare dry (360 mm) and average (632 mm) rainfall conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured weekly using a LI-8100 infrared gas analyzer. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were measured monthly using static flux chambers. Aboveground and belowground biomass were measured at the end of the growing season as an index of net primary productivity (NPP) in the annual plant dominated system. Soil moisture and temperature were measured continuously and averaged on hourly and daily timescales. Soil organic C and N concentrations were measured prior to the application of management treatments and at the ends of each growing season. Soils were collected to a 10 cm depth in year one and at four depth increments (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, and 50-100 cm) in year two. Soil C and N concentrations were converted to content using bulk density values for each plot. During both growing seasons, soil respiration rates were higher in the composted plots and lower in the plowed plots relative to controls at both sites. The effects on C loss via soil respiration were stronger in the first year, with compost soils experiencing a 21 ± 1 % greater cumulative loss at SFREC and 16 ± 3 % more at Nicasio. The second year showed a similar trend, but with a lower magnitude loss. Aboveground NPP responded positively to compost additions and negatively to plowing at both sites. At SFREC, we measured 58 % more ANPP in composted relative to control plots in year one (369 vs 230 g C/m2) and 56 % more in year two (327 vs 209 g C/m2). Aboveground NPP on plowed plots was 129 g C/m2 in year one, and 185 g C/m2 in year two. Plowed soils also showed a significant decline in soil C and N concentrations (C= 2.67 ± 0.13%, N = 0.20 ± 0.01%). Compost additions increased soil C and N concentrations (C= 3.92 ± 0.29%, N = 0.32 ± 0.02%) relative to control soils (C= 3.52 ± 0.20%, N = 0.27 ± 0.07%). Throughout the experiment, we did not detect significant treatment differences in CH4 or N2O fluxes, nor did we detect significant differences at any individual sampling point. These results suggest that compost addition can lead to an increase in ecosystem C storage, with a small offset from elevated soil respiration.

Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

2010-12-01

105

SOIL MICROBES COMPETE EFFECTIVELY WITH PLANTS FOR ORGANIC-NITROGEN INPUTS TO TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although agricultural grassland soils have inherently high rates of net ni- trogen (N) mineralization, they often have soil concentrations of soluble organic N that are comparable to inorganic N. We set out to examine in situ the significance of organic N for plant nutrition in grasslands of differing management intensity and soil fertility. Using in situ dual-labeling techniques (glycine-2-13C-15N) we

Richard D. Bardgett; Tania C. Streeter; Roland Bol

2003-01-01

106

Bryophyte Mats Inhibit Germination of Non-native Species in Burnt Temperate Native Grassland Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species-rich native grasslands in western Victoria, Australia, are often small, have a high perimeter to area ratio and are surrounded by non-native species. Few non-native species, however, have invaded them. A feature of species-rich grasslands is the presence of a bryophyte mat (composed of mosses and liverworts) that carpets the intertussock spaces. I assessed the role of these mats in

John W. Morgan

2006-01-01

107

Sustainable Management of Insect Herbivores in Grassland Ecosystems: New Perspectives in Grasshopper Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from Bioscience journal is about the use of grasshoppers in grassland ecosystems. Grasshoppers are insect herbivores common to grassland ecosystems worldwide. They comprise important components of biodiversity, contribute significantly to grassland function, and periodically exhibit both local and large-scale outbreaks. Because of grasshoppers' potential economic importance as competitors with ungulate grazers for rangeland forage, periodic grasshopper outbreaks in western US rangeland often elicit intervention over large areas in the form of chemical control. Available information combined with alternative underlying conceptual frameworks suggests that new approaches for sustainable management of grasshopper outbreaks in US rangeland should be pursued. There are many reasons to believe that approaches to grasshopper management that aim to reduce or prevent outbreaks are possible. These habitat manipulation tactics maintain existing ecological feedbacks responsible for sustaining populations at economically nonthreatening levels. Sustainable strategies to minimize the likelihood and extent of grasshopper outbreaks while limiting the need for chemical intervention are a rational and attainable goal for managing grasslands as renewable resources.

DAVID H. BRANSON, ANTHONY JOERN, and GREGORY A. SWORD (;)

2006-09-01

108

Effects of mowing on N2O emission from a temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia, Northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grazing and mowing are two common practices for grassland management. Mowing is now recommended as an alternative to traditional grazing for grassland conservation in Inner Mongolia, northern China. Many studies have revealed that both mowing and grazing may alter ecosystem properties in various ways. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of mowing on trace gas emissions, especially on N2O flux. In this study, we conducted an experiment to investigate the effects of mowing on N2O fluxes from a semiarid grassland in Inner Mongolia. The mowing experiment, which started in 2003, comprised four mowing intensity treatments, i.e. mowing heights at 2, 5, 10 and 15 cm above the soil surface, respectively, and a control of non-mowing, with five replicates. Gas fluxes were measured through a closed static chamber technique during the growing seasons (usually from May to September, depending on local climate at the time) of 2008 and 2009, respectively. Our results showed that mowing decreased N2O emissions, above-ground biomass and total litter production. N2O emissions were greater in May and June than in other sampling periods, regardless of treatments. A co-relationship analysis suggested that variations in seasonal N2O fluxes were mainly driven by variations in soil moisture and microbial biomass nitrogen, except in July and August. In July and August, above-ground plant biomass and soil total nitrogen became the major drivers of N2O fluxes under the soil temperatures between 16 °C and 18 °C. Overall, our study indicated that the introduction of mowing as a management practice might decrease N2O emissions in grasslands, and both mowing height and soil properties affected the magnitude of the reduction. Our findings imply that grasslands, along with proper management practices, can be a N2O sink mitigating the rise of N2O in the atmosphere.

Zhang, L.; Wang, Q.; Laanbroek, H. J.; Wang, C.; Guo, D.; Li, L.

2013-12-01

109

Productivity and sustainability influenced by biodiversity in grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE functioning and sustainability of ecosystems may depend on their biological diversity1-8. Elton's9 hypothesis that more diverse ecosystems are more stable has received much attention1,3,6,7,10-14, but Darwin's proposal6,15 that more diverse plant communities are more productive, and the related conjectures4,5,16,17 that they have lower nutrient losses and more sustainable soils, are less well studied4-6,8,17,18. Here we use a well-replicated field

David Tilman; David Wedin; Johannes Knops

1996-01-01

110

Can we understand and predict the regulation of biological N 2 fixation in grassland ecosystems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss results from controlled environment studies including mesocosms, grazing experiments and long term field experiments\\u000a which show how biological N2 fixation in legume based systems is tightly coupled to the N demand at scales ranging from the individual plant to the grassland\\u000a ecosystem. We further test the consequences of this hypothesis of a feedback regulation of biological N2 fixation

Jean-François Soussana; Tiphaine Tallec

2010-01-01

111

Effects of repeated fires on ecosystem C and N stocks along a fire induced forest/grassland gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repeated fires might have different effect on ecosystem carbon storage than a single fire event, but information on repeated fires and their effects on forest ecosystems and carbon storage is scarce. However, changes in climate, vegetation composition, and human activities are expected to make forests more susceptible to fires that recur with relatively high frequency. In this study, the effects of repeated fires on ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks were examined along a fire-induced forest/grassland gradient wherein the fire events varied from an unburned forest to repeatedly burned grassland. Results from the study show repeated fires drastically decreased ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks along the forest/grassland gradient. The reduction began with the disappearance of living tree biomass, and followed by the loss of soil carbon and nitrogen. Within 4 years of the onset of repeated fires on the unburned forest, the original ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks were reduced by 42% and 21%, respectively. Subsequent fires caused cumulative reductions in ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks by 68% and 44% from the original ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks, respectively. The analyses of carbon budgets calculated by vegetation composition and stable isotopic ?13C values indicate that 84% of forest-derived carbon is lost at grassland, whereas the gain of grass-derived carbon only compensates 18% for this loss. Such significant losses in ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks suggest that the effects of repeated fires have substantial impacts on ecosystem and soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Lin, Chau-Chih; Menyailo, Oleg V.

2013-03-01

112

Comparison of seasonal soil microbial process in snow-covered temperate ecosystems of northern China.  

PubMed

More than half of the earth's terrestrial surface currently experiences seasonal snow cover and soil frost. Winter compositional and functional investigations in soil microbial community are frequently conducted in alpine tundra and boreal forest ecosystems. However, little information on winter microbial biogeochemistry is known from seasonally snow-covered temperate ecosystems. As decomposer microbes may differ in their ability/strategy to efficiently use soil organic carbon (SOC) within different phases of the year, understanding seasonal microbial process will increase our knowledge of biogeochemical cycling from the aspect of decomposition rates and corresponding nutrient dynamics. In this study, we measured soil microbial biomass, community composition and potential SOC mineralization rates in winter and summer, from six temperate ecosystems in northern China. Our results showed a clear pattern of increased microbial biomass C to nitrogen (N) ratio in most winter soils. Concurrently, a shift in soil microbial community composition occurred with higher fungal to bacterial biomass ratio and gram negative (G-) to gram positive (G+) bacterial biomass ratio in winter than in summer. Furthermore, potential SOC mineralization rate was higher in winter than in summer. Our study demonstrated a distinct transition of microbial community structure and function from winter to summer in temperate snow-covered ecosystems. Microbial N immobilization in winter may not be the major contributor for plant growth in the following spring. PMID:24667929

Zhang, Xinyue; Wang, Wei; Chen, Weile; Zhang, Naili; Zeng, Hui

2014-01-01

113

Comparison of Seasonal Soil Microbial Process in Snow-Covered Temperate Ecosystems of Northern China  

PubMed Central

More than half of the earth's terrestrial surface currently experiences seasonal snow cover and soil frost. Winter compositional and functional investigations in soil microbial community are frequently conducted in alpine tundra and boreal forest ecosystems. However, little information on winter microbial biogeochemistry is known from seasonally snow-covered temperate ecosystems. As decomposer microbes may differ in their ability/strategy to efficiently use soil organic carbon (SOC) within different phases of the year, understanding seasonal microbial process will increase our knowledge of biogeochemical cycling from the aspect of decomposition rates and corresponding nutrient dynamics. In this study, we measured soil microbial biomass, community composition and potential SOC mineralization rates in winter and summer, from six temperate ecosystems in northern China. Our results showed a clear pattern of increased microbial biomass C to nitrogen (N) ratio in most winter soils. Concurrently, a shift in soil microbial community composition occurred with higher fungal to bacterial biomass ratio and gram negative (G-) to gram positive (G+) bacterial biomass ratio in winter than in summer. Furthermore, potential SOC mineralization rate was higher in winter than in summer. Our study demonstrated a distinct transition of microbial community structure and function from winter to summer in temperate snow-covered ecosystems. Microbial N immobilization in winter may not be the major contributor for plant growth in the following spring. PMID:24667929

Zhang, Xinyue; Wang, Wei; Chen, Weile; Zhang, Naili; Zeng, Hui

2014-01-01

114

Watershed and ecosystem responses to invasive grass establishment and dominance across a desert grassland watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to aridland systems that have undergone rapid change in dominant vegetation growth form, the consequences to watershed and ecosystem processes following a shift in dominance between similar growth forms have not been well-studied. Following a five year drought period, strong summer monsoon rains in 2006 across the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed near Tombstone, AZ, were accompanied by widespread native perennial grass mortality, a transient increase in annual forbs, followed by establishment and sustained dominance by the invasive South African bunchgrass, Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) across a semiarid grassland watershed (Kendall grassland, WS#112). This loss of ecological diversity occurred across a watershed already instrumented for quantifying long-term climate, watershed, hill-slope, and ecosystem-level gas exchange. Salient findings from these data sets were: 1) annual watershed sediment discharge rapidly returned to pre-invasion levels following a large spike in 2006 that accounted for 65% of the total sediment yield summed over 35 years, 2) plot-level experimental runoff studies showed hill-slope sediment yields consistently doubled, as did growing season soil evaporation contributions to ET, and 3) the grassland was a carbon sink during dry conditions under lovegrass dominance. These findings show that while some aspects of watershed and ecosystem function rapidly re-established (i.e. sediment yield and net primary productivity), processes acting at lower spatial and temporal scales have been negatively impacted by lovegrass dominance. We believe these lower-order processes underlie the strong ecological effects associated with Lehmann lovegrass invasion, and may also accelerate landform processes and change the basic ecohydrological characteristics of semi-arid grassland watersheds.

Hamerlynck, E.; Scott, R.; Polyakov, V.; Sugg, Z.; Moran, M. S.; Stone, J.; Nearing, M.

2012-04-01

115

Effects of nitrogen fertilization on soil N2O emissions and soil respiration in temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen addition to soil can play a vital role in influencing nitrogen balance and the losses of soil carbon by respiration in N-deficient terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilization (HN:200 kg N ha-1y-1, MN:100 kg N ha-1y-1 and LN:50 kg N ha-1y-1) on soil N2O emissions and soil respiration compared with non-fertilization(CK, 0 kg N ha-1y-1), from July 2007 to September 2008, in temperate grassland in Inner Mongolia, China. Several N fertilizer forms were included(CAN:calcium ammonium nitrate, AS:ammonium sulphate and NS:sodium nitrate) and a static closed chamber method was used as gas fluxes measurement. Our data showed that peak N2O fluxes induced by N treatments were concentrated in short periods (2 to 3 weeks) after fertilization in summer and in soil thawing periods in early spring; there were similarly low N2O fluxes from all treatments in the remaining seasons of the year. The three N levels increased annual N2O emissions significantly(P<0.05) in the order of MN>HN>LN compared with the CK(control) treatment in year 1; in year 2, the elevation of annual N2O emissions was significant (P<0.05) by HN and MN treatments but was insignificant by LN treatments (P>0.05). The three N forms also had strong effects on N2O emissions. Significantly (P<0.05) higher annual N2O emissions were observed in the soils of CAN and AS fertilizer treatments than in the soils of NS fertilizer treatments in both measured years, but the difference between CAN and AS was not significant (P>0.05). Annual N2O emission factors (EF) ranged from 0.060 to 0.298% for different N fertilizer treatments in the two observed years, with an overall EF value of 0.125%. The EF values were by far less than the mean default EF proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC). Our results also showed that N fertilization did not change the seasonal patterns of soil respiration, which were mainly controlled by soil heat-water conditions. However, N fertilization could change the relationships between soil respiration and soil temperature, and water regimes. Soil respiration dependence on soil moisture was increased by N fertilization, and the soil temperature sensitivity was similar in the treatments of HN, LN, and CK treatments (Q10 varied within 1.70-1.74) but was slightly reduced in MN treatment(Q10=1.63). N fertilization increased soil CO2 emission in the order MN>HN>LN compared with the CK treatment. The positive effects reached a significant level for HN and MN (P<0.05) and reached a marginally significant level for LN (P=0.059<0.1) based on the cumulative soil respiration during the 2007 growing season after fertilization (July-September 2007). Furthermore, the differences between the three fertilization treatments and CK reached the very significant level of 0.01 on the basis of the data during the first entire year after fertilization (July 2007-June 2008). The annual total soil respiration was 53, 57, and 24% higher than in the CK plots (465 g m-2y-1). However, the positive effects did not reach the significant level for any treatment in the 2008 growing season after the second year fertilization (July-September 2008, P>0.05). The pairwise differences between the three N-level treatments were not significant in either year(P>0.05).

Dong, Y.; Qi, Y.; Peng, Q.

2012-04-01

116

Haloorganics in Temperate Forest Ecosystems: Sources, Transport and Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The halogens, most importantly fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine, occur in nature as ions and compounds, including organic\\u000a compounds. Halogenated organic substances (haloorganics) were long considered purely anthropogenic products; however, they\\u000a are in addition a commonly occurring and important part of natural ecosystems. Natural haloorganics are produced largely by\\u000a living organisms, although abiotic production occurs as well. A survey is

Nicholas Clarke; Milan Gryndler; Hans-Holger Liste; Reiner Schroll; Peter Schröder; Miroslav Matucha

117

Synchronous dynamics of zooplankton competitors prevail in temperate lake ecosystems.  

PubMed

Although competing species are expected to exhibit compensatory dynamics (negative temporal covariation), empirical work has demonstrated that competitive communities often exhibit synchronous dynamics (positive temporal covariation). This has led to the suggestion that environmental forcing dominates species dynamics; however, synchronous and compensatory dynamics may appear at different length scales and/or at different times, making it challenging to identify their relative importance. We compiled 58 long-term datasets of zooplankton abundance in north-temperate and sub-tropical lakes and used wavelet analysis to quantify general patterns in the times and scales at which synchronous/compensatory dynamics dominated zooplankton communities in different regions and across the entire dataset. Synchronous dynamics were far more prevalent at all scales and times and were ubiquitous at the annual scale. Although we found compensatory dynamics in approximately 14% of all combinations of time period/scale/lake, there were no consistent scales or time periods during which compensatory dynamics were apparent across different regions. Our results suggest that the processes driving compensatory dynamics may be local in their extent, while those generating synchronous dynamics operate at much larger scales. This highlights an important gap in our understanding of the interaction between environmental and biotic forces that structure communities. PMID:24966312

Vasseur, David A; Fox, Jeremy W; Gonzalez, Andrew; Adrian, Rita; Beisner, Beatrix E; Helmus, Matthew R; Johnson, Catherine; Kratina, Pavel; Kremer, Colin; de Mazancourt, Claire; Miller, Elizabeth; Nelson, William A; Paterson, Michael; Rusak, James A; Shurin, Jonathan B; Steiner, Christopher F

2014-08-01

118

Photosynthesis of a temperate fallow C3 herbaceous ecosystem: measurements and model simulations at the leaf and canopy levels  

E-print Network

- 1 - Photosynthesis of a temperate fallow C3 herbaceous ecosystem: measurements and model, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 1, France Abstract The objectives of the study were to characterize photosynthesis of temperate fallow C3 herbaceous species and examine the performance of a simple photosynthesis model (based

Boyer, Edmond

119

Ecosystem performance assessment for grasslands in the Greater Platte River Basin: implications for cellulosic biofuel development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study identifies lands suitable for cellulosic biofuel (e.g., switchgrass) development across the Northern Great Plains, with an initial emphasis on the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB), using satellite observations, climate data, and ecosystem models. Our approach is based on previous successful ecosystem performance (EP) studies in the Yukon River Basin and the Upper Colorado River Basin. We hypothesize that areas with fairly consistent high grassland productivity (i.e., high site potential) in fair to good range condition (persistent ecosystem overperformance or normal performance with few ecological disturbances) are potentially suitable for cellulosic biofuel (switchgrass) development. Ecosystem site potential was calculated using a 9-year (2000-2008) average of annually integrated growing season Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GSN), geophysical and biophysical data, climate data, and a rule-based piecewise regression tree model. The GSN derived from eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) observations was used as a proxy for the actual ecosystem performance. The weather-based expected EP (EEP) was computed using site potential, yearly seasonal climate variables, and piecewise regression tree models. The ecosystem performance anomaly (EPA) for a specific year was estimated based on the difference between the actual EP and the EEP during that year. The final EPA maps were categorized as normal performance, underperformance, and overperformance at the 90% confidence levels. Pixels that either overperformed or normally performed for three of four years from 2005 to 2008 and that have moderate or high site potential within the GPRB are identified as probable areas for future cellulosic biofuel development. Results from this study will help land managers and decision makers make optimal land use decisions for cellulosic biofuel development and sustainability within the grassland regions of the GPRB.

Gu, Y.; Boyte, S. P.; Wylie, B. K.; Tieszen, L. L.

2010-12-01

120

Limitations of net CO 2 uptake in plant species of a temperate dry loess grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible limitations of net CO2 assimilation (PN) in four drought stressed loess grassland species (Festuca rupicola, Salvia nemorosa, Euphorbia pannonica, all three C3 plants, and Bothriochloa ischaemum, a C4 plant) were characterised using data from measurements of CO2 gas exchange (PN, intercellular CO2 concentration Ci and stomatal conductance Gs) and the slow kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence (variable Chl fluorescence decrease

Zoltán Nagy; Zoltán Takács; Kálmán Szente; Zsolt Csintalan; Hartmut K. Lichtenthaler; Zoltán Tuba

1998-01-01

121

Dormancy patterns, germination ecology, and seed-bank types of twenty temperate fen grassland species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germination ecology, including primary and secondary dormancy, mortality of seeds, and seed-bank type, of 20 fen grassland\\u000a species from Northern Germany was investigated using a combination of burial and germination experiments. To analyze primary\\u000a dormancy and effects of after-ripening (dry storage for 28 days) on freshly matured seeds, germination was measured at two\\u000a fluctuating temperature regimes (15\\/25°C and 5\\/15°C)

Kai Jensen

2004-01-01

122

Parasitic plants indirectly regulate below-ground properties in grassland ecosystems.  

PubMed

Parasitic plants are one of the most ubiquitous groups of generalist parasites in both natural and managed ecosystems, with over 3,000 known species worldwide. Although much is known about how parasitic plants influence host performance, their role as drivers of community- and ecosystem-level properties remains largely unexplored. Parasitic plants have the potential to influence directly the productivity and structure of plant communities because they cause harm to particular host plants, indirectly increasing the competitive status of non-host species. Such parasite-driven above-ground effects might also have important indirect consequences through altering the quantity and quality of resources that enter soil, thereby affecting the activity of decomposer organisms. Here we show in model grassland communities that the parasitic plant Rhinanthus minor, which occurs widely throughout Europe and North America, has strong direct effects on above-ground community properties, increasing plant diversity and reducing productivity. We also show that these direct effects of R. minor on the plant community have marked indirect effects on below-ground properties, ultimately increasing rates of nitrogen cycling. Our study provides evidence that parasitic plants act as a major driver of both above-ground and below-ground properties of grassland ecosystems. PMID:16495998

Bardgett, Richard D; Smith, Roger S; Shiel, Robert S; Peacock, Simon; Simkin, Janet M; Quirk, Helen; Hobbs, Phil J

2006-02-23

123

Responses of soil respiration to elevated CO[sub 2] in two California grassland ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of soil respiration (SR) in current and elevated CO[sub 2] are critical for predicting future global carbon budgets. We measured SR in two California grassland ecosystems (sandstone and serpentine) growing at ambient and ambient+350 ppm CO[sub 2]. SR was higher in elevated CO[sub 2] for both ecosystems in the field, but differences were not significant. At peak plant growth, SR was approximately 6 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] in elevated CO[sub 2] and 5 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] in ambient CO[sub 2] for both ecosystems. We also examined soil respiration in monocultures of 7 grassland species grown in microecosystems (10-cm diameter by 1-m deep tubes). SR was approximately 2 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] for Plantago, Bromus, Hemizona, and Calycadenia and 7 [minus] 8 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]2] for Lolium, Avena, and Vulpia. Elevated CO[sub 2] significantly increased soil respiration by 20-30% in Bromus, Hemizonia and Lolium monocultures. SR was significantly correlated with total plant biomass as averaged across all species.

Luo, Y.; Jackson, R.B.; Field, C.B.; Mooney, H.A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1994-06-01

124

The Effects of Warming-Shifted Plant Phenology on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange Are Regulated by Precipitation in a Semi-Arid Grassland  

PubMed Central

Background The longer growing season under climate warming has served as a crucial mechanism for the enhancement of terrestrial carbon (C) sink over the past decades. A better understanding of this mechanism is critical for projection of changes in C cycling of terrestrial ecosystems. Methodology/Principal Findings A 4-year field experiment with day and night warming was conducted to examine the responses of plant phenology and their influences on plant coverage and ecosystem C cycling in a temperate steppe in northern China. Greater phenological responses were observed under night than day warming. Both day and night warming prolonged the growing season by advancing phenology of early-blooming species but without changing that of late-blooming species. However, no warming response of vegetation coverage was found for any of the eight species. The variances in species-level coverage and ecosystem C fluxes under different treatments were positively dependent upon the accumulated precipitation within phenological duration but not the length of phenological duration. Conclusions/Significance These plants' phenology is more sensitive to night than day warming, and the warming effects on ecosystem C exchange via shifting plant phenology could be mediated by precipitation patterns in semi-arid grasslands. PMID:22359660

Xia, Jianyang; Wan, Shiqiang

2012-01-01

125

Increased winter soil temperature variability enhances nitrogen cycling and soil biotic activity in temperate heathland and grassland mesocosms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winter air temperatures are projected to increase in the temperate zone, whereas snow cover is projected to decrease, leading to increased soil temperature variability, and potentially to changes in nutrient cycling. Here, we experimentally evaluated the effects of increased winter soil temperature variability on selected aspects of the N-cycle in mesocosms containing different plant community compositions. The experiment was replicated at two sites, a colder mountainous upland site with high snow accumulation and a warmer and drier lowland site. Increased soil temperature variability enhanced soil biotic activity for both sites during winter, as indicated by 35% higher nitrogen (N) availability in the soil solution, 40% higher belowground decomposition and a 25% increase in the potential activity of the enzyme cellobiohydrolase. The mobilization of N differed between sites, and the 15N signal in leaves was reduced by 31% in response to winter warming pulses, but only at the cold site, with significant reductions occurring for three of four tested plant species at this site. Furthermore, there was a trend of increased N leaching in response to the recurrent winter warming pulses. Overall, projected winter climate change in the temperate zone, with less snow and more variable soil temperatures, appears important for shifts in ecosystem functioning (i.e. nutrient cycling). While the effects of warming pulses on plant N mobilization did not differ among sites, reduced plant 15N incorporation at the colder temperate site suggests that frost damage may reduce plant N uptake in a warmer world, with important implications for nitrogen cycling and nitrogen losses from ecosystems.

Schuerings, J.; Jentsch, A.; Hammerl, V.; Lenz, K.; Henry, H. A. L.; Malyshev, A. V.; Kreyling, J.

2014-12-01

126

A review of nitrous oxide mitigation by farm nitrogen management in temperate grassland-based agriculture.  

PubMed

Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from grassland-based agriculture is an important source of atmospheric N2O. It is hence crucial to explore various solutions including farm nitrogen (N) management to mitigate N2O emissions without sacrificing farm profitability and food supply. This paper reviews major N management practices to lower N2O emission from grassland-based agriculture. Restricted grazing by reducing grazing time is an effective way to decrease N2O emissions from excreta patches. Balancing the protein-to-energy ratios in the diets of ruminants can also decrease N2O emissions from excreta patches. Among the managements of synthetic fertilizer N application, only adjusting fertilizer N rate and slow-released fertilizers are proven to be effective in lowering N2O emissions. Use of bedding materials may increase N2O emissions from animal houses. Manure storage as slurry, manipulating slurry pH to values lower than 6 and storage as solid manure under anaerobic conditions help to reduce N2O emissions during manure storage stage. For manure land application, N2O emissions can be mitigated by reducing manure N inputs to levels that satisfy grass needs. Use of nitrification inhibitors can substantially lower N2O emissions associated with applications of fertilizers and manures and from urine patches. N2O emissions from legume based grasslands are generally lower than fertilizer-based systems. In conclusion, effective measures should be taken at each step during N flow or combined options should be used in order to mitigate N2O emission at the farm level. PMID:23880433

Li, Dejun; Watson, Catherine J; Yan, Ming Jia; Lalor, Stan; Rafique, Rashid; Hyde, Bernard; Lanigan, Gary; Richards, Karl G; Holden, Nicholas M; Humphreys, James

2013-10-15

127

Simulating the impacts of land use in northwest Europe on Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE): the role of arable ecosystems, grasslands and forest plantations in climate change mitigation.  

PubMed

In this study, we compared measured and simulated Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) values from three wide spread ecosystems in the southeast of Ireland (forest, arable and grassland), and investigated the suitability of the DNDC (the DeNitrification-DeComposition) model to estimate present and future NEE. Although, the field-DNDC version overestimated NEE at temperatures >5 °C, forest-DNDC under-estimated NEE at temperatures >5 °C. The results suggest that the field/forest DNDC models can successfully estimate changes in seasonal and annual NEE from these ecosystems. Differences in NEE were found to be primarily land cover specific. The annual NEE was similar for the grassland and arable sites, but due to the contribution of exported carbon, the soil carbon increased at the grassland site and decreased at the arable site. The NEE of the forest site was an order of magnitude larger than that of the grassland or arable ecosystems, with large amounts of carbon stored in woody biomass and the soil. The average annual NEE, GPP and Reco values over the measurement period were -904, 2379 and 1475 g C m(-2) (forest plantations), -189, 906 and 715 g C m(-2) (arable systems) and -212, 1653 and 1444 g C m(-2) (grasslands), respectively. The average RMSE values were 3.8 g C m(-2) (forest plantations), 0.12 g C m(-2) (arable systems) and 0.21 g C m(-2) (grasslands). When these models were run with climate change scenarios to 2060, predictions show that all three ecosystems will continue to operate as carbon sinks. Further, climate change may decrease the carbon sink strength in the forest plantations by up to 50%. This study supports the use of the DNDC model as a valid tool to predict the consequences of climate change on NEE from different ecosystems. PMID:23384575

Abdalla, Mohamed; Saunders, Matthew; Hastings, Astley; Williams, Mike; Smith, Pete; Osborne, Bruce; Lanigan, Gary; Jones, Mike B

2013-11-01

128

Testing the Link between Functional Diversity and Ecosystem Functioning in a Minnesota Grassland Experiment  

PubMed Central

The functional diversity of a community can influence ecosystem functioning and reflects assembly processes. The large number of disparate metrics used to quantify functional diversity reflects the range of attributes underlying this concept, generally summarized as functional richness, functional evenness, and functional divergence. However, in practice, we know very little about which attributes drive which ecosystem functions, due to a lack of field-based tests. Here we test the association between eight leading functional diversity metrics (Rao’s Q, FD, FDis, FEve, FDiv, convex hull volume, and species and functional group richness) that emphasize different attributes of functional diversity, plus 11 extensions of these existing metrics that incorporate heterogeneous species abundances and trait variation. We assess the relationships among these metrics and compare their performances for predicting three key ecosystem functions (above- and belowground biomass and light capture) within a long-term grassland biodiversity experiment. Many metrics were highly correlated, although unique information was captured in FEve, FDiv, and dendrogram-based measures (FD) that were adjusted by abundance. FD adjusted by abundance outperformed all other metrics in predicting both above- and belowground biomass, although several others also performed well (e.g. Rao’s Q, FDis, FDiv). More generally, trait-based richness metrics and hybrid metrics incorporating multiple diversity attributes outperformed evenness metrics and single-attribute metrics, results that were not changed when combinations of metrics were explored. For light capture, species richness alone was the best predictor, suggesting that traits for canopy architecture would be necessary to improve predictions. Our study provides a comprehensive test linking different attributes of functional diversity with ecosystem function for a grassland system. PMID:23300787

Butterfield, Bradley J.; Reich, Peter B.

2012-01-01

129

Ground-based grasslands data to support remote sensing and ecosystem modeling of terrestrial primary production  

SciTech Connect

Estimating terrestrial net primary production (NPP) using remote- sensing tools and ecosystem models requires adequate ground-based measurements for calibration, parameterization, and validation. These data needs were strongly endorsed at a recent meeting of ecosystem modelers organized by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme`s (IGBP`s) Data and Information System (DIS) and its Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modelling (GAIM) Task Force. To meet these needs, a multinational, multiagency project is being coordinated by the IGBP DIS to compile existing NPP data from field sites and to regionalize NPP point estimates to various-sized grid cells. Progress at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on compiling NPP data for grasslands as part of the IGBP DIS data initiative is described. Site data and associated documentation from diverse field studies are being acquired for selected grasslands and are being reviewed for completeness, consistency, and adequacy of documentation, including a description of sampling methods. Data are being compiled in a database with spatial, temporal, and thematic characteristics relevant to remote sensing and global modeling. NPP data are available from the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) for biogeochemical dynamics. The ORNL DAAC is part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System, of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Olson, R.J.; Turner, R.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Scurlock, J.M.O. [King`s College London, (England); Jennings, S.V. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

130

Ground-based grasslands data to support remote sensing and ecosystem modeling of terrestrial primary production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimating terrestrial net primary production (NPP) using remote-sensing tools and ecosystem models requires adequate ground-based measurements for calibration, parameterization, and validation. These data needs were strongly endorsed at a recent meeting of ecosystem modelers organized by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program's (IGBP's) Data and Information System (DIS) and its Global Analysis, Interpretation, and Modelling (GAIM) Task Force. To meet these needs, a multinational, multiagency project is being coordinated by the IGBP DIS to compile existing NPP data from field sites and to regionalize NPP point estimates to various-sized grid cells. Progress at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on compiling NPP data for grasslands as part of the IGBP DIS data initiative is described. Site data and associated documentation from diverse field studies are being acquired for selected grasslands and are being reviewed for completeness, consistency, and adequacy of documentation, including a description of sampling methods. Data are being compiled in a database with spatial, temporal, and thematic characteristics relevant to remote sensing and global modeling. NPP data are available from the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) for biogeochemical dynamics. The ORNL DAAC is part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System, of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Olson, R. J.; Scurlock, J. M. O.; Turner, R. S.; Jennings, S. V.

1995-01-01

131

Responses of desert, semi-arid grassland and scrub-oak ecosystems to elevated CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared observations from free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments at dry (desert, semi-arid grassland and scrub-oak) sites, to predictions from a suite of ecosystem models with differing complexity, ranging from a parsimonious forest growth model (GDAY) to a comprehensive land surface model (OCN). Dry ecosystems have often been predicted to increase in net primary productivity (NPP) and net C uptake over time in response to elevated CO2 (eCO2) because of increased N fixation, and alleviation of drought-stress due to reduced stomatal conductance. However, experiments at the Nevada Desert FACE (NDFF), the semi-arid prairie grassland FACE (PHACE), and the scrub-oak Kennedy Space Center open-top chamber experiment (KSCO), have revealed that dry ecosystems display a more complex biogeochemical response to eCO2. Insights into the processes determining the responses of dry ecosystems to eCO2 were gained by evaluating model estimates against site data, and by dissecting model responses to eCO2. Site level findings at PHACE indicated that eCO2 enabled more rapid C turnover, resulting in a net ecosystem C loss. Conversely, at PHACE, models such as OCN simulated a decrease in N leaching and an increase in NPP because of eCO2, leading to increased C storage. Leaf cover and NPP at KSCO initially increased with eCO2 before declining due to reduced N fixation and increased N leaching. At NDFF, eCO2 only increased plant growth during one abnormally wet year; in subsequent years, soil crust cyanobacteria decreased in abundance, and gains in biomass were not sustained. In OCN simulations at NDFF, eCO2 increased water-use efficiency and NPP in years with average to above-average precipitation. Through examination of the reasons for discrepancies between observed and modeled ecosystem responses to eCO2, processes determining the biogeochemical responses of dry ecosystems to eCO2 were elucidated.

Luus, Kristina; Walker, Anthony; de Kauwe, Martin; Hungate, Bruce; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Lu, Meng; Fenstermaker, Lynn; Nowak, Robert; Morgan, Jack; Medlyn, Belinda; Norby, Richard; Zaehle, Sönke

2014-05-01

132

Transfer of a cyanobacterial neurotoxin within a temperate aquatic ecosystem suggests pathways for human exposure  

PubMed Central

?-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid produced by most cyanobacteria, has been proposed to be the causative agent of devastating neurodegenerative diseases on the island of Guam in the Pacific Ocean. Because cyanobacteria are widespread globally, we hypothesized that BMAA might occur and bioaccumulate in other ecosystems. Here we demonstrate, based on a recently developed extraction and HPLC-MS/MS method and long-term monitoring of BMAA in cyanobacterial populations of a temperate aquatic ecosystem (Baltic Sea, 2007–2008), that BMAA is biosynthesized by cyanobacterial genera dominating the massive surface blooms of this water body. BMAA also was found at higher concentrations in organisms of higher trophic levels that directly or indirectly feed on cyanobacteria, such as zooplankton and various vertebrates (fish) and invertebrates (mussels, oysters). Pelagic and benthic fish species used for human consumption were included. The highest BMAA levels were detected in the muscle and brain of bottom-dwelling fishes. The discovery of regular biosynthesis of the neurotoxin BMAA in a large temperate aquatic ecosystem combined with its possible transfer and bioaccumulation within major food webs, some ending in human consumption, is alarming and requires attention. PMID:20439734

Jonasson, Sara; Eriksson, Johan; Berntzon, Lotta; Spá?il, Zden?k; Ilag, Leopold L.; Ronnevi, Lars-Olof; Rasmussen, Ulla; Bergman, Birgitta

2010-01-01

133

Impact of climate variations on surface albedo of a temperate grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Albedo controls surface energy balance and affects the microclimate conditions of ecosystems. Changes in albedo could induce significant changes in climate. Anthropogenic and natural factors, such as land cover and land use change, could result in the albedo change of land surfaces. In this study, we used Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and climate station observations to investigate the albedo

Shusen Wang; Andrew Davidson

2007-01-01

134

Determining the relative importance of climatic drivers on spring phenology in grassland ecosystems of semi-arid areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding climate controls on spring phenology in grassland ecosystems is critically important in predicting the impacts of future climate change on grassland productivity and carbon storage. The third-generation Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS3g) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data were applied to derive the start of the growing season (SOS) from 1982-2010 in grassland ecosystems of Ordos, a typical semi-arid area in China. Then, the conditional Granger causality method was utilized to quantify the directed functional connectivity between key climatic drivers and the SOS. The results show that the asymmetric Gaussian (AG) function is better in reducing noise of NDVI time series than the double logistic (DL) function within our study area. The southeastern Ordos has earlier occurrence and lower variability of the SOS, whereas the northwestern Ordos has later occurrence and higher variability of the SOS. The research also reveals that spring precipitation has stronger causal connectivity with the SOS than other climatic factors over different grassland ecosystem types. There is no statistically significant trend across the study area, while the similar pattern is observed for spring precipitation. Our study highlights the link of spring phenology with different grassland types, and the use of coupling remote sensing and econometric tools. With the dramatic increase in global change research, Granger causality method augurs well for further development and application of time-series modeling of complex social-ecological systems at the intersection of remote sensing and landscape changes.

Zhu, Likai; Meng, Jijun

2014-12-01

135

Determining the relative importance of climatic drivers on spring phenology in grassland ecosystems of semi-arid areas.  

PubMed

Understanding climate controls on spring phenology in grassland ecosystems is critically important in predicting the impacts of future climate change on grassland productivity and carbon storage. The third-generation Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS3g) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data were applied to derive the start of the growing season (SOS) from 1982-2010 in grassland ecosystems of Ordos, a typical semi-arid area in China. Then, the conditional Granger causality method was utilized to quantify the directed functional connectivity between key climatic drivers and the SOS. The results show that the asymmetric Gaussian (AG) function is better in reducing noise of NDVI time series than the double logistic (DL) function within our study area. The southeastern Ordos has earlier occurrence and lower variability of the SOS, whereas the northwestern Ordos has later occurrence and higher variability of the SOS. The research also reveals that spring precipitation has stronger causal connectivity with the SOS than other climatic factors over different grassland ecosystem types. There is no statistically significant trend across the study area, while the similar pattern is observed for spring precipitation. Our study highlights the link of spring phenology with different grassland types, and the use of coupling remote sensing and econometric tools. With the dramatic increase in global change research, Granger causality method augurs well for further development and application of time-series modeling of complex social-ecological systems at the intersection of remote sensing and landscape changes. PMID:25487765

Zhu, Likai; Meng, Jijun

2015-02-01

136

Determining the relative importance of climatic drivers on spring phenology in grassland ecosystems of semi-arid areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding climate controls on spring phenology in grassland ecosystems is critically important in predicting the impacts of future climate change on grassland productivity and carbon storage. The third-generation Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS3g) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data were applied to derive the start of the growing season (SOS) from 1982-2010 in grassland ecosystems of Ordos, a typical semi-arid area in China. Then, the conditional Granger causality method was utilized to quantify the directed functional connectivity between key climatic drivers and the SOS. The results show that the asymmetric Gaussian (AG) function is better in reducing noise of NDVI time series than the double logistic (DL) function within our study area. The southeastern Ordos has earlier occurrence and lower variability of the SOS, whereas the northwestern Ordos has later occurrence and higher variability of the SOS. The research also reveals that spring precipitation has stronger causal connectivity with the SOS than other climatic factors over different grassland ecosystem types. There is no statistically significant trend across the study area, while the similar pattern is observed for spring precipitation. Our study highlights the link of spring phenology with different grassland types, and the use of coupling remote sensing and econometric tools. With the dramatic increase in global change research, Granger causality method augurs well for further development and application of time-series modeling of complex social-ecological systems at the intersection of remote sensing and landscape changes.

Zhu, Likai; Meng, Jijun

2015-02-01

137

Connecting Soil Organic Carbon and Root Biomass with Land-Use and Vegetation in Temperate Grassland  

PubMed Central

Soils contain much of Earth's terrestrial organic carbon but are sensitive to land-use. Rangelands are important to carbon dynamics and are among ecosystems most widely impacted by land-use. While common practices like grazing, fire, and tillage affect soil properties directly related to soil carbon dynamics, their magnitude and direction of change vary among ecosystems and with intensity of disturbance. We describe variability in soil organic carbon (SOC) and root biomass—sampled from 0–170?cm and 0–100?cm, respectively—in terms of soil properties, land-use history, current management, and plant community composition using linear regression and multivariate ordination. Despite consistency in average values of SOC and root biomass between our data and data from rangelands worldwide, broad ranges in root biomass and SOC in our data suggest these variables are affected by other site-specific factors. Pastures with a recent history of severe grazing had reduced root biomass and greater bulk density. Ordination suggests greater exotic species richness is associated with lower root biomass but the relationship was not apparent when an invasive species of management concern was specifically tested. We discuss how unexplained variability in belowground properties can complicate measurement and prediction of ecosystem processes such as carbon sequestration. PMID:25401142

McGranahan, Devan Allen; Daigh, Aaron L.; Veenstra, Jessica J.; Engle, David M.; Miller, James R.; Debinski, Diane M.

2014-01-01

138

Plant species richness drives the density and diversity of Collembola in temperate grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Declining biodiversity is one of the most important aspects of anthropogenic global change phenomena, but the implications of plant species loss for soil decomposers are little understood. We used the experimental grassland community of the Jena Experiment to assess the response of density and diversity of Collembola to varying plant species richness, plant functional group richness and plant functional group identity. We sampled the experimental plots in spring and autumn four years after establishment of the experimental plant communities. Collembola density and diversity significantly increased with plant species and plant functional group richness highlighting the importance of the singular hypothesis for soil invertebrates. Generally, grasses and legumes beneficially affected Collembola density and diversity, whereas effects of small herbs usually were detrimental. These impacts were largely consistent in spring and autumn. By contrast, in the presence of small herbs the density of hemiedaphic Collembola and the diversity of Isotomidae increased in spring whereas they decreased in autumn. Beneficial impacts of plant diversity as well as those of grasses and legumes were likely due to increased root and microbial biomass, and elevated quantity and quality of plant residues serving as food resources for Collembola. By contrast, beneficial impacts of small herbs in spring probably reflect differences in microclimatic conditions, and detrimental effects in autumn likely were due to low quantity and quality of resources. The results point to an intimate relationship between plants and the diversity of belowground biota, even at small spatial scales, contrasting the findings of previous studies. The pronounced response of soil animals in the present study was presumably due to the fact that plant communities had established over several years. As decomposer invertebrates significantly impact plant performance, changes in soil biota density and diversity are likely to have major feedbacks on plant community productivity and composition.

Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

2011-05-01

139

[Differences in soil respiration between cropland and grassland ecosystems and factors influencing soil respiration on the Loess Plateau].  

PubMed

Understanding the effect of land-use change on soil respiration rates becomes critical in predicting soil carbon cycling under conversion of arable into grassland on the Loess Plateau. From July 2010 to December 2011, CO2 efflux from the soil surface was measured between 08:00 to 10:00 am in clear days by a Licor-8100 closed chamber system (Li-COR, Lincoln, NE, US). Also, soil temperature and soil moisture at the 5-cm depth was measured using a Li-Cor thermocouple and a hand-held frequency-domain reflectometer (ML2x, Delta-T Devices Ltd, UK) at each PVC collar, respectively. We found marked differences (P < 0.05) in soil respiration related to different land-use: the mean cropland soil respiration [1.35 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1)] was 24% (P < 0.05) less than the paired grassland soil respiration [1.67 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1)] (P < 0.05) during the period of experiment and the cumulative CO2-C emissions in grassland (856 g x m(-2)) was 23% (P < 0.05) higher than that in cropland (694 g x m(-2)). Soil moisture from 0-5 cm depth was much drier in cropland and significantly different between cropland and grassland except for winter. However, there were no clear relationships between soil moisture and soil respiration. Soil temperature at 5-cm depth was 2.5 degress C higher in grassland during the period of experiment (P < 0.05). Regression of soil temperature vs. soil respiration indicated significant exponential relationships both in grassland and cropland. Besides, there were intrinsic differences in response of soil respiration to temperature between the cropland and grassland ecosystems: grassland and cropland respiration response was significantly different at the alpha = 0.05 level, also expressed by a higher temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) in cropland (2.30) relative to grassland (1.74). Soil temperature of cropland and grassland can explain 79% of the variation in the soil respiration in grassland, compared to 82% in cropland. Therefore, land-use change can alter soil CO2 efflux under similar edaphic and climate conditions in the gully region of the Loess Plateau. The soil temperature difference between cropland and grassland can explain the soil respiration difference caused by land-use change, which was confirmed by the validation results. PMID:23745411

Zhou, Xiao-Gang; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Nan, Ya-Fang; Liu, Qing-Fang; Guo, Sheng-Li

2013-03-01

140

Impacts of N-depostion on biodiversity in a grassland ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen deposition threatens biodiversity in many ecosystems across the globe, and poses a range of scientific and policy challenges. Grassland ecosystems on nutrient-poor serpentine soils provide a model system for understanding local and regional impacts of N-deposition on biodiversity. A population of the threatened Bay checkerspot butterfly crashed from 3500 butterflies in 1997 to likely extinction in 2003. Non-native annual grass crowded out larval hostplants over much of the habitat, primarily driven by nitrogen deposition from tailpipe emissions of NH3 from 100,000 vehicles per day on a roadway bisecting the habitat. NH3 levels (measured with passive monitors) are elevated adjacent to the roadway, but are near background levels 400 m away. Grass cover was higher closer to and downwind of the road, and hostplant cover was inversely related to grass cover. Results from a first-order model show that N-deposition levels adjacent to the roadway are similar (>10 kg-N ha-1 yr-1) to levels downwind of the heavily urbanized Santa Clara Valley (where grass invasions have led to the extinction of large populations via vigorous grass invasions). This local butterfly extinction is unexpected fallout of the adoption of three-way catalytic converters in 1990s. The only known occurrence of an endangered plant, Pentachaeta bellidiflora, exists west of the freeway and may be at long term risk. Invasions of nitrophilous grasses and other weedy species into N-limited grasslands and shrublands appear to be a common response to increased atmospheric deposition in semi-arid areas.

Weiss, S.; Luth, D.

2003-12-01

141

Prerequisites for application of hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation on managed grasslands and alternative net ecosystem exchange flux partitioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relaxed eddy accumulation is still applied in ecosystem sciences for measuring trace gas fluxes. On managed grasslands, the length of time between management events and the application of relaxed eddy accumulation has an essential influence on the determination of the proportionality factor b and thus on the resulting flux. In this study this effect is discussed for the first time. Also, scalar similarity between proxy scalars and scalars of interest is affected until the ecosystem has completely recovered. Against this background, CO2 fluxes were continuously measured and 13CO2 isofluxes were determined with a high measurement precision on two representative days in summer 2010. Moreover, a common method for the partitioning of the net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration based on temperature and light response was compared with an isotopic approach directly based on the isotope discrimination of the biosphere. This approach worked well on the grassland site and could enhance flux partitioning results by better reproducing the environmental conditions.

Riederer, M.; Hübner, J.; Ruppert, J.; Brand, W. A.; Foken, T.

2014-12-01

142

Water- and Plant-Mediated Responses of Ecosystem Carbon Fluxes to Warming and Nitrogen Addition on the Songnen Grassland in Northeast China  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding how grasslands are affected by a long-term increase in temperature is crucial to predict the future impact of global climate change on terrestrial ecosystems. Additionally, it is not clear how the effects of global warming on grassland productivity are going to be altered by increased N deposition and N addition. Methodology/Principal Findings In-situ canopy CO2 exchange rates were measured in a meadow steppe subjected to 4-year warming and nitrogen addition treatments. Warming treatment reduced net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and increased ecosystem respiration (ER); but had no significant impacts on gross ecosystem productivity (GEP). N addition increased NEE, ER and GEP. However, there were no significant interactions between N addition and warming. The variation of NEE during the four experimental years was correlated with soil water content, particularly during early spring, suggesting that water availability is a primary driver of carbon fluxes in the studied semi-arid grassland. Conclusion/Significance Ecosystem carbon fluxes in grassland ecosystems are sensitive to warming and N addition. In the studied water-limited grassland, both warming and N addition influence ecosystem carbon fluxes by affecting water availability, which is the primary driver in many arid and semiarid ecosystems. It remains unknown to what extent the long-term N addition would affect the turn-over of soil organic matter and the C sink size of this grassland. PMID:23028848

Jiang, Li; Guo, Rui; Zhu, Tingcheng; Niu, Xuedun; Guo, Jixun; Sun, Wei

2012-01-01

143

Assessing shifts in microbial community structure across a range of grasslands of differing management intensity using CLPP, PLFA and community DNA techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to characterise soil microbial community structure and function in temperate upland grassland ecosystems. We compared the use of community level physiological profiles (CLPP), phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles and community DNA (%G+C base distribution) approaches to quantify soil microbial community structure and potential activity across a gradient of three upland grassland types at 10 geographically distinct sites

S. J Grayston; C. D Campbell; R. D Bardgett; J. L Mawdsley; C. D Clegg; K Ritz; B. S Griffiths; J. S Rodwell; S. J Edwards; W. J Davies; D. J Elston; P Millard

2004-01-01

144

Ecosystem properties of semiarid savanna grassland in West Africa and its relationship with environmental variability.  

PubMed

The Dahra field site in Senegal, West Africa, was established in 2002 to monitor ecosystem properties of semiarid savanna grassland and their responses to climatic and environmental change. This article describes the environment and the ecosystem properties of the site using a unique set of in situ data. The studied variables include hydroclimatic variables, species composition, albedo, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), hyperspectral characteristics (350-1800 nm), surface reflectance anisotropy, brightness temperature, fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (FAPAR), biomass, vegetation water content, and land-atmosphere exchanges of carbon (NEE) and energy. The Dahra field site experiences a typical Sahelian climate and is covered by coexisting trees (~3% canopy cover) and grass species, characterizing large parts of the Sahel. This makes the site suitable for investigating relationships between ecosystem properties and hydroclimatic variables for semiarid savanna ecosystems of the region. There were strong interannual, seasonal and diurnal dynamics in NEE, with high values of ~-7.5 g C m(-2)  day(-1) during the peak of the growing season. We found neither browning nor greening NDVI trends from 2002 to 2012. Interannual variation in species composition was strongly related to rainfall distribution. NDVI and FAPAR were strongly related to species composition, especially for years dominated by the species Zornia glochidiata. This influence was not observed in interannual variation in biomass and vegetation productivity, thus challenging dryland productivity models based on remote sensing. Surface reflectance anisotropy (350-1800 nm) at the peak of the growing season varied strongly depending on wavelength and viewing angle thereby having implications for the design of remotely sensed spectral vegetation indices covering different wavelength regions. The presented time series of in situ data have great potential for dryland dynamics studies, global climate change related research and evaluation and parameterization of remote sensing products and dynamic vegetation models. PMID:25204271

Tagesson, Torbern; Fensholt, Rasmus; Guiro, Idrissa; Rasmussen, Mads Olander; Huber, Silvia; Mbow, Cheikh; Garcia, Monica; Horion, Stéphanie; Sandholt, Inge; Holm-Rasmussen, Bo; Göttsche, Frank M; Ridler, Marc-Etienne; Olén, Niklas; Lundegard Olsen, Jørgen; Ehammer, Andrea; Madsen, Mathias; Olesen, Folke S; Ardö, Jonas

2015-01-01

145

Climate change impacts on stream carbon export from coastal temperate rainforest ecosystems in Alaska (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal temperate rainforests (CTR) in Alaska contain about 10% of the total carbon in the forests of the conterminous United States. CTR ecosystems span a large environmental gradient that ranges from icefields mantling the Coast Mountains to carbon-rich conifer forests along the coastal margin and within the islands of the Alexander Archipelago in the Gulf of Alaska. Riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export from Alaskan CTR ecosystems, which can exceed 2 Tg C yr-1, is large relative to other northern ecosystems as a result of high rates of specific discharge (~2.5 m yr-1) and an abundance of organic soils found in peatlands and forested wetlands. Runoff from glaciers, which are rapidly thinning and retreating, has also been shown to an important contributor to land-to-ocean fluxes of DOC in this region. Downscaled regional climate models suggest that CTR ecosystems in Alaska will become warmer and wetter in coming decades, with uncertain effects on riverine organic matter (OM) export. Changes in watershed OM export are likely to be driven by changes in both hydrology and the availability of OM in terrestrial source pools. However, the impacts of these climate driven changes will vary with watershed landcover across the continuum from icefields to coastal temperate forests. Expected hydrological perturbations include changes in the timing and magnitude of streamflow associated with shifts in: 1) the extent and duration of seasonal snowcover and 2) the mass balance of glaciers and icefields in the Coast Mountains. The availability of OM for export along hydrologic flowpaths will likely be altered by increased soil temperatures and shifts in water table elevations during the summer/fall runoff season. This will be particularly true for organic carbon export from peatlands in which changes in temperature and oxygen availability can strongly impact rates of organic matter decomposition. This talk will explore how climate-driven changes in hydrology and terrestrial organic matter stocks are expected to interact and modify riverine organic carbon export from CTR watersheds to near-shore marine ecosystems along the Gulf of Alaska.

Hood, E. W.

2013-12-01

146

Net ecosystem CO2 exchange measured by autochambers during the snow-covered season at a temperate peatland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net ecosystem exchange of CO2 was measured at a temperate peatland in southeastern New Hampshire. Classified as a mineral-poor fen owing to deep, water-logged peats that are influenced to a limited extent by groundwater, the ecosystem is dominated by plants such as sedges (Carex spp.) and evergreen shrubs. Ten automatic chambers measured fluxes every 3 h by sampling changes in

Jill Bubier; Patrick Crill; Andrew Mosedale

2002-01-01

147

R.B. Jackson O.E. Sala J.M. Paruelo H.A. Mooney Ecosystem water uxes for two grasslands in elevated CO2  

E-print Network

R.B. Jackson á O.E. Sala á J.M. Paruelo á H.A. Mooney Ecosystem water ¯uxes for two grasslands experiment cannot run for decades to centuries. Furthermore, predictions for a given biome need to take and serpentine grasslands at Jasper Ridge provide a range of primary productivity and LAI, with the sandstone

Jackson, Robert B.

148

Using Elemental Budgets to Determine Effects of Simulated Climate Change on Phosphorus Cycling in a Grassland Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment is to find out the effects of climate change on a terrestrial grassland ecosystem. The different treatments include increased carbon dioxide, nitrogen deposition, temperature, and precipitation. A portion of the above ground biomass of each plot was harvested, and an abundant species chosen to analyze. The goal of this project was to investigate the effects of climate change on phosphorus cycling in the grassland vegetation. Total phosphorus content of each sample was determined by combustion and acid digestion along with optical emission spectrometry. Total nitrogen and carbon was determined via flash combustion in an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. This information was combined to evaluate the limitation of phosphorus in each treatment and better understand how climate change may affect phosphorus cycling in terrestrial grasslands.

Yoo, S.; Paytan, A.; Mellett, T.

2013-12-01

149

Carbon balance of surfaces vs. ecosystems: advantages of measuring eddy covariance and soil respiration simultaneously in dry grassland ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated open system for measurement of soil CO2 efflux (Rsc) was developed and calibrated against known fluxes and tested in the field, while measuring soil respiration also by the gradient method (Rsg) at a dry sandy grassland (Bugac, Hungary). Ecosystem respiration (Reco) was measured by the eddy covariance technique. Small chamber size (5 cm in diameter) of the chamber system made it possible to use the chambers also in vegetation gaps, thereby avoiding the necessity of removing shoots, the disturbance of the spatial structure of vegetation and the upper soil layer. Low air flow rates associated with small chamber volume and chamber design allowed the overpressure range to stabilize between 0.05-0.12 Pa. While the correlation between ecosystem and soil CO2 efflux rates as measured by the independent methods was significant, Reco rates were similar or even lower than Rsc in the low flux (up to 2 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1) range, probably due to the larger than assumed storage flux. The gradient method showed both up and downward CO2 fluxes originating from the main rooting zone after rains. Downward fluxes within the soil profile amounted to 15% of the simultaneous upward fluxes and to ~ 7.6% of the total (upward) effluxes during the 3 months study. The upper 5 cm soil layer contributed to ~ 50% of the total soil CO2 efflux. The continuously operated automatic open chamber system and the gradient system makes possible the detection of situations when the eddy system underestimates Reco, gives the lower limit of underestimation (chamber system) and helps in quantifying the downward flux component of soil respiration (gradient method) between the soil layers. These latter (downward) fluxes are expected to seriously affect (1) the Reco vs. temperature response functions and (2) the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) vs. photon flux density response functions, therefore potentially affecting also the gap filling procedures and to led to a situation (3) when the measured surface and the real time ecosystem fluxes will necessarily differ in the short term. Simultaneous measurements of Reco and soil CO2 effluxes may reveal the time and degree of the above decoupling, thereby contributing to decrease uncertainty, associated with eddy flux measurements over flat terrains. While the correlation between chamber fluxes and gradient fluxes was strong, gradient fluxes were generally larger than the flux from chambers. Calibration of gradient flux system by chamber effluxes is proposed.

Nagy, Z.; Pintér, K.; Pavelka, M.; Darenová, E.; Balogh, J.

2011-02-01

150

Carbon fluxes of surfaces vs. ecosystems: advantages of measuring eddy covariance and soil respiration simultaneously in dry grassland ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated open system for measurement of soil CO2 efflux (Rsc) was developed and calibrated against known fluxes. The system was tested in the field, while estimating soil respiration simultaneously by the gradient method (Rsg) at a dry, sandy grassland site (Bugac, Hungary). Ecosystem respiration (Rego) was measured using the eddy covariance technique. The small chamber size (5 cm in diameter) made it possible to use the chambers in vegetation gaps, thereby avoiding the necessity of removing shoots and disturbing the spatial structure of vegetation and the upper soil layer. Low air flow rates associated with small chamber volume and chamber design allowed the overpressure range to stabilize between 0.05-0.12 Pa. The correlation between ecosystem and soil CO2 efflux rates as measured by the independent methods was significant, Reco rates were similar or even lower than Rsc in the low flux (up to 2 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1) range but the differences were within the uncertainty limits for the two fluxes. Rsc from trenched and non-trenched plots amounted to 16 % and 44 % of Reco, respectively. The gradient method showed both up and downward CO2 fluxes originating from the main rooting zone after rains. Diffusive retardation played a smaller role than CO2 production considering the soil air CO2 concentration increase after rains in a given layer. Downward fluxes within the soil profile amounted to 15 % of the simultaneous upward fluxes and to ~7.6 % of the total (upward) effluxes during the 3-month study. The upper 5 cm soil layer contributed to ~50 % of the total soil CO2 efflux. Downward fluxes are expected to seriously affect (1) the Reco vs. temperature response functions and (2) the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) vs. photon flux density response functions, therefore potentially affecting the gap filling procedures and to lead to a situation (3) when the measured surface and the real time ecosystem fluxes will necessarily differ in the short term. Simultaneous measurements of Reco and soil CO2 effluxes may reveal the timing and magnitude of the decoupling, thereby contributing to decreasing uncertainty associated with eddy flux measurements over flat terrains. While the correlations between CO2 effluxes measured by independent systems are strong, Rsg was generally larger than Rsc or Reco, mainly due to overestimation of effective diffusivity in the soil.

Nagy, Z.; Pintér, K.; Pavelka, M.; Darenová, E.; Balogh, J.

2011-09-01

151

Will anticipated future climatic conditions affect belowground C utilization? - Insights into the role of microbial functional groups in a temperate heath/grassland.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global terrestrial soil organic matter stock is the biggest terrestrial carbon pool (1500 Pg C) of which about 4 % is turned over annually. Thus, terrestrial ecosystems have the potential to accelerate or diminish atmospheric climate change effects via belowground carbon processes. We investigated the effect of elevated CO2 (510 ppm), prolonged spring/summer droughts and increased temperature (1 ?C) on belowground carbon allocation and on the recovery of carbon by the soil microbial community. An in-situ 13C-carbon pulse-labeling experiment was carried out in a temperate heath/grassland (Denmark) in May 2011. Recently assimilated 13C-carbon was traced into roots, soil and microbial biomass 1, 2 and 8 days after pulse-labeling. The importance of the microbial community in C utilization was investigated using 13C enrichment patterns in microbial functional groups on the basis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in roots. Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were distinguished from the decomposer groups of actinomycetes (belonging to the group of gram-positive bacteria) and saprophytic fungi. Mycorrhizal fungi specific PLFAs were not detected probably due to limited sample size in combination with restricted sensitivity of the used GC-c-IRMS setup. Climate treatments did not affect 13C allocation into roots, soil and microbial biomass carbon and also the total microbial biomass size stayed unchanged as frequently observed. However, climate treatments changed the composition of the microbial community: elevated CO2 significantly reduced the abundance of gram-negative bacteria (17:0cy) but did not affect the abundance of decomposers. Drought favored the bacterial community whereas increased temperatures showed reduced abundance of gram-negative bacteria (19:0cy) and changed the actinomycetes community (10Me16:0, 10Me18:0). However, not only the microbial community composition was affected by the applied climatic conditions, but also the activity of microbial functional groups in their utilization of recently assimilated carbon. Particularly the negative effect of the future treatment combination (CO2×T×D) on actinomycetes activity was surprising. By means of activity patterns of gram-negative bacteria, we observed the fastest carbon turnover rate under elevated CO2, and the slowest under extended drought conditions. A changed soil microbial community in combination with altered activities of different microbial functional groups leads to the conclusion that carbon allocation belowground was different under ambient and future climatic conditions and indicated reduced utilization of soil organic matter in the future due to a change of actinomycetes abundance and activity.

Reinsch, Sabine; Michelsen, Anders; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Egsgaard, Helge; Kappel Schmidt, Inger; Jakobsen, Iver; Ambus, Per

2013-04-01

152

Effects of Ocean Acidification on Temperate Coastal Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries in the Northeast Pacific  

PubMed Central

As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA). Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC), sport (recreational) fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry). Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed) and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH) waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2–3 (where most local fishery-income is generated), little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty. PMID:25671596

Haigh, Rowan; Ianson, Debby; Holt, Carrie A.; Neate, Holly E.; Edwards, Andrew M.

2015-01-01

153

Effects of ocean acidification on temperate coastal marine ecosystems and fisheries in the northeast pacific.  

PubMed

As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA). Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC), sport (recreational) fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry). Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed) and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH) waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2-3 (where most local fishery-income is generated), little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty. PMID:25671596

Haigh, Rowan; Ianson, Debby; Holt, Carrie A; Neate, Holly E; Edwards, Andrew M

2015-01-01

154

The use of Ge/Si ratios to quantify Si transformations in grassland ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Germanium (Ge) has been shown to behave as a heavy isotope of silicon (Si), enabling the use of Ge/Si ratios as a weathering tracer in terrestrial environments. The two major mechanisms of Ge/Si fractionation in soils result from mineral weathering reactions and biogenic silica formation by plants. The role of plants in Ge fractionation has been deduced from relatively few field studies, and geochemical Ge fractionation data in temperate systems are lacking. The objectives of this research were to quantify biologic Ge fractionation, and to utilize differences in Ge/Si values among the major biogeochemical pools across a grassland bioclimosequence to examine stream water silica provenance. Quantification of biological Ge fractionation was carried out under controlled experimental conditions. Plant phytoliths grown in hydroponic solutions fractionated against Ge (comparing Ge/Sisolution with Ge/Siphytolith) by an average of 82%. Differences in Ge/Si values between roots, stems, and leaves indicate fractionation likely occurs at the root/solution interface. Phytoliths from plants grown in two different soil mediums fractionated against Ge, averaging 44% to 63%, with no clear trends among the species. From the field study, the greater fractionation factor (Kw, where Kw = (Ge/Siclay)/(Ge/Sibedrock)) of the tallgrass (Kw =2.8) vs. shortgrass sites (Kw =1.4) results from the increased weathering intensity across the bioclimosequence. Plant phytoliths exhibit relatively low Ge/Si values (0.15-0.44; x =0.29; n=15), compared to those of the corresponding surface soil water Ge/Si (0.22-0.94; x =0.66; n=6). Stream water Ge/Si values along the grassland climosequence (0.07-1.29, x = 0.34; n = 20) are typical of natural water Ge/Si values. Higher groundwater Ge values (0.42-3.4; x = 1.3; n=16) may represent an increased residence time or contact with minerals of higher Ge/Si ratios. The lack of Ge/Si separation among the major terrestrial pools confounds stream Si provenance. The data suggest that stream water Si is not derived entirely from ground water and that biogenic sources are plausible.

Blecker, S. W.; Derry, L. A.; Chadwick, O. A.; Kelly, E. F.

2005-12-01

155

Measured and Simulated Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Ryegrass- and Ryegrass/White Clover-Based Grasslands in a Moist Temperate Climate  

PubMed Central

There is uncertainty about the potential reduction of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when fertilizer nitrogen (FN) is partially or completely replaced by biological N fixation (BNF) in temperate grassland. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the changes in N2O emissions when BNF is used to replace FN in permanent grassland, and 2) evaluate the applicability of the process-based model DNDC to simulate N2O emissions from Irish grasslands. Three grazing treatments were: (i) ryegrass (Lolium perenne) grasslands receiving 226 kg FN ha?1 yr?1 (GG+FN), (ii) ryegrass/white clover (Trifolium repens) grasslands receiving 58 kg FN ha?1 yr?1 (GWC+FN) applied in spring, and (iii) ryegrass/white clover grasslands receiving no FN (GWC-FN). Two background treatments, un-grazed swards with ryegrass only (G–B) or ryegrass/white clover (WC–B), did not receive slurry or FN and the herbage was harvested by mowing. There was no significant difference in annual N2O emissions between G–B (2.38±0.12 kg N ha?1 yr?1 (mean±SE)) and WC-B (2.45±0.85 kg N ha?1 yr?1), indicating that N2O emission due to BNF itself and clover residual decomposition from permanent ryegrass/clover grassland was negligible. N2O emissions were 7.82±1.67, 6.35±1.14 and 6.54±1.70 kg N ha?1 yr?1, respectively, from GG+FN, GWC+FN and GWC-FN. N2O fluxes simulated by DNDC agreed well with the measured values with significant correlation between simulated and measured daily fluxes for the three grazing treatments, but the simulation did not agree very well for the background treatments. DNDC overestimated annual emission by 61% for GG+FN, and underestimated by 45% for GWC-FN, but simulated very well for GWC+FN. Both the measured and simulated results supported that there was a clear reduction of N2O emissions when FN was replaced by BNF. PMID:22028829

Li, Dejun; Lanigan, Gary; Humphreys, James

2011-01-01

156

Measured and simulated nitrous oxide emissions from ryegrass- and ryegrass/white clover-based grasslands in a moist temperate climate.  

PubMed

There is uncertainty about the potential reduction of soil nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emission when fertilizer nitrogen (FN) is partially or completely replaced by biological N fixation (BNF) in temperate grassland. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the changes in N(2)O emissions when BNF is used to replace FN in permanent grassland, and 2) evaluate the applicability of the process-based model DNDC to simulate N(2)O emissions from Irish grasslands. Three grazing treatments were: (i) ryegrass (Lolium perenne) grasslands receiving 226 kg FN ha(-1) yr(-1) (GG+FN), (ii) ryegrass/white clover (Trifolium repens) grasslands receiving 58 kg FN ha(-1) yr(-1) (GWC+FN) applied in spring, and (iii) ryegrass/white clover grasslands receiving no FN (GWC-FN). Two background treatments, un-grazed swards with ryegrass only (G-B) or ryegrass/white clover (WC-B), did not receive slurry or FN and the herbage was harvested by mowing. There was no significant difference in annual N(2)O emissions between G-B (2.38±0.12 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) (mean±SE)) and WC-B (2.45±0.85 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)), indicating that N(2)O emission due to BNF itself and clover residual decomposition from permanent ryegrass/clover grassland was negligible. N(2)O emissions were 7.82±1.67, 6.35±1.14 and 6.54±1.70 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively, from GG+FN, GWC+FN and GWC-FN. N(2)O fluxes simulated by DNDC agreed well with the measured values with significant correlation between simulated and measured daily fluxes for the three grazing treatments, but the simulation did not agree very well for the background treatments. DNDC overestimated annual emission by 61% for GG+FN, and underestimated by 45% for GWC-FN, but simulated very well for GWC+FN. Both the measured and simulated results supported that there was a clear reduction of N(2)O emissions when FN was replaced by BNF. PMID:22028829

Li, Dejun; Lanigan, Gary; Humphreys, James

2011-01-01

157

Are Soils in Degraded Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems Deteriorated? A Comparison of Imperata Grasslands, Degraded Secondary Forests, and Primary Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many primary forests in the tropical regions of the world have been converted into degraded secondary forests and grasslands\\u000a of species such asImperata cylindrica.The main destructive agents responsible include illegal logging, slash-and-burn cultivation, extensive cattle grazing and\\u000a natural forest fires (Fatawi and Mori, Chapter 1, this volume). Understanding the soil characteristics of these degraded forest\\u000a ecosystems is important not only

Seiichi Ohta; Kazuhito Morisada; Nagaharu Tanaka; Yoshiyuki Kiyono; Syarif Effendi

158

Litter decomposition and nutrient release as affected by soil nitrogen availability and litter quality in a semiarid grassland ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen availability is critically important to litter decomposition, especially in arid and semiarid areas where N is limiting.\\u000a We studied the relative contributions of litter quality and soil N to litter decomposition of two dominant grassland species,\\u000a Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigida, in a semiarid typical steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, China. The study had four different rates of N

Ping Liu; Jianhui Huang; Osbert Jianxin Sun; Xingguo Han

2010-01-01

159

FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL CONVERGENCE OF TEMPERATE GRASSLAND AND SHRUBLAND ECOSYSTEMS. (R824993)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

160

Influence of early snowmelt on phenology and ecosystem productivity of an unmanaged mountain grassland of northwestern Italian Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain regions are expected to be particularly influenced by future climate change with increasing temperature, change in precipitation patterns and duration of snow cover. In particular climate change is foreseen to impact alpine ecosystems by increasing of weather extremes (e.g. heat waves, droughts, exceptional anticipated snowmelt). Although different studies attested the effect of climate change on vegetation phenological shifts, uncertainties exist on the impacts of such shifts on ecosystem processes and hence on the ecosystem-climate feedbacks. High-altitude grasslands are snow-covered for most of the year and act as a net carbon source throughout all the snow period. Little is still known on the effects of spring warming and early snowmelt on annual carbon budget of these alpine ecosystems. Being part of the PhenoAlp project (www.phenoalp.eu) this study evaluated the effect of an exceptional early snowmelt observed in 2011 on the relationship between plant phenology and the ecosystem functioning of an unmanaged grassland of northwestern Italian Alps located at 2160 m asl. The following main questions were addressed: does an early snowmelt date increase the length of the growing season? If so, what is the effect on the productivity of the ecosystem? For this purpose continuous measurements of CO2 exchange across the biosphere/atmosphere interface assessed by means of eddy covariance since summer 2008 were evaluated. In order to analyse the relationship between phenology and ecosystem productivity, we extracted phenological indicators from CO2 flux time-series. Results showed shifts in the phenological indicators considered and a clear effect on the dynamics of the NEE (Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange) and GPP (Gross Primary Production) time-courses as a consequence of earlier snowmelt. The grassland turned from a source to a sink more than one month in advance compared to previous years. The earlier onset of biological activity was also supported by evaluations of canopy greening, LAI and vegetation indices. Beside this highly anticipated beginning of the growing season, we found a slower general dynamics of carbon flux components and lower summer peaks of NEE and GPP in 2011 compared to previous years, with different implications on the growing season productivity and the annual carbon balance of the grassland.

Galvagno, M.; Cremonese, E.; Migliavacca, M.; Morra di Cella, U.; Rossini, M.; Colombo, R.

2012-04-01

161

Satellite-Based Analysis of Evapotranspiration and Water Balance in the Grassland Ecosystems of Dryland East Asia  

PubMed Central

The regression tree method is used to upscale evapotranspiration (ET) measurements at eddy-covariance (EC) towers to the grassland ecosystems over the Dryland East Asia (DEA). The regression tree model was driven by satellite and meteorology datasets, and explained 82% and 76% of the variations of ET observations in the calibration and validation datasets, respectively. The annual ET estimates ranged from 222.6 to 269.1 mm yr?1 over the DEA region with an average of 245.8 mm yr?1 from 1982 through 2009. Ecosystem ET showed decreased trends over 61% of the DEA region during this period, especially in most regions of Mongolia and eastern Inner Mongolia due to decreased precipitation. The increased ET occurred primarily in the western and southern DEA region. Over the entire study area, water balance (the difference between precipitation and ecosystem ET) decreased substantially during the summer and growing season. Precipitation reduction was an important cause for the severe water deficits. The drying trend occurring in the grassland ecosystems of the DEA region can exert profound impacts on a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes and functions. PMID:24845063

Xia, Jiangzhou; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Linghao; Cai, Wenwen; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yang; Zhao, Tianbao; Feng, Jinming; Ma, Zhuguo; Ma, Mingguo; Liu, Shaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Asanuma, Jun; Chen, Shiping; Du, Mingyuan; Davaa, Gombo; Kato, Tomomichi; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Suhong; Li, Shenggong; Shao, Changliang; Tang, Yanhong; Zhao, Xiang

2014-01-01

162

Satellite-based analysis of evapotranspiration and water balance in the grassland ecosystems of Dryland East Asia.  

PubMed

The regression tree method is used to upscale evapotranspiration (ET) measurements at eddy-covariance (EC) towers to the grassland ecosystems over the Dryland East Asia (DEA). The regression tree model was driven by satellite and meteorology datasets, and explained 82% and 76% of the variations of ET observations in the calibration and validation datasets, respectively. The annual ET estimates ranged from 222.6 to 269.1 mm yr(-1) over the DEA region with an average of 245.8 mm yr(-1) from 1982 through 2009. Ecosystem ET showed decreased trends over 61% of the DEA region during this period, especially in most regions of Mongolia and eastern Inner Mongolia due to decreased precipitation. The increased ET occurred primarily in the western and southern DEA region. Over the entire study area, water balance (the difference between precipitation and ecosystem ET) decreased substantially during the summer and growing season. Precipitation reduction was an important cause for the severe water deficits. The drying trend occurring in the grassland ecosystems of the DEA region can exert profound impacts on a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes and functions. PMID:24845063

Xia, Jiangzhou; Liang, Shunlin; Chen, Jiquan; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Linghao; Cai, Wenwen; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yang; Zhao, Tianbao; Feng, Jinming; Ma, Zhuguo; Ma, Mingguo; Liu, Shaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Asanuma, Jun; Chen, Shiping; Du, Mingyuan; Davaa, Gombo; Kato, Tomomichi; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Suhong; Li, Shenggong; Shao, Changliang; Tang, Yanhong; Zhao, Xiang

2014-01-01

163

Separating Drought Effects from Roof Artifacts on Ecosystem Processes in a Grassland Drought Experiment  

PubMed Central

1 Given the predictions of increased drought probabilities under various climate change scenarios, there have been numerous experimental field studies simulating drought using transparent roofs in different ecosystems and regions. Such roofs may, however, have unknown side effects, called artifacts, on the measured variables potentially confounding the experimental results. A roofed control allows the quantification of potential artifacts, which is lacking in most experiments. 2 We conducted a drought experiment in experimental grasslands to study artifacts of transparent roofs and the resulting effects of artifacts on ecosystems relative to drought on three response variables (aboveground biomass, litter decomposition and plant metabolite profiles). We established three drought treatments, using (1) transparent roofs to exclude rainfall, (2) an unroofed control treatment receiving natural rainfall and (3) a roofed control, nested in the drought treatment but with rain water reapplied according to ambient conditions. 3 Roofs had a slight impact on air (+0.14°C during night) and soil temperatures (?0.45°C on warm days, +0.25°C on cold nights), while photosynthetically active radiation was decreased significantly (?16%). Aboveground plant community biomass was reduced in the drought treatment (?41%), but there was no significant difference between the roofed and unroofed control, i.e., there were no measurable roof artifact effects. 4 Compared to the unroofed control, litter decomposition was decreased significantly both in the drought treatment (?26%) and in the roofed control treatment (?18%), suggesting artifact effects of the transparent roofs. Moreover, aboveground metabolite profiles in the model plant species Medicago x varia were different from the unroofed control in both the drought and roofed control treatments, and roof artifact effects were of comparable magnitude as drought effects. 5 Our results stress the need for roofed control treatments when using transparent roofs for studying drought effects, because roofs can cause significant side effects. PMID:23936480

Vogel, Anja; Fester, Thomas; Eisenhauer, Nico; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Schmid, Bernhard; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Weigelt, Alexandra

2013-01-01

164

Interactive effects of changes in climate and management on yield and CO2 source/sink strength of grassland ecosystems in the Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grassland farming (cutting for fodder and grazing) is the major agricultural practise in the European Alps, with grasslands covering >85% of the area of 75% of the municipalities. Climate change projections for this area, in particular increases in temperature and reductions in summer precipitation, are expected to influence grassland yields. Higher temperatures are thought to reduce snow cover duration and thus increase the period available for grassland growth and through more intensive management (more frequent cuttings and longer grazing periods) yields. In contrast, lower summer precipitation and associated reduced soil water availability is expected to negatively affect grassland growth and yields. Climate change and adaptations of grassland management in response to climate change are in turn expected to affect the carbon dioxide (CO2) source/sink strength of grassland ecosystems, thus providing feedback to climate change. Longer growing periods are expected to increase the sink activity, while summer soil water shortage and more frequent cutting or longer grazing are thought to decrease the sink strength for carbon dioxide. Here we report on a project, GrassClim, within which the interactive effects of changes in climate and management on grassland yield and the CO2 source/sink strength are investigated. To this end a process-oriented model of carbon cycling in a managed grassland ecosystem is forced with scenarios of regional climate change and associated changes in management. The latter are derived from questionnaires of farmers confronted with regional climate change scenarios. The grassland carbon cycling model is parameterised in a Bayesian framework using eddy covariance net ecosystem CO2 flux measurements and periodic analyses of the amount of above-ground plant matter from several grassland study sites in the Alps. In particular, we aim at answering the following questions:

  1. What are the management scenarios that result from the regional climate scenarios?
  2. How do management and climate scenarios, in isolation and combined, affect the yield and CO2 source/sink strength of grassland ecosystems?
  3. Do management strategies that optimise yield and the CO2 source/sink strength at the same time exist (so-called win-win situations)?
  4. How sensitive are yields and the CO2 source sink strength to projected climatic changes as opposed to changes in management and how do uncertainties inherent to both climate and management scenarios relate to uncertainties in predicted yields and the CO2 sink/strength of grassland ecosystems?

Irschick, C.; Carli, E.; Eliskases, C.; Frischmann, S.; Fritsch, U.; Gobiet, A.; Haas, J.; Kapelari, S.; Norz, J.; Themessl, M. J.; Zebisch, M.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2011-12-01

165

Defining grassland fire events and the response of perennial plants to annual fire in temperate grasslands of south-eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species-rich Themeda triandra grasslands in south-eastern Australia have been burnt annually in summer as a land management practice for decades. The characteristics of annual fires (maximum surface temperatures, maximum soil temperature changes at 10 mm depth, Byram fire intensity and duration of surface heating) were compared to fires that occur less frequently (2, 4 or 7-year inter-fire interval). The impacts

John W. Morgan

1999-01-01

166

Uncertainty Mapping of Upscaled Net Ecosystem Production in Grasslands of the Great Plains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flux tower networks, such as AmeriFlux and FLUXNET, consist of a growing number of eddy covariance flux tower sites that provide a synoptic record of the exchange of carbon, water, and energy between the ecosystem and atmosphere at a 30 minute temporal frequency. These towers also detect and measure certain site characteristics, such as wind, temperature, precipitation, humidity, atmospheric pressure, soil features, and phenological progressions. Efforts are ongoing to combine this collection of data with remote sensing data to build models capable of upscaling the conditions observed at specific sites to a regional and, ultimately, worldwide scale. However, because of the extensive cost, maintenance, and management requirements associated with keeping each individual flux tower operational, the towers are sparsely distributed and cannot provide adequate representation of certain vegetation cover types, climate conditions, or biogeophysical conditions. We have developed a method to identify and map such areas that are underrepresented by the network. In this study, the focus was on net ecosystem production (NEP) in grassland ecosystems of the Great Plains and how well the current flux tower network of fifteen towers characterizes NEP throughout the region. We used a remote sensing and weather data driven NEP model for assessing the uncertainty of the NEP maps developed in a previous study and produced a series of new uncertainty maps. The NEP model was regenerated using two different limits on extrapolation (10% and 50%). The absolute difference of the two model outputs was calculated and mapped with a 250 meter spatial resolution and at a weekly temporal resolution to assess and identify instances, in time and space, where the NEP model relied on heavy extrapolation. In theory, a pixel that incorporates ancillary environmental input data (e.g., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, weather, soils, and phenology) that conform to the characteristics observed at a particular flux tower and, therefore, is well represented, would be assigned a similar NEP value in both the 10% and 50% extrapolation models. Pixels that characterize a range of environmental variables that are not well represented by any flux tower in the network would, on the other hand, have a higher likelihood to be assigned NEP values that have significant and consistent differences from one model to the other. The resulting maps from this study could provide useful information for optimizing the site selection and development of future flux towers in the Great Plains and our method could serve as a proxy for the development of NEP uncertainty maps.

Howard, D. M.; Gu, Y.; Wylie, B. K.; Zhang, L.

2011-12-01

167

Nitorgen Deposition Impacts on a Sensitive Grassland Ecosystem: Conservation, Management, and Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have greatly increased the flux of reactive nitrogen in the biosphere, altering many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In the San Francisco Bay Area, CA, grasslands on nutrient-poor serpentinitic soils are being invaded by nutrient-demanding introduced annual grasses, driven by dry N-deposition on the order of 10 kg ha-1 yr-1. These grass invasions threaten the rich native biodiversity of the serpentinitic grasslands, including the federally-protected Bay checkerspot butterfly and several endemic plant species. A passive monitoring network for reactive nitrogen gases (NOx, NO2, NH3, HNO3, and O3) has been set up to investigate regional and local N-deposition gradients. The regional gradient extends from clean coastal areas to inland valleys downwind of the highly urbanized Santa Clara Valley, driven by prevailing NW winds. A local gradient extends upwind and downwind of an 8-lane freeway carrying 100,000 cars/day, located in a relatively clean near-coastal area. Plant surveys at the clean-air site bisected by the freeway show greater grass invasion closer to the freeway, but only on the downwind side (controlling for soil depth, the other main factor affecting grass density). Grassed-over areas build up thatch that suppresses native plants. Restoration experiments include mowing, goat grazing, and prescribed fire. Carefully-timed mowing appears to be an effective treatment for small areas. Removal of cuttings removes 5-8 kg-N/ha, the same order of magnitude as the estimated N-inputs from the freeway. Additional NOx and NH3 sources planned for the region include a 600 MW natural gas fired power plant, industrial parks that may eventually draw 20,000 to 50,000 additional cars per day, 25,000 housing units, and associated highway improvements. Mitigation proposals include purchase and long-term management of hundreds of hectares of habitat. Management of the larger areas necessitates continued moderate cattle grazing. Cattle selectively crop nitrogen-rich annual grasses, and remove N from the system, while redistributing N within the system as feces and urine. This case study highlights the complexities of habitat management in the face of N-deposition and invasive species.

Weiss, S. B.; Luth, D. C.

2002-12-01

168

Effects of Grazing on Ecosystem CO2 Exchange in a Meadow Grassland on the Tibetan Plateau During the Growing Season.  

PubMed

Effects of human activity on ecosystem carbon fluxes (e.g., net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (R eco), and gross ecosystem exchange (GEE)) are crucial for projecting future uptake of CO2 in terrestrial ecosystems. However, how ecosystem that carbon fluxes respond to grazing exclusion is still under debate. In this study, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of grazing exclusion on R eco, NEE, and GEE with three treatments (free-range grazing (FG) and grazing exclusion for 3 and 5 years (GE3 and GE5, respectively)) in a meadow grassland on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results show that grazing exclusion significantly increased NEE by 47.37 and 15.84 %, and R eco by 33.14 and 4.29 % under GE3 and GE5 plots, respectively, although carbon sinks occurred in all plots during the growing season, with values of 192.11, 283.12, and 222.54 g C m(-2) for FG, GE3, and GE5, respectively. Interestingly, grazing exclusion increased temperature sensitivity (Q 10) of R eco with larger increases at the beginning and end of growing season (i.e., May and October, respectively). Soil temperature and soil moisture were key factors on controlling the diurnal and seasonal variations of R eco, NEE, and GEE, with soil temperature having a stronger influence. Therefore, the combined effects of grazing and temperature suggest that grazing should be taken into consideration in assessing global warming effects on grassland ecosystem CO2 exchange. PMID:25355630

Chen, Ji; Shi, Weiyu; Cao, Junji

2015-02-01

169

Role of vegetation in modulating rainfall interception and soil water flux in ecosystems under transition from grassland to woodland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation exerts strong control on the hydrological budget by shielding the soil from rainfall through interception and modulating water transmission in the soil by altering soil properties and rooting zone water extraction. Therefore, a change in vegetation alters the water cycle by a combination of a passive, rainfall redistribution mechanism controlled by the physical dimensions of vegetation and active, water extracting processes resulting from physiological attributes of different plants. As a result, the role of vegetation on the water cycle is likely to change where vegetation is under transition such as in the southern Great Plains of USA due to woody plant encroachment. However, it remains largely unknown how this physiognomic transformation from herbaceous cover to woody canopy alters rainfall influx, soil water transmission and efflux from the soil profile and consequently alters historic patterns of runoff and groundwater recharge. This knowledge is critical for both water resource and ecosystem management. We conducted a comprehensive, 5-year study involving direct quantification of throughfall and stemflow for grassland and encroached juniper woodland (Juniperus virginiana), water efflux through transpiration using an improved Granier thermal dissipation method (trees) and ET chamber (grassland), soil moisture storage and dynamics (capacitance probe) and streamflow (small catchment). We calibrated a prevailing hydrological model (SWAT) based on observed data to simulate potential change in runoff and recharge for the Cimarron River basin (study site located within this basin) under various phases of grassland to woodland transition. Our results show that juniper encroachment reduces throughfall reaching the soil surface compared with grassland under moderate grazing. The evergreen junipers transpired water year-round including fall and winter when the warm season grasses were senescent. As a result, soil water content and soil water storage on the encroached catchment were generally lower than on the grassland catchment, especially proceeding the seasons of peak rainfall in spring and fall. Frequency and magnitude of streamflow events was observed to be substantially reduced in the encroached catchment. Model simulation suggests that conversion of all existing grassland to juniper in the Cimarron River basin will increase overall water efflux through evapotranspiration sufficient to substantially reduce water yield for streamflow. Rapid transformation of mesic grasslands to a woodland state with juniper encroachment, if not confined, has the potential to reduce soil water, streamflow and flow duration of ephemeral streams. Slowing the expansion of woody encroachment into grasslands might be considered as a land-based strategy to sustain or even augment streamflow and groundwater recharge to meet the increase in water demand under increasing climate variability and population growth in the southern Great Plains of USA

Zou, Chris; Will, Rodney; Stebler, Elaine; Qiao, Lei

2014-05-01

170

Use of Eddy Covariance Data to Calibrate the PhotoCent Model for Grassland and Forest Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eddy Covariance data sets have been used to calibrate the photosynthesis version of the DayCent ecosystem model (PhotoCent). Data simulation techniques were used to determine the parameters in the photosynthesis submodel for deciduous and coniferous forests, and arid and humid grasslands. A comparison of the seasonal patterns of gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for grassland and forest sites showed that maximum NEE and GPP values were observed in the spring (May and June) with NEE and GPP declining until the end of the growing season at different rates for the different biomes. The model results and observed daily GPP and NEE data sets suggest the major factor which controls this seasonal pattern is the decline in maximum photosynthesis rate during the growing season. This analysis suggests that grasslands, coniferous forests and deciduous forests have biome specific patterns in the rate of decline of maximum photosynthesis rates which are supported by observed field data showing similar declines in maximum photosynthesis rates. A comparison of model simulated GPP, NEE and respiration (RESP) rates with observed data shows that the observed biome specific seasonal patterns in these variables are well represented by the PhotoCent model. A comparison of observed vs. simulated daily GPP, NEE , and RESP shows that GPP has the highest correlation with observed data (r2 ranging from 0.70 to 0.90), and somewhat lower correlations for NEE and RESP (0.5 to 0.7).

Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W. J.; Straube, J.; Asao, S.

2012-12-01

171

Productivity, Respiration, and Light-Response Parameters of World Grassland and1 Agro-Ecosystems Derived From Flux-Tower Measurements2  

E-print Network

Productivity, Respiration, and Light-Response Parameters of World Grassland and1 Agro in the exponential equation for respiration temperature dependence (°C)-1 8 L ­ leaf area index (m2 m-2 )9 Lmax ­ daytime ecosystem respiration rate (mg CO2 m-2 s-1 )16 Rd ­ daytime ecosystem respiration (mg CO2 m-2 s-1

Boyer, Edmond

172

Predicting the response of a temperate forest ecosystem to atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase. Final report, 1984--1995  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the most recent progress made in several areas of the project. Details of individual experiments in the following areas are provided: (1) the impact of soil volume on the physiological acclimation of temperate deciduous trees in elevated CO{sub 2}; (2) growth under elevated CO{sub 2}: the shape as well as the size of pots is important; (3) a survey of growth responses of temperate deciduous trees to elevated CO{sub 2}; (4) a survey of closely related birch species; (5) the response of temperate deciduous tress to CO{sub 2} in variable light and nutrients conditions; (6) elevated CO{sub 2} differentially alters the response of birch and maple seedlings to a moisture gradient; (7) population dynamics; (8) heat shock in elevated CO{sub 2}: is there a change in temperature sensitivity; (9) response of temperate deciduous trees to CO{sub 2} in variable light and nutrient conditions; (10) changes in tree community composition and their consequences to ecosystem productivity; and (11) species diversity and ecosystem response to carbon dioxide fertilization.

Bazzaz, F.A.

1995-12-31

173

A Transmission Model for the Ecology of an Avian Blood Parasite in a Temperate Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Most of our knowledge about avian haemosporidian parasites comes from the Hawaiian archipelago, where recently introduced Plasmodiumrelictum has contributed to the extinction of many endemic avian species. While the ecology of invasive malaria is reasonably understood, the ecology of endemic haemosporidian infection in mainland systems is poorly understood, even though it is the rule rather than the exception. We develop a mathematical model to explore and identify the ecological factors that most influence transmission of the common avian parasite, Leucocytozoonfringillinarum (Apicomplexa). The model was parameterized from White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichialeucophrys) and S. silvestre / craigi black fly populations breeding in an alpine ecosystem. We identify and examine the importance of altricial nestlings, the seasonal relapse of infected birds for parasite persistence across breeding seasons, and potential impacts of seasonal changes in black fly emergence on parasite prevalence in a high elevation temperate system. We also use the model to identify and estimate the parameters most influencing transmission dynamics. Our analysis found that relapse of adult birds and young of the year birds were crucial for parasite persistence across multiple seasons. However, distinguishing between nude nestlings and feathered young of the year was unnecessary. Finally, due to model sensitivity to many black fly parameters, parasite prevalence and sparrow recruitment may be most affected by seasonal changes in environmental temperature driving shifts in black fly emergence and gonotrophic cycles. PMID:24073288

Murdock, Courtney C.; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Simon, Carl P.

2013-01-01

174

Partitioning Evapotranspiration in Semiarid Grassland and Shrubland Ecosystems Using Diurnal Surface Temperature Variation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The encroachment of woody plants in grasslands across the Western U.S. will affect soil water availability by altering the contributions of evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) to total evapotranspiration (ET). To study this phenomenon, a network of flux stations is in place to measure ET in grass- and shrub-dominated ecosystems throughout the Western U.S. A method is described and tested here to partition the daily measurements of ET into E and T based on diurnal surface temperature variations of the soil and standard energy balance theory. The difference between the mid-afternoon and pre-dawn soil surface temperature, termed Apparent Thermal Inertia (I(sub A)), was used to identify days when E was negligible, and thus, ET=T. For other days, a three-step procedure based on energy balance equations was used to estimate Qe contributions of daily E and T to total daily ET. The method was tested at Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in southeast Arizona based on Bowen ratio estimates of ET and continuous measurements of surface temperature with an infrared thermometer (IRT) from 2004- 2005, and a second dataset of Bowen ratio, IRT and stem-flow gage measurements in 2003. Results showed that reasonable estimates of daily T were obtained for a multi-year period with ease of operation and minimal cost. With known season-long daily T, E and ET, it is possible to determine the soil water availability associated with grass- and shrub-dominated sites and better understand the hydrologic impact of regional woody plant encroachment.

Moran, M. Susan; Scott, Russell L.; Keefer, Timothy O.; Paige, Ginger B.; Emmerich, William E.; Cosh, Michael H.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

2007-01-01

175

Microbial Enzymatic Response to Reduced Precipitation and Added Nitrogen in a Southern California Grassland Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial enzymes play a fundamental role in ecosystem processes and nutrient mineralization. Although there have been many studies concluding that global climate change affects plant communities, the effects on microbial communities in leaf litter have been much less studied. We measured extracellular enzyme activities in litter decomposing in plots with either reduced precipitation or increased nitrogen in a grassland ecosystem in Loma Ridge National Landmark in Southern California. We used a reciprocal transplant design to examine the effects of plot treatment, litter origin, and microbial community origin on litter decomposition and extracellular enzyme activity. Our hypothesis was that increased nitrogen would increase activity because nitrogen often limits microbial growth, while decreased precipitation would decrease activity due to lower litter moisture levels. Samples were collected in March 2011 and analyzed for the activities of cellobiohydrolase (CBH), ?-glucosidase (BG), ?-glucosidase (AG), N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), ?-xylosidase (BX), acid phosphatase (AP), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). None of the factors in the nitrogen manipulation had a significant effect on any of the enzymes, although BG, CBH, and NAG increased marginally significantly in plots with nitrogen addition (p = 0.103, p = 0.082, and p = 0.114, respectively). For the precipitation manipulation, AG, BG, BX, CBH, and NAG significantly increased in plots with reduced precipitation (p = 0.015, p <0.001, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively) while LAP significantly decreased (p = 0.002). LAP catalyzes the hydrolysis of polypeptides, so reduced LAP activity could result in lower rates of enzyme turnover in the reduced precipitation treatment. We also observed that AP significantly increased (p = 0.014) in litter originating from reduced precipitation plots, while AG, BX, and LAP significantly decreased (p = 0.011, p = 0.031, and 0.005, respectively). There were no significant correlations found between fungal or bacterial mass and enzymatic activity with either of the treatment types. Our results suggest that increased enzymatic activity due to drought could mitigate negative effects of moisture limitation on decomposition. However, this mitigating effect may be offset by declines in enzyme activity due to changes in plant community composition and associated litter chemistry in response to drought.

Alster, C. J.; German, D.; Allison, S. D.

2011-12-01

176

Plant and arthropod community sensitivity to rainfall manipulation but not nitrogen enrichment in a successional grassland ecosystem.  

PubMed

Grasslands provide many ecosystem services including carbon storage, biodiversity preservation and livestock forage production. These ecosystem services will change in the future in response to multiple global environmental changes, including climate change and increased nitrogen inputs. We conducted an experimental study over 3 years in a mesotrophic grassland ecosystem in southern England. We aimed to expose plots to rainfall manipulation that simulated IPCC 4th Assessment projections for 2100 (+15 % winter rainfall and -30 % summer rainfall) or ambient climate, achieving +15 % winter rainfall and -39 % summer rainfall in rainfall-manipulated plots. Nitrogen (40 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) was also added to half of the experimental plots in factorial combination. Plant species composition and above ground biomass were not affected by rainfall in the first 2 years and the plant community did not respond to nitrogen enrichment throughout the experiment. In the third year, above-ground plant biomass declined in rainfall-manipulated plots, driven by a decline in the abundances of grass species characteristic of moist soils. Declining plant biomass was also associated with changes to arthropod communities, with lower abundances of plant-feeding Auchenorrhyncha and carnivorous Araneae indicating multi-trophic responses to rainfall manipulation. Plant and arthropod community composition and plant biomass responses to rainfall manipulation were not modified by nitrogen enrichment, which was not expected, but may have resulted from prior nitrogen saturation and/or phosphorus limitation. Overall, our study demonstrates that climate change may in future influence plant productivity and induce multi-trophic responses in grasslands. PMID:25224801

Lee, Mark A; Manning, Pete; Walker, Catherine S; Power, Sally A

2014-12-01

177

Exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS), a potential tracer of gross primary productivity, between grassland ecosystem components and the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, measurements of carbonyl sulfide (COS) exchange have been used as an independent constraint for estimates of gross primary productivity over terrestrial ecosystems and continents. CO2 is both taken up and released by plants, whereas COS is usually only consumed and at a predictable ratio to CO2. Most of the underlying theoretical assumptions of this method have been verified, however the problem of parsing leaf exchange from other terrestrial sources and sinks of COS is still under investigation. In ecosystems that experience distinct periods of growing and senescence, it is possible to assess COS fluxes in situ when no green plants are present and compare to measurements during the growing season. Taking advantage of this seasonal pattern, we have investigated COS exchange from March 2012 to March 2013 in a Mediterranean grassland outside of Santa Cruz, CA, U.S.A (37.0°N, 122°W). Through lab-based incubation experiments, we found that net COS uptake of grassland soil can be reduced by increased soil moisture. We evaluated this claim in the field with monthly field deployments of static flux chambers over the in-tact soil and plant system. In the dry summer, artificial rain amendments caused COS net uptake to decrease, sometimes leading to overall net production to the atmosphere, in agreement with lab experiments. During the wet growing season, water additions caused over 2x increase in COS uptake from the atmosphere. Contrary to what has been previously claimed, soil exchange of COS is not negligible in grassland ecosystems.

Whelan, M.; Rhew, R. C.

2013-12-01

178

Synthesis of Watershed and Ecosystem Responses to Lehmann Lovegrass Invasion in a SE Arizona Desert Grassland Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to aridland systems that have undergone rapid change in dominant vegetation growth form, the responses of watershed and ecosystem processes to a shift in dominance of similar growth forms have not been well-studied. Following a prolonged drought period (2000-2005) at the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed's Kendall grassland site (WS#112), near Tombstone, AZ, strong summer monsoon rains in 2006 were accompanied by widespread mortality most native perennial grasses, a transient increase in annual forbs, followed by establishment and sustained dominance by a single perennial grass, the invasive bunchgrass, Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana). This loss of ecological diversity occurred across a watershed already instrumented for quantifying long-term climate, watershed, hill-slope, and ecosystem-level gas exchange processes. Salient findings from these data sets were: 1) annual watershed sediment discharge rapidly returned to pre-invasion levels following a large spike in 2006 that accounted for 65% of the total sediment yield summed over 35 years, 2) plot-level experimental runoff studies showed hill-slope sediment yields consistently doubled, as did growing season soil evaporation contributions to ET, and 3) the grassland was a carbon sink during dry conditions under lovegrass dominance. These findings show that while some aspects of overall watershed and ecosystem function were not strongly affected (i.e. sediment yield and net primary productivity), processes acting at lower spatial and temporal scales have been negatively impacted by lovegrass dominance. We believe these lower-order processes underlie the strong ecological effects associated with Lehmann lovegrass invasion, and will also eventually alter landform processes and change the basic ecohydrological characteristics of desert grassland watersheds.

Hamerlynck, E. P.; Scott, R. L.; Polyakov, V.; Sugg, Z.; Moran, S. M.; Stone, J.; Nearing, M.

2011-12-01

179

Net ecosystem exchange of grassland in contrasting wet and dry years  

E-print Network

sink (Ham and Knapp, 1998; Suyker et al., 2003; Goodale and Davidson, 2002). Grassland is the dominant atmospheric CO2 (e.g. Bruce et al., 1999; Conant et al., 2001) but few multi-annual data sets are available

Katul, Gabriel

180

Conversion of temperate forests into heaths: Role of ecosystem disturbance and ericaceous plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire and logging in nutrient-poor temperate forests with certain ericaceous understory plants may convert the forests into heaths. The process of disturbance-induced heath formation is documented by using examples of Calluna in western Europe, Kalmia in Newfoundland, and Gaultheria (salal) in coastal British Columbia. In a cool, temperate climate, rapid vegetative growth of Calluna, Kalmia, and salal following disturbance results

A. U. Mallik

1995-01-01

181

Bromus tectorum invasion alters nitrogen dynamics in an undisturbed arid grassland ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nonnative annual grass Bromus tectorum has successfully replaced native vegetation in many arid and semiarid ecosystems. Initial introductions accompanied grazing and agriculture, making it difficult to separate the effects of invasion from physical disturbance. This study examined N dynamics in two recently invaded, undisturbed vegetation associations (C3 and C4). The response of these communities was compared to an invaded/disturbed grassland. The invaded/disturbed communities had higher surface NH4+ input in spring, whereas there were no differences for surface input of NO3-. Soil inorganic N was dominated by NH4+, but invaded sites had greater subsurface soil NO3-. Invaded sites had greater total soil N at the surface four years post-invasion in undisturbed communities, but total N was lower in the invaded/disturbed communities. Soil ??15N increased with depth in the noninvaded and recently invaded communities, whereas the invaded/disturbed communities exhibited the opposite pattern. Enriched foliar ??15N values suggest that Bromus assimilated subsurface NO3-, whereas the native grasses were restricted to surface N. A Rayleigh distillation model accurately described decomposition patterns in the noninvaded communities where soil N loss is accompanied by increasing soil ??15N; however, the invaded/disturbed communities exhibited the opposite pattern, suggesting redistribution of N within the soil profile. This study suggests that invasion has altered the mechanisms driving nitrogen dynamics. Bromus litter decomposition and soil NO3- concentrations were greater in the invaded communities during periods of ample precipitation, and NO3- leached from the surface litter, where it was assimilated by Bromus. The primary source of N input in these communities is a biological soil crust that is removed with disturbance, and the lack of N input by the biological soil crust did not balance N loss, resulting in reduced total N in the invaded/disturbed communities. Bromus produced a positive feedback loop by leaching NO3- from decomposing Bromus litter to subsurface soil layers, accessing that deep-soil N pool with deep roots and returning that N to the surface as biomass and subsequent litter. Lack of new inputs combined with continued loss will result in lower total soil N, evidenced by the lower total soil N in the invaded/disturbed communities. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

Sperry, L.J.; Belnap, J.; Evans, R.D.

2006-01-01

182

Carbon storage in grasslands of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon storage in grasslands of China was estimated by the carbon density method and based on a nationwide grassland resource survey finished by 1991. The grasslands in China were classified into 18 types, which are distributed mostly in the temperate region and on the Tibetan Plateau, and scattered in the warm-temperate and tropical regions. Based on the median estimate, vegetation,

Jian Ni

2002-01-01

183

Short-term bioavailability of carbon in soil organic matter fractions of different particle sizes and densities in grassland ecosystems.  

PubMed

The quality, stability and availability of organic carbon (OC) in soil organic matter (SOM) can vary widely between differently managed ecosystems. Several approaches have been developed for isolating SOM fractions to examine their ecological roles, but links between the bioavailability of the OC of size-density fractions and soil microbial communities have not been previously explored. Thus, in the presented laboratory study we investigated the potential bioavailability of OC and the structure of associated microbial communities in different particle-size and density fractions of SOM. For this we used samples from four grassland ecosystems with contrasting management intensity regimes and two soil types: a Haplic Cambisol and a typical Chernozem. A combined size-density fractionation protocol was applied to separate clay-associated SOM fractions (CF1, <1 ?m; CF2, 1-2 ?m) from light SOM fractions (LF1, <1.8 g cm(-3); LF2, 1.8-2.0 g cm(-3)). These fractions were used as carbon sources in a respiration experiment to determine their potential bioavailability. Measured CO2-release was used as an index of substrate accessibility and linked to the soil microbial community structure, as determined by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis. Several key factors controlling decomposition processes, and thus the potential bioavailability of OC, were identified: management intensity and the plant community composition of the grasslands (both of which affect the chemical composition and turnover of OC) and specific properties of individual SOM fractions. The PLFA patterns highlighted differences in the composition of microbial communities associated with the examined grasslands, and SOM fractions, providing the first broad insights into their active microbial communities. From observed interactions between abiotic and biotic factors affecting the decomposition of SOM fractions we demonstrate that increasing management intensity could enhance the potential bioavailability of OC, not only in the active and intermediate SOM pools, but also in the passive pool. PMID:25112822

Breulmann, Marc; Masyutenko, Nina Petrovna; Kogut, Boris Maratovich; Schroll, Reiner; Dörfler, Ulrike; Buscot, François; Schulz, Elke

2014-11-01

184

Stakeholder perceptions of grassland ecosystem services in relation to knowledge on soil fertility and biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of ecosystem services is increasingly being used by scientists and policy makers. However, most studies in this\\u000a area have focussed on factors that regulate ecosystem functions (i.e. the potential to deliver ecosystem services) or the\\u000a supply of ecosystem services. In contrast, demand for ecosystem services (i.e. the needs of beneficiaries) or understanding\\u000a of the concept and the relative

Pénélope Lamarque; Ulrike Tappeiner; Catherine Turner; Melanie Steinbacher; Richard D. Bardgett; Ute Szukics; Markus Schermer; Sandra Lavorel

185

Statistic-mathematical interpretation of some assessment parameters of the grassland ecosystem according to soil characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant parameters of permanent grasslands are represented by the pastoral value and Shannon and Simpson biodiversity indices. The dynamics of these parameters has been studied in several plant associations in Banat Plain, Romania. From the point of view of their typology, these permanent grasslands belong to the steppe area, series Festuca pseudovina, type Festuca pseudovina-Achilea millefolium, subtype Lolium perenne. The methods used for the purpose of this research included plant cover analysis (double meter method, calculation of Shannon and Simpson indices), and statistical methods of regression and correlation. The results show that, in the permanent grasslands in the plain region, when the pastoral value is average to low, the level of interspecific biodiversity is on the increase.

Samfira, Ionel; Boldea, Marius; Popescu, Cosmin

2012-09-01

186

Evidence of physiological decoupling from grassland ecosystem drivers by an encroaching woody shrub.  

PubMed

Shrub encroachment of grasslands is a transformative ecological process by which native woody species increase in cover and frequency and replace the herbaceous community. Mechanisms of encroachment are typically assessed using temporal data or experimental manipulations, with few large spatial assessments of shrub physiology. In a mesic grassland in North America, we measured inter- and intra-annual variability in leaf ?(13)C in Cornus drummondii across a grassland landscape with varying fire frequency, presence of large grazers and topographic variability. This assessment of changes in individual shrub physiology is the largest spatial and temporal assessment recorded to date. Despite a doubling of annual rainfall (in 2008 versus 2011), leaf ?(13)C was statistically similar among and within years from 2008-11 (range of -28 to -27‰). A topography*grazing interaction was present, with higher leaf ?(13)C in locations that typically have more bare soil and higher sensible heat in the growing season (upland topographic positions and grazed grasslands). Leaf ?(13)C from slopes varied among grazing contrasts, with upland and slope leaf ?(13)C more similar in ungrazed locations, while slopes and lowlands were more similar in grazed locations. In 2011, canopy greenness (normalized difference vegetation index - NDVI) was assessed at the centroid of individual shrubs using high-resolution hyperspectral imagery. Canopy greenness was highest mid-summer, likely reflecting temporal periods when C assimilation rates were highest. Similar to patterns seen in leaf ?(13)C, NDVI was highest in locations that typically experience lowest sensible heat (lowlands and ungrazed). The ability of Cornus drummondii to decouple leaf physiological responses from climate variability and fire frequency is a likely contributor to the increase in cover and frequency of this shrub species in mesic grassland and may be generalizable to other grasslands undergoing woody encroachment. PMID:24339950

Nippert, Jesse B; Ocheltree, Troy W; Orozco, Graciela L; Ratajczak, Zak; Ling, Bohua; Skibbe, Adam M

2013-01-01

187

Evidence of Physiological Decoupling from Grassland Ecosystem Drivers by an Encroaching Woody Shrub  

PubMed Central

Shrub encroachment of grasslands is a transformative ecological process by which native woody species increase in cover and frequency and replace the herbaceous community. Mechanisms of encroachment are typically assessed using temporal data or experimental manipulations, with few large spatial assessments of shrub physiology. In a mesic grassland in North America, we measured inter- and intra-annual variability in leaf ?13C in Cornus drummondii across a grassland landscape with varying fire frequency, presence of large grazers and topographic variability. This assessment of changes in individual shrub physiology is the largest spatial and temporal assessment recorded to date. Despite a doubling of annual rainfall (in 2008 versus 2011), leaf ?13C was statistically similar among and within years from 2008-11 (range of ?28 to ?27‰). A topography*grazing interaction was present, with higher leaf ?13C in locations that typically have more bare soil and higher sensible heat in the growing season (upland topographic positions and grazed grasslands). Leaf ?13C from slopes varied among grazing contrasts, with upland and slope leaf ?13C more similar in ungrazed locations, while slopes and lowlands were more similar in grazed locations. In 2011, canopy greenness (normalized difference vegetation index – NDVI) was assessed at the centroid of individual shrubs using high-resolution hyperspectral imagery. Canopy greenness was highest mid-summer, likely reflecting temporal periods when C assimilation rates were highest. Similar to patterns seen in leaf ?13C, NDVI was highest in locations that typically experience lowest sensible heat (lowlands and ungrazed). The ability of Cornus drummondii to decouple leaf physiological responses from climate variability and fire frequency is a likely contributor to the increase in cover and frequency of this shrub species in mesic grassland and may be generalizable to other grasslands undergoing woody encroachment. PMID:24339950

Nippert, Jesse B.; Ocheltree, Troy W.; Orozco, Graciela L.; Ratajczak, Zak; Ling, Bohua; Skibbe, Adam M.

2013-01-01

188

Plant trait-based models identify direct and indirect effects of climate change on bundles of grassland ecosystem services.  

PubMed

Land use and climate change are primary causes of changes in the supply of ecosystem services (ESs). Although the consequences of climate change on ecosystem properties and associated services are well documented, the cascading impacts of climate change on ESs through changes in land use are largely overlooked. We present a trait-based framework based on an empirical model to elucidate how climate change affects tradeoffs among ESs. Using alternative scenarios for mountain grasslands, we predicted how direct effects of climate change on ecosystems and indirect effects through farmers' adaptations are likely to affect ES bundles through changes in plant functional properties. ES supply was overall more sensitive to climate than to induced management change, and ES bundles remained stable across scenarios. These responses largely reflected the restricted extent of management change in this constrained system, which was incorporated when scaling up plot level climate and management effects on ecosystem properties to the entire landscape. The trait-based approach revealed how the combination of common driving traits and common responses to changed fertility determined interactions and tradeoffs among ESs. PMID:25225382

Lamarque, Pénélope; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouchet, Maud; Quétier, Fabien

2014-09-23

189

Plant trait-based models identify direct and indirect effects of climate change on bundles of grassland ecosystem services  

PubMed Central

Land use and climate change are primary causes of changes in the supply of ecosystem services (ESs). Although the consequences of climate change on ecosystem properties and associated services are well documented, the cascading impacts of climate change on ESs through changes in land use are largely overlooked. We present a trait-based framework based on an empirical model to elucidate how climate change affects tradeoffs among ESs. Using alternative scenarios for mountain grasslands, we predicted how direct effects of climate change on ecosystems and indirect effects through farmers’ adaptations are likely to affect ES bundles through changes in plant functional properties. ES supply was overall more sensitive to climate than to induced management change, and ES bundles remained stable across scenarios. These responses largely reflected the restricted extent of management change in this constrained system, which was incorporated when scaling up plot level climate and management effects on ecosystem properties to the entire landscape. The trait-based approach revealed how the combination of common driving traits and common responses to changed fertility determined interactions and tradeoffs among ESs. PMID:25225382

Lamarque, Pénélope; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouchet, Maud; Quétier, Fabien

2014-01-01

190

The impact of extreme summer drought on the short-term carbon coupling of photosynthesis to soil CO2 efflux in a temperate grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with predicted climate change, increased risks for summer drought are projected for Central Europe. However, large knowledge gaps exist in terms of how drought events influence the short-term ecosystem carbon cycle. Here, we present results from 13CO2 pulse labeling experiments at an intensively managed lowland grassland in Switzerland. We investigated the effect of extreme summer drought on the short-term coupling of freshly assimilated photosynthates in shoots to roots as well as to soil CO2 efflux. Summer drought was simulated using rainout shelters during two field seasons (2010 and 2011). Soil CO2 efflux and its isotopic composition were measured with custom-built chambers coupled to a quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLAS-ISO, Aerodyne Research Inc., MA, USA). During the 90 min pulse labeling experiments, we added 99.9 atom % 13CO2 to the grass sward. In addition to the isotopic analysis of soil CO2 efflux, this label was traced over 31 days into bulk shoots, roots and soil. Drought reduced the incorporation of recently fixed carbon into shoots and increased carbon allocation below-ground relative to total tracer uptake. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find a change in allocation speed in response to drought, although drought clearly reduced soil CO2 efflux rates. 19 days after pulse labeling, only about 60% of total tracer uptake was lost via soil CO2 efflux under drought compared to about 75% under control conditions. Predisposition of grassland by spring drought lead to different responses to summer drought in 2011 compared to 2010, suggesting increased sensitivity of grassland to consecutive drought events as predicted under future climate change.

Burri, S.; Sturm, P.; Prechsl, U. E.; Knohl, A.; Buchmann, N.

2013-07-01

191

Conversion of temperate forests into heaths: Role of ecosystem disturbance and ericaceous plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire and logging in nutrient-poor temperate forests with certain ericaceous understory plants may convert the forests into\\u000a heaths. The process of disturbance-induced heath formation is documented by using examples ofCalluna in western Europe,Kalmia in Newfoundland, andGaultheria (salal) in coastal British Columbia. In a cool, temperate climate, rapid vegetative growth ofCalluna, Kalmia, and salal following disturbance results in increasing organic accumulation

A. U. Mallik

1995-01-01

192

Comparison of Carbon Sequestration Rates and Energy Balance of Turf in the Denver Urban Ecosystem and an Adjacent Native Grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban ecosystems are currently characterized by rapid growth, are expected to continually expand and, thus, represent an important driver of land use change. A significant component of urban ecosystems is lawns, potentially the single largest irrigated "crop" in the U.S. Beginning in March of 2011 (ahead of the growing season), eddy covariance measurements of net carbon exchange and evapotranspiration along with energy balance fluxes were conducted for a well-watered, fertilized lawn (rye-bluegrass-mix) in metropolitan Denver and for a nearby tallgrass prairie (big bluestem, switchgrass, cheatgrass, blue grama). Due to the semi-arid climate conditions of the Denver region, differences in management (i.e., irrigation and fertilization) are expected to have a discernible impact on ecosystem productivity and thus on carbon sequestration rates, evapotranspiration, and the sensible and latent heat partitioning of the energy balance. By mid-July, preliminary data indicated that cumulative evapotranspiration was approximately 270 mm and 170 mm for urban and native grasslands, respectively, although cumulative carbon sequestration at that time was similar for both (approximately 40 mg/m2). However, the pattern of carbon exchange differed between the grasslands. Both sites showed daily net uptake of carbon starting in late May, but the urban lawn displayed greater diurnal variability as well as greater uptake rates in general, especially following fertilization in mid-June. In contrast, the trend of carbon uptake at the prairie site was occasionally reversed following strong convective precipitation events, resulting in a temporary net release of carbon. The continuing acquisition of data and investigation of these relations will help us assess the potential impact of urban growth on regional carbon sequestration.

Thienelt, T. S.; Anderson, D. E.; Powell, K. M.

2011-12-01

193

Conservation genetics of two co-dominant grass species in an endangered grassland ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Global habitat fragmentation and loss of undisturbed grasslands has led to the use of non-local seed and cultivars in restoration. There is concern that these sources may be genetically depauperate and their introduction may lead to loss of unique local gen- otypes. Within this context we considered the issue with regard to the once widespread but now highly

D. J. Gustafson; D. J. Gibson; D. L. Nickrent

2004-01-01

194

Year in Review: Spotlight on 2012 Research by the Grassland, Shrubland and Desert Ecosystems Science Program  

E-print Network

controls. Five species listed as noxious weeds in Montana were recorded: spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe at Tenderfoot Experimental Forest in Montana helps shed some light on the issue. Study partners include Montana Conservation Corps and Montana Department of Agriculture. Rocky Mountain Research Station Grassland, Shrubland

195

The effects of global climate change on the species composition and ecosystem function in the central grasslands  

SciTech Connect

Alterations to the Earth`s environment are projected to be of an amplitude not experienced in the recent biological history. How ecosystems will respond to these changes is a matter of great uncertainty. Using the ecosystem model CENTURY, we evaluated the responses of five grass species, common to the Central Grasslands Region to changing climates. The altered climates used in this simulation, based on CCC GCM outputs, were 2.5 - 4{degrees}C increase in mean annual temperature and a 1% increase in mean annual precipitation with significant variation in seasonal distribution. The species included Agrostis scabra (C{sub 3} grass), Agropyron repens (C{sub 3} grass), Poa pratensis (C{sub 3} grass), Schizachyrium scoparium (C{sub 4} grass), and Andropogon gerardii (C{sub 4} grass). Soil carbon decreased for all five species under the modified climate scenario. Annual production varied among species. Agropyron repens showed a slight increase, A. scabra showed a slight decrease, while the two C{sub 4} species, S. scoparium and A. gerardii, and the C{sub 3} invasive grass Poa pratensis showed larger increases in annual production. The increased annual production of P. pratensis under the modified climate scenario may indicate the potential for this species to further expand its range. What impact a range expansion of P. pratensis will have on ecosystem function and overall species composition is unclear.

Falkner, M.B.; Ojima, D.S.; Parton, W.J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-06-01

196

Linking the Response of Annual Grasslands to Warming and Altered Rainfall Across Scales of Gene Expression, Species, and Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change can influence terrestrial ecosystems at multiple biological levels: gene expression, species, and ecosystem. We are studying California grassland mesocosms with seven annual species (five grasses, two forbs) that were started in 2005. In the 2006-2007 growing season, they were exposed to three rainfall treatments (297, 552, and 867 mm y-1) and soil and air temperature (ambient and elevated +4oC) in replicated greenhouses. This presentation will combine plant and ecosystem level results with transcript level analyses associated with key enzymes, such as rubisco and glutamine synthetase (GS). Because rainfall is the dominant climate variable for most processes in this Mediterranean ecosystem, the effect of warming was strongly mediated by rainfall. In fact, we saw significant interactions between temperature and rainfall treatments at all three biological levels. For example, at the ecosystem level, warming led to a decrease in aboveground and total NPP under low rainfall, and an increase under high rainfall. For the dominant species, Avena barbata, warming had no effect under high rainfall, but suppressed Avena NPP in low rainfall. At the same time, warmer, wetter conditions accelerated Avena flowering by almost 15 days. This shift in phenology was presaged by observations at the transcript level. Specifically, in the high temperature, high rainfall treatment, the levels of mRNAs for RbcS and GS2 (encoding the small subunit of rubisco and the chloroplastic isoform of GS, respectively) declined while GS1 (encoding the cytosolic isoform of GS) was upregulated several weeks before heading. The transcript level response (along with soil and plant nitrogen data) indicated the leaf had switched from a carbon and nitrogen sink to a source - consistent with more mature plant function and earlier flowering. Soil CO2 respiration also showed strong rain-by-temperature interactions that were due mainly to changes in root response (respiration and/or exudates) rather than in microbial respiration. Overall, the pervasive rain-by-temperature interactions mean that it may be very difficult to predict the effect of warming alone, without accounting for changes in precipitation (in our Mediterranean system). While predictions of warming of 3-6°C in the next 100 years are fairly certain, changes in precipitation are much more uncertain, with some forecasts drier and others wetter for a given location. We suggest that uncertainty about future precipitation and the interacting influences of temperature and moisture on ecosystems are currently key limitations in predicting ecosystem response to climate change, particularly in Mediterranean ecosystems such as the one studied here.

Torn, M. S.; Bernard, S. M.; Castanha, C.; Fischer, M. L.; Hopkins, F. M.; Placella, S. A.; St. Clair, S. B.; Salve, R.; Sudderth, E.; Herman, D.; Ackerly, D.; Firestone, M. K.

2007-12-01

197

Understanding coupled climatic and ecosystem responses to global climate change in the Central Grasslands  

SciTech Connect

A long-term National Park Service research program to assess the potential effect of global climate change on the Central Grasslands Biogeographic Area is underway. The program consists of two integrated projects: Projecting climate and vegetation change at regional to landscape scales; and Predicting the effect of global change on vegetation in park landscapes at the plot to landscape scales. Together, these integrated field and modeling studies establish a means to validate mesoscale and landscape vegetation models, a central goal of the NPS Global Change Research Program. Vegetation life form modeling suggests that under climate change scenarios the distribution of grassland vegetation zones will undergo major shifts. Results indicate that climate change impacts that reduce water availability will more severely depress productivity of C[sub 3] grass communities relative to C[sub 4] grass communities.

Falkner, M.B.; Detling, J.; Ojima, D.; Pielke, R.A.; Stohlgren, T.J. (Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins (United States)); Kittel, T.G.F. (Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins (United States) UCAR, Boulder, CO (United States)); Lenihan, J.; Neilson, R. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States)); Reiners, W. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (United States))

1993-06-01

198

On the relationship between ecosystem-scale hyperspectral reflectance and CO2 exchange in European mountain grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we explore the use of hyperspectral reflectance measurements and vegetation indices (VIs) derived therefrom in estimating carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes (net ecosystem exchange - NEE; gross primary production - GPP), and some key ecophysiological variables related to NEE and GPP (light use efficiency - ?; initial quantum yield - ?; and GPP at saturating light - GPPmax) for grasslands. Hyperspectral reflectance data (400-1000 nm), CO2 fluxes and biophysical parameters were measured at three grassland sites located in European mountain regions. The relationships between CO2 fluxes, ecophysiological variables and VIs derived using all two-band combinations of wavelengths available from the whole hyperspectral data space were analysed. We found that hyperspectral VIs generally explained a large fraction of the variability in the investigated dependent variables and that they generally exhibited more skill in estimating midday and daily average GPP and NEE, as well as GPPmax, than ? and ?. Relationships between VIs and CO2 fluxes and ecophysiological parameters were site-specific, likely due to differences in soils, vegetation parameters and environmental conditions. Chlorophyll and water content related VIs (e.g. CI, NPCI, WI), reflecting seasonal changes in biophysical parameters controlling the photosynthesis process, explained the largest fraction of variability in most of the dependent variables. A limitation of the hyperspectral sensors is that their cost is still high and the use laborious. At the eddy covariance with a limited budget and without technical support, we suggest to use at least dual or four channels low cost sensors in the the following spectral regions: 400-420 nm; 500-530 nm; 750-770 nm; 780-800 nm and 880-900 nm. In addition, our findings have major implications for up-scaling terrestrial CO2 fluxes to larger regions and for remote and proximal sensing sampling and analysis strategies and call for more cross-site synthesis studies linking ground-based spectral reflectance with ecosystem-scale CO2 fluxes.

Balzarolo, M.; Vescovo, L.; Hammerle, A.; Gianelle, D.; Papale, D.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2014-07-01

199

Testing functional trait-based mechanisms underpinning plant responses to grazing and linkages to ecosystem functioning in grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abundant evidence has shown that grazing alters plant functional traits, ecological strategies, community structure, and ecosystem functioning of grasslands. Few studies, however, have examined how plant responses to grazing are mediated by resource availability and functional group identity. We test functional trait-based mechanisms underlying the responses of different life forms to grazing and linkages to ecosystem functioning along a soil moisture gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on 9 traits × 276 species matrix showed that the plant size spectrum (i.e., individual biomass), leaf economics spectrum (leaf N content and leaf density), and light competition spectrum (height and stem-leaf biomass ratio) distinguished plant species responses to grazing. The three life forms exhibited differential strategies as indicated by trait responses to grazing. The annuals and biennials adopted grazing-tolerant strategies associated with high growth rate, reflected by high leaf N content and specific leaf area. The perennial grasses exhibited grazing-tolerant strategies associated with great regrowth capacity and high palatability scores, whereas perennial forbs showed grazing-avoidant strategies with short stature and low palatability scores. In addition, the dominant perennial bunchgrasses exhibited mixed tolerance-resistance strategies to grazing and mixed acquisitive-conservative strategies in resource utilization. Grazing increased the relative abundance of perennial forbs with low palatability in the wet and fertile meadow, but it promoted perennial grasses with high palatability in the dry and infertile typical steppe. Our findings suggest that the effects of grazing on plant functional traits are dependent on both the abiotic (e.g., soil moisture) and biotic (e.g., plant functional group identity and composition) factors. Grazing-induced shifts in functional group composition are largely dependent on resource availability, particularly water availability.

Zheng, S. X.; Li, W. H.; Lan, Z. C.; Ren, H. Y.; Wang, K. B.; Bai, Y. F.

2014-09-01

200

Seasonal patterns of ammonium and nitrate uptake in nine temperate forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Seasonal patterns of net N mineralization and nitrification in the 0–10 cm mineral soil of 9 temperate forest sites were analyzed using approximately monthlyin situ soil incubations. Measured nitrification rates in incubated soils were found to be good estimates of nitrification in surrounding forest soils. Monthly net N mineralization rates and pools of ammonium-N in soil fluctuated during the

Knute J. Nadelhoffer; John D. Aber; Jerry M. Melillo

1984-01-01

201

Nitrogen and carbon cycling in a grassland community ecosystem as affected by elevated atmospheric CO2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing global atmospheric CO2 concentration has led to concerns regarding its potential effects on terrestrial ecosystem and the long-term storage of C and N in soil. This study examined responses to elevated CO2 in a grass ecosystem invaded with a leguminous shrub Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd (...

202

Parasitic plants indirectly regulate below-ground properties in grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic plants are one of the most ubiquitous groups of generalist parasites in both natural and managed ecosystems, with over 3,000 known species worldwide. Although much is known about how parasitic plants influence host peformance, their role as drivers of community- and ecosystem-level properties remains largely unexplored. Parasitic plants have the potential to influence directly the productivity and structure of

Richard D. Bardgett; Roger S. Smith; Robert S. Shiel; Simon Peacock; Janet M. Simkin; Helen Quirk; Phil J. Hobbs

2006-01-01

203

Flux and turnover of fixed carbon in soil microbial biomass of limed and unlimed plots of an upland grassland ecosystem.  

PubMed

The influence of liming on rhizosphere microbial biomass C and incorporation of root exudates was studied in the field by in situ pulse labelling of temperate grassland vegetation with (13)CO(2) for a 3-day period. In plots that had been limed (CaCO(3) amended) annually for 3 years, incorporation into shoots and roots was, respectively, greater and lower than in unlimed plots. Analysis of chloroform-labile C demonstrated lower levels of (13)C incorporation into microbial biomass in limed soils compared to unlimed soils. The turnover of the recently assimilated (13)C compounds was faster in microbial biomass from limed than that from unlimed soils, suggesting that liming increases incorporation by microbial communities of root exudates. An exponential decay model of (13)C in total microbial biomass in limed soils indicated that the half-life of the tracer within this carbon pool was 4.7 days. Results are presented and discussed in relation to the absolute values of (13)C fixed and allocated within the plant-soil system. PMID:15816931

Rangel-Castro, J Ignacio; Prosser, Jim I; Ostle, Nick; Scrimgeour, Charlie M; Killham, Ken; Meharg, Andy A

2005-04-01

204

The significance of agricultural vs. natural ecosystem pathways in temperate climates in assessments of long-term radiological impact.  

PubMed

Recent developments in performance assessment biosphere models have begun to emphasise the importance of natural accumulation pathways. In contrast to the agricultural pathways, the database for natural ecosystem pathways is less well developed, leading to a mismatch in quality of representations of the two types of system. At issue is the lack of reliable soil-plant and animal ingestion transfer factors for key radionuclides in natural ecosystems. The relative importance of the agricultural vs. natural ecosystem pathways is investigated here, in the context of a temperate site in present day, Eastern France. The BIOMASS Candidate Critical Group (CCG) methodology has been applied to map a set of eight candidate critical groups derived from the present-day societal context onto physical locations within a simple model of a river catchment system. The overall assessment model has been implemented using the Aquabios code. Annual individual dose to each of the CCGs has been calculated for each of the key radionuclides (79Se, 94Nb, 99Tc, 129I, 135Cs and 237Np) released to the valley aquifer and river. In addition to the traditional agricultural pathways, lifestyle groups exploiting natural habitats are explicitly addressed. Results show the susceptibility of different candidate critical groups to different radionuclides. A reference database typical of those employed in long-term performance assessment models is employed. Doses from external exposure (94Nb) and dust inhalation (237Np) are shown to dominate agricultural food consumption by factors of more than six, but, with the reference data set, foodstuffs obtained from natural ecosystems do not contribute significantly to critical group dose and, at most, show similar exposures to the agricultural pathways. This may lead to the conclusion that natural food can be ruled out of consideration in performance assessment models. However, systematic parametric sensitivity studies carried out on soil-plant and animal ingestion transfer factors restrict the validity of this observation and demonstrate the limitations of existing databases. Remaining uncertainties can be reduced by improving structural models for performance assessment and by better characterisation of sources of locally obtained foods. Improved characterisation of radionuclide accumulation in natural ecosystems in temperate as well as alternative future climate states should complement the modelling approach. PMID:15960997

K?os, Richard; Albrecht, Achim

2005-01-01

205

The impact of extreme summer drought on the short-term carbon coupling of photosynthesis to soil CO2 efflux in a temperate grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with predicted climate change, increased risks for summer drought are projected for Central Europe. However, large knowledge gaps exist in terms of how drought events influence the short-term ecosystem carbon cycle. Here, we present results from 13CO2 pulse labeling experiments at an intensively managed lowland grassland in Switzerland. We investigated the effect of extreme summer drought on the short-term coupling of freshly assimilated photosynthates in shoots to roots as well as to soil CO2 efflux. Summer drought was simulated using rainout shelters during two field seasons (2010 and 2011). Soil CO2 efflux and its isotopic composition were measured with custom-built chambers coupled to a quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLAS-ISO, Aerodyne Research Inc., MA, USA). During the 90 min pulse labeling experiments, we added 99.9 atom % 13CO2 to the grass sward. In addition to the isotopic analysis of soil CO2 efflux, this label was traced over 31 days into bulk shoots, roots and soil. Drought reduced the incorporation of recently fixed carbon into the shoots, but increased the relative allocation of fresh assimilates below ground compared to the control grasslands. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find a change of allocation speed in response to drought. Although drought clearly reduced soil CO2 efflux rates, about 75% of total tracer uptake in control plots was lost via soil CO2 efflux during 19 days after pulse labeling, compared to only about 60% under drought conditions. Thus, the short-term coupling of above- and below-ground processes was reduced in response to summer drought. The occurrence of a natural spring drought in 2011 lead to comparable albeit weaker drought responses increasing the confidence in the generalizability of our findings.

Burri, S.; Sturm, P.; Prechsl, U. E.; Knohl, A.; Buchmann, N.

2014-02-01

206

Relationship between annual canopy photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration in humid-temperate pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing nitrogen fertilization of a mature cool-season pasture increased annual photosynthetic C uptake (GPP) and forage yield but also increased ecosystem respiration (Re), such that net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and soil C sequestration were not affected by the increased fertility. A nine-year s...

207

Modeled effect of warming on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics within grassland/old-field ecosystems along a moisture gradient  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a consequence of steadily increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere, average world-wide surface temperature is expected to increase 1.5-6.4°C by the end of the 21st Century. Results from manipulative field experiments and ecosystem modeling indicate that plants and soil...

208

Aeolian process effects on vegetation communities in an arid grassland ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Many arid grassland communities are changing from grass dominance to shrub dominance, but the mechanisms involved in this conversion process are not completely understood. Aeolian processes likely contribute to this conversion from grassland to shrubland. The purpose of this research is to provide information regarding how vegetation changes occur in an arid grassland as a result of aeolian sediment transport. The experimental design included three treatment blocks, each with a 25 × 50 m area where all grasses, semi-shrubs, and perennial forbs were hand removed, a 25 × 50 m control area with no manipulation of vegetation cover, and two 10 × 25 m plots immediately downwind of the grass-removal and control areas in the prevailing wind direction, 19° north of east, for measuring vegetation cover. Aeolian sediment flux, soil nutrients, and soil seed bank were monitored on each treatment area and downwind plot. Grass and shrub cover were measured on each grass-removal, control, and downwind plot along continuous line transects as well as on 5 × 10 m subplots within each downwind area over four years following grass removal. On grass-removal areas, sediment flux increased significantly, soil nutrients and seed bank were depleted, and Prosopis glandulosa shrub cover increased compared to controls. Additionally, differential changes for grass and shrub cover were observed for plots downwind of vegetation-removal and control areas. Grass cover on plots downwind of vegetation-removal areas decreased over time (2004–2007) despite above average rainfall throughout the period of observation, while grass cover increased downwind of control areas; P. glandulosa cover increased on plots downwind of vegetation-removal areas, while decreasing on plots downwind of control areas. The relationships between vegetation changes and aeolian sediment flux were significant and were best described by a logarithmic function, with decreases in grass cover and increases in shrub cover occurring with small increases in aeolian sediment flux. PMID:22837828

Alvarez, Lorelei J; Epstein, Howard E; Li, Junran; Okin, Gregory S

2012-01-01

209

Changes in grassland ecosystem function due to extreme rainfall events: implications for responses to climate change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Climate change driven by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations is causing measurable changes in precipitation patterns. Most climate change scenarios forecast continuing increases in extreme precipitation patterns for North American terrestrial ecosystems, manifest as larger precipitation event...

210

Increased temperature and precipitation interact to affect root production, mortality, and turnover in a temperate steppe: implications for ecosystem C cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine root production and turnover play important roles in regulating carbon (C) cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. In order to examine effects of climate change on root production and turnover, a field experiment with increased temperature and precipitation had been conducted in a semiarid temperate steppe in northern China since April 2005. Experi- mental warming decreased annual root production, mortality, and

WENMING B AI; S HULI N IU; W EIXING L IU; QIBING WANG; W ENHAO Z HANG

2009-01-01

211

Effects of Elevated CO2 and N Addition on Growth and N2 Fixation of a Legume Subshrub (Caragana microphylla Lam.) in Temperate Grassland in China  

PubMed Central

It is well demonstrated that the responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration are species-specific and dependent on environmental conditions. We investigated the responses of a subshrub legume species, Caragana microphylla Lam., to elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition using open-top chambers in a semiarid temperate grassland in northern China for three years. Measured variables include leaf photosynthetic rate, shoot biomass, root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity, and leaf N content. Symbiotic nitrogenase activity was determined by the C2H2 reduction method. Elevated CO2 enhanced photosynthesis and shoot biomass by 83% and 25%, respectively, and the enhancement of shoot biomass was significant only at a high N concentration. In addition, the photosynthetic capacity of C. microphylla did not show down-regulation under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 had no significant effect on root biomass, symbiotic nitrogenase activity and leaf N content. Under elevated CO2, N addition stimulated photosynthesis and shoot biomass. By contrast, N addition strongly inhibited symbiotic nitrogenase activity and slightly increased leaf N content of C. microphylla under both CO2 levels, and had no significant effect on root biomass. The effect of elevated CO2 and N addition on C. microphylla did not show interannual variation, except for the effect of N addition on leaf N content. These results indicate that shoot growth of C. microphylla is more sensitive to elevated CO2 than is root growth. The stimulation of shoot growth of C. microphylla under elevated CO2 or N addition is not associated with changes in N2-fixation. Additionally, elevated CO2 and N addition interacted to affect shoot growth of C. microphylla with a stimulatory effect occurring only under combination of these two factors. PMID:22046376

Zhang, Lin; Wu, Dongxiu; Shi, Huiqiu; Zhang, Canjuan; Zhan, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Shuangxi

2011-01-01

212

Climate Extreme Effects on the Chemical Composition of Temperate Grassland Species under Ambient and Elevated CO2: A Comparison of Fructan and Non-Fructan Accumulators  

PubMed Central

Elevated CO2 concentrations and extreme climate events, are two increasing components of the ongoing global climatic change factors, may alter plant chemical composition and thereby their economic and ecological characteristics, e.g. nutritional quality and decomposition rates. To investigate the impact of climate extremes on tissue quality, four temperate grassland species: the fructan accumulating grasses Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, and the nitrogen (N) fixing legumes Medicago lupulina and Lotus corniculatus were subjected to water deficit at elevated temperature (+3°C), under ambient CO2 (392 ppm) and elevated CO2 (620 ppm). As a general observation, the effects of the climate extreme were larger and more ubiquitous in combination with elevated CO2. The imposed climate extreme increased non-structural carbohydrate and phenolics in all species, whereas it increased lignin in legumes and decreased tannins in grasses. However, there was no significant effect of climate extreme on structural carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and mineral contents and stoichiometric ratios. In combination with elevated CO2, climate extreme elicited larger increases in fructan and sucrose content in the grasses without affecting the total carbohydrate content, while it significantly increased total carbohydrates in legumes. The accumulation of carbohydrates in legumes was accompanied by higher activity of sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and ADP-Glc pyrophosphorylase. In the legumes, elevated CO2 in combination with climate extreme reduced protein, phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) contents and the total element:N ratio and it increased phenol, lignin, tannin, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) contents and C:N, C:P and N:P ratios. On the other hand, the tissue composition of the fructan accumulating grasses was not affected at this level, in line with recent views that fructans contribute to cellular homeostasis under stress. It is speculated that quality losses will be less prominent in grasses (fructan accumulators) than legumes under climate extreme and its combination with elevated CO2 conditions. PMID:24670435

Zinta, Gaurav; Van den Ende, Wim; Janssens, Ivan A.; Asard, Han

2014-01-01

213

Litter decomposition and nutrient release as affected by soil nitrogen availability and litter quality in a semiarid grassland ecosystem.  

PubMed

Nitrogen availability is critically important to litter decomposition, especially in arid and semiarid areas where N is limiting. We studied the relative contributions of litter quality and soil N to litter decomposition of two dominant grassland species, Stipa krylovii and Artemisia frigida, in a semiarid typical steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, China. The study had four different rates of N addition (0, 8, 32, and 64 g N m(-2) year(-1)), and litter samples were decomposed under varying site conditions and by litter types. Litter-mixing effects of the two species were also examined. We found that N addition increased litter N concentration and thus enhanced litter decomposition by improving substrate quality. This increase, however, was offset by the negative effect of increased soil N, resulting in a diminished effect of increased soil N availability on in situ litter decomposition. The positive effects of improved litter quality slightly out-performed the negative effects of increased soil N. Our further analysis revealed that the negative effect of increasing soil N on litter decomposition could be partially explained by reduced soil microbial biomass and activity. Decomposition was significantly faster for litters of a two-species mixture than litters of the single species, but the rate of litter decomposition did not differ much between the two species, suggesting that compositional balance, rather than changes in the dominance between Stipa and Artemisia, is more critical for litter decomposition, hence nutrient cycling in this ecosystem. This semiarid steppe ecosystem may become more conservative in nutrient use with switching of dominance from Artemisia to Stipa with increasing soil N, because Stipa has a slower decomposition rate and a higher nutrient retention rate than Artemisia. PMID:19921269

Liu, Ping; Huang, Jianhui; Sun, Osbert Jianxin; Han, Xingguo

2010-03-01

214

Trace gas and particulate emissions from biomass burning in temperate ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emissions measured from fires in graminoid wetlands, Mediterranean chaparrals, and boreal forests, suggest that such ecosystemic parameters as fuel size influence combustion emissions in ways that are broadly predictable. The degree of predictability is most noticeable when wetland fire-related results are compared with boreal forest emissions; the inorganic fraction of the particulate emissions is close in composition irrespective of the ecosystem. It is found that both aerosol and trace gas emissions are influenced by the phase of combustion.

Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Winstead, Edward L.; Stocks, Brian J.

1991-01-01

215

Effects of short term and long term soil warming on ecosystem phenology of a sub-arctic grassland: an NDVI-based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenology has been defined as the study of the timing of recurring biological events and the causes of their timing with regard to abiotic and biotic factors. Ecosystem phenology, including the onset of the growing season and its senescence in autumn, plays an important role in the carbon, water and energy exchange between biosphere and atmosphere at higher latitudes. Factors that influence ecosystem phenology can therefore induce important climate-controlling feedback mechanisms. Global surface temperatures have been predicted to increase in the coming decades. Hence, a better understanding of the effect of temperature on ecosystem phenology is essential. Natural geothermal soil temperature gradients in Iceland offer a unique opportunity to study the soil temperature (Ts) dependence of ecosystem phenology and distinguish short-term (transient) warming effects (in recently established Ts gradients) from long-term (permanent) effects (in centuries-old Ts gradients). This research was performed in the framework of an international research project (ForHot; www.forhot.is). ForHot includes two natural grassland areas with gradients in Ts, dominated by Festuca sp., Agrostis sp.. The first warmed area was created in 2008, when an earthquake in S-Iceland caused geothermal systems to be shifted to previously cold soils. The second area is located about 3 km away from this newly warmed grassland. For this area, there are proofs that the natural soil warming has been continuous for at least 300 year. In the present study we focus on Ts elevation gradients of +0 to +10°C. The experiment consists of five transects with five temperature levels (+0,+1,+3,+5 and +10°C) in the two aforementioned grassland ecosystems (n=25 in each grassland). From April until November 2013, weekly measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were taken. In the short-term warmed grassland, the greening of the vegetation was 36 days advanced at +10°C Ts and the date of 50% greening was advanced by 23 days at +5°C and by 32 days at +10°C Ts. However, no difference in the date of maximum greening or in the onset of senescence occurred. In contrast, in the long-term warmed grassland, the start of the growing season was not affected by Ts and the 50% greening point occurred only 10 days earlier at +5°C and 15 days earlier at +10°C Ts. However, the timing of maximum greening was advanced by 19 days at +5°C and even by 32 days at +10°C Ts. Again, the onset of senescence did not change with Ts. Significant Ts effects on ecosystem phenology of subarctic grasslands only occurred at warming of 5°C or higher. This study also demonstrates that short-term Ts effects on ecosystem phenology are not necessarily good predictors for long-term changes in sub-arctic grasslands. In the short-term (5 years warming), soil warming induced an early onset of the growing season, which was later compensated by faster greening on colder soils, so that maximum greenness was reached simultaneously irrespective of Ts. In contrast, the long-term Ts warming did not induce earlier onset of the growing season, but it led to faster greening on warm soils, which again led to an advance in timing of maximum greenness. This difference between short- and long-term responses in phenology might be caused by either phenotypic plasticity (acclimation) or by a genetic selection (evolution) of the grass populations where the warming has been ongoing for centuries. Such processes are at present not included in modelling predictions of climate change responses of natural ecosystems, but may offer important negative feedback mechanisms to warming which will reduce its effects.

Leblans, Niki; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Janssens, Ivan A.

2014-05-01

216

Predicting the response of a temperate forest ecosystem to atmospheric CO[sub 2] increase  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the second year of research progress. Included are progress reports for the following studies: the responses of temperate forest tree to 3 years of exposure to elevated carbon dioxide, and high and low nutrient and light levels; pot-size limitations in carbon dioxide studies, interactive effects of carbon dioxide and soil moisture availability on tree seedling's tissue water relations, growth, and niche characteristics; individual versus population responses to elevated carbon dioxide levels in two species of annual weeds; and the development of gypsy moth larvae raised on gray and yellow birth foliage grown in ambient and elevated carbon dioxide environments.

Bazzaz, F.A.

1993-01-01

217

Influence of local air pollution on the deposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate to a nutrient-poor natural grassland ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry deposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is known to have a phytotoxic impact on plants under photochemical smog conditions, but it may also lead to higher productivity and threaten species richness of vulnerable ecosystems in remote regions. However, underlying mechanisms or controlling factors for PAN deposition are not well understood and studies on dry deposition of PAN are limited. In this study, we investigate the impact of PAN deposition on a nutrient-poor natural grassland ecosystem situated at the edge of an urban and industrialized region in Germany. PAN mixing ratios were measured within a 3.5 months summer to early autumn period. In addition, PAN fluxes were determined with the modified Bowen ratio technique for a selected period. The evaluation of both stomatal and non-stomatal deposition pathways was used to model PAN deposition over the entire summer-autumn period. We found that air masses at the site were influenced by two contrasting pollution regimes, which led to median diurnal PAN mixing ratios ranging between 50 and 300 ppt during unpolluted and between 200 and 600 ppt during polluted episodes. The measured PAN fluxes showed a clear diurnal cycle with maximal deposition fluxes of ~-0.1 nmol m-2 s-1 (corresponding to a deposition velocity of 0.3 cm s-1) during daytime and a significant non-stomatal contribution was found. The ratio of PAN to ozone deposition velocities was found to be ~0.1, which is much larger than assumed by current deposition models. The modelled PAN flux over the entire period revealed that PAN deposition over an entire day was 333 ?g m-2 d-1 under unpolluted and 518 ?g m-2 d-1 under polluted episodes. Additionally, thermochemical decomposition PAN deposition accounted for 32% under unpolluted episodes and 22% under polluted episodes of the total atmospheric PAN loss. However, the impact of PAN deposition as a nitrogen source to the nutrient-poor grassland was estimated to be only minor, under both unpolluted and polluted episodes.

Moravek, A.; Stella, P.; Foken, T.; Trebs, I.

2015-01-01

218

Influence of local air pollution on the deposition of peroxyacteyl nitrate to a nutrient-poor natural grassland ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry deposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is known to have a phytotoxic impact on plants under photochemical smog conditions, but it may also lead to higher productivity and threaten species richness of vulnerable ecosystems in remote regions. However, underlying mechanisms or controlling factors for PAN deposition are not well understood and studies on dry deposition of PAN are limited. In this study, we investigate the impact of PAN deposition on a nutrient-poor natural grassland ecosystem situated at the edge of an urban and industrialized region in Germany. PAN mixing ratios were measured within a 3.5 months summer to early autumn period. In addition, PAN fluxes were determined with the modified Bowen ratio technique for a selected period. The evaluation of both stomatal and non-stomatal deposition pathways was used to model PAN deposition over the entire summer-autumn period. We found that air masses at the site were influenced by two contrasting pollution regimes, which lead to median diurnal PAN mixing ratios ranging between 50 and 300 ppt during unpolluted and between 200 and 600 ppt during polluted episodes. The measured PAN fluxes showed a clear diurnal cycle with maximal deposition fluxes of ~ -0.1 nmol m-2 s-1 (corresponding to a deposition velocity of 0.3 cm s-1) during daytime and a significant non-stomatal contribution was found. The ratio of PAN to ozone deposition velocities was found to be ~0.1, which is much larger than assumed by current deposition models. The modelled PAN flux over the entire period revealed that PAN deposition over an entire day was 333 ?g m-2 d-1 under unpolluted and 518 ?g m-2 d-1 under polluted episodes. Besides, thermochemical decomposition PAN deposition accounted for 32% under unpolluted episodes and 22% under polluted episodes of the total atmospheric PAN loss. However, the impact of PAN deposition as a nitrogen source to the nutrient-poor grassland was estimated to be only minor, under both unpolluted and polluted episodes.

Moravek, A.; Stella, P.; Foken, T.; Trebs, I.

2014-08-01

219

MONITORING MANUAL FOR GRASSLAND, SHRUBLAND AND SAVANNA ECOSYSTEMS, VOLUME I: QUICK START  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This manual describes how to monitor three rangeland attributes: soil and site stability, watershed function and biotic integrity. Nearly everything we value about rangelands depends on these attributes. Monitoring these three attributes is like monitoring the foundation of our rangeland ecosystems...

220

THE ROLE OF WATER RELATIONS IN DRIVING GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES TO RISING ATMOSPHERIC CO2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While rising atmospheric CO2 is known to be an important contributor to radiative forcing of Earth’s climate, more direct effects of this gas on photosynthesis and plant water relations have been underway for more than a century, and likely have already contributed to important ecosystem changes. In...

221

Oldest Evidence of Toolmaking Hominins in a Grassland-Dominated Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Major biological and cultural innovations in late Pliocene hominin evolution are frequently linked to the spread or fluctuating presence of C4 grass in African ecosystems. Whereas the deep sea record of global climatic change provides indirect evidence for an increase in C4 vegetation with a shift towards a cooler, drier and more variable global climatic regime beginning approximately 3

Thomas W. Plummer; Peter W. Ditchfield; Laura C. Bishop; John D. Kingston; Joseph V. Ferraro; David R. Braun; Fritz Hertel; Richard Potts

2009-01-01

222

Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of Juncus effusus in a temperate wetland ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of the emergent macrophyte Juncus effusus L. was measured in six plots in the Talladega Wetland Ecosystem (Hale County, AL) over diel and annual periods to evaluate the effects of water table fluctuations on photosynthesis and water losses. Half of the plots were in the areas where sediments remained saturated annually (stable water table) and

Carroll J. Mann; Robert G. Wetzel

1999-01-01

223

Whole-ecosystem labile carbon production in a north temperate deciduous forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labile carbon (C), which is principally comprised of non-structural carbohydrates, is an essential intermediary between C assimilation and structural growth in deciduous forests. We developed a new approach that combined meteorological and biometric C cycling data for a mixed deciduous forest in Michigan, USA, to provide novel estimates of whole-ecosystem labile C production and reallocation to structural net primary production

Christopher M. Gough; Charles E. Flower; Christoph S. Vogel; Danilo Dragoni; Peter S. Curtis

2009-01-01

224

Integrating Climate and Ecosystem-Response Sciences in Temperate Western North American Mountains: The CIRMOUNT Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain regions are uniquely sensitive to changes in climate, vulnerable to climate effects on biotic and physical factors of intense social concern, and serve as critical early-warning systems of climate impacts. Escalating demands on western North American (WNA) mountain ecosystems increasingly stress both natural resources and rural community capacities; changes in mountain systems cascade to issues of national concern. Although WNA has long been a focus for climate- and climate-related environmental research, these efforts remain disciplinary and poorly integrated, hindering interpretation into policy and management. Knowledge is further hampered by lack of standardized climate monitoring stations at high-elevations in WNA. An initiative is emerging as the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT) whose primary goal is to improve knowledge of high-elevation climate systems and to better integrate physical, ecological, and social sciences relevant to climate change, ecosystem response, and natural-resource policy in WNA. CIRMOUNT seeks to focus research on climate variability and ecosystem response (progress in understanding synoptic scale processes) that improves interpretation of linkages between ecosystem functions and human processing (progress in understanding human-environment integration), which in turn would yield applicable information and understanding on key societal issues such as mountains as water towers, biodiversity, carbon forest sinks, and wildland hazards such as fire and forest dieback (progress in understanding ecosystem services and key thresholds). Achieving such integration depends first on implementing a network of high-elevation climate-monitoring stations, and linking these with integrated ecosystem-response studies. Achievements since 2003 include convening the 2004 Mountain Climate Sciences Symposium (1, 2) and several special sessions at technical conferences; initiating a biennial mountain climate research symposium (MTNCLIM), the first to be held in spring 2005; developing a strategy for climate-monitoring in WNA; installing and networking high-elevation (>3000m) climate-monitoring stations; and completing three target regions (Glacier National Park, MT; Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, CA) of the international GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) plant-monitoring project, the first in WNA. CIRMOUNT emphasizes integration at the regional scale in WNA, collaborating with and complementing projects such as the Western Mountain Initiative, whose mandate is more targeted than CIRMOUNT's, and global programs such as GLORIA and the international Mountain Research Initiative. Achievement of continuing success in WNA hinges on the capacity to secure long-term funding and institutional investment. (1) See associated URL for paper and poster pdfs (2) Discussing the future of western U.S. mountains, climate change, and ecosystems. EOS 31 August 2004, 85(35), p. 329

Millar, C. I.; Fagre, D. B.

2004-12-01

225

The role of grasslands in food security and climate change  

PubMed Central

Background Grasslands are a major part of the global ecosystem, covering 37 % of the earth's terrestrial area. For a variety of reasons, mostly related to overgrazing and the resulting problems of soil erosion and weed encroachment, many of the world's natural grasslands are in poor condition and showing signs of degradation. This review examines their contribution to global food supply and to combating climate change. Scope Grasslands make a significant contribution to food security through providing part of the feed requirements of ruminants used for meat and milk production. Globally, this is more important in food energy terms than pig meat and poultry meat. Grasslands are considered to have the potential to play a key role in greenhouse gas mitigation, particularly in terms of global carbon storage and further carbon sequestration. It is estimated that grazing land management and pasture improvement (e.g. through managing grazing intensity, improved productivity, etc) have a global technical mitigation potential of almost 1·5 Gt CO2 equivalent in 2030, with additional mitigation possible from restoration of degraded lands. Milk and meat production from grassland systems in temperate regions has similar emissions of carbon dioxide per kilogram of product as mixed farming systems in temperate regions, and, if carbon sinks in grasslands are taken into account, grassland-based production systems can be as efficient as high-input systems from a greenhouse gas perspective. Conclusions Grasslands are important for global food supply, contributing to ruminant milk and meat production. Extra food will need to come from the world's existing agricultural land base (including grasslands) as the total area of agricultural land has remained static since 1991. Ruminants are efficient converters of grass into humanly edible energy and protein and grassland-based food production can produce food with a comparable carbon footprint as mixed systems. Grasslands are a very important store of carbon, and they are continuing to sequester carbon with considerable potential to increase this further. Grassland adaptation to climate change will be variable, with possible increases or decreases in productivity and increases or decreases in soil carbon stores. PMID:23002270

O'Mara, F. P.

2012-01-01

226

Community Level Offset of Rain Use- and Transpiration Efficiency for a Heavily Grazed Ecosystem in Inner Mongolia Grassland  

PubMed Central

Water use efficiency (WUE) is a key indicator to assess ecosystem adaptation to water stress. Rain use efficiency (RUE) is usually used as a proxy for WUE due to lack of transpiration data. Furthermore, RUE based on aboveground primary productivity (RUEANPP) is used to evaluate whole plant water use because root production data is often missing as well. However, it is controversial as to whether RUE is a reliable parameter to elucidate transpiration efficiency (TE), and whether RUEANPP is a suitable proxy for RUE of the whole plant basis. The experiment was conducted at three differently managed sites in the Inner Mongolia steppe: a site fenced since 1979 (UG79), a winter grazing site (WG) and a heavily grazed site (HG). Site HG had consistent lowest RUEANPP and RUE based on total net primary productivity (RUENPP). RUEANPP is a relatively good proxy at sites UG79 and WG, but less reliable for site HG. Similarly, RUEANPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on aboveground net primary productivity (TEANPP) at sites UG79 and WG but not for site HG. However, if total net primary productivity is considered, RUENPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on total net primary productivity (TENPP) for all sites. Although our measurements indicate decreased plant transpiration and consequentially decreasing RUE under heavy grazing, productivity was relatively compensated for with a higher TE. This offset between RUE and TE was even enhanced under water limited conditions and more evident when belowground net primary productivity (BNNP) was included. These findings suggest that BNPP should be considered when studies fucus on WUE of more intensively used grasslands. The consideration of the whole plant perspective and “real” WUE would partially revise our picture of system performance and therefore might affect the discussion on the C-sequestration and resilience potential of ecosystems. PMID:24058632

Gao, Ying Z.; Giese, Marcus; Gao, Qiang; Brueck, Holger; Sheng, Lian X.; Yang, Hai J.

2013-01-01

227

Community level offset of rain use- and transpiration efficiency for a heavily grazed ecosystem in inner Mongolia grassland.  

PubMed

Water use efficiency (WUE) is a key indicator to assess ecosystem adaptation to water stress. Rain use efficiency (RUE) is usually used as a proxy for WUE due to lack of transpiration data. Furthermore, RUE based on aboveground primary productivity (RUEANPP) is used to evaluate whole plant water use because root production data is often missing as well. However, it is controversial as to whether RUE is a reliable parameter to elucidate transpiration efficiency (TE), and whether RUEANPP is a suitable proxy for RUE of the whole plant basis. The experiment was conducted at three differently managed sites in the Inner Mongolia steppe: a site fenced since 1979 (UG79), a winter grazing site (WG) and a heavily grazed site (HG). Site HG had consistent lowest RUEANPP and RUE based on total net primary productivity (RUENPP). RUEANPP is a relatively good proxy at sites UG79 and WG, but less reliable for site HG. Similarly, RUEANPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on aboveground net primary productivity (TEANPP) at sites UG79 and WG but not for site HG. However, if total net primary productivity is considered, RUENPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on total net primary productivity (TENPP) for all sites. Although our measurements indicate decreased plant transpiration and consequentially decreasing RUE under heavy grazing, productivity was relatively compensated for with a higher TE. This offset between RUE and TE was even enhanced under water limited conditions and more evident when belowground net primary productivity (BNNP) was included. These findings suggest that BNPP should be considered when studies fucus on WUE of more intensively used grasslands. The consideration of the whole plant perspective and "real" WUE would partially revise our picture of system performance and therefore might affect the discussion on the C-sequestration and resilience potential of ecosystems. PMID:24058632

Gao, Ying Z; Giese, Marcus; Gao, Qiang; Brueck, Holger; Sheng, Lian X; Yang, Hai J

2013-01-01

228

The Ecological Significance of the Herbaceous Layer in Temperate Forest Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from the November 2007 issue of BioScience examines the importance of the herbaceous layer of the forest ecosystem. Despite a growing awareness that the herbaceous layer serves a special role in maintaining the structure and function of forests, this stratum remains an underappreciated aspect of forest ecosystems. In this article I review and synthesize information concerning the herb layer's structure, composition, and dynamics to emphasize its role as an integral component of forest ecosystems. Because species diversity is highest in the herb layer among all forest strata, forest biodiversity is largely a function of the herb-layer community. Competitive interactions within the herb layer can determine the initial success of plants occupying higher strata, including the regeneration of dominant overstory tree species. Furthermore, the herb layer and the overstory can become linked through parallel responses to similar environmental gradients. These relationships between strata vary both spatially and temporally. Because the herb layer responds sensitively to disturbance across broad spatial and temporal scales, its dynamics can provide important information regarding the site characteristics of forests, including patterns of past land-use practices. Thus, the herb layer has a significance that belies its diminutive stature.

Frank Gilliam (;)

2007-11-01

229

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Grassland Ecosystems of the Central Lithuania: Multi-Criteria Evaluation on a Basis of the ARAS Method  

PubMed Central

N2O, CH4, and CO2 are potential greenhouse gas (GHG) contributing to climate change; therefore, solutions have to be sought to reduce their emission from agriculture. This work evaluates GHG emission from grasslands submitted to different mineral fertilizers during vegetation period (June–September) in two experimental sites, namely, seminatural grassland (8 treatments of mineral fertilizers) and cultural pasture (intensively managed) in the Training Farm of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture. Chamber method was applied for evaluation of GHG emissions on the field scale. As a result, soil chemical composition, compactness, temperature, and gravimetric moisture as well as biomass yield of fresh and dry biomass and botanical composition, were assessed during the research. Furthermore, a simulation of multi-criteria assessment of sustainable fertilizers management was carried out on a basis of ARAS method. The multicriteria analysis of different fertilizing regimes was based on a system of environmental and productivity indices. Consequently, agroecosystems of cultural pasture (N180P120K150) and seminatural grassland fertilizing rates N180P120K150 and N60P40K50 were evaluated as the most sustainable alternatives leading to reduction of emissions between biosphere-atmosphere and human-induced biogenic pollution in grassland ecosystems, thus contributing to improvement of countryside environment. PMID:22645463

Balezentiene, Ligita; Kusta, Albinas

2012-01-01

230

Soil environmental conditions and microbial build-up mediate the effect of plant diversity on soil nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities in temperate grasslands.  

PubMed

Random reductions in plant diversity can affect ecosystem functioning, but it is still unclear which components of plant diversity (species number - namely richness, presence of particular plant functional groups, or particular combinations of these) and associated biotic and abiotic drivers explain the observed relationships, particularly for soil processes. We assembled grassland communities including 1 to 16 plant species with a factorial separation of the effects of richness and functional group composition to analyze how plant diversity components influence soil nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities (NEA and DEA, respectively), the abundance of nitrifiers (bacterial and archaeal amoA gene number) and denitrifiers (nirK, nirS and nosZ gene number), and key soil environmental conditions. Plant diversity effects were largely due to differences in functional group composition between communities of identical richness (number of sown species), though richness also had an effect per se. NEA was positively related to the percentage of legumes in terms of sown species number, the additional effect of richness at any given legume percentage being negative. DEA was higher in plots with legumes, decreased with increasing percentage of grasses, and increased with richness. No correlation was observed between DEA and denitrifier abundance. NEA increased with the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria. The effect of richness on NEA was entirely due to the build-up of nitrifying organisms, while legume effect was partly linked to modified ammonium availability and nitrifier abundance. Richness effect on DEA was entirely due to changes in soil moisture, while the effects of legumes and grasses were partly due to modified nitrate availability, which influenced the specific activity of denitrifiers. These results suggest that plant diversity-induced changes in microbial specific activity are important for facultative activities such as denitrification, whereas changes in microbial abundance play a major role for non-facultative activities such as nitrification. PMID:23613785

Le Roux, Xavier; Schmid, Bernhard; Poly, Franck; Barnard, Romain L; Niklaus, Pascal A; Guillaumaud, Nadine; Habekost, Maike; Oelmann, Yvonne; Philippot, Laurent; Salles, Joana Falcao; Schloter, Michael; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; Weigelt, Alexandra

2013-01-01

231

Forest and grassland ecosystem studies using the advanced solid-state array spectroradiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advanced solid-state array spectroradiometer (ASAS) is an airborne, off-nadir pointing imaging spectroradiometer used to acquire bidirectional radiance data for terrestrial targets. As its platform aircraft flies over a target the sensor can image the target through a sequence of at least seven fore-to-aft view directions ranging up to 45 deg on either side of nadir. ASAS acquires data for 29 spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum with a resolution of 15 nm. ASAS data were recently acquired for a prairie ecosystem and a northern forest ecosystem. The data demonstrate the combined effects of reflectance anisotropy and increased atmospheric path length on off-nadir observations. One result of these effects is a variation in vegetation indices as a function of view direction. Normalized-difference-vegetation-indices for prairie grass, coniferous, and deciduous canopies varied up to 14 percent, 23 percent, and 6 percent, respectively, relative to nadir as a function of view zenith angle along the solar principal plane.

Irons, James R.; Ranson, K. Jon; Williams, Darrel L.; Irish, Richard R.

1989-01-01

232

Use of historical logging patterns to identify disproportionately logged ecosystems within temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska.  

PubMed

The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources. PMID:23866037

Albert, David M; Schoen, John W

2013-08-01

233

Remote sensing of canopy chemistry and nitrogen cycling in temperate forest ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of images acquired by the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer, an experimental high-spectral resolution imaging sensor developed by NASA, to estimate the lignin concentration of whole forest canopies in Wisconsin is reported. The observed strong relationship between canopy lignin concentration and nitrogen availability in seven undisturbed forest ecosystems on Blackhawk Island, Wisconsin, suggests that canopy lignin may serve as an index for site nitrogen status. This predictive relationship presents the opportunity to estimate nitrogen-cycling rates across forested landscapes through remote sensing.

Wessman, Carol A.; Aber, John D.; Peterson, David L.; Melillo, Jerry M.

1988-01-01

234

Modelling grassland phenology and growth using near-surface remote sensing derived time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the size and the duration of rain events have a significant influence on the phenology and growth of grasslands. This pulse-response nature of grasslands makes quantifying intra and inter-annual variability in grassland growth challenging and large uncertainties remain on which precipitation characteristics have the greatest influence on grassland phenology, growth and ecosystem productivity. Here we present modeled results of soil water content and grassland growth on a daily timestep from 16 grassland sites (40 site years) across arid, temperate and tropical biomes. We build upon a simple threshold-delay concept with provisions for influences of soil temperature and photoperiod on plant growth. Modelled soil water content and grassland growth are based upon limited set of widely available climatic drivers such as daily precipitation, minimum and maximum temperature, to facilitate scaling, and validated against near-surface remote sensing (PhenoCam) data of vegetation greenness. This simple model framework allows us to explore future effects of changes in the size and duration of precipitation events as well as temperature on grassland phenology and growth across different biome types.

Hufkens, Koen; Chen, Min; Richardson, Andrew D.

2014-05-01

235

Tree-ring ? 13C tracks flux tower ecosystem productivity estimates in a NE temperate forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated relationships between tree-ring ?13C and growth, and flux tower estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) at Harvard Forest from 1992 to 2010. Seasonal variations of derived photosynthetic isotope discrimination (?13C) and leaf intercellular CO2 concentration (c i ) showed significant increasing trends for the dominant deciduous and coniferous species. ?13C was positively correlated to growing-season GPP and is primarily controlled by precipitation and soil moisture indicating that site conditions maintained high stomatal conductance under increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. Increasing ?13C over the 1992-2010 period is attributed to increasing annual and summer water availability identified at Harvard Forest and across the region. Higher ?13C is coincident with an enhancement in growth and ecosystem-level net carbon uptake. This work suggests that tree-ring ?13C could serve as a measure of forest GPP and be used to improve the calibration and predictive skill of ecosystem and carbon cycle models.

Belmecheri, Soumaya; Stockton Maxwell, R.; Taylor, Alan H.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Munger, William J.

2014-07-01

236

Quantifying the Role of Water Table Dynamics on Net Ecosystem Exchange of CO2 in a Northern Temperate Shrub Wetland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands represent up to a third of the global soil carbon, and so they are a large component of an uncertain terrestrial carbon flux. In the northern temperate forests around the upper Great Lakes of North America forest and shrub stature wetlands cover about one-third of the total land area. In northern Wisconsin lateral subsurface water redistribution associated with hummocky glaciated terrain drives lowland water table heights. A multi-year trend of declining water table height in these areas has been observed throughout this region since year 2000. We examined the effect of this declining water table on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon measured at the Lost Creek AmeriFlux tower site (46 deg. 49 min. N, 89 deg. 58.7 min. W), which lies within a shrub stature alder and willow wetland. On an inter-annual basis from 2001-2007 there was no significant correlation between annual total NEE and annual mean water table height. There were offsetting increases in both respiration and gross ecosystem production (GEP) as the water table fell through a level of about 20-30 cm below the surface. During an exceptionally dry growing season in 2007 GEP was anomalously low switching the site from a carbon sink to a source for the year. To quantify the role of water table dynamics at shorter timescales and to examine the relative responses of GEP and respiration in more detail we used a coupled water and carbon transport model along with Bayesian analysis. Short-term water table dynamics significantly improved the prediction of NEE, reflecting the importance of seasonal distribution of precipitation on the coupled water and carbon exchanges.

Mackay, S.; Desai, A. R.; Sulman, B. N.; Roberts, D. E.

2009-05-01

237

Community Assembly of Biological Soil Crusts of Different Successional Stages in a Temperate Sand Ecosystem, as Assessed by Direct Determination and Enrichment Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In temperate regions, biological soil crusts (BSCs: complex communities of cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, bryophytes, and\\u000a lichens) are not well investigated regarding community structure and diversity. Furthermore, studies on succession are rare.\\u000a For that reason, the community assembly of crusts representing two successional stages (initial, 5 years old; and stable,\\u000a >20 years old) were analyzed in an inland sand ecosystem in Germany in

Tanja Margrit Langhans; Christian Storm; Angelika Schwabe

2009-01-01

238

Applicability of the flood-pulse concept in a temperate floodplain river ecosystem: Thermal and temporal components  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual growth increments were calculated for blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) from the lower Mississippi River (LMR) to assess hypothesized relationships between fish growth and floodplain inundation as predicted by the Flood-Pulse Concept. Variation in catfish growth increment was high for all age classes of both species, and growth increments were not consistently related to various measures of floodplain inundation. However, relationships became stronger, and usually direct, when water temperature was integrated with area and duration of floodplain inundation. Relationships were significant for four of six age classes for blue catfish, a species known to utilize floodplain habitats. Though similar in direction, relationships were weaker for flathead catfish, which is considered a more riverine species. Our results indicate the Flood-Pulse Concept applies more strongly to temperate floodplain-river ecosystems when thermal aspects of flood pulses are considered. We recommend that future management of the LMR should consider ways to 'recouple' the annual flood and thermal cycles. An adaptive management approach will allow further determination of important processes affecting fisheries production in the LMR. Copyright ?? John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Schramm, H.L., Jr.; Eggleton, M.A.

2006-01-01

239

Grassland/atmosphere response to changing climate: Coupling regional and local scales. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the study were: to evaluate the response of grassland ecosystems to atmospheric change at regional and site scales, and to develop multiscaled modeling systems to relate ecological and atmospheric models with different spatial and temporal resolutions. A menu-driven shell was developed to facilitate use of models at different temporal scales and to facilitate exchange information between models at different temporal scales. A detailed ecosystem model predicted that C{sub 3} temperate grasslands wig respond more strongly to elevated CO{sub 2} than temperate C{sub 4} grasslands in the short-term while a large positive N-PP response was predicted for a C{sub 4} Kenyan grassland. Long-term climate change scenarios produced either decreases or increases in Colorado plant productivity (NPP) depending on rainfall, but uniform increases in N-PP were predicted in Kenya. Elevated CO{sub 2} is likely to have little effect on ecosystem carbon storage in Colorado while it will increase carbon storage in Kenya. A synoptic climate classification processor (SCP) was developed to evaluate results of GCM climate sensitivity experiments. Roughly 80% agreement was achieved with manual classifications. Comparison of lx and 2xCO{sub 2} GCM Simulations revealed relatively small differences.

Coughenour, M.B.; Kittel, T.G.F.; Pielke, R.A.; Eastman, J.

1993-10-01

240

GPP/RE Partitioning of Long-term Network Flux Data as a Tool for Estimating Ecosystem-scale Ecophysiological Parameters of Grasslands and Croplands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physiologically based model of canopy CO2 exchange by Thornly and Johnson (2000) modified to incorporate vapor pressure deficit (VPD) limitation of photosynthesis is a robust tool for partitioning tower network net CO2 exchange data into gross photosynthesis (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) (Gilmanov et al. 2013a, b). In addition to 30-min and daily photosynthesis and respiration values, the procedure generates daily estimates and uncertainties of essential ecosystem-scale parameters such as apparent quantum yield ALPHA, photosynthetic capacity AMAX, convexity of light response THETA, gross ecological light-use efficiency LUE, daytime ecosystem respiration rate RDAY, and nighttime ecosystem respiration rate RNIGHT. These ecosystem-scale parameters are highly demanded by the modeling community and open opportunities for comparison with the rich data of leaf-level estimates of corresponding parameters available from physiological studies of previous decades. Based on the data for 70+ site-years of flux tower measurements at the non-forest sites of the Ameriflux network and the non-affiliated sites, we present results of the comparative analysis and multi-site synthesis of the magnitudes, uncertainties, patterns of seasonal and yearly dynamics, and spatiotemporal distribution of these parameters for grasslands and croplands of the conterminous United States (CONUS). Combining this site-level parameter data set with the rich spatiotemporal data sets of a remotely sensed vegetation index, weather and climate conditions, and site biophysical and geophysical features (phenology, photosynthetically active radiation, and soil water holding capacity) using methods of multivariate analysis (e.g., Cubist regression tree) offers new opportunities for predictive modeling and scaling-up of ecosystem-scale parameters of carbon cycling in grassland and agricultural ecosystems of CONUS (Zhang et al. 2011; Gu et al. 2012). REFERENCES Gilmanov TG, Baker JM, Bernacchi CJ, Billesbach DP, Burba GG, et al. (2013a). Productivity and CO2 exchange of the leguminous crops: Estimates from flux tower measurements. Agronomy J (submitted). Gilmanov TG, Wylie BK, Tieszen LL, Meyers TP, Baron VS, et al. (2013b). CO2 uptake and ecophysiological parameters of the grain crops of midcontinent North America: Estimates from flux tower measurements. Agric Ecosyst Environm 164: 162-175 Gu Y, Howard DM, Wylie BK, and Zhang L (2012). Mapping carbon flux uncertainty and selecting optimal locations for future flux towers in the Great Plains: Landscape Ecology, 27: 319-326. Thornley JHM., Johnson IR (2000). Plant and crop modelling. A mathematical approach to plant and crop physiology. The Blackburn Press, Caldwell, New Jersey. Zhang L, Wylie BK, Ji L, Gilmanov TG, Tieszen LL, Howard DM (2011). Upscaling carbon fluxes over the Great Plains grasslands: Sinks and sources. J Geophys Res G: Biogeosciences 116: G00J3

Gilmanov, T. G.; Wylie, B. K.; Gu, Y.; Howard, D. M.; Zhang, L.

2013-12-01

241

Quantifying nitrous oxide emissions from Chinese grasslands with a process-based model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one of the largest land cover types, grassland can potentially play an important role in the ecosystem services of natural resources in China. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a major greenhouse gas emitted from grasslands. Current N2O inventory at a regional or national level in China relies on the emission factor method, which is based on limited measurements. To improve the accuracy of the inventory by capturing the spatial variability of N2O emissions under the diverse climate, soil and management conditions across China, we adopted an approach by utilizing a process-based biogeochemical model, DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC), to quantify N2O emissions from Chinese grasslands. In the present study, DNDC was tested against datasets of N2O fluxes measured at eight grassland sites in China with encouraging results. The validated DNDC was then linked to a GIS database holding spatially differentiated information of climate, soil, vegetation and management at county-level for all the grasslands in the country. Daily weather data for 2000-2007 from 670 meteorological stations across the entire domain were employed to serve the simulations. The modelled results on a national scale showed a clear geographic pattern of N2O emissions. A high-emission strip showed up stretching from northeast to central China, which is consistent with the eastern boundary between the temperate grassland region and the major agricultural regions of China. The grasslands in the western mountain regions, however, emitted much less N2O. The regionally averaged rates of N2O emissions were 0.26, 0.14 and 0.38 kg nitrogen (N) ha-1 y-1 for the temperate, montane and tropical/subtropical grasslands, respectively. The annual mean N2O emission from the total 337 million ha of grasslands in China was 76.5 ± 12.8 Gg N for the simulated years.

Zhang, F.; Qi, J.; Li, F. M.; Li, C. S.; Li, C. B.

2010-06-01

242

Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness?  

PubMed

Invasions have increased the size of regional species pools, but are typically assumed to reduce native diversity. However, global-scale tests of this assumption have been elusive because of the focus on exotic species richness, rather than relative abundance. This is problematic because low invader richness can indicate invasion resistance by the native community or, alternatively, dominance by a single exotic species. Here, we used a globally replicated study to quantify relationships between exotic richness and abundance in grass-dominated ecosystems in 13 countries on six continents, ranging from salt marshes to alpine tundra. We tested effects of human land use, native community diversity, herbivore pressure, and nutrient limitation on exotic plant dominance. Despite its widespread use, exotic richness was a poor proxy for exotic dominance at low exotic richness, because sites that contained few exotic species ranged from relatively pristine (low exotic richness and cover) to almost completely exotic-dominated ones (low exotic richness but high exotic cover). Both exotic cover and richness were predicted by native plant diversity (native grass richness) and land use (distance to cultivation). Although climate was important for predicting both exotic cover and richness, climatic factors predicting cover (precipitation variability) differed from those predicting richness (maximum temperature and mean temperature in the wettest quarter). Herbivory and nutrient limitation did not predict exotic richness or cover. Exotic dominance was greatest in areas with low native grass richness at the site- or regional-scale. Although this could reflect native grass displacement, a lack of biotic resistance is a more likely explanation, given that grasses comprise the most aggressive invaders. These findings underscore the need to move beyond richness as a surrogate for the extent of invasion, because this metric confounds monodominance with invasion resistance. Monitoring species' relative abundance will more rapidly advance our understanding of invasions. PMID:24038796

Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Buckley, Yvonne; Cleland, Elsa E; Davies, Kendi; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric; MacDougall, Andrew; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Adler, Peter; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori A; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Caldeira, Maria; Chu, Chengjin; Crawley, Michael J; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I; D'Antonio, Carla M; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Dickman, Chris R; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andrew; Helm, Aveliina; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Humphries, Hope C; Iribarne, Oscar; Jin, Virginia L; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Ladwig, Laura M; Lambrinos, John G; Leakey, Andrew D B; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; McCulley, Rebecca; Melbourne, Brett; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Pärtel, Meelis; Pascual, Jesús; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda; Stevens, Carly; Sullivan, Lauren; Wardle, Glenda M; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

2013-12-01

243

Predicting invasion in grassland ecosystems: is exotic dominance the real embarrassment of richness?  

SciTech Connect

Invasions have increased the size of regional species pools, but are typically assumed to reduce native diversity. However, global-scale tests of this assumption have been elusive because of the focus on exotic species richness, rather than relative abundance. This is problematic because low invader richness can indicate invasion resistance by the native community or, alternatively, dominance by a single exotic species. Here, we used a globally replicated study to quantify relationships between exotic richness and abundance in grass-dominated ecosystems in 13 countries on six continents, ranging from salt marshes to alpine tundra. We tested effects of human land use, native community diversity, herbivore pressure, and nutrient limitation on exotic plant dominance. Despite its widespread use, exotic richness was a poor proxy for exotic dominance at low exotic richness, because sites that contained few exotic species ranged from relatively pristine (low exotic richness and cover) to almost completely exotic-dominated ones (low exotic richness but high exotic cover). Both exotic cover and richness were predicted by native plant diversity (native grass richness) and land use (distance to cultivation). Although climate was important for predicting both exotic cover and richness, climatic factors predicting cover (precipitation variability) differed from those predicting richness (maximum temperature and mean temperature in the wettest quarter). Herbivory and nutrient limitation did not predict exotic richness or cover. Exotic dominance was greatest in areas with low native grass richness at the site- or regional-scale. Although this could reflect native grass displacement, a lack of biotic resistance is a more likely explanation, given that grasses comprise the most aggressive invaders. These findings underscore the need to move beyond richness as a surrogate for the extent of invasion, because this metric confounds monodominance with invasion resistance. Monitoring species’ relative abundance will more rapidly advance our understanding of invasions.

Seabloom, Eric W. [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of MN, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA

2013-08-14

244

Ecosystem loss of soil inorganic carbon from agricultural conversion of native grasslands and woodlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil carbonates represent a quarter of the terrestrial carbon pool and are considered to be relatively stable, with fluxes significant only at geologic timescales. However, given the potential importance of water on carbonate chemistry, we propose that increased soil water fluxes from recent land-use changes may enhance dissolution of soil carbonates. To test rapid changes in soil carbonates with land-use changes, we assessed soil carbonate storage to 7.2 m depth in 4 triplets of native vegetation and rain-fed and irrigated cropland plots and 2 additional pairs of native vegetation and rain-fed cultivation plots across the southern Great Plains of United States and Pampas of Argentina, where large scale agricultural conversion typically increases soil water flux. Rain-fed and irrigated croplands had 513 and 906 Mg/ha less soil carbonate storage compared to their native vegetation pairs on average (P<0.0002), which were more than an order of magnitude larger than changes in ecosystem organic carbon at the sites. The eventual fate of the lost carbon (i.e. sequestration or emission of CO2), however, is unclear. Average soil carbonate contents from individual boreholes were negatively related to groundwater recharge estimates (site-specific; 0.00004

Kim, J. H.; Jobbagy, E. G.; Richter, D.; Jackson, R. B.

2013-12-01

245

Habitat requirements of weasels Mustela nivalis constrain their impact on prey populations in complex ecosystems of the temperate zone.  

PubMed

Differences in habitat use by prey and predator may lead to a shift of occupied niches and affect dynamics of their populations. The weasel Mustela nivalis specializes in hunting rodents, therefore habitat preferences of this predator may have important consequences for the population dynamics of its prey. We investigated habitat selection by weasels in the Bia?owieza Forest in different seasons at the landscape and local scales, and evaluated possible consequences for the population dynamics of their prey. At the landscape scale, weasels preferred open habitats (both dry and wet) and avoided forest. In open areas they selected habitats with higher prey abundance, except during the low-density phase of the vole cycle, when the distribution of these predators was more uniform. Also in winter, the distribution of weasels at the landscape scale was proportional to available resources. In summer, within open dry and wet habitats, weasels preferred areas characterised by dense vegetation, but avoided poor plant cover. In winter, weasels used wet open areas proportionally to availability of habitats when hunting, but in contrast to summer, they rested only in habitats characterized by a lower water level, which offered better thermal conditions. At the local scale, the abundance of voles was a less important factor affecting the distribution of these predators. Although we were not able to provide direct evidence for the existence of refuges for voles, our results show that they may be located within habitat patches, where availability of dense plant cover and physiological constraints limit the activity of weasels. Our results indicate that in complex ecosystems of the temperate zone, characterized by a mosaic pattern of vegetation types and habitat specific dynamics of rodents, impact of weasels on prey populations might be limited. PMID:18629542

Zub, K; Sönnichsen, L; Szafra?ska, P A

2008-10-01

246

Coupling between primary production and pelagic consumption in temperate ocean margin pelagic ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three fates potentially consume primary production occurring on ocean margins: portions can be oxidized within the water column, portions can sediment to shelf/slope depots, and portions can be exported to the interior ocean. Zooplankton mediate all three of these processes and thus can alter the pathway and residence time of particulate organic carbon. As part of both US DOE- and NSF-sponsored studies on the Cape Hatteras and South Atlantic Bight (SAB) shelves, the role of microzooplankton in these processes was determined by measuring phytoplankton production and its consumption by microzooplankton. Grazing and growth rates were measured during 46 dilution incubation experiments using chlorophyll a (chl a) as a proxy for phytoplankton (prey) biomass. Chl a production and grazing were determined for the <200 ?m phytoplankton community and also the <8 ?m size class. Primary production at Cape Hatteras was determined using H 14CO 3- incubations during two Lagrangian drifter studies lasting several days in March and July 1996. From similar measurements during cross-shelf transects over larger spatial scales, primary production was also calculated for the Hatteras study area using a wavelength-resolved bio-optical model. Primary production during the Lagrangian studies was generally 0.5-1.0 gC/m 2/d in March and 0.5-2.0 gC/m 2/d in July. Modeled estimates of primary production for the larger Hatteras study region in March and July averaged 1.8 gC/m 2/d. Typically, <8 ?m cells contributed one-half or more of primary production. Positive linear regressions described relationships between phytoplankton production measured as changes in chl a and its grazing by microzooplankton. In the dilution experiments conducted throughout the SAB and Hatteras shelves, microzooplankton grazed 65% of <200 ?m chl a production, and 81% of <8 ?m chl a production. These relationships were temperature-dependent: losses of chl a production in both size fractions to microzooplankton herbivory increased with increasing temperature. Higher grazing rates were found in the <8?m compared to the <200 ?m size class. Model regressions were used to estimate the impact of microzooplankton grazing on H 14CO 3--derived estimates of primary production in Cape Hatteras shelf waters. Integrated water column grazing removed 40% and 58% of <200 ?m and <8 ?m primary production, respectively, during the Lagrangian experiment in March, and 61% and 74% in July. Averaged over larger spatial scales using a bio-optical model, microzooplankton ingested 42% and 61% of primary production in March and July, respectively, with an overall mean of 52%. These data generally support the notion that, contrary to traditional paradigms about shelf ecosystems, small autotrophs contributed significantly to production, and that this carbon was actively incorporated into the microbial food web.

Verity, P. G.; Redalje, D. G.; Lohrenz, S. R.; Flagg, C.; Hristov, R.

247

Monitoring of carbon dioxide fluxes in a subalpine grassland ecosystem of the Italian Alps using a multispectral sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study investigates the potential of a commercially available proximal sensing system - based on a 16-band multispectral sensor - for monitoring mean midday gross ecosystem production (GEPm) in a subalpine grassland of the Italian Alps equipped with an eddy covariance flux tower. Reflectance observations were collected for 5 consecutive years, characterized by different climatic conditions, together with turbulent carbon dioxide fluxes and their meteorological drivers. Different models based on linear regression (vegetation indices approach) and on multiple regression (reflectance approach) were tested to estimateGEPm from optical data. The overall performance of this relatively low-cost system was positive. Chlorophyll-related indices including the red-edge part of the spectrum in their formulation (red-edge normalized difference vegetation index, NDVIred-edge; chlorophyll index, CIred-edge) were the best predictors of GEPm, explaining most of its variability during the observation period. The use of the reflectance approach did not lead to considerably improved results in estimating GEPm: the adjusted R2 (adjR2) of the model based on linear regression - including all the 5 years - was 0.74, while the adjR2 for the multiple regression model was 0.79. Incorporating mean midday photosynthetically active radiation (PARm) into the model resulted in a general decrease in the accuracy of estimates, highlighting the complexity of the GEPm response to incident radiation. In fact, significantly higher photosynthesis rates were observed under diffuse as regards direct radiation conditions. The models which were observed to perform best were then used to test the potential of optical data for GEPm gap filling. Artificial gaps of three different lengths (1, 3 and 5 observation days) were introduced in the GEPm time series. The values of adjR2 for the three gap-filling scenarios showed that the accuracy of the gap filling slightly decreased with gap length. However, on average, the GEPm gaps were filled with an accuracy of 73% with the model fed with NDVIred-edge, and of 76% with the model using reflectance at 681, 720 and 781 nm and PARm data.

Sakowska, K.; Vescovo, L.; Marcolla, B.; Juszczak, R.; Olejnik, J.; Gianelle, D.

2014-09-01

248

Scale-Dependent Effects of Grazing on Plant C: N: P Stoichiometry and Linkages to Ecosystem Functioning in the Inner Mongolia Grassland  

PubMed Central

Background Livestock grazing is the most prevalent land use of grasslands worldwide. The effects of grazing on plant C, N, P contents and stoichiometry across hierarchical levels, however, have rarely been studied; particularly whether the effects are mediated by resource availability and the underpinning mechanisms remain largely unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multi-organization-level approach, we examined the effects of grazing on the C, N, and P contents and stoichiometry in plant tissues (leaves and roots) and linkages to ecosystem functioning across three vegetation types (meadow, meadow steppe, and typical steppe) in the Inner Mongolia grassland, China. Our results showed that the effects of grazing on the C, N, and P contents and stoichiometry in leaves and roots differed substantially among vegetation types and across different hierarchical levels (species, functional group, and vegetation type levels). The magnitude of positive effects of grazing on leaf N and P contents increased progressively along the hierarchy of organizational levels in the meadow, whereas its negative effect on leaf N content decreased considerably along hierarchical levels in both the typical and meadow steppes. Grazing increased N and P allocation to aboveground in the meadow, while greater N and P allocation to belowground was found in the typical and meadow steppes. The differences in soil properties, plant trait-based resource use strategies, tolerance or defense strategies to grazing, and shifts in functional group composition are likely to be the key mechanisms for the observed patterns among vegetation types. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that the enhanced vegetation-type-level N contents by grazing and species compensatory feedbacks may be insufficient to prevent widespread declines in primary productivity in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Hence, it is essential to reduce the currently high stocking rates and restore the vast degraded steppes for sustainable development of arid and semiarid grasslands. PMID:23272158

Zheng, Shuxia; Ren, Haiyan; Li, Wenhuai; Lan, Zhichun

2012-01-01

249

Decomposition of Organic Carbon in Fine Soil Particles Is Likely More Sensitive to Warming than in Coarse Particles: An Incubation Study with Temperate Grassland and Forest Soils in Northern China  

PubMed Central

It is widely recognized that global warming promotes soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition, and soils thus emit more CO2 into the atmosphere because of the warming; however, the response of SOC decomposition to this warming in different soil textures is unclear. This lack of knowledge limits our projection of SOC turnover and CO2 emission from soils after future warming. To investigate the CO2 emission from soils with different textures, we conducted a 107-day incubation experiment. The soils were sampled from temperate forest and grassland in northern China. The incubation was conducted over three short-term cycles of changing temperature from 5°C to 30°C, with an interval of 5°C. Our results indicated that CO2 emissions from sand (>50 µm), silt (2–50 µm), and clay (<2 µm) particles increased exponentially with increasing temperature. The sand fractions emitted more CO2 (CO2-C per unit fraction-C) than the silt and clay fractions in both forest and grassland soils. The temperature sensitivity of the CO2 emission from soil particles, which is expressed as Q10, decreased in the order clay>silt>sand. Our study also found that nitrogen availability in the soil facilitated the temperature dependence of SOC decomposition. A further analysis of the incubation data indicated a power-law decrease of Q10 with increasing temperature. Our results suggested that the decomposition of organic carbon in fine-textured soils that are rich in clay or silt could be more sensitive to warming than those in coarse sandy soils and that SOC might be more vulnerable in boreal and temperate regions than in subtropical and tropical regions under future warming. PMID:24736659

Ding, Fan; Huang, Yao; Sun, Wenjuan; Jiang, Guangfu; Chen, Yue

2014-01-01

250

Response of carbon dioxide emissions to sheep grazing and N application in an alpine grassland - Part 2: Effect of N application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread nitrogen (N) enrichment resulting from anthropogenic activities has led to great changes in carbon exchange between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Grassland is one of the most sensitive ecosystems to N deposition. However, the effect of N deposition on ecosystem respiration (Re) in grasslands has been conducted mainly in temperate grasslands, which are limited largely by water availability, with few studies focused on alpine grasslands that are primarily constrained by low temperatures. Failure to assess the magnitude of the response in Re outside the growing season (NGS) in previous studies also limits our understanding of carbon exchange under N deposition conditions. To address these knowledge gaps we used a combination of static closed chambers and gas chromatography in an alpine grassland from 2010 to 2011 to test the effects of N application on ecosystem respiration (Re) both inside and outside the growing season. There was no significant change in CO2 emissions under N application. Re outside the growing season was at least equivalent to 9.4% of the CO2 fluxes during the growing season (GS). Annual Re was calculated to be 279.0-403.9 g CO2 m-2 yr-1 in Bayinbuluk alpine grasslands. In addition, our results indicate that soil temperature was the dominant abiotic factor regulating variation in Re in the cold and arid environment. Our results suggest that short-term N additions exert no significant effect on CO2 emissions in alpine grassland.

Gong, Y. M.; Mohammat, A.; Liu, X. J.; Li, K. H.; Christie, P.; Fang, F.; Song, W.; Chang, Y. H.; Han, W. X.; Lü, X. T.; Liu, Y. Y.; Hu, Y. K.

2014-04-01

251

Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aboveground–belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m2 plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity.

Prober, Suzanne M.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Bates, Scott T.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Lind, Eric M.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Adler, Peter B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Cleland, Elsa E.; DeCrappeo, Nicole; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J.; Williams, Ryan J.; Fierer, Noah

2015-01-01

252

Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide.  

PubMed

Aboveground-belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m(2) plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity. PMID:25430889

Prober, Suzanne M; Leff, Jonathan W; Bates, Scott T; Borer, Elizabeth T; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Lind, Eric M; Seabloom, Eric W; Adler, Peter B; Bakker, Jonathan D; Cleland, Elsa E; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Kirkman, Kevin P; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; MacDougall, Andrew S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Mitchell, Charles E; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J; Williams, Ryan J; Fierer, Noah

2015-01-01

253

Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in  

E-print Network

Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China A Report of the Committee on Scholarly,andsometypographicerrorsmayhavebeenaccidentallyinserted.Pleaseusetheprintversionofthispublicationastheauthoritativeversionforattribution. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern steppe (Map 1-3) is one of the few well-preserved areas of the Inner Mongolia grassland region. Although

Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

254

Dynamics of evapotranspiration in semiarid grassland and shrubland ecosystems during the summer monsoon season, central New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the coupled water and energy cycles in semiarid environments, we measured temporal fluctuations of evapotranspiration (ET) and identified key sources of the observed variability. Flux measurements are made using the Bowen ratio method, accompanied by measurements of soil moisture and radiation. We present data from semiarid grassland and shrubland sites, situated within 2 km of each other in

Shirley A. Kurc; Eric E. Small

2004-01-01

255

Community diversity and invasion resistance: An experimental test in a grassland ecosystem and a review of comparable studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between community diversity and invasion resistance in a grassland was examined using experimental plant assemblages that varied in species richness and composition. The assemblages were weeded for three seasons to remove unsown species and we used the number of weeded seedlings, their total biomass and the number of species removed as indicators of community resistance and susceptibility to

Andy Hector; Kim Dobson; Asher Minns; Ellen Bazeley-White; John Hartley Lawton

2001-01-01

256

Soil and Canopy Control Over Ecosystem Carbon and Water Fluxes in a Desert Grassland: Patterns From a Rainfall Manipulation Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

While plant canopies are important controllers over water and carbon fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, in water limited ecosystems soils have important direct and indirect effects on ecosystem fluxes. Using whole-ecosystem assessments of water and carbon exchanges in large plots exposed to different precipitation regimes, we have attempted to understand how individual rainfall events and characteristics of precipitation in

T. E. Huxman; D. Williams; R. Scott; J. Cable; D. Potts; M. Pavao-Zuckerman; D. Ignace

2005-01-01

257

Elevated CO2 and warming influence ecosystem carbon dynamics and evapotranspiration in a semi-arid grassland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ecosystem carbon dynamics are sensitive to rising CO2 concentrations and warming, but the combined effects of these global change drivers on ecosystem carbon uptake and loss remain a critical uncertainty. Northern mixed grass prairie is expected to be among the most responsive ecosystems to the effe...

258

Effect of rainfall patterns on soil surface CO2 efflux, soil moisture, soil temperature and plant growth in a grassland ecosystem of northern Ontario, Canada: implications for climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The effect of rainfall patterns on soil surface CO2 efflux, soil moisture, soil temperature and plant growth was investigated in a grassland ecosystem of northern Ontario, Canada, where climatic change is predicted to introduce new precipitation regimes. Rain shelters were established in a fallow field consisting mainly of Trifolium hybridum L., Trifolium pratense L., and Phleum pratense L. Daytime

Michael F Laporte; LC Duchesne; S Wetzel

2002-01-01

259

Model analysis of grazing effect on above-ground biomass and above-ground net primary production of a Mongolian grassland ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we have analyzed the productivity of a grassland ecosystem in Kherlenbayan-Ulaan (KBU), Mongolia under non-grazing and grazing conditions using a new simulation model, Sim-CYCLE grazing. The model was obtained by integrating the Sim-CYCLE [Ito, A., Oikawa, T., 2002. A simulation model of carbon cycle in land ecosystems (Sim-CYCLE): a description based on dry-matter production theory and plot-scale validation. Ecological Modeling, 151, pp. 143-176] and a defoliation formulation [Seligman, N.G., Cavagnaro, J.B., Horno, M.E., 1992. Simulation of defoliation effects on primary production of warm-season, semiarid perennial- species grassland. Ecological Modelling, 60, pp. 45-61]. The results from the model have been validated against a set of field data obtained at KBU showing that both above-ground biomass (AB) and above-ground net primary production ( Np,a) decrease with increasing grazing intensity. The simulated maximum AB for a year maintains a nearly constant value of 1.15 Mg DM ha -1 under non-grazing conditions. The AB decreases and then reaches equilibrium under a stocking rate ( Sr) of 0.4 sheep ha -1 and 0.7 sheep ha -1. The AB decreases all the time if Sr is greater than 0.7 sheep ha -1. These results suggest that the maximum sustainable Sr is 0.7 sheep ha -1. A similar trend is also observed for the simulated Np,a. The annual Np,a is about 1.25 Mg DM ha -1 year -1 and this value is also constant under non-grazing conditions. The annual Np,a decreases and then reaches equilibrium under an Sr of 0.4 sheep ha -1 and 0.7 sheep ha -1, but the Np,a decreases all the time when Sr is greater than 0.7 sheep ha -1. It also indicates that the maximum sustainable Sr is 0.7 sheep ha -1. Transpiration ( ET) and evaporation ( EE) rates were determined by the Penman-Monteith method. Simulated results show that ET decreases with increasing Sr, while EE increases with increasing Sr. At equilibrium, the annual mean evapotranspiration ( E) is 189.11 mm year -1 under non-grazing conditions and 187.46 mm year -1 under an Sr of 0.7 sheep ha -1. This indicates that the water budget of the KBU grassland ecosystem is not significantly affected by grazing.

Chen, Yuxiang; Lee, Gilzae; Lee, Pilzae; Oikawa, Takehisa

2007-01-01

260

GRASSLAND MANAGEMENT AND CONVERSION INTO GRASSLAND: EFFECTS ON SOIL CARBON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grasslands are heavily relied upon for food and forage production. A key component for sustaining production in grassland ecosystems is the maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM), which can be strongly influenced by management. Many management techniques intended to increase forage production may potentially increase SOM, thus sequestering atmospheric carbon (C). Further, conversion from either cultivation or native vegetation into

RICHARD T. C ONANT; K EITH PAUSTIAN; EDWARD T. E LLIOTT

2001-01-01

261

Net Ecosystem Production and Nitrogen Balance in Irrigated and Dryland Agricultural Sites in the Central Grassland Region of the U.S.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have dramatically influenced the amount of carbon and nitrogen stored in terrestrial ecosystems of the Central Grassland region of the U.S. Cultivation management practices have had the largest impact across the region. Early cultivation management practices resulted in net N export from the region, likely accounting for as much 1080 kg N ha-1 averaged for cultivated fields, or approximately 20% of the N stored in surface soils of the region. During this same time period, losses of C likely exceeded those of N, resulting in narrowed C:N. During the last 5 decades, however, with the introduction of fertilization and the increase in N-fixing crops, humans are adding more N to cultivated ecosystems than is removed in crop products. We estimate that, on average, 25 kg ha-1 y-1 is added to cultivated systems of the region. It is unclear what the regional trends in C storage are, given the high rates of production but also very high rates of C export and decomposition. If ecosystems are not aggrading and are in balance with respect to organic matter content, the excess N additions may be lost via volatile ammonia, nitric or nitrous oxide gaseous efflux, through surface runoff, or by nitrate leaching. Many of these loss vectors have the potential to alter regional to global scale biogeochemical cycling.

Burke, I. C.; Lauenroth, W. K.

2001-05-01

262

Development of simplified ecosystem models for applications in Earth system studies: The Century experience  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past decade, a growing need to conduct regional assessments of long-term trends of ecosystem behavior and the technology to meet this need have converged. The Century model is the product of research efforts initially intended to develop a general model of plant-soil ecosystem dynamics for the North American central grasslands. This model is now being used to simulate plant production, nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter dynamics for grassland, crop, forest, and shrub ecosystems in various regions of the world, including temperate and tropical ecosystems. This paper will focus on the philosophical approach used to develop the structure of Century. The steps included were model simplification, parameterization, and testing. In addition, the importance of acquiring regional data bases for model testing and the present regional application of Century in the Great Plains, which focus on regional ecosystem dynamics and the effect of altering environmental conditions, are discussed.

Parton, William J.; Ojima, Dennis S.; Schimel, David S.; Kittel, Timothy G. F.

1992-01-01

263

The effects of climatic and CO[sub 2] changes on grassland storage of soil carbon  

SciTech Connect

We present results from analysis of the sensitivity of global grassland ecosystems to modified climate. We assess over 30 grassland sites from around the world under two different GCM double CO[sub 2] climates. The results indicate that soil C losses occur in Ar grassland regions (losses range from 1.6 to 8.8% of current soil C levels for the surface 20 cm). The Eurasian grasslands lost the greatest amount of soil C ([approximately]700 g C/m[sub 2]) and the other temperate grasslands lost approximately half this amount. The tropical grasslands and savannas lost the least amount of soil C per unit area (ranging from no change to 130 g C/m[sub 2] losses). Plant production varies according to modifications in rainfall amounts under the altered climate and to altered nitrogen mineralization rates. The two GCM's differed in predictions of rainfall with a doubling of CO[sub 2], and this difference is reflected in plant production. Soil decomposition rates responded most predictably to changes in temperature. CO[sub 2] fertilization effects on soil C loss and plant production tended to reduce the net impact of climate alterations.

Ojima, D.S.; Parton, W.J. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States)); Schimel, D.S. (National Centerfor Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)); Scurlock, J.M.O. (Kings College London (United Kingdom))

1993-06-01

264

Leaf area index drives soil water availability and extreme drought-related mortality under elevated CO2 in a temperate grassland model system.  

PubMed

The magnitude and frequency of climatic extremes, such as drought, are predicted to increase under future climate change conditions. However, little is known about how other factors such as CO2 concentration will modify plant community responses to these extreme climatic events, even though such modifications are highly likely. We asked whether the response of grasslands to repeat extreme drought events is modified by elevated CO2, and if so, what are the underlying mechanisms? We grew grassland mesocosms consisting of 10 co-occurring grass species common to the Cumberland Plain Woodland of western Sydney under ambient and elevated CO2 and subjected them to repeated extreme drought treatments. The 10 species included a mix of C3, C4, native and exotic species. We hypothesized that a reduction in the stomatal conductance of the grasses under elevated CO2 would be offset by increases in the leaf area index thus the retention of soil water and the consequent vulnerability of the grasses to extreme drought would not differ between the CO2 treatments. Our results did not support this hypothesis: soil water content was significantly lower in the mesocosms grown under elevated CO2 and extreme drought-related mortality of the grasses was greater. The C4 and native grasses had significantly higher leaf area index under elevated CO2 levels. This offset the reduction in the stomatal conductance of the exotic grasses as well as increased rainfall interception, resulting in reduced soil water content in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Our results suggest that projected increases in net primary productivity globally of grasslands in a high CO2 world may be limited by reduced soil water availability in the future. PMID:24632832

Manea, Anthony; Leishman, Michelle R

2014-01-01

265

Leaf Area Index Drives Soil Water Availability and Extreme Drought-Related Mortality under Elevated CO2 in a Temperate Grassland Model System  

PubMed Central

The magnitude and frequency of climatic extremes, such as drought, are predicted to increase under future climate change conditions. However, little is known about how other factors such as CO2 concentration will modify plant community responses to these extreme climatic events, even though such modifications are highly likely. We asked whether the response of grasslands to repeat extreme drought events is modified by elevated CO2, and if so, what are the underlying mechanisms? We grew grassland mesocosms consisting of 10 co-occurring grass species common to the Cumberland Plain Woodland of western Sydney under ambient and elevated CO2 and subjected them to repeated extreme drought treatments. The 10 species included a mix of C3, C4, native and exotic species. We hypothesized that a reduction in the stomatal conductance of the grasses under elevated CO2 would be offset by increases in the leaf area index thus the retention of soil water and the consequent vulnerability of the grasses to extreme drought would not differ between the CO2 treatments. Our results did not support this hypothesis: soil water content was significantly lower in the mesocosms grown under elevated CO2 and extreme drought-related mortality of the grasses was greater. The C4 and native grasses had significantly higher leaf area index under elevated CO2 levels. This offset the reduction in the stomatal conductance of the exotic grasses as well as increased rainfall interception, resulting in reduced soil water content in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Our results suggest that projected increases in net primary productivity globally of grasslands in a high CO2 world may be limited by reduced soil water availability in the future. PMID:24632832

Manea, Anthony; Leishman, Michelle R.

2014-01-01

266

Elevated carbon dioxide alters impacts of precipitation pulses on ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration in a semi-arid grassland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Predicting net carbon (C) balance under future global change scenarios requires a comprehensive understanding of photosynthetic (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration and water availability. We measured net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE), GPP and Re prior to...

267

Net Ecosystem Productivity of Temperate and Boreal Forests after Clearcutting - a Fluxnet-Canada Measurement and Modelling Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clearcutting strongly affects subsequent forest net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Hypotheses for ecological controls on NEP in the ecosystem model ecosys were tested with CO2 fluxes measured by eddy covariance (EC) in three post-clearcut conifer chronosequences in different ecological zones across Canada. In the model, microbial growth drove colonization of postharvest fine and woody debris and hence determined the time course

R. F. Grant; A. G. Barr; T. A. Black; H. A. Margolis; J. H. McCaughey; J. A. Trofymow

2010-01-01

268

Net ecosystem productivity of temperate and boreal forests after clearcutting-a Fluxnet-Canada measurement and modelling synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Clearcutting strongly affects subsequent forest net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Hypotheses for ecological controls on NEP in the ecosystem model ecosys were tested with CO2 fluxes measured by eddy covariance (EC) in three post-clearcut conifer chronosequences in different ecological zones across Canada. In the model, microbial colonization of postharvest fine and woody debris drove heterotrophic respiration (Rh), and hence decomposition,

R. F. Grant; A. G. Barr; T. A. Black; H. A. Margolis; J. H. McCaughey; J. A. Trofymow

2010-01-01

269

Different Land Use Intensities in Grassland Ecosystems Drive Ecology of Microbial Communities Involved in Nitrogen Turnover in Soil  

PubMed Central

Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM), intensely used mown pastures (IP) and extensively used pastures (EP), respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK). The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation) might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity. PMID:24039974

Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

2013-01-01

270

Spatial and temporal variability of bacterial 16S rDNA-based T-RFLP patterns derived from soil of two Wyoming grassland ecosystems.  

PubMed

Abstract Spatial and temporal variability of soil bacterial 16S rDNA terminal restriction fragment (TRF) size variation was evaluated in a homogeneous grassland (HG) dominated by the turf-forming grass Bouteloua gracilis and in a shrubland (SL) dominated by Artemisia tridentata (Wyoming big sagebrush). Temporal variability was also evaluated on the HG site over a growing season. No trends toward dissimilarity were detected with temporal (180 days) or spatial (up to 100 m) distance in the HG system. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of the SL site exhibited pronounced small-scale spatial variability (<70 cm), although spatial analysis indicated weak spatial autocorrelation to distances greater than 36 cm. While shrub-induced nutrient localization was shown to significantly influence T-RFLP profiles, very little of the variability could be accounted for on the basis of spatial characteristics, suggesting that soil bacterial 16S rDNA composition of this site is predominantly controlled at scales other than those measured. Average dissimilarity values differed greatly between the two sites (0.27 and 0.59 for HG and SL sites, respectively). These results suggest that plant community structure strongly influences bacterial community composition in these semiarid ecosystems, highlighting the importance of considering spatial variability when designing field studies related to bacterial diversity in ecosystems having patchy or heterogeneous plant cover. PMID:19719588

Mummey, Daniel L; Stahl, Peter D

2003-10-01

271

Grazing effects on belowground C and N stocks along a network of cattle exclosures in temperate and subtropical grasslands of South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the effects of grazing on C and N belowground pools by comparing 15 grazing-exclosure pairs across the Río de la Plata grasslands of Uruguay and Argentina. We measured C and N pools of belowground biomass, particulate organic matter (POM), and the mineral associated organic matter (MAOM) in the top meter of the soil. Grazing exclusion in the Río de la Plata grasslands promoted (1) decreased belowground biomass stocks across all sites, (2) increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil organic nitrogen (SON) stocks in upland soils, and (3) decreased stocks in shallow and lowland soils. In all cases, SOC and SON variations were largely derived by changes in MAOM stocks that maintained their C:N ratios unchanged. In contrast, stocks of the labile POM fractions changed little, but C:N ratios of these fractions decreased after grazing removal. We hypothesize that changes in soil organic matter (SOM) contents between grazed and ungrazed stands result from the balance between changes in belowground N allocation patterns (root N retention hypothesis) and the ability of the soil to retain the extra N available after the exclusion of herbivores and the cessation of volatilization and leaching from urine and dung patches (N loss hypothesis). On the basis of our results we suggest that the relative importance of these two cooccurring mechanisms will shape grazing effects on SOM stocks, depending on soil properties, including texture, pH and soil depth, and vegetation type, particularly allocation patterns and C:N ratios of different plant species.

PiñEiro, Gervasio; Paruelo, José M.; JobbáGy, Esteban G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Oesterheld, Martin

2009-06-01

272

Gross primary production and net ecosystem exchange of a cool-temperate deciduous forest estimated by the eddy covariance method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eddy covariance measurement system was installed to measure long-term turbulent fluxes of heat, water vapor, and CO2 over a cool-temperate deciduous forest in the central part of Japan. Previous to a long-term measurement, a comparison of flux measurements using open- and closed-path type infrared gas analyzers was conducted for CO2 and water vapor. The closure of the energy budget

Nobuko Saigusa; Susumu Yamamoto; Shohei Murayama; Hiroaki Kondo; Noboru Nishimura

2002-01-01

273

Productivity of high and low density populations of Japonaria laminata armigera (Diplopoda) in a warm-temperate forest ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The productivity of the final larval and adult populations of a large sized diplopod,Japonaria laminata armigera were studied at a warm temperate ever-green broad leaf forest in Chiba Japan. The population density was about 200\\/m2 in May 1962, and 7\\/m2 in May 1966, the former being about 30 times as much as the latter. A remarkable growth of animals was

Susumu Saito

1967-01-01

274

Warmer temperatures stimulate respiration and reduce net ecosystem productivity in a northern Great Plains grassland: Analysis of CO2 exchange in automatic chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interacting effects of altered temperature and precipitation are expected to have significant consequences for ecosystem net carbon storage. Here I report the results of an experiment that evaluated the effects of elevated temperature and altered precipitation on ecosystem CO2 exchange in a northern Great Plains grassland, near Lethbridge, Alberta Canada. Open-top chambers were used to establish an experiment in 2012 with three treatments (control, warmed, warmed plus 50% of normal precipitation input). A smaller experiment with only the two temperature treatments (control and warmed) was conducted in 2013. Continuous half-hourly net CO2 exchange measurements were made using nine automatic chambers during May-October in both years. My objectives were to determine the sensitivity of the ecosystem carbon budget to temperature and moisture manipulations, and to test for direct and indirect effects of the environmental changes on ecosystem CO2 exchange. The experimental manipulations resulted primarily in a significant increase in air temperature in the warmed treatment plots. A cumulative net loss of carbon or negative net ecosystem productivity (NEP) occurred during May through September in the warmed treatment (NEP = -659 g C m-2), while in the control treatment there was a cumulative net gain of carbon (NEP = +50 g C m-2). An eddy covariance system that operated at the site, over a footprint region that was not influenced by the experimental treatments, also showed a net gain of carbon by the ecosystem. The reduced NEP was due to higher plant and soil respiration rates in the warmed treatment that appeared to be caused by a combination of: (i) higher carbon substrate availability indirectly stimulating soil respiration in the warmed relative to the control treatment, and (ii) a strong increase in leaf respiration likely caused by a shift in electron partitioning to the alternative pathway respiration in the warmed treatment, particularly when exposed to high light intensity. Increased partitioning to the alternative pathway respiration can act to alter redox status in mitochondria and reduce reactive oxygen species that may accumulate during periods of environmental stress.

Flanagan, L. B.

2013-12-01

275

Controls on the fate, structure and function of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in a California grassland, oak woodland and conifer ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In California, oak woodlands and grasslands, have been expanding their geographic range over the past 100 years, and are projected to extend upward along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada foothills in response to climate change. Since vegetation type plays a large role in soil formation and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, shifts in vegetation distribution could impact C and N storage and processing. This study was designed to determine if dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) production, composition, biodegradation and sorption in the mineral soil of a grassland, oak woodland and conifer ecosystem is related to the type of plant material from which it is derived and how these processes are correlated with temperature. A field experiment where leachates from transplanted soil columns were collected over two rainy seasons at a grassland, oak woodland and conifer field location was combined with laboratory batch adsorption and biodegradation using litter and soil from the same sites. Specific ultra-violet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA 254), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) and fractionation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into hydrophilic and hydrophobic factions was used to determine the structural composition of the DOC solutions. In the laboratory, surface litter from the grass, oak and a conifer site were incubated with de-ionized water for 5, 15 or 96 hours at 4, 20 or 30oC. Incubation time had little effect on DOC structure while vegetation type and temperature had significant effects on DOC functional groups. Increased incubation time and temperature significantly increased DOC and DON concentration. Percent biodegradable DOC was positively correlated to increasing heteroaliphatic functional groups. Since grass, oak and pine DOM solutions had the highest levels of biodegradation using soil inoculums from the sites where the surface litter originated, biodegradation appears to be related to site microbial activity. In batch adsorption studies, an increase in incubation temperature is related to an increase in sorption and biodegradation. There were no significant correlations between adsorption and DOC functional groups. Soil iron and aluminum content were found to play a larger role in DOC adsorption than DOC functional group concentration. Therefore, sorption appears to be primarily controlled by ecosystem soil characteristics and a thermodynamic relationship with temperature rather than surface litter type. In the field experiment, neither DOC, DON nor SUVA 254 values of column leachates differed significantly with surface litter or soil type. However, the 15 month incubation of the soil columns containing all three soil types at all three field locations resulted in several significant changes in soil C and N parameters. Percent C, water extractable DOC and soil C:N all increased in the soil from the pine location that was incubated at the oak and grass location. These changes indicate that the soils at mixed conifer sites in the Sierra Nevada foothills could store increased levels of soil C if grassland and oak woodland vegetation shift into the areas currently dominated by mixed conifers.

Pittiglio, S. L.; Zasoski, R.

2010-12-01

276

Effects of Seasonality and Species Diversity on Nitrogen Uptake in Grassland Johanna Jensen  

E-print Network

1 Effects of Seasonality and Species Diversity on Nitrogen Uptake in Grassland Ecosystems Johanna controls on nitrogen cycling in grassland ecosystems than species diversity in fall months. Three grassland growing season and affinity for nitrate, while a senescing, diverse grassland had the least. In addition

Vallino, Joseph J.

277

Modeling the effects of climatic and co 2 changes on grassland storage of soil C  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results from analyses of the sensitivity of global grassland ecosystems to modified climate and atmospheric CO2 levels. We assess 31 grassland sites from around the world under two different General Circulation Models (GCM) double CO2 climates. These grasslands are representative of mostly naturally occurring ecosystems, however, in many regions of the world, grasslands have been greatly modified by

Dennis S. Ojima; William J. Parton; David S. Schimel; Jonathan M. O. Scurlock; Timothy G. F. Kittel

1993-01-01

278

Assessing light to moderate grazing effects on grassland production using satellite imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the influences of grazing intensity on grassland production is essential for grassland conservation and management improvement. Grazing at light to moderate intensity theoretically enhances grassland production, thus benefiting grassland ecosystems. However, inconsistent results of the beneficial effects of light to moderate grazing on grassland production were reported due to the lack of accurate and repeatable techniques for discriminating grazing

Xiaohui Yang; Xulin Guo; Michael Fitzsimmons

2012-01-01

279

Fire effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycling in a Californian bishop pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire can cause severe nitrogen (N) losses from grassland, chaparral, and temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Paradoxically,\\u000a soil ammonium levels are markedly increased by fire, resulting in high rates of primary production in re-establishing plant\\u000a communities. In a manipulative experiment, we examined the influence of wild-fire ash residues on soil, microbial and plant\\u000a N pools in a recently burned Californian

P. Grogan; T. D. Burns; F. S. Chapin III

2000-01-01

280

Predicting the response of a temperate forest ecosystem to atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase. Annual report, 1992--1993  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the second year of research progress. Included are progress reports for the following studies: the responses of temperate forest tree to 3 years of exposure to elevated carbon dioxide, and high and low nutrient and light levels; pot-size limitations in carbon dioxide studies, interactive effects of carbon dioxide and soil moisture availability on tree seedling`s tissue water relations, growth, and niche characteristics; individual versus population responses to elevated carbon dioxide levels in two species of annual weeds; and the development of gypsy moth larvae raised on gray and yellow birth foliage grown in ambient and elevated carbon dioxide environments.

Bazzaz, F.A.

1993-03-01

281

Quantifying nitrous oxide emissions from Chinese grasslands with a process-based model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one of the largest land cover types, grassland can potentially play an important role in the ecosystem services of natural resources in China. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a major greenhouse gas emitted from grasslands. Current N2O inventory at regional or national level in China relies on the emission factor method, and is based on limited measurements. To improve inventory accuracy and capture the spatial variability of the N2O emissions under the diverse climate, soil and management conditions across China, we adopted an approach that uses a process-based biogeochemical model, DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) in this study, to map the N2O emissions from China's grasslands. The DNDC was linked to a GIS database of spatially distributed information of climate, soil, vegetation and management at county-level for all grasslands in China. Daily weather data from 2000-2007 based on the national network of 670 meteorological stations were utilized in the model simulations. The results were validated against observations from several grasslands in China and from other countries. The modelled results showed a clear geographic pattern of N2O emissions from China's grasslands. A high-emission strip was found that stretched from northeast to central China, along the eastern boundary of the temperate grassland region adjacent to the major agricultural regions. The grasslands in the western mountain regions, however, emitted much less N2O. The regional average of N2O emission rates was 0.23, 0.11 and 0.39 kg N ha-1y-1 for the temperate, montane and tropical/subtropical grasslands, respectively. The national N2O emission was 76.5 Gg N from the 337 million ha of grasslands in China. The modelled results were in good agreement with observations (R2=0.64 for 11 datasets), suggesting that the process-based model can be used to capture the spatial dynamics of N2O emissions as an effective alternative to statistical method currently used in China.

Zhang, F.; Qi, J.; Li, F. M.; Li, C. S.; Li, C. B.

2010-03-01

282

Effects of an increase in summer precipitation on leaf, soil, and ecosystem fluxes of CO 2 and H 2 O in a sotol grassland in Big Bend National Park, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climate models predict that in the next century precipitation in desert regions of the USA will increase, which is\\u000a anticipated to affect biosphere\\/atmosphere exchanges of both CO2 and H2O. In a sotol grassland ecosystem in the Chihuahuan Desert at Big Bend National Park, we measured the response of leaf-level\\u000a fluxes of CO2 and H2O 1 day before and up to

Lisa Patrick; Jessica Cable; Daniel Potts; Danielle Ignace; Greg Barron-Gafford; Alden Griffith; Holly Alpert; Natasja Van Gestel; Traesha Robertson; Travis E. Huxman; John Zak; Michael E. Loik; David Tissue

2007-01-01

283

Shrub encroachment in North American grasslands: Shifts in growth form dominance rapidly alters control of ecosystem carbon inputs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shrub encroachment into grass-dominated biomes is occurring globally due to a variety of anthropogenic activities, but the consequences for carbon (C) inputs, storage and cycling remain unclear. We studied eight North American graminoid-dominated ecosystems invaded by shrubs, from arctic tundra to ...

284

Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide on amino acid and NH4 1 -N cycling in a temperate pine ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is expected to increase forest productivity, resulting in greater carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems. Because elevated atmo- spheric CO2 does not increase nitrogen (N) use efficiency in many forest tree species, additional N inputs will be required to sustain increased net primary productivity (NPP) under elevated atmospheric CO2. We investigated the importance of free

KIRSTEN S. H OFMOCKEL; W ILLIAM H. S CHLESINGER; R O B E RT

285

Greenhouse gas exchange in grasslands: impacts of climate, intensity of management and other factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grasslands occupy some 40% of the terrestrial land surface. They are generally categorised as natural (occurring mainly in those regions where the rainfall is too low to support forest ecosystems), semi-natural (where management, mainly by grazing, has changed the vegetation composition), and artificial (where forests have been cleared to create new pasture land). The soils of the natural and semi-natural grasslands constitute a large reservoir of carbon, and make a substantial contribution to the soil sink for atmospheric CH_4. The conversion of much of the natural temperate grassland to arable agriculture, e.g. in North America and Europe, resulted in a considerable decrease in soil organic carbon, and its release to the atmosphere as CO_2 has made a substantial contribution to the total atmospheric concentration of this gas. The associated increase in cycling of soil N (released from the organic matter) will have contributed to N_2O emissions, and land disturbance and fertilisation has resulted in a depletion of the soil CH_4 sink. Conversion of tropical forests to pastures has also been a major source of CO_2, and these pastures show elevated emissions of N_2O for some years after conversion. Seasonally flooded tropical grasslands are a significant source of CH_4 emissions. Consideration of grassland ecosystems in their entirety, in relation to GHG exchange, necessitates the inclusion of CH_4 production by fauna - domesticated livestock and wild herbivores, as well as some species of termites - in the overall assessment. Stocking rates on pasture land have increased, and the total CH_4 emissions likewise. The relationship between animal production and CH_4 emissions is dependent on the nutritional quality of the vegetation, as well as on animal numbers. In both temperate and tropical regions, increased N inputs as synthetic fertilisers and manures (and increased N deposition) are producing possibly a more-than-linear response in terms of emissions of N_2O. In several Western European countries, very high rates of N application to both grazed grassland and to grass crops grown for winter feed have made these lands the principal source of N_2O. It has been estimated that 40% of global emissions of NO, a precursor of tropospheric ozone, come from grasslands and savannas. Global warming is expected to bring about substantial changes in the overall greenhouse gas exchange of grasslands, with a net loss of soil C as CO_2, and possibly enhanced N_2O emissions. Increased rainfall is predicted for some regions, and this can also be expected to give rise to increases in N_2O.

Smith, K. A.

2003-04-01

286

Spatial and temporal dynamics of biotic and abiotic features of temperate coastal ecosystems as revealed by a combination of ecological indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal ecosystems exhibit complex spatio-temporal patterns due to their position at the interface between land and sea. This is particularly the case of temperate ecosystems where exploitation of coastal resources (fisheries and aquaculture) and intensive agricultural use of watersheds further complicate our understanding of their dynamics. The aim of the present study was to unravel the spatio-temporal dynamics of contrasted megatidal coastal ecosystems located at the same regional scale (i.e. under the same regional climate), but under different kinds of human pressure. Two kinds of ecological indicators were assessed over a period of four years at 11 locations along the coast of the Cotentin peninsula (Normandy, France). A first set of hydrobiological variables (dissolved nutrients, Chl a, temperature, salinity, etc.) was measured fortnightly in the water column. These data were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). A second set of variables were the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of the adductor muscles of cultured Crassostrea gigas introduced every year to typify the bentho-pelagic coupling at each location. Food sources were also investigated using a mixing model with data on the isotopic composition of the food sources obtained previously. To identify which environmental variables played a significant role in determining the oyster diet, the contributions of oyster food sources were combined with environmental variables in a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Isotopic values of adductor muscles varied significantly between -20.12‰ and -16.79‰ for ?13C and between 8.28‰ and 11.87‰ for ?15N. The PCA distinguished two groups of coastal ecosystems that differed in their coastal hydrology, nutrient inputs, and the size of their respective watershed, irrespective of the year. In each zone, different spatial patterns in the measured variables were observed depending on the year showing that local impacts differed temporally. As revealed by CCA, food sources used by the oysters were mainly explained by salinity suggesting regional differences between ecosystems. On the west coast of the peninsula, climatic factors act in synergy with anthropogenic factors (i.e. nutrient enrichment) whereas on the east coast, climatic factors appear to be dampened by anthropogenic factors.

Grangeré, K.; Lefebvre, S.; Blin, J.-L.

2012-08-01

287

Survival, Gap Formation, and Recovery Dynamics in Grassland Ecosystems Exposed to Heat Extremes: The Role of Species Richness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was performed in which the richness of perennial grasses (S) was varied in model ecosystems exposed to a simulated heat wave (free air temperature increase and drought). The proportion\\u000a of individuals that survived the heat wave decreased with S, which could be ascribed to higher water consumption in the species-rich systems. Higher transpiration at high diversity\\u000a was

Liesbeth Van Peer; Ivan Nijs; Jan Bogaert; Iris Verelst; Dirk Reheul

2001-01-01

288

Stimulation of symbiotic Nâ fixation in trifolium repens L. under elevated atmospheric pCOâ in a grassland ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbiotic Nâ fixation is one of the main processes that introduces N into terrestrial ecosystems. As such, it may be crucial for the sequestration of the extra C available in a world of continuously increasing atmospheric COâ partial pressure (pCOâ). The effect of elevated pCOâ (60 Pa) on symbiotic Nâ fixation (¹⁵N-isotope dilution method) was investigated using Free-Air-COâ-Enrichment technology over

Silvia Zanetti; Ueli A. Hartwig; A. Luescher

1996-01-01

289

Net ecosystem productivity of temperate and boreal forests after clearcutting-a Fluxnet-Canada measurement and modelling synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACT Clearcutting strongly affects subsequent forest net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Hypotheses for ecological controls on NEP in the ecosystem model ecosys were tested with CO2 fluxes measured by eddy covariance (EC) in three post-clearcut conifer chronosequences in different ecological zones across Canada. In the model, microbial colonization of postharvest fine and woody debris drove heterotrophic respiration (Rh), and hence decomposition, microbial growth, N mineralization and asymbiotic N2 fixation. These processes controlled root N uptake, and thereby CO2 fixation in regrowing vegetation. Interactions among soil and plant processes allowed the model to simulate hourly CO2 fluxes and annual NEP within the uncertainty of EC measurements from 2003 to 2007 over forest stands from 1 to 80 yr of age in all three chronosequences without site- or species-specific parameterization. The model was then used to study the impacts of increasing harvest removals on subsequent C stocks at one of the chronosequence sites. Model results indicated that increasing harvest removals would hasten recovery of NEP during the first 30 yr after clearcutting, but would reduce ecosystem C stocks by about 15% of the increased removals at the end of an 80-yr harvest cycle.

Grant, R. F.; Barr, A. G.; Black, T. A.; Margolis, H. A.; McCaughey, J. H.; Trofymow, J. A.

2010-11-01

290

Net Ecosystem Productivity of Temperate and Boreal Forests after Clearcutting - a Fluxnet-Canada Measurement and Modelling Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clearcutting strongly affects subsequent forest net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Hypotheses for ecological controls on NEP in the ecosystem model ecosys were tested with CO2 fluxes measured by eddy covariance (EC) in three post-clearcut conifer chronosequences in different ecological zones across Canada. In the model, microbial growth drove colonization of postharvest fine and woody debris and hence determined the time course of heterotrophic respiration (Rh), and hence decomposition, microbial growth, N mineralization and asymbiotic N2 fixation. These processes controlled the time course of root N uptake, and thereby CO2 fixation in regrowing vegetation. Interactions among soil and plant processes allowed the model to simulate hourly CO2 fluxes and annual NEP within the uncertainty of EC measurements from 2003 through 2007 over forest stands from 1 to 80 years of age in all three chronosequences without site- or species-specific parameterization. The model was then used to study the impacts of increasing harvest removals on subsequent C stocks at one of the chronosequence sites. Model results indicated that increasing harvest removals would hasten recovery of NEP during the first 30 years after clearcutting, but would reduce ecosystem C stocks by about 15% of the increased removals at the end of an 80 year harvest cycle.

Grant, R. F.; Barr, A. G.; Black, T. A.; Margolis, H. A.; McCaughey, J. H.; Trofymow, J. A.

2010-12-01

291

Net ecosystem productivity of temperate and boreal forests after clearcutting - a Fluxnet-Canada measurement and modelling synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clearcutting strongly affects subsequent forest net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Hypotheses for ecological controls on NEP in the ecosystem model ecosys were tested with CO2 fluxes measured by eddy covariance (EC) in three post-clearcut conifer chronosequences. An algorithm for microbial colonization of fine and woody debris allowed the model to reproduce sigmoidal declines in debris observed after clearcutting. In the model, Rh drove debris decomposition that drove microbial growth, N mineralization and asymbiotic N2 fixation. These processes controlled root N uptake, and thereby CO2 fixation in regrowing vegetation. Interactions among soil and plant processes allowed the model to simulate hourly CO2 fluxes and annual NEP within the uncertainty of EC measurements from 2003 through 2007 over forest stands from 1 to 80 years of age in all three chronosequences without site- or species-specific parameterization. The model was then used to study the impacts of increasing harvest removals on subsequent C stocks at one of the chronosequence sites. Model results indicated that increasing harvest removals would hasten recovery of NEP during the first 30 years after clearcutting, but would reduce ecosystem C stocks by about 15% of the increased removals at the end of an 80 year harvest cycle.

Grant, R. F.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.; Margolis, H. A.; McCaughey, J. H.; Trofymow, J. A.

2010-05-01

292

Marine Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine ecosystem introduction to shorelines, temperate oceans, and tropical oceans. Shoreline topics cover sandy and rocky shores, barrier islands, tide pools, estuaries, salt marshes, mud flats, mangrove forests, tides, waves, currents, and shoreline animals. Students can learn about temperate ocean zonation, light, forests, patterns, and animals. The tropical oceans chapter features coral reefs and tropical ocean animals. This site would provide a comprehensive introduction for a marine ecosystems or an ocean science unit.

293

Evaluation of Grassland Dynamics in the Northern-Tibet Plateau of China Using Remote Sensing and Climate Data  

PubMed Central

The grassland ecosystem in the Northern-Tibet Plateau (NTP) of China is very sensitive to weather and climate conditions of the region. In this study, we investigate the spatial and temporal variations of the grassland ecosystem in the NTP using the NOAA/AVHRR ten-day maximum NDVI composite data of 1981-2001. The relationships among Vegetation Peak-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (VP-NDVI) and climate variables were quantified for six counties within the NTP. The notable and uneven alterations of the grassland in response to variation of climate and human impact in the NTP were revealed. Over the last two decades of the 20th century, the maximum greenness of the grassland has exhibited high increase, slight increase, no-change, slight decrease and high decrease, each occupies 0.27%, 8.71%, 77.27%, 13.06% and 0.69% of the total area of the NTP, respectively. A remarkable increase (decrease) in VP-NDVI occurred in the central-eastern (eastern) NTP whereas little change was observed in the western and northwestern NTP. A strong negative relationship between VP-NDVI and ET0 was found in sub-frigid, semi-arid and frigid- arid regions of the NTP (i.e., Nakchu, Shantsa, Palgon and Amdo counties), suggesting that the ET0 is one limiting factor affecting grassland degradation. In the temperate-humid, sub-frigid and sub-humid regions of the NTP (Chali and Sokshan counties), a significant inverse correlation between VP-NDVI and population indicates that human activities have adversely affected the grassland condition as was previously reported in the literature. Results from this research suggest that the alteration and degradation of the grassland in the lower altitude of the NTP over the last two decades of the 20th century are likely caused by variations of climate and anthropogenic activities.

Zhang, Jiahua; Yao, Fengmei; Zheng, Lingyun; Yang, Limin

2007-01-01

294

Comprehensive ecosystem model-experiment synthesis using multiple datasets at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment experiments: model performance and compensating biases  

SciTech Connect

Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments provide a remarkable wealth of data to test the sensitivities of terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs). In this study, a broad set of 11 TEMs were compared to 22 years of data from two contrasting FACE experiments in temperate forests of the south eastern US the evergreen Duke Forest and the deciduous Oak Ridge forest. We evaluated the models' ability to reproduce observed net primary productivity (NPP), transpiration and Leaf Area index (LAI) in ambient CO2 treatments. Encouragingly, many models simulated annual NPP and transpiration within observed uncertainty. Daily transpiration model errors were often related to errors in leaf area phenology and peak LAI. Our analysis demonstrates that the simulation of LAI often drives the simulation of transpiration and hence there is a need to adopt the most appropriate of hypothesis driven methods to simulate and predict LAI. Of the three competing hypotheses determining peak LAI (1) optimisation to maximise carbon export, (2) increasing SLA with canopy depth and (3) the pipe model the pipe model produced LAI closest to the observations. Modelled phenology was either prescribed or based on broader empirical calibrations to climate. In some cases, simulation accuracy was achieved through compensating biases in component variables. For example, NPP accuracy was sometimes achieved with counter-balancing biases in nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen uptake. Combined analysis of parallel measurements aides the identification of offsetting biases; without which over-confidence in model abilities to predict ecosystem function may emerge, potentially leading to erroneous predictions of change under future climates.

Walker, Anthony P [ORNL] [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL] [ORNL; DeKauwe, Martin G [Macquarie University] [Macquarie University; Medlyn, Belinda [Macquarie University] [Macquarie University; Zaehle, S [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry] [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Asao, Shinichi [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Hickler, Thomas [Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany] [Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany; Huntinford, Chris [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom] [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom; Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lomas, Mark [University of Sheffield] [University of Sheffield; Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma] [University of Oklahoma; McCarthy, Heather R [Duke University] [Duke University; Parton, William [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Prentice, I. Collin [Macquarie University] [Macquarie University; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Shusen [Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS)] [Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS); Wang, Yingping [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research] [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Warlind, David [Lund University, Sweden] [Lund University, Sweden; Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman] [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL] [ORNL; Woodward, F. Ian [University of Sheffield] [University of Sheffield; Oren, Ram [Duke University] [Duke University; Norby, Richard J [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

295

Effects of Increased Nitrogen Deposition and Precipitation on Seed and Seedling Production of Potentilla tanacetifolia in a Temperate Steppe Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Background The responses of plant seeds and seedlings to changing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and precipitation regimes determine plant population dynamics and community composition under global change. Methodology/Principal Findings In a temperate steppe in northern China, seeds of P. tanacetifolia were collected from a field-based experiment with N addition and increased precipitation to measure changes in their traits (production, mass, germination). Seedlings germinated from those seeds were grown in a greenhouse to examine the effects of improved N and water availability in maternal and offspring environments on seedling growth. Maternal N-addition stimulated seed production, but it suppressed seed mass, germination rate and seedling biomass of P. tanacetifolia. Maternal N-addition also enhanced responses of seedlings to N and water addition in the offspring environment. Maternal increased-precipitation stimulated seed production, but it had no effect on seed mass and germination rate. Maternal increased-precipitation enhanced seedling growth when grown under similar conditions, whereas seedling responses to offspring N- and water-addition were suppressed by maternal increased-precipitation. Both offspring N-addition and increased-precipitation stimulated growth of seedlings germinated from seeds collected from the maternal control environment without either N or water addition. Our observations indicate that both maternal and offspring environments can influence seedling growth of P. tanacetifolia with consequent impacts on the future population dynamics of this species in the study area. Conclusion/Significance The findings highlight the importance of the maternal effects on seed and seedling production as well as responses of offspring to changing environmental drivers in mechanistic understanding and projecting of plant population dynamics under global change. PMID:22194863

Li, Yang; Yang, Haijun; Xia, Jianyang; Zhang, Wenhao; Wan, Shiqiang; Li, Linghao

2011-01-01

296

Recovery of coastal ecosystems after large tsunamis in various climatic zones - review of cases from tropical, temperate and polar zones (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large tsunamis cause significant changes in coastal ecosystems. They include modifications in shoreline position, sediment erosion and deposition, new initial soil formation, salination of soils and waters, removal of vegetation, as well as direct impact on humans and infrastructure. The processes and rate of coastal zone recovery from large tsunamis has been little studied but during the last decade a noteworthy progress has been made. This study focus on comparison of recovery processes in various climatic zones, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zone. It is based on own observation and monitoring in areas affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in Japan and 2000 Paatuut landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland), as well as on review of published studies from those areas. The particular focus is on physical and biological recoveries of beaches, recovery of coastal vegetation, new soil formation in eroded areas and those covered by tsunami deposits, marine salt removal from soils, surface- and groundwater, as well as landscape adjustment after the tsunamis. The beach zone - typically the most tsunami-eroded zone, has been recovered already within weeks to months and has been observed to be in the pre-tsunami equilibrium stage within one year in all the climate zones, except for sediment-starved environments. The existing data on beach ecosystems point also to relatively fast recovery of meio- and macrofauna (within weeks to several months). The recovery of coastal vegetation depends on the rate of salt removal from soils or on the rate of soil formation in case of its erosion or burial by tsunami deposits. The salt removal have been observed to depend mainly on precipitation and effective water drainage. In tropical climate with seasonal rainfall of more 3000 mm the salt removal was fast, however, in temperate climate with lower precipitation and flat topography the salinities still exceeded the recommended concentrations for freshwater plants after one year. The new soil formation and vegetation recovery depends mainly on the rate of biological production. In tropical climate the vegetation largely recovered already after the first rainy season and supported the new soil formation. In temperate climate this process was much slower, in particular in flat lying areas and on coastal dunes with poor sandy soils. In polar climate only limited vegetation recovery (mainly of Salix species) has been observed after 12 years and vegetation withered due to salt stress still marked the tsunami inundation limit and the new soil formation was very slow and focused on low lying, wet areas buried with thin tsunami deposits cover. The post-tsunami recovery processes may be grouped into climate-related (vegetation recovery, removal of salts from soils) and non climate-related (e.g. beach recovery) or modified by climatic and local factors (for instance, the rate of tsunami deposits reworking and thus new soil formation). The rate of recovery varies from days / weeks as in case of beach recovery to several decades as in case of new soil formation on tsunami deposits. The study was partly funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10/01553. The review results from studies in collaboration with number of researchers from Australia, Japan, Poland, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States to whom I express sincere thanks.

Szczucinski, W.

2013-12-01

297

Groundwater use and salinization with grassland afforestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation changes, particularly transitions between tree- and grass-dominated states, can alter ecosystem water balances and soluble salt fluxes. Here we outline a general predictive framework for understanding salinization of afforested grasslands based on biophysical, hydrologic, and edaphic factors. We tested this framework in 20 paired grassland and adjacent afforested plots across ten sites in the Argentine Pampas. Rapid salinization of

ESTEBAN G. J OBBAGY; R OBERT B. J ACKSON

298

MANAGING GRASSLAND AS A CO2 SINK  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) rates tend to be low in most grasslands, especially native grasslands, these regions occupy a large portion of Earth’s terrestrial surface and thus represent a potentially large and significant sink or source for C. Herein we report on findings from several ...

299

Environmental change in grasslands: Assessment using models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling studies and observed data suggest that plant production, species distribution, disturbance regimes, grassland biome boundaries and secondary production (i.e., animal productivity) could be affected by potential changes in climate and by changes in land use practices. There are many studies in which computer models have been used to assess the impact of climate changes on grassland ecosystems. A global

William J. Parton; Dennis S. Ojima; David S. Schimel

1994-01-01

300

Grazing effects on carbon fluxes in a northern China grassland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grazing is a widespread use of grasslands in northern China, but if stocking rate exceeds grassland carrying capacity, degradation and desertification can occur. As a result, grazing management is critical and can play a significant role in driving C sink and source activity in grassland ecosystems...

301

Observed and modeled ecosystem isoprene fluxes from an oak-dominated temperate forest and the influence of drought stress  

SciTech Connect

Ecosystem fluxes of isoprene emission were measured during the majority of the 2011 growing season at the University of Missouri's Baskett Wildlife Research and Education Area in centralMissouri, USA (38.7° N, 92.2° W). This broadleaf deciduous forest is typical of forests common in theOzarks region of the central United States. The goal of the isoprene flux measurements was to test ourunderstanding of the controls on isoprene emission from the hourly to the seasonal timescale using a state-of-the-art emission model, MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Isoprene emission rates were very high from the forest with a maximum of 50.9 mg m-2 hr-1 (208 nmol m-2 s-1), which to our knowledge exceeds all other reports of canopy-scale isoprene emission. The fluxes showed a clear dependence on the previous temperature and light regimes which was successfully captured by the existing algorithms in MEGAN. During a period of drought, MEGAN was unable to reproduce the time-dependent response of isoprene emission to water stress. Overall, the performance of MEGAN was robust and could explain 87% of the observed variance in the measured fluxes, but the response of isoprene emission to drought stress is a major source of uncertainty.

Potosnak, M.; LeStourgeon, Lauren; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Gu, Lianghong; Karl, Thomas; Geron, Chris; Guenther, Alex B.

2014-02-19

302

Observed and modeled ecosystem isoprene fluxes from an oak-dominated temperate forest and the influence of drought stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem fluxes of isoprene emissions were measured during the majority of the 2011 growing season at the University of Missouri's Baskett Wildlife Research and Education Area in central Missouri, USA (38.7° N, 92.2° W). This broadleaf deciduous forest is typical of forests common in the Ozarks region of the central United States. The goal of the isoprene flux measurements was to test our understanding of the controls on isoprene emission from the hourly to the seasonal timescale using a state-of-the-art emission model, MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Isoprene emission rates from the forest were very high with a maximum of 53.3 mg m-2 h-1 (217 nmol m-2 s-1), which to our knowledge exceeds all other reports of canopy-scale isoprene emission. The fluxes showed a clear dependence on the previous temperature and light regimes, which was successfully captured by the existing algorithms in MEGAN. During a period of drought, MEGAN was unable to reproduce the time-dependent response of isoprene emission to water stress. Overall, the performance of MEGAN was robust and could explain 90% of the observed variance in the measured fluxes, but the response of isoprene emission to drought stress is a major source of uncertainty.

Potosnak, Mark J.; LeStourgeon, Lauren; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Gu, Lianhong; Karl, Thomas; Geron, Chris; Guenther, Alex B.

2014-02-01

303

Equilibrium carbon storage in North American ecosystems as estimated by the Terrestruak Ecosystem Model for pre-industrial CO[sub 2]: Soil C storage along gradients of temperature, moisture, and texture  

SciTech Connect

The Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), a process-based model, estimates a total C storage of 410 PgC (10[sup 15] gC) for undisturbed North American ecosystems at preindustrial CO[sub 2], of which soil C is 59%. Conifer forests and moist tundra account for the most vegetation and soil C storage, 31% and 18%, respectively. Along a temperature gradient in eastern North America, soil C storage decreases from 16200 to 6200 gC m[sup [minus]2] between the northern limit of moist tundra and the southern limit of temperate forest. Along a moisture gradient at 40[degrees]N, soil C storage increases from 3000 to 11000 gC m[sup [minus]2] between the western end of temperate grasslands and the eastern end of temperate forests. The model estimates that finer textured soils store more carbon under the same climatic conditions.

McGuire, A.D.; Melillo, J.M.; Joyce, L.A.; Kicklighter, D.W. (The Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States) Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ft. Colling, CO (United States))

1993-06-01

304

Patterns and mechanisms of soil acidification in the conversion of grasslands to forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grassland to forest conversions currently affect some of the world's most productive regions and have the potential to modify many soil properties. We used afforestation of native temperate humid grassland in the Pampas with eucalypts as an experimental system to 1) isolate forest and grassland imprints on soil acidity and base cation cycling and 2) evaluate the mechanisms of soil

Esteban G. Jobbágy; Robert B. Jackson

2003-01-01

305

Precipitation patterns alter growth of temperate vegetation Jingyun Fang,1  

E-print Network

major temperate biomes in China: grassland, deciduous broadleaf forest, and deciduous coniferous forest. With increased precipitation, NDVI of grassland and deciduous broadleaf forest increased, but that of deciduous and deciduous broadleaf forest, but did not alter that of deciduous coniferous forest at low precipitation

Myneni, Ranga B.

306

Effects of cloud optical thickness on net ecosystem exchange in a Northern U.S. temperate forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface observations show that since the 1950s, the amount of cloud cover has increased over the United States. Changes in cloud properties could affect the degree to which forests act as carbon sinks, since clouds influence the amount and quality of light that reaches and penetrates forest canopies. Canopy photosynthesis can be higher under cloudy conditions than under clear skies because scattered, diffuse light can penetrate deeper into canopies and reach leaves that would otherwise be light-limited. As forests undergo canopy structural modifications during succession, cloud impacts on forest carbon storage may change. Most studies related to this topic use measured sunlight at the Earth's surface as a proxy for cloud cover. To determine a more precise relationship between cloud conditions and forest carbon storage, cloud optical thickness values from 2000-2010 were retrieved from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). These values are used to evaluate the amount of radiation extinguished by clouds and its impact on net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP) and respiration in a regionally representative forest equipped with an Ameriflux eddy co-variance tower at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). Comparisons of the Ameriflux site with the UMBS Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET) allow testing of how later successional forests may respond to cloud conditions. In the FASET experiment, more than 6,700 early successional aspen and birch trees (~35% leaf area index) were stem-girdled to create a later-successional forest. NEE, GPP and respiration relationships measured by the FASET tower are compared to those seen at the Ameriflux site. The interaction between cloud optical thickness and other environmental factors, such as air temperature and soil moisture, is also examined to determine which conditions result in stronger effects of clouds on forest processes.

Cheng, S. J.; Steiner, A. L.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Bohrer, G.; Curtis, P.

2011-12-01

307

Disentangling root responses to climate change in a semiarid grassland.  

PubMed

Future ecosystem properties of grasslands will be driven largely by belowground biomass responses to climate change, which are challenging to understand due to experimental and technical constraints. We used a multi-faceted approach to explore single and combined impacts of elevated CO2 and warming on root carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in a temperate, semiarid, native grassland at the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment experiment. To investigate the indirect, moisture mediated effects of elevated CO2, we included an irrigation treatment. We assessed root standing mass, morphology, residence time and seasonal appearance/disappearance of community-aggregated roots, as well as mass and N losses during decomposition of two dominant grass species (a C3 and a C4). In contrast to what is common in mesic grasslands, greater root standing mass under elevated CO2 resulted from increased production, unmatched by disappearance. Elevated CO2 plus warming produced roots that were longer, thinner and had greater surface area, which, together with greater standing biomass, could potentially alter root function and dynamics. Decomposition increased under environmental conditions generated by elevated CO2, but not those generated by warming, likely due to soil desiccation with warming. Elevated CO2, particularly under warming, slowed N release from C4-but not C3-roots, and consequently could indirectly affect N availability through treatment effects on species composition. Elevated CO2 and warming effects on root morphology and decomposition could offset increased C inputs from greater root biomass, thereby limiting future net C accrual in this semiarid grassland. PMID:24643718

Carrillo, Yolima; Dijkstra, Feike A; LeCain, Dan; Morgan, Jack A; Blumenthal, Dana; Waldron, Sarah; Pendall, Elise

2014-06-01

308

Ecosystems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on ecosystems includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

309

Comprehensive ecosystem model-data synthesis using multiple data sets at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment experiments: Model performance at ambient CO2 concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments provide a remarkable wealth of data which can be used to evaluate and improve terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs). In the FACE model-data synthesis project, 11 TEMs were applied to two decadelong FACE experiments in temperate forests of the southeastern U.S.—the evergreen Duke Forest and the deciduous Oak Ridge Forest. In this baseline paper, we demonstrate our approach to model-data synthesis by evaluating the models' ability to reproduce observed net primary productivity (NPP), transpiration, and leaf area index (LAI) in ambient CO2 treatments. Model outputs were compared against observations using a range of goodness-of-fit statistics. Many models simulated annual NPP and transpiration within observed uncertainty. We demonstrate, however, that high goodness-of-fit values do not necessarily indicate a successful model, because simulation accuracy may be achieved through compensating biases in component variables. For example, transpiration accuracy was sometimes achieved with compensating biases in leaf area index and transpiration per unit leaf area. Our approach to model-data synthesis therefore goes beyond goodness-of-fit to investigate the success of alternative representations of component processes. Here we demonstrate this approach by comparing competing model hypotheses determining peak LAI. Of three alternative hypotheses—(1) optimization to maximize carbon export, (2) increasing specific leaf area with canopy depth, and (3) the pipe model—the pipe model produced peak LAI closest to the observations. This example illustrates how data sets from intensive field experiments such as FACE can be used to reduce model uncertainty despite compensating biases by evaluating individual model assumptions.

Walker, Anthony P.; Hanson, Paul J.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Zaehle, Sönke; Asao, Shinichi; Dietze, Michael; Hickler, Thomas; Huntingford, Chris; Iversen, Colleen M.; Jain, Atul; Lomas, Mark; Luo, Yiqi; McCarthy, Heather; Parton, William J.; Prentice, I. Colin; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Shusen; Wang, Ying-Ping; Warlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Woodward, F. Ian; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J.

2014-05-01

310

Community structure and dynamics in desert ecosystems: potential implications for insecticide risk assessment.  

PubMed

Insecticides are increasingly being used in hot arid ecosystems. The evaluation of the ecological risk these insecticides may pose, however, is based largely on data derived from temperate organisms and ecosystems. The major differences in the composition, structure, and functioning of desert animal communities when compared to temperate terrestrial ecosystems are discussed. Desert communities are characterized by a high fraction of ectotherms (both vertebrates and invertebrates);rodents and insectivores appear to dominate the mammalian fauna; and detritivores make up a very large part of the arthropod fauna. Presently available toxicity data cover these groups only to a very limited extent. It is not known if the ranges of insecticide susceptibility observed in temperate species are representative of those in arid organisms. Thus, it is not certain that ecotoxicological assessments based on such data sets adequately protect desert animal communities. It is shown that food web connectance is higher in desert ecosystems than in temperate grasslands or forests. This may to a large extent be due to the high degree of omnivory among desert organisms. Population regulation between predators and prey appears to be weaker in deserts. The same is often, though not always, the case for competition among desert organisms. It is argued that such characteristics will reduce the chance that strong indirect effects of insecticide perturbations will occur. In spite of the fact that many desert organisms are well adapted to cope with high temporal and spatial environmental variability, there is no reason to believe that they will always recover more rapidly from population perturbations caused by insecticides. The relatively large physiological and life-history plasticity encountered in many desert animals may increase tolerance to insecticide stress. Food chains are longer in deserts than in temperate grasslands and forests. The implications of this observation for the risk of biomagnification of contaminants are discussed. PMID:9002430

van der Valk, H C

1997-01-01

311

Carbon storage potential of managed mountain grasslands under future conditions - Inverse modelling and uncertainty analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical models are often difficult to calibrate due to their complex structure and/or their large number of parameters. To provide reliable results as well as defensible estimations of uncertainty any data-fusion approach has to account for and quantify all errors consisting of input, model structural and parameter estimation errors. Here we present a study of the carbon cycling of managed temperate mountain grasslands in the Austrian Alps and their carbon storage potential under future conditions using a data model fusion approach enabled to handle these uncertainties. Provided multiple data sets of different managed grassland ecosystems (consisting of micrometeorological variables, carbon dioxide fluxes, aboveground biomass and soil water content) the grassland adapted DALEC model, a big-leaf photosynthesis model as well as a soil moisture model were applied to model the carbon balance of these ecosystems. Parameter estimation of these models is done using a Bayesian inversion scheme. A vital part of this study is the correct residual handling and representation in the inverse parameter estimation scheme in order to provide a robust parameter- and predictive uncertainty estimation. This estimation is achieved by using a generalized likelihood function that, in contrast to the formal approach, does not rely on independent and identically distributed errors according to a normal distribution, with zero mean and constant variance, which does not hold in many ecological applications. Once calibrated these models are used to explore the carbon storage potential of managed grassland ecosystems under different future management- and climate-scenarios. Given these model results optimal management strategies can be provided to maximize the carbon storage potential without compromising yield.

Hammerle, A.; Williams, M. D.; Schoups, G.; Themessl, M. J.; Gobiet, A.; Calanca, P. S.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2012-12-01

312

Short communication Land use change patterns in the Rio de la Plata grasslands: The influence of  

E-print Network

Short communication Land use change patterns in the Ri´o de la Plata grasslands: The influence) hold one of the largest area of temperate grasslands of the world, the Ri´o de la Plata grasslands (RPG­387) (Fig. 1). Ri´o de la Plata grasslands have an area of 3.4 � 106 km2 at the center-east of Argentina

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

313

Feasibility of using an alternative larval host and host plants to establish Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the temperate Louisiana sugarcane ecosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although successfully introduced and established in sugarcane fields around the world, attempts to establish Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Bracondiae) in the temperate sugarcane fields of Louisiana as a parasitoid of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) ...

314

Recurrent soil freeze-thaw cycles enhance grassland productivity.  

PubMed

Ongoing global warming will increase the frequency of soil freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) in cool-temperate and other high-latitude regions. The spatial relevance of seasonally frozen ground amounts to c. 55% of the total land area of the northern hemisphere. Evidence suggests that FTCs contribute to nutrient dynamics. Knowledge of their effects on plant communities is scarce, although plants may be the decisive factor in controlling ecosystem functions such as nutrient retention. Here, the effects are analysed of five additional FTCs in winter for the above- and below-ground productivity of experimental grassland communities and soil enzymatic activity over the following growing season. Freeze-thaw cycles increased the above-ground productivity but reduced root length over the whole subsequent growing season. In summer, no changes in soil enzymatic activities representing the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles were observed in the FTC-manipulated plots, except for an increased cellobiohydrolase activity. Changes in productivity resulting in an increased shoot-to-root ratio and shifts in timing are capable of altering ecosystem stability and ecosystem services, such as productivity and nutrient retention. PMID:18069954

Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Pritsch, Karin; Schloter, Michael; Jentsch, Anke

2008-01-01

315

Gross primary production variability associated with meteorology, physiology, leaf area, and water supply in contrasting woodland and grassland semiarid riparian ecosystems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchanges in dryland environments has been more challenging than in mesic environments, likely due to more pronounced nonlinear responses of ecosystem processes to environmental variation. To better understand diurnal to interannual variation in gross primar...

316

March 2005 / Vol. 55 No. 3 BioScience 243 Grasslands and savannas occupy more than 40%  

E-print Network

March 2005 / Vol. 55 No. 3 · BioScience 243 Articles Grasslands and savannas occupy more than 40 and climate can have dramatic ecological and social consequences (Lauenroth et al.1999).Temperate grasslands are important from both agronomic and ecological perspectives. These grasslands are the basis of an extensive

Blair, John

317

Gross primary production variability associated with meteorology, physiology, leaf area, and water supply in contrasting woodland and grassland semiarid riparian ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchanges in dryland environments has been more challenging than in mesic environments, likely due to more pronounced nonlinear responses of ecosystem processes to environmental variation. To better understand diurnal to interannual variation in gross primary productivity (GPP) variability, we coupled continuous eddy-covariance derived whole ecosystem gas exchange measurements with an ecophysiologic model based on fundamental principles of

G. D. Jenerette; R. L. Scott; G. A. Barron-Gafford; T. E. Huxman

2009-01-01

318

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics of Temperate and Subarctic Heath  

E-print Network

-season cycling of carbon and nitrogen in temperate and subarctic heath ecosystems. Over the last three years, I.................................................................................................. 9 2. The carbon cycle.......................................................................................... 12 2.1 Measuring and modeling ecosystem carbon cycling............................... 13 2.2 Results

319

Soil Carbon Recovery of Degraded Steppe Ecosystems of the Mongolian Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mongolian steppe grassland systems are critical source of ecosystem services to societal groups in temperate East Asia. These systems are characterized by their arid and semiarid environments where rainfall tends to be too variable or evaporative losses reduce water availability to reliably support cropping systems or substantial forest cover. These steppe ecosystems have supported land use practices to accommodate the variable rainfall patterns, and seasonal and spatial patterns of forage production displayed by the nomadic pastoral systems practiced across Asia. These pastoral systems are dependent on grassland ecosystem services, including forage production, wool, skins, meat and dairy products, and in many systems provide critical biodiversity and land and water protection services which serve to maintain pastoral livelihoods. Precipitation variability and associated drought conditions experienced frequently in these grassland systems are key drivers of these systems. However, during the past several decades climate change and grazing and land use conversion have resulted in degradation of ecosystem services and loss of soil organic matter. Recent efforts in China and Mongolia are investigating different grazing management practices to restore soil organic matter in these degraded systems. Simulation modeling is being applied to evaluate the long-term benefits of different grazing management regimes under various climate scenarios.

Ojima, D. S.; Togtohyn, C.; Qi, J.

2013-12-01

320

Spatial and temporal variability of bacterial 16S rDNA-based T-RFLP patterns derived from soil of two Wyoming grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal variability of soil bacterial 16S rDNA terminal restriction fragment (TRF) size variation was evaluated in a homogeneous grassland (HG) dominated by the turf-forming grass Bouteloua gracilis and in a shrubland (SL) dominated by Artemisia tridentata (Wyoming big sagebrush). Temporal variability was also evaluated on the HG site over a growing season. No trends toward dissimilarity were detected

Daniel L Mummey; Peter D Stahl

2003-01-01

321

Regional variability of grassland CO2 fluxes in Tyrol/Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FLUXNET project [1] aims at quantifying the magnitude and controls on the CO2, H2O and energy exchange of terrestrial ecosystems. Ideally, the various biomes of the Earth would be sampled in proportion to their spatial extent - in reality, however, study site selection is usually based on other (more practical) criteria so that a bias exists towards certain biomes and ecosystem types. This may be problematic because FLUXNET data are used to calibrate/parameterize models at various scales - if certain ecosystems are poorly replicated this may bias model predictions. Here we present data from a project in Tyrol/Austria where we have been investigating the CO2, H2O and energy exchange of five grassland sites during 2005-2007. The five permanent grassland sites were exposed to similar climate, but differed slightly in management. In a FLUXNET style approach, any of these sites might have been selected for making long-term flux measurements - the aim of this project was to examine the representativeness of these sites and, if evident, elucidate the causes for and controls on differences between sites. To this end we conducted continuous eddy covariance flux measurements at one (anchor) site [2, 3], and episodic, month long flux measurements at the four additional sites using a roving eddy covariance tower. These data were complemented by measurements of environmental drivers, the amount of above ground phytomass and basic data on vegetation and soil type, as well as management. Data are subject to a rigorous statistical analysis in order to quantify significant differences in the CO2, H2O and energy exchange between the sites and to identify the factors which are responsible for these differences. In the present contribution we report results on CO2 fluxes. Our major findings are that (i) site-identity of the surveyed grassland ecosystems was a significant factor for the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), somewhat less for gross primary production (GPP) and not for ecosystem respiration (RECO), (ii) GPP depended mainly on the amount of incident photosynthetically active radiation and the amount of green plant matter, the scale of influence of these two factors varying fourfold between the sites, and not so much on the available water, (iii) RECO was mainly affected by the soil temperature, but some evidence for priming effects was also found, (iv) the NEE was mainly influenced by GPP and to a lower extent by RECO. Taken together our results indicate that even within the same ecosystem type exposed to similar climate and land use, site selection may strongly affect the resulting NEE estimates. References: [1] D.D. Baldocchi, "Breathing of the terrestrial biosphere: lessons learned from a global network of carbon dioxide flux measurement systems", Australian Journal of Botany vol.56 (2008) pp. 1-26. [2] A. Hammerle, A. Haslwanter, U. Tappeiner, A. Cernusca, G. Wohlfahrt, "Leaf area controls on energy partitioning of a temperate mountain grassland", Biogeosciences vol.5 (2008) pp. 421 431. [3] G. Wohlfahrt, A. Hammerle, A. Haslwanter, M. Bahn, U. Tappeiner, A. Cernusca, "Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a temperate mountain grassland: effects of weather and management", Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (2008) D08110, doi:10.1029/2007JD009286.

Irschick, Christoph; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Wohlfahrt, Georg

2010-05-01

322

Carbon storage potential of a managed mountain grassland - Inverse modelling and uncertainty analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical models are often difficult to calibrate due to their complex structure and/or their large number of parameters. To provide reliable results as well as defensible estimations of uncertainty any data-fusion approach has to account for and quantify all errors consisting of input, model structural and parameter errors. Here we present a study of the carbon cycling of a managed temperate mountain grassland in the Austrian Alps. A ten year data set of measured carbon dioxide fluxes and aboveground biomass are combined with the grassland-adapted DALEC model and a big-leaf photosynthesis model. Parameter estimation of these models is done using a Bayesian inversion scheme. A vital part of this study is the correct residual handling and representation in the inverse parameter estimation scheme in order to provide a robust parameter- and predictive uncertainty estimation. This is achieved by using a generalized likelihood function that, in contrast to the formal approach, does not rely on independent and identically distributed errors according to a normal distribution, with zero mean and constant variance, which does not hold in many ecological applications. After successful calibration these models are used to explore the carbon storage potential of the managed grassland ecosystem under different future management and climate scenarios. To evaluate interactive effects of future climate conditions and management strategies different likely climate scenarios are calculated and prescribed and management strategies (cutting dates and frequency) are optimized in regard to carbon storage and/or yield.

Liener, T.; Hammerle, A.; Williams, M.; Scharnagl, B.; Themeßl, M.; Gobiet, A.; Wohlfahrt, G.

2012-04-01

323

Comparative analysis of SPOT, Landsat, MODIS, and AVHRR normalized difference vegetation index data on the estimation of leaf area index in a mixed grassland ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many grassland studies have depended on or are currently depending on the Landsat series of satellite sensors for monitoring work. However, given the identified gaps in Landsat data, alternatives to Landsat imagery need to be tested in an operational environment. In this study, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values are derived from a Système Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) image and compared to the NDVI values from a Landsat image for LAI estimation in a semi-arid heterogeneous grassland. Results indicate a high agreement between Landsat and SPOT data with R2 over 85% at all buffer levels (100, 250, and 1000 m), and a significant but lower agreement between MODIS and Landsat with R2 around 28% at 250 m buffer level to 37% at 100 m buffer level. Based on in situ measurements of LAI in 22 homogeneous sites, the relationships established between LAI and NDVI show that SPOT and Landsat could predict LAI with acceptable accuracy, but MODIS and AVHRR cannot quantify the spatial variation in LAI measurements. Data fusion or blending techniques that combine the spectral information of high spatial/low temporal resolution data with low spatial/high temporal resolution data may be considered to study semi-arid heterogeneous grasslands.

Tong, Alexander; He, Yuhong

2013-01-01

324

Application of the ORCHIDEE global vegetation model to evaluate biomass and soil carbon stocks of Qinghai-Tibetan grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cold grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau form a globally significant biome, which represents 6% of the world's grasslands and 44% of China's grasslands. Yet little is known about carbon cycling in this biome. In this study, we calibrated and applied a process-based ecosystem model called Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) to estimate the C fluxes and

Kun Tan; Philippe Ciais; Shilong Piao; Xiaopu Wu; Yanhong Tang; Nicolas Vuichard; Shuang Liang; Jingyun Fang

2010-01-01

325

Examination of model-estimated ecosystem respiration using flux measurements from a cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing uncertainty in the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from plants and microbes is critically important in determining carbon budgets. We examined properties of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) derived from a process-based model that simulates an ecosystem carbon cycle, focusing on nighttime flux determined from ecosystem respiration and soil efflux. The model simulated autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration using semi-empirical

Akihiko Ito; Motoko Inatomi; Wenhon Mo; Misun Lee; Hiroshi Koizumi; Nobuko Saigusa; Shohei Murayama; Susumu Yamamoto

2007-01-01

326

Humans influence every ecosystem on Earth, lead-ing to impairment of natural ecosystem structure and  

E-print Network

ecosystems. North American forests, savannas, and grasslands have experienced substantial losses into grasslands (Wali et al.2002),inevitably leading to changes in ecosystem function. Conserving native land% of most native US ecosystems remain, and the proportion that is restored varies widely by biome. Restored

327

Effects of plant diversity on invertebrate herbivory in experimental grassland.  

PubMed

The rate at which a plant species is attacked by invertebrate herbivores has been hypothesized to depend on plant species richness, yet empirical evidence is scarce. Current theory predicts higher herbivore damage in monocultures than in species-rich mixtures. We quantified herbivore damage by insects and molluscs to plants in experimental plots established in 2002 from a species pool of 60 species of Central European Arrhenatherum grasslands. Plots differed in plant species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 60 species), number of functional groups (1, 2, 3, 4), functional group and species composition. We estimated herbivore damage by insects and molluscs at the level of transplanted plant individuals ("phytometer" species Plantago lanceolata, Trifolium pratense, Rumex acetosa) and of the entire plant community during 2003 and 2004. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows specific predictions about the relative contributions of functional diversity, plant functional identity, and species richness in relation to herbivory. Additionally, the phytometer approach is new to biodiversity-herbivory studies, allowing estimates of species-specific herbivory rates within the larger biodiversity-ecosystem functioning context. Herbivory in phytometers and experimental communities tended to increase with plant species richness and the number of plant functional groups, but the effects were rarely significant. Herbivory in phytometers was in some cases positively correlated with community biomass or leaf area index. The most important factor influencing invertebrate herbivory was the presence of particular plant functional groups. Legume (grass) presence strongly increased (decreased) herbivory at the community level. The opposite pattern was found for herbivory in T. pratense phytometers. We conclude that (1) plant species richness is much less important than previously thought and (2) plant functional identity is a much better predictor of invertebrate herbivory in temperate grassland ecosystems. PMID:16231192

Scherber, Christoph; Mwangi, Peter N; Temperton, Vicky M; Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Schmid, Bernhard; Weisser, Wolfgang W

2006-03-01

328

Grassland birds: An overview of threats and recommended management strategies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grassland ecosystems are dependent on periodic disturbance for habitat maintenance. Historically, grazing by native herbivores and prairie fires were the agents principally responsible for maintaining grassland areas. However, elimination of native herbivores, wide-spread fire suppression, and conversion for agriculture have greatly altered grasslands in the United States and Canada. Because of these landscape changes, many grassland birds are increasingly dependent on land managers for habitat creation, maintenance, and health. Grazing, prescribed burning, and mowing/haying are the most frequently used, and versatile, grassland management techniques. Grassland birds prefer a wide range of grass heights and densities, with some species preferring short sparse vegetation, and others preferring taller, more dense vegetation. Due to differences in species habitat preferences and regional differences in soils and floristics, the responses of individual grassland species to specific grassland management practices can be variable and often are regionally dependent. As a result, management of grassland areas is best directed toward the creation of a mosaic of grassland habitat types. This habitat mosaic is probably best maintained through some type of rotational management system in which sections of large grassland areas receive management on a regular schedule. Such a rotational system would provide a variety of habitat types in every year, would ensure the availability of suitable habitat for birds at either end of the grassland management spectrum, and also would provide habitat for birds whose preferences lie between these extremes.

Vickery, P.D.; Herkert, J.R.; Knopf, F.L.; Ruth, J.; Keller, C.E.

2000-01-01

329

Biodiversity and stability in grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

ONE of the ecological tenets justifying conservation of biodiversity is that diversity begets stability. Impacts of biodiversity on population dynamics and ecosystem functioning have long been debated1-7, however, with many theoretical explorations2-6,8-11 but few field studies12-15. Here we describe a long-term study of grasslands16,17 which shows that primary productivity in more diverse plant communities is more resistant to, and recovers

David Tilman; John A. Downing

1994-01-01

330

GRASSLAND INVADER RESPONSES TO REALISTIC CHANGES IN NATIVE SPECIES RICHNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of species richness for repelling exotic plant invasions varies from ecosystem to ecosystem. Thus, in order to prioritize conservation objectives, it is critical to identify those ecosystems where decreasing richness will most greatly magnify invasion risks. Our goal was to determine if invasion risks greatly increase in response to common reductions in grassland species richness. We imposed treatments

Matthew J. Rinella; Monica L. Pokorny; Romdhane Rekaya

2007-01-01

331

EFFECTS OF LAND-USE HISTORY ON SOIL QUALITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR SANDPLAIN GRASSLAND RESTORATION  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF LAND-USE HISTORY ON SOIL QUALITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR SANDPLAIN GRASSLAND RESTORATION, The Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole Marine Biological Lab, Woods Hole, MA Abstract Coastal sandplain grasslands few sandplain grasslands remaining, and consequently many restoration efforts are focused on creating

Vallino, Joseph J.

332

Impacts of seasonality and surface heterogeneity on water-use efficiency in mesic grasslands  

E-print Network

Impacts of seasonality and surface heterogeneity on water-use efficiency in mesic grasslands N. A encroachment is occurring in grasslands worldwide, with largely unknown effects on local carbon and water evapotranspiration. Here, a was compared among three different grassland ecosystems in eastern KS, USA, by using

Nippert, Jesse

333

Observations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Century is a model of terrestrial biogeochemistry based on relationships between climate, human management (fire, grazing), soil properties, plant productivity, and decomposition. The grassland version of the Century model was tested using observed data from 11 temperate and tropical grasslands around the world. The results show that soil C and N levels can be simulated to within ±25% of the

W. J. Parton; J. M. O. Scurlock; D. S. Ojima; T. G. Gilmanov; R. J. Scholes; D. S. Schimel; T. Kirchner; J. C. Menaut; T. Seastedt; E. Garcia Moya; Apinan Kamnalrut; J. I. Kinyamario

1993-01-01

334

Observations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Century is a model of terrestrial biogeochemistry based on relationships between climate, human management (fire, grazing), soil properties, plant productivity, and decomposition. The grassland version of the Century model was tested using observed data from 11 temperate and tropical grasslands around the world. The results show that soil C and N levels can be simulated to within +\\/-25% of the

W. J. Parton; J. M. O. Scurlock; D. S. Ojima; T. G. Gilmanov; R. J. Scholes; D. S. Schimel; T. Kirchner; J.-C. Menaut; T. Seastedt; E. Garcia Moya; Apinan Kamnalrut; J. I. Kinyamario

1993-01-01

335

From fronds to fish: the use of indicators for ecological monitoring in marine benthic ecosystems, with case studies from temperate Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological indicators are used for monitoring in marine habitats the world over. With the advent of Ecosystem Based Fisheries\\u000a Management (EBFM), the need for cost effective indicators of environmental impacts and ecosystem condition has intensified.\\u000a Here, we review the development, utilisation and analysis of indicators for monitoring in marine benthic habitats, and outline\\u000a important advances made in recent years. We

Dan A. Smale; Timothy J. Langlois; Gary A. Kendrick; Jessica J. Meeuwig; Euan S. Harvey

336

WILD AND SOWN GRASSES. PROFILES OF A TEMPERATE SPECIES SELECTION: ECOLOGY, BIODIVERSITY, AND USE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grasslands are the foundation of livestock agriculture throughout much of the world. Many of the species that occupy natural grasslands have also become the foundation of outdoor sports, recreation, and conservation activities. In his new book, Dr. Peeters profiles 43 temperate grass species belon...

337

Temper Foam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fabricated by Expanded Rubber & Plastics Corporation, Temper Foam provides better impact protection for airplane passengers and enhances passenger comfort on long flights because it distributes body weight and pressure evenly over the entire contact area. Called a "memory foam" it matches the contour of the body pressing against it and returns to its original shape once the pressure is removed. As a shock absorber, a three-inch foam pad has the ability to absorb the impact of a 10-foot fall by an adult. Applications include seat cushioning for transportation vehicles, padding for furniture and a variety of athletic equipment medical applications including wheelchair padding, artificial limb socket lining, finger splint and hand padding for burn patients, special mattresses for the bedridden and dental stools. Production and sales rights are owned by Temper Foam, Inc. Material is manufactured under license by the Dewey and Almy Division of Grace Chemical Corporation. Distributors of the product are Kees Goebel Medical Specialties, Inc. and Alimed, Inc. They sell Temper Foam in bulk to the fabricators who trim it to shapes required by their customers.

1981-01-01

338

BVOC fluxes above mountain grassland  

PubMed Central

Grasslands comprise natural tropical savannah over managed temperate fields to tundra and cover one quarter of the Earth’s land surface. Plant growth, maintenance and decay result in volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions to the atmosphere. Furthermore, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) are emitted as a consequence of various environmental stresses including cutting and drying during harvesting. Fluxes of BVOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS) over temperate mountain grassland in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) over one growing season (2008). VOC fluxes were calculated from the disjunct PTR-MS data using the virtual disjunct eddy covariance method and the gap filling method. Methanol fluxes obtained with the two independent flux calculation methods were highly correlated (y = 0.95×?0.12, R2 = 0.92). Methanol showed strong daytime emissions throughout the growing season – with maximal values of 9.7 nmol m?2 s?1, methanol fluxes from the growing grassland were considerably higher at the beginning of the growing season in June compared to those measured during October (2.5 nmol m?2 s?1). Methanol was the only component that exhibited consistent fluxes during the entire growing periods of the grass. The cutting and drying of the grass increased the emissions of methanol to up to 78.4 nmol m?2 s?1. In addition, emissions of acetaldehyde (up to 11.0 nmol m?2 s?1), and hexenal (leaf aldehyde, up to 8.6 nmol m?2 s?1) were detected during/after harvesting. PMID:24339833

Bamberger, I.; Hortnagl, L.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Graus, M.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Muller, M.; Dunkl, J.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Hansel, A.

2013-01-01

339

BVOC fluxes above mountain grassland.  

PubMed

Grasslands comprise natural tropical savannah over managed temperate fields to tundra and cover one quarter of the Earth's land surface. Plant growth, maintenance and decay result in volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions to the atmosphere. Furthermore, biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) are emitted as a consequence of various environmental stresses including cutting and drying during harvesting. Fluxes of BVOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometer (PTR-MS) over temperate mountain grassland in Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) over one growing season (2008). VOC fluxes were calculated from the disjunct PTR-MS data using the virtual disjunct eddy covariance method and the gap filling method. Methanol fluxes obtained with the two independent flux calculation methods were highly correlated (y = 0.95×-0.12, R (2) = 0.92). Methanol showed strong daytime emissions throughout the growing season - with maximal values of 9.7 nmol m(-2) s(-1), methanol fluxes from the growing grassland were considerably higher at the beginning of the growing season in June compared to those measured during October (2.5 nmol m(-2) s(-1)). Methanol was the only component that exhibited consistent fluxes during the entire growing periods of the grass. The cutting and drying of the grass increased the emissions of methanol to up to 78.4 nmol m(-2) s(-1). In addition, emissions of acetaldehyde (up to 11.0 nmol m(-2) s(-1)), and hexenal (leaf aldehyde, up to 8.6 nmol m(-2) s(-1)) were detected during/after harvesting. PMID:24339833

Bamberger, I; Hortnagl, L; Schnitzhofer, R; Graus, M; Ruuskanen, T M; Muller, M; Dunkl, J; Wohlfahrt, G; Hansel, A

2010-05-01

340

Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and its influencing factors in desert grasslands of the Hexi Corridor, northwest China.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the distribution patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) and factors that influence these patterns is crucial for understanding the carbon cycle. The objectives of this study were to determine the spatial distribution pattern of soil organic carbon density (SOCD) and the controlling factors in arid desert grasslands of northwest China. The above- and belowground biomass and SOCD in 260 soil profiles from 52 sites over 2.7×10(4) km2 were investigated. Combined with a satellite-based dataset of an enhanced vegetation index during 2011-2012 and climatic factors at different sites, the relationships between SOCD and biotic and abiotic factors were identified. The results indicated that the mean SOCD was 1.20 (SD:+/- 0.85), 1.73 (SD:+/- 1.20), and 2.69 (SD:+/- 1.91) kg m(-2) at soil depths of 0-30 cm, 0-50 cm, and 0-100 cm, respectively, which was smaller than other estimates in temperate grassland, steppe, and desert-grassland ecosystems. The spatial distribution of SOCD gradually decreased from the southeast to the northwest, corresponding to the precipitation gradient. SOCD increased significantly with vegetation biomass, annual precipitation, soil moisture, clay and silt content, and decreased with mean annual temperature and sand content. The correlation between BGB and SOCD was closer than the correlation between AGB and SOCD. Variables could together explain about 69.8%, 74.4%, and 78.9% of total variation in SOCD at 0-30 cm, 0-50 cm, and 0-100 cm, respectively. In addition, we found that mean annual temperature is more important than other abiotic factors in determining SOCD in arid desert grasslands in our study area. The information obtained in this study provides a basis for accurately estimating SOC stocks and assessing carbon (C) sequestration potential in the desert grasslands of northwest China. PMID:24732375

Wang, Min; Su, Yongzhong; Yang, Xiao

2014-01-01

341

Estimation of nitrous oxide emissions from US grasslands  

SciTech Connect

Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from temperate grasslands are poorly quantified and may be an important part of the atmospheric N{sub 2}O budget. In this study N{sub 2}O emissions were simulated for 1,052 grassland sites in the US using the NGAS model of Parton and others (1996) coupled with an organic matter decomposition model. N{sub 2}O flux was calculated for each site using soil and land use data obtained from the National Resource Inventory (NRI) database and weather data obtained from NASA. The estimates were regionalized based upon temperature and moisture isotherms. Annual N{sub 2}O emissions for each region were based on the grassland area of each region and the mean estimated annual N{sub 2}O flux from NRI grassland sites in the region. The regional fluxes ranged from 0.18 to 1.02 kg N{sub 2}O N/ha/yr with the mean flux for all regions being 0.29 kg N{sub 2}O N/ha/yr. Even though fluxes from the western regions were relatively low, these regions made the largest contribution to total emissions due to their large grassland area. Total US grassland N{sub 2}O emissions were estimated to be about 67 Gg N{sub 2}O N/yr. Emissions from the Great Plains states, which contain the largest expanse of natural grassland in the US, were estimated to average 0.24 kg N{sub 2}O N/ha/yr. Using the annual flux estimate for the temperate Great Plains, the authors estimate that temperate grasslands worldwide may potentially produce 0.27 Tg N{sub 2}O N/yr. Even though the estimate for global temperate grassland N{sub 2}O emissions is less than published estimates for other major temperate grasslands are a significant part of both United States and global atmospheric N{sub 2}O budgets. This study demonstrates the utility of models for regional N{sub 2}O budgets. This study demonstrates the utility of models for regional N{sub 2}O flux estimation although additional data from carefully designed field studies is needed to further validate model results.

Mummey, D.L.; Smith, J.L.; Bluhm, G.

2000-02-01

342

Light, Soil Temperature, and VPD as controls of flux-tower NEE partitioning into gross photosynthesis and respiration in grassland and agricultural ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partitioning of the flux-tower net CO2 exchange measurements (NEE) into gross photosynthesis (Pg) and ecosystem respiration (Re) components is an essential step in post-processing flux tower data for analysis and modeling. We have developed a method of NEE = Pg - Re partitioning using photosynthetically active radiation (Q), soil temperature at 5 cm depth (Ts), and vapor pressure deficit at

T. G. Gilmanov

2010-01-01

343

Sensitivity of Temperate Desert Steppe Carbon Exchange to Seasonal Droughts and Precipitation Variations in Inner Mongolia, China  

PubMed Central

Arid grassland ecosystems have significant interannual variation in carbon exchange; however, it is unclear how environmental factors influence carbon exchange in different hydrological years. In this study, the eddy covariance technique was used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability of CO2 flux over a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, China from 2008 to 2010. The amounts and times of precipitation varied significantly throughout the study period. The precipitation in 2009 (186.4 mm) was close to the long-term average (183.9±47.6 mm), while the precipitation in 2008 (136.3 mm) and 2010 (141.3 mm) was approximately a quarter below the long-term average. The temperate desert steppe showed carbon neutrality for atmospheric CO2 throughout the study period, with a net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) of ?7.2, ?22.9, and 26.0 g C m?2 yr?1 in 2008, 2009, and 2010, not significantly different from zero. The ecosystem gained more carbon in 2009 compared to other two relatively dry years, while there was significant difference in carbon uptake between 2008 and 2010, although both years recorded similar annual precipitation. The results suggest that summer precipitation is a key factor determining annual NEE. The apparent quantum yield and saturation value of NEE (NEEsat) and the temperature sensitivity coefficient of ecosystem respiration (Reco) exhibited significant variations. The values of NEEsat were ?2.6, ?2.9, and ?1.4 µmol CO2 m?2 s?1 in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Drought suppressed both the gross primary production (GPP) and Reco, and the drought sensitivity of GPP was greater than that of Reco. The soil water content sensitivity of GPP was high during the dry year of 2008 with limited soil moisture availability. Our results suggest the carbon balance of this temperate desert steppe was not only sensitive to total annual precipitation, but also to its seasonal distribution. PMID:23393576

Yang, Fulin; Zhou, Guangsheng

2013-01-01

344

Sensitivity of temperate desert steppe carbon exchange to seasonal droughts and precipitation variations in Inner Mongolia, China.  

PubMed

Arid grassland ecosystems have significant interannual variation in carbon exchange; however, it is unclear how environmental factors influence carbon exchange in different hydrological years. In this study, the eddy covariance technique was used to investigate the seasonal and interannual variability of CO? flux over a temperate desert steppe in Inner Mongolia, China from 2008 to 2010. The amounts and times of precipitation varied significantly throughout the study period. The precipitation in 2009 (186.4 mm) was close to the long-term average (183.9±47.6 mm), while the precipitation in 2008 (136.3 mm) and 2010 (141.3 mm) was approximately a quarter below the long-term average. The temperate desert steppe showed carbon neutrality for atmospheric CO? throughout the study period, with a net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) of -7.2, -22.9, and 26.0 g C m?² yr?¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, not significantly different from zero. The ecosystem gained more carbon in 2009 compared to other two relatively dry years, while there was significant difference in carbon uptake between 2008 and 2010, although both years recorded similar annual precipitation. The results suggest that summer precipitation is a key factor determining annual NEE. The apparent quantum yield and saturation value of NEE (NEE(sat)) and the temperature sensitivity coefficient of ecosystem respiration (R(eco)) exhibited significant variations. The values of NEE(sat) were -2.6, -2.9, and -1.4 µmol CO? m?² s?¹ in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. Drought suppressed both the gross primary production (GPP) and R(eco), and the drought sensitivity of GPP was greater than that of R(eco). The soil water content sensitivity of GPP was high during the dry year of 2008 with limited soil moisture availability. Our results suggest the carbon balance of this temperate desert steppe was not only sensitive to total annual precipitation, but also to its seasonal distribution. PMID:23393576

Yang, Fulin; Zhou, Guangsheng

2013-01-01

345

Effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats - grasslands. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Report 7 of the series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid deposition on fish and wildlife resources deals with grasslands. General aspects of grassland ecosystems relevant to a discussion of air pollution effects are presented along with a brief introduction to various other types of ecosystem stresses.

Peterson, M.A.

1982-06-01

346

Carbon Sequestration Rates and the Energy Balance of Turf in the Denver Urban Ecosystem and in an Adjacent Native Grassland Under Contrasting Management Practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although urban areas occupy just a few percent of US land area, they are expanding rapidly and are expected to maintain this trend for the foreseeable future. Within these domains is the largest irrigated crop in the US - lawns. Utilizing eddy covariance instruments, surface chambers, and destructive leaf sampling, well watered, fertilized lawns in metropolitan Denver were found to sequester substantially more carbon (1.3 T C ha-1 yr-1) than adjacent native grassland (0.6 T C ha-1 yr-1) over a growing season. Due to the semi-arid environment, contrasts in lawn management (irrigation and fertilization) led to wide variation in carbon sequestration rates, evapotranspiration, and the sensible and latent heat partitioning of the energy balance. Measured leaf area was correlated with remotely sensed vegetation indices obtained from aircraft and satellite hyperspectral instruments to quantify spatial variability in leaf area over contrasting land surfaces and lawn management practices. These relations applied to continuing acquisition of remotely sensed data provide us with a means to assess potential variability in carbon sequestration in space and time domains.

Anderson, D. E.; Powell, K.; Szanko, G.; Mladinich, C.; Curry, S.; Griebel, A.

2010-12-01

347

Long-term resistance to simulated climate change in an infertile grassland  

PubMed Central

Climate shifts over this century are widely expected to alter the structure and functioning of temperate plant communities. However, long-term climate experiments in natural vegetation are rare and largely confined to systems with the capacity for rapid compositional change. In unproductive, grazed grassland at Buxton in northern England (U.K.), one of the longest running experimental manipulations of temperature and rainfall reveals vegetation highly resistant to climate shifts maintained over 13 yr. Here we document this resistance in the form of: (i) constancy in the relative abundance of growth forms and maintained dominance by long-lived, slow-growing grasses, sedges, and small forbs; (ii) immediate but minor shifts in the abundance of several species that have remained stable over the course of the experiment; (iii) no change in productivity in response to climate treatments with the exception of reduction from chronic summer drought; and (iv) only minor species losses in response to drought and winter heating. Overall, compositional changes induced by 13-yr exposure to climate regime change were less than short-term fluctuations in species abundances driven by interannual climate fluctuations. The lack of progressive compositional change, coupled with the long-term historical persistence of unproductive grasslands in northern England, suggests the community at Buxton possesses a stabilizing capacity that leads to long-term persistence of dominant species. Unproductive ecosystems provide a refuge for many threatened plants and animals and perform a diversity of ecosystem services. Our results support the view that changing land use and overexploitation rather than climate change per se constitute the primary threats to these fragile ecosystems. PMID:18606995

Grime, J. Philip; Fridley, Jason D.; Askew, Andrew P.; Thompson, Ken; Hodgson, John G.; Bennett, Chris R.

2008-01-01

348

Stimulation of Symbiotic N2 Fixation in Trifolium repens L. under Elevated Atmospheric pCO2 in a Grassland Ecosystem.  

PubMed Central

Symbiotic N2 fixation is one of the main processes that introduces N into terrestrial ecosystems. As such, it may be crucial for the sequestration of the extra C available in a world of continuously increasing atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2). The effect of elevated pCO2 (60 Pa) on symbiotic N2 fixation (15N-isotope dilution method) was investigated using Free-Air-CO2-Enrichment technology over a period of 3 years. Trifolium repens was cultivated either alone or together with Lolium perenne (a nonfixing reference crop) in mixed swards. Two different N fertilization levels and defoliation frequencies were applied. The total N yield increased consistently and the percentage of plant N derived from symbiotic N2 fixation increased significantly in T. repens under elevated pCO2. All additionally assimilated N was derived from symbiotic N2 fixation, not from the soil. In the mixtures exposed to elevated pCO2, an increased amount of symbiotically fixed N (+7.8, 8.2, and 6.2 g m-2 a-1 in 1993, 1994, and 1995, respectively) was introduced into the system. Increased N2 fixation is a competitive advantage for T. repens in mixed swards with pasture grasses and may be a crucial factor in maintaining the C:N ratio in the ecosystem as a whole. PMID:12226411

Zanetti, S.; Hartwig, U. A.; Luscher, A.; Hebeisen, T.; Frehner, M.; Fischer, B. U.; Hendrey, G. R.; Blum, H.; Nosberger, J.

1996-01-01

349

QWhat are grassland landowners' knowledge and perceptions about the use of prescribed fire and grazing as management  

E-print Network

QWhat are grassland landowners' knowledge and perceptions about the use of prescribed fire grassland ecosystems. However, private landowners have been slow to learn about and adopt these practices and knowledge, information exchanges, and practices on grazing native grasslands and potential impacts to water

Debinski, Diane M.

350

Changes in soil organic matter driven by shifts in co-dominant plant species in a grassland  

E-print Network

1 Changes in soil organic matter driven by shifts in co-dominant plant species in a grassland R.geoderma.2013.07.027 #12;2 Abstract Globally, grassland soils, if managed properly, are important for the sake. Rangeland ecosystems are very diverse (i.e. grassland, shrubland

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

Effects of Nitrogen Addition and Fire on Plant Nitrogen Use in a Temperate Steppe  

PubMed Central

Plant nitrogen (N) use strategies have great implications for primary production and ecosystem nutrient cycling. Given the increasing atmospheric N deposition received by most of the terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the responses of plant N use would facilitate the projection of plant-mediated N cycling under global change scenarios. The effects of N deposition on plant N use would be affected by both natural and anthropogenic disturbances, such as prescribed fire in the grassland. We examined the effects of N addition (5.25 g N m?2 yr?1) and prescribed fire (annual burning) on plant N concentrations and N use characters at both species and community levels in a temperate steppe of northern China. We found that N addition and fire independently affected soil N availability and plant N use traits. Nitrogen addition increased aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), inorganic N, and N uptake, decreased N response efficiency (NRE), but did not affect biomass-weighed N concentrations at community level. Prescribed fire did not change the community level N concentrations, but largely decreased N uptake efficiency and NRE. At the species level, the effects of N addition and fire on plant N use were species-specific. The divergent responses of plant N use at community and species levels to N addition and fire highlight the importance of the hierarchical responses of plant N use at diverse biological organization levels to the alteration of soil N availability. This study will improve our understanding of the responses of plant-mediated N cycling to global change factors and ecosystem management strategies in the semiarid grasslands. PMID:24594654

Wei, Hai-Wei; Lü, Xiao-Tao; Lü, Fu-Mei; Han, Xing-Guo

2014-01-01

352

Monitoring of phenological control on ecosystem fluxes using digital cameras and eddy covariance data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital repeat photography is an emerging platform for monitoring land surface phenology. Despite the great potential of digital repeat photography to yield insights into phenological cycles, relatively few studies have compared digital repeat photography to in situ measures of ecosystem fluxes. We used 60 site years of concurrent camera and eddy covariance data at 13 sites, representing five distinct ecosystem types - temperate deciduous forest, temperate coniferous forest, boreal forest, grasslands and crops - to measure and model phenological controls on carbon and water exchange with the atmosphere. Camera-derived relative greenness was strongly correlated with estimated gross primary productivity among the five ecosystem types and was moderately correlated with water fluxes. Camera-derived canopy development was also compared with phenological phase as predicted by a generalized, bioclimatic phenology model and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) imagery to assess the potential for cross-biome phenological monitoring. This study demonstrates the potential of webcam networks such as Phenocam (phenocam.unh.edu) to conduct long-term, continental monitoring and modeling of ecosystem response to climate change.

Toomey, M. P.; Friedl, M. A.; Hufkens, K.; Sonnentag, O.; Milliman, T. E.; Frolking, S.; Richardson, A. D.

2012-12-01

353

Analysis of the production stability of mixed grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased use of white clover in grasslands has led to new management challenges, as mixed pastures have been associated with unstable herbage production. The stability of mixed pastures depends on a complex of intrinsic ecosystem properties, on the variability of the environment, and on the spatial and temporal scale at which it is studied. In this paper, intrinsic ecosystem

R. P. O Schulte; E. A Lantinga; P. C Struik

2003-01-01

354

Water, temperature, and defoliation effects on perennial grassland respiration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in respiration can have a profound effect on ecosystem C balance. This talk will present results from eddy covariance studies describing environment and management effects on ecosystem C flux from cool- and warm-season perennial grasslands. In addition, stable C isotope studies that partitio...

355

Stimulation of symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation in trifolium repens L. under elevated atmospheric pCO{sub 2} in a grassland ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

Symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation is one of the main processes that introduces N into terrestrial ecosystems. As such, it may be crucial for the sequestration of the extra C available in a world of continuously increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}). The effect of elevated pCO{sub 2} (60 Pa) on symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation ({sup 15}N-isotope dilution method) was investigated using Free-Air-CO{sub 2}-Enrichment technology over a period of 3 years. Trifolium repens was cultivated either alone or together with Lolium perenne (a nonfixing reference crop) in mixed swards. Two different N fertilization levels and defoliation frequencies were applied. The total N yield increased consistently and the percentage of plant N derived from symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation increased significantly in T. repens under elevated pCO{sub 2}. All additionally assimilated N was derived from symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation, not from the soil. In the mixtures exposed to elevated pCO{sub 2}, an increased amount of symbiotically fixed N (+7.8, 8.2, and 6.2 g m{sup {minus}2} a {sup {minus}1} in 1993, 1994, and 1995, respectively) was introduced into the system. Increased N{sub 2} fixation is a competitive advantage for T. repens in mixed swards with paster grasses and may be a crucial factor in maintaining the C:N ratio in the ecosystem as a whole. 57 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Zanetti, S.; Hartwig, U.A.; Luescher, A. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)] [and others

1996-10-01

356

The recovery of ant communities in regenerating temperate conifer forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ants perform many critical functions in forested ecosystems, little is known about how they respond to timber harvesting, especially in temperate systems. We examined ground-foraging ant communities and 11 forest characteristics in temperate conifer forests of southwestern Oregon, USA that ranged in age from 5 to 427 years. Seven forest characteristics were related to stand age and were summarized

Jennifer D. Palladini; Maureen G. Jones; Nathan J. Sanders; Erik S. Jules

2007-01-01

357

Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA) with previously

Marie-Louise Lemloh; Jane Fromont; Franz Brümmer; Kayley M Usher

2009-01-01

358

Evaluating Eddy Covariance Flux Filtering Methods For Producing Ecosystem-Representative Carbon Exchange Estimates For A Fetch-Limited Temperate Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Producing time-integrated (daily to annual) estimates of ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchanges from eddy covariance (EC) measurements requires the careful exclusion of non-representative fluxes prior to gap-filling model application. Half-hourly fluxes are typically excluded when atmospheric turbulence is below an acceptable level (friction velocity threshold, u*Th), or when the relative contribution from non-target surfaces is greater than a tolerable amount (footprint threshold, fpTh). In this study, we compare and evaluate a variety of commonly-used footprint- and friction velocity-filtering methods applied to six years (2006-2011) of carbon flux estimates for a fetch-limited, 74-year old planted Eastern white pine (Pinus Strobus L.) forest in southern Ontario, Canada. A data-driven approach was used, where factorial combinations of footprint models, fpTh values and u*Th determination methods were applied prior to gap-filling. Filtering applications were compared in terms of the quantity and distribution of data removed, while ANOVA and multiple comparison tests were used to quantify the influence of these applications on annual estimates of Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP), Ecosystem Respiration (RE) and Gross Ecosystem Productivity (GEP). Finally, preferred filtering applications were selected using an objective evaluation of gap-filling model performance metrics to provide information on the internal consistency of the filtered data. Results showed that the choice of footprint model and fpTh exerted a greater influence on NEP, RE and GEP estimates than the u*Th estimation method used. Variation in u*Th estimates were partly explained by footprint filtering specifications, indicating significant u*Th differences between the target forest and the surrounding forested and agricultural land. Applying the footprint model of Kljun (2004. Bound. Layer Met. 112[3]) at fpTh = 0.8 resulted in greatest improvement in model performance; increasing fpTh above this value diminished performance markedly, as insufficient input data quantity and temporal coverage caused poor parameterization. Thus, footprint filter application at this site (and likely other sites), must balance competing needs: accepting only the most representative flux data, while retaining a sufficient amount for successful gap-filling model operation. Compared to the no-footprint (control) case, applying these optimal filtering methods increased annual NEP estimates between 75 and 250 g C m-2 y-1, implying that this forest sequesters substantially more carbon annually than the surrounding landscape. NEP changes were solely attributed to decreased annual RE estimates, as GEP varied only minimally between different footprint and friction velocity applications. This result, caused by a significant day/night flux footprint discrepancy, suggests the need for half-hourly footprint filter application and analyses at all EC flux tower sites that experience measurement fetch limitations.

Brodeur, J. J.; Peichl, M.; Arain, M.

2013-12-01

359

Evaluating Eddy Covariance Flux Filtering Methods For Producing Ecosystem-Representative Carbon Exchange Estimates For A Fetch-Limited Temperate Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Producing time-integrated (daily to annual) estimates of ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchanges from eddy covariance (EC) measurements requires the careful exclusion of non-representative fluxes prior to gap-filling model application. Half-hourly fluxes are typically excluded when atmospheric turbulence is below an acceptable level (friction velocity threshold, u*Th), or when the relative contribution from non-target surfaces is greater than a tolerable amount (footprint threshold, fpTh). In this study, we compare and evaluate a variety of commonly-used footprint- and friction velocity-filtering methods applied to six years (2006-2011) of carbon flux estimates for a fetch-limited, 74-year old planted Eastern white pine (Pinus Strobus L.) forest in southern Ontario, Canada. A data-driven approach was used, where factorial combinations of footprint models, fpTh values and u*Th determination methods were applied prior to gap-filling. Filtering applications were compared in terms of the quantity and distribution of data removed, while ANOVA and multiple comparison tests were used to quantify the influence of these applications on annual estimates of Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP), Ecosystem Respiration (RE) and Gross Ecosystem Productivity (GEP). Finally, preferred filtering applications were selected using an objective evaluation of gap-filling model performance metrics to provide information on the internal consistency of the filtered data. Results showed that the choice of footprint model and fpTh exerted a greater influence on NEP, RE and GEP estimates than the u*Th estimation method used. Variation in u*Th estimates were partly explained by footprint filtering specifications, indicating significant u*Th differences between the target forest and the surrounding forested and agricultural land. Applying the footprint model of Kljun (2004. Bound. Layer Met. 112[3]) at fpTh = 0.8 resulted in greatest improvement in model performance; increasing fpTh above this value diminished performance markedly, as insufficient input data quantity and temporal coverage caused poor parameterization. Thus, footprint filter application at this site (and likely other sites), must balance competing needs: accepting only the most representative flux data, while retaining a sufficient amount for successful gap-filling model operation. Compared to the no-footprint (control) case, applying these optimal filtering methods increased annual NEP estimates between 75 and 250 g C m-2 y-1, implying that this forest sequesters substantially more carbon annually than the surrounding landscape. NEP changes were solely attributed to decreased annual RE estimates, as GEP varied only minimally between different footprint and friction velocity applications. This result, caused by a significant day/night flux footprint discrepancy, suggests the need for half-hourly footprint filter application and analyses at all EC flux tower sites that experience measurement fetch limitations.

Bowling, D. R.; Bird, J. A.; Schmidt, S. K.

2011-12-01

360

Landscape cultivation alters ?(30)Si signature in terrestrial ecosystems.  

PubMed

Despite increasing recognition of the relevance of biological cycling for Si cycling in ecosystems and for Si export from soils to fluvial systems, effects of human cultivation on the Si cycle are still relatively understudied. Here we examined stable Si isotope (?(30)Si) signatures in soil water samples across a temperate land use gradient. We show that - independent of geological and climatological variation - there is a depletion in light isotopes in soil water of intensive croplands and managed grasslands relative to native forests. Furthermore, our data suggest a divergence in ?(30)Si signatures along the land use change gradient, highlighting the imprint of vegetation cover, human cultivation and intensity of disturbance on ?(30)Si patterns, on top of more conventionally acknowledged drivers (i.e. mineralogy and climate). PMID:25583031

Vandevenne, Floor I; Delvaux, Claire; Hughes, Harold J; André, Luc; Ronchi, Benedicta; Clymans, Wim; Barão, Lúcia; Govers, Gerard; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

2015-01-01

361

Landscape cultivation alters ?30Si signature in terrestrial ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite increasing recognition of the relevance of biological cycling for Si cycling in ecosystems and for Si export from soils to fluvial systems, effects of human cultivation on the Si cycle are still relatively understudied. Here we examined stable Si isotope (?30Si) signatures in soil water samples across a temperate land use gradient. We show that - independent of geological and climatological variation - there is a depletion in light isotopes in soil water of intensive croplands and managed grasslands relative to native forests. Furthermore, our data suggest a divergence in ?30Si signatures along the land use change gradient, highlighting the imprint of vegetation cover, human cultivation and intensity of disturbance on ?30Si patterns, on top of more conventionally acknowledged drivers (i.e. mineralogy and climate).

Vandevenne, Floor I.; Delvaux, Claire; Hughes, Harold J.; André, Luc; Ronchi, Benedicta; Clymans, Wim; Barão, Lúcia; Govers, Gerard; Meire, Patrick; Struyf, Eric

2015-01-01

362

Enhancement of Carbon Sequestration in Soil in the Temperature Grasslands of Northern China by Addition of Nitrogen and Phosphorus  

PubMed Central

Increased nitrogen (N) deposition is common worldwide. Questions of where, how, and if reactive N-input influences soil carbon (C) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems are of great concern. To explore the potential for soil C sequestration in steppe region under N and phosphorus (P) addition, we conducted a field experiment between 2006 and 2012 in the temperate grasslands of northern China. The experiment examined 6 levels of N (0–56 g N m-2 yr-1), 6 levels of P (0–12.4 g P m-2 yr-1), and a control scenario. Our results showed that addition of both N and P enhanced soil total C storage in grasslands due to significant increases of C input from litter and roots. Compared with control plots, soil organic carbon (SOC) in the 0–100 cm soil layer varied quadratically, from 156.8 to 1352.9 g C m-2 with N addition gradient (R2 = 0.99, P < 0.001); and logarithmically, from 293.6 to 788.6 g C m-2 with P addition gradient (R2 = 0.56, P = 0.087). Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) decreased quadratically with N addition. The net C sequestration on grassland (including plant, roots, SIC, and SOC) increased linearly from -128.6 to 729.0 g C m-2 under N addition (R2 = 0.72, P = 0.023); and increased logarithmically, from 248.5 to 698 g C m-2under P addition (R2 = 0.82, P = 0.014). Our study implies that N addition has complex effects on soil carbon dynamics, and future studies of soil C sequestration on grasslands should include evaluations of both SOC and SIC under various scenarios. PMID:24130863

He, Nianpeng; Yu, Qiang; Wang, Ruomeng; Zhang, Yunhai; Gao, Yang; Yu, Guirui

2013-01-01

363

Associations of grassland bird communities with black-tailed praire dogs in the North American Great Plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Colonial, burrowing herbivores can serve as ecosystem engineers in grassland and shrubland ecosystems by creating belowground refugia, modifying vegetation structure and composition, serving as prey, and generating landscape heterogeneity. They can also serve a keystone species role by affecting the...

364

Earthworm-Mycorrhiza Interactions Can Affect the Diversity, Structure and Functioning of Establishing Model Grassland Communities  

PubMed Central

Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing anecics vs. horizontally burrowing endogeics) and a mix of four AMF taxa on the establishment, diversity and productivity of plant communities after a simulated seed rain of 18 grassland species comprising grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Moreover, effects of earthworms and/or AMF on water infiltration and leaching of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate were determined after a simulated extreme rainfall event (40 l m?2). AMF colonisation of all three plant functional groups was altered by earthworms. Seedling emergence and diversity was reduced by anecic earthworms, however only when AMF were present. Plant density was decreased in AMF-free mesocosms when both anecic and endogeic earthworms were active; with AMF also anecics reduced plant density. Plant shoot and root biomass was only affected by earthworms in AMF-free mesocosms: shoot biomass increased due to the activity of either anecics or endogeics; root biomass increased only when anecics were active. Water infiltration increased when earthworms were present in the mesocosms but remained unaffected by AMF. Ammonium leaching was increased only when anecics or a mixed earthworm community was active but was unaffected by AMF; nitrate and phosphate leaching was neither affected by earthworms nor AMF. Ammonium leaching decreased with increasing plant density, nitrate leaching decreased with increasing plant diversity and density. In order to understand the underlying processes of these interactions further investigations possibly under field conditions using more diverse belowground communities are required. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that belowground-aboveground linkages involving earthworms and AMF are important mediators of the diversity, structure and functioning of plant communities. PMID:22216236

Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Grabmaier, Andrea; Lichtenegger, Claudia; Piller, Katja; Allabashi, Roza; Frank, Thomas; Drapela, Thomas

2011-01-01

365

Challenging the paradigm of nitrogen cycling: no evidence of in situ resource partitioning by coexisting plant species in grasslands of contrasting fertility  

PubMed Central

In monoculture, certain plant species are able to preferentially utilize different nitrogen (N) forms, both inorganic and organic, including amino acids and peptides, thus forming fundamental niches based on the chemical form of N. Results from field studies, however, are inconsistent: Some showing that coexisting plant species predominantly utilize inorganic N, while others reveal distinct interspecies preferences for different N forms. As a result, the extent to which hypothetical niches are realized in nature remains unclear. Here, we used in situ stable isotope tracer techniques to test the idea, in temperate grassland, that niche partitioning of N based on chemical form is related to plant productivity and the relative availability of organic and inorganic N. We also tested in situ whether grassland plants vary in their ability to compete for, and utilize peptides, which have recently been shown to act as an N source for plants in strongly N-limited ecosystems. We hypothesized that plants would preferentially use NO3?-N and NH4+-N over dissolved organic N in high-productivity grassland where inorganic N availability is high. On the other hand, in low-productivity grasslands, where the availability of dissolved inorganic N is low, and soil availability of dissolved organic N is greater, we predicted that plants would preferentially use N from amino acids and peptides, prior to microbial mineralization. Turves from two well-characterized grasslands of contrasting productivity and soil N availability were injected, in situ, with mixtures of 15N-labeled inorganic N (NO3? and NH4+) and 13C15N labeled amino acid (l-alanine) and peptide (l-tri-alanine). In order to measure rapid assimilation of these N forms by soil microbes and plants, the uptake of these substrates was traced within 2.5 hours into the shoots of the most abundant plant species, as well as roots and the soil microbial biomass. We found that, contrary to our hypothesis, the majority of plant species across both grasslands took up most N in the form of NH4+, suggesting that inorganic N is their predominant N source. However, we did find that organic N was a source of N which could be utilized by plant species at both sites, and in the low-productivity grassland, plants were able to capture some tri-alanine-N directly. Although our findings did not support the hypothesis that differences in the availability of inorganic and organic N facilitate resource partitioning in grassland, they do support the emerging view that peptides represent a significant, but until now neglected, component of the terrestrial N cycle. PMID:25691957

Wilkinson, Anna; Hill, Paul W; Vaieretti, María V; Farrar, John F; Jones, Davey L; Bardgett, Richard D

2015-01-01

366

Air Pollution and Acid Rain, Report No. 7. Effects of air pollution and acid rain on fish, wildlife, and their habitats: grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report on grassland ecosystems is part of a series synthesizing the results of scientific research related to the effects of air pollution and acid deposition on fish and wildlife resources. General aspects of grassland ecosystems relevant to a discussion of air pollution effects are presented along with a brief introduction to various other types of ecosystem stresses. The bulk

1982-01-01

367

Comparing the carbon budgets of boreal and temperate deciduous forest stands  

E-print Network

Comparing the carbon budgets of boreal and temperate deciduous forest stands A.G. Barr, T and temperate deciduous forests at northern mid-latitudes play an important role in the global carbon cycle. We deciduous forest ecosystems in the boreal and temperate regions of central Canada. The two forest stands

Lee, Xuhui

368

Different response of bulk and n-alkane ?13C signatures to seasonal shifts in environmental conditions in a temperate coastal ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon isotope signal recorded in land plants represents an important reservoir of information for reconstructing climatically driven shifts in plant ecophysiology and biochemistry. Analytical advances have led to widespread usage of compound-specific (CS) carbon isotope analysis of leaf wax biomarkers, such as n-alkanes, in addition to traditional bulk isotope methods, to identify shifts in the relative percentage of C3 and C4 vegetation contributing to the sedimentary record. Recent studies, however, have extended the application of leaf wax biomarkers, using bulk and n-alkane ?13C values interchangeably to derive information about plant-environment relations, both in modern ecosystems and throughout the geological past. Even though previous work on C3 plants has shown a clear link between climatically influenced plant physiology and bulk ?13C values, further research is needed to establish whether the same link can be seen in leaf wax biomarkers. To address this question, we collected bulk and n-alkane ?13C data from plants growing at Stiffkey marsh on the north Norfolk coast, UK over a period of 15 months. Maximum interspecies variation in weighted average (WA) n-alkane ?13C among C3 species was typically 2-3o greater than in bulk. We observed a close correlation in the bulk and WA n-alkane ?13C seasonal trends from C3 grasses and reeds (R2=0.9, P

Eley, Yvette; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Dawson, Lorna

2014-05-01

369

The source of dissolved silicon in soil surface solutions of a temperate forest ecosystem: Ge/Si and Si isotope ratios as biogeochemical tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understand the biogeochemical cycle of silicon (Si) in the Earth’s critical zone and the dissolved Si transfer from the litho-pedosphere into the hydrosphere is of great interest for the global balance of biogeochemical processes, including the global C cycle. Indeed, the interaction between Si and C cycles regulates the atmospheric CO2 through the chemical weathering of silicate minerals, the C sequestration in stable organo-mineral compounds and the Si nutrition of phytoplankton CO2-consumers in oceans. H4SiO4 released by mineral dissolution contributes to the critical zone evolution through neoformation of secondary minerals, adsorption onto hydroxyl-bearing phases and recycling by vegetation and return of phytoliths on topsoil. The neoformation of secondary precipitates (clay minerals and phytoliths polymerized in plants) and adsorption of Si onto Fe and Al (hydr)oxides are processes favoring the light Si isotope incorporation, generating rivers enriched in heavy Si isotopes. On the other hand, clay minerals and phytoliths display contrasting Ge/Si ratios since clay-sized weathering products are enriched in Ge and phytoliths are depleted in Ge. Thus stable Si isotope and Ge/Si ratios constitute very interesting proxies to trace transfer of Si in the critical zone. Here we report Si isotopic and Ge/Si ratios of the different Si pools in a temperate soil-tree system (Breuil experimental forest, France) involving various tree species grown on Alumnic Cambisol derived from granitic bedrock. Relative to granitic bedrock (?30Si = -0.07 ‰; Ge/Si = 2.5 µmol/mol), clay-sized minerals are enriched in 28Si (-1.07 ‰) and Ge (6.2 µmol/mol) while phytoliths are enriched in 28Si (-0.28 to -0.64 ‰) and depleted in Ge (0.1 to 0.3 µmol/mol). This contrast allows us to infer the relative contribution of litho/pedogenic and biogenic mineral dissolution on the release of H4SiO4 in soil surface solutions. The Si-isotope signatures and Ge/Si ratios of forest floor solutions evolve towards lighter values (-1.38 and -2.05 ‰) and higher Ge/Si ratios (2.7 µmol/mol) relative to granite bedrock. This suggests a partial dissolution of 28Si and Ge-enriched secondary clays minerals incorporated by bioturbation in organic-rich horizons, with a fractionation releasing preferentially light Si isotopes. Without considering that organic acids promote dissolution of minerals, clay minerals detected in the organic layer (vermiculite, chlorite, illite and Ca-montmorillonite) are not stable and could have been partially dissolved and transformed in the chemical environment of forest floor. Sources of H4SiO4 in forest floor solutions are influenced by tree species which control the extent of clay-sized minerals mixed in organic horizons by bioturbation and, to a lesser extent, the Si recycling by forest vegetation.

Cornelis, J.; Delvaux, B.; Cardinal, D.; André, L.; Ranger, J.; Opfergelt, S.

2010-12-01

370

Convergent responses of nitrogen and phosphorus resorption to nitrogen inputs in a semiarid grassland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human activities have significantly altered nitrogen (N) availability in most terrestrial ecosystems, with consequences for community composition and ecosystem functioning. Although studies of how changes in N availability affect biodiversity and community composition are relatively common, much less remains known about the effects of N inputs on the coupled biogeochemical cycling of N and phosphorus (P), and still fewer data exist regarding how increased N inputs affect the internal cycling of these two elements in plants. Nutrient resorption is an important driver of plant nutrient economies and of the quality of litter plants produce. Accordingly, resorption patterns have marked ecological implications for plant population and community fitness, as well as for ecosystem nutrient cycling. In a semiarid grassland in northern China, we studied the effects of a wide range of N inputs on foliar nutrient resorption of two dominant grasses, Leymus chinensis and Stipa grandis. After 4 years of treatments, N and P availability in soil and N and P concentrations in green and senesced grass leaves increased with increasing rates of N addition. Foliar N and P resorption significantly decreased along the N addition gradient, implying a resorption-mediated, positive plant–soil feedback induced by N inputs. Furthermore, N : P resorption ratios were negatively correlated with the rates of N addition, indicating the sensitivity of plant N and P stoichiometry to N inputs. Taken together, the results demonstrate that N additions accelerate ecosystem uptake and turnover of both N and P in the temperate steppe and that N and P cycles are coupled in dynamic ways. The convergence of N and P resorption in response to N inputs emphasizes the importance of nutrient resorption as a pathway by which plants and ecosystems adjust in the face of increasing N availability.

Lü, Xiao-Tao; Reed, Sasha; Yu, Qiang; He, Nian-Peng; Wang, Zheng-Wen; Han, Xing-Guo

2013-01-01

371

A new tower-based hyperspectral system for the estimation of CO2 fluxes and biophysical parameters in a subalpine grassland ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linking optical remote sensing with carbon fluxes and biophysical parameters is critical to exploit spatial and temporal extensive information useful for validating model simulations at different scales. Proximal sensing is fundamental to quantify and understand the seasonal dynamics of ecosystems and to upscale the observations carried out at the ground level. In this study, we present the results from an ongoing research project at the FLUXNET eddy covariance site of Monte Bondone (Italy). The site is located at 1550 m a.s.l. on a mountain plateau in the Italian Alps (Viote del Monte Bondone). The area is managed as an extensively-managed meadow, cut once a year, and dominated by Nardus stricta and Festuca nigrescens. The climate of this area is sub-continental (warm and wet summer), with precipitation peaks in spring and autumn. A new hyperspectral system (WhiteRef Box, developed by Fondazione Edmund Mach in collaboration with the Institute of Biometeorology, CNR, Italy) based on the ASD FieldSpec spectrometer (spectral range 350-2500 nm, resolution ~3 nm at 700 nm) was designed to acquire continuous radiometric measurements. The system was installed on the eddy covariance tower at a height of 6 m, with a field of view of 25°. To obtain reflectance values, white panel radiance spectra and canopy radiance spectra were collected every 5 minutes between 10:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. (solar time) during the growing season of 2013. In addition, measurements of biophysical parameters such as above-ground biomass, fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR), Plant Area Index, Canopy Chlorophyll Content, Canopy Water Content and Green Herbage Ratio were performed at weekly intervals within the spectrometer footprint (~5 m2). In this work, we present some preliminary results regarding the potential of spectral vegetation indices - based on VNIR and SWIR spectral bands- for capturing seasonal trends of CO2 fluxes as well as vegetation biophysical parameters dynamics. Spectral vegetation indices sensitive to chlorophyll content (such as Meris Terrestrial ChIorophyll Index, Vogelmann Indices) showed a good linear correlation with fAPAR, daily Gross Primary Production and chlorophyll content (R2> 0.8 for all the three variables). The SWIR-based Vegetation Indices (e.g. Normalised Difference Infrared Index, Moisture Stress Index) confirmed their ability to estimate Canopy Water Content. Most of the analyzed indices showed to be linearly related with Green Herbage Ratio (explaining more than 80% of variance). The Near Infrared Difference Index (Vescovo et al., 2012) confirmed his potential in predicting canopy structural parameters such as Plant Area Index and biomass (R2> 0.90).

Vescovo, L.; Gianelle, D.; Marcolla, B.; Zaldei, A.; Sakowska, K.

2013-12-01

372

Temperate Evergreen Forest, Temperate Deciduous Forest, Boreal Forest  

E-print Network

Temperate Evergreen Forest, Temperate Deciduous Forest, Boreal Forest Lectures 11 & 12 #12;Distribution of Temperate Evergreen Forest (5), Temperate Deciduous Forest (6), and Boreal Forest (8) #12;A. Lines on maps! #12;In the Temperate Evergreen Forest and in the warmer parts of the Temperate Deciduous

Richerson, Peter J.

373

Is the lack of leguminous savanna trees in grasslands of South Africa related to nutritional constraints?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with many grasslands globally, the Highveld grasslands of South Africa are tree-less, despite having a climate that can\\u000a support tree growth. Models predict that fire maintains these grasslands. The question arises as to why fire-tolerant savanna\\u000a trees do not survive in these ecosystems? Savanna tree survival in mesic areas is restricted by demographic bottlenecks, specifically\\u000a limitations to sapling-escape from

Julia L. Wakeling; Michael D. Cramer; William J. Bond

2010-01-01

374

Interactions between granivorous and omnivorous ants in a desert grassland: results from a long-term  

E-print Network

, Forelius cf pruinosus and Dorymyr- mex insana, in a desert grassland were analysed. The food competitionInteractions between granivorous and omnivorous ants in a desert grassland: results from a long evidence that granivorous ants compete for seeds in desert ecosystems. But ants that diverge in diet may

Kaspari, Mike

375

CONTINGENCY OF GRASSLAND RESTORATION ON YEAR, SITE, AND COMPETITION FROM INTRODUCED GRASSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiarid ecosystems such as grasslands are characterized by high temporal variability in abiotic factors, which has led to suggestions that management actions may be more effective in some years than others. Here we examine this hypothesis in the context of grassland restoration, which faces two major obstacles: the contingency of native grass establishment on unpredictable precipitation, and competition from introduced

Jonathan D. Bakker; Scott D. Wilson; Janice M. Christian; Xingdong Li; Laura G. Ambrose; John Waddington

2003-01-01

376

REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF CHESTNUT-COLLARED LONGSPURS IN NATIVE AND EXOTIC GRASSLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat loss and fragmentation have been identified as important factors in the decline of grassland bird populations. However, population declines are apparent even in prairie ecosystems that remain relatively intact suggesting that additional factors are involved. The degradation of breeding habitat may be one such factor, but few studies have examined habitat- specific demography of grassland birds, and thus little

John D. Lloyd; Thomas E. Martin

2005-01-01

377

The effect of sulfur and nitrogen additions on nutrient cycling and vegetative cover composition in sandplain grassland restoration plots in Edgartown, MA  

E-print Network

in sandplain grassland restoration plots in Edgartown, MA Fiona Jevon Harvard University Mentor: Chris Neill Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratories December 19th , 2011 #12;Abstract Sandplain grasslands to be dominated by non-native vegetation. One theory for restoring these systems to native sandplain grassland

Vallino, Joseph J.

378

Monitoring the conservation of grassland habitats, Prairie Ecozone, Canada.  

PubMed

The Prairie Ecozone contains 5% of Canada's land area and represents 16% of the Great Plains of North America. Current estimates indicate that 25-30% of original Canadian grassland habitats remain, largely concentrated in southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan with fragments distributed throughout southern Manitoba. The size, distribution and condition of native grasslands serve as valuable indicators of the ecological integrity and the sustainability of those landscape types. With so little native grasslands remaining, areas that conserve grasslands serve as core sites for indicators such as gaps in ecosystem and wildlife habitat protection, i.e. which ecosystems are well-represented, poorly represented or have no representation. Such gap analyses helps to determine where protection efforts need to be placed in the future. Overall, about 3.5% of the Prairie Ecozone of Canada is under some form of conservation area status. This paper reports, relative to the ecoregions and political jurisdictions of the Prairie Ecozone, on the amount and distribution of various types of conservation areas and native grasslands. Relationships between the occurrence of conservation areas and grasslands are presented. Implications for conservation area planning and management are discussed within regional, national and international contexts. The issue of which characteristics of conservation areas should be assessed and monitored to address conservation objectives for sustainability is also discussed. PMID:14570422

Gauthier, David A; Wiken, Ed B

2003-01-01

379

Linkages between land Cover, enzymes, and soil organic matter chemistry following encroachment of leguminous woody plant into grasslands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Rio Grande Plains of southern Texas, subtropical thorn woodlands dominated by the N-fixing tree Prosopis glandulosa have largely replaced native grasslands over the last 150 years as a result of fire suppression and over grazing. This land cover change has resulted in the increase of belowground stocks of C, N, and P, changes to the amount and chemical nature of soil-stabilized plant biopolymers, and the composition and activity of soil microbes. Given that extracellular enzymes produced by plants and microbes are the principal means by which complex compounds are degraded and the production of such enzymes is triggered or suppressed by changes in primary input and nutrient availability we sought to relate how these fundamental changes in this ecosystem are reflected in the activity of soil stabilized extracellular enzymes and soil organic matter (SOM) chemistry in this system. We focused upon a successional chronosequence from C4-dominant grassland to woody patches of up to 86 yrs age since mesquite establishment. We related the molecular composition and concentration of hydrolysable amino acids and amino sugars, as well as CuO extractable lignin and substituted fatty acid to the potential activities of five extracellular enzymes (arylamidase, acid phosphatase, ?-glucosidase, ?-glucosaminidase (NAGase, polyphenoloxidase (PPO)) and a general marker for hydrolytic activity, fluorescein diacetate (FDA). Each of these enzymes, with the exception of PPO, showed higher potential activity in soils from woody clusters than grasslands and had activities generally well correlated to carbon content. PPO, often defined as a proxy for microbial lignin decay activity, showed no statistical difference between grassland and forest sites and no significant relationship to soil C content. Yields of total amino acids and amino sugars all show increases in content with cluster age when normalized to soil mass, as did the enzyme activities targeted to their decomposition, but only weak trends with age when normalized to carbon content. Although, PPO was nearly invariant across the chronosequence, lignin content rose dramatically, normalized both to soil mass and to organic carbon content, indicating oxidase activity was not matched to input and lignin was selectively accruing in the below ground carbon pools. We propose that the dramatic increase in available N in the leguminous system suppressed microbial oxidase production allowing lignin to selectively accrue while microbial activity for the other plant biopolymers has nearly kept pace with input-consistent with recent findings in other temperate deciduous systems. These results have important implications for the modeling of woodland-grassland conversion and the dynamics of biogeochemical cycles in this globally significant land cover change.

Filley, T. R.; Stott, D. E.; Boutton, T. W.; Creamer, C. A.; Olk, D.

2009-12-01

380

Soil organic carbon dynamics in the forest-grassland limit.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An upward shift of the treeline at the extent of former grasslands has been observed in the last decades in several regions along the world. Implications of the land use change from grasslands to forests are not clear yet in regard to soil organic carbon stocks, greenhouse gas fluxes and composition of the soil organic matter. In order to investigate the consequences of forest expansion at the regional scale, an extensive grassland—forest comparison was conducted at the altitudinal limit of the forest. We considered two contrasting geographical areas: one Mediterranean -The Sistema Central in Spain- and one temperate area -the Austrian Alps-. Ten and seven sites were investigated, respectively. At each of the sites, the forest floor and the topsoil was sampled in grasslands and adjacent coniferous forest areas. Mineral soils were incubated for 6 months in the laboratory under standardized conditions and both bulk concentration and the isotopic signature of soil organic carbon and nitrogen were determined across the study sites. Grasslands were not consistently different from forests in terms of soil organic carbon concentrations and cumulative soil carbon dioxide effluxes. However, soil C:N ratio was significantly narrower in grasslands than in forests, and this results was consistent for both Spanish and Austrian sites. Isotopic signature of C and N resulted to be significantly different between grasslands and forests for Spanish soils, only, suggesting a combined influence of land use change and climate. In Spain, grasslands soils were enriched in 15N but depleted in 13C as compared to forests soils. Interestingly, mean temperature negatively influenced C concentrations in Spanish grasslands, but had no clear effect on forests. Our results did not show a clear trend of net soil organic carbon gain or loss due to forest expansion, but rather a change in the characteristics of the soil mineralization conditions after vegetation shifted. Changes in transformation processes and therefore in the soil organic matter were dynamically modulated by the aboveground vegetation, but also by the climate. In addition, influence of climate under mediterranean conditions seemed to be more determinant than in temperate, continental environments.

Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Vázquez, Eduardo; Ortiz, Carlos; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Jandl, Robert; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Benito, Marta; Rubio, Agustin

2014-05-01