Science.gov

Sample records for temperature correction factor

  1. Impurity temperature correction factors for the transmission grating spectrometer in the TJ-II stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Arevalo, J.; McCarthy, K. J.; Carmona, J. M.; Fontdecaba, J. M.

    2010-10-15

    Impurity ion temperature and velocity profiles are obtained across plasmas in the TJ-II stellarator by performing charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy with a diagnostic neutral beam injector. For this, a tridirectional (toroidal plus two poloidal opposing views) multichannel spectroscopic diagnostic, incorporating 12-way fiber arrays, a compact f/1.8 spectrograph, and a back-illuminated CCD, permits Doppler line shifts and widths (of the C VI line at 529.05 nm) to be determined with 1-2 cm spatial resolution. For good photon counting statistics under Li-coated wall conditions, 600 {mu}m diameter fibers collect and transmit light to curved 100 {mu}m wide input slits. When calibrated with a neon pencil lamp this entrance slit width results in a non-Gaussian instrumental function that, if not handled correctly, can result in systematically underestimated impurity temperatures. Here we develop and present correction factors for this effect for a range of conditions.

  2. Temperature Corrected Bootstrap Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Joey C.; Zwally, H. Jay

    1997-01-01

    A temperature corrected Bootstrap Algorithm has been developed using Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data in preparation to the upcoming AMSR instrument aboard ADEOS and EOS-PM. The procedure first calculates the effective surface emissivity using emissivities of ice and water at 6 GHz and a mixing formulation that utilizes ice concentrations derived using the current Bootstrap algorithm but using brightness temperatures from 6 GHz and 37 GHz channels. These effective emissivities are then used to calculate surface ice which in turn are used to convert the 18 GHz and 37 GHz brightness temperatures to emissivities. Ice concentrations are then derived using the same technique as with the Bootstrap algorithm but using emissivities instead of brightness temperatures. The results show significant improvement in the area where ice temperature is expected to vary considerably such as near the continental areas in the Antarctic, where the ice temperature is colder than average, and in marginal ice zones.

  3. Profile correction to electron temperature and enhancement factor in soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis measurements in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Sesnic, S.; Diesso, M.; Hill, K.; Holland, A.; Pohl, F.

    1988-04-01

    Because soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis (PHA) spectra contain chordal information, the electron temperature and the radiation intensity (enhancement factor) measurements do not represent the local values. Assuming that the profile Ansatz for the electron temperature and density is of the form n/sub eo/(1-(ra)/sup 2/)/sup ..cap alpha../ and kT/sub eo/(1--(ra)/sup 2/)/sup ..beta../, we obtain the correction factors for the electron temperature and the enhancement factor as a function of the profile coefficients ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. and the energy at which the evaluation was made. The corrected values of the temperature are typically between 1 to 10% higher than the values derived from the raw chordal spectra. We also correct the measured radiation intensity for the profile effects. Finally, the spectrum distortion due to pulse pile-up effects is evaluated. A set of curves is given from which the distortion of the spectrum can be obtained, if the electron temperature, the Be or Al filter thickness, and the electronic parameters of the acquisition system are known. 7 refs., 23 figs.

  4. Worldwide radiosonde temperature corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Luers, J.; Eskridge, R.

    1997-11-01

    Detailed heat transfer analyses have been performed on ten of the world`s most commonly used radiosondes from 1960 to present. These radiosondes are the USA VIZ and Space Data, the Vaisala RS-80, RS-185/21, and RS12/15, the Japanese RS2-80, Russian MARS, RKZ, and A22, and the Chinese GZZ. The temperature error of each radiosonde has been calculated as a function of altitude and the sonde and environmental parameters that influence its magnitude. Computer models have been developed that allow the correction of temperature data from each sonde as a function of these parameters. Recommendations are made concerning the use of data from each of the radiosondes for climate studies. For some radiosondes, nighttime data requires no corrections. Other radiosondes require that day and daytime data is not feasible because parameters of significance, such as balloon rise rate, are not retrievable. The results from this study provide essential information for anyone attempting to perform climate studies using radiosonde data. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  5. An experimental and computational investigation of the standard temperature-pressure correction factor for ion chambers in kilovoltage x rays

    SciTech Connect

    La Russa, Daniel J.; McEwen, Malcolm; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2007-12-15

    For ion chambers with cavities open to the surrounding atmosphere, the response measured at a given temperature and pressure must be corrected using the standard temperature-pressure correction factor (P{sub TP}). A previous paper based solely on Monte Carlo simulations [D. J. La Russa and D. W. O. Rogers, Med. Phys. 33, 4590-4599 (2006)] pointed out the shortcomings of the P{sub TP} correction factor when used to correct the response of non-air-equivalent chambers for low-energy x-ray beams. This work presents the results of several experiments that corroborate these calculations for a number of ion chambers. Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental setup revealed additional insight into the various factors affecting the extent of the breakdown of P{sub TP}, including the effect of impurities and the sensitivity to chamber dimensions. For an unfiltered 60 kV beam, the P{sub TP}-corrected response of an NE 2571 ion chamber measured at 0.7 atm was 2.5% below the response measured at reference conditions. In general, Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental setup using EGSnrc were within 0.5% of measured values. EGSnrc-calculated values of air kerma calibration coefficients (N{sub K}) at low x-ray energies are also provided as a means of estimating the level of impurities in the chambers investigated. Calculated values of N{sub K} normalized to the value measured for a 250 kV beam were obtained for three chambers and were within 1% of experiment with one exception, the Exradin A12 in a 50 kV beam.

  6. Temperature Correction in Probe Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsev, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    This work is devoted to experimental investigations of a decaying plasma using Langmuir probes. The gas pressure, the discharge current, and the moment of afterglow were selected to obtain probe characteristics in collisionless, intermediate, and drifting regimes of motion of charged particles. The manner in which the shape of the volt- ampere characteristics changes on passage from the collisionless motion to diffusion motion has been shown. A detailed analysis has been made of the source of errors arising when orbital-motion formulas or the logarithmic-operation method are applied to processing of the probe curves. It has been shown that neglect of collisions of charged particles in the probe layer leads to an ion-density value overstated more than three times, an electron-temperature value overstated two times, and an ion temperature overstated three to nine times. A model of interaction of charged particles in the probe layer has been proposed for correction of the procedure of determining temperature. Such an approach makes it possible to determine the space-charge layer in the probe, and also the value of the self-consistent field. The use of the developed procedures gives good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  7. Temperature correction in conductivity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1962-01-01

    Electrical conductivity has been widely used in freshwater research but usual methods employed by limnologists for converting measurements to conductance at a given temperature have not given uniformly accurate results. The temperature coefficient used to adjust conductivity of natural waters to a given temperature varies depending on the kinds and concentrations of electrolytes, the temperature at the time of measurement, and the temperature to which measurements are being adjusted. The temperature coefficient was found to differ for various lake and stream waters, and showed seasonal changes. High precision can be obtained only by determining temperature coefficients for each water studied. Mean temperature coefficients are given for various temperature ranges that may be used where less precision is required.

  8. Peroneal nerve conduction velocity: the importance of temperature correction.

    PubMed

    Halar, E M; DeLisa, J A; Brozovich, F V

    1981-09-01

    The relationship between skin surface temperature, near nerve temperature and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) of the peroneal nerve was studied in normal and diabetic subjects to determine a peroneal NCV-treatment correction factor and to investigate whether temperature correction of NCV reduces its variability. Twenty normal subjects (age 21 to 72 years, mean 44, SD 17) were tested for peroneal NCV, skin and near nerve temperatures bilaterally at ambient temperature (mean 26.6C). Tests were repeated after cooling the lower extremity to a skin temperature of 26C, and at skin temperatures of 28 and 29C as the legs were allowed to gradually warm. An additional 20 normal and 20 diabetic subjects were tested weekly at ambient temperature for peroneal NCV and skin temperature, measured at 15cm above the lateral malleolus. The results showed a linear relationship between skin temperature, near nerve temperature and peroneal NCV (p less than 0.001). Peroneal NCV was altered 2.0 meters per second per degree (C) change in skin and near nerve temperature (p less than 0.001). When using our formula, peroneal motor NCV corrected = 2.0 [32 - skin temp(C)] + NCV (m/sec), for correction of peroneal NCV to a standard skin temperature of 32C, it was found that temperature corrected NCV were less variable (p less than 0.05) than noncorrected NCV in the same diabetic subjects. These results indicate that temperature corrected NCV should be calculated routinely during clinical NCV examinations of patients with peripheral neuropathies. PMID:7283685

  9. Finite temperature error-correcting codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruján, Pál

    1993-05-01

    The correspondence between error-correcting convolution codes and gauge invariant spin-glass models is used to show that the optimal way to recover the original message is by decoding at a finite temperature TN(p)>0, where p is the strength of the channel noise and TN(p) the Nishimori temperature. This improves upon the retrieval performance of the T=0 maximal likelihood Viterbi decoding algorithm without increasing its computational complexity. Numerical simulations support the theory.

  10. Nerve conduction studies in upper extremities: skin temperature corrections.

    PubMed

    Halar, E M; DeLisa, J A; Soine, T L

    1983-09-01

    The relationship of skin to near nerve (NN) temperature and to nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and distal latency (DL) was studied in 34 normal adult subjects before and after cooling both upper extremities. Median and ulnar motor and sensory NCV, DL, and NN temperature were determined at ambient temperature (mean X skin temp = 33 C) and after cooling, at approximately 26, 28, and 30 C of forearm skin temperature. Skin temperatures on the volar side of the forearm, wrist, palm, and fingers and NN temperature at the forearm, midpalm, and thenar or hypothenar eminence were compared with respective NCV and DL. Results showed a significant linear correlation between skin temperature and NN temperature at corresponding sites (r2 range, 0.4-0.84; p less than 0.005). Furthermore, both skin and NN temperatures correlated significantly with respective NCV and DL. Midline wrist skin temperature showed the best correlation to NCV and DL. Median motor and sensory NCV were altered 1.5 and 1.4m/sec/C degree and their DL 0.2 msec/C degree of wrist skin temperature change, respectively. Ulnar motor and sensory NCV were changed 2.1 and 1.6m/sec/C degree respectively, and 0.2 msec/C degree wrist temperature for motor and sensory DL. Average ambient skin temperature at the wrist (33 C) was used as a standard skin temperature in the temperature correction formula: NCV or DL(temp corrected) = CF(Tst degree - Tm degree) + obtained NCV or DL, where Tst = 33 C for wrist, Tm = the measured skin temperature, and CF = correction factor of tested nerve. Use of temperature correction formula for NCV and DL is suggested in patients with changed wrist skin temperature outside 29.6-36.4C temperature range. PMID:6615178

  11. Chiral corrections to hyperon vector form factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jeffrey; Luty, Markus A.

    1993-06-01

    We show that the leading chiral corrections to the ΔS=1 f1 vector form factors of hyperons are O(ms) and O(m3/2s), and are expected to be ~20-30 % by dimensional analysis. This is consistent with the Ademollo-Gatto theorem. We compute the O(ms) corrections and a subset of the O(m3/2s) corrections using an effective Lagrangian in which the baryons are treated as heavy particles. All of these corrections are surprisingly small, ~5% combining them, we obtain ~5-10 % corrections. The pattern of corrections is very different from that predicted by quark models.

  12. Factors of Addiction: New Jersey Correctional Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtowicz, James P.; Liu, Tongyin; Hedgpeth, G. Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Most state inmates incarcerated under the jurisdiction of the New Jersey Department of Corrections are driven to crimes by drug abuse. Understanding the factors contributing to addiction is the first step in developing strategies for successful inmate reintegration. This study presents an analysis of inmate addiction and factor association using…

  13. Correcting horsepower measurements to a standard temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Stanwood W

    1925-01-01

    This report discusses the relation between the temperature of the air at the entrance to the carburetor and the power developed by the engine. Its scope is limited to a consideration of the range of temperatures likely to result from changes of season, locality, or altitude, since its primary aim is the finding of a satisfactory basis for correcting power measurements to a standard temperature. The tests upon which this report is based were made upon aviation engines in the Altitude Laboratory of the Bureau of Standards. From the results of over 1,600 tests it is concluded that if calculations be based on the assumption that the indicated horsepower of an engine varies inversely as the square root of the absolute temperature of the carburetor air the values obtained will check closely experimental measurements. The extent to which this relationship would be expected from theoretical considerations is discussed and some suggestions are given relative to the use of this relationship in correcting horsepower measurements. (author)

  14. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, E. C.; Baptista, G. B.; De Castro Faria, L. V.; Paschoa, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of the energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and X-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle.

  15. Power Factor Correction to Mitigate Harmonic Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetkov, Gary

    Many direct current (DC) devices must receive their power from the alternating current (AC) grid. Rectifiers use diodes to create DC for these devices. Due to diodes' non-linear nature however, harmonics are created and these travel back into the grid. A significant presence of harmonics causes component heating and possible malfunction. A harmonic mitigation procedure is needed. With the correct usage of transistors, the current drawn by a rectifier can be manipulated to remove almost all harmonics. This process is called power factor correction (PFC), and formally acts to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the current. To investigate this, a three phase active rectifier was computer simulated and a controller was designed to provide switching signals for the transistors. Finally, the device was constructed in the laboratory to drive a DC motor, verifying its operating principle outside of the idealities of simulation.

  16. [Importance of correcting the temperature in the determination of arterial gasometry].

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, M; Ribas, M S

    1997-02-01

    The final results of arterial blood gases can be affected for several technical factors. If the results have to be corrected for patient temperature, is still a controversial issue. Our observations support that final results should be corrected for temperature because the variation might be clinically relevant in the management of respiratory patients. PMID:9091109

  17. Correlation Between Plasma and Temperature Corrections to the Casimir Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Cyriaque; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge

    When comparing experimental results with theoretical predictions of the Casimir force, the accuracy of the theory is as important as the precision of experiments. Here we evaluate the Casimir force when finite conductivity of the reflectors and finite temperature are simultaneously taken into account. We show that these two corrections are correlated, i.e. that they can not, in principle, be evaluated separately and simply multiplied. We estimate the correlation factor which measures the deviation from this common approximation. We focus our attention on the case of smooth and plane plates with a metallic optical response modeled by a plasma model.

  18. Fermilab's Booster Correction Element Power Supply Silicon Temperature Rise

    SciTech Connect

    Krafczyk, G.; Jensen, C.; Pfeffer, H.; Warchol, G.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    Fermilab is in the process of upgrading its Booster Correction Element System to include full field correction element magnets to correct position and chromaticity throughout the booster cycle. For good reliability of the switchmode power supplies designed to power the magnets, it is important to limit both the maximum temperature and the repetitive temperature cycling of the silicon junctions of the switching elements. We will describe how we measured these parameters and the results of our measurements.

  19. Correction factors for assessing immersion suits under harsh conditions.

    PubMed

    Power, Jonathan; Tikuisis, Peter; Ré, António Simões; Barwood, Martin; Tipton, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many immersion suit standards require testing of thermal protective properties in calm, circulating water while these suits are typically used in harsher environments where they often underperform. Yet it can be expensive and logistically challenging to test immersion suits in realistic conditions. The goal of this work was to develop a set of correction factors that would allow suits to be tested in calm water yet ensure they will offer sufficient protection in harsher conditions. Two immersion studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water within the suit, were conducted in wind and waves to measure the change in suit insulation. In both studies, wind and waves resulted in a significantly lower immersed insulation value compared to calm water. The minimum required thermal insulation for maintaining heat balance can be calculated for a given mean skin temperature, metabolic heat production, and water temperature. Combining the physiological limits of sustainable cold water immersion and actual suit insulation, correction factors can be deduced for harsh conditions compared to calm. The minimum in-situ suit insulation to maintain thermal balance is 1.553-0.0624·TW + 0.00018·TW(2) for a dry calm condition. Multiplicative correction factors to the above equation are 1.37, 1.25, and 1.72 for wind + waves, 500 mL suit wetness, and both combined, respectively. Calm water certification tests of suit insulation should meet or exceed the minimum in-situ requirements to maintain thermal balance, and correction factors should be applied for a more realistic determination of minimum insulation for harsh conditions. PMID:26674408

  20. Corrected Hawking Temperature in Snyder's Quantized Space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Ren

    2015-06-01

    In the quantized space-time of Snyder, generalized uncertainty relation and commutativity are both included. In this paper we analyze the possible form for the corrected Hawking temperature and derive it from the both effects. It is shown that the corrected Hawking temperature has a form similar to the one of noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild black hole, however with an requirement for the noncommutative parameter 𝜃 and the minimal length a.

  1. Temperature-Corrected Model of Turbulence in Hot Jet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Pao, S. Paul; Massey, Steven J.; Elmiligui, Alaa

    2007-01-01

    An improved correction has been developed to increase the accuracy with which certain formulations of computational fluid dynamics predict mixing in shear layers of hot jet flows. The CFD formulations in question are those derived from the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations closed by means of a two-equation model of turbulence, known as the k-epsilon model, wherein effects of turbulence are summarized by means of an eddy viscosity. The need for a correction arises because it is well known among specialists in CFD that two-equation turbulence models, which were developed and calibrated for room-temperature, low Mach-number, plane-mixing-layer flows, underpredict mixing in shear layers of hot jet flows. The present correction represents an attempt to account for increased mixing that takes place in jet flows characterized by high gradients of total temperature. This correction also incorporates a commonly accepted, previously developed correction for the effect of compressibility on mixing.

  2. An Accurate Temperature Correction Model for Thermocouple Hygrometers 1

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Michael J.; Cass, Alfred; de Jager, James M.

    1982-01-01

    Numerous water relation studies have used thermocouple hygrometers routinely. However, the accurate temperature correction of hygrometer calibration curve slopes seems to have been largely neglected in both psychrometric and dewpoint techniques. In the case of thermocouple psychrometers, two temperature correction models are proposed, each based on measurement of the thermojunction radius and calculation of the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. The first model relies on calibration at a single temperature and the second at two temperatures. Both these models were more accurate than the temperature correction models currently in use for four psychrometers calibrated over a range of temperatures (15-38°C). The model based on calibration at two temperatures is superior to that based on only one calibration. The model proposed for dewpoint hygrometers is similar to that for psychrometers. It is based on the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. Comparison with empirical data from three dewpoint hygrometers calibrated at four different temperatures indicates that these instruments need only be calibrated at, e.g. 25°C, if the calibration slopes are corrected for temperature. PMID:16662241

  3. An accurate temperature correction model for thermocouple hygrometers.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J; Cass, A; de Jager, J M

    1982-02-01

    Numerous water relation studies have used thermocouple hygrometers routinely. However, the accurate temperature correction of hygrometer calibration curve slopes seems to have been largely neglected in both psychrometric and dewpoint techniques.In the case of thermocouple psychrometers, two temperature correction models are proposed, each based on measurement of the thermojunction radius and calculation of the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. The first model relies on calibration at a single temperature and the second at two temperatures. Both these models were more accurate than the temperature correction models currently in use for four psychrometers calibrated over a range of temperatures (15-38 degrees C). The model based on calibration at two temperatures is superior to that based on only one calibration.The model proposed for dewpoint hygrometers is similar to that for psychrometers. It is based on the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. Comparison with empirical data from three dewpoint hygrometers calibrated at four different temperatures indicates that these instruments need only be calibrated at, e.g. 25 degrees C, if the calibration slopes are corrected for temperature. PMID:16662241

  4. Calibration and temperature correction of heat dissipation matric potential sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, A.L.; Campbell, G.S.; Ellett, K.M.; Calissendorff, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes how heat dissipation sensors, used to measure soil water matric potential, were analyzed to develop a normalized calibration equation and a temperature correction method. Inference of soil matric potential depends on a correlation between the variable thermal conductance of the sensor's porous ceramic and matric poten-tial. Although this correlation varies among sensors, we demonstrate a normalizing procedure that produces a single calibration relationship. Using sensors from three sources and different calibration methods, the normalized calibration resulted in a mean absolute error of 23% over a matric potential range of -0.01 to -35 MPa. Because the thermal conductivity of variably saturated porous media is temperature dependent, a temperature correction is required for application of heat dissipation sensors in field soils. A temperature correction procedure is outlined that reduces temperature dependent errors by 10 times, which reduces the matric potential measurement errors by more than 30%. The temperature dependence is well described by a thermal conductivity model that allows for the correction of measurements at any temperature to measurements at the calibration temperature.

  5. Reflection error correction of gas turbine blade temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipngetich, Ketui Daniel; Feng, Chi; Gao, Shan

    2016-03-01

    Accurate measurement of gas turbine blades' temperature is one of the greatest challenges encountered in gas turbine temperature measurements. Within an enclosed gas turbine environment with surfaces of varying temperature and low emissivities, a new challenge is introduced into the use of radiation thermometers due to the problem of reflection error. A method for correcting this error has been proposed and demonstrated in this work through computer simulation and experiment. The method assumed that emissivities of all surfaces exchanging thermal radiation are known. Simulations were carried out considering targets with low and high emissivities of 0.3 and 0.8 respectively while experimental measurements were carried out on blades with emissivity of 0.76. Simulated results showed possibility of achieving error less than 1% while experimental result corrected the error to 1.1%. It was thus concluded that the method is appropriate for correcting reflection error commonly encountered in temperature measurement of gas turbine blades.

  6. Geometrical correction factors for heat flux meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Papell, S. S.

    1974-01-01

    General formulas are derived for determining gage averaging errors of strip-type heat flux meters used in the measurement of one-dimensional heat flux distributions. The local averaging error e(x) is defined as the difference between the measured value of the heat flux and the local value which occurs at the center of the gage. In terms of e(x), a correction procedure is presented which allows a better estimate for the true value of the local heat flux. For many practical problems, it is possible to use relatively large gages to obtain acceptable heat flux measurements.

  7. 49 CFR 325.79 - Application of correction factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... illustrate the application of correction factors to sound level measurement readings: (1) Example 1—Highway operations. Assume that a motor vehicle generates a maximum observed sound level reading of 86 dB(A) during a... would be 85 dB(A), calculated as follows: 86 dB(A)Uncorrected reading +1 dB(A)Distance correction...

  8. 49 CFR 325.79 - Application of correction factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... illustrate the application of correction factors to sound level measurement readings: (1) Example 1—Highway operations. Assume that a motor vehicle generates a maximum observed sound level reading of 86 dB(A) during a... would be 85 dB(A), calculated as follows: 86 dB(A)Uncorrected reading +1 dB(A)Distance correction...

  9. Ionization Correction Factors based on CALIFA photoionization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Inglada, G.; Morisset, C.; Sánchez, S.; Califa Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We use a grid of photoionization models (especially constructed to reproduce the observations of ~5200 H II regions from the CALIFA survey) to explore the ionization correction factors usually adopted to calculate total element abundances.

  10. Journal Impact Factor: Do the Numerator and Denominator Need Correction?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue-Li; Gai, Shuang-Shuang; Zhou, Jing

    2016-01-01

    To correct the incongruence of document types between the numerator and denominator in the traditional impact factor (IF), we make a corresponding adjustment to its formula and present five corrective IFs: IFTotal/Total, IFTotal/AREL, IFAR/AR, IFAREL/AR, and IFAREL/AREL. Based on a survey of researchers in the fields of ophthalmology and mathematics, we obtained the real impact ranking of sample journals in the minds of peer experts. The correlations between various IFs and questionnaire score were analyzed to verify their journal evaluation effects. The results show that it is scientific and reasonable to use five corrective IFs for journal evaluation for both ophthalmology and mathematics. For ophthalmology, the journal evaluation effects of the five corrective IFs are superior than those of traditional IF: the corrective effect of IFAR/AR is the best, IFAREL/AR is better than IFTotal/Total, followed by IFTotal/AREL, and IFAREL/AREL. For mathematics, the journal evaluation effect of traditional IF is superior than those of the five corrective IFs: the corrective effect of IFTotal/Total is best, IFAREL/AR is better than IFTotal/AREL and IFAREL/AREL, and the corrective effect of IFAR/AR is the worst. In conclusion, not all disciplinary journal IF need correction. The results in the current paper show that to correct the IF of ophthalmologic journals may be valuable, but it seems to be meaningless for mathematic journals. PMID:26977697

  11. Correction of Temperatures of Air-Cooled Engine Cylinders for Variation in Engine and Cooling Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Pinkel, Benjamin; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1939-01-01

    Factors are obtained from semiempirical equations for correcting engine-cylinder temperatures for variation in important engine and cooling conditions. The variation of engine temperatures with atmospheric temperature is treated in detail, and correction factors are obtained for various flight and test conditions, such as climb at constant indicated air speed, level flight, ground running, take-off, constant speed of cooling air, and constant mass flow of cooling air. Seven conventional air-cooled engine cylinders enclosed in jackets and cooled by a blower were tested to determine the effect of cooling-air temperature and carburetor-air temperature on cylinder temperatures. The cooling air temperature was varied from approximately 80 degrees F. to 230 degrees F. and the carburetor-air temperature from approximately 40 degrees F. to 160 degrees F. Tests were made over a large range of engine speeds, brake mean effective pressures, and pressure drops across the cylinder. The correction factors obtained experimentally are compared with those obtained from the semiempirical equations and a fair agreement is noted.

  12. Differences between EPA-test and in-use fuel economy: Are the correction factors correct?

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Vyas, A.R.D.; Conley, L.A.

    1993-02-01

    A vehicle`s in-use or on-the-road fuel economy often differs substantially from the miles-per-gallon estimates developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its emissions certification program. As a result, the certification values are routinely adjusted by a set of correction factors so that the resulting estimates will better reflect in-use experience. Using data from the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy, our analysis investigated how well the correction factors replicated the shortfall experience of all household vehicles on the road in 1985. Results show that the shortfall is larger than the EPA correction factors, and light trucks are experiencing significantly larger shortfalls than automobiles.

  13. Differences between EPA-test and in-use fuel economy: Are the correction factors correct

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Vyas, A.R.D.; Conley, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A vehicle's in-use or on-the-road fuel economy often differs substantially from the miles-per-gallon estimates developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its emissions certification program. As a result, the certification values are routinely adjusted by a set of correction factors so that the resulting estimates will better reflect in-use experience. Using data from the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy, our analysis investigated how well the correction factors replicated the shortfall experience of all household vehicles on the road in 1985. Results show that the shortfall is larger than the EPA correction factors, and light trucks are experiencing significantly larger shortfalls than automobiles.

  14. Radiative corrections to the Casimir effect at nonzero temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wieczorek, E.; Robaschik, D.; Scharnhorst, K.

    1986-10-01

    Quantum electrodynamics at nonzero temperatures with boundary conditions is formulated on the basis of the functional integral using the results of previous studies (Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 39, 663 (1984); Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 165, 192 (1985)). The Matsubara imaginary-time formalism and the thermal field approach of perturbation theory are used. The loop corrections to the free-energy functional are calculated in a physically reasonable limit.

  15. Eucken correction in high-temperature gases with electronic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V. Mekhonoshina, M. A.

    2014-05-14

    In the present paper, thermal conductivity coefficient of high-temperature molecular and atomic gases with excited electronic states is studied using both the kinetic theory algorithm developed by authors earlier and the well known simple expression for the thermal conductivity coefficient proposed by Eucken and generalized by Hirschfelder. The influence of large collision diameters of excited states on the thermal conductivity is discussed. The limit of validity of the Eucken correction is evaluated on the basis of the kinetic theory calculations; an improved model suitable for air species under high-temperature conditions is proposed.

  16. Two-photon exchange corrections to the pion form factor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Peter G. Blunden; Melnitchouk, Wally; Tjon, John A.

    2010-01-06

    Here, we compute two-photon exchange corrections to the electromagnetic form factor of the pion, taking into account the finite size of the pion. Compared to the soft-photon approximation for the infrared divergent contribution which neglects hadron structure effects, the corrections are found to be ≲ 1% for small Q2 (Q2 < 0.1 GeV2), but increase to several percent for Q2 ≳ 1 GeV2 at extreme backward angles.

  17. Quantum Mechanical Corrections to Simulated Shock Hugoniot Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, N; Reed, E; Fried, L E

    2009-07-17

    The authors present a straightforward method for the inclusion of quantum nuclear vibrational effects in molecular dynamics calculations of shock Hugoniot temperatures. Using a grueneisen equation of state and a quasi-harmonic approximation to the vibrational energies, they derive a simple, post-processing method for calculation of the quantum corrected Hugoniot temperatures. They have used our novel technique on ab initio simulations of both shock compressed water and methane. Our results indicate significantly closer agreement with all available experimental temperature data for these two systems. Our formalism and technique can be easily applied to a number of different shock compressed molecular liquids or covalent solids, and has the potential to decrease the large uncertainties inherent in many experimental Hugoniot temperature measurements of these systems.

  18. Temperature Correction of Pressure-Sensitive Paints Simplified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J.

    2000-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) has become a useful tool to augment conventional pressure taps in measuring the surface pressure distribution of aerodynamic components in wind tunnel testing. Although PSP offers the advantage of nonintrusive global mapping of the surface pressure, one prominent drawback to the accuracy of this technique is the inherent temperature sensitivity of PSP's luminescent intensity. Typical aerodynamic surface PSP tests rely on the coated surface to be both spatially and temporally isothermal, along with conventional instrumentation, to yield the highest accuracy pressure mappings. In some tests, however, spatial and temporal thermal gradients are generated by the nature of the test, as in a blowing jet impinging on a surface. In these cases, high accuracy and reliable data cannot be obtained unless the temperature variations on the painted surface are accounted for. A new temperature-correction technique was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to collapse a "family" of PSP calibration curves to a single curve of intensity ratio versus pressure. This correction allows a streamlined procedure to be followed whether or not temperature information is used in the data reduction of the PSP.

  19. An EGSnrc investigation of correction factors for ion chamber dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Lesley A.

    Radiation dosimetry is used to quantify the dose delivered during radiation therapy by using ionization chambers with several correction factors. Knowledge of these factors is needed at well below the 1% level in order to maintain the overall uncertainty on the reference dosimetry near 1-2%. The small magnitude of the corrections renders measurements very difficult. Monte Carlo calculations are widely used for this purpose, however they require very low statistical uncertainties. A new user-code, CSnrc, for the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system is described. CSnrc uses a correlated sampling variance reduction technique to reduce the uncertainty for dose ratio calculations. Compared to an existing EGSnrc user-code from which it was developed, CSnrc shows gains in efficiency of up to a factor of 64 and achieves much lower statistical uncertainties on correction factors than previously published. CSnrc is used to compute the central electrode correction factor, Pcel, in a broader range of beams than previously used and at the depths relevant to modern protocols. For photon beams, the CSnrc values compare well with the values used in dosimetry protocols whereas for electron beams, CSnrc shows up to a 0.2% correction for a graphite electrode, a correction currently ignored by dosimetry protocols. The difference from currently used values is slightly less for an aluminum electrode. CSnrc is also used to compute the wall correction factor, P wall. For cylindrical chambers in photon beams, the CSnrc calculations are compared to the currently used Almond-Svensson formalism and differ from this formalism by as much as 0.8%. The CSnrc values are used to explain some previously published experiments showing problems with Pwall . For electron beams, where dosimetry protocols assume a Pwall of unity, CSnrc calculations show a correction as large as 0.6%. For parallel-plate chambers, there is little information available regarding Pwall in photon beams. CSnrc shows corrections of over 2

  20. Semiclassical zero-temperature corrections to Schwarzschild spacetime and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, A.; Farese, S.; Navarro-Salas, J.; Sanchis-Alepuz, H.; Olmo, G.J.

    2006-05-15

    Motivated by the quest for black holes in anti-de Sitter braneworlds, and, in particular, by the holographic conjecture relating 5D classical bulk solutions with 4D quantum corrected ones, we numerically solve the semiclassical Einstein equations (backreaction equations) with matter fields in the (zero-temperature) Boulware vacuum state. In the absence of an exact analytical expression for in four dimensions we work within the s-wave approximation. Our results show that the quantum corrected solution is very similar to Schwarzschild spacetime until very close to the horizon, but then a bouncing surface for the radial function appears which prevents the formation of an event horizon. We also analyze the behavior of the geometry beyond the bounce, where a curvature singularity arises. In the dual theory, this indicates that the corresponding 5D static classical braneworld solution is not a black hole but rather a naked singularity.

  1. 49 CFR 325.75 - Ground surface correction factors. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... determine whether the motor vehicle conforms to the Standards for Highway Operations, 40 CFR 202.20. (b... the motor vehicle conforms to the Standard for Operation Under Stationary Test, 40 CFR 202.21. ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ground surface correction factors. 1...

  2. 49 CFR 325.75 - Ground surface correction factors. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... determine whether the motor vehicle conforms to the Standards for Highway Operations, 40 CFR 202.20. (b... the motor vehicle conforms to the Standard for Operation Under Stationary Test, 40 CFR 202.21. ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ground surface correction factors. 1...

  3. 49 CFR 325.75 - Ground surface correction factors. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... determine whether the motor vehicle conforms to the Standards for Highway Operations, 40 CFR 202.20. (b... the motor vehicle conforms to the Standard for Operation Under Stationary Test, 40 CFR 202.21. ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ground surface correction factors. 1...

  4. Chiral restoration at finite temperature with meson loop corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Seung-il; Kao, Chung-Wen

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the pattern of chiral-symmetry restoration of QCD for N{sub c}=3 and N{sub f}=2 at finite temperature (T) beyond the chiral limit. To this end, we employ the instanton-vacuum configuration for the flavor SU(2) sector and the Harrington-Shepard caloron for modifying relevant instanton parameters as functions of T. The meson loop corrections (MLC), which correspond to 1/N{sub c} corrections, are also taken into account to reproduce appropriate m{sub q} dependences of chiral order parameters. We compute the chiral condensate as a function of T and/or m{sub q}. We observe that MLC play an important role to have a correct universality-class behavior of chiral-restoration patterns in this framework, depending on m{sub q}: Second-order phase transition in the chiral limit m{sub q}=0 and cross-over for m{sub q{ne}}0. Without MLC, all the restoration patterns are crossover, due to simple saddle-point approximations. It turns out that T{sub c}{sup {chi}=}159 MeV in the chiral limit and T{sub c}{sup {chi}=}(177,186,196) MeV for m{sub q}=(5,10,15) MeV, using the phenomenological choices for the instanton parameters at T=0.

  5. Chiral restoration at finite temperature with meson loop corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Seung-Il; Kao, Chung-Wen

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the pattern of chiral-symmetry restoration of QCD for Nc=3 and Nf=2 at finite temperature (T) beyond the chiral limit. To this end, we employ the instanton-vacuum configuration for the flavor SU(2) sector and the Harrington-Shepard caloron for modifying relevant instanton parameters as functions of T. The meson loop corrections (MLC), which correspond to 1/Nc corrections, are also taken into account to reproduce appropriate mq dependences of chiral order parameters. We compute the chiral condensate as a function of T and/or mq. We observe that MLC play an important role to have a correct universality-class behavior of chiral-restoration patterns in this framework, depending on mq: Second-order phase transition in the chiral limit mq=0 and cross-over for mq≠0. Without MLC, all the restoration patterns are crossover, due to simple saddle-point approximations. It turns out that Tcχ=159MeV in the chiral limit and Tcχ=(177,186,196)MeV for mq=(5,10,15)MeV, using the phenomenological choices for the instanton parameters at T=0.

  6. Two-photon exchange corrections to the pion form factor

    SciTech Connect

    Peter G. Blunden; Melnitchouk, Wally; Tjon, John A.

    2010-01-06

    Here, we compute two-photon exchange corrections to the electromagnetic form factor of the pion, taking into account the finite size of the pion. Compared to the soft-photon approximation for the infrared divergent contribution which neglects hadron structure effects, the corrections are found to be ≲ 1% for small Q2 (Q2 < 0.1 GeV2), but increase to several percent for Q2 ≳ 1 GeV2 at extreme backward angles.

  7. Development of a fluorescence internal quenching correction factor to correct botulinum neurotoxin type A endopeptidase kinetics using SNAPtide.

    PubMed

    Feltrup, Thomas M; Singh, Bal Ram

    2012-12-18

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which are highly toxic proteins responsible for botulism, are produced by different strains of Clostridium botulinum. These various strains of bacteria produce seven distinct serotypes, labeled A-G. Once inside cells, the zinc-dependent proteolytic light chain (LC) degrades specific proteins involved in acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions causing flaccid paralysis, specifically synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) for botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A). BoNT endopeptidase assays using short substrate homologues have been widely used and developed because of their ease of synthesis, detection limits, and cost. SNAPtide, a 13-amino acid fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptide, was used in this study as a SNAP-25 homologue for the endopeptidase kinetics study of BoNT/A LC. SNAPtide uses a fluorescein isothiocyanate/4-((4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)azo) benzoic acid (FITC/DABCYL) FRET pair to produce a signal upon substrate cleavage. Signal quenching can become an issue after cleavage since quencher molecules can quench cleaved fluorophore molecules in close proximity, reducing the apparent signal. This reduction in apparent signal provides an inherent error as SNAPtide concentrations are increased. In this study, fluorescence internal quenching (FIQ) correction factors were derived using an unquenched SNAPtide peptide to quantify the signal quenching over a range of SNAPtide concentrations and temperatures. The BoNT/A LC endopeptidase kinetics at the optimally active temperature (37 °C) using SNAPtide were studied and used to demonstrate the FIQ correction factors in this study. The FIQ correction factors developed provide a convenient method to allow for improved accuracy in determining and comparing BoNT/A LC activity and kinetics using SNAPtide over a broad range of concentrations and temperatures. PMID:23181535

  8. Chiral corrections to the hyperon vector form factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villadoro, Giovanni

    2006-07-01

    We present a complete calculation of the SU(3)-breaking corrections to the hyperon vector form factors up to O(p4) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. Because of the Ademollo-Gatto theorem, at this order the results do not depend on unknown low energy constants and allow to test the convergence of the chiral expansion. We complete and correct previous calculations and find that O(p3) and O(1/M0) corrections are important. We also study the inclusion of the decuplet degrees of freedom, showing that in this case the perturbative expansion is jeopardized. These results raise doubts on the reliability of the chiral expansion for hyperons.

  9. Deriving time discounting correction factors for TTO tariffs.

    PubMed

    Attema, Arthur E; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2014-04-01

    The Time Trade-off (TTO) method is a popular method for valuing health state utilities and is frequently used in economic evaluations. However, this method produces utilities that are distorted by several biases. One important bias entails the failure to incorporate time discounting. This paper aims to measure time discounting for health outcomes in a sample representative for the general population. In particular, we estimate TTO scores alongside time discounting in order to derive a set of correction factors that can be employed to correct raw TTO scores for the downward bias caused by time discounting. We find substantial positive correction factors, which are increasing with the severity of the health state. Furthermore, higher discounting is found when using more severe health states in the discounting elicitation task. More research is needed to further develop discount rate elicitation procedures and test their validity, especially in general public samples. Moreover, future research should investigate the correction of TTO values for other biases as well, such as loss aversion, and to develop a criterion to test the external validity of TTO scores. PMID:23564665

  10. The geometric resistivity correction factor for several geometrical samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Serdar

    2015-08-01

    This paper reviews the geometric resistivity correction factor of the 4-point probe DC electrical conductivity measurement method using several geometrical samples. During the review of the literature, only the articles that include the effect of geometry on resistivity calculation were considered. Combinations of equations used for various geometries were also given. Mathematical equations were given in the text without details. Expressions for the most commonly used geometries were presented in a table for easy reference.

  11. Correction factors for the directional response of Gill propeller anemometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, A. J.; Teunissen, H. W.

    1986-12-01

    This note briefly summarizes some recent wind-tunnel tests carried out at the Atmospheric Environment Service, Canada, to investigate the directional response of Gill (1975) propeller anemometers with two specific models of propeller. Tables of optimum noncosine-response correction factors are presented for both propeller types, and results of some field intercomparisons between the Gill and sonic anemometer measurements of turbulence statistics are summarized.

  12. Amplitude Correction Factors of Korean VLBI Network Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Byun, Do-Young; Oh, Chung Sik; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Kim, Jongsoo; Jung, Taehyun; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Yeom, Jae-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    We report results of investigation of amplitude calibration for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with Korean VLBI Network (KVN). Amplitude correction factors are estimated based on comparison of KVN observations at 22~GHz correlated by Daejeon hardware correlator and DiFX software correlator in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) with Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 22~GHz by DiFX software correlator in National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). We used the observations for compact radio sources, 3C~454.3, NRAO~512, OJ 287, BL Lac, 3C 279, 1633+382, and 1510-089, which are almost unresolved for baselines in a range of 350-477~km. Visibility data of the sources obtained with similar baselines at KVN and VLBA are selected, fringe-fitted, calibrated, and compared for their amplitudes. We find that visibility amplitudes of KVN observations should be corrected by factors of 1.10 and 1.35 when correlated by DiFX and Daejeon correlators, respectively. These correction factors are attributed to the combination of two steps of 2-bit quantization in KVN observing systems and characteristics of Daejeon correlator.

  13. The Etiology of Presbyopia, Contributing Factors, and Future Correction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickenbotham, Adam Lyle

    Presbyopia has been a complicated problem for clinicians and researchers for centuries. Defining what constitutes presbyopia and what are its primary causes has long been a struggle for the vision and scientific community. Although presbyopia is a normal aging process of the eye, the continuous and gradual loss of accommodation is often dreaded and feared. If presbyopia were to be considered a disease, its global burden would be enormous as it affects more than a billion people worldwide. In this dissertation, I explore factors associated with presbyopia and develop a model for explaining the onset of presbyopia. In this model, the onset of presbyopia is associated primarily with three factors; depth of focus, focusing ability (accommodation), and habitual reading (or task) distance. If any of these three factors could be altered sufficiently, the onset of presbyopia could be delayed or prevented. Based on this model, I then examine possible optical methods that would be effective in correcting for presbyopia by expanding depth of focus. Two methods that have been show to be effective at expanding depth of focus include utilizing a small pupil aperture or generating higher order aberrations, particularly spherical aberration. I compare these two optical methods through the use of simulated designs, monitor testing, and visual performance metrics and then apply them in subjects through an adaptive optics system that corrects aberrations through a wavefront aberrometer and deformable mirror. I then summarize my findings and speculate about the future of presbyopia correction.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of correction factors for IAEA TLD holders.

    PubMed

    Hultqvist, Martha; Fernández-Varea, José M; Izewska, Joanna

    2010-03-21

    The IAEA standard thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) holder has been developed for the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose program for audits of high-energy photon beams, and it is also employed by the ESTRO-QUALity assurance network (EQUAL) and several national TLD audit networks. Factors correcting for the influence of the holder on the TL signal under reference conditions have been calculated in the present work from Monte Carlo simulations with the PENELOPE code for (60)Co gamma-rays and 4, 6, 10, 15, 18 and 25 MV photon beams. The simulation results are around 0.2% smaller than measured factors reported in the literature, but well within the combined standard uncertainties. The present study supports the use of the experimentally obtained holder correction factors in the determination of the absorbed dose to water from the TL readings; the factors calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations may be adopted for the cases where there are no measured data. PMID:20197601

  15. Air-braked cycle ergometers: validity of the correction factor for barometric pressure.

    PubMed

    Finn, J P; Maxwell, B F; Withers, R T

    2000-10-01

    Barometric pressure exerts by far the greatest influence of the three environmental factors (barometric pressure, temperature and humidity) on power outputs from air-braked ergometers. The barometric pressure correction factor for power outputs from air-braked ergometers is in widespread use but apparently has never been empirically validated. Our experiment validated this correction factor by calibrating two air-braked cycle ergometers in a hypobaric chamber using a dynamic calibration rig. The results showed that if the power output correction for changes in air resistance at barometric pressures corresponding to altitudes of 38, 600, 1,200 and 1,800 m above mean sea level were applied, then the coefficients of variation were 0.8-1.9% over the range of 160-1,597 W. The overall mean error was 3.0 % but this included up to 0.73 % for the propagated error that was associated with errors in the measurement of: a) temperature b) relative humidity c) barometric pressure d) force, distance and angular velocity by the dynamic calibration rig. The overall mean error therefore approximated the +/- 2.0% of true load that was specified by the Laboratory Standards Assistance Scheme of the Australian Sports Commission. The validity of the correction factor for barometric pressure on power output was therefore demonstrated over the altitude range of 38-1,800 m. PMID:11071051

  16. The correction model and error analysis of infrared radiation temperature measurement of semitransparent object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaolong; Yang, Li

    2015-10-01

    Based on the theory of infrared radiation and of the infrared thermography, the mathematical correction model of the infrared radiation temperature measurement of semitransparent object is developed taking account by the effects of the atmosphere, surroundings, radiation of transmissivity and many other factors. The effects of the emissivity, transmissivity and measurement error are analysed on temperature measurement error of the infrared thermography. The measurement error of semitransparent object are compared with that of opaque object. The countermeasures to reduce the measurement error are also discussed.

  17. Correction factors for gravimetric measurement of peritumoural oedema in man.

    PubMed

    Bell, B A; Smith, M A; Tocher, J L; Miller, J D

    1987-01-01

    The water content of samples of normal and oedematous brain in lobectomy specimens from 16 patients with cerebral tumours has been measured by gravimetry and by wet and dry weighing. Uncorrected gravimetry underestimated the water content of oedematous peritumoural cortex by a mean of 1.17%, and of oedematous peritumoural white matter by a mean of 2.52%. Gravimetric correction equations calculated theoretically and from an animal model of serum infusion white matter oedema overestimate peritumoural white matter oedema in man, and empirical gravimetric error correction factors for oedematous peritumoural human white matter and cortex have therefore been derived. These enable gravimetry to be used to accurately determine peritumoural oedema in man. PMID:3268140

  18. Environmental correction factors for predicting room sound pressure levels

    SciTech Connect

    Warnock, A.C.C.

    1998-10-01

    ARI Standard 885 provides a method for calculating sound pressure levels in room below plenums containing air-handling devices. An important step in the calculation is the correction of the sound power for the device from values provided by the manufacturer to values appropriate for use in occupied spaces. This correction is called the environmental adjustment factor. It compensates for the fact that sound power measured for a source placed outdoors or in a hemi-free field has been found to be greater at low frequencies than the sound power measured for the same source in a reverberation room. When making predictions of sound pressure level in a room using such sound power levels, one has to estimate the reduction in sound power caused by the room. Estimated reductions provided in ARI 885 were examined during ASHRAE research project RP-755 and found to be too large. Lower values are suggested in this paper.

  19. Finite-temperature electron correlations in the framework of a dynamic local-field correction

    SciTech Connect

    Schweng, H.K.; Boehm, H.M. )

    1993-07-15

    The quantum-mechanical version of the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjoelander (STLS) approximation is applied to finite temperatures. This approximation has two main advantages. First, it includes a dynamic local-field correction and second, it gives positive values for the pair-distribution function in the short-range region at zero temperature. This is even valid for rather low densities. After a description of the numerical difficulties arising with the use of a dynamic approximation, the results for the static-structure factor and the pair-distribution function are discussed thoroughly. Detailed work is performed on the static part of the local-field correction, with special emphasis put on the investigation of its structure. A peak is found at a wave vector [ital q][approx]2.8 (in units of the Fermi wave vector) for small temperatures, which tends towards higher values of [ital q] with increasing temperature. This peak causes an attractive particle-hole interaction in a certain [ital q] region and thus gives rise to the appearance of a charge-density wave. A parametric description is given for the static local-field correction in order to simplify further applications. Furthermore, the exchange-and-correlation free energy is considered. The results are compared with the STLS results and with the modified convolution approach.

  20. Temperature effects on pitfall catches of epigeal arthropods: a model and method for bias correction.

    PubMed

    Saska, Pavel; van der Werf, Wopke; Hemerik, Lia; Luff, Martin L; Hatten, Timothy D; Honek, Alois; Pocock, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Carabids and other epigeal arthropods make important contributions to biodiversity, food webs and biocontrol of invertebrate pests and weeds. Pitfall trapping is widely used for sampling carabid populations, but this technique yields biased estimates of abundance ('activity-density') because individual activity - which is affected by climatic factors - affects the rate of catch. To date, the impact of temperature on pitfall catches, while suspected to be large, has not been quantified, and no method is available to account for it. This lack of knowledge and the unavailability of a method for bias correction affect the confidence that can be placed on results of ecological field studies based on pitfall data.Here, we develop a simple model for the effect of temperature, assuming a constant proportional change in the rate of catch per °C change in temperature, r, consistent with an exponential Q10 response to temperature. We fit this model to 38 time series of pitfall catches and accompanying temperature records from the literature, using first differences and other detrending methods to account for seasonality. We use meta-analysis to assess consistency of the estimated parameter r among studies.The mean rate of increase in total catch across data sets was 0·0863 ± 0·0058 per °C of maximum temperature and 0·0497 ± 0·0107 per °C of minimum temperature. Multiple regression analyses of 19 data sets showed that temperature is the key climatic variable affecting total catch. Relationships between temperature and catch were also identified at species level. Correction for temperature bias had substantial effects on seasonal trends of carabid catches.Synthesis and Applications. The effect of temperature on pitfall catches is shown here to be substantial and worthy of consideration when interpreting results of pitfall trapping. The exponential model can be used both for effect estimation and for bias correction of observed data. Correcting for temperature

  1. The fallacy of Ratio Correction to address confounding factors

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Natasha A; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Gerdin, Anna-Karin B; Ramírez-Solis, Ramiro; White, Jacqueline K

    2014-01-01

    Scientists aspire to measure cause and effect. Unfortunately confounding variables, ones that are associated with both the probable cause and the outcome, can lead to an association that is true but potentially misleading. For example, altered body weight is often observed in a gene knockout, however many other variables, such as lean mass, will also change as the body weight changes. This leaves the researcher asking whether the change in that variable is expected for that change in weight. Ratio Correction, which is often referred to as Normalization, is a method used commonly to remove the effect of a confounding variable. Although Ratio Correction is used widely in biological research, it is not the method recommended in the statistical literature to address confounding factors; instead regression methods such as the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) are proposed. This method examines the difference in means after adjusting for the confounding relationship. Using real data, this manuscript demonstrates how the Ratio Correction approach is flawed and can result in erroneous calls of significance leading to inappropriate biological conclusions. This arises as some of the underlying assumptions are not met. The manuscript goes on to demonstrate that researchers should use ANCOVA, and discusses how graphical tools can be used readily to judge the robustness of this method. This study is therefore a clear example of why assumption testing is an important component of a study and thus why it is included in the Animal Research: reporting of In Vivo Experiment (ARRIVE) guidelines. PMID:22829707

  2. Small field correction factors for the IBA Razor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Paul Z Y; Reggiori, Giacomo; Lobefalo, Francesca; Mancosu, Pietro; Tomatis, Stefano; McKenzie, David R; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2016-08-01

    The IBA Razor diode supersedes the IBA SFD and is intended for use in small fields. However, its behaviour in small fields has not yet been quantified. In this work, we examine the response of the Razor diode against the air core scintillation dosimeter (FOD) and Gafchromic film in photon beams from three Varian linac beams. Fields between 4mm and 30mm in width were measured, both with and without a flattening filter and at two energies. The Razor exhibited an over-response of up to 4.5% for MLC collimated fields and 7.1% for stereotactic cone collimated fields. The presence of the flattening filter altered the over-response by up to 1.5%. The small field correction factors are tabulated and agree with the mathematical relation of Liu et al. (2014). Four samples of the Razor were used, two having received a significant prior dose. The correction factors for the four samples differed and may depend on their dose history. PMID:27497923

  3. [Factors affecting the temperature of domestic refrigerators].

    PubMed

    Derens, E; Laguerre, O; Palagos, B

    2001-01-01

    A survey was carried out in France in 1999 in order to know the air temperature in domestic refrigerators and the factors which may effect this temperature. Temperatures were recorded at three levels (top, middle and bottom of the refrigerator compartment). A questionnaire was filled to acquire the following information: characteristic of family (number of family members, age, profession, income...), characteristic of refrigerator (trade, type, age, temperature setting, refrigerating type...) and the use condition (room temperature, near by heat source, built in, door opening frequency...). The average temperature of the 119 surveyed refrigerators was 6.6 degrees C. Descriptive analysis and multi dimensional analysis of factors effecting refrigerator temperature were carried out. The classification tree and the segmentation confirm the influence of the use condition (frequency of door opening, temperature setting, near by heat source and built in). There is no direct effect of one factor but the combination of all of them. PMID:11474586

  4. Predictors and grouping for bias correction of radiosonde temperature observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, M.; Haimberger, L.

    2015-10-01

    Due to various causes, artificial biases can be found in meteorological observations. The use of biased observations in the assimilation process leads to systematic errors in the resulting analysis unless special measures are taken during the data assimilation. One such method that avoids the assumption of unbiased input observations is the variational bias correction (VarBC), which is used successfully within the (European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts) operational system, mainly to deal with satellite radiance data. In VarBC the bias of the given observation is estimated using a linear predictor model based on a small number of predefined predictors and the corresponding unknown bias parameters. These are estimated together with the model state by including a bias term in the cost function of the variational analysis. The radiosonde temperature biases depend mainly on pressure, on solar elevation, and on the instrumentation used. The optimal choice of the grouping of radiosonde stations (to get larger samples) and of the bias models is not obvious. While the method should be used in a 4D-VAR setting, its properties can be estimated off-line with much less computational effort. In this paper different methods for the grouping and the bias model are investigated, both using and not using metadata. At the same time the statistics are compared with the output of two independent homogeneity adjustment algorithms. The major outcome of this work is, apart from the development of predictors model suitable for VarBC, the detection of the high variability in the bias using grouping based on metadata.

  5. Production of element correction factors for thermoluminescent dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Plato, P.; Miklos, J.

    1985-11-01

    Approximately 80 processors of personal dosimetry in the United States use thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Recent demands that dosimetry processors be able to measure radiation doses to within +/- 50% of the correct value have focused attention on the reproducibility of the TL elements within each TLD. The phosphors for these TLDs are manufactured by three companies. A dosimetry processor faces three options concerning the quality of the TL elements purchased; trust the supplier's quality control program, screen new TL elements and discard those that are extremely bad, or use element correction factors (ECFs). The first option results in dosimetry processors failing the +/- 50% accuracy requirement due to excessive variability among the TL elements. The second option still permits large precision errors that come close to the +/- 50% accuracy requirement. This paper advocates the third option and presents a 10-step procedure to produce ECFs. The procedure ensures that the ECFs represent only variations among the TL elements and not variations caused by stability problems with the TLD reader. Following is an example of ECF production for 3000 TLDs.

  6. Leading concentration correction to polymer dynamic self-structure factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perico, Angelo; La Ferla, Roberto; Freed, Karl F.

    1989-10-01

    The discrete chain representation of multiple scattering theory of the concentration dependence of the hydrodynamics of polymer solutions is applied to the calculation of the leading concentration correction to the dynamic structure factor S(k,t) and its first and second cumulants of individual labeled Gaussian chains in theta solutions at nonzero concentrations. Contributions are separated into those from overall translational and internal chain motions as well as couplings between different internal modes and between translation and internal modes, coupling that are introduced by interchain hydrodynamic interactions. The separate contributions are analyzed as a function of k and of t in order to isolate regions where certain contributions are dominant. As expected, short times and larger k tend to favor contributions from internal chain dynamics, while longer times and smaller k make concentration dependent translational effects predominate. Computations for shorter chains are extrapolated to provide the asymptotic long chain behavior.

  7. Surface temperature correction for active infrared reflectance measurements of natural materials.

    PubMed

    Snyder, W C; Wan, Z

    1996-05-01

    Land surface temperature algorithms for the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer satellite instrument will require the spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of natural surfaces in the thermal infrared. We designed the spectral infrared bidirectional reflectance and emissivity instrument to provide such measurements by the use of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. A problem we encountered is the unavoidable surface heating caused by the source irradiance. For our system, the effects of the heating can cause a 30% error in the measured BRDF The error caused by heating is corrected by temporally curve fitting the radiance signal. This curve-fitting technique isolates the radiance caused by reflected irradiance. With this correction, other factors dominate the BRDF error. It is now ~5% and can be improved further. The method is illustrated with measurements of soil BRDF. PMID:21085353

  8. Adaptive non-uniformity correction method based on temperature for infrared detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Yue, Song; Hong, Pu; Jia, Guowei; Lei, Bo

    2013-09-01

    The existence of non-uniformities in the responsitivity of the element array is a severe problem typical to common infrared detector. These non-uniformities result in a "curtain'' like fixed pattern noises (FPN) that appear in the image. Some random noise can be restrained by the method kind of equalization method. But the fixed pattern noise can only be removed by .non uniformity correction method. The produce of non uniformities of detector array is the combined action of infrared detector array, readout circuit, semiconductor device performance, the amplifier circuit and optical system. Conventional linear correction techniques require costly recalibration due to the drift of the detector or changes in temperature. Therefore, an adaptive non-uniformity method is needed to solve this problem. A lot factors including detectors and environment conditions variety are considered to analyze and conduct the cause of detector drift. Several experiments are designed to verify the guess. Based on the experiments, an adaptive non-uniformity correction method is put forward in this paper. The strength of this method lies in its simplicity and low computational complexity. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the disadvantage of traditional non-uniformity correct method is conquered by the proposed scheme.

  9. Apparatus and method for temperature correction and expanded count rate of inorganic scintillation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Ianakiev, Kiril D.; Hsue, Sin Tao; Browne, Michael C.; Audia, Jeffrey M.

    2006-07-25

    The present invention includes an apparatus and corresponding method for temperature correction and count rate expansion of inorganic scintillation detectors. A temperature sensor is attached to an inorganic scintillation detector. The inorganic scintillation detector, due to interaction with incident radiation, creates light pulse signals. A photoreceiver processes the light pulse signals to current signals. Temperature correction circuitry that uses a fast light component signal, a slow light component signal, and the temperature signal from the temperature sensor to corrected an inorganic scintillation detector signal output and expanded the count rate.

  10. Correction.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    In the article by Heuslein et al, which published online ahead of print on September 3, 2015 (DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305775), a correction was needed. Brett R. Blackman was added as the penultimate author of the article. The article has been corrected for publication in the November 2015 issue. PMID:26490278

  11. An EGSnrc investigation of the P{sub TP} correction factor for ion chambers in kilovoltage x rays

    SciTech Connect

    La Russa, Daniel J.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2006-12-15

    As part of the standard practice for obtaining consistent ion chamber measurements with cavities open to the surrounding atmosphere, the raw measured response is corrected to the response at a reference temperature and pressure using the standard temperature-pressure correction factor (P{sub TP}). In this study, the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code was used to investigate the validity of the P{sub TP} correction factor for kilovoltage x rays incident on various geometrically distinct ion chambers. The calculated P{sub TP}-corrected chamber response deviated by over 2% relative to expected values for a 40 kV spectrum incident on a graphite thimble chamber at an air density typical of Mexico City. The relative deviation from the expected response was much worse for a large spherical graphite chamber, exceeding 16% at an air density of 0.6 kg/m{sup 3} ({approx_equal}0.5 atm at 22 deg. C) for the same beam energy. The breakdown of the P{sub TP} correction factor was also observed for a 26 kV mammography spectrum incident on two mammography chambers. For {sup 60}Co beams, the P{sub TP} correction factor behaved as expected. For day-to-day variations in pressure, only a negligible of the P{sub TP} correction factor was observed with low x-ray energies. Factors contributing to the breakdown of the P{sub TP} correction factor at low x-ray energies and large pressure variations, such as the range of electrons, the material of the wall, the chamber dimensions and air-photon interactions, are discussed in depth.

  12. Note: Vignetting calibration and temperature correction for casting billets.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Yuzhong; Hu, Zhenwei; Bai, Haicheng

    2013-09-01

    A method for calibration of vignetting coefficient is proposed in this paper to solve the distortion of temperature measurement using a CCD-based pyrometer. On this basis, a hybrid temperature measurement system, which comprises of an array CCD camera with high resolution and a single spot colorimetric thermometer, is introduced to eliminate the influences of surface striped iron oxide scale, dust, and emissivity on temperature measurement for casting billets. Currently, the system has been successfully applied and verified in some continuous casting production lines. The vignetting estimation error of 0.052 and the maximum temperature measurement fluctuation of 5 °C were achieved in these measurements. PMID:24089881

  13. Next-to-leading-order correction to pion form factor in k{sub T} factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hsiangnan; Shen Yuelong; Wang Yuming; Zou Hao

    2011-03-01

    We calculate the next-to-leading-order (NLO) correction to the pion electromagnetic form factor at leading twist in the k{sub T} factorization theorem. Partons off-shell by k{sub T}{sup 2} are considered in both quark diagrams and effective diagrams for the transverse-momentum-dependent pion wave function. The light-cone singularities in the transverse-momentum-dependent pion wave function are regularized by rotating the Wilson lines away from the light cone. The soft divergences from gluon exchanges among initial- and fal-state partons cancel exactly. We derive the infrared-finite k{sub T}-dependent NLO hard kernel for the pion electromagnetic form factor by taking the difference of the above two sets of diagrams. Varying the renormalization and factorization scales, we find that the NLO correction is smaller, when both the scales are set to the invariant masses of internal particles: it becomes lower than 40% of the leading-order contribution for momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2}>7 GeV{sup 2}. It is observed that the NLO leading-twist correction does not play an essential role in explaining the experimental data, but the leading-order higher-twist contribution does.

  14. Correction.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    In the article by Narayan et al (Narayan O, Davies JE, Hughes AD, Dart AM, Parker KH, Reid C, Cameron JD. Central aortic reservoir-wave analysis improves prediction of cardiovascular events in elderly hypertensives. Hypertension. 2015;65:629–635. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04824), which published online ahead of print December 22, 2014, and appeared in the March 2015 issue of the journal, some corrections were needed.On page 632, Figure, panel A, the label PRI has been corrected to read RPI. In panel B, the text by the upward arrow, "10% increase in kd,” has been corrected to read, "10% decrease in kd." The corrected figure is shown below.The authors apologize for these errors. PMID:26558821

  15. A New Correction Technique for Strain-Gage Measurements Acquired in Transient-Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance

    1996-01-01

    Significant strain-gage errors may exist in measurements acquired in transient-temperature environments if conventional correction methods are applied. As heating or cooling rates increase, temperature gradients between the strain-gage sensor and substrate surface increase proportionally. These temperature gradients introduce strain-measurement errors that are currently neglected in both conventional strain-correction theory and practice. Therefore, the conventional correction theory has been modified to account for these errors. A new experimental method has been developed to correct strain-gage measurements acquired in environments experiencing significant temperature transients. The new correction technique has been demonstrated through a series of tests in which strain measurements were acquired for temperature-rise rates ranging from 1 to greater than 100 degrees F/sec. Strain-gage data from these tests have been corrected with both the new and conventional methods and then compared with an analysis. Results show that, for temperature-rise rates greater than 10 degrees F/sec, the strain measurements corrected with the conventional technique produced strain errors that deviated from analysis by as much as 45 percent, whereas results corrected with the new technique were in good agreement with analytical results.

  16. A Generalized Finite Source Calibration Factor: A Natural Improvement to the Finite Source Correction Factor for Uranium Holdup Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, C.A.; Oberer, R.B.; chiang, L.G.; Ceo, R.N.

    2003-01-28

    This paper proposes refinements to the finite source correction factor used in holdup measurements. Specifically it focuses on a more general method to estimate the average detector response for a finite source. This proposed method for the average detector response is based directly on the Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) assay method. First, the finite source correction factor as originally proposed is reviewed in this paper. Following this review the GGH assay method is described. Lastly, a new finite area calibration factor based on GGH is then proposed for finite point and line sources. As an alternative to the direct use of the finite arca calibration factor, finite source correction factors are also derived from this calibration factor. This new correction factor can be used in a manner similar to the finite source correction factor as currently implemented.

  17. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingming; Yan, Shuangshuang; Wang, Baowei; Xia, Li; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Air temperature (AT) is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS). Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR). Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE) and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months. PMID:26213941

  18. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    Seismic images of the Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska, reveal crustal-scale duplexing: Correction Geology, v. 23, p. 65 68 (January 1995) The correct Figure 4A, for the loose insert, is given here. See Figure 4A below. Corrected inserts will be available to those requesting copies of the article from the senior author, Gary S. Fuis, U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025. Figure 4A. P-wave velocity model of Brooks Range region (thin gray contours) with migrated wide-angle reflections (heavy red lines) and migreated vertical-incidence reflections (short black lines) superimposed. Velocity contour interval is 0.25 km/s; 4,5, and 6 km/s contours are labeled. Estimated error in velocities is one contour interval. Symbols on faults shown at top are as in Figure 2 caption.

  19. Correction.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Neogi T, Jansen TLTA, Dalbeth N, et al. 2015 Gout classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Ann Rheum Dis 2015;74:1789–98. The name of the 20th author was misspelled. The correct spelling is Janitzia Vazquez-Mellado. We regret the error. PMID:26881284

  20. Corrections for temperature effect for ground-based muon hodoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, A. N.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Timashkov, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Influence of atmospheric temperature on muon flux at sea level is considered. Results of calculations of muon spectrum for normal atmospheric conditions, differential temperature coefficients (DTC) for muons at different zenith angles and threshold energies are presented. In calculations, a six-layer stationary spherical model of atmosphere is used, contributions of both pions and kaons as well as dependence of muon energy loss on muon energy are taken into account. Comparison of muon spectrum calculations and experimental data in a wide range of zenith angles and momentums shows a good agreement. Comparison of results of DTC calculations with results of earlier works exhibits only qualitative agreement; possible sources of differences are analyzed. Some practical questions of the use of DTC for muon hodoscope data analysis are discussed.

  1. Experimental validation of beam quality correction factors for proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomà, Carles; Hofstetter-Boillat, Bénédicte; Safai, Sairos; Vörös, Sándor

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a method to experimentally validate the beam quality correction factors (kQ) tabulated in IAEA TRS-398 for proton beams and to determine the kQ of non-tabulated ionization chambers (based on the already tabulated values). The method is based exclusively on ionometry and it consists in comparing the reading of two ionization chambers under the same reference conditions in a proton beam quality Q and a reference beam quality 60Co. This allows one to experimentally determine the ratio between the kQ of the two ionization chambers. In this work, 7 different ionization chamber models were irradiated under the IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for 60Co beams and proton beams. For the latter, the reference conditions for both modulated beams (spread-out Bragg peak field) and monoenergetic beams (pseudo-monoenergetic field) were studied. For monoenergetic beams, it was found that the experimental kQ values obtained for plane-parallel chambers are consistent with the values tabulated in IAEA TRS-398; whereas the kQ values obtained for cylindrical chambers are not consistent—being higher than the tabulated values. These results support the suggestion (of previous publications) that the IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams should be revised so that the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers is taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber at the reference depth. For modulated proton beams, the tabulated kQ values of all the ionization chambers studied in this work were found to be consistent with each other—except for the IBA FC65-G, whose experimental kQ value was found to be 0.6% lower than the tabulated one. The kQ of the PTW Advanced Markus chamber, which is not tabulated in IAEA TRS-398, was found to be 0.997 ± 0.042 (k = 2), based on the tabulated value of the PTW Markus chamber.

  2. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  3. Obtaining the correct sea surface temperature: bias correction of regional climate model data for the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, Diego; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Dosio, Alessandro; Stips, Adolf; Keuler, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Here, the COSMO Climate Limited-area Modelling (CCLM) regional climate model (RCM) is used as external forcing for a Mediterranean basin-scale ocean model based on the general estuarine transport model (GETM). CCLM is forced by different global climate models (GCMs) (MPI and EcEarth) and by the ERA-interim (ERAin) reanalysis. Sea surface temperatures (SST) simulated by the different runs of the ocean model are compared with satellite measurements. As a substantial cold bias in simulated SST is found, a simple bias-correction methodology is applied to the RCM atmospheric variables, namely (1) air temperature (which is usually underestimated for the region by RCMs runs), (2) cloud cover (typically overestimated) and (3) wind intensity (as zonal wind intensity is usually overestimated). The performed analysis identifies wind velocity as the most important variable to correct in order to satisfactorily obtain Mediterranean SST. For many of the RCM realizations significant improvement in the simulated SST are only achieved when wind intensity values were bias-corrected towards observed values. Air temperature and cloud cover had a more marginal importance in reducing the SST bias observed in RCM-forced runs of the ocean model. By comparing the ERAin-driven run and the GCMs driven runs, our analyses suggest that the main source of observed bias is related with the GCMs being used as lateral boundary condition for the RCM realizations. However, a relative simple bias-correction methodology is sufficient to reduce a large part of the induced bias in SST and to improve the vertical water stratification characteristics within the Mediterranean basin that will allow to analyze current and future biogeochemical conditions of the studied basin.

  4. Correcting arterial blood gases for temperature: (when) is it clinically significant?

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jamie; Younker, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    Interpreting arterial blood gases (ABGs) is a common practice in intensive care units. The use of the temperature correction facility, however, is not standardized, and the effects of temperature correction on the ABG result may affect the overall management of the patient. The aim of this study was to discuss the significance of temperature correction. Current practice in the UK and Australia is discussed along with a review of physiological principles of oxygenation and acid-base balance. The alpha-stat and pH-stat methods of blood gas analysis are presented, with arguments for and against using the temperature correction facility for blood gas analysis. The study concludes with recommendations for practice. PMID:16983854

  5. Correction.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    In the article by Guessous et al (Guessous I, Pruijm M, Ponte B, Ackermann D, Ehret G, Ansermot N, Vuistiner P, Staessen J, Gu Y, Paccaud F, Mohaupt M, Vogt B, Pechère-Bertschi A, Martin PY, Burnier M, Eap CB, Bochud M. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions. Hypertension. 2015;65:691–696. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04512), which published online ahead of print December 8, 2014, and appeared in the March 2015 issue of the journal, a correction was needed.One of the author surnames was misspelled. Antoinette Pechère-Berstchi has been corrected to read Antoinette Pechère-Bertschi.The authors apologize for this error. PMID:26763012

  6. Real-Gas Correction Factors for Hypersonic Flow Parameters in Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Wayne D.

    1960-01-01

    The real-gas hypersonic flow parameters for helium have been calculated for stagnation temperatures from 0 F to 600 F and stagnation pressures up to 6,000 pounds per square inch absolute. The results of these calculations are presented in the form of simple correction factors which must be applied to the tabulated ideal-gas parameters. It has been shown that the deviations from the ideal-gas law which exist at high pressures may cause a corresponding significant error in the hypersonic flow parameters when calculated as an ideal gas. For example the ratio of the free-stream static to stagnation pressure as calculated from the thermodynamic properties of helium for a stagnation temperature of 80 F and pressure of 4,000 pounds per square inch absolute was found to be approximately 13 percent greater than that determined from the ideal-gas tabulation with a specific heat ratio of 5/3.

  7. Factors Affecting Student Success in Postsecondary Academic Correctional Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Research in correctional education has focused on examining outcomes for participants and identifying principles and guidelines that reflect best practice. Relatively few studies have focused on postsecondary education programs and fewer still have sought to relate program implementation to student outcomes to inform program design and improve…

  8. Spatial correction factors for YALINA Booster facility loaded with medium and low enriched fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Routkovskaya, C.

    2012-07-01

    The Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor is used in analyses of subcritical assemblies to correct the experimental reactivity as function of the detector position. Besides the detector position, several other parameters affect the correction factor: the energy weighting function of the detector, the detector size, the energy-angle distribution of source neutrons, and the reactivity of the subcritical assembly. This work focuses on the dependency of the correction factor on the detector material and it investigates the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly loaded with medium (36%) and low (10%) enriched fuels. (authors)

  9. Temperature dependence calibration and correction of the DAMPE BGO electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y. F.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y. L.; Wen, S. C.; Wang, C.; Li, Z. Y.; Feng, C. Q.; Wang, X. L.; Xu, Z. Z.; Huang, G. S.; Liu, S. B.

    2016-07-01

    A BGO electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is built for the DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) mission. The temperature effect on the BGO ECAL was investigated with a thermal vacuum experiment. The light output of a BGO crystal depends on temperature significantly, and the readout system is also affected by temperature. The temperature coefficient of each BGO detection unit has been calibrated, and a correction method is also presented in this paper.

  10. The late Pleistocene ground surface temperature and corrected heat flow density for northern part of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szewczyk, J.; Gientka, D.

    2003-04-01

    Paleoclimatic ground surface temperature (GST) changes in last 100 ka years are a major factor causing vertical variation of terrestrial heat flow density (HFD). The value of this parameter important for thermal and rheological modelling may be considerably influenced by paleoclimatic factor and should be corrected for this reason. Very important criteria for studying paleoclimatic events on boreholes is the knowledge of depth distribution of thermal conductivity. However, core samples from majority of deep boreholes are hardly available and laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity are very scarce and sometimes not confident. We used a method of estimating the thermal conductivity from well logging data interpretation. The thermal conductivity was calculated using volumetric model of rock with mean geometric formula. The synthetic temperature logs (T_s) based on this data are an "active" method of investigation of vertical variation of HFD and GST determination. For a majority of deep boreholes in Polish Lowlands in uppermost part (<2000 m) we have observed dramatic disagreement between measured temperature (T) and synthetic data (T_s). We consider that the observed vertical variations of HFD in shallow part of profiles are mainly due to Holocene warming. The lower parts of profiles are still in thermal regime of the Weichselian glaciation. Presented results of GST in the Late Pleistocene for the representative data for 59 deep boreholes for the N of Poland. The GST was -5.17 +/- 5.45^oC. The observed big scatter of presented results seems to be consequence of unstable thermal conditions and bad calibration of old temperature logs. The amplitude of post glacial warming (ΔGST) is not less then +13.1^oC. The history of climate for the last 500 ka years shows that this time was spent mainly in ice age and this is "normal" state of HFD. The presented method of investigations seems to be very effective for determination of HFD for this condition.

  11. A method to correct for temperature dependence and measure simultaneously dose and temperature using a plastic scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Therriault-Proulx, Francois; Wootton, Landon; Beddar, Sam

    2015-10-21

    Plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) work well for radiation dosimetry. However, they show some temperature dependence, and a priori knowledge of the temperature surrounding the PSD is required to correct for this dependence. We present a novel approach to correct PSD response values for temperature changes instantaneously and without the need for prior knowledge of the temperature value. In addition to rendering the detector temperature-independent, this approach allows for actual temperature measurement using solely the PSD apparatus. With a temperature-controlled water tank, the temperature was varied from room temperature to more than 40 °C and the PSD was used to measure the dose delivered from a cobalt-60 photon beam unit to within an average of 0.72% from the expected value. The temperature was measured during each acquisition with the PSD and a thermocouple and values were within 1 °C of each other. The depth-dose curve of a 6 MV photon beam was also measured under warm non-stable conditions and this curve agreed to within an average of  -0.98% from the curve obtained at room temperature. The feasibility of rendering PSDs temperature-independent was demonstrated with our approach, which also enabled simultaneous measurement of both dose and temperature. This novel approach improves both the robustness and versatility of PSDs. PMID:26407188

  12. Correction.

    PubMed

    2015-05-22

    The Circulation Research article by Keith and Bolli (“String Theory” of c-kitpos Cardiac Cells: A New Paradigm Regarding the Nature of These Cells That May Reconcile Apparently Discrepant Results. Circ Res. 2015:116:1216-1230. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.305557) states that van Berlo et al (2014) observed that large numbers of fibroblasts and adventitial cells, some smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and rare cardiomyocytes originated from c-kit positive progenitors. However, van Berlo et al reported that only occasional fibroblasts and adventitial cells derived from c-kit positive progenitors in their studies. Accordingly, the review has been corrected to indicate that van Berlo et al (2014) observed that large numbers of endothelial cells, with some smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, and more rarely cardiomyocytes, originated from c-kit positive progenitors in their murine model. The authors apologize for this error, and the error has been noted and corrected in the online version of the article, which is available at http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/116/7/1216.full ( PMID:25999426

  13. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    Alleged mosasaur bite marks on Late Cretaceous ammonites are limpet (patellogastropod) home scars Geology, v. 26, p. 947 950 (October 1998) This article had the following printing errors: p. 947, Abstract, line 11, “sepia” should be “septa” p. 947, 1st paragraph under Introduction, line 2, “creep” should be “deep” p. 948, column 1, 2nd paragraph, line 7, “creep” should be “deep” p. 949, column 1, 1st paragraph, line 1, “creep” should be “deep” p. 949, column 1, 1st paragraph, line 5, “19774” should be “1977)” p. 949, column 1, 4th paragraph, line 7, “in particular” should be “In particular” CORRECTION Mammalian community response to the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: An isotaphonomic study in the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming Geology, v. 26, p. 1011 1014 (November 1998) An error appeared in the References Cited. The correct reference appears below: Fricke, H. C., Clyde, W. C., O'Neil, J. R., and Gingerich, P. D., 1998, Evidence for rapid climate change in North America during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: Oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic phosphate from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming): Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 160, p. 193 208.

  14. Beta and Gamma Correction Factors for the Eberline R0-20 Ionization Chamber Survey Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michelle L.; Rathbone, Bruce A.; Bratvold, Thomas E.

    2001-08-10

    This technical document provides details of derived correction factors for the Eberline R0-20 survey meter, which uses an ionization chamber to measure ambient exposure rates. A thin end window allows the instrument to measure exposure rates from non-penetrating radiation (i.e., beta radiation). Correction factors are provided for contact measurements with beta and gamma disk sources, gamma beams and, finally, general area beta fields. Beta correction factors are based on the instrument's response to 204Tl, selected as the most conservative isotope for beta correction factors, as indicated in previous studies of similar instruments using 204Tl, 147Pm, and 90Sr(Y) isotopes (LANL 1982). Gamma correction factors are based on 137Cs, considered the predominant source of gamma radiation on the Hanford Site.

  15. Joint bias correction of temperature and precipitation in climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Sinha, Eva; Horton, Daniel E.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Michalak, Anna M.

    2014-12-01

    Bias correction of meteorological variables from climate model simulations is a routine strategy for circumventing known limitations of state-of-the-art general circulation models. Although the assessment of climate change impacts often depends on the joint variability of multiple variables, commonly used bias correction methodologies treat each variable independently and do not consider the relationship among variables. Independent bias correction can therefore produce non-physical corrections and may fail to capture important multivariate relationships. Here, we introduce a joint bias correction methodology (JBC) and apply it to precipitation (P) and temperature (T) fields from the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) model ensemble. This approach is based on a general bivariate distribution of P-T and can be seen as a multivariate extension of the commonly used univariate quantile mapping method. It proceeds by correcting either P or T first and then correcting the other variable conditional upon the first one, both following the concept of the univariate quantile mapping. JBC is shown to not only reduce biases in the mean and variance of P and T similarly to univariate quantile mapping, but also to correct model-simulated biases in P-T correlation fields. JBC, using methods such as the one presented here, thus represents an important step in impacts-based research as it explicitly accounts for inter-variable relationships as part of the bias correction procedure, thereby improving not only the individual distributions of P and T, but critically, their joint distribution.

  16. Weld pool penetration measurement using ultrasound with thermal gradient correction factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderton, John Martin

    Weld penetration is critical to final weld performance. There are many techniques for determining surface parameters of weld pools but the transient nature of the pools, high temperatures and intense electromagnetic energy make direct measurement of the penetration of weld pools difficult. In order to determine weld pool penetration ultrasonically from below the weld pool it is necessary to compensate for the variation in the time of flight of the ultrasound wave due to temperature gradients. This requires both a precise understanding of the location and magnitude of the temperature gradients and the time of flight of ultrasound at the range of temperatures seen in the gradients. Given this information it is possible to develop a correction factor to an ultrasonic time of flight reading that accurately represents the actual penetration of a weld pool. This research examines the electroslag surfacing (ESS) processing of AISI 1005 low carbon steel clad onto a ductile iron substrate. The high temperature cladding on low temperature substrate provides a deep weld penetration. Ultrasonic time of flight measurements were made from a piezoelectric transducer on the backside of the substrate to the solid/liquid interface of the weld pool during welding. The speed of ultrasound over a range of temperatures was determined from furnace heated ductile iron substrates. The sample was stepped and contact piezoelectric methods used to determine time of flight. A finite element model was developed and analyzed to predict thermal gradients in the substrate around the weld pool. The model was correlated to thermocouple data of substrate heating during welding. The predicted thermal gradients and speed/temperature curves are combined with the time of flight measurement to determine the location of the solid/liquid weld interface. An automated seam tracking system for ESS was also developed. This system utilizes a line laser at right angles to the view of a CCD camera which

  17. The effect of ambient pressure on well chamber response: experimental results with empirical correction factors.

    PubMed

    Griffin, S L; DeWerd, L A; Micka, J A; Bohm, T D

    2005-03-01

    For some air-communicating well-type chambers used for low-energy brachytherapy source assay, deviations from expected values of measured air kerma strength were observed at low pressures associated with high altitudes. This effect is consistent with an overcompensation by the air density correction to standard atmospheric temperature and pressure (P(TP)). This work demonstrates that the P(TP) correction does not fully compensate for the high altitude pressure effects that are seen with air-communicating chambers at low photon energies in the range of 20-100 keV. Deviations of up to 18% at a pressure corresponding to an approximate elevation of 8500 ft for photon energies of 20 keV are possible. For high-energy photons and for high-energy beta emitters in air-communicating chambers the P(TP) factor is applicable. As expected, the ambient pressure does not significantly affect the response of pressurized well chambers (within 1%) to either low- or high-energy photons. However, when used with beta emitters, pressurized chambers appear to exhibit a slight dependence on the ambient pressure. Using measured data, the response and correction factors were determined for three models of air-communicating well chambers for low-energy photon sources at various pressures corresponding to elevations above sea level. Monte Carlo calculations were also performed which were correlated with the experimental findings. A more complete study of the Monte Carlo calculations is presented in the accompanying paper, "The effect of ambient pressure on well chamber response: Monte Carlo calculated results for the HDR1000 Plus." PMID:15839341

  18. Experimental verification of Theodorsen's theoretical jet-boundary correction factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schliestett, George Van

    1934-01-01

    Prandtl's suggested use of a doubly infinite arrangement of airfoil images in the theoretical determination of wind-tunnel jet-boundary corrections was first adapted by Glauert to the case of closed rectangular jets. More recently, Theodorsen, using the same image arrangement but a different analytical treatment, has extended this work to include not only closed but also partly closed and open tunnels. This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests conducted at the Georgia School of Technology for the purpose of verifying the five cases analyzed by Theodorsen. The tests were conducted in a square tunnel and the results constitute a satisfactory verification of his general method of analysis. During the preparation of the data two minor errors were discovered in the theory and these have been rectified.

  19. Automatic correction scheme for the temperature dependent overlap function of CHM15k ceilometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefele, Alexander; Poltera, Yann; Hervo, Maxime

    2016-04-01

    Imperfections in a lidar's overlap function lead to artefacts in the background, range and overlap corrected lidar signals. These artefacts can erroneously be interpreted as aerosol gradient or, in extreme cases, as cloud base leading to false cloud detection. A correct specification of the overlap function is hence crucial to use automatic elastic lidars (ceilometers) for the detection of the planetary boundary layer or low clouds. In this study an algorithm is presented to correct such artefacts. It is based on the assumption of a homogeneous boundary layer and a correct specification of the overlap function down to a minimum range, which must be situated within the boundary layer. The strength of the algorithm lies in a sophisticated quality check scheme which allows to reliably identify favorable atmospheric conditions. The algorithm has been applied to 2 years of data from a CHM15k ceilometer from Lufft. Backscatter signals corrected for background, range and overlap have been compared using the overlap function provided by the manufacturer and the one corrected with the presented algorithm. Differences between corrected and uncorrected signals reach up to 45% in the first 300m above ground. The amplitude of the correction turned out to be temperature dependent being larger for higher temperatures. A linear model of the correction as a function of the instrument's internal temperature has been derived from the experimental data. Case studies and a statistical analysis of the strongest gradient derived from corrected signals reveal that the temperature model is capable to correct overlap artefacts with high quality, in particular such due to diurnal variations. The presented correction method has the potential to significantly improve the detection of the boundary layer with gradient based methods because it removes false candidates and hence simplifies the attribution of the detected gradients to the planetary boundary layer. A particularly high benefit can be

  20. LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL EMISSION CORRECTION FACTORS FOR AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since emission measurements from passenger cars are performed at one standard set of ambient conditions and since emission rates of HC, CO, and NOx are sensitive to temperature and humidity, it is necessary to determine the influence of ambient conditions on emissions from major ...

  1. 49 CFR 325.73 - Microphone distance correction factors. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... factors. 1 1 Table 1, in § 325.7 is a tabulation of the maximum allowable sound level readings taking into... target point is other than 50 feet (15.2 m), the maximum observed sound level reading generated by the... observed sound level readings generated by the motor vehicle in accordance with § 325.59 of this part...

  2. 49 CFR 325.73 - Microphone distance correction factors. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... factors. 1 1 Table 1, in § 325.7 is a tabulation of the maximum allowable sound level readings taking into... target point is other than 50 feet (15.2 m), the maximum observed sound level reading generated by the... observed sound level readings generated by the motor vehicle in accordance with § 325.59 of this part...

  3. Factors Influencing the Design, Establishment, Administration, and Governance of Correctional Education for Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Johnica; McFadden, Cheryl; Colaric, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a study conducted to investigate factors influencing the organizational design, establishment, administration, and governance of correctional education for females. The research involved interviews with correctional and community college administrators and practitioners representing North Carolina female…

  4. [Occupational risk factors and medical prevention in corrections officers].

    PubMed

    Mennoial, Nunzio Valerio; Napoli, Paola; Battaglia, Andrea; Candura, Stefano M

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, the Law n. 395/1990 defines the tasks and attributions of prison officers. According to the article 25 of the Legislative Decree n. 81/2008, the occupational physician should participate to risk assessment, and carry out the sanitary surveillance. This report analyzes the various tasks of prison staff, identifies the risk factors, and discusses the preventive strategies, including workers formation and education. Biological agents and work-related stress are the main risk factors, as a consequence of prison overcrowding, personnel shortage and work organization complexity. In his preventive action, and particularly in formulating the judgment on work fitness, the occupational physician often clashes with inadequate ministerial funding. PMID:25558744

  5. Three-Dimensional Thermal Boundary Layer Corrections for Circular Heat Flux Gauges Mounted in a Flat Plate with a Surface Temperature Discontinuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, M.; Haddad, G. F.; Chen, R.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed in an effort to determine thermal boundary layer correction factors for circular convective heat flux gauges (such as Schmidt-Boelter and plug type)mounted flush in a flat plate subjected to a stepwise surface temperature discontinuity. Turbulent flow solutions with temperature-dependent properties are obtained for a free stream Reynolds number of 1E6, and freestream Mach numbers of 2 and 4. The effect of gauge diameter and the plate surface temperature have been investigated. The 3-D CFD results for the heat flux correction factors are compared to quasi-21) results deduced from constant property integral solutions and also 2-D CFD analysis with both constant and variable properties. The role of three-dimensionality and of property variations on the heat flux correction factors has been demonstrated.

  6. Intercomparison Of Bias-Correction Methods For Monthly Temperature And Precipitation Simulated By Multiple Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Kanae, S.; Seto, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Oki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Bias-correction methods applied to monthly temperature and precipitation data simulated by multiple General Circulation Models (GCMs) are evaluated in this study. Although various methods have been proposed recently, an intercomparison among them using multiple GCM simulations has seldom been reported. Here, five previous methods as well as a proposed new method are compared. Before the comparison, we classified previous methods. The methods proposed in previous studies can be classified into four types based on the following two criteria: 1) Whether the statistics (e.g. mean, standard deviation, or the coefficient of variation) of future simulation is used in bias-correction; and 2) whether the estimation of cumulative probability is included in bias-correction. The methods which require future statistics will depend on the data in the projection period, while those which do not use future statistics are not. The classification proposed can characterize each bias-correction method. These methods are applied to temperature and precipitation simulated from 12 GCMs in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) archives. Parameters of each method are calibrated by using 1948-1972 observed data and validated for the 1974-1998 period. These methods are then applied to GCM future simulations (2073-2097), and the bias-corrected data are intercompared. For the historical simulation, negligible difference can be found between observed and bias-corrected data. However, the difference in the future simulation is large dependent on the characteristics of each method. The frequency (probability) that the 2073-2097 bias-corrected data exceed the 95th percentile of the 1948-1972 observed data is estimated in order to evaluate the differences among methods. The difference between proposed and one of the previous method is more than 10% in many areas. The differences of bias-corrected data among methods are discussed based on their respective characteristics. The results

  7. Area detector corrections for high quality synchrotron X-ray structure factor measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner L. B.; Parise J.; Benmore, C.

    2011-10-01

    Correction procedures for obtaining accurate X-ray structure factors from large area detectors are considered, including subpanel effects, over excited pixels and careful intensity corrections. Problems associated with data normalization, the use of a pixel response correction from a glass standard and minimization of systematic errors are also discussed. Data from glassy GeSe{sub 2} and liquid water measured with a Perkin Elmer amorphous-Silicon detector are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of these correction procedures. This requires reduction of systematic errors in the measured intensity to around the 0.1% level.

  8. Global analysis of proton elastic form factor data with two-photon exchange corrections

    SciTech Connect

    J. Arrington; W. Melnitchouk; J. A. Tjon

    2007-09-01

    We use the world's data on elastic electron-proton scattering and calculations of two-photon exchange effects to extract corrected values of the proton's electric and magnetic form factors over the full Q^2 range of the existing data. Our analysis combines the corrected Rosenbluth cross section and polarization transfer data, and is the first extraction of G_Ep and G_Mp including explicit two-photon exchange corrections and their associated uncertainties. In addition, we examine the angular dependence of the corrected cross sections, and discuss the possible nonlinearities of the cross section as a function of epsilon.

  9. Reproduction of surface air temperature over South Korea using dynamical downscaling and statistical correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.; Lee, J.; Shim, K.; Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In spite of dense meteorological observation conducting over South Korea (The average distance between stations: ~ 12.7km), the detailed topographical effect is not reflected properly due to its mountainous terrains and observation sites mostly situated on low altitudes. A model represents such a topographical effect well, but due to systematic biases in the model, the general temperature distribution is sometimes far different from actual observation. This study attempts to produce a detailed mean temperature distribution for South Korea through a method combining dynamical downscaling and statistical correction. For the dynamical downscaling, a multi-nesting technique is applied to obtain 3-km resolution data with a focus on the domain for the period of 10 years (1999-2008). For the correction of systematic biases, a perturbation method divided into the mean and the perturbation part was used with a different correction method being applied to each part. The mean was corrected by a weighting function while the perturbation was corrected by the self-organizing maps method. The results with correction agree well with the observed pattern compared to those without correction, improving the spatial and temporal correlations as well as the RMSE. In addition, they represented detailed spatial features of temperature including topographic signals, which cannot be expressed properly by gridded observation. Through comparison with in-situ observation with gridded values after objective analysis, it was found that the detailed structure correctly reflected topographically diverse signals that could not be derived from limited observation data. We expect that the correction method developed in this study can be effectively used for the analyses and projections of climate downscaled by using region climate models. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant CATER 2012-3083 and

  10. Intercomparison of bias-correction methods for monthly temperature and precipitation simulated by multiple climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Kanae, Shinjiro; Seto, Shinta; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Oki, Taikan

    2012-12-01

    Bias-correction methods applied to monthly temperature and precipitation data simulated by multiple General Circulation Models (GCMs) are evaluated in this study. Although various methods have been proposed recently, an intercomparison among them using multiple GCM simulations has seldom been reported. Moreover, no previous methods have addressed the issue how to adequately deal with the changes of the statistics of bias-corrected variables from the historical to future simulations. In this study, a new method which conserves the changes of mean and standard deviation of the uncorrected model simulation data is proposed, and then five previous bias-correction methods as well as the proposed new method are intercompared by applying them to monthly temperature and precipitation data simulated from 12 GCMs in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) archives. Parameters of each method are calibrated by using 1948-1972 observed data and validated in the 1974-1998 period. These methods are then applied to the GCM future simulations (2073-2097) and the bias-corrected data are intercompared. For the historical simulations, negligible difference can be found between observed and bias-corrected data. However, the differences in future simulations are large dependent on the characteristics of each method. The new method successfully conserves the changes in the mean, standard deviation and the coefficient of variation before and after bias-correction. The differences of bias-corrected data among methods are discussed according to their respective characteristics. Importantly, this study classifies available correction methods into two distinct categories, and articulates important features for each of them.

  11. An improved method for correction of air temperature measured using different radiation shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xinghong; Su, Debin; Li, Deping; Chen, Lu; Xu, Wenjing; Yang, Meilin; Li, Yongcheng; Yue, Zhizhong; Wang, Zijing

    2014-11-01

    The variation of air temperature measurement errors using two different radiation shields (DTR502B Vaisala, Finland, and HYTFZ01, Huayun Tongda Satcom, China) was studied. Datasets were collected in the field at the Daxing weather station in Beijing from June 2011 to May 2012. Most air temperature values obtained with these two commonly used radiation shields were lower than the reference records obtained with the new Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) Stevenson screen. In most cases, the air temperature errors when using the two devices were smaller on overcast and rainy days than on sunny days; and smaller when using the imported rather than the Chinese shield. The measured errors changed sharply at sunrise and sunset, and reached maxima at noon. Their diurnal variation characteristics were, naturally, related to changes in solar radiation. The relationships between the record errors, global radiation, and wind speed were nonlinear. An improved correction method was proposed based on the approach described by Nakamura and Mahrt (2005) (NM05), in which the impact of the solar zenith angle (SZA) on the temperature error is considered and extreme errors due to changes in SZA can be corrected effectively. Measurement errors were reduced significantly after correction by either method for both shields. The error reduction rate using the improved correction method for the Chinese and imported shields were 3.3% and 40.4% higher than those using the NM05 method, respectively.

  12. OBSERVATIONS OF SIMILARITY THEORY STABILITY CORRECTION TERMS FOR MOMENTUM AND TEMPERATURE, OVER AGRICULTURAL FIELDS AND FORESTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many observations of temperature and wind speed profiles have been taken over "ideal" terrain and analyzed to develop the stability correction terms which are commonly used in the application of similarity theory. Fewer observations have been taken and analyzed in this manner ov...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  18. Implementation of Coupled Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Global Atmospheric Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radakovich, Jon; Bosilovich, M.; Chern, Jiun-dar; daSilva, Arlindo

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/NCAR Finite Volume GCM (fvGCM) with the NCAR CLM (Community Land Model) version 2.0 was integrated into the NASA/GMAO Finite Volume Data Assimilation System (fvDAS). A new method was developed for coupled skin temperature assimilation and bias correction where the analysis increment and bias correction term is passed into the CLM2 and considered a forcing term in the solution to the energy balance. For our purposes, the fvDAS CLM2 was run at 1 deg. x 1.25 deg. horizontal resolution with 55 vertical levels. We assimilate the ISCCP-DX (30 km resolution) surface temperature product. The atmospheric analysis was performed 6-hourly, while the skin temperature analysis was performed 3-hourly. The bias correction term, which was updated at the analysis times, was added to the skin temperature tendency equation at every timestep. In this presentation, we focus on the validation of the surface energy budget at the in situ reference sites for the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Period (CEOP). We will concentrate on sites that include independent skin temperature measurements and complete energy budget observations for the month of July 2001. In addition, MODIS skin temperature will be used for validation. Several assimilations were conducted and preliminary results will be presented.

  19. Methyl bromide emissions from a covered field: III. Correcting chamber flux for temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, S.R.; Gan, J.; Ernst, F.F.; Wang, D.

    1996-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the environmental fate and transport of methyl bromide (MeBr) in agricultural systems. Part of this experiment involved the use of three flow-through chambers to estimate the MeBr flux through a sheet of clear polyethylene plastic covering the field. Using the chamber data, the total mass lost to the atmosphere was estimated to be 96% of the applied mass, and the results were highly variable between chambers (i.e., standard deviation of 298 kg or 35%). The air temperature inside the chamber was found to be much higher than the air temperature outside and was highly correlated with the diurnal variation in incoming solar radiation. Since the diffusion through polyethylene film was found to be strongly dependent on the temperature, a method was developed to correct the chamber flux density data for enhanced diffusion caused by increases in the temperature inside the chamber. After correcting for temperature, the estimated total MeBr emission was reduced to approximately 59% (21% standard deviation) of the applied amount, which is about 5% less than was measured using other methods. When chambers are used to measure volatilization of MeBr or other fumigants from fields covered with a sheet of polyethylene plastic, the chambers should be designed to minimize internal heating or some method should be used to correct the volatilization rate for the effects of temperature. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Coupled Land-Atmosphere Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Todling, Ricardo; Verter, Frances

    2006-01-01

    In an initial investigation, remotely sensed surface temperature is assimilated into a coupled atmosphere/land global data assimilation system, with explicit accounting for biases in the model state. In this scheme, an incremental bias correction term is introduced in the model's surface energy budget. In its simplest form, the algorithm estimates and corrects a constant time mean bias for each gridpoint; additional benefits are attained with a refined version of the algorithm which allows for a correction of the mean diurnal cycle. The method is validated against the assimilated observations, as well as independent near-surface air temperature observations. In many regions, not accounting for the diurnal cycle of bias caused degradation of the diurnal amplitude of background model air temperature. Energy fluxes collected through the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) are used to more closely inspect the surface energy budget. In general, sensible heat flux is improved with the surface temperature assimilation, and two stations show a reduction of bias by as much as 30 Wm(sup -2) Rondonia station in Amazonia, the Bowen ratio changes direction in an improvement related to the temperature assimilation. However, at many stations the monthly latent heat flux bias is slightly increased. These results show the impact of univariate assimilation of surface temperature observations on the surface energy budget, and suggest the need for multivariate land data assimilation. The results also show the need for independent validation data, especially flux stations in varied climate regimes.

  1. Joint bias correction of temperature and precipitation in climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Michalak, A. M.; Sinha, E.; Horton, D. E.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2014-12-01

    Bias correction of meteorological variables from climate model simulations is a routine strategy for circumventing known limitations of state-of-the-art general circulation models. Although the assessment of climate change impacts often depends on the joint variability of multiple variables, commonly used bias correction methodologies treat each variable independently, and do not consider the relationship among variables. Independent bias correction can therefore produce non-physical corrections and may fail to capture important multivariate relationships. Here, we introduce a joint bias correction methodology (JBC) and apply it to precipitation (P) and temperature (T) fields from the CMIP5 model ensemble. This approach is based on a general bivariate distribution of P-T, and can be seen as a multivariate extension of the commonly used univariate quantile mapping method. It proceeds by correcting either P or T first and then correcting the other variable conditional upon the first one, both following the concept of the univariate quantile mapping. JBC is shown to reduce model-simulated biases in P-T correlation fields, as well as biases in the mean and variance of P and T. In addition, it overcomes a noted problem with an existing joint P-T correction method, namely that this earlier approach did not yield appreciable improvements in P-T correlation coefficients. JBC, using methods such as the one presented here, thus represents an important step in impacts-based research as it explicitly accounts for inter-variable relationships as part of the bias correction procedure, thereby improving not only the individual distributions of P and T, but critically, their joint distribution.

  2. An ultrasonic air temperature measurement system with self-correction function for humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Hsin-Chieh; Liao, Teh-Lu

    2005-02-01

    This paper proposes an ultrasonic measurement system for air temperature with high accuracy and instant response. It can measure the average temperature of the environmental air by detecting the changes of the speed of the ultrasound in the air. The changes of speed of sound are computed from combining variations of time-of-flight (TOF) from a binary frequency shift-keyed (BFSK) ultrasonic signal and phase shift from continuous waves [11]. In addition, another proposed technique for the ultrasonic air temperature measurement is the self-correction functionality within a highly humid environment. It utilizes a relative humidity/water vapour sensor and applies the theory of how sound speed changes in a humid environment. The proposed new ultrasonic air temperature measurement has the capability of self-correction for the environment variable of humidity. Especially under the operational environment with high fluctuations of various humidity levels, the proposed system can accurately self-correct the errors on the conventional ultrasonic thermometer caused by the changing density of the vapours in the air. Including the high humidity effect, a proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates that in dry air (relative humidity, RH = 10%) without humidity correction, it is accurate to ±0.4 °C from 0 °C to 80 °C, while in highly humid air (relative humidity, RH = 90%) with self-correction functionality, it is accurate to ±0.3 °C from 0 °C to 80 °C with 0.05% resolution and temperature changes are instantly reflected within 100 ms.

  3. The perturbation correction factor of ionisation chambers in beta-radiation fields.

    PubMed

    Böhm, J

    1980-01-01

    In determining the absorbed dose in a solid medium by means of gas-filled ionisation chambers, the perturbation of the radiation field by the chamber needs to be taken into account. So far, an appropriate correction factor has neither been calculated nor measured for beta-radiation. This work describes its experimental determination for an extrapolation chamber and beta-radiation fields of 147Pm, 204Tl, and 90Sr + 90Y. The results show that the correction factor may be assumed to be the product of a shield factor and a scatter factor the magnitudes of which depend on the chamber geometry and the radiation field. The change of the perturbation correction factor with phantom depth is important for the measurement of depth dose curves. This is demonstrated by an example. PMID:7360793

  4. BCS instability and finite temperature corrections to tachyon mass in intersecting D1-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Sudipto Paul; Sarkar, Swarnendu; Sathiapalan, B.

    2014-09-01

    A holographic description of BCS superconductivity is given in [1]. This model was constructed by insertion of a pair of D8-branes on a D4-background. The spectrum of intersecting D8-branes has tachyonic modes indicating an instability which is identified with the BCS instability in superconductors. Our aim is to study the stability of the intersecting branes under finite temperature effects. Many of the technical aspects of this problem are captured by a simpler problem of two intersecting D1-branes on flat background. In the simplified set-up we compute the one-loop finite temperature corrections to the tree-level tachyon mass-squared-squared using the frame-work of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in (1 + 1)-dimensions. We show that the one-loop two-point functions are ultraviolet finite due to cancellation of ultraviolet divergence between the amplitudes containing bosons and fermions in the loop. The amplitudes are found to be infrared divergent due to the presence of massless fields in the loops. We compute the finite temperature mass-squared correction to all the massless fields and use these temperature dependent masses-squared to compute the tachyonic mass-squared correction. We show numerically the existence of a transition temperature at which the effective mass-squared of the tree-level tachyons becomes zero, thereby stabilizing the brane configuration.

  5. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 3, 2009, PHMSA published a final rule in the Federal Register (74 FR... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... Regulations to address human factors and other aspects of control room management for pipelines...

  6. Bias correction of temperature produced by the Community Climate System Model using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghim, S.; Hsu, K.; Bras, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    General Circulation Models (GCMs) are used to predict circulation and energy transfers between the atmosphere and the land. It is known that these models produce biased results that will have impact on their uses. This work proposes a new method for bias correction: the equidistant cumulative distribution function-artificial neural network (EDCDFANN) procedure. The method uses artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a surrogate model to estimate bias-corrected temperature, given an identification of the system derived from GCM models output variables. A two-layer feed forward neural network is trained with observations during a historical period and then the adjusted network can be used to predict bias-corrected temperature for future periods. To capture the extreme values this method is combined with the equidistant CDF matching method (EDCDF, Li et al. 2010). The proposed method is tested with the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) outputs using air and skin temperature, specific humidity, shortwave and longwave radiation as inputs to the ANN. This method decreases the mean square error and increases the spatial correlation between the modeled temperature and the observed one. The results indicate the EDCDFANN has potential to remove the biases of the model outputs.

  7. Evaluating sedimentary basins for geothermal power production potential and bottom-hole temperature corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowell, Anna M.

    At present, the risks and costs associated with geothermal energy wildcat exploration are prohibitive. With improved technology, the future may be brighter, and a play fairway analysis, for geothermal exploration can guide development. Comparing geophysical data with geothermal gradient allows identification of potentially economic areas of interest. The play fairway analysis is a common tool used by the petroleum industry to identify areas for potential exploration. The analysis identifies areas in the Denver, Illinois, Michigan, and Williston Basins with the highest development potential. A great deal of data have potential for a play fairway analysis, but data quality is problematic due to systematic errors in bottom-hole temperatures (BHTs). Corrections to bottom-hole temperatures are necessary due to the perturbation of temperature caused by the drilling mud, and can range from 5 to 30 °C. Correction schemes for bottom-hole temperatures can be applied to both the energy-in-place estimates and play fairway analyses. The Harrison equation is the most accurate for basins less than 4.5 km deep. The Kehle correction is the most accurate for basins deeper than 4.5 km. Chapter II explains why BHTs grouped by depth are more statistically robust than those grouped by geochronological unit. Chapter III demonstrates why the Harrison Equation is the best correction method to use for BHTs. Chapters IV and V give the volumetric energy-in-place for the Denver, Illinois, and Michigan Basins for discrete temperature ranges, and Chapter 6 provides the final Play Fairway Favorability maps.

  8. Correction of Proton Resonance Frequency Shift Temperature Maps for Magnetic Field Disturbances Caused by Breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmatukha, Andriy V.; Bakker, Chris J. G.

    2006-05-01

    Respiratory Induced Resonance Offset (RIRO) is a periodic disturbance of the magnetic field due to breathing. Such disturbances handicap the accuracy of the Proton Resonance Frequency Shift (PRFS) method of MRI temperature mapping in anatomies situated nearby the lungs and chest wall. In this work, we propose a method capable of minimizing errors caused by RIRO in PRFS temperature maps. In this method, a set of baseline images characterizing RIRO at a variety of respiratory cycle instants is acquired before the thermal treatment starts. During the treatment, the temperature evolution is found from two successive images. Then, the calculated temperature changes are corrected for the additional contribution caused by RIRO using the pre-treatment baseline images acquired at the identical instances of the respiratory cycle. Our method is shown to improve the accuracy and stability of PRFS temperature maps in the presence of RIRO and motion in phantom and volunteer experiments.

  9. Evaluating atmospheric correction models for retrieving surface temperatures from the AVHRR over a tallgrass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. I.; Asrar, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of atmospheric attenuation on surface radiative temperatures obtained by the AVHRR over a tallgrass prairie area in the Flint Hills of Kansas are examined. Six atmospheric correction models developed primarily for sea-surface temperature studies are used to test their utility for retrieval of radiative temperatures over the land surface. An uncertainty of + or - 3.0 C was found for the AVHRR data, and used to evaluate the performance of a given model. When the difference between in situ and AVHRR surface temperatures was smaller than the uncertainty, the model was judged to be adequate. Among the six models evaluated, only the NOAA split-window model consistently adjusted the AVHRR surface temperatures within + or - 3.0 C of the in situ measurements.

  10. Correction of sound velocity depending on the temperature for unconsolidated marine sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Choul

    2016-04-01

    laboratory sound velocity measurements with systematic temperature change on unconsolidated marine sediment have been performed to establish the precise correction curves between temperature and the sound velocity. Piston and box core samples recovered from the East Sea and the South Sea of Korea were used for the measurement. The core samples were cooled (at temperature of nearly 0℃) and the temperature was gradually increased (from 0℃ to 30℃) to measure sound velocity depending on the changes in temperature. The sediment texture and physical properties (porosity, water content, and bulk density) were measured separately at the same depth. The rate of velocity increase for muddy, silty, and sandy sediment are about 2.63 m/s/℃, 2.74 m/s/℃, and 2.96 m/s/℃, respectively. This is similar to the velocity change rate, 2.97 m/s/℃ presented by Del Grosso (1952). The samples used in this research, however, have relatively higher porosity than those of Del Grosso (1952). Thus, the possibility of discrepancy is differences in water content which affect the sound velocity and measurement system. We used recently developed digital velocity measurement system using PXI based on LabVIEW. We suggest to employ this correction for the accurate in situ geoacoustic property from laboratory data particularly for the deep cold water sample such as the East Sea sediment that has very low bottom water temperature about 0℃. Keywords : in situ geoacoustic property, temperature correction, East Sea Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Agency for Defense Development (UD14003DD) and by "Marine geological and geophysical mapping of the Korean seas" of the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM).

  11. A New High-precision Correction Method of Temperature Distribution in Model Stellar Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapar, A.; Poolamäe, R.; Sapar, L.

    The main features of the temperature correction methods, suggested and used in modeling of plane-parallel stellar atmospheres, are discussed. The main features of the new method are described. Derivation of the formulae for a version of the Unsöld-Lucy method, used by us in the SMART (Stellar Model Atmospheres and Radiative Transport) software for modeling stellar atmospheres, is presented. The method is based on a correction of the model temperature distribution based on minimizing differences of flux from its accepted constant value and on the requirement of the lack of its gradient, meaning that local source and sink terms of radiation must be equal. The final relative flux constancy obtainable by the method with the SMART code turned out to have the precision of the order of 0.5 %. Some of the rapidly converging iteration steps can be useful before starting the high-precision model correction. The corrections of both the flux value and of its gradient, like in Unsöld-Lucy method, are unavoidably needed to obtain high-precision flux constancy. A new temperature correction method to obtain high-precision flux constancy for plane-parallel LTE model stellar atmospheres is proposed and studied. The non-linear optimization is carried out by the least squares, in which the Levenberg-Marquardt correction method and thereafter additional correction by the Broyden iteration loop were applied. Small finite differences of temperature (δ T/T=10-3) are used in the computations. A single Jacobian step appears to be mostly sufficient to get flux constancy of the order 10-2 %. The dual numbers and their generalization -- the dual complex numbers (the duplex numbers) -- enable automatically to get the derivatives in the nilpotent part of the dual numbers. A version of the SMART software is in the stage of refactorization to dual and duplex numbers, what enables to get rid of the finite differences, as an additional source of lowering precision of the computed results.

  12. Temperature effects and corrections in volume measurements based on liquid-level detection

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, S.; Keisch, B.

    1993-08-01

    Temperature changes affect volume measurements in several ways. The dimensions of the tank, and the density and level of the liquid it contains vary with temperature. In addition, the response signal of the sensor and hence the response of the liquid-level detection device may change with temperature. Level measurement devices can be grouped according to four measurement points of reference: tip of probe, response proportional to the length of probe, top of tank, and liquid surface. This paper describes the physical principles of pressure, capacitance probe, sonic reflections, and visual scales. These are representative of the four types of liquid level detection techniques. Development of the temperature correction algorithm requires that the measurement process be clearly defined, conditions or limitations specified, and that a temperature-effects test be run. Although not difficult or necessarily time-consuming to run, good practice requires a test plan following demonstrated guidelines. Measurement control procedures for remeasurement of the process solution in the tank during normal operation can provide data to validate temperature correction algorithms.

  13. A Useful Tool for Atmospheric Correction and Surface Temperature Estimation of Landsat Infrared Thermal Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivalland, Vincent; Tardy, Benjamin; Huc, Mireille; Hagolle, Olivier; Marcq, Sébastien; Boulet, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Land Surface temperature (LST) is a critical variable for studying the energy and water budgets at the Earth surface, and is a key component of many aspects of climate research and services. The Landsat program jointly carried out by NASA and USGS has been providing thermal infrared data for 40 years, but no associated LST product has been yet routinely proposed to community. To derive LST values, radiances measured at sensor-level need to be corrected for the atmospheric absorption, the atmospheric emission and the surface emissivity effect. Until now, existing LST products have been generated with multi channel methods such as the Temperature/Emissivity Separation (TES) adapted to ASTER data or the generalized split-window algorithm adapted to MODIS multispectral data. Those approaches are ill-adapted to the Landsat mono-window data specificity. The atmospheric correction methodology usually used for Landsat data requires detailed information about the state of the atmosphere. This information may be obtained from radio-sounding or model atmospheric reanalysis and is supplied to a radiative transfer model in order to estimate atmospheric parameters for a given coordinate. In this work, we present a new automatic tool dedicated to Landsat thermal data correction which improves the common atmospheric correction methodology by introducing the spatial dimension in the process. The python tool developed during this study, named LANDARTs for LANDsat Automatic Retrieval of surface Temperature, is fully automatic and provides atmospheric corrections for a whole Landsat tile. Vertical atmospheric conditions are downloaded from the ERA Interim dataset from ECMWF meteorological organization which provides them at 0.125 degrees resolution, at a global scale and with a 6-hour-time step. The atmospheric correction parameters are estimated on the atmospheric grid using the commercial software MODTRAN, then interpolated to 30m resolution. We detail the processing steps

  14. Statistical bias correction of global simulated daily precipitation and temperature for the application of hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piani, C.; Weedon, G. P.; Best, M.; Gomes, S. M.; Viterbo, P.; Hagemann, S.; Haerter, J. O.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryA statistical bias correction methodology for global climate simulations is developed and applied to daily land precipitation and mean, minimum and maximum daily land temperatures. The bias correction is based on a fitted histogram equalization function. This function is defined daily, as opposed to earlier published versions in which they were derived yearly or seasonally at best, while conserving properties of robustness and eliminating unrealistic jumps at seasonal or monthly transitions. The methodology is tested using the newly available global dataset of observed hydrological forcing data of the last 50 years from the EU project WATCH (WATer and global CHange) and an initial conditions ensemble of simulations performed with the ECHAM5 global climate model for the same period. Bias corrections are derived from 1960 to 1969 observed and simulated data and then applied to 1990-1999 simulations. Results confirm the effectiveness of the methodology for all tested variables. Bias corrections are also derived using three other non-overlapping decades from 1970 to 1999 and all members of the ECHAM5 initial conditions ensemble. A methodology is proposed to use the resulting "ensemble of bias corrections" to quantify the error in simulated scenario projections of components of the hydrological cycle.

  15. Communication: The Effect of Dispersion Corrections on the Melting Temperature of Liquid Water

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2011-03-28

    We report the results of the melting temperature (Tm) of liquid water for the Becke-Lee- Yang-Parr (BLYP) density functional including Dispersion corrections (BLYP-D) and the TTM3-F ab-initio based classical potential via constant pressure and constant enthalpy (NPH) ensemble molecular dynamics simulations of an ice Ih-liquid coexisting system. The inclusion of dispersion corrections to BLYP lowers the melting temperature of liquid water to Tm=360 K, which is a large improvement over the value of Tm > 400 K obtained with the original BLYP functional. The ab-initio based flexible, polarizable Thole-type model (TTM3-F) produces Tm=248 K from classical molecular dynamics simulations.

  16. Characterization and Correction of Aquarius Long Term Calibration Drift Using On-Earth Brightness Temperature Refernces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Shannon; Misra, Sidharth

    2013-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D mission was launched on June 10, 2011 from Vandenberg Air Force Base. Aquarius consists of an L-band radiometer and scatterometer intended to provide global maps of sea surface salinity. One of the main mission objectives is to provide monthly global salinity maps for climate studies of ocean circulation, surface evaporation and precipitation, air/sea interactions and other processes. Therefore, it is critical that any spatial or temporal systematic biases be characterized and corrected. One of the main mission requirements is to measure salinity with an accuracy of 0.2 psu on montly time scales which requires a brightness temperature stability of about 0.1K, which is a challenging requirement for the radiometer. A secondary use of the Aquarius data is for soil moisture applications, which requires brightness temperature stability at the warmer end of the brightness temperature dynamic range. Soon after launch, time variable drifts were observed in the Aquarius data compared to in-situ data from ARGO and models for the ocean surface salinity. These drifts could arise from a number of sources, including the various components of the retrieval algorithm, such as the correction for direct and reflected galactic emission, or from the instrument brightness temperature calibration. If arising from the brightness temperature calibration, they could have gain and offset components. It is critical that the nature of the drifts be understood before a suitable correction can be implemented. This paper describes the approach that was used to detect and characterize the components of the drift that were in the brightness temperature calibration using on-Earth reference targets that were independent of the ocean model.

  17. Empirical effective temperatures and bolometric corrections for early-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Code, A. D.; Bless, R. C.; Davis, J.; Brown, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    An empirical effective temperature for a star can be found by measuring its apparent angular diameter and absolute flux distribution. The angular diameters of 32 bright stars in the spectral range O5f to F8 have recently been measured with the stellar interferometer at Narrabri Observatory, and their absolute flux distributions have been found by combining observations of ultraviolet flux from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-2) with ground-based photometry. In this paper, these data have been combined to derive empirical effective temperatures and bolometric corrections for these 32 stars.

  18. Short-Wave Near-Infrared Spectrometer for Alcohol Determination and Temperature Correction

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qingbo; Wang, Jinming; Lin, Guannan; Suo, Hui; Zhao, Chun

    2012-01-01

    A multichannel short-wave near-infrared (SW-NIR) spectrometer module based on charge-coupled device (CCD) detection was designed. The design relied on a tungsten lamp enhanced by light emitting diodes, a fixed grating monochromator and a linear CCD array. The main advantages were high optical resolution and an optimized signal-to-noise ratio (0.24 nm and 500, resp.) in the whole wavelength range of 650 to 1100 nm. An application to alcohol determination using partial least squares calibration and the temperature correction was presented. It was found that the direct transfer method had significant systematic prediction errors due to temperature effect. Generalized least squares weighting (GLSW) method was utilized for temperature correction. After recalibration, the RMSEP found for the 25°C model was 0.53% v/v and errors of the same order of magnitude were obtained at other temperatures (15, 35 and 40°C). And an r2 better than 0.99 was achieved for each validation set. The possibility and accuracy of using the miniature SW-NIR spectrometer and GLSW transfer calibration method for alcohol determination at different temperatures were proven. And the analysis procedure was simple and fast, allowing a strict control of alcohol content in the wine industry. PMID:22649750

  19. Short-wave near-infrared spectrometer for alcohol determination and temperature correction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qingbo; Wang, Jinming; Lin, Guannan; Suo, Hui; Zhao, Chun

    2012-01-01

    A multichannel short-wave near-infrared (SW-NIR) spectrometer module based on charge-coupled device (CCD) detection was designed. The design relied on a tungsten lamp enhanced by light emitting diodes, a fixed grating monochromator and a linear CCD array. The main advantages were high optical resolution and an optimized signal-to-noise ratio (0.24 nm and 500, resp.) in the whole wavelength range of 650 to 1100 nm. An application to alcohol determination using partial least squares calibration and the temperature correction was presented. It was found that the direct transfer method had significant systematic prediction errors due to temperature effect. Generalized least squares weighting (GLSW) method was utilized for temperature correction. After recalibration, the RMSEP found for the 25°C model was 0.53% v/v and errors of the same order of magnitude were obtained at other temperatures (15, 35 and 40°C). And an r(2) better than 0.99 was achieved for each validation set. The possibility and accuracy of using the miniature SW-NIR spectrometer and GLSW transfer calibration method for alcohol determination at different temperatures were proven. And the analysis procedure was simple and fast, allowing a strict control of alcohol content in the wine industry. PMID:22649750

  20. Equivalence of computer codes for calculation of coincidence summing correction factors - Part II.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, T; Camp, A; Hurtado, S; Jäderström, H; Kastlander, J; Lépy, M-C; Lutter, G; Ramebäck, H; Sima, O; Vargas, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to check for equivalence of computer codes that are capable of performing calculations of true coincidence summing (TCS) correction factors. All calculations were performed for a set of well-defined detector parameters, sample parameters and decay scheme data. The studied geometry was a point source of (133)Ba positioned directly on the detector window of a low-energy (n-type) detector. Good agreement was established between the TCS correction factors computed by the different codes. PMID:26651169

  1. Correction factor for ablation algorithms used in corneal refractive surgery with gaussian-profile beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Jose Ramón; González Anera, Rosario; Jiménez del Barco, Luis; Hita, Enrique; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    We provide a correction factor to be added in ablation algorithms when a Gaussian beam is used in photorefractive laser surgery. This factor, which quantifies the effect of pulse overlapping, depends on beam radius and spot size. We also deduce the expected post-surgical corneal radius and asphericity when considering this factor. Data on 141 eyes operated on LASIK (laser in situ keratomileusis) with a Gaussian profile show that the discrepancy between experimental and expected data on corneal power is significantly lower when using the correction factor. For an effective improvement of post-surgical visual quality, this factor should be applied in ablation algorithms that do not consider the effects of pulse overlapping with a Gaussian beam.

  2. Shear Correction Factors in Creep-Damage Analysis of Beams, Plates and Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenbach, Holm; Naumenko, Konstantin

    Modern design rules for thin-walled structures which operate at elevated temperatures are based on the demand that the creep and may be the damage behaviour should be taken into account. In the last four decades various models including the scalar or tensor valued hardening and damage variables are established. These models reflect the influence of the deformation or the damage induced anisotropy on the creep response. One problem in creep analysis of thin-walled structures is the selection of the structural mechanics model which has to be adequate to the choice of the constitutive equations. Considering complex loading conditions the structural mechanics model has to reflect for instance the different constitutive behaviour in tension and compression. Below the applicability of classical engineering models for beams, plates and shells to the creep-damage analysis is discussed. It will be shown that a first improvement of the classical approach can be given within the assumptions of the first order shear deformation theory. Based on the beam equations we demonstrate that the shear correction factors have to be modified within the time-step analysis.

  3. Error correction of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Brightness Temperature calculated from the AVHRR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammed Zahidur

    This thesis investigates Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Brightness Temperature (BT) stability in the NOAA/NESDIS Global Vegetation Index (GVI) data during 1982-2003. This data was collected from five NOAA series satellites. We have proposed to apply Empirical distribution function (EDF) to improve the stability of the NDVI and BT data derived from the AVHRR sensor on NOAA polar orbiting satellite. The instability of data results from orbit degradation as well as the circuit drifts over the life or a satellite. Degradation of NDVI and BT over time and shifts of NDVI and BT between the satellites was estimated China data set, for it includes a wide variety or different ecosystems represented globally. It was found that data for the years 1988, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995 and 2000 are not stable enough compared to other years because of satellite orbit drift, AVHRR sensor degradation, and also Mt Pinatubo volcanic eruption in 1992. We assume data from NOAA-7(1982, 1983), NOAA-9 (1985, 1986), NOAA-11(1989, 1990), NOAA-14(1996, 1997), and NOAA-16 (2001, 2002) to be standard because theses satellite's equator crossing time falls between 1330 and 1500. Data from this particular period of the day maximized the value of coefficients. The crux of the proposed correction procedure consists of dividing standard year's data sets into two subsets. The subset 1(standard data correction sets) is used for correcting unstable years and then corrected data for this years compared with the standard data in the subset 2 (standard data validation sets). In this dissertation, we apply EDF to correct this deficiency of data for the affected years. We normalize or correct data by the method of empirical distribution functions compared with the standard. Using these normalized values, we estimate new NDVI and BT time series which provides NDVI and BT data for these years that match in subset 2 that is used for data validation.

  4. Calculation of Coincidence Summing Correction Factors for an HPGe detector using GEANT4.

    PubMed

    Giubrone, G; Ortiz, J; Gallardo, S; Martorell, S; Bas, M C

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to calculate the True Coincidence Summing Correction Factors (TSCFs) for an HPGe coaxial detector in order to correct the summing effect as a result of the presence of (88)Y and (60)Co in a multigamma source used to obtain a calibration efficiency curve. Results were obtained for three volumetric sources using the Monte Carlo toolkit, GEANT4. The first part of this paper deals with modeling the detector in order to obtain a simulated full energy peak efficiency curve. A quantitative comparison between the measured and simulated values was made across the entire energy range under study. The True Summing Correction Factors were calculated for (88)Y and (60)Co using the full peak efficiencies obtained with GEANT4. This methodology was subsequently applied to (134)Cs, and presented a complex decay scheme. PMID:27085040

  5. NOTE: Monte Carlo simulation of correction factors for IAEA TLD holders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultqvist, Martha; Fernández-Varea, José M.; Izewska, Joanna

    2010-03-01

    The IAEA standard thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) holder has been developed for the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose program for audits of high-energy photon beams, and it is also employed by the ESTRO-QUALity assurance network (EQUAL) and several national TLD audit networks. Factors correcting for the influence of the holder on the TL signal under reference conditions have been calculated in the present work from Monte Carlo simulations with the PENELOPE code for 60Co γ-rays and 4, 6, 10, 15, 18 and 25 MV photon beams. The simulation results are around 0.2% smaller than measured factors reported in the literature, but well within the combined standard uncertainties. The present study supports the use of the experimentally obtained holder correction factors in the determination of the absorbed dose to water from the TL readings; the factors calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations may be adopted for the cases where there are no measured data.

  6. In-flight calibration of NOAA POES proton detectors—Derivation of the MEPED correction factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandanger, Marit Irene; Ødegaard, Linn-Kristine Glesnes; Nesse Tyssøy, Hilde; Stadsnes, Johan; Søraas, Finn; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Aarsnes, Kjell

    2015-11-01

    The MEPED instruments on board the NOAA POES and MetOp satellites have been continuously measuring energetic particles in the magnetosphere since 1978. However, degradation of the proton detectors over time leads to an increase in the energy thresholds of the instrument and imposes great challenges to studies of long-term variability in the near-Earth space environment as well as a general quantification of the proton fluxes. By comparing monthly mean accumulated integral flux from a new and an old satellite at the same magnetic local time (MLT) and time period, we estimate the change in energy thresholds. The first 12 monthly energy spectra of the new satellite are used as a reference, and the derived monthly correction factors over a year for an old satellite show a small spread, indicating a robust calibration procedure. The method enables us to determine for the first time the correction factors also for the highest-energy channels of the proton detector. In addition, we make use of the newest satellite in orbit (MetOp-01) to find correction factors for 2013 for the NOAA 17 and MetOp-02 satellites. Without taking into account the level of degradation, the proton data from one satellite cannot be used quantitatively for more than 2 to 3 years after launch. As the electron detectors are vulnerable to contamination from energetic protons, the corrected proton measurements will be of value for electron flux measurements too. Thus, the correction factors ensure the correctness of both the proton and electron measurements.

  7. Radiative corrections to the Casimir Pressure under the influence of temperature and external fields

    SciTech Connect

    Robaschik, D.; Scharonhorst, K.; Wieczorek, E.

    1987-03-01

    Generalizing the quantum field theory (QFT) with boundary conditions in covariant gauge to the case of finite temperature, we develop the quantum electrodynamics (QED) with boundary conditions in the Matsubara approach as well as in the thermofield formulation. We rederive the known results of the free-field theory for the pressure and the free energy of the Casimir problem. For infinitely thin plates we calculate the radiative corrections in second-order perturbation theory at finite temperature. Thereby it turns out that the calculation in of the vacuum energy at the vanishing temperature via the Z functional is much simplier than the calculation via the energy momentum tensor. This observation allows determination of the influence of static electromagnetic fields on the Casimir problem. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc.

  8. The accuracy of climate models' simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of grid scale correction factors

    SciTech Connect

    Winterhalter, Wade E.

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change is expected to impact biological populations through a variety of mechanisms including increases in the length of their growing season. Climate models are useful tools for predicting how season length might change in the future. However, the accuracy of these models tends to be rather low at regional geographic scales. Here, I determined the ability of several atmosphere and ocean general circulating models (AOGCMs) to accurately simulate historical season lengths for a temperate ectotherm across the continental United States. I also evaluated the effectiveness of regional-scale correction factors to improve the accuracy of these models. I found that both the accuracy of simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of the correction factors to improve the model's accuracy varied geographically and across models. These results suggest that regional specific correction factors do not always adequately remove potential discrepancies between simulated and historically observed environmental parameters. As such, an explicit evaluation of the correction factors' effectiveness should be included in future studies of global climate change's impact on biological populations.

  9. The accuracy of climate models' simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of grid scale correction factors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Winterhalter, Wade E.

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change is expected to impact biological populations through a variety of mechanisms including increases in the length of their growing season. Climate models are useful tools for predicting how season length might change in the future. However, the accuracy of these models tends to be rather low at regional geographic scales. Here, I determined the ability of several atmosphere and ocean general circulating models (AOGCMs) to accurately simulate historical season lengths for a temperate ectotherm across the continental United States. I also evaluated the effectiveness of regional-scale correction factors to improve the accuracy of these models. I foundmore » that both the accuracy of simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of the correction factors to improve the model's accuracy varied geographically and across models. These results suggest that regional specific correction factors do not always adequately remove potential discrepancies between simulated and historically observed environmental parameters. As such, an explicit evaluation of the correction factors' effectiveness should be included in future studies of global climate change's impact on biological populations.« less

  10. Finding of Correction Factor and Dimensional Error in Bio-AM Model by FDM Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manmadhachary, Aiamunoori; Ravi Kumar, Yennam; Krishnanand, Lanka

    2016-06-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the swift manufacturing process, in which input data can be provided from various sources like 3-Dimensional (3D) Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 3D scanner data. From the CT/MRI data can be manufacture Biomedical Additive Manufacturing (Bio-AM) models. The Bio-AM model gives a better lead on preplanning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. However manufacturing of the accurate Bio-AM model is one of the unsolved problems. The current paper demonstrates error between the Standard Triangle Language (STL) model to Bio-AM model of dry mandible and found correction factor in Bio-AM model with Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique. In the present work dry mandible CT images are acquired by CT scanner and supplied into a 3D CAD model in the form of STL model. Further the data is sent to FDM machine for fabrication of Bio-AM model. The difference between Bio-AM to STL model dimensions is considered as dimensional error and the ratio of STL to Bio-AM model dimensions considered as a correction factor. This correction factor helps to fabricate the AM model with accurate dimensions of the patient anatomy. These true dimensional Bio-AM models increasing the safety and accuracy in pre-planning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The correction factor for Dimension SST 768 FDM AM machine is 1.003 and dimensional error is limited to 0.3 %.

  11. Correction factor to dye-measured flow velocity under varying water and sediment discharges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dye-tracing technique was a widely used method to measure velocity of overland flow in soil erosion studies under both laboratory and field conditions. Few studies were performed to quantify the effects of sediment load on correction factor on steep slopes. The objective was to investigate the poten...

  12. Electronic platelet counts with the Coulter counter. Reassessment of a correction factor.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, E L; Wehman, J; Wall, B

    1976-09-01

    Platelet counts are determined on the Coulter electronic counter by counting the diluted platelet-rich plasma obtained by sedimentation or centrifugation of whole blood. In calculating the whole-blood platelet count, an empirical correction factor for platelet-free plasma trapped by sedimented erythrocytes has been recommended, and a widely-distributed circular slide rule calculator incorporates the correction factor. In this study, visual and electronic platelet counts were compared in 100 specimens with counts ranging from 10 to 1,100 X 10(3) per mul and hematocrits ranging from 17.5 to 48.5%. Platelet-rich plasma samples prepared by a centrifugation method (Plateletfuge) gave machine counts in close agreement with those of samples prepared by sedimentation. Whole-blood platelet counts determined with the circular calculator were consistently lower than visual counts, with an average difference of -17%. The electronic counts were recalculated after elimination of the correction factor, and agreement then improved to an average difference of only +1.6%. The correction factor for trapped platelet-free plasma leads to erroneously low values and should not be used. PMID:961629

  13. Simulation of a Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles with Power Factor Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Pickelsimer, Michael C; Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak; Miller, John M

    2012-01-01

    Wireless power transfer has been a popular topic of recent research. Most research has been done to address the limitations of coil-to-coil efficiency. However, little has been done to address the problem associated with the low input power factor with which the systems operate. This paper details the steps taken to analyze a wireless power transfer system from the view of the power grid under a variety of loading conditions with and without power factor correction.

  14. Reconstructing past sea surface temperatures: Correcting for diagenesis of bulk marine carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Schrag, D.P.; DePaolo, D.J. |; Richter, F.M.

    1995-06-01

    A numerical model which describes oxygen isotope exchange during burial and recrystallization of deep-sea carbonate is used to obtain information on how sea surface temperatures have varied in the past by correcting measured {delta}{sup 18}O values of bulk carbonate for diagenetic overprinting. Comparison of bulk carbonate and planktonic foraminiferal {delta}{sup 18}O records from ODP site 677A indicates that the oxygen isotopic composition of bulk carbonate does reflect changes in sea surface temperature and {delta}{sup 18}O. At ODP Site 690, we calculate that diagenetic effects are small, and that both bulk carbonate and planktonic foraminiferal {delta}{sup 18}O records accurately reflect Paleogene warming of high latitude surface oceans, biased from diagenesis by no more than 1{degrees}C. The same is likely to be true for other high latitude sites where sedimentation rates are low. At DSDP sites 516 and 525, the effects of diagenesis are more significant. Measured {delta}{sup 18}O values of Eocene bulk carbonates are more than 2% lower at deeply buried site 516 than at site 525, consistent with the model prediction that the effects of diagenesis should be proportional to sedimentation rate. Model-corrections reconcile the differences in the data between the two sites; the resulting paleotemperature reconstruction indicates a 4{degrees}C cooling of mid-latitude surface oceans since the Eocene. We show that the data are consistent with constant equatorial sea surface temperatures through most of the Cenozoic, with the possible exception of the early Eocene, when slightly higher temperatures are indicated. We suggest that the lower equatorial sea surface temperatures for the Eocene and Oligocene reported in other oxygen isotope studies are artifacts of diagenetic recrystallization, and that it is impossible to reconstruct accurately equatorial sea surface temperatures without explicitly accounting for diagenetic overprinting.

  15. Right-handed neutrino production at finite temperature: radiative corrections, soft and collinear divergences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbrecht, Björn; Glowna, Frank; Herranen, Matti

    2013-04-01

    The production and decay rate of massive sterile neutrinos at finite temperature receives next-to-leading order corrections from the gauge interactions of lepton and Higgs doublets. Using the Closed-Time-Path approach, we demonstrate that the perturbatively obtained inclusive rate is finite. For this purpose, we show that soft, collinear and Bose divergences cancel when adding the tree-level rates from 1 ↔ 3 and 2 ↔ 2 processes to vertex and wave-function corrections to 1 ↔ 2 processes. These results hold for a general momentum of the sterile neutrino with respect to the plasma frame. Moreover, they do not rely on non-relativistic approximations, such that the full quantum-statistical effects are accounted for to the given order in perturbation theory. While the neutrino production rate is of relevance for Leptogenesis, the proposed methods may as well be suitable for application to a more general class of relativistic transport phenomena.

  16. Correcting infrared satellite estimates of sea surface temperature for atmospheric water vapor attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, William J.; Yu, Yunyue; Wick, Gary A.; Schluessel, Peter; Reynolds, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    A new satellite sea surface temperature (SST) algorithm is developed that uses nearly coincident measurements from the microwave special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) to correct for atmospheric moisture attenuation of the infrared signal from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR). This new SST algorithm is applied to AVHRR imagery from the South Pacific and Norwegian seas, which are then compared with simultaneous in situ (ship based) measurements of both skin and bulk SST. In addition, an SST algorithm using a quadratic product of the difference between the two AVHRR thermal infrared channels is compared with the in situ measurements. While the quadratic formulation provides a considerable improvement over the older cross product (CPSST) and multichannel (MCSST) algorithms, the SSM/I corrected SST (called the water vapor or WVSST) shows overall smaller errors when compared to both the skin and bulk in situ SST observations. Applied to individual AVHRR images, the WVSST reveals an SST difference pattern (CPSST-WVSST) similar in shape to the water vapor structure while the CPSST-quadratic SST difference appears unrelated in pattern to the nearly coincident water vapor pattern. An application of the WVSST to week-long composites of global area coverage (GAC) AVHRR data demonstrates again the manner in which the WVSST corrects the AVHRR for atmospheric moisture attenuation. By comparison the quadratic SST method underestimates the SST corrections in the lower latitudes and overestimates the SST in th e higher latitudes. Correlations between the AVHRR thermal channel differences and the SSM/I water vapor demonstrate the inability of the channel difference to represent water vapor in the midlatitude and high latitudes during summer. Compared against drifting buoy data the WVSST and the quadratic SST both exhibit the same general behavior with the relatively small differences with the buoy temperatures.

  17. Quantitative DNA metabarcoding: improved estimates of species proportional biomass using correction factors derived from control material.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Austen C; Deagle, Bruce E; Eveson, J Paige; Harsch, Corie H; Trites, Andrew W

    2016-05-01

    DNA metabarcoding is a powerful new tool allowing characterization of species assemblages using high-throughput amplicon sequencing. The utility of DNA metabarcoding for quantifying relative species abundances is currently limited by both biological and technical biases which influence sequence read counts. We tested the idea of sequencing 50/50 mixtures of target species and a control species in order to generate relative correction factors (RCFs) that account for multiple sources of bias and are applicable to field studies. RCFs will be most effective if they are not affected by input mass ratio or co-occurring species. In a model experiment involving three target fish species and a fixed control, we found RCFs did vary with input ratio but in a consistent fashion, and that 50/50 RCFs applied to DNA sequence counts from various mixtures of the target species still greatly improved relative abundance estimates (e.g. average per species error of 19 ± 8% for uncorrected vs. 3 ± 1% for corrected estimates). To demonstrate the use of correction factors in a field setting, we calculated 50/50 RCFs for 18 harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) prey species (RCFs ranging from 0.68 to 3.68). Applying these corrections to field-collected seal scats affected species percentages from individual samples (Δ 6.7 ± 6.6%) more than population-level species estimates (Δ 1.7 ± 1.2%). Our results indicate that the 50/50 RCF approach is an effective tool for evaluating and correcting biases in DNA metabarcoding studies. The decision to apply correction factors will be influenced by the feasibility of creating tissue mixtures for the target species, and the level of accuracy needed to meet research objectives. PMID:26602877

  18. Model atmospheres broad-band colors, bolometric corrections and temperature calibrations for O - M stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessell, M. S.; Castelli, F.; Plez, B.

    1998-05-01

    Broad band colors and bolometric corrections in the Johnson-Cousins-Glass system (Bessell, 1990; Bessell & Brett, 1988) have been computed from synthetic spectra from new model atmospheres of Kurucz (1995a), Castelli (1997), Plez, Brett & Nordlund (1992), Plez (1995-97), and Brett (1995a,b). These atmospheres are representative of larger grids that are currently being completed. We discuss differences between the different grids and compare theoretical color-temperature relations and the fundamental color temperature relations derived from: (a) the infrared-flux method (IRFM) for A-K stars (Blackwell & Lynas-Gray 1994; Alonso et al. 1996) and M dwarfs (Tsuji et al. 1996a); (b) lunar occultations (Ridgway et al. 1980) and (c) Michelson interferometry (Di Benedetto & Rabbia 1987; Dyck et al. 1996; Perrin et al. 1997) for K-M giants, and (d) eclipsing binaries for M dwarfs. We also compare color - color relations and color - bolometric correction relations and find good agreement except for a few colors. The more realistic fluxes and spectra of the new model grids should enable accurate population synthesis models to be derived and permit the ready calibration of non-standard photometric passbands. As well, the theoretical bolometric corrections and temperature - color relations will permit reliable transformation from observed color magnitude diagrams to theoretical HR diagrams. Tables 1-6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  19. Source localization corrections for airborne acoustic platforms based on a climatological assessment of temperature and wind velocity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Cheinet, Sylvain; Collier, Sandra L.; Reiff, Christian; Ligon, David A.; Wilson, D. Keith; Noble, John M.; Alberts, W. C. Kirkpatrick, II

    2012-06-01

    Acoustic sensors are being employed on airborne platforms, such as Persistent Threat Detection System (PTDS) and Persistent Ground Surveillance System (PGSS), for source localization. Under certain atmospheric conditions, airborne sensors oer a distinct advantage over ground sensors. The performance of both ground and airborne sensors is aected by environmental factors, such as atmospheric turbulence and wind and temperature proles. For airborne sensors, the eects of refraction must be accounted for in order to determine the source coordinates. Such a method for ground-to-air applications has been developed and is further rened here. Ideally, knowledge of the exact atmospheric proles will allow for the most accurate mitigation of refractive eects. However, acoustic sensors deployed in theater are rarely supported by atmospheric sensing systems that retrieve real-time temperature and wind elds. Atmospheric conditions evolve through seasons, time of day, and are strongly location dependent. Therefore, the development of an atmospheric proles database based on a long time series climatological assessment will provide knowledge for use in physics-based bearing estimation algorithms, where otherwise no correction would have been performed. Long term atmospheric data sets from weather modeling systems are used for a climatological assessment of the refraction corrections and localization errors over selected sites.

  20. Thermocouple error correction for measuring the flame temperature with determination of emissivity and heat transfer coefficient.

    PubMed

    Hindasageri, V; Vedula, R P; Prabhu, S V

    2013-02-01

    Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively. PMID:23464237

  1. Thermocouple error correction for measuring the flame temperature with determination of emissivity and heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindasageri, V.; Vedula, R. P.; Prabhu, S. V.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively.

  2. Correcting gene expression data when neither the unwanted variation nor the factor of interest are observed

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Laurent; Gagnon-Bartsch, Johann A.; Speed, Terence P.

    2016-01-01

    When dealing with large scale gene expression studies, observations are commonly contaminated by sources of unwanted variation such as platforms or batches. Not taking this unwanted variation into account when analyzing the data can lead to spurious associations and to missing important signals. When the analysis is unsupervised, e.g. when the goal is to cluster the samples or to build a corrected version of the dataset—as opposed to the study of an observed factor of interest—taking unwanted variation into account can become a difficult task. The factors driving unwanted variation may be correlated with the unobserved factor of interest, so that correcting for the former can remove the latter if not done carefully. We show how negative control genes and replicate samples can be used to estimate unwanted variation in gene expression, and discuss how this information can be used to correct the expression data. The proposed methods are then evaluated on synthetic data and three gene expression datasets. They generally manage to remove unwanted variation without losing the signal of interest and compare favorably to state-of-the-art corrections. All proposed methods are implemented in the bioconductor package RUVnormalize. PMID:26286812

  3. An Approach to Adaptive Correction Factors in Depth-Averaged Model for Debris Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Yih-Chin; Cheng, Chin-Kai; Lai, Guan-Cen

    2016-04-01

    In modeling the debris flows, the governing equations are often given in depth-averaged form, where scaling analysis is employed to reduce the complexity and expense in computation. As a result, the non-uniform distributions of the sediment concentration and velocity along the flow thickness bring the correction parameters into the equation system. Since the flows are generally not at steady state, these distributions vary dynamically, so that the values of the correction factors should not be given by constant values. With the concept of two-phase mixture, we revisit the depth-averaged balance equations, where four correction factors are present and inevitable in the resultant model equations if the distributions of the sediment concentration and velocity along the flow thickness are non-uniform. Through theoretical analysis and experimental investigation, we found that a piecewise-linear distribution for velocity and a linear distribution of sediment concentration in the immature debris flows (where the clear water exists) seem plausible. This assumption may significantly simplify the complicated determination of the correction factors. In the resultant model equations, the correcting parameters due to the non-uniform distributions are present, which are of significant impacts on the characteristic of the equation system, and play crucial roles in performing the numerical simulation. In this study, the values of these factors with respect to the corresponding profiles are investigated. By means of numerical examples, we shall illustrate their impacts on the flow behaviors, such as the concentration variation, the geometry of the deposit and the maximum run-out distance.

  4. Monte Carlo calculated correction factors for diodes and ion chambers in small photon fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, D.; Zink, K.

    2013-04-01

    The application of small photon fields in modern radiotherapy requires the determination of total scatter factors Scp or field factors \\Omega ^{f_{clin} ,f_{msr}}_{Q_{clin} ,Q_{msr}} with high precision. Both quantities require the knowledge of the field-size-dependent and detector-dependent correction factor k^{f_{clin} ,f_{msr}}_{Q_{clin} ,Q_{msr}}. The aim of this study is the determination of the correction factor k^{f_{clin} ,f_{msr}}_{Q_{clin} ,Q_{msr}} for different types of detectors in a clinical 6 MV photon beam of a Siemens KD linear accelerator. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the dose to water and the dose to different detectors to determine the field factor as well as the mentioned correction factor for different small square field sizes. Besides this, the mean water to air stopping power ratio as well as the ratio of the mean energy absorption coefficients for the relevant materials was calculated for different small field sizes. As the beam source, a Monte Carlo based model of a Siemens KD linear accelerator was used. The results show that in the case of ionization chambers the detector volume has the largest impact on the correction factor k^{f_{clin} ,f_{msr}}_{Q_{clin} ,Q_{msr}}; this perturbation may contribute up to 50% to the correction factor. Field-dependent changes in stopping-power ratios are negligible. The magnitude of k^{f_{clin} ,f_{msr}}_{Q_{clin} ,Q_{msr}} is of the order of 1.2 at a field size of 1 × 1 cm2 for the large volume ion chamber PTW31010 and is still in the range of 1.05-1.07 for the PinPoint chambers PTW31014 and PTW31016. For the diode detectors included in this study (PTW60016, PTW 60017), the correction factor deviates no more than 2% from unity in field sizes between 10 × 10 and 1 × 1 cm2, but below this field size there is a steep decrease of k^{f_{clin} ,f_{msr}}_{Q_{clin} ,Q_{msr}} below unity, i.e. a strong overestimation of dose. Besides the field size and detector dependence, the results

  5. Analysis, compensation, and correction of temperature effects on FBG strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, T. C.; Ferguson, S.; Guthrie, D.; Graver, T. W.; Soller, B. J.; Mendez, Alexis

    2013-05-01

    One of the most common fiber optic sensor (FOS) types used are fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), and the most frequently measured parameter is strain. Hence, FBG strain sensors are one of the most prevalent FOS devices in use today in structural sensing and monitoring in civil engineering, aerospace, marine, oil and gas, composites and smart structure applications. However, since FBGs are simultaneously sensitive to both temperature and strain, it becomes essential to utilize sensors that are either fully temperature insensitive or, alternatively, properly temperature compensated to avoid erroneous measurements. In this paper, we introduce the concept of measured "total strain", which is inherent and unique to optical strain sensors. We review and analyze the temperature and strain sensitivities of FBG strain sensors and decompose the total measured strain into thermal and non-thermal components. We explore the differences between substrate CTE and System Thermal Response Coefficients, which govern the type and quality of thermal strain decomposition analysis. Finally, we present specific guidelines to achieve proper temperature-insensitive strain measurements by combining adequate installation, sensor packaging and data correction techniques.

  6. Born-corrections to weak lensing of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstotz, Steffen; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Merkel, Philipp M.

    2015-11-01

    Many weak-lensing calculations make use of the Born approximation where the light ray is approximated by a straight path. We examine the effect of Born-corrections for lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in an analytical approach by taking perturbative corrections to the geodesic into account. The resulting extra power in the lensing potential spectrum is comparable to the power generated by non-linear structure formation and affects especially the polarization spectra, leading to relative changes of the order of 10-3 for the E-mode spectrum and several per cent on all scales to the B-mode spectrum. In contrast, there is only little change of spectra involving the CMB temperature. Additionally, the corrections excite one more degree of freedom resulting in a deflection component which cannot be described as a gradient of the lensing potential as it is related to image rotation in lens-lens coupling. We estimate the magnitude of this effect on the CMB spectra and find it to be negligible.

  7. Estimation of absolute water surface temperature based on atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne remote sensing systems, as well as those on board Earth orbiting satellites, sample electromagnetic energy in discrete wavelength regions and convert the total energy sampled into data suitable for processing by digital computers. In general, however, the total amount of energy reaching a sensor system located at some distance from the target is composed not only of target related energy, but, in addition, contains a contribution originating from the atmosphere itself. Thus, some method must be devised for removing or at least minimizing the effects of the atmosphere. The LOWTRAN-6 Program was designed to estimate atmospheric transmittance and radiance for a given atmospheric path at moderate spectral resolution over an operational wavelength region from 0.25 to 28.5 microns. In order to compute the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital values which were recorded in the absence of the atmosphere, the parameters derived from LOWTRAN-6 are used in a correction equation. The TIMS data were collected at 1:00 a.m. local time on November 21, 1983, over a recirculating cooling pond for a power plant in southeastern Mississippi. The TIMS data were analyzed before and after atmospheric corrections were applied using a band ratioing model to compute the absolute surface temperature of various points on the power plant cooling pond. The summarized results clearly demonstrate the desirability of applying atmospheric corrections.

  8. Accurate estimation of sea surface temperatures using dissolution-corrected calibrations for Mg/Ca paleothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Yair; Lohmann, George P.

    2002-09-01

    Paired δ18O and Mg/Ca measurements on the same foraminiferal shells offer the ability to independently estimate sea surface temperature (SST) changes and assess their temporal relationship to the growth and decay of continental ice sheets. The accuracy of this method is confounded, however, by the absence of a quantitative method to correct Mg/Ca records for alteration by dissolution. Here we describe dissolution-corrected calibrations for Mg/Ca-paleothermometry in which the preexponent constant is a function of size-normalized shell weight: (1) for G. ruber (212-300 μm) (Mg/Ca)ruber = (0.025 wt + 0.11) e0.095T and (b) for G. sacculifer (355-425 μm) (Mg/Ca)sacc = (0.0032 wt + 0.181) e0.095T. The new calibrations improve the accuracy of SST estimates and are globally applicable. With this correction, eastern equatorial Atlantic SST during the Last Glacial Maximum is estimated to be 2.9° ± 0.4°C colder than today.

  9. Juvenile Correctional Workers' Perceptions of Suicide Risk Factors and Mental Health Issues of Incarcerated Juveniles

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Joseph V.; Esposito, Christianne; Stein, L. A. R.; Lacher-Katz, Molly; Spirito, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Correctional staff knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of incarcerated juveniles' mental health needs, including suicide prevention, have not been studied empirically. This study measured juvenile correctional officers' knowledge and attitudes regarding suicide risk factors and mental health and substance abuse issues through administration of the Mental Health Knowledge and Attitude Test (MHKAT) before and after a staff training on suicide prevention. Seventy-six participants completed the pre- and post-training MHKAT. They demonstrated significant improvement in knowledge of and attitudes toward mental health treatment of incarcerated youth as reflected by higher post-training MHKAT scores. Findings suggest that correctional staff are receptive to increasing knowledge of critical mental health issues. Studies of the retention and implementation of this new knowledge by direct care staff over time and the optimal type and frequency of new staff training and continuing education are indicated. PMID:19809578

  10. Method and apparatus for correcting eddy current signal voltage for temperature effects

    DOEpatents

    Kustra, Thomas A.; Caffarel, Alfred J.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring physical characteristics of an electrically conductive material by the use of eddy-current techniques and compensating measurement errors caused by changes in temperature includes a switching arrangement connected between primary and reference coils of an eddy-current probe which allows the probe to be selectively connected between an eddy current output oscilloscope and a digital ohm-meter for measuring the resistances of the primary and reference coils substantially at the time of eddy current measurement. In this way, changes in resistance due to temperature effects can be completely taken into account in determining the true error in the eddy current measurement. The true error can consequently be converted into an equivalent eddy current measurement correction.

  11. Stress Intensity Factor Plasticity Correction for Flaws in Stress Concentration Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, E.; Wilson, W.K.

    2000-02-01

    Plasticity corrections to elastically computed stress intensity factors are often included in brittle fracture evaluation procedures. These corrections are based on the existence of a plastic zone in the vicinity of the crack tip. Such a plastic zone correction is included in the flaw evaluation procedure of Appendix A to Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Plasticity effects from the results of elastic and elastic-plastic explicit flaw finite element analyses are examined for various size cracks emanating from the root of a notch in a panel and for cracks located at fillet fadii. The results of these caluclations provide conditions under which the crack-tip plastic zone correction based on the Irwin plastic zone size overestimates the plasticity effect for crack-like flaws embedded in stress concentration regions in which the elastically computed stress exceeds the yield strength of the material. A failure assessment diagram (FAD) curve is employed to graphically c haracterize the effect of plasticity on the crack driving force. The Option 1 FAD curve of the Level 3 advanced fracture assessment procedure of British Standard PD 6493:1991, adjusted for stress concentration effects by a term that is a function of the applied load and the ratio of the local radius of curvature at the flaw location to the flaw depth, provides a satisfactory bound to all the FAD curves derived from the explicit flaw finite element calculations. The adjusted FAD curve is a less restrictive plasticity correction than the plastic zone correction of Section XI for flaws embedded in plastic zones at geometric stress concentrators. This enables unnecessary conservatism to be removed from flaw evaluation procedures that utilize plasticity corrections.

  12. Refined shear correction factor for very thick simply supported and uniformly loaded isosceles right triangular auxetic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    For moderately thick plates, the use of First order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) with a constant shear correction factor of 5/6 is sufficient to take into account the plate deflection arising from transverse shear deformation. For very thick plates, the use of Third order Shear Deformation Theory (TSDT) is preferred as it allows the shear strain distribution to be varied through the plate thickness. Therefore no correction factor is required in TSDT, unlike FSDT. Due to the complexity involved in TSDT, this paper obtains a more accurate shear correction factor for use in FSDT of very thick simply supported and uniformly loaded isosceles right triangular plates based on the TSDT. By matching the maximum deflections for this plate according to FSDT and TSDT, a variable shear correction factor is obtained. Results show that the shear correction factor for the simplified TSDT, i.e. 14/17, is least accurate. The commonly adopted shear correction factor of 5/6 in FSDT is valid only for very thin or highly auxetic plates. This paper provides a variable shear correction for FSDT deflection that matches the plate deflection by TSDT. This variable shear correction factor allows designers to justify the use of a commonly adopted shear correction factor of 5/6 even for very thick plates as long as the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative.

  13. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Brad; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. This paper will describe the bias correction technique and results from forecasts evaluated by validation against a Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product from CIRA and against Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses.

  14. Stark broadening corrections to laser-induced fluorescence temperature measurements in a hydrogen arcjet plume.

    PubMed

    Storm, P V; Cappelli, M A

    1996-08-20

    Laser-induced fluorescence of the H(α) transition of atomic hydrogen has previously been performed in the plume of a hydrogen arcjet thruster. Measurements of plasma velocity and temperature, based on the Doppler shift and broadening of the H(α) line shape, were previously published [Appl. Opt. 32, 6117 (1993)]. In that paper the Stark broadening of the H(α) transition was estimated from static-ion calculations performed in the early 1970's and found to be negligible in comparison with the Doppler broadening. However, more recent dynamic-ion calculations have shown the Stark broadening to be considerably larger than was previously assumed, resulting in inaccurate temperature measurements. We present a reanalysis of the fluorescence data, taking into account the improved Stark broadening calculations. The correct atomic hydrogen translation temperature and electron number density are obtained from the Doppler and Stark broadening components of the measured line shape. The results indicate a substantial drop in temperature from those previously reported. PMID:21102917

  15. Water temperature-influential factors, field measurement, and data presentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Herbert H.; Ficke, John F.; Smoot, George F.

    1975-01-01

    This manual contains suggested procedures for collecting and reporting of water-temperature data on streams, lakes and reservoirs, estuaries, and ground water. Among the topics discussed are the selection of equipment and measuring sites, objectives and accuracy of measurements, and data processing and presentation. Background information on the influence of temperature on water quality and the factors influencing water temperature are also presented.

  16. Totem-Pole Power-Factor-Correction Converter under Critical-Conduction-Mode Interleaved Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmansyah, Eka; Tomioka, Satoshi; Abe, Seiya; Shoyama, Masahito; Ninomiya, Tamotsu

    This paper proposes a new power-factor-correction (PFC) topology, and explains its operation principle, its control mechanism, related application problems followed by experimental results. In this proposed topology, critical-conduction-mode (CRM) interleaved technique is applied to a bridgeless PFC in order to achieve high efficiency by combining benefits of each topology. This application is targeted toward low to middle power applications that normally employs continuous-conduction-mode boost converter.

  17. Determination of ion recombination correction factors for a liquid ionization chamber in megavoltage photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang Hyoun; Kim, Kum-Bae; Ji, Young Hoon; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Seonghoon; Huh, Hyun Do

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the ion recombination correction factor for a liquid ionization chamber in a high energy photon beam by using our experimental method. The ion recombination correction factors were determined by using our experimental method and were compared with theoretical and experimental methods proposed by using the theoretical method (Greening, Johansson) and the two-dose rate method in a cobalt beam and a high energy photon beam. In order to apply the liquid ionization chamber in a reference and small field dosimetry, we acquired the absorbed dose to water correction coefficient, the beam quality correction factor, and the influence quantities for the microLion chamber according to the TRS-398 protocol and applied the results to a high energy photon beam used in clinical fields. As a result, our experimental method for ion recombination in a cobalt beam agreed with the results from the heoretical method (Greening theory) better than it did with the results from the two-dose rate method. For high energy photon beams, the two-dose rate and our experimental methods were in good agreement, less than 2% deviation, while the theoretical general collection efficiency (Johansson et al.) deviated greatly from the experimental values. When we applied the factors for the absorbed dose to water measurement, the absorbed dose to water for the microLion chamber was in good agreement, within 1%, compared with the values for the PTW 30013 chamber in 6 and 10 MV Clinac iX and 6 and 15 MV Oncor impression. With these results, not only can the microLion ionization chamber be used to measure the absorbed dose to water in a reference condition, it can also be used to a the chamber for small, non-standard field dosimetry.

  18. Factors Associated with Recidivism among Corrections-Based Treatment Participants in Rural and Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi L H; Winston, Erin; Webster, J Matthew; Pangburn, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The majority of corrections-based treatment outcome studies focus on individuals paroling to urban areas; thus there is a significant gap in the literature on outcomes, including recidivism, among individuals paroling to non-urban and rural communities. This study examines differences in factors associated with recidivism among former corrections-based treatment participants living in urban and rural communities following release. Analyses focused on secondary data collected from treatment participants in one southeastern state over a four year period between July 2006 and June 2010 including both baseline (treatment intake) and follow-up data (12-months post-release). Findings indicated that individuals in urban areas were 2.4 times more likely to recidivate than rural individuals. Other factors identified in separate rural and urban analyses also emerged as significant predictors in the overall model including age, gender, race, employment and drug use. Overall, these findings suggest that corrections-based treatment participants living in urban and rural areas following release may share similar risk factors for recidivism. However, rural areas may be protective for returning to custody despite the presence of some of these risks. PMID:25858761

  19. Small field detector correction factors: effects of the flattening filter for Elekta and Varian linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Madelaine K; Liu, Paul Z Y; Lee, Christopher; McKenzie, David R; Suchowerska, Natalka

    2016-01-01

    Flattening filter-free (FFF) beams are becoming the preferred beam type for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), as they enable an increase in dose rate and a decrease in treatment time. This work assesses the effects of the flattening filter on small field output factors for 6 MV beams generated by both Elekta and Varian linear accelerators, and determines differences between detector response in flattened (FF) and FFF beams. Relative output factors were measured with a range of detectors (diodes, ionization cham-bers, radiochromic film, and microDiamond) and referenced to the relative output factors measured with an air core fiber optic dosimeter (FOD), a scintillation dosimeter developed at Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Sydney. Small field correction factors were generated for both FF and FFF beams. Diode measured detector response was compared with a recently published mathematical relation to predict diode response corrections in small fields. The effect of flattening filter removal on detector response was quantified using a ratio of relative detector responses in FFF and FF fields for the same field size. The removal of the flattening filter was found to have a small but measurable effect on ionization chamber response with maximum deviations of less than ± 0.9% across all field sizes measured. Solid-state detectors showed an increased dependence on the flattening filter of up to ± 1.6%. Measured diode response was within ± 1.1% of the published mathematical relation for all fields up to 30 mm, independent of linac type and presence or absence of a flattening filter. For 6 MV beams, detector correction factors between FFF and FF beams are interchangeable for a linac between FF and FFF modes, providing that an additional uncertainty of up to ± 1.6% is accepted. PMID:27167280

  20. Correction factors for source strength determination in HDR brachytherapy using the in-phantom method.

    PubMed

    Ubrich, Frank; Wulff, Jörg; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Zink, Klemens

    2014-05-01

    For the purpose of clinical source strength determination for HDR brachytherapy sources, the German society for Medical Physics (DGMP) recommends in their report 13 the usage of a solid state phantom (Krieger-phantom) with a thimble ionization chamber. In this work, the calibration chain for the determination of the reference air-kerma rate Ka,100 and reference dose rate to waterDw,1 by ionization chamber measurement in the Krieger-phantom was modeled via Monte Carlo simulations. These calculations were used to determine global correction factors k(tot), which allows a user to directly convert the reading of an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water, into the desired quantity Ka,100 or Dw,1. The factor k(tot) was determined for four available (192)Ir sources and one (60)Co source with three different thimble ionization chambers. Finally, ionization chamber measurements on three μSelectron V2 HDR sources within the Krieger-phantom were performed and Ka,100 was determined according to three different methods: 1) using a calibration factor in terms of absorbed dose to water with the global correction factor [Formula: see text] according DGMP 13 2) using a global correction factor calculated via Monte Carlo 3) using a direct reference air-kerma rate calibration factor determined by the national metrology institute PTB. The comparison of Monte Carlo based [Formula: see text] with those from DGMP 13 showed that the DGMP data were systematically smaller by about 2-2.5%. The experimentally determined [Formula: see text] , based on the direct Ka,100 calibration were also systematically smaller by about 1.5%. Despite of these systematical deviations, the agreement of the different methods was in almost all cases within the 1σ level of confidence of the interval of their respective uncertainties in a Gaussian distribution. The application of Monte Carlo based [Formula: see text] for the determination of Ka,100 for three μSelectron V2 sources

  1. Perturbative corrections to Λ b → Λ form factors from QCD light-cone sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ming; Shen, Yue-Long

    2016-02-01

    We compute radiative corrections to Λ b → Λ from factors, at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, from QCD light-cone sum rules with Λ b -baryon distribution amplitudes. Employing the diagrammatic approach factorization of the vacuum-to-Λ b -baryon correlation function is justified at leading power in Λ /m b , with the aid of the method of regions. Hard functions entering the factorization formulae are identical to the corresponding matching coefficients of heavy-to-light currents from QCD onto soft-collinear effective theory. The universal jet function from integrating out the hard-collinear fluctuations exhibits richer structures compared with the one involved in the factorization expressions of the vacuum-to- B-meson correlation function. Based upon the QCD resummation improved sum rules we observe that the perturbative corrections at {O}({α}_s) shift the Λ b → Λ from factors at large recoil significantly and the dominant contribution originates from the next-to-leading order jet function instead of the hard coefficient functions. Having at hand the sum rule predictions for the Λ b → Λ from factors we further investigate several decay observables in the electro-weak penguin Λ b → Λ ℓ + ℓ - transitions in the factorization limit (i.e., ignoring the "non-factorizable" hadronic effects which cannot be expressed in terms of the Λ b → Λ from factors), including the invariant mass distribution of the lepton pair, the forward-backward asymmetry in the dilepton system and the longitudinal polarization fraction of the leptonic sector.

  2. SU-E-T-469: A Practical Approach for the Determination of Small Field Output Factors Using Published Monte Carlo Derived Correction Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, E; Siergiej, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Output factor determination for small fields (less than 20 mm) presents significant challenges due to ion chamber volume averaging and diode over-response. Measured output factor values between detectors are known to have large deviations as field sizes are decreased. No set standard to resolve this difference in measurement exists. We observed differences between measured output factors of up to 14% using two different detectors. Published Monte Carlo derived correction factors were used to address this challenge and decrease the output factor deviation between detectors. Methods: Output factors for Elekta's linac-based stereotactic cone system were measured using the EDGE detector (Sun Nuclear) and the A16 ion chamber (Standard Imaging). Measurements conditions were 100 cm SSD (source to surface distance) and 1.5 cm depth. Output factors were first normalized to a 10.4 cm × 10.4 cm field size using a daisy-chaining technique to minimize the dependence of field size on detector response. An equation expressing the relation between published Monte Carlo correction factors as a function of field size for each detector was derived. The measured output factors were then multiplied by the calculated correction factors. EBT3 gafchromic film dosimetry was used to independently validate the corrected output factors. Results: Without correction, the deviation in output factors between the EDGE and A16 detectors ranged from 1.3 to 14.8%, depending on cone size. After applying the calculated correction factors, this deviation fell to 0 to 3.4%. Output factors determined with film agree within 3.5% of the corrected output factors. Conclusion: We present a practical approach to applying published Monte Carlo derived correction factors to measured small field output factors for the EDGE and A16 detectors. Using this method, we were able to decrease the percent deviation between both detectors from 14.8% to 3.4% agreement.

  3. A Passive Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Gas Sensor With Self-Correction Against Fluctuations of Ambient Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Surman, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled fluctuations of ambient temperature in the field typically greatly reduce accuracy of gas sensors. In this study, we developed an approach for the self-correction against fluctuations of ambient temperature of individual gas and vapor sensors. The main innovation of our work is in the temperature correction which is accomplished without the need for a separate uncoated reference sensor or a separate temperature sensor. Our sensors are resonant inductor-capacitor-resistor (LCR) transducers coated with sensing materials and operated as multivariable passive (battery-free) radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensors. Using our developed approach, we performed quantitation of an exemplary vapor over the temperature range from 25 to 40 °C. This technical solution will be attractive in numerous applications where temperature stabilization of a gas sensor or addition of auxiliary temperature or uncoated reference sensors is prohibitive. PMID:23956496

  4. A Passive Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Gas Sensor With Self-Correction Against Fluctuations of Ambient Temperature.

    PubMed

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Surman, Cheryl

    2013-08-01

    Uncontrolled fluctuations of ambient temperature in the field typically greatly reduce accuracy of gas sensors. In this study, we developed an approach for the self-correction against fluctuations of ambient temperature of individual gas and vapor sensors. The main innovation of our work is in the temperature correction which is accomplished without the need for a separate uncoated reference sensor or a separate temperature sensor. Our sensors are resonant inductor-capacitor-resistor (LCR) transducers coated with sensing materials and operated as multivariable passive (battery-free) radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensors. Using our developed approach, we performed quantitation of an exemplary vapor over the temperature range from 25 to 40 °C. This technical solution will be attractive in numerous applications where temperature stabilization of a gas sensor or addition of auxiliary temperature or uncoated reference sensors is prohibitive. PMID:23956496

  5. Spectral correction factors for conventional neutron dosemeters used in high-energy neutron environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Sheu, R J

    2015-04-01

    High-energy neutrons (>10 MeV) contribute substantially to the dose fraction but result in only a small or negligible response in most conventional moderated-type neutron detectors. Neutron dosemeters used for radiation protection purpose are commonly calibrated with (252)Cf neutron sources and are used in various workplace. A workplace-specific correction factor is suggested. In this study, the effect of the neutron spectrum on the accuracy of dose measurements was investigated. A set of neutron spectra representing various neutron environments was selected to study the dose responses of a series of Bonner spheres, including standard and extended-range spheres. By comparing (252)Cf-calibrated dose responses with reference values based on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, this paper presents recommendations for neutron field characterisation and appropriate correction factors for responses of conventional neutron dosemeters used in environments with high-energy neutrons. The correction depends on the estimated percentage of high-energy neutrons in the spectrum or the ratio between the measured responses of two Bonner spheres (the 4P6_8 extended-range sphere versus the 6″ standard sphere). PMID:25280480

  6. Monte Carlo calculations of correction factors for plastic phantoms in clinical photon and electron beam dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Araki, Fujio; Hanyu, Yuji; Fukuoka, Miyoko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Okumura, Masahiko; Oguchi, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to calculate correction factors for plastic water (PW) and plastic water diagnostic-therapy (PWDT) phantoms in clinical photon and electron beam dosimetry using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system. A water-to-plastic ionization conversion factor k(pl) for PW and PWDT was computed for several commonly used Farmer-type ionization chambers with different wall materials in the range of 4-18 MV photon beams. For electron beams, a depth-scaling factor c(pl) and a chamber-dependent fluence correction factor h(pl) for both phantoms were also calculated in combination with NACP-02 and Roos plane-parallel ionization chambers in the range of 4-18 MeV. The h(pl) values for the plane-parallel chambers were evaluated from the electron fluence correction factor phi(pl)w and wall correction factors P(wall,w) and P(wall,pl) for a combination of water or plastic materials. The calculated k(pl) and h(pl) values were verified by comparison with the measured values. A set of k(pl) values computed for the Farmer-type chambers was equal to unity within 0.5% for PW and PWDT in photon beams. The k(pl) values also agreed within their combined uncertainty with the measured data. For electron beams, the c(pl) values computed for PW and PWDT were from 0.998 to 1.000 and from 0.992 to 0.997, respectively, in the range of 4-18 MeV. The phi(pl)w values for PW and PWDT were from 0.998 to 1.001 and from 1.004 to 1.001, respectively, at a reference depth in the range of 4-18 MeV. The difference in P(wall) between water and plastic materials for the plane-parallel chambers was 0.8% at a maximum. Finally, h(pl) values evaluated for plastic materials were equal to unity within 0.6% for NACP-02 and Roos chambers. The h(pl) values also agreed within their combined uncertainty with the measured data. The absorbed dose to water from ionization chamber measurements in PW and PWDT plastic materials corresponds to that in water within 1%. Both phantoms can thus be used as a

  7. Determination of small-field correction factors for cylindrical ionization chambers using a semiempirical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwangwoo; Bak, Jino; Park, Sungho; Choi, Wonhoon; Park, Suk Won

    2016-02-01

    A semiempirical method based on the averaging effect of the sensitive volumes of different air-filled ionization chambers (ICs) was employed to approximate the correction factors for beam quality produced from the difference in the sizes of the reference field and small fields. We measured the output factors using several cylindrical ICs and calculated the correction factors using a mathematical method similar to deconvolution; in the method, we modeled the variable and inhomogeneous energy fluence function within the chamber cavity. The parameters of the modeled function and the correction factors were determined by solving a developed system of equations as well as on the basis of the measurement data and the geometry of the chambers. Further, Monte Carlo (MC) computations were performed using the Monaco® treatment planning system to validate the proposed method. The determined correction factors (k{{Q\\text{msr}},Q}{{f\\text{smf}}, {{f}\\text{ref}}} ) were comparable to the values derived from the MC computations performed using Monaco®. For example, for a 6 MV photon beam and a field size of 1  ×  1 cm2, k{{Q\\text{msr}},Q}{{f\\text{smf}}, {{f}\\text{ref}}} was calculated to be 1.125 for a PTW 31010 chamber and 1.022 for a PTW 31016 chamber. On the other hand, the k{{Q\\text{msr}},Q}{{f\\text{smf}}, {{f}\\text{ref}}} values determined from the MC computations were 1.121 and 1.031, respectively; the difference between the proposed method and the MC computation is less than 2%. In addition, we determined the k{{Q\\text{msr}},Q}{{f\\text{smf}}, {{f}\\text{ref}}} values for PTW 30013, PTW 31010, PTW 31016, IBA FC23-C, and IBA CC13 chambers as well. We devised a method for determining k{{Q\\text{msr}},Q}{{f\\text{smf}}, {{f}\\text{ref}}} from both the measurement of the output factors and model-based mathematical computation. The proposed method can be useful in case the MC simulation would not be applicable for the clinical settings.

  8. New continuous-input current charge pump power-factor-correction electronic ballast

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, J.; Lee, F.C.; Yamauchi, Tokushi

    1999-03-01

    Continuous-input current charge pump power-factor-correction (CIC-CPPFC) electronic ballasts are proposed in this paper. The CPPFC circuit and unity power factor condition using the charge pump concept are derived and analyzed. The average lamp current control with switching frequency modulation was developed so that the low crest factor and constant lamp power operation can be achieved. The developed electronic ballast has continuous input current, so that a small line input filter can be used. The proposed CIC-CPPFC electronic ballast was implemented and tested with two 45-W fluorescent lamps. It is shown that the measured line input current harmonics satisfy IEC 1000-3-2 Class C requirements.

  9. Burnout among corrections-based drug treatment staff: impact of individual and organizational factors.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Knight, Kevin; Simpson, D Dwayne

    2007-10-01

    As a result of limited budgets, many treatment programs are forced to operate for extended periods at or beyond their capacity. The resulting pressure and stress on treatment staff can be taxing and lead to serious problems, including job burnout. Although the concept of burnout within other social service professions has been broadly researched, less attention has been given to burnout among drug abuse treatment staff, especially among corrections-based drug treatment staff. The goal of this article is to extend this area of research by exploring the impact of individual factors and organizational factors on burnout. Findings revealed that although a number of factors were related to staff burnout, younger counselor age, lower adaptability, poorer clarity of agency mission, and higher stress were most significant. Ways in which treatment programs might address these issues affecting staff burnout are discussed. PMID:17615435

  10. A new model for the estimation of time of death from vitreous potassium levels corrected for age and temperature.

    PubMed

    Zilg, B; Bernard, S; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of potassium concentration in the vitreous fluid of the eye is frequently used by forensic pathologists to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), particularly when other methods commonly used in the early phase of an investigation can no longer be applied. The postmortem rise in vitreous potassium has been recognized for several decades and is readily explained by a diffusion of potassium from surrounding cells into the vitreous fluid. However, there is no consensus regarding the mathematical equation that best describes this increase. The existing models assume a linear increase, but different slopes and starting points have been proposed. In this study, vitreous potassium levels, and a number of factors that may influence these levels, were examined in 462 cases with known postmortem intervals that ranged from 2h to 17 days. We found that the postmortem rise in potassium followed a non-linear curve and that decedent age and ambient temperature influenced the variability by 16% and 5%, respectively. A long duration of agony and a high alcohol level at the time of death contributed less than 1% variability, and evaluation of additional possible factors revealed no detectable impact on the rise of vitreous potassium. Two equations were subsequently generated, one that represents the best fit of the potassium concentrations alone, and a second that represents potassium concentrations with correction for decedent age and/or ambient temperature. The former was associated with narrow confidence intervals in the early postmortem phase, but the intervals gradually increased with longer PMIs. For the latter equation, the confidence intervals were reduced at all PMIs. Therefore, the model that best describes the observed postmortem rise in vitreous potassium levels includes potassium concentration, decedent age, and ambient temperature. Furthermore, the precision of these equations, particularly for long PMIs, is expected to gradually improve by adjusting the

  11. Study of the replacement correction factors for ionization chamber dosimetry by Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lilie

    In ionization chamber radiation dosimetry, the introduction of the ion chamber into medium will unavoidably distort the radiation field near the chamber because the chamber cavity material (air) is different from the medium. A replacement correction factor, Prepl was introduced in order to correct the chamber readings to give an accurate radiation dose in the medium without the presence of the chamber. Generally it is very hard to measure the values of Prepl since they are intertwined with the chamber wall effect. In addition, the P repl values always come together with the stopping-power ratio of the two media involved. This makes the problem of determining the P repl values even more complicated. Monte Carlo simulation is an ideal method to investigate the replacement correction factors. In this study, four different methods of calculating the values of Prepl by Monte Carlo simulation are discussed. Two of the methods are designated as 'direct' methods in the sense that the evaluation of the stopping-power ratio is not necessary. The systematic uncertainties of the two direct methods are estimated to be about 0.1-0.2% which comes from the ambiguous definition of the energy cutoff Delta used in the Spencer-Attix cavity theory. The two direct methods are used to calculate the values of P repl for both plane-parallel chambers and cylindrical thimble chambers in either electron beams or photon beams. The calculation results are compared to measurements. For electron beams, good agreements are obtained. For thimble chambers in photon beams, significant discrepancies are observed between calculations and measurements. The experiments are thus investigated and the procedures are simulated by the Monte Carlo method. It is found that the interpretation of the measured data as the replacement correction factors in dosimetry protocols are not correct. In applying the calculation to the BIPM graphite chamber in a 60Co beam, the calculated values of P repl differ from those

  12. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. Forecasts are against ERA reanalyses.

  13. Artificial neural network based microwave precipitation estimation using scattering index and polarization corrected temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh, C.; Prakash, Satya; Sathiyamoorthy, V.; Gairola, R. M.

    2011-11-01

    An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based technique is proposed for estimating precipitation over Indian land and oceanic regions [30° S - 40° N and 30° E - 120° E] using Scattering Index (SI) and Polarization Corrected Temperature (PCT) derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) measurements. This rainfall retrieval algorithm is designed to estimate rainfall using a combination of SSM/I and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) measurements. For training the ANN, SI and PCT (which signify rain signatures in a better way) calculated from SSM/I brightness temperature are considered as inputs and Precipitation Radar (PR) rain rate as output. SI is computed using 19.35 GHz, 22.235 GHz and 85.5 GHz Vertical channels and PCT is computed using 85.5 GHz Vertical and Horizontal channels. Once the training is completed, the independent data sets (which were not included in the training) were used to test the performance of the network. Instantaneous precipitation estimates with independent test data sets are validated with PR surface rain rate measurements. The results are compared with precipitation estimated using power law based (i) global algorithm and (ii) regional algorithm. Overall results show that ANN based present algorithm shows better agreement with PR rain rate. This study is aimed at developing a more accurate operational rainfall retrieval algorithm for Indo-French Megha-Tropiques Microwave Analysis and Detection of Rain and Atmospheric Structures (MADRAS) radiometer.

  14. Correction factors for low perturbation in vivo diodes used in the determination of entrance doses in high energy photon beams

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Ralph; Philp, Amanda

    2008-01-15

    Purpose--Low perturbation diodes, with thin buildup caps, can be used to reduce perturbations to the delivered dose. The literature states that additional correction factors are required for low perturbation diodes, however, there are few reported studies into their use. This report measured the dose perturbations and correction factors for diodes with varying buildup cap thicknesses. Methods and materials--Scanditronix EDP15, EDD5, and EDD2 diodes were investigated. Dose perturbations and correction factors for field size, source-surface distance (SSD), obliquity, and wedge were measured in megavoltage photon beams. Results--EDP15 produces a 6% dose perturbation. EDD5 produces a perturbation between 1% and 2%. EDD2 perturbation is negligible. The variation of correction factors for the full buildup EDP15 diode is small and consistent with the literature. The low perturbation diode EDD2 has large correction factors. The field size correction factor varies from 1.38 to 0.87 for 10 MV. The SSD correction factor varies from 0.92 to 1.09 for 10 MV. At the maximum angle measured, the obliquity correction factor is 0.73 for 10 MV. Intermediate results were observed for the EDD5 diode. Conclusions--It is expected that it will be very difficult to achieve accurate in vivo dosimetry using the EDD2 diode. The EDD5 diode may represent a reasonable compromise between EDD2 and the full buildup EDP15. The EDD5 dose perturbation is small and the correction factors are not as large as for EDD2, so accurate in vivo dosimetry may be possible as long as the obliquity is below 45 degrees.

  15. Bidirectional scattering distribution function measurements from volume diffusers: correction factors and associated uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Germer, Thomas A

    2016-09-01

    We consider the effect of volume diffusion on measurements of the bidirectional scattering distribution function when a finite distance is used for the solid angle defining aperture. We derive expressions for correction factors that can be used when the reduced scattering coefficients and the index of refraction are known. When these quantities are not known, the expressions can be used to guide the assessment of measurement uncertainty. We find that some measurement geometries reduce the effect of volume diffusion compared to their reciprocal geometries. PMID:27607273

  16. Reliability of IGBT in a STATCOM for Harmonic Compensation and Power Factor Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Gopi Reddy, Lakshmi Reddy; Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak; Xu, Yan; Rizy, D Tom

    2012-01-01

    With smart grid integration, there is a need to characterize reliability of a power system by including reliability of power semiconductors in grid related applications. In this paper, the reliability of IGBTs in a STATCOM application is presented for two different applications, power factor correction and harmonic elimination. The STATCOM model is developed in EMTP, and analytical equations for average conduction losses in an IGBT and a diode are derived and compared with experimental data. A commonly used reliability model is used to predict reliability of IGBT.

  17. BENDING RADIOGRAPHS AS A PREDICTIVE FACTOR IN SURGICAL CORRECTION OF ADOLESCENT IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Gotfryd, Alberto Ofenhejm; Franzin, Fernando José; Poletto, Patrícia Rios; de Laura, Alexandre Spertini; da Silva, Luis Carlos Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of x-rays in dorsal decubitus, as a predictive factor for surgical correction of the main thoracic curve using pedicle screws, on patients with idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. Method: Twenty patients with idiopathic adolescent scoliosis of Lenke types 1A and 1B who were operated using a technique only involving pedicle screws by means of the posterior route were evaluated clinically and radiographically. The curve flexibility was calculated by means of active supine lateral oblique radiographs. The postoperative values for the main thoracic curve were included in a mathematical equation proposed by Cheung et al., with the aim of predicting the expected angular result from the surgical correction. The difference between the expected and actual postoperative results was then investigated regarding its statistical significance. Results: There was statistical significance for all the cases studied, between the values predicted before the operation and the radiographic findings immediately after the operation (p < 0.005). Conclusions: It is possible to predict the percentage surgical correction of the main thoracic curve that will be achieved using pedicle screws in patients with idiopathic adolescent scoliosis of Lenke types 1A and 1B, by means of preoperative supine oblique radiographs. PMID:27027056

  18. An empirical method to correct for temperature-dependent variations in the overlap function of CHM15k ceilometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervo, Maxime; Poltera, Yann; Haefele, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Imperfections in a lidar's overlap function lead to artefacts in the background, range and overlap-corrected lidar signals. These artefacts can erroneously be interpreted as an aerosol gradient or, in extreme cases, as a cloud base leading to false cloud detection. A correct specification of the overlap function is hence crucial in the use of automatic elastic lidars (ceilometers) for the detection of the planetary boundary layer or of low cloud. In this study, an algorithm is presented to correct such artefacts. It is based on the assumption of a homogeneous boundary layer and a correct specification of the overlap function down to a minimum range, which must be situated within the boundary layer. The strength of the algorithm lies in a sophisticated quality-check scheme which allows the reliable identification of favourable atmospheric conditions. The algorithm was applied to 2 years of data from a CHM15k ceilometer from the company Lufft. Backscatter signals corrected for background, range and overlap were compared using the overlap function provided by the manufacturer and the one corrected with the presented algorithm. Differences between corrected and uncorrected signals reached up to 45 % in the first 300 m above ground. The amplitude of the correction turned out to be temperature dependent and was larger for higher temperatures. A linear model of the correction as a function of the instrument's internal temperature was derived from the experimental data. Case studies and a statistical analysis of the strongest gradient derived from corrected signals reveal that the temperature model is capable of a high-quality correction of overlap artefacts, in particular those due to diurnal variations. The presented correction method has the potential to significantly improve the detection of the boundary layer with gradient-based methods because it removes false candidates and hence simplifies the attribution of the detected gradients to the planetary boundary layer. A

  19. Factors Associated with Correct and Consistent Insecticide Treated Curtain Use in Iquitos, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Thomas W.; Elder, John P.; Alexander, Neal; Halsey, Eric S.; McCall, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne virus of great public health importance, and control of its mosquito vectors is currently the only available method for prevention. Previous research has suggested that insecticide treated curtains (ITCs) can lower dengue vector infestations in houses. This observational study investigated individual and household-level socio-demographic factors associated with correct and consistent use of ITCs in Iquitos, Peru. A baseline knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey was administered to 1,333 study participants, and ITCs were then distributed to 593 households as part of a cluster-randomized trial. Follow up KAP surveys and ITC-monitoring checklists were conducted at 9, 18, and 27 months post-ITC distribution. At 9 months post-distribution, almost 70% of ITCs were hanging properly (e.g. hanging fully extended or tied up), particularly those hung on walls compared to other locations. Proper ITC hanging dropped at 18 months to 45.7%. The odds of hanging ITCs correctly and consistently were significantly greater among those participants who were housewives, knew three or more correct symptoms of dengue and at least one correct treatment for dengue, knew a relative or close friend who had had dengue, had children sleeping under a mosquito net, or perceived a change in the amount of mosquitoes in the home. Additionally, the odds of recommending ITCs in the future were significantly greater among those who perceived a change in the amount of mosquitoes in the home (e.g. perceived the ITCs to be effective). Despite various challenges associated with the sustained effectiveness of the selected ITCs, almost half of the ITCs were still hanging at 18 months, suggesting a feasible vector control strategy for sustained community use. PMID:26967157

  20. Factors Associated with Correct and Consistent Insecticide Treated Curtain Use in Iquitos, Peru.

    PubMed

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A; Bauer, Karin; Morrison, Amy C; Cordova Lopez, Jhonny J; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Scott, Thomas W; Elder, John P; Alexander, Neal; Halsey, Eric S; McCall, Philip J; Lenhart, Audrey

    2016-03-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne virus of great public health importance, and control of its mosquito vectors is currently the only available method for prevention. Previous research has suggested that insecticide treated curtains (ITCs) can lower dengue vector infestations in houses. This observational study investigated individual and household-level socio-demographic factors associated with correct and consistent use of ITCs in Iquitos, Peru. A baseline knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey was administered to 1,333 study participants, and ITCs were then distributed to 593 households as part of a cluster-randomized trial. Follow up KAP surveys and ITC-monitoring checklists were conducted at 9, 18, and 27 months post-ITC distribution. At 9 months post-distribution, almost 70% of ITCs were hanging properly (e.g. hanging fully extended or tied up), particularly those hung on walls compared to other locations. Proper ITC hanging dropped at 18 months to 45.7%. The odds of hanging ITCs correctly and consistently were significantly greater among those participants who were housewives, knew three or more correct symptoms of dengue and at least one correct treatment for dengue, knew a relative or close friend who had had dengue, had children sleeping under a mosquito net, or perceived a change in the amount of mosquitoes in the home. Additionally, the odds of recommending ITCs in the future were significantly greater among those who perceived a change in the amount of mosquitoes in the home (e.g. perceived the ITCs to be effective). Despite various challenges associated with the sustained effectiveness of the selected ITCs, almost half of the ITCs were still hanging at 18 months, suggesting a feasible vector control strategy for sustained community use. PMID:26967157

  1. THE CALCULATION OF BURNABLE POISON CORRECTION FACTORS FOR PWR FRESH FUEL ACTIVE COLLAR MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2012-06-19

    Verification of commercial low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel takes place at the fuel fabrication facility as part of the overall international nuclear safeguards solution to the civilian use of nuclear technology. The fissile mass per unit length is determined nondestructively by active neutron coincidence counting using a neutron collar. A collar comprises four slabs of high density polyethylene that surround the assembly. Three of the slabs contain {sup 3}He filled proportional counters to detect time correlated fission neutrons induced by an AmLi source placed in the fourth slab. Historically, the response of a particular collar design to a particular fuel assembly type has been established by careful cross-calibration to experimental absolute calibrations. Traceability exists to sources and materials held at Los Alamos National Laboratory for over 35 years. This simple yet powerful approach has ensured consistency of application. Since the 1980's there has been a steady improvement in fuel performance. The trend has been to higher burn up. This requires the use of both higher initial enrichment and greater concentrations of burnable poisons. The original analytical relationships to correct for varying fuel composition are consequently being challenged because the experimental basis for them made use of fuels of lower enrichment and lower poison content than is in use today and is envisioned for use in the near term. Thus a reassessment of the correction factors is needed. Experimental reassessment is expensive and time consuming given the great variation between fuel assemblies in circulation. Fortunately current modeling methods enable relative response functions to be calculated with high accuracy. Hence modeling provides a more convenient and cost effective means to derive correction factors which are fit for purpose with confidence. In this work we use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX with neutron coincidence tallies to calculate the influence of Gd

  2. QCD corrections to B → π form factors from light-cone sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ming; Shen, Yue-Long

    2015-09-01

    We compute perturbative corrections to B → π form factors from QCD light-cone sum rules with B-meson distribution amplitudes. Applying the method of regions we demonstrate factorization of the vacuum-to-B-meson correlation function defined with an interpolating current for pion, at one-loop level, explicitly in the heavy quark limit. The short-distance functions in the factorization formulae of the correlation function involves both hard and hard-collinear scales; and these functions can be further factorized into hard coefficients by integrating out the hard fluctuations and jet functions encoding the hard-collinear information. Resummation of large logarithms in the short-distance functions is then achieved via the standard renormalization-group approach. We further show that structures of the factorization formulae for fBπ+ (q2) and fBπ0 (q2) at large hadronic recoil from QCD light-cone sum rules match that derived in QCD factorization. In particular, we perform an exploratory phenomenological analysis of B → π form factors, paying attention to various sources of perturbative and systematic uncertainties, and extract |Vub | = (3.05-0.38+0.54|th. ± 0.09|exp.) ×10-3 with the inverse moment of the B-meson distribution amplitude ϕB+ (ω) determined by reproducing fBπ+ (q2 = 0) obtained from the light-cone sum rules with π distribution amplitudes. Furthermore, we present the invariant-mass distributions of the lepton pair for B → πℓνℓ (ℓ = μ, τ) in the whole kinematic region. Finally, we discuss non-valence Fock state contributions to the B → π form factors fBπ+ (q2) and fBπ0 (q2) in brief.

  3. Home radon levels and seasonal correction factors for the Isle of Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grainger, P.; Shalla, S. H.; Preece, A. W.; Goodfellow, S. A.

    2000-08-01

    Ionizing radiation dose levels due to home radon can rise to levels that would be illegal for workers in the nuclear industry. It is well known that radon levels within homes and from home to home, and also from month to month, vary considerably. To define an Isle of Man radon seasonal correction factor, readings were taken in eight homes over a 12 month period. An average island indoor exposure of 48 Bq m-3 (range 4-518 Bq m-3) was determined from 285 homes selected from a cohort of 1300 families participating in the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) in the Isle of Man. This compares with a UK home average of 20 Bq m-3 and a European Union average (excluding UK) of 68 Bq m-3. Ten homes of those measured were found to have radon levels above the National Radiological Protection Board 200 Bq m-3 action level. There are 29 377 homes on the Isle of Man, suggesting that there could be some 900 or more homes above the action level. No statistical difference was found between the NRPB and Isle of Man seasonal correction factors.

  4. Nuclear and QED corrections to the bound-electron g factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatorski, Jacek; Oreshkina, Natalia S.; Keitel, Christoph H.; Harman, Zoltán

    2012-06-01

    We calculate nuclear shape and quantum electrodynamic corrections to the g factor of a bound electron [1,2]. These theoretical studies are motivated by the current improvement of experimental possibilities: on the one hand, in a recent Penning trap measurement [2], the g factor of ^28Si^13+ has been determined with an unprecedented 5 .10-10 relative uncertainty. A novel experimental technique will further improve accuracy to the 10-11 level. On the other hand, experiments with ions as heavy as ^238U^91+ will be performed soon at the HITRAP-FAIR facility. For such heavy ions, nuclear effects play an important role. The leading relativistic nuclear deformation correction has been derived analytically and also its influence on one-loop quantum electrodynamic terms has been evaluated. We present results for medium- and high-Z hydrogenlike ions, which become significant already for mid-Z ions, and for very heavy elements it even reaches the 10-6 level, as we show in [1].[4pt] [1] J. Zatorski, N. S. Oreshkina, C. H. Keitel, and Z. Harman, Phys. Rev. Lett., in press; arXiv:1110.3330 [2] S. Sturm, A. Wagner, B. Schabinger, J. Zatorski, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 023002 (2011).

  5. Low-temperature ignition delay for hydrogen-air mixtures in light of a reaction mechanism with quantum correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, S. P.; Agafonov, G. L.; Khomik, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    A reaction mechanism with quantum correction is used to model low-temperature/high-pressure autoignition of lean hydrogen-air mixtures. This approach provides a good approximation for experimental data on autoignition delay and the low activation energy observed in experiments. Calculated results demonstrate that ignition delay time is inversely proportional to pressure, squared. The proposed scaling reduces spread in experimental data. The application of a quantum correction to hydrogen oxidation provides a basis for developing a general reaction mechanism that can be used to predict the autoignition behavior of hydrogen over an entire temperature/pressure range relevant to rocket engine conditions.

  6. Correction: Towards improved precision in the quantification of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement factors: a renewed approach.

    PubMed

    Sivanesan, Arumugam; Adamkiewicz, Witold; Kalaivani, Govindasamy; Kamińska, Agnieszka; Waluk, Jacek; Hołyst, Robert; Izake, Emad L

    2015-01-21

    Correction for 'Towards improved precision in the quantification of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement factors: a renewed approach' by Arumugam Sivanesan et al., Analyst, 2015, DOI:10.1039/c4an01778a PMID:25453040

  7. Finite temperature corrections and embedded strings in noncommutative geometry and the standard model with neutrino mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, R. A.

    2007-08-15

    The recent extension of the standard model to include massive neutrinos in the framework of noncommutative geometry and the spectral action principle involves new scalar fields and their interactions with the usual complex scalar doublet. After ensuring that they bring no unphysical consequences, we address the question of how these fields affect the physics predicted in the Weinberg-Salam theory, particularly in the context of the electroweak phase transition. Applying the Dolan-Jackiw procedure, we calculate the finite temperature corrections, and find that the phase transition is first order. The new scalar interactions significantly improve the stability of the electroweak Z string, through the 'bag' phenomenon described by Vachaspati and Watkins ['Bound states can stabilize electroweak strings', Phys. Lett. B 318, 163-168 (1993)]. (Recently, cosmic strings have climbed back into interest due to a new evidence.) Sourced by static embedded strings, an internal space analogy of Cartan's torsion is drawn, and a possible Higgs-force-like 'gravitational' effect of this nonpropagating torsion on the fermion masses is described. We also check that the field generating the Majorana mass for the {nu}{sub R} is nonzero in the physical vacuum.

  8. Experimental setup for the determination of the correction factors of the neutron doseratemeters in fast neutron fields

    SciTech Connect

    Iliescu, Elena; Bercea, Sorin; Dudu, Dorin; Celarel, Aurelia

    2013-12-16

    The use of the U-120 Cyclotron of the IFIN-HH allowed to perform a testing bench with fast neutrons in order to determine the correction factors of the doseratemeters dedicated to neutron measurement. This paper deals with researchers performed in order to develop the irradiation facility testing the fast neutrons flux generated at the Cyclotron. This facility is presented, together with the results obtain in determining the correction factor for a doseratemeter dedicated to the neutron dose equivalent rate measurement.

  9. Self-attenuation correction factors for bioindicators measured by γ spectrometry for energies <100 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduci, L.; Tenailleau, L.; Trolet, J. L.; De Vismes, A.; Lopez, G.; Piccione, M.

    2010-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients for a number of marine and terrestrial bioindicators were measured using γ spectrometry for energies between 22 and 80 keV. These values were then used to find the correction factor k for the apparent radioactivity. The experimental results were compared with a Monte Carlo simulation performed using PENELOPE in order to evaluate the reliability of the simplified calculation and to determine the correction factors.

  10. Determination of the thermodynamic correction factor of fluids confined in nano-metric slit pores from molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collell, Julien; Galliero, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The multi-component diffusive mass transport is generally quantified by means of the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients when using molecular simulations. These coefficients can be related to the Fick diffusion coefficients using the thermodynamic correction factor matrix, which requires to run several simulations to estimate all the elements of the matrix. In a recent work, Schnell et al. ["Thermodynamics of small systems embedded in a reservoir: A detailed analysis of finite size effects," Mol. Phys. 110, 1069-1079 (2012)] developed an approach to determine the full matrix of thermodynamic factors from a single simulation in bulk. This approach relies on finite size effects of small systems on the density fluctuations. We present here an extension of their work for inhomogeneous Lennard Jones fluids confined in slit pores. We first verified this extension by cross validating the results obtained from this approach with the results obtained from the simulated adsorption isotherms, which allows to determine the thermodynamic factor in porous medium. We then studied the effects of the pore width (from 1 to 15 molecular sizes), of the solid-fluid interaction potential (Lennard Jones 9-3, hard wall potential) and of the reduced fluid density (from 0.1 to 0.7 at a reduced temperature T* = 2) on the thermodynamic factor. The deviation of the thermodynamic factor compared to its equivalent bulk value decreases when increasing the pore width and becomes insignificant for reduced pore width above 15. We also found that the thermodynamic factor is sensitive to the magnitude of the fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interactions, which softens or exacerbates the density fluctuations.

  11. Determination of the thermodynamic correction factor of fluids confined in nano-metric slit pores from molecular simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Collell, Julien; Galliero, Guillaume

    2014-05-21

    The multi-component diffusive mass transport is generally quantified by means of the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients when using molecular simulations. These coefficients can be related to the Fick diffusion coefficients using the thermodynamic correction factor matrix, which requires to run several simulations to estimate all the elements of the matrix. In a recent work, Schnell et al. [“Thermodynamics of small systems embedded in a reservoir: A detailed analysis of finite size effects,” Mol. Phys. 110, 1069–1079 (2012)] developed an approach to determine the full matrix of thermodynamic factors from a single simulation in bulk. This approach relies on finite size effects of small systems on the density fluctuations. We present here an extension of their work for inhomogeneous Lennard Jones fluids confined in slit pores. We first verified this extension by cross validating the results obtained from this approach with the results obtained from the simulated adsorption isotherms, which allows to determine the thermodynamic factor in porous medium. We then studied the effects of the pore width (from 1 to 15 molecular sizes), of the solid-fluid interaction potential (Lennard Jones 9-3, hard wall potential) and of the reduced fluid density (from 0.1 to 0.7 at a reduced temperature T* = 2) on the thermodynamic factor. The deviation of the thermodynamic factor compared to its equivalent bulk value decreases when increasing the pore width and becomes insignificant for reduced pore width above 15. We also found that the thermodynamic factor is sensitive to the magnitude of the fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interactions, which softens or exacerbates the density fluctuations.

  12. Monte Carlo calculated and experimentally determined output correction factors for small field detectors in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion beams.

    PubMed

    Benmakhlouf, H; Johansson, J; Paddick, I; Andreo, P

    2015-05-21

    The measurement of output factors (OF) for the small photon beams generated by Leksell Gamma Knife® (LGK) radiotherapy units is a challenge for the physicist due to the under or over estimation of these factors by a vast majority of the detectors commercially available. Output correction factors, introduced in the international formalism published by Alfonso (2008 Med. Phys. 35 5179-86), standardize the determination of OFs for small photon beams by correcting detector-reading ratios to yield OFs in terms of absorbed-dose ratios. In this work output correction factors for a number of detectors have been determined for LGK Perfexion™ (60)Co γ-ray beams by Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and measurements. The calculations were made with the MC system PENELOPE, scoring the energy deposited in the active volume of the detectors and in a small volume of water; the detectors simulated were two silicon diodes, one liquid ionization chamber (LIC), alanine and TLD. The calculated LIC output correction factors were within ± 0.4%, and this was selected as the reference detector for experimental determinations where output correction factors for twelve detectors were measured, normalizing their readings to those of the LIC. The MC-calculated and measured output correction factors for silicon diodes yielded corrections of up to 5% for the smallest LGK collimator size of 4 mm diameter. The air ionization chamber measurements led to extremely large output correction factors, caused by the well-known effect of partial volume averaging. The corrections were up to 7% for the natural diamond detector in the 4 mm collimator, also due to partial volume averaging, and decreased to within about ± 0.6% for the smaller synthetic diamond detector. The LIC, showing the smallest corrections, was used to investigate machine-to-machine output factor differences by performing measurements in four LGK units with different dose rates. These resulted in OFs within ± 0.6% and

  13. Monte Carlo calculated and experimentally determined output correction factors for small field detectors in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmakhlouf, H.; Johansson, J.; Paddick, I.; Andreo, P.

    2015-05-01

    The measurement of output factors (OF) for the small photon beams generated by Leksell Gamma Knife® (LGK) radiotherapy units is a challenge for the physicist due to the under or over estimation of these factors by a vast majority of the detectors commercially available. Output correction factors, introduced in the international formalism published by Alfonso (2008 Med. Phys. 35 5179-86), standardize the determination of OFs for small photon beams by correcting detector-reading ratios to yield OFs in terms of absorbed-dose ratios. In this work output correction factors for a number of detectors have been determined for LGK Perfexion™ 60Co γ-ray beams by Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and measurements. The calculations were made with the MC system PENELOPE, scoring the energy deposited in the active volume of the detectors and in a small volume of water; the detectors simulated were two silicon diodes, one liquid ionization chamber (LIC), alanine and TLD. The calculated LIC output correction factors were within ± 0.4%, and this was selected as the reference detector for experimental determinations where output correction factors for twelve detectors were measured, normalizing their readings to those of the LIC. The MC-calculated and measured output correction factors for silicon diodes yielded corrections of up to 5% for the smallest LGK collimator size of 4 mm diameter. The air ionization chamber measurements led to extremely large output correction factors, caused by the well-known effect of partial volume averaging. The corrections were up to 7% for the natural diamond detector in the 4 mm collimator, also due to partial volume averaging, and decreased to within about ± 0.6% for the smaller synthetic diamond detector. The LIC, showing the smallest corrections, was used to investigate machine-to-machine output factor differences by performing measurements in four LGK units with different dose rates. These resulted in OFs within ± 0.6% and ± 0

  14. A revision factor to the Cutshall self-attenuation correction in (210)Pb gamma-spectrometry measurements.

    PubMed

    Jodłowski, Paweł

    2016-03-01

    The Cutshall transmission method of determination of self-attenuation correction in (210)Pb measurements by gamma-spectrometry gives the results burdened with errors of up to 10%. The author proposes introducing into the Cutshall correction Cs,Cuts an additional revision factor CCs,Cuts to eliminate errors. The proposed formula of the revision factor describes the CCs,Cuts value depending on the experimentally obtained Cs,Cuts correction. Formula holds true in wide ranges of the measurement geometries and linear attenuation coefficients of both the standard and the sample. PMID:26702546

  15. Temperature regulation of virulence factors in the pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus

    PubMed Central

    Kimes, Nikole E; Grim, Christopher J; Johnson, Wesley R; Hasan, Nur A; Tall, Ben D; Kothary, Mahendra H; Kiss, Hajnalka; Munk, A Christine; Tapia, Roxanne; Green, Lance; Detter, Chris; Bruce, David C; Brettin, Thomas S; Colwell, Rita R; Morris, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SST) are rising because of global climate change. As a result, pathogenic Vibrio species that infect humans and marine organisms during warmer summer months are of growing concern. Coral reefs, in particular, are already experiencing unprecedented degradation worldwide due in part to infectious disease outbreaks and bleaching episodes that are exacerbated by increasing SST. For example, Vibrio coralliilyticus, a globally distributed bacterium associated with multiple coral diseases, infects corals at temperatures above 27 °C. The mechanisms underlying this temperature-dependent pathogenicity, however, are unknown. In this study, we identify potential virulence mechanisms using whole genome sequencing of V. coralliilyticus ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) BAA-450. Furthermore, we demonstrate direct temperature regulation of numerous virulence factors using proteomic analysis and bioassays. Virulence factors involved in motility, host degradation, secretion, antimicrobial resistance and transcriptional regulation are upregulated at the higher virulent temperature of 27 °C, concurrent with phenotypic changes in motility, antibiotic resistance, hemolysis, cytotoxicity and bioluminescence. These results provide evidence that temperature regulates multiple virulence mechanisms in V. coralliilyticus, independent of abundance. The ecological and biological significance of this temperature-dependent virulence response is reinforced by climate change models that predict tropical SST to consistently exceed 27 °C during the spring, summer and fall seasons. We propose V. coralliilyticus as a model Gram-negative bacterium to study temperature-dependent pathogenicity in Vibrio-related diseases. PMID:22158392

  16. Physics-Based Correction of Inhomogeneities in Temperature Series: Model Transferability Testing and Comparison to Statistical Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchmann, Renate; Brönnimann, Stefan; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa

    2016-04-01

    For the correction of inhomogeneities in sub-daily temperature series, Auchmann and Brönnimann (2012) developed a physics-based model for one specific type of break, i.e. the transition from a Wild screen to a Stevenson screen at one specific station in Basel, Switzerland. The model is based solely on physical considerations, no relationships of the covariates to the differences between the parallel measurements have been investigated. The physics-based model requires detailed information on the screen geometry, the location, and includes a variety of covariates in the model. The model is mainly based on correcting the radiation error, including a modification by ambient wind. In this study we test the application of the model to another station, Zurich, experiencing the same type of transition. Furthermore we compare the performance of the physics based correction to purely statistical correction approaches (constant correction, correcting for annual cycle using spline). In Zurich the Wild screen was replaced in 1954 by the Stevenson screen, from 1954-1960 parallel temperature measurements in both screens were taken, which will be used to assess the performance of the applied corrections. For Zurich the required model input is available (i.e. three times daily observations of wind, cloud cover, pressure and humidity measurements, local times of sunset and sunrise). However, a large number of stations do not measure these additional input data required for the model, which hampers the transferability and applicability of the model to other stations. Hence, we test possible simplifications and generalizations of the model to make it more easily applicable to stations with the same type of inhomogeneity. In a last step we test whether other types of transitions (e.g., from a Stevenson screen to an automated weather system) can be corrected using the principle of a physics-based approach.

  17. BEAM QUALITY CORRECTION FACTORS FOR KAP METERS FOR LIGHTLY AND HEAVILY FILTERED X-RAY BEAMS.

    PubMed

    Herrnsdorf, L; Petersson, H

    2016-06-01

    Kerma-area product (KAP) meters have a pronounced energy dependence when measuring air KAP for lightly filtered X-ray beams (RQR). Today, it is also common with more heavily filtered beams. In this work, the energy dependence for lightly as well as heavily filtered beams (RQC) was investigated for several KAP meter models. The relative energy dependence of the readings of an external and an internal KAP meter was determined relative to an ionisation chamber, which had been calibrated at the primary standards laboratory. As a complement to the measurements, the sensitivity of a KAP meter for various X-ray beam qualities was modelled using Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport and absorption. The result showed a variation in relative energy dependence of up to 30 % for KAP meters for RQC beam qualities compared with RQR qualities. A reduced sensitivity of KAP meters for heavily filtered beams in comparison with lightly filtered ones was found, and it is important that the beam-specific radiation quality correction factors are applied to correct the registered KAP values. PMID:26994096

  18. Calibration of Gyros with Temperature Dependent Scale Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belur, Sheela V.; Harman, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The general problem of gyro calibration can be stated as the estimation of the scale factors, misalignments, and drift-rate biases of the gyro using the on-orbit sensor measurements. These gyro parameters have been traditionally treated as temperature-independent in the operational flight dynamics ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), a scenario which has been successfully applied in the gyro calibration of a large number of missions. A significant departure from this is the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission where, due to the high thermal variations expected during the mission phase, it is necessary to model the scale factors as functions of temperature. This paper addresses the issue of gyro calibration for the MAP gyro model using a manufacturer-supplied model of the variation of scale factors with temperature. The problem is formulated as a least squares problem and solved using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in the MATLAB(R) library function NLSQ. The algorithm was tested on simulated data with Gaussian noise for the quaternions as well as the gyro rates and was found to consistently converge close to the true values. Significant improvement in accuracy was noticed due to the estimation of the temperature-dependent scale factors as against constant scale factors.

  19. SU-C-304-07: Are Small Field Detector Correction Factors Strongly Dependent On Machine-Specific Characteristics?

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Parsai, E; Sperling, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The current small field dosimetry formalism utilizes quality correction factors to compensate for the difference in detector response relative to dose deposited in water. The correction factors are defined on a machine-specific basis for each beam quality and detector combination. Some research has suggested that the correction factors may only be weakly dependent on machine-to-machine variations, allowing for determinations of class-specific correction factors for various accelerator models. This research examines the differences in small field correction factors for three detectors across two Varian Truebeam accelerators to determine the correction factor dependence on machine-specific characteristics. Methods: Output factors were measured on two Varian Truebeam accelerators for equivalently tuned 6 MV and 6 FFF beams. Measurements were obtained using a commercial plastic scintillation detector (PSD), two ion chambers, and a diode detector. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm with an SSD of 100 cm for jaw-defined field sizes ranging from 3×3 cm{sup 2} to 0.6×0.6 cm{sup 2}, normalized to values at 5×5cm{sup 2}. Correction factors for each field on each machine were calculated as the ratio of the detector response to the PSD response. Percent change of correction factors for the chambers are presented relative to the primary machine. Results: The Exradin A26 demonstrates a difference of 9% for 6×6mm{sup 2} fields in both the 6FFF and 6MV beams. The A16 chamber demonstrates a 5%, and 3% difference in 6FFF and 6MV fields at the same field size respectively. The Edge diode exhibits less than 1.5% difference across both evaluated energies. Field sizes larger than 1.4×1.4cm2 demonstrated less than 1% difference for all detectors. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest that class-specific correction may not be appropriate for micro-ionization chamber. For diode systems, the correction factor was substantially similar and may be useful for class

  20. Effect of photometric detector spectral response quality on white LED spectral mismatch correction factors.

    PubMed

    Rosas, E; Estrada-Hernández, A

    2016-07-01

    Light-emitting-diode (LED)-based solid-state lighting has become a real option for private and public lighting after achieving high total luminous flux (TLF) and luminous efficacy levels, thus promoting the development of energy efficient use regulation to be fulfilled by LED lamps and LED luminaires. Here, we propose a photometer-quality-based fast-checking criterion. This allows photometric technicians to perform a quick evaluation of the photometric head spectral response quality effect on the LED source spectral mismatch correction factor-when determining the TLF and luminous efficacy minimum approved levels-performance parameters subject to mandatory verification by the conformity assessment procedures technically supporting the corresponding regulation. The proposed criterion applies for a wide range of photometric detector heads' qualities (2.6%≤f1'≤36.4%). PMID:27409220

  1. Design and real time implementation of single phase boost power factor correction converter.

    PubMed

    Bouafassa, Amar; Rahmani, Lazhar; Mekhilef, Saad

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a real time implementation of the single-phase power factor correction (PFC) AC-DC boost converter. A combination of higher order sliding mode controller based on super twisting algorithm and predictive control techniques are implemented to improve the performance of the boost converter. Due to the chattering effects, the higher order sliding mode control (HOSMC) is designed. Also, the predictive technique is modified taking into account the large computational delays. The robustness of the controller is verified conducting simulation in MATLAB, the results show good performances in both steady and transient states. An experiment is conducted through a test bench based on dSPACE 1104. The experimental results proved that the proposed controller enhanced the performance of the converter under different parameters variations. PMID:25457043

  2. Polarity correction factor for flattening filter free photon beams in several cylindrical ionization chambers.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Toshiyuki; Uehara, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Masao; Tsudou, Shinji; Masutani, Takashi; Okayama, Takanobu

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the polarity correction factor in ionization chambers for flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams and flattening filter (FF) beams. Measurements were performed with both 6 and 10 MV FFF and FF beams. Five commercial ionization chambers were evaluated: PTW TN30013; IBA Dosimetry CC01, CC04, and CC13; and Exradin A12S. Except for the CC01 ionization chamber, the other four chambers showed less than a 0.3 % difference in the polarity effect between the FFF and the FF beams. The CC01 chamber showed a strong field-size-dependence, unlike the other chambers. The polarity effect for all chambers with FFF beams did not change with the dose rate. Except in the case of the CC01 chamber, the difference in the polarity effect between FFF and FF beams was not significant. PMID:26873138

  3. Humidity and aggregate content correction factors for air-coupled ultrasonic evaluation of concrete.

    PubMed

    Berriman, J; Purnell, P; Hutchins, D A; Neild, A

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes the use of non-contact ultrasound for the evaluation of concrete. Micromachined capacitance transducers are used to transmit ultrasonic longitudinal chirp signals through concrete samples using air as the coupling medium, and a pulse compression technique is then employed for measurement of time of flight through the sample. The effect on the ultrasonic wave speed of storing concrete samples, made with the same water/cement ratio, at different humidity levels is investigated. It is shown that there is a correlation between humidity and speed of sound, allowing a correction factor for humidity to be derived. A strong positive linear correlation between aggregate content and speed of sound was then observed; there was no obvious correlation between compressive strength and speed of sound. The results from the non-contact system are compared with that from a contact system, and conclusions drawn concerning coupling of energy into the samples. PMID:15567195

  4. Irradiated, colour-temperature-corrected accretion discs in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Andrew D.; Done, Chris; Roberts, Timothy P.

    2014-11-01

    Although attempts have been made to constrain the stellar types of optical counterparts to ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), the detection of optical variability instead suggests that they may be dominated by reprocessed emission from X-rays which irradiate the outer accretion disc. Here, we report results from a combined X-ray and optical spectral study of a sample of ULXs, which were selected for having broadened disc-like X-ray spectra and known optical counterparts. We simultaneously fit optical and X-ray data from ULXs with a new spectral model of emission from an irradiated, colour-temperature-corrected accretion disc around a black hole, with a central Comptonizing corona. We find that the ULXs require reprocessing fractions of ˜10-3, which is similar to sub-Eddington thermal dominant state black hole binaries (BHBs), but less than has been reported for ULXs with soft ultraluminous X-ray spectra. We suggest that the reprocessing fraction may be due to the opposing effects of self-shielding in a geometrically thick supercritical accretion disc and reflection from far above the central black hole by optically thin material ejected in a natal super-Eddington wind. Then, the higher reprocessing fractions reported for ULXs with wind-dominated X-ray spectra may be due to enhanced scattering on to the outer disc via the stronger wind in these objects. Alternatively, the accretion discs in these ULXs may not be particularly geometrically thick, rather they may be similar in this regard to the thermal dominant state BHBs.

  5. Free oscillation rheometry monitoring of haemodilution and hypothermia and correction with fibrinogen and factor XIII concentrates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Haemodilution and hypothermia induce coagulopathy separately, but their combined effect on coagulation has not been widely studied. Fibrinogen concentrate can correct dilutional coagulopathy and has an additional effect when combined with factor XIII concentrate. However, their effect on dilutional coagulopathy concomitant with hypothermia has not been studied previously. Free oscillation rheometry – FOR (Reorox®) – is a novel viscoelastic haemostatic assay that has not been studied in this context before. Methods Blood from 10 healthy volunteers was diluted by 33% with hydroxyethyl starch or Ringer’s acetate solutions. Effects of fibrinogen added in vitro with and without factor XIII were studied at 33°C and 37°C. Coagulation velocity (coagulation time) and clot strength (elasticity) were assessed with FOR. Coagulation was initiated in vitro with thromboplastin alone, or thromboplastin plus a platelet inhibitor. Results Hydroxyethyl starch increased the coagulation time and decreased clot strength significantly more than Ringer’s acetate solution, both in the presence and absence of a platelet inhibitor. There was a significant interaction between haemodilution with hydroxyethyl starch and hypothermia, resulting in increased coagulation time. After addition of fibrinogen, coagulation time shortened and elasticity increased, with the exception of fibrinogen-dependent clot strength (i.e., elasticity in the presence of a platelet inhibitor) after hydroxyethyl starch haemodilution. Factor XIII had an additional effect with fibrinogen on fibrinogen-dependent clot strength in blood diluted with Ringer’s acetate solution. Hypothermia did not influence any of the coagulation factor effects. Conclusions Both haemodilution and mild hypothermia impaired coagulation. Coagulopathy was more pronounced after haemodilution with hydroxyethyl starch than with Ringer’s acetate. Addition of fibrinogen with factor XIII was unable to reverse hydroxyethyl

  6. INTRINSIC COLORS, TEMPERATURES, AND BOLOMETRIC CORRECTIONS OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2013-09-01

    We present an analysis of the intrinsic colors and temperatures of 5-30 Myr old pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars using the F0- through M9-type members of nearby, negligibly reddened groups: the η Cha cluster, the TW Hydra Association, the β Pic Moving Group, and the Tucana-Horologium Association. To check the consistency of spectral types from the literature, we estimate new spectral types for 52 nearby pre-MS stars with spectral types F3 through M4 using optical spectra taken with the SMARTS 1.5 m telescope. Combining these new types with published spectral types and photometry from the literature (Johnson-Cousins BVI{sub C} , 2MASS JHK{sub S} and WISE W1, W2, W3, and W4), we derive a new empirical spectral type-color sequence for 5-30 Myr old pre-MS stars. Colors for pre-MS stars match dwarf colors for some spectral types and colors, but for other spectral types and colors, deviations can exceed 0.3 mag. We estimate effective temperatures (T {sub eff}) and bolometric corrections (BCs) for our pre-MS star sample through comparing their photometry to synthetic photometry generated using the BT-Settl grid of model atmosphere spectra. We derive a new T {sub eff} and BC scale for pre-MS stars, which should be a more appropriate match for T Tauri stars than often-adopted dwarf star scales. While our new T {sub eff} scale for pre-MS stars is within ≅100 K of dwarfs at a given spectral type for stars

  7. Intrinsic Colors, Temperatures, and Bolometric Corrections of Pre-main-sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2013-09-01

    We present an analysis of the intrinsic colors and temperatures of 5-30 Myr old pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars using the F0- through M9-type members of nearby, negligibly reddened groups: the η Cha cluster, the TW Hydra Association, the β Pic Moving Group, and the Tucana-Horologium Association. To check the consistency of spectral types from the literature, we estimate new spectral types for 52 nearby pre-MS stars with spectral types F3 through M4 using optical spectra taken with the SMARTS 1.5 m telescope. Combining these new types with published spectral types and photometry from the literature (Johnson-Cousins BVIC , 2MASS JHKS and WISE W1, W2, W3, and W4), we derive a new empirical spectral type-color sequence for 5-30 Myr old pre-MS stars. Colors for pre-MS stars match dwarf colors for some spectral types and colors, but for other spectral types and colors, deviations can exceed 0.3 mag. We estimate effective temperatures (T eff) and bolometric corrections (BCs) for our pre-MS star sample through comparing their photometry to synthetic photometry generated using the BT-Settl grid of model atmosphere spectra. We derive a new T eff and BC scale for pre-MS stars, which should be a more appropriate match for T Tauri stars than often-adopted dwarf star scales. While our new T eff scale for pre-MS stars is within sime100 K of dwarfs at a given spectral type for stars

  8. The calculation of a size correction factor for a whole-body counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carinou, E.; Koukouliou, V.; Budayova, M.; Potiriadis, C.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2007-09-01

    Whole-Body counting techniques use radiation detectors in order to evaluate the internal exposure from radionuclides. The Whole-Body Counter (WBC) of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is used for in vivo measurements of workers for routine purposes as well as for the public in case of an emergency. The system has been calibrated using the phantom provided by CANBERRA (RMC phantom) in combination with solid and point sources. Furthermore, four bottle phantoms of different sizes have been used to calibrate the system to measure potassium, 40K, for different sized workers. However, the use of different phantoms in combination with different sources is time consuming and expensive. Moreover, the purchase and construction of the reference standards need specific knowledge. An alternative option would be the use of Monte Carlo simulation. In this study, the Monte Carlo technique has been firstly validated using the 40K measurements of the four phantoms. After the validation of the methodology, the Monte Carlo code, MCNP, has been used with the same simulated geometries (phantom detector) and different sources in order to calculate the efficiency of the system for different photon energies in the four phantoms. The simulation energies correspond to the following radionuclides: 131I, 137Cs, 60Co, and 88Y. A size correction calibration factor has been defined in order to correct the efficiency of the system for the different phantoms and energies for uniform distribution. The factors vary from 0.64 to 1.51 depending on the phantom size and photon energy.

  9. Monte Carlo calculations of correction factors for plane-parallel ionization chambers in clinical electron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, Fujio

    2008-09-15

    Recent standard dosimetry protocols recommend that plane-parallel ionization chambers be used in the measurements of depth-dose distributions or the calibration of low-energy electron beams with beam quality R{sub 50}<4 g/cm{sup 2}. In electron dosimetry protocols with the plane-parallel chambers, the wall correction factor, P{sub wall}, in water is assumed to be unity and the replacement correction factor, P{sub repl}, is taken to be unity for well-guarded plane-parallel chambers, at all measurement depths. This study calculated P{sub wall} and P{sub repl} for NACP-02, Markus, and Roos plane-parallel chambers in clinical electron dosimetry using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system. The P{sub wall} values for the plane-parallel chambers increased rapidly as a function of depth in water, especially at lower energy. The value around R{sub 50} for NACP-02 was about 10% greater than unity at 4 MeV. The effect was smaller for higher electron energies. Similarly, P{sub repl} values with depth increased drastically at the region with the steep dose gradient for lower energy. For Markus P{sub repl} departed more than 10% from unity close to R{sub 50} due to the narrow guard ring width. P{sub repl} for NACP-02 and Roos was close to unity in the plateau region of depth-dose curves that includes a reference depth, d{sub ref}. It was also found that the ratio of the dose to water and the dose to the sensitive volume in the air cavity for the plane-parallel chambers, D{sub w}/[D{sub air}]{sub pp}, at d{sub ref} differs significantly from that assumed by electron dosimetry protocols.

  10. Error Detection, Factorization and Correction for Multi-View Scene Reconstruction from Aerial Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Hess-Flores, Mauricio

    2011-11-10

    Scene reconstruction from video sequences has become a prominent computer vision research area in recent years, due to its large number of applications in fields such as security, robotics and virtual reality. Despite recent progress in this field, there are still a number of issues that manifest as incomplete, incorrect or computationally-expensive reconstructions. The engine behind achieving reconstruction is the matching of features between images, where common conditions such as occlusions, lighting changes and texture-less regions can all affect matching accuracy. Subsequent processes that rely on matching accuracy, such as camera parameter estimation, structure computation and non-linear parameter optimization, are also vulnerable to additional sources of error, such as degeneracies and mathematical instability. Detection and correction of errors, along with robustness in parameter solvers, are a must in order to achieve a very accurate final scene reconstruction. However, error detection is in general difficult due to the lack of ground-truth information about the given scene, such as the absolute position of scene points or GPS/IMU coordinates for the camera(s) viewing the scene. In this dissertation, methods are presented for the detection, factorization and correction of error sources present in all stages of a scene reconstruction pipeline from video, in the absence of ground-truth knowledge. Two main applications are discussed. The first set of algorithms derive total structural error measurements after an initial scene structure computation and factorize errors into those related to the underlying feature matching process and those related to camera parameter estimation. A brute-force local correction of inaccurate feature matches is presented, as well as an improved conditioning scheme for non-linear parameter optimization which applies weights on input parameters in proportion to estimated camera parameter errors. Another application is in

  11. Deviation Factor and Temperature-Compensation Factor of Simple Industrial Ultrasonic Solution-Concentration Sensor Which Automatically Eliminates Temperature Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Kiyoshi

    2002-05-01

    In this study, the author analyzed the deviation factor and the temperature-compensation factor of a new simple ultrasonic solution-concentration sensor which automatically eliminates temperature dependence using the phase-locked loop method (PLLM) and the phase difference method (PDM). The deviation factor is an essential specification for designing a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), a phase detector (PD) and an acoustic cell (AC). It was proved that the deviation factor obtained using the empirical equation is always the same, regardless of the center frequency (fO) of the VCO in the PLLM and the frequency of the driving oscillator (OSC) (fD) for the transmitter in the PDM. The deviation factor for a 0.0-1.0% NaCl solution determined by both PLLM and PDM was 0.0078. Moreover, it became clear that the same temperature-compensation factor can be used for determining the concentrations of both NaCl and sugar solutions; this factor is derived from the empirical equations of sound velocity. Specifically, its value in a 0.0-1.0% NaCl solution at fO=2.15 MHz for PLLM is 3.381 kHz/°C, and that in a 0.0-5.0% sugar solution is 3.379 kHz/°C.

  12. Chiral corrections to the scalar form factor in B{sub q}{yields}D{sub q} transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Eeg, Jan O.; Fajfer, Svjetlana; Kamenik, Jernej F.

    2008-10-01

    We consider chiral loop corrections to the scalar form factor in B{sub q}{yields}D{sub q}l{nu} decays. First we consider chiral corrections to the 1/m{sub Q} suppressed operators and then we propose a procedure for the extraction of the relevant form factor using lattice QCD results. In particular, the extraction of a B*{yields}D* matrix element on the lattice can be used to determine all the necessary 1/m{sub Q} suppressed contributions to the scalar form factor in B{yields}D transitions. In the case of (B{sub s}{yields}D{sub s})/(B{yields}D) decay rate ratios we speculate that effects of kinematics and chiral corrections tend to cancel for the scalar form factor contributions. In particular the 1/m{sub Q} suppression of chiral corrections is compensated by the potentially large SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking corrections. The calculated corrections are relevant for the precise determination of possible new physics effects in B{sub q}{yields}D{sub q}l{nu} decays.

  13. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: On the pdis correction factor for cylindrical chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreo, Pedro

    2010-03-01

    The authors of a recent paper (Wang and Rogers 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1609) have used the Monte Carlo method to simulate the 'classical' experiment made more than 30 years ago by Johansson et al (1978 National and International Standardization of Radiation Dosimetry (Atlanta 1977) vol 2 (Vienna: IAEA) pp 243-70) on the displacement (or replacement) perturbation correction factor pdis for cylindrical chambers in 60Co and high-energy photon beams. They conclude that an 'unreasonable normalization at dmax' of the ionization chambers response led to incorrect results, and for the IAEA TRS-398 Code of Practice, which uses ratios of those results, 'the difference in the correction factors can lead to a beam calibration deviation of more than 0.5% for Farmer-like chambers'. The present work critically examines and questions some of the claims and generalized conclusions of the paper. It is demonstrated that for real, commercial Farmer-like chambers, the possible deviations in absorbed dose would be much smaller (typically 0.13%) than those stated by Wang and Rogers, making the impact of their proposed values negligible on practical high-energy photon dosimetry. Differences of the order of 0.4% would only appear at the upper extreme of the energies potentially available for clinical use (around 25 MV) and, because lower energies are more frequently used, the number of radiotherapy photon beams for which the deviations would be larger than say 0.2% is extremely small. This work also raises concerns on the proposed value of pdis for Farmer chambers at the reference quality of 60Co in relation to their impact on electron beam dosimetry, both for direct dose determination using these chambers and for the cross-calibration of plane-parallel chambers. The proposed increase of about 1% in pdis (compared with TRS-398) would lower the kQ factors and therefore Dw in electron beams by the same amount. This would yield a severe discrepancy with the current good agreement between

  14. Correction analysis for a supersonic water cooled total temperature probe tested to 1370 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T.; Seiner, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors address the thermal analysis of a water cooled supersonic total temperature probe tested in a Mach 2 flow, up to 1366 K total temperature. The goal of this experiment was the determination of high-temperature supersonic jet mean flow temperatures. An 8.99 cm exit diameter water cooled nozzle was used in the tests. It was designed for exit Mach 2 at 1366 K exit total temperature. Data along the jet centerline were obtained for total temperatures of 755 K, 1089 K, and 1366 K. The data from the total temperature probe were affected by the water coolant. The probe was tested through a range of temperatures between 755 K and 1366 K with and without the cooling system turned on. The results were used to develop a relationship between the indicated thermocouple bead temperature and the freestream total temperature. The analysis and calculated temperatures are presented.

  15. A Power Factor Corrected SMPS with Improved Power Quality for Welding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, Swati; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneswari, G.; Pandey, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design and implementation of a power factor corrected Arc Welding Power Supply (AWPS) with a boost converter at the front end and three full-bridge (FB) converters connected in parallel at the load end. The modular arrangement of the FB converters offers several meritorious features like usage of power devices with comparatively lower voltage and current ratings, ease of power expandability, easy maintenance, etc. The boost converter operates in continuous conduction mode minimizing the input current ripple and leading to the lowest RMS current thereby improving the input power quality. Individual control loops are designed for each power stage. A dual loop control scheme is employed to incorporate over-current limit on the proposed AWPS which ensures excellent weld bead quality. The proposed AWPS is implemented to validate its performance over a wide range of line/load variations. Test results confirm its fast parametrical response to load and source voltage variations and over-current protection leading to improved welding performance and weld bead quality. The system is found to perform extremely well with very low input current THD and unity power factor, adhering to international power quality norms.

  16. Monte Carlo correction factors for the ARPANSA kilovoltage free-air chambers and the effect of moving the limiting aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lye, J. E.; Butler, D. J.; Webb, D. V.

    2010-02-01

    ARPANSA has calculated new Monte Carlo corrections for their low and medium energy x-ray free-air chambers. The new calculations include a diverging beam and details of the limiting aperture. The diverging beam simulations are compared with previous parallel beam simulations. The electron loss, scattering and fluorescence corrections do not change when beam divergence is included, even for the short source-detector distance of 30 cm used in post-2008 low energy calibrations. Transmission and scattering from the aperture are significant for both free-air chambers and dependent on the beam divergence. The constancy of the correction factors with changing air path length was investigated at low energies. In the extreme conditions of 100 kV and a distance of 30 cm the correction factors showed significant deviation.

  17. Intraosseous Delivery of Lentiviral Vectors Targeting Factor VIII Expression in Platelets Corrects Murine Hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuefeng; Shin, Simon C; Chiang, Andy F J; Khan, Iram; Pan, Dao; Rawlings, David J; Miao, Carol H

    2015-01-01

    Intraosseous (IO) infusion of lentiviral vectors (LVs) for in situ gene transfer into bone marrow may avoid specific challenges posed by ex vivo gene delivery, including, in particular, the requirement of preconditioning. We utilized IO delivery of LVs encoding a GFP or factor VIII (FVIII) transgene directed by ubiquitous promoters (a MND or EF-1α-short element; M-GFP-LV, E-F8-LV) or a platelet-specific, glycoprotein-1bα promoter (G-GFP-LV, G-F8-LV). A single IO infusion of M-GFP-LV or G-GFP-LV achieved long-term and efficient GFP expression in Lineage-Sca1+c-Kit+ hematopoietic stem cells and platelets, respectively. While E-F8-LV produced initially high-level FVIII expression, robust anti-FVIII immune responses eliminated functional FVIII in circulation. In contrast, IO delivery of G-F8-LV achieved long-term platelet-specific expression of FVIII, resulting in partial correction of hemophilia A. Furthermore, similar clinical benefit with G-F8-LV was achieved in animals with pre-existing anti-FVIII inhibitors. These findings further support platelets as an ideal FVIII delivery vehicle, as FVIII, stored in α-granules, is protected from neutralizing antibodies and, during bleeding, activated platelets locally excrete FVIII to promote clot formation. Overall, a single IO infusion of G-F8-LV was sufficient to correct hemophilia phenotype for long term, indicating that this approach may provide an effective means to permanently treat FVIII deficiency. PMID:25655313

  18. Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.

    PubMed

    Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John

    2013-04-01

    Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884

  19. How should forensic anthropologists correct national weather service temperature data for use in estimating the postmortem interval?

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the correlation between site-specific and retrospectively collected temperature data from the National Weather Service (NWS) over an extended time period. Using iButtonLink thermochrons (model DS1921G), hourly temperature readings were collected at 15 sites (1 validation; 14 experimental) from December 2010 to January 2012. Comparison between the site-specific temperature data and data retrieved from an official reporter of NWS temperature data shows statistically significant differences between the two in 71.4% (10/14) of cases. The difference ranged between 0.04 and 2.81°C. Examination of both regression and simple adjustment of the mean difference over extended periods (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 9 months) suggests that on the timescale typical in forensic anthropology cases neither method of correction is consistent or reliable and that forensic anthropologists would be better suited using uncorrected NWS temperature data when the postmortem interval is extended. PMID:25678225

  20. Detector to detector corrections: A comprehensive experimental study of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small radiotherapy beams

    SciTech Connect

    Azangwe, Godfrey Grochowska, Paulina; Izewska, Joanna; Meghzifene, Ahmed; Georg, Dietmar; Hopfgartner, Johannes; Lechner, Wolfgang; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Fukumura, Akifumi; Yajima, Kaori; Gouldstone, Clare; Sharpe, Peter; Palmans, Hugo

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of the present study is to provide a comprehensive set of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small beams, for a wide range of real time and passive detectors. The detector specific correction factors determined in this study may be potentially useful as a reference data set for small beam dosimetry measurements. Methods: Dose response of passive and real time detectors was investigated for small field sizes shaped with a micromultileaf collimator ranging from 0.6 × 0.6 cm{sup 2} to 4.2 × 4.2 cm{sup 2} and the measurements were extended to larger fields of up to 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}. Measurements were performed at 5 cm depth, in a 6 MV photon beam. Detectors used included alanine, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), stereotactic diode, electron diode, photon diode, radiophotoluminescent dosimeters (RPLDs), radioluminescence detector based on carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C), organic plastic scintillators, diamond detectors, liquid filled ion chamber, and a range of small volume air filled ionization chambers (volumes ranging from 0.002 cm{sup 3} to 0.3 cm{sup 3}). All detector measurements were corrected for volume averaging effect and compared with dose ratios determined from alanine to derive a detector correction factors that account for beam perturbation related to nonwater equivalence of the detector materials. Results: For the detectors used in this study, volume averaging corrections ranged from unity for the smallest detectors such as the diodes, 1.148 for the 0.14 cm{sup 3} air filled ionization chamber and were as high as 1.924 for the 0.3 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber. After applying volume averaging corrections, the detector readings were consistent among themselves and with alanine measurements for several small detectors but they differed for larger detectors, in particular for some small ionization chambers with volumes larger than 0.1 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: The results demonstrate

  1. Simultaneous high-speed measurement of temperature and lifetime-corrected OH laser-induced fluorescence in unsteady flames.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Terrence R; King, Galen B; Gluesenkamp, Matthew; Gord, James R

    2007-08-01

    A means of performing simultaneous, high-speed measurements of temperature and OH lifetime-corrected laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for tracking unsteady flames has been developed and demonstrated. The system uses the frequency-doubled and frequency-tripled output beams of an 80 MHz mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser to achieve ultrashort laser pulses (order 2 ps) for Rayleigh-scattering thermometry at 460 nm and lifetime-corrected OH LIF at 306.5 nm, respectively. Simultaneous, high-speed measurements of temperature and OH number density enable studies of flame chemistry, heat release, and flame extinction in unsteady, strained flames where the local fluorescence-quenching environment is unknown. PMID:17671590

  2. A Physically Based Algorithm for Non-Blackbody Correction of Cloud-Top Temperature and Application to Convection Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chunpeng; Lou, Zhengzhao Johnny; Chen, Xiuhong; Zeng, Xiping; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Huang, Xianglei

    2014-01-01

    Cloud-top temperature (CTT) is an important parameter for convective clouds and is usually different from the 11-micrometers brightness temperature due to non-blackbody effects. This paper presents an algorithm for estimating convective CTT by using simultaneous passive [Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)] and active [CloudSat 1 Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO)] measurements of clouds to correct for the non-blackbody effect. To do this, a weighting function of the MODIS 11-micrometers band is explicitly calculated by feeding cloud hydrometer profiles from CloudSat and CALIPSO retrievals and temperature and humidity profiles based on ECMWF analyses into a radiation transfer model.Among 16 837 tropical deep convective clouds observed by CloudSat in 2008, the averaged effective emission level (EEL) of the 11-mm channel is located at optical depth; approximately 0.72, with a standard deviation of 0.3. The distance between the EEL and cloud-top height determined by CloudSat is shown to be related to a parameter called cloud-top fuzziness (CTF), defined as the vertical separation between 230 and 10 dBZ of CloudSat radar reflectivity. On the basis of these findings a relationship is then developed between the CTF and the difference between MODIS 11-micrometers brightness temperature and physical CTT, the latter being the non-blackbody correction of CTT. Correction of the non-blackbody effect of CTT is applied to analyze convective cloud-top buoyancy. With this correction, about 70% of the convective cores observed by CloudSat in the height range of 6-10 km have positive buoyancy near cloud top, meaning clouds are still growing vertically, although their final fate cannot be determined by snapshot observations.

  3. Continuous correction of differential path length factor in near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jason H.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. In continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS), changes in the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin can be calculated by solving a set of linear equations from the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Cross-talk error in the calculated hemodynamics can arise from inaccurate knowledge of the wavelength-dependent differential path length factor (DPF). We apply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a dynamical systems model to calculate relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin while simultaneously estimating relative changes in DPF. Results from simulated and experimental CW-NIRS data are compared with results from a weighted least squares (WLSQ) method. The EKF method was found to effectively correct for artificially introduced errors in DPF and to reduce the cross-talk error in simulation. With experimental CW-NIRS data, the hemodynamic estimates from EKF differ significantly from the WLSQ (p<0.001). The cross-correlations among residuals at different wavelengths were found to be significantly reduced by the EKF method compared to WLSQ in three physiologically relevant spectral bands 0.04 to 0.15 Hz, 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and 0.4 to 2.0 Hz (p<0.001). This observed reduction in residual cross-correlation is consistent with reduced cross-talk error in the hemodynamic estimates from the proposed EKF method. PMID:23640027

  4. Sulphur abundance determinations in star-forming regions - I. Ionization correction factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dors, O. L.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Hägele, G. F.; Cardaci, M. V.; Krabbe, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we used a grid of photoionization models combined with stellar population synthesis models to derive reliable ionization correction factors (ICFs) for the sulphur in star-forming regions. These models cover a large range of nebular parameters and yielding ionic abundances in consonance with those derived through optical and infrared observational data of star-forming regions. From our theoretical ICFs, we suggested an α value of 3.27 ± 0.01 in the classical Stasińska formulae. We compared the total sulphur abundance in the gas phase of a large sample of objects by using our theoretical ICF and other approaches. In average, the differences between the determinations via the use of the different ICFs considered are similar to the uncertainties in the S/H estimations. Nevertheless, we noted that for some objects it could reach up to about 0.3 dex for the low-metallicity regime. Despite of the large scatter of the points, we found a trend of S/O ratio to decrease with the metallicity, independently of the ICF used to compute the sulphur total abundance.

  5. Control of Dual-Opposed Stirling Convertors with Active Power Factor Correction Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    When using recently-developed active power factor correction (APFC) controllers in power systems comprised of dual-opposed free-piston Stirling convertors, a variety of configurations of the convertors and controller(s) can be considered, with configuration ultimately selected based on benefits of efficiency, reliability, and robust operation. The configuration must not only achieve stable control of the two convertors, but also synchronize and regulate motion of the pistons to minimize net dynamic forces. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) System Dynamic Model (SDM) was used to study ten configurations of dual-opposed convertor systems. These configurations considered one controller with the alternators connected in series or in parallel, and two controllers with the alternators not connected (isolated). For the configurations where the alternators were not connected, several different approaches were evaluated to synchronize the two convertors. In addition, two thermodynamic configurations were considered: two convertors with isolated working spaces and convertors with a shared expansion space. Of the ten configurations studied, stable operating modes were found for four. Three of those four had a common expansion space. One stable configuration was found for the dual-opposed convertors with separate working spaces. That configuration required isochronous control of both convertors, and two APFC controllers were used to accomplish this. A frequency/phase control loop was necessary to allow each APFC controller to synchronize its associated convertor with a common frequency.

  6. Control of Dual-Opposed Stirling Convertors with Active Power Factor Correction Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    When using recently-developed active power factor correction (APFC) controllers in power systems comprised of dual-opposed free-piston Stirling convertors, a variety of configurations of the convertors and controller(s) can be considered, with configuration ultimately selected based on benefits of efficiency, reliability, and robust operation. The configuration must not only achieve stable control of the two convertors, but also synchronize and regulate motion of the pistons to minimize net dynamic forces. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) System Dynamic Model (SDM) was used to study ten configurations of dual-opposed convertor systems. These configurations considered one controller with the alternators connected in series or in parallel, and two controllers with the alternators not connected (isolated). For the configurations where the alternators were not connected, several different approaches were evaluated to synchronize the two convertors. In addition, two thermodynamic configurations were considered: two convertors with isolated working spaces and convertors with a shared expansion space. Of the ten configurations studied, stable operating modes were found for four. Three of those four had a common expansion space. One stable configuration was found for the dual-opposed convertors with separate working spaces. That configuration required isochronous control of both convertors, and two APFC controllers were used to accomplish this. A frequency/phase control loop was necessary to allow each APFC controller to synchronize its associated convertor with a common frequency.

  7. Continuous correction of differential path length factor in near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Tanveer; Moore, Jason H; Diamond, Solomon G

    2013-05-01

    In continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS), changes in the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin can be calculated by solving a set of linear equations from the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Cross-talk error in the calculated hemodynamics can arise from inaccurate knowledge of the wavelength-dependent differential path length factor (DPF). We apply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a dynamical systems model to calculate relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin while simultaneously estimating relative changes in DPF. Results from simulated and experimental CW-NIRS data are compared with results from a weighted least squares (WLSQ) method. The EKF method was found to effectively correct for artificially introduced errors in DPF and to reduce the cross-talk error in simulation. With experimental CW-NIRS data, the hemodynamic estimates from EKF differ significantly from the WLSQ (p < 0.001). The cross-correlations among residuals at different wavelengths were found to be significantly reduced by the EKF method compared to WLSQ in three physiologically relevant spectral bands 0.04 to 0.15 Hz, 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and 0.4 to 2.0 Hz (p < 0.001). This observed reduction in residual cross-correlation is consistent with reduced cross-talk error in the hemodynamic estimates from the proposed EKF method. PMID:23640027

  8. Continuous correction of differential path length factor in near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Tanveer; Moore, Jason H.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2013-05-01

    In continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS), changes in the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin can be calculated by solving a set of linear equations from the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Cross-talk error in the calculated hemodynamics can arise from inaccurate knowledge of the wavelength-dependent differential path length factor (DPF). We apply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a dynamical systems model to calculate relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin while simultaneously estimating relative changes in DPF. Results from simulated and experimental CW-NIRS data are compared with results from a weighted least squares (WLSQ) method. The EKF method was found to effectively correct for artificially introduced errors in DPF and to reduce the cross-talk error in simulation. With experimental CW-NIRS data, the hemodynamic estimates from EKF differ significantly from the WLSQ (p<0.001). The cross-correlations among residuals at different wavelengths were found to be significantly reduced by the EKF method compared to WLSQ in three physiologically relevant spectral bands 0.04 to 0.15 Hz, 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and 0.4 to 2.0 Hz (p<0.001). This observed reduction in residual cross-correlation is consistent with reduced cross-talk error in the hemodynamic estimates from the proposed EKF method.

  9. Myopia Stabilization and Associated Factors Among Participants in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To use the Gompertz function to estimate the age and the amount of myopia at stabilization and to evaluate associated factors in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET) cohort, a large ethnically diverse group of myopic children. Methods. The COMET enrolled 469 ethnically diverse children aged 6 to younger than 12 years with spherical equivalent refraction between −1.25 and −4.50 diopters (D). Noncycloplegic refraction was measured semiannually for 4 years and annually thereafter. Right eye data were fit to individual Gompertz functions in participants with at least 6 years of follow-up and at least seven refraction measurements over 11 years. Function parameters were estimated using a nonlinear least squares procedure. Associated factors were evaluated using linear regression. Results. In total, 426 participants (91%) had valid Gompertz curve fits. The mean (SD) age at myopia stabilization was 15.61 (4.17) years, and the mean (SD) amount of myopia at stabilization was −4.87 (2.01) D. Ethnicity (P < 0.0001) but not sex or the number of myopic parents was associated with the age at stabilization. Ethnicity (P = 0.02) and the number of myopic parents (P = 0.01) but not sex were associated with myopia magnitude at stabilization. At stabilization, African Americans were youngest (mean age, 13.82 years) and had the least myopia (mean, −4.36 D). Participants with two versus no myopic parents had approximately 1.00 D more myopia at stabilization. The age and the amount of myopia at stabilization were correlated (r = −0.60, P < 0.0001). Conclusions. The Gompertz function provides estimates of the age and the amount of myopia at stabilization in an ethnically diverse cohort. These findings should provide guidance on the time course of myopia and on decisions regarding the type and timing of interventions. PMID:24159085

  10. Quantum corrections to temperature dependent electrical conductivity of ZnO thin films degenerately doped with Si

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Amit K. Ajimsha, R. S.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2014-01-27

    ZnO thin films degenerately doped with Si (Si{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O) in the concentrations range of ∼0.5% to 5.8% were grown by sequential pulsed laser deposition on sapphire substrates at 400 °C. The temperature dependent resistivity measurements in the range from 300 to 4.2 K revealed negative temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) for the 0.5%, 3.8%, and 5.8% doped Si{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O films in the entire temperature range. On the contrary, the Si{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O films with Si concentrations of 1.0%, 1.7%, and 2.0% showed a transition from negative to positive TCR with increasing temperature. These observations were explained using weak localization based quantum corrections to conductivity.