Science.gov

Sample records for temperature correction factor

  1. Optimizing Power Factor Correction 

    E-print Network

    Phillips, R. K.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    , $ CC capacitor cost, $ CD capacity charge, $/mo CE energy charge, $/mo CT electric power bill, $/mo D capacitor unit installed cost, $/kVAR DKVAR reduction in KVAR or capacitor size, kVAR I magnitude of I, ampere Ie current provided... FACTOR CORRECTION Robert K. Phillips and Louis C. Burmeister, Mechanical Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS The optimal investment for power factor correcting capacitors for Kansas Power and Light Company large power contract customers...

  2. Worldwide radiosonde temperature corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Luers, J.; Eskridge, R.

    1997-11-01

    Detailed heat transfer analyses have been performed on ten of the world`s most commonly used radiosondes from 1960 to present. These radiosondes are the USA VIZ and Space Data, the Vaisala RS-80, RS-185/21, and RS12/15, the Japanese RS2-80, Russian MARS, RKZ, and A22, and the Chinese GZZ. The temperature error of each radiosonde has been calculated as a function of altitude and the sonde and environmental parameters that influence its magnitude. Computer models have been developed that allow the correction of temperature data from each sonde as a function of these parameters. Recommendations are made concerning the use of data from each of the radiosondes for climate studies. For some radiosondes, nighttime data requires no corrections. Other radiosondes require that day and daytime data is not feasible because parameters of significance, such as balloon rise rate, are not retrievable. The results from this study provide essential information for anyone attempting to perform climate studies using radiosonde data. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Estimating changes in volume-weighted mean body temperature using thermometry with an individualized correction factor.

    PubMed

    Jay, Ollie; DuCharme, Michel B; Webb, Paul; Reardon, Francis D; Kenny, Glen P

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated whether the estimation error of volume-weighted mean body temperature (DeltaT(b)) using changes in core and skin temperature can be accounted for using personal and environmental parameters. Whole body calorimetry was used to directly measure DeltaT(b) in an Experimental group (EG) of 36 participants (24 males, 12 females) and a Validation group (VG) of 20 (9 males, 11 females) throughout 90 min of cycle ergometry at 40 degrees C, 30% relative humidity (RH) (n = 9 EG, 5 VG); 30 degrees C, 30% RH (n = 9 EG, 5 VG); 30 degrees C, 60% RH (n = 9 EG, 5 VG); and 24 degrees C, 30% RH (n = 9 EG, 5 VG). The core of the two-compartment thermometry model was represented by rectal temperature and the shell by a 12-point mean skin temperature (DeltaT(sk)). The estimation error (X(0)) between DeltaT(b) from calorimetry and DeltaT(b) from thermometry using core/shell weightings of 0.66/0.34, 0.79/0.21, and 0.90/0.10 was calculated after 30, 60, and 90 min of exercise, respectively. The association between X(0) and the individual variation in metabolic heat production (M - W), body surface area (BSA), body fat percentage (%fat), and body surface area-to-mass ratio (BSA/BM) as well as differences in environmental conditions (Oxford index) in the EG data were assessed using stepwise linear regression. At all time points and with all core/shell weightings tested, M - W, BSA, and Oxford index independently correlated significantly with the residual variance in X(0), but %fat and BSA/BM did not. The subsequent regression models were used to predict the thermometric estimation error (X(0_pred)) for each individual in the VG. The value estimated for X(0_pred) was then added to the DeltaT(b) estimated using the two-compartment thermometry models yielding an adjusted estimation (DeltaT(b)_(adj)) for the individuals in the VG. When comparing DeltaT(b)_(adj) to the DeltaT(b) derived from calorimetry in the VG, the best performing model used a core/shell weighting of 0.66/0.34 describing 74%, 84%, and 82% of the variation observed in DeltaT(b) from calorimetry after 30, 60, and 90 min, respectively. PMID:20504906

  4. Estimating changes in mean body temperature for humans during exercise using core and skin temperatures is inaccurate even with a correction factor.

    PubMed

    Jay, Ollie; Reardon, Francis D; Webb, Paul; Ducharme, Michel B; Ramsay, Tim; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Kenny, Glen P

    2007-08-01

    Changes in mean body temperature (DeltaT(b)) estimated by the traditional two-compartment model of "core" and "shell" temperatures and an adjusted two-compartment model incorporating a correction factor were compared with values derived by whole body calorimetry. Sixty participants (31 men, 29 women) cycled at 40% of peak O(2) consumption for 60 or 90 min in the Snellen calorimeter at 24 or 30 degrees C. The core compartment was represented by esophageal, rectal (T(re)), and aural canal temperature, and the shell compartment was represented by a 12-point mean skin temperature (T(sk)). Using T(re) and conventional core-to-shell weightings (X) of 0.66, 0.79, and 0.90, mean DeltaT(b) estimation error (with 95% confidence interval limits in parentheses) for the traditional model was -95.2% (-83.0, -107.3) to -76.6% (-72.8, -80.5) after 10 min and -47.2% (-40.9, -53.5) to -22.6% (-14.5, -30.7) after 90 min. Using T(re), X = 0.80, and a correction factor (X(0)) of 0.40, mean DeltaT(b) estimation error for the adjusted model was +9.5% (+16.9, +2.1) to -0.3% (+11.9, -12.5) after 10 min and +15.0% (+27.2, +2.8) to -13.7% (-4.2, -23.3) after 90 min. Quadratic analyses of calorimetry DeltaT(b) data was subsequently used to derive best-fitting values of X for both models and X(0) for the adjusted model for each measure of core temperature. The most accurate model at any time point or condition only accounted for 20% of the variation observed in DeltaT(b) for the traditional model and 56% for the adjusted model. In conclusion, throughout exercise the estimation of DeltaT(b) using any measure of core temperature together with mean skin temperature irrespective of weighting is inaccurate even with a correction factor customized for the specific conditions. PMID:17495122

  5. Temperature Correction in Probe Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsev, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    This work is devoted to experimental investigations of a decaying plasma using Langmuir probes. The gas pressure, the discharge current, and the moment of afterglow were selected to obtain probe characteristics in collisionless, intermediate, and drifting regimes of motion of charged particles. The manner in which the shape of the volt- ampere characteristics changes on passage from the collisionless motion to diffusion motion has been shown. A detailed analysis has been made of the source of errors arising when orbital-motion formulas or the logarithmic-operation method are applied to processing of the probe curves. It has been shown that neglect of collisions of charged particles in the probe layer leads to an ion-density value overstated more than three times, an electron-temperature value overstated two times, and an ion temperature overstated three to nine times. A model of interaction of charged particles in the probe layer has been proposed for correction of the procedure of determining temperature. Such an approach makes it possible to determine the space-charge layer in the probe, and also the value of the self-consistent field. The use of the developed procedures gives good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  6. Factors of Addiction: New Jersey Correctional Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtowicz, James P.; Liu, Tongyin; Hedgpeth, G. Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Most state inmates incarcerated under the jurisdiction of the New Jersey Department of Corrections are driven to crimes by drug abuse. Understanding the factors contributing to addiction is the first step in developing strategies for successful inmate reintegration. This study presents an analysis of inmate addiction and factor association using…

  7. Amplitude Correction Factors of KVN Observations

    E-print Network

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Oh, Chung Sik; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Kim, Jongsoo; Jung, Taehyun; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Yeom, Jae-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    We report results of investigation of amplitude calibration for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with Korean VLBI Network (KVN). Amplitude correction factors are estimated based on comparison of KVN observations at 22~GHz correlated by Daejeon hardware correlator and DiFX software correlator in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) with Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 22~GHz by DiFX software correlator in National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). We used the observations for compact radio sources, 3C~454.3 and NRAO~512, which are almost unresolved for baselines in a range of 350-477~km. Visibility data of the sources obtained with similar baselines at KVN and VLBA are selected, fringe-fitted, calibrated, and compared for their amplitudes. We found that visibility amplitudes of KVN observations should be corrected by factors of 1.10 and 1.35 when correlated by DiFX and Daejeon correlators, respectively. These correction factors are attributed to the combinat...

  8. Elevation correction factor for absolute pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, Joseph W.; Sorrells, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    With the arrival of highly accurate multi-port pressure measurement systems, conditions that previously did not affect overall system accuracy must now be scrutinized closely. Errors caused by elevation differences between pressure sensing elements and model pressure taps can be quantified and corrected. With multi-port pressure measurement systems, the sensing elements are connected to pressure taps that may be many feet away. The measurement system may be at a different elevation than the pressure taps due to laboratory space or test article constraints. This difference produces a pressure gradient that is inversely proportional to height within the interface tube. The pressure at the bottom of the tube will be higher than the pressure at the top due to the weight of the tube's column of air. Tubes with higher pressures will exhibit larger absolute errors due to the higher air density. The above effect is well documented but has generally been taken into account with large elevations only. With error analysis techniques, the loss in accuracy from elevation can be easily quantified. Correction factors can be applied to maintain the high accuracies of new pressure measurement systems.

  9. Correction factors for assessing immersion suits under harsh conditions.

    PubMed

    Power, Jonathan; Tikuisis, Peter; Ré, António Simões; Barwood, Martin; Tipton, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many immersion suit standards require testing of thermal protective properties in calm, circulating water while these suits are typically used in harsher environments where they often underperform. Yet it can be expensive and logistically challenging to test immersion suits in realistic conditions. The goal of this work was to develop a set of correction factors that would allow suits to be tested in calm water yet ensure they will offer sufficient protection in harsher conditions. Two immersion studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water within the suit, were conducted in wind and waves to measure the change in suit insulation. In both studies, wind and waves resulted in a significantly lower immersed insulation value compared to calm water. The minimum required thermal insulation for maintaining heat balance can be calculated for a given mean skin temperature, metabolic heat production, and water temperature. Combining the physiological limits of sustainable cold water immersion and actual suit insulation, correction factors can be deduced for harsh conditions compared to calm. The minimum in-situ suit insulation to maintain thermal balance is 1.553-0.0624·TW + 0.00018·TW(2) for a dry calm condition. Multiplicative correction factors to the above equation are 1.37, 1.25, and 1.72 for wind + waves, 500 mL suit wetness, and both combined, respectively. Calm water certification tests of suit insulation should meet or exceed the minimum in-situ requirements to maintain thermal balance, and correction factors should be applied for a more realistic determination of minimum insulation for harsh conditions. PMID:26674408

  10. Monitoring temperature for gas turbine blade: correction of reflection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Chi; Xiao, Yihan; Daniel, Ketui

    2015-06-01

    For a gas turbine blade working in a narrow space, the accuracy of blade temperature measurements is greatly impacted by environmental irradiation. A reflection model is established by using discrete irregular surfaces to calculate the angle factor between the blade surface and the hot adjacent parts. The model is based on the rotational angles and positions of the blades, and can correct for measurement error caused by background radiation when the blade is located at different rotational positions. This method reduces the impact of reflected radiation on the basis of the turbine's known geometry and the physical properties of the material. The experimental results show that when the blade temperature is 911.2±5 K and the vane temperature ranges from 1011.3 to 1065.8 K, the error decreases from 4.21 to 0.75%.

  11. Correlation between plasma and temperature corrections to the Casimir force

    E-print Network

    Cyriaque Genet; Astrid Lambrecht; Serge Reynaud

    2001-11-30

    When comparing experimental results with theoretical predictions of the Casimir force, the accuracy of the theory is as important as the precision of experiments. Here we evaluate the Casimir force when finite conductivity of the reflectors and finite temperature are simultaneously taken into account. We show that these two corrections are correlated, i.e. that they can not, in principle, be evaluated separately and simply multiplied. We estimate the correlation factor which measures the deviation from this common approximation. We focus our attention on the case of smooth and plane plates with a metallic optical response modeled by a plasma model.

  12. Fermilab's Booster Correction Element Power Supply Silicon Temperature Rise

    SciTech Connect

    Krafczyk, G.; Jensen, C.; Pfeffer, H.; Warchol, G.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    Fermilab is in the process of upgrading its Booster Correction Element System to include full field correction element magnets to correct position and chromaticity throughout the booster cycle. For good reliability of the switchmode power supplies designed to power the magnets, it is important to limit both the maximum temperature and the repetitive temperature cycling of the silicon junctions of the switching elements. We will describe how we measured these parameters and the results of our measurements.

  13. Temperature corrections for the VIZ and VAISALA radiosondes

    SciTech Connect

    Luers, J.K.; Eskridge, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    The NWS VIZ radiosonde and the Vaisala RS-80 radiosondes are used worldwide to obtain upper air measurements of atmospheric temperature and moisture. The temperature measured by each sensor is not equal to the atmospheric temperature due to solar and infrared irradiation of the sensor, heat conduction to the sensor from its attachment points, and radiation emitted by the sensor. Presently, only the RS-80 radiosonde applies corrections to the sensor temperature to compensate for these heating sources, and this correction is only considered to be a function of solar angle and pressure. Temperature correction models VIZCOR (VIZ sonde) and VAICOR (Vaisala RS-80 sonde) have been developed that derive the atmospheric temperature from the sensor temperature, taking into account all significant environmental processes that influence the heat transfer to the sensor. These models have been validated by comparing their corrected profiles with atmospheric temperature profiles derived from the NASA multi-thermistor radiosonde. All three radiosondes were flown on the same balloon during the PREFRS radiosonde intercomparison. Excellent agreement has been found between all profiles up to an altitude of 30 km. Since the significant error sources in the VIZCOR, VAICOR and multi-thermistor techniques are largely independent, agreement between all profiles, implies the corrected sensor profiles are providing an unbiased estimate of the true atmospheric temperature.

  14. Correction of high-frequency noise-temperature inaccuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelzreid, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    Deep-space mission data rates to Earth are limited by the system operating noise-temperature (T(sub op)) performance of the DSN. This article addresses some of the techniques and definitions used for measuring and reporting the effective noise temperature of receivers (Te) and T(sub op) of the DSN's ground receiving systems. Calibration loads are used to measure T(sub op) of the DSN antennas. At 32 GHz, a calibration load cooled to 2-K physical temperature requires a correction of 0.67 K to determine the noise temperature. Using corrected noise temperature for the calibration loads results in the correct values for T(sub op) such that the total system noise power can be defined by Pn = kT(sub op) B, as required for DSN telecommunications design control tables. T(sub op) and Te should not be converted to equivalent physical temperatures.

  15. An accurate temperature correction model for thermocouple hygrometers.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J; Cass, A; de Jager, J M

    1982-02-01

    Numerous water relation studies have used thermocouple hygrometers routinely. However, the accurate temperature correction of hygrometer calibration curve slopes seems to have been largely neglected in both psychrometric and dewpoint techniques.In the case of thermocouple psychrometers, two temperature correction models are proposed, each based on measurement of the thermojunction radius and calculation of the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. The first model relies on calibration at a single temperature and the second at two temperatures. Both these models were more accurate than the temperature correction models currently in use for four psychrometers calibrated over a range of temperatures (15-38 degrees C). The model based on calibration at two temperatures is superior to that based on only one calibration.The model proposed for dewpoint hygrometers is similar to that for psychrometers. It is based on the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. Comparison with empirical data from three dewpoint hygrometers calibrated at four different temperatures indicates that these instruments need only be calibrated at, e.g. 25 degrees C, if the calibration slopes are corrected for temperature. PMID:16662241

  16. An Accurate Temperature Correction Model for Thermocouple Hygrometers 1

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Michael J.; Cass, Alfred; de Jager, James M.

    1982-01-01

    Numerous water relation studies have used thermocouple hygrometers routinely. However, the accurate temperature correction of hygrometer calibration curve slopes seems to have been largely neglected in both psychrometric and dewpoint techniques. In the case of thermocouple psychrometers, two temperature correction models are proposed, each based on measurement of the thermojunction radius and calculation of the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. The first model relies on calibration at a single temperature and the second at two temperatures. Both these models were more accurate than the temperature correction models currently in use for four psychrometers calibrated over a range of temperatures (15-38°C). The model based on calibration at two temperatures is superior to that based on only one calibration. The model proposed for dewpoint hygrometers is similar to that for psychrometers. It is based on the theoretical voltage sensitivity to changes in water potential. Comparison with empirical data from three dewpoint hygrometers calibrated at four different temperatures indicates that these instruments need only be calibrated at, e.g. 25°C, if the calibration slopes are corrected for temperature. PMID:16662241

  17. Geometrical correction factors for heat flux meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Papell, S. S.

    1974-01-01

    General formulas are derived for determining gage averaging errors of strip-type heat flux meters used in the measurement of one-dimensional heat flux distributions. The local averaging error e(x) is defined as the difference between the measured value of the heat flux and the local value which occurs at the center of the gage. In terms of e(x), a correction procedure is presented which allows a better estimate for the true value of the local heat flux. For many practical problems, it is possible to use relatively large gages to obtain acceptable heat flux measurements.

  18. Calibration and temperature correction of heat dissipation matric potential sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, A.L.; Campbell, G.S.; Ellett, K.M.; Calissendorff, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes how heat dissipation sensors, used to measure soil water matric potential, were analyzed to develop a normalized calibration equation and a temperature correction method. Inference of soil matric potential depends on a correlation between the variable thermal conductance of the sensor's porous ceramic and matric poten-tial. Although this correlation varies among sensors, we demonstrate a normalizing procedure that produces a single calibration relationship. Using sensors from three sources and different calibration methods, the normalized calibration resulted in a mean absolute error of 23% over a matric potential range of -0.01 to -35 MPa. Because the thermal conductivity of variably saturated porous media is temperature dependent, a temperature correction is required for application of heat dissipation sensors in field soils. A temperature correction procedure is outlined that reduces temperature dependent errors by 10 times, which reduces the matric potential measurement errors by more than 30%. The temperature dependence is well described by a thermal conductivity model that allows for the correction of measurements at any temperature to measurements at the calibration temperature.

  19. A Multipoint Correction Method for Environmental Temperature Changes in Airborne Double-Antenna Microwave Radiometers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript describes a new type Ka-band airborne double-antenna microwave radiometer (ADAMR) designed for detecting atmospheric supercooled water content (SCWC). The source of the measurement error is investigated by analyzing the model of the system gain factor and the principle of the auto-gain compensative technique utilized in the radiometer. Then, a multipoint temperature correction method based on the two-point calibration method for this radiometer is proposed. The multipoint temperature correction method can eliminate the effect of changes in environmental temperature by establishing the relationship between the measurement error and the physical temperatures of the temperature-sensitive units. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the correction method, the long-term outdoor temperature experiment is carried out. The multipoint temperature correction equations are obtained by using the least square regression method. The comparison results show that the measuring accuracy of the radiometer can be increased more effectively by using the multipoint temperature correction method. PMID:24787639

  20. Correction of Temperatures of Air-Cooled Engine Cylinders for Variation in Engine and Cooling Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Pinkel, Benjamin; Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

    1939-01-01

    Factors are obtained from semiempirical equations for correcting engine-cylinder temperatures for variation in important engine and cooling conditions. The variation of engine temperatures with atmospheric temperature is treated in detail, and correction factors are obtained for various flight and test conditions, such as climb at constant indicated air speed, level flight, ground running, take-off, constant speed of cooling air, and constant mass flow of cooling air. Seven conventional air-cooled engine cylinders enclosed in jackets and cooled by a blower were tested to determine the effect of cooling-air temperature and carburetor-air temperature on cylinder temperatures. The cooling air temperature was varied from approximately 80 degrees F. to 230 degrees F. and the carburetor-air temperature from approximately 40 degrees F. to 160 degrees F. Tests were made over a large range of engine speeds, brake mean effective pressures, and pressure drops across the cylinder. The correction factors obtained experimentally are compared with those obtained from the semiempirical equations and a fair agreement is noted.

  1. Differences between EPA-test and in-use fuel economy: Are the correction factors correct

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Vyas, A.R.D.; Conley, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A vehicle's in-use or on-the-road fuel economy often differs substantially from the miles-per-gallon estimates developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its emissions certification program. As a result, the certification values are routinely adjusted by a set of correction factors so that the resulting estimates will better reflect in-use experience. Using data from the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy, our analysis investigated how well the correction factors replicated the shortfall experience of all household vehicles on the road in 1985. Results show that the shortfall is larger than the EPA correction factors, and light trucks are experiencing significantly larger shortfalls than automobiles.

  2. Differences between EPA-test and in-use fuel economy: Are the correction factors correct?

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Vyas, A.R.D.; Conley, L.A.

    1993-02-01

    A vehicle`s in-use or on-the-road fuel economy often differs substantially from the miles-per-gallon estimates developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its emissions certification program. As a result, the certification values are routinely adjusted by a set of correction factors so that the resulting estimates will better reflect in-use experience. Using data from the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy, our analysis investigated how well the correction factors replicated the shortfall experience of all household vehicles on the road in 1985. Results show that the shortfall is larger than the EPA correction factors, and light trucks are experiencing significantly larger shortfalls than automobiles.

  3. An EGSnrc investigation of correction factors for ion chamber dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Lesley A.

    Radiation dosimetry is used to quantify the dose delivered during radiation therapy by using ionization chambers with several correction factors. Knowledge of these factors is needed at well below the 1% level in order to maintain the overall uncertainty on the reference dosimetry near 1-2%. The small magnitude of the corrections renders measurements very difficult. Monte Carlo calculations are widely used for this purpose, however they require very low statistical uncertainties. A new user-code, CSnrc, for the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system is described. CSnrc uses a correlated sampling variance reduction technique to reduce the uncertainty for dose ratio calculations. Compared to an existing EGSnrc user-code from which it was developed, CSnrc shows gains in efficiency of up to a factor of 64 and achieves much lower statistical uncertainties on correction factors than previously published. CSnrc is used to compute the central electrode correction factor, Pcel, in a broader range of beams than previously used and at the depths relevant to modern protocols. For photon beams, the CSnrc values compare well with the values used in dosimetry protocols whereas for electron beams, CSnrc shows up to a 0.2% correction for a graphite electrode, a correction currently ignored by dosimetry protocols. The difference from currently used values is slightly less for an aluminum electrode. CSnrc is also used to compute the wall correction factor, P wall. For cylindrical chambers in photon beams, the CSnrc calculations are compared to the currently used Almond-Svensson formalism and differ from this formalism by as much as 0.8%. The CSnrc values are used to explain some previously published experiments showing problems with Pwall . For electron beams, where dosimetry protocols assume a Pwall of unity, CSnrc calculations show a correction as large as 0.6%. For parallel-plate chambers, there is little information available regarding Pwall in photon beams. CSnrc shows corrections of over 2% for some chambers. In electron beams, Pwall has been assumed to be unity, despite previously published evidence suggesting otherwise. CSnrc shows that for some chambers at lower energies, Pwall is nearly 1.02.

  4. Shallow-tunnelling correction factor for use with Wigner-Eyring transition-state theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanchuan; Rommel, Judith B; Cvitaš, Marko T; Althorpe, Stuart C

    2014-11-28

    We obtain a shallow-tunnelling correction factor for use with Wigner-Eyring transition-state theory (TST). Our starting point is quantum transition state theory (QTST), which approximates the accurate quantum rate as the instantaneous flux through a delocalised transition-state ensemble of ring-polymers. Expanding the ring-polymer potential to second order gives the well-known Wigner tunnelling-factor which diverges at the cross-over temperature between deep and shallow tunnelling. Here, we show how to remove this divergence by integrating numerically over the two softest ring-polymer normal modes. This results in a modified Wigner correction factor involving a one-dimensional integral evaluated along a straight line on the potential energy surface. Comparisons with accurate quantum calculations indicate that the newly derived correction factor gives realistic estimates of quantum rate coefficients in the shallow-tunnelling regime. PMID:25298025

  5. Power factor correction methods applied to piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Cudney, Harley H.

    1993-04-01

    A study of the application of power factor correction methods to piezoceramic actuators is performed. The power factor is corrected by adding an inductor in both parallel to and in series with the piezoceramic actuator. The actuator consists of two lead zirconate titanate (PZT) patches mounted symmetrically to a cantilever beam. The inductance values were chosen such that each inductor-capacitor (LC) circuit was in resonance at the second natural frequency of the beam. Implementing the parallel LC circuit reduced the current consumption of the piezoceramic actuator by 75 percent when compared to the current consumption of the actuator used without an inductor. Implementing the series LC circuit produced a 300 percent increase in the voltage applied to the actuator compared to the case when no inductor was used. In both cases, employing power factor correction methods corrected the power factor to near unity and reduced the apparent power by 12 dB. A theoretical model of each circuit was developed, and the analytical and empirical results are virtually identical. The results of this study can be used to synthesize circuits to modify piezoceramic actuators, reducing the voltage or current requirements of the amplifiers used to derive those actuators.

  6. Solar Correction Factors of Building Envelope in Tebei 

    E-print Network

    Wang, D.; Tang, M.

    2006-01-01

    Tebei has very rich solar energy in China and needs heating in winter,but the present energy building design code has no solar correction factor for the overall heat transfer coefficient of building envelope for Tebei. Based on the typical year...

  7. Simple correction factor for laser speckle imaging of flow dynamics

    E-print Network

    Choi, Bernard

    Simple correction factor for laser speckle imaging of flow dynamics J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan,1, * R (Doc. ID 200844); published January 30, 2014 One of the major constraints facing laser speckle imaging to the simplicity and low cost of this approach, researchers have rapidly integrated laser speckle imaging (LSI

  8. Radiative corrections to the Casimir effect at nonzero temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wieczorek, E.; Robaschik, D.; Scharnhorst, K.

    1986-10-01

    Quantum electrodynamics at nonzero temperatures with boundary conditions is formulated on the basis of the functional integral using the results of previous studies (Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 39, 663 (1984); Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 165, 192 (1985)). The Matsubara imaginary-time formalism and the thermal field approach of perturbation theory are used. The loop corrections to the free-energy functional are calculated in a physically reasonable limit.

  9. Eucken correction in high-temperature gases with electronic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V. Mekhonoshina, M. A.

    2014-05-14

    In the present paper, thermal conductivity coefficient of high-temperature molecular and atomic gases with excited electronic states is studied using both the kinetic theory algorithm developed by authors earlier and the well known simple expression for the thermal conductivity coefficient proposed by Eucken and generalized by Hirschfelder. The influence of large collision diameters of excited states on the thermal conductivity is discussed. The limit of validity of the Eucken correction is evaluated on the basis of the kinetic theory calculations; an improved model suitable for air species under high-temperature conditions is proposed.

  10. Quantum Mechanical Corrections to Simulated Shock Hugoniot Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, N; Reed, E; Fried, L E

    2009-07-17

    The authors present a straightforward method for the inclusion of quantum nuclear vibrational effects in molecular dynamics calculations of shock Hugoniot temperatures. Using a grueneisen equation of state and a quasi-harmonic approximation to the vibrational energies, they derive a simple, post-processing method for calculation of the quantum corrected Hugoniot temperatures. They have used our novel technique on ab initio simulations of both shock compressed water and methane. Our results indicate significantly closer agreement with all available experimental temperature data for these two systems. Our formalism and technique can be easily applied to a number of different shock compressed molecular liquids or covalent solids, and has the potential to decrease the large uncertainties inherent in many experimental Hugoniot temperature measurements of these systems.

  11. Quantum mechanical corrections to simulated shock Hugoniot temperatures.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Nir; Reed, Evan J; Fried, Laurence E

    2009-11-28

    We present a straightforward method for the inclusion of quantum nuclear vibrational effects in molecular dynamics calculations of shock Hugoniot temperatures. Using a Gruneisen equation of state and a quasiharmonic approximation to the vibrational energies, we derive a simple, postprocessing method for calculation of the quantum corrected Hugoniot temperatures. We have used our novel technique on ab initio simulations of shock compressed water and methane. Our results indicate significantly closer agreement with all available experimental temperature data for these two systems. Our formalism can be easily applied to a number of different shock compressed molecular liquids or solids, and has the potential to decrease the large uncertainties inherent in many experimental Hugoniot temperature measurements of these systems. PMID:19947671

  12. The Etiology of Presbyopia, Contributing Factors, and Future Correction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickenbotham, Adam Lyle

    Presbyopia has been a complicated problem for clinicians and researchers for centuries. Defining what constitutes presbyopia and what are its primary causes has long been a struggle for the vision and scientific community. Although presbyopia is a normal aging process of the eye, the continuous and gradual loss of accommodation is often dreaded and feared. If presbyopia were to be considered a disease, its global burden would be enormous as it affects more than a billion people worldwide. In this dissertation, I explore factors associated with presbyopia and develop a model for explaining the onset of presbyopia. In this model, the onset of presbyopia is associated primarily with three factors; depth of focus, focusing ability (accommodation), and habitual reading (or task) distance. If any of these three factors could be altered sufficiently, the onset of presbyopia could be delayed or prevented. Based on this model, I then examine possible optical methods that would be effective in correcting for presbyopia by expanding depth of focus. Two methods that have been show to be effective at expanding depth of focus include utilizing a small pupil aperture or generating higher order aberrations, particularly spherical aberration. I compare these two optical methods through the use of simulated designs, monitor testing, and visual performance metrics and then apply them in subjects through an adaptive optics system that corrects aberrations through a wavefront aberrometer and deformable mirror. I then summarize my findings and speculate about the future of presbyopia correction.

  13. Amplitude Correction Factors of Korean VLBI Network Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Byun, Do-Young; Oh, Chung Sik; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Kim, Jongsoo; Jung, Taehyun; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Yeom, Jae-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    We report results of investigation of amplitude calibration for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with Korean VLBI Network (KVN). Amplitude correction factors are estimated based on comparison of KVN observations at 22~GHz correlated by Daejeon hardware correlator and DiFX software correlator in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) with Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 22~GHz by DiFX software correlator in National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). We used the observations for compact radio sources, 3C~454.3, NRAO~512, OJ 287, BL Lac, 3C 279, 1633+382, and 1510-089, which are almost unresolved for baselines in a range of 350-477~km. Visibility data of the sources obtained with similar baselines at KVN and VLBA are selected, fringe-fitted, calibrated, and compared for their amplitudes. We find that visibility amplitudes of KVN observations should be corrected by factors of 1.10 and 1.35 when correlated by DiFX and Daejeon correlators, respectively. These correction factors are attributed to the combination of two steps of 2-bit quantization in KVN observing systems and characteristics of Daejeon correlator.

  14. Correction factors for gravimetric measurement of peritumoural oedema in man.

    PubMed

    Bell, B A; Smith, M A; Tocher, J L; Miller, J D

    1987-01-01

    The water content of samples of normal and oedematous brain in lobectomy specimens from 16 patients with cerebral tumours has been measured by gravimetry and by wet and dry weighing. Uncorrected gravimetry underestimated the water content of oedematous peritumoural cortex by a mean of 1.17%, and of oedematous peritumoural white matter by a mean of 2.52%. Gravimetric correction equations calculated theoretically and from an animal model of serum infusion white matter oedema overestimate peritumoural white matter oedema in man, and empirical gravimetric error correction factors for oedematous peritumoural human white matter and cortex have therefore been derived. These enable gravimetry to be used to accurately determine peritumoural oedema in man. PMID:3268140

  15. Finite-temperature electron correlations in the framework of a dynamic local-field correction

    SciTech Connect

    Schweng, H.K.; Boehm, H.M. )

    1993-07-15

    The quantum-mechanical version of the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjoelander (STLS) approximation is applied to finite temperatures. This approximation has two main advantages. First, it includes a dynamic local-field correction and second, it gives positive values for the pair-distribution function in the short-range region at zero temperature. This is even valid for rather low densities. After a description of the numerical difficulties arising with the use of a dynamic approximation, the results for the static-structure factor and the pair-distribution function are discussed thoroughly. Detailed work is performed on the static part of the local-field correction, with special emphasis put on the investigation of its structure. A peak is found at a wave vector [ital q][approx]2.8 (in units of the Fermi wave vector) for small temperatures, which tends towards higher values of [ital q] with increasing temperature. This peak causes an attractive particle-hole interaction in a certain [ital q] region and thus gives rise to the appearance of a charge-density wave. A parametric description is given for the static local-field correction in order to simplify further applications. Furthermore, the exchange-and-correlation free energy is considered. The results are compared with the STLS results and with the modified convolution approach.

  16. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  17. Production of element correction factors for thermoluminescent dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Plato, P.; Miklos, J.

    1985-11-01

    Approximately 80 processors of personal dosimetry in the United States use thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Recent demands that dosimetry processors be able to measure radiation doses to within +/- 50% of the correct value have focused attention on the reproducibility of the TL elements within each TLD. The phosphors for these TLDs are manufactured by three companies. A dosimetry processor faces three options concerning the quality of the TL elements purchased; trust the supplier's quality control program, screen new TL elements and discard those that are extremely bad, or use element correction factors (ECFs). The first option results in dosimetry processors failing the +/- 50% accuracy requirement due to excessive variability among the TL elements. The second option still permits large precision errors that come close to the +/- 50% accuracy requirement. This paper advocates the third option and presents a 10-step procedure to produce ECFs. The procedure ensures that the ECFs represent only variations among the TL elements and not variations caused by stability problems with the TLD reader. Following is an example of ECF production for 3000 TLDs.

  18. Development of Self-Correcting Algorithms for Complete Failure of Supply Air Temperature Sensors 

    E-print Network

    Monfet, D.; Choiniere, D.; Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    with forgetting factor ? Lee et al. (2004): General regression neural- networks (GRNN) ? Wang et al. (2012): online model-based, previous 10h of operating data using a genetic algorithm 5 ESL-IC-13-10-47 Proceedings of the 13th International Conference...-correcting algorithms for complete failure of supply air temperature sensors by D. Monfet1,D. Choini?re2, M. Padilla2 1?cole de technologie sup?rieure 2Natural Resources Canada INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE FOR ENHANCED BUILDING OPERATIONS ICEBO 2013 ? October 9, 2013...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES...Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature...

  4. Real-Gas Correction Factors for Hypersonic Flow Parameters in Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Wayne D.

    1960-01-01

    The real-gas hypersonic flow parameters for helium have been calculated for stagnation temperatures from 0 F to 600 F and stagnation pressures up to 6,000 pounds per square inch absolute. The results of these calculations are presented in the form of simple correction factors which must be applied to the tabulated ideal-gas parameters. It has been shown that the deviations from the ideal-gas law which exist at high pressures may cause a corresponding significant error in the hypersonic flow parameters when calculated as an ideal gas. For example the ratio of the free-stream static to stagnation pressure as calculated from the thermodynamic properties of helium for a stagnation temperature of 80 F and pressure of 4,000 pounds per square inch absolute was found to be approximately 13 percent greater than that determined from the ideal-gas tabulation with a specific heat ratio of 5/3.

  5. 75 FR 5536 - Pipeline Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 3, 2009, PHMSA published a final rule in the Federal Register (74 FR... Safety: Control Room Management/Human Factors, Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: PHMSA is correcting a Final Rule...

  6. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingming; Yan, Shuangshuang; Wang, Baowei; Xia, Li; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Air temperature (AT) is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS). Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR). Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE) and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months. PMID:26213941

  7. Air Temperature Error Correction Based on Solar Radiation in an Economical Meteorological Wireless Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xingming; Yan, Shuangshuang; Wang, Baowei; Xia, Li; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Air temperature (AT) is an extremely vital factor in meteorology, agriculture, military, etc., being used for the prediction of weather disasters, such as drought, flood, frost, etc. Many efforts have been made to monitor the temperature of the atmosphere, like automatic weather stations (AWS). Nevertheless, due to the high cost of specialized AT sensors, they cannot be deployed within a large spatial density. A novel method named the meteorology wireless sensor network relying on a sensing node has been proposed for the purpose of reducing the cost of AT monitoring. However, the temperature sensor on the sensing node can be easily influenced by environmental factors. Previous research has confirmed that there is a close relation between AT and solar radiation (SR). Therefore, this paper presents a method to decrease the error of sensed AT, taking SR into consideration. In this work, we analyzed all of the collected data of AT and SR in May 2014 and found the numerical correspondence between AT error (ATE) and SR. This corresponding relation was used to calculate real-time ATE according to real-time SR and to correct the error of AT in other months. PMID:26213941

  8. Efficiency Optimization for a Power Factor Correction (PFC) Rectifier with Gallium Nitride

    E-print Network

    Paderborn, Universität

    Efficiency Optimization for a Power Factor Correction (PFC) Rectifier with Gallium Nitride factor correction (PFC) rectifier with a Gallium Nitride (GaN) transistor is optimized considering Recently, with wide bandgap semiconductors based on gallium nitride (GaN) a new type of power transistor

  9. Fast-Scale Instability of Single-Stage Power-Factor-Correction Power Supplies

    E-print Network

    Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

    Fast-Scale Instability of Single-Stage Power-Factor-Correction Power Supplies Xiaoqun Wu, Chi K Wuhan University Wuhan, Hubei 430072, China Abstract-- This paper describes the fast-scale bifurcation phe- nomena of a single-stage power-factor-correction (PFC) power supply which is commonly used in low

  10. Reliability of IGBT in a STATCOM for Harmonic Compensation and Power Factor Correction

    E-print Network

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Reliability of IGBT in a STATCOM for Harmonic Compensation and Power Factor Correction Lakshmi Gopi. In this paper, the reliability of IGBTs in a STATCOM application is presented for two different applications, power factor correction and harmonic elimination. The STATCOM model is developed in EMTP, and analytical

  11. Beta and Gamma Correction Factors for the Eberline R0-20 Ionization Chamber Survey Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michelle L.; Rathbone, Bruce A.; Bratvold, Thomas E.

    2001-08-10

    This technical document provides details of derived correction factors for the Eberline R0-20 survey meter, which uses an ionization chamber to measure ambient exposure rates. A thin end window allows the instrument to measure exposure rates from non-penetrating radiation (i.e., beta radiation). Correction factors are provided for contact measurements with beta and gamma disk sources, gamma beams and, finally, general area beta fields. Beta correction factors are based on the instrument's response to 204Tl, selected as the most conservative isotope for beta correction factors, as indicated in previous studies of similar instruments using 204Tl, 147Pm, and 90Sr(Y) isotopes (LANL 1982). Gamma correction factors are based on 137Cs, considered the predominant source of gamma radiation on the Hanford Site.

  12. Temperature effect corrections for URAGAN based on CAO, GDAS, NOAA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, A.; Ampilogov, N.; Astapov, I.; Barbashina, N.; Borog, V.; Chernov, D.; Kovylyaeva, A.; Kokoulin, R.; Kompaniets, K.; Mannocchi, G.; Mishutina, Yu; Petrukhin, A.; Saavedra, O.; Shutenko, V.; Sit'ko, O.; Trinchero, G.; Yakovleva, E.; Yashin, I.

    2015-08-01

    For the analysis of muon flux variations caused by extra-atmospheric processes it is necessary to introduce corrections for meteorological effects. For temperature effect (TE) correction it is necessary to know the temperature profile of the atmosphere. As a rule, this profile is measured by meteorological balloons two or four times a day. Alternative sources are satellite observations and data obtained from models of atmosphere used for weather forecasting. Vertical temperature profiles obtained from NOAA satellites, GDAS (Global Data Assimilation System) and CAO data (Central Aerological Observatory, Russia) for standard isobaric levels were compared. Mean value of temperature difference for most levels does not exceed 1 K. Comparison of URAGAN data corrected for TE with CAO information, satellites and GDAS shows a good agreement. Counting rate and anisotropy of the muon flux corrected for meteorological effects for 2007-2014 are presented.

  13. A method to correct for temperature dependence and measure simultaneously dose and temperature using a plastic scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Therriault-Proulx, Francois; Wootton, Landon; Beddar, Sam

    2015-10-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) work well for radiation dosimetry. However, they show some temperature dependence, and a priori knowledge of the temperature surrounding the PSD is required to correct for this dependence. We present a novel approach to correct PSD response values for temperature changes instantaneously and without the need for prior knowledge of the temperature value. In addition to rendering the detector temperature-independent, this approach allows for actual temperature measurement using solely the PSD apparatus. With a temperature-controlled water tank, the temperature was varied from room temperature to more than 40 °C and the PSD was used to measure the dose delivered from a cobalt-60 photon beam unit to within an average of 0.72% from the expected value. The temperature was measured during each acquisition with the PSD and a thermocouple and values were within 1 °C of each other. The depth-dose curve of a 6 MV photon beam was also measured under warm non-stable conditions and this curve agreed to within an average of??-0.98% from the curve obtained at room temperature. The feasibility of rendering PSDs temperature-independent was demonstrated with our approach, which also enabled simultaneous measurement of both dose and temperature. This novel approach improves both the robustness and versatility of PSDs.

  14. A method to correct for temperature dependence and measure simultaneously dose and temperature using a plastic scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Therriault-Proulx, Francois; Wootton, Landon; Beddar, Sam

    2015-10-21

    Plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) work well for radiation dosimetry. However, they show some temperature dependence, and a priori knowledge of the temperature surrounding the PSD is required to correct for this dependence. We present a novel approach to correct PSD response values for temperature changes instantaneously and without the need for prior knowledge of the temperature value. In addition to rendering the detector temperature-independent, this approach allows for actual temperature measurement using solely the PSD apparatus. With a temperature-controlled water tank, the temperature was varied from room temperature to more than 40 °C and the PSD was used to measure the dose delivered from a cobalt-60 photon beam unit to within an average of 0.72% from the expected value. The temperature was measured during each acquisition with the PSD and a thermocouple and values were within 1 °C of each other. The depth-dose curve of a 6 MV photon beam was also measured under warm non-stable conditions and this curve agreed to within an average of??-0.98% from the curve obtained at room temperature. The feasibility of rendering PSDs temperature-independent was demonstrated with our approach, which also enabled simultaneous measurement of both dose and temperature. This novel approach improves both the robustness and versatility of PSDs. PMID:26407188

  15. K-Scale Correction and Percentile Norms for MMPI-168 Factor Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overall, John E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Derived appropriate K-corrections for Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-168 factor scales and a general psychopathology screening scale (PSY). Determined percentile distributions of K-corrected scales in a normal sample (N=1438) and constructed a percentile profile sheet to facilitate clinical use (N=1048). Examined validity of the…

  16. LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL EMISSION CORRECTION FACTORS FOR AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since emission measurements from passenger cars are performed at one standard set of ambient conditions and since emission rates of HC, CO, and NOx are sensitive to temperature and humidity, it is necessary to determine the influence of ambient conditions on emissions from major ...

  17. New AC-DC Power Factor Correction Architecture Suitable for High Frequency Operation

    E-print Network

    Lim, Seungbum

    This paper presents a novel ac-dc power factor correction (PFC) power conversion architecture for single-phase grid interface. The proposed architecture has significant advantages for achieving high efficiency, good power ...

  18. PTRAC File Utilization for Calculation of Free-Air Ionization Chamber Correction Factors by MCNPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šolc, Jaroslav; Sochor, Vladimír

    2014-06-01

    A free-air ionization chamber is used as a standard of photon air-kerma. Several correction factors are applied to the air-kerma value. Correction factors for electron loss (kloss) and for additional ionization current caused by photon scatter (ksc), photon fluorescence (kfl), photon transmission through diaphragm edge (kdtr), and photon scatter from the surface of the diaphragm aperture (kdsc) were determined by the MCNPX code utilizing information stored in Particle Track (PTRAC) output files. Individual steps of the procedure are described and the calculated values of the correction factors are presented. The values are in agreement with the correction factors published in a literature for similar free-air chambers.

  19. Testing and Evaluation of a Power Factor Correction for Power-Savings Potential 

    E-print Network

    Alotaibi, A.

    2011-01-01

    and Evaluation of a Power Factor Correction Unit for Energy-Saving Potential A. Al-Mulla A. Alotaibi Associate Research Scientist Research Associate Department of Building and Energy Technologies Environment and Urban Development Division...

  20. Global analysis of proton elastic form factor data with two-photon exchange corrections

    SciTech Connect

    J. Arrington; W. Melnitchouk; J. A. Tjon

    2007-09-01

    We use the world's data on elastic electron-proton scattering and calculations of two-photon exchange effects to extract corrected values of the proton's electric and magnetic form factors over the full Q^2 range of the existing data. Our analysis combines the corrected Rosenbluth cross section and polarization transfer data, and is the first extraction of G_Ep and G_Mp including explicit two-photon exchange corrections and their associated uncertainties. In addition, we examine the angular dependence of the corrected cross sections, and discuss the possible nonlinearities of the cross section as a function of epsilon.

  1. The perturbation correction factor of ionisation chambers in beta-radiation fields.

    PubMed

    Böhm, J

    1980-01-01

    In determining the absorbed dose in a solid medium by means of gas-filled ionisation chambers, the perturbation of the radiation field by the chamber needs to be taken into account. So far, an appropriate correction factor has neither been calculated nor measured for beta-radiation. This work describes its experimental determination for an extrapolation chamber and beta-radiation fields of 147Pm, 204Tl, and 90Sr + 90Y. The results show that the correction factor may be assumed to be the product of a shield factor and a scatter factor the magnitudes of which depend on the chamber geometry and the radiation field. The change of the perturbation correction factor with phantom depth is important for the measurement of depth dose curves. This is demonstrated by an example. PMID:7360793

  2. Correction of factor XI deficiency by liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Eva; Finn, Laura; Johns, Gretchen; Pruthi, Rajiv K; Roy, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation for other diseases typically results in a coincidental cure for hemophilia A and B; however, long-term outcomes of liver transplant in hemophilia C are not very well described. Herein, the authors report a patient of severe congenital factor XI (FXI) deficiency who received an orthotopic liver transplant. The authors discuss the perioperative management and long-term outcomes. The normalization of his FXI levels confirms that the liver is the most clinically relevant site of synthesis of FXI. PMID:26196192

  3. Temperature correction of arterial blood-gas parameters: A comparative review of methodology.

    PubMed

    Andritsch, R F; Muravchick, S; Gold, M I

    1981-09-01

    The need for accurate clinical diagnosis and appropriate intervention requires that a modern blood-gas laboratory have the means to correct for significant discrepancies between patient temperature and the temperature at which in vitro blood samples are analyzed. Recent advances in mini- and microcomputer technology permit application of any or all of the correction formulas above at modest cost and minimal inconvenience (See the Appendix). An expanded program for a TI-59 desk-top calculator and P-100C printer which gives labeled hard-copy readout of temperature-corrected pH, PCO2, PO2, and hemoglobin saturation values, as well as bicarbonate concentration and in vivo base excess is in daily clinical use in our operating room and is available from the authors upon request. PMID:6791530

  4. Hopf-Type Intermediate-Scale Bifurcation in Single-Stage Power-Factor-Correction Power

    E-print Network

    Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

    Hopf-Type Intermediate-Scale Bifurcation in Single-Stage Power-Factor-Correction Power Supplies University, Hong Kong Abstract-- This paper reports intermediate-scale instability in a single-stage power-factor. The intermediate-scale instability usually manifests itself as local oscillations within a line cycle. Based

  5. Non-uniformity correction with temperature influence compensation in microbolometer detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupi?ski, Micha?; Bieszczad, Grzegorz; Gogler, S?awomir; Madura, Henryk

    2015-05-01

    Because of a significant impact of the microbolometer array temperature on the infrared image quality, it is necessary to compensate the influence of the temperature on the NUC process. In the most common applications two approaches are used: the first is a stabilization of the microbolometer array temperature by a thermoelectric cooler, the second is updating correction coefficients obtained from reference source, for example a shutter [14]. Both of the most common approaches have theirs disadvantages. The first case needs a considerable amount of energy for temperature stabilisation. The second one needs a reference target and a mechanical procedure to place the target at the front of the detector. Additionally, during calibration the reference target is blocking radiation from the scene, thus interrupting measurements with the thermal camera. In the article a non-uniformity correction method is presented which allows to compensate for the influence of detector's temperature drift. For this purpose, dependency between output signal value and the temperature of the detector array was investigated. Additionally the influence of the temperature on the Offset and Gain coefficients was measured. Presented method utilizes estimated dependency between output signal of detectors and their temperature. In the presented method, the dependency between output signal value and the temperature of the detector is estimated during time of starting detector. The coefficients are estimated for every pixel. In the article proposed method allows to compensate the influence of detectors temperature fluctuation and increase a time between shutter actuation process.

  6. Corrections.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    Lai Y-S, Biedermann P, Ekpo UF, et al. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and treatment needs in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and geostatistical analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2015; published online May 22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00066-3—Figure 1 of this Article should have contained a box stating ‘100 references added’ with an arrow pointing inwards, rather than a box stating ‘199 records excluded’, and an asterisk should have been added after ‘1473 records extracted into GNTD’. Additionally, the positioning of the ‘§ and ‘†’ footnotes has been corrected in table 1. These corrections have been made to the online version as of June 4, 2015. PMID:26122439

  7. Automatic air and surface temperature measure by IR thermography with perspective correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bison, Paolo G.; Bressan, Chiara; Grinzato, Ermanno G.; Marinetti, Sergio

    1993-05-01

    Large building quantitative inspection needs both automatic correction of perspective distortion and precise air and surface temperature measurement. Unfortunately these operations are heavily time consuming if performed manually by a human operator. We present a dedicated algorithm devoted to this task. The procedure first of all detects suitable reference structures put in the field of view, by means of a visual image processing and identifies the 3D position of the wall. The second step matches the thermogram with the visual image of the object. The third step performs an inverse perspective projection applying a thermal camera model, the output is a corrected radiance field. The fourth step measures the air temperature on the reference and the surface temperature map. The surface temperature can be obtained by absolute, relative or differential methods mainly depending on object emissivity value and its spatial distribution.

  8. Correcting temperature dependence in miniature spectrometers used in cold polar environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hangzhou; Song, Hong; Chen, Ying; Laney, Samuel R

    2015-04-10

    Measurement biases arising from changes in temperature can be a major concern when using miniature spectrometers in extreme environments, particularly when temperature stabilization approaches are not feasible. Here, temperature-related biases of a low-power field spectrometry system comprised of a CMOS miniature monolithic spectrometer module and custom driver electronics were examined between -40°C and +25.6°C, well below the stated operating range of this particular spectrometer. Using these observations, a predictive model was developed to estimate the dark output of the spectrometry system within this extended operating range. This information was used to correct the signal at any measured integration time and temperature to that which would be measured at a reference integration time and temperature. This approach provides a general framework for assessing the temperature dependence of monolithic spectrometers whose field use will occur at temperatures outside of the range examined by the manufacturer. PMID:25967300

  9. Statistical Correction of Air Temperature Forecasts for City and Road Weather Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, Alexander; Petersen, Claus; Sass, Bent; Gilet, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The method for statistical correction of air /road surface temperatures forecasts was developed based on analysis of long-term time-series of meteorological observations and forecasts (from HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model & Road Conditions Model; 3 km horizontal resolution). It has been tested for May-Aug 2012 & Oct 2012 - Mar 2013, respectively. The developed method is based mostly on forecasted meteorological parameters with a minimal inclusion of observations (covering only a pre-history period). Although the st iteration correction is based taking into account relevant temperature observations, but the further adjustment of air and road temperature forecasts is based purely on forecasted meteorological parameters. The method is model independent, e.g. it can be applied for temperature correction with other types of models having different horizontal resolutions. It is relatively fast due to application of the singular value decomposition method for matrix solution to find coefficients. Moreover, there is always a possibility for additional improvement due to extra tuning of the temperature forecasts for some locations (stations), and in particular, where for example, the MAEs are generally higher compared with others (see Gilet et al., 2014). For the city weather applications, new operationalized procedure for statistical correction of the air temperature forecasts has been elaborated and implemented for the HIRLAM-SKA model runs at 00, 06, 12, and 18 UTCs covering forecast lengths up to 48 hours. The procedure includes segments for extraction of observations and forecast data, assigning these to forecast lengths, statistical correction of temperature, one-&multi-days statistical evaluation of model performance, decision-making on using corrections by stations, interpolation, visualisation and storage/backup. Pre-operational air temperature correction runs were performed for the mainland Denmark since mid-April 2013 and shown good results. Tests also showed that the CPU time required for the operational procedure is relatively short (less than 15 minutes including a large time spent for interpolation). These also showed that in order to start correction of forecasts there is no need to have a long-term pre-historical data (containing forecasts and observations) and, at least, a couple of weeks will be sufficient when a new observational station is included and added to the forecast point. Note for the road weather application, the operationalization of the statistical correction of the road surface temperature forecasts (for the RWM system daily hourly runs covering forecast length up to 5 hours ahead) for the Danish road network (for about 400 road stations) was also implemented, and it is running in a test mode since Sep 2013. The method can also be applied for correction of the dew point temperature and wind speed (as a part of observations/ forecasts at synoptical stations), where these both meteorological parameters are parts of the proposed system of equations. The evaluation of the method performance for improvement of the wind speed forecasts is planned as well, with considering possibilities for the wind direction improvements (which is more complex due to multi-modal types of such data distribution). The method worked for the entire domain of mainland Denmark (tested for 60 synoptical and 395 road stations), and hence, it can be also applied for any geographical point within this domain, as through interpolation to about 100 cities' locations (for Danish national byvejr forecasts). Moreover, we can assume that the same method can be used in other geographical areas. The evaluation for other domains (with a focus on Greenland and Nordic countries) is planned. In addition, a similar approach might be also tested for statistical correction of concentrations of chemical species, but such approach will require additional elaboration and evaluation.

  10. Implementation of Coupled Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Global Atmospheric Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radakovich, Jon; Bosilovich, M.; Chern, Jiun-dar; daSilva, Arlindo

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/NCAR Finite Volume GCM (fvGCM) with the NCAR CLM (Community Land Model) version 2.0 was integrated into the NASA/GMAO Finite Volume Data Assimilation System (fvDAS). A new method was developed for coupled skin temperature assimilation and bias correction where the analysis increment and bias correction term is passed into the CLM2 and considered a forcing term in the solution to the energy balance. For our purposes, the fvDAS CLM2 was run at 1 deg. x 1.25 deg. horizontal resolution with 55 vertical levels. We assimilate the ISCCP-DX (30 km resolution) surface temperature product. The atmospheric analysis was performed 6-hourly, while the skin temperature analysis was performed 3-hourly. The bias correction term, which was updated at the analysis times, was added to the skin temperature tendency equation at every timestep. In this presentation, we focus on the validation of the surface energy budget at the in situ reference sites for the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Period (CEOP). We will concentrate on sites that include independent skin temperature measurements and complete energy budget observations for the month of July 2001. In addition, MODIS skin temperature will be used for validation. Several assimilations were conducted and preliminary results will be presented.

  11. Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Coupled Land-Atmosphere Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Radakovich, Jon D.; daSilva, Arlindo; Todling, Ricardo; Verter, Frances

    2006-01-01

    In an initial investigation, remotely sensed surface temperature is assimilated into a coupled atmosphere/land global data assimilation system, with explicit accounting for biases in the model state. In this scheme, an incremental bias correction term is introduced in the model's surface energy budget. In its simplest form, the algorithm estimates and corrects a constant time mean bias for each gridpoint; additional benefits are attained with a refined version of the algorithm which allows for a correction of the mean diurnal cycle. The method is validated against the assimilated observations, as well as independent near-surface air temperature observations. In many regions, not accounting for the diurnal cycle of bias caused degradation of the diurnal amplitude of background model air temperature. Energy fluxes collected through the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) are used to more closely inspect the surface energy budget. In general, sensible heat flux is improved with the surface temperature assimilation, and two stations show a reduction of bias by as much as 30 Wm(sup -2) Rondonia station in Amazonia, the Bowen ratio changes direction in an improvement related to the temperature assimilation. However, at many stations the monthly latent heat flux bias is slightly increased. These results show the impact of univariate assimilation of surface temperature observations on the surface energy budget, and suggest the need for multivariate land data assimilation. The results also show the need for independent validation data, especially flux stations in varied climate regimes.

  12. OBSERVATIONS OF SIMILARITY THEORY STABILITY CORRECTION TERMS FOR MOMENTUM AND TEMPERATURE, OVER AGRICULTURAL FIELDS AND FORESTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many observations of temperature and wind speed profiles have been taken over "ideal" terrain and analyzed to develop the stability correction terms which are commonly used in the application of similarity theory. Fewer observations have been taken and analyzed in this manner ov...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.670 - NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.670 NOX intake-air humidity and temperature corrections. See the standard-setting part to determine if you... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX intake-air humidity...

  18. A Novel Precise Method for Correcting the Temperature in Stellar Atmosphere Models

    E-print Network

    Octavio Cardona; Lucio Crivellari; Eduardo Simonneau

    2007-10-31

    A mayor problem that arises in the computation of stellar atmosphere models is the self consistent determination of the temperature distribution via the constraint of energy conservation. The energy balance includes the gains due to the absorption of radiation and the losses due to emission. It is well known that within each one of the two above integrals the part corresponding to spectral ranges whose opacity X(nu) is huge can overcome by many orders of magnitude the part that corresponds to the remaining frequencies. On the other hand, at those frequencies where X(nu) is very large, the mean intensity J(nu) of the radiation field shall be equal, up to many significant digits, to the source function S(nu) and consequently to the Planck function B(nu,T). Then their net share to the energy balance shall be null, albeit separately their contributions to the gain and loss integrals are the most important numerically. Thus the spectral range whose physical contribution to the overall balance is null will dominate numerically both sides of the energy balance equation, and consequently the errors on the determination of J(nu) and S(nu) at these frequencies will falsify the balance. It is possible to circumvent the numerical problem brought about by the foregoing circumstances by solving the radiative transfer equation for the variable I(n,nu) - S(nu), instead of the customary intensity I(n,nu). We present here a novel iterative algorithm, based on iteration factors already employed by us with success, which makes it possible a fast correction of the temperature by computing directly the difference between the radiative losses and gains at each step of the iterations.

  19. Correction.

    PubMed

    2015-05-22

    The Circulation Research article by Keith and Bolli (“String Theory” of c-kitpos Cardiac Cells: A New Paradigm Regarding the Nature of These Cells That May Reconcile Apparently Discrepant Results. Circ Res. 2015:116:1216-1230. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.305557) states that van Berlo et al (2014) observed that large numbers of fibroblasts and adventitial cells, some smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and rare cardiomyocytes originated from c-kit positive progenitors. However, van Berlo et al reported that only occasional fibroblasts and adventitial cells derived from c-kit positive progenitors in their studies. Accordingly, the review has been corrected to indicate that van Berlo et al (2014) observed that large numbers of endothelial cells, with some smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, and more rarely cardiomyocytes, originated from c-kit positive progenitors in their murine model. The authors apologize for this error, and the error has been noted and corrected in the online version of the article, which is available at http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/116/7/1216.full ( PMID:25999426

  20. Equivalence of computer codes for calculation of coincidence summing correction factors.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, T; Capogni, M; Hult, M; Hurtado, S; Kastlander, J; Lutter, G; Lépy, M-C; Martinkovi?, J; Ramebäck, H; Sima, O; Tzika, F; Vidmar, G

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to check for equivalence of computer codes that can perform calculations of true coincidence summing correction factors. All calculations were performed for a set of well-defined detector and sample parameters, without any reference to empirical data. For a p-type detector model the application of different codes resulted in satisfactory agreement in the calculated correction factors. For high-efficiency geometries in combination with an n-type detector and a radionuclide emitting abundant X-rays the results were scattered. PMID:24332343

  1. Resistance moisture meter correction factors for four tropical wood species. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, W.T.

    1994-03-01

    Connection factors were determined for an electrical resistance-type moisture meter for African celtis (Celtis sp.), dahoma (Piptadeniastrum africanum), ramon (Brosimun alicastrum), and danto (Vatairea lundellii). For all species, correction factors were negative for most of the moisture content range, meaning that the meter readings were generally greater than the true moisture content. The 95-percent confidence intervals for true moisture content as a function of meter reading are given. The time drift of the true moisture content estimated from the corrected meter readings is also given.

  2. Meson - nucleon vertex form factors at finite temperature

    E-print Network

    F. C. Khanna; A. M. Rakhimov; U. T. Yakhshiev

    1999-08-19

    In this paper the dependence of meson-nucleon-nucleon vertex form factors is studied as a function of termperature. The results are obtained starting from a zero temperature Bonn potential. The temperature dependence of the vertex form factors and radii is studied in the thermofield dynamics, a real-time operator formalism of finite temperature field theory. It is anticipated that these results will have an impact on the study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions as the critical temperature for the phase transition from hadronic to quark-gluon system is approached.

  3. Communication: The effect of dispersion corrections on the melting temperature of liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2011-03-01

    The melting temperature (Tm) of liquid water with the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) density functional including dispersion corrections (BLYP-D) and the Thole-type, version 3 (TTM3-F) ab-initio based flexible, polarizable classical potential is reported via constant pressure and constant enthalpy (NPH) molecular dynamics simulations of an ice Ih-liquid coexisting system. Dispersion corrections to BLYP lower Tm to about 360 K, a large improvement over the value of Tm > 400 K previously obtained with the original BLYP functional under the same simulation conditions. For TTM3-F, Tm = 248 K from classical molecular dynamics simulations.

  4. Factors affecting SFHR gene correction efficiency with single-stranded DNA fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kamiya, Hiroyuki . E-mail: hirokam@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp

    2005-11-04

    A 606-nt single-stranded (ss) DNA fragment, prepared by restriction enzyme digestion of ss phagemid DNA, improves the gene correction efficiency by 12-fold as compared with a PCR fragment, which is the conventional type of fragment used in the small fragment homologous replacement method [H. Tsuchiya, H. Harashima, H. Kamiya, Increased SFHR gene correction efficiency with sense single-stranded DNA, J. Gene Med. 7 (2005) 486-493]. To reveal the characteristic features of this gene correction with the ss DNA fragment, the effects on the gene correction in CHO-K1 cells of the chain length, 5'-phosphate, adenine methylation, and transcription were studied. Moreover, the possibility that the ss DNA fragment is integrated into the target DNA was examined with a radioactively labeled ss DNA fragment. The presence of methylated adenine, but not the 5'-phosphate, enhanced the gene correction efficiency, and the optimal length of the ss DNA fragment ({approx}600 nt) was determined. Transcription of the target gene did not affect the gene correction efficiency. In addition, the target DNA recovered from the transfected CHO-K1 cells was radioactive. The results obtained in this study indicate that length and adenine methylation were important factors affecting the gene correction efficiency, and that the ss DNA fragment was integrated into the double-stranded target DNA.

  5. 76 FR 19913 - Compliance Testing Procedures: Correction Factor for Room Air Conditioners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... contained in the petition. (75 FR 72739, Nov. 26, 2010). In addition to a comment from AHAM reiterating... published a final rule to amend the test procedure for room air conditioners and clothes dryers. (75 FR 972...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 Compliance Testing Procedures: Correction Factor for Room...

  6. The accuracy of climate models' simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of grid scale correction factors

    SciTech Connect

    Winterhalter, Wade

    2011-09-01

    Global climate change is expected to impact biological populations through a variety of mechanisms including increases in the length of their growing season. Climate models are useful tools for predicting how season length might change in the future. However, the accuracy of these models tends to be rather low at regional geographic scales. Here, I determined the ability of several atmosphere and ocean general circulating models (AOGCMs) to accurately simulate historical season lengths for a temperate ectotherm across the continental United States. I also evaluated the effectiveness of regional-scale correction factors to improve the accuracy of these models. I found that both the accuracy of simulated season lengths and the effectiveness of the correction factors to improve the model's accuracy varied geographically and across models. These results suggest that regional specific correction factors do not always adequately remove potential discrepancies between simulated and historically observed environmental parameters. As such, an explicit evaluation of the correction factors' effectiveness should be included in future studies of global climate change's impact on biological populations.

  7. Correction factor to dye-measured flow velocity under varying water and sediment discharges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dye-tracing technique was a widely used method to measure velocity of overland flow in soil erosion studies under both laboratory and field conditions. Few studies were performed to quantify the effects of sediment load on correction factor on steep slopes. The objective was to investigate the poten...

  8. A Current-Sensorless Digital Controller for Active Power Factor Correction Control Based on Kalman Filters

    E-print Network

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    A Current-Sensorless Digital Controller for Active Power Factor Correction Control Based on Kalman, by replacing the sensor with a Kalman filter, which is essentially a stochastic observer. Experimental results-power techniques are undesirable and the current sensor is too expensive. A Kalman filter [7] can be used

  9. Correction factors to account for minor sample height variations in gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jod?owski, P.

    2007-09-01

    It often happens in gamma-ray spectrometry measurements that there is less sample material than required for the given measuring geometry. One approach to this problem is to stick to the original geometry, though a correction factor is to be introduced to account for the difference in the height of the sample material. This correction factor Ch is expressed as the ratio of spectrometer efficiency for the nominal sample height ?( h0) to that obtained for the actual height ?( h). The author determined the correction factor Ch for several radiation energies E, 81.0, 356.0, 661.7 and 1173.2 keV. Two measurement geometries were considered: a Marinelli beaker 710 cm 3 in volume, and a cylindrical sample 31.5 mm in height. The correction factors were obtained experimentally and by Monte Carlo simulation method for h falling within the range h0±8 mm. Ch values obtained by these two methods are consistent. For E?356 keV, Ch value almost does not depend on energy. Ch value varies linearly with d h. For Marinelli beaker for E?356 keV, the correction is 0.9% (1.0% for E=81 keV) for each millimeter of sample height change; for a cylindrical geometry the correction is 1.5% (1.7%). Monte Carlo method was further used to compute Ch values for several other cylindrical geometries. The lower the nominal height of the cylindrical samples, the more sensitive the method to sample height variations. The knowledge of the value Ch enables us to estimate the uncertainty of the measurements, associated with the sample height uncertainty.

  10. Bias correction of temperature produced by the Community Climate System Model using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghim, S.; Hsu, K.; Bras, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    General Circulation Models (GCMs) are used to predict circulation and energy transfers between the atmosphere and the land. It is known that these models produce biased results that will have impact on their uses. This work proposes a new method for bias correction: the equidistant cumulative distribution function-artificial neural network (EDCDFANN) procedure. The method uses artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a surrogate model to estimate bias-corrected temperature, given an identification of the system derived from GCM models output variables. A two-layer feed forward neural network is trained with observations during a historical period and then the adjusted network can be used to predict bias-corrected temperature for future periods. To capture the extreme values this method is combined with the equidistant CDF matching method (EDCDF, Li et al. 2010). The proposed method is tested with the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) outputs using air and skin temperature, specific humidity, shortwave and longwave radiation as inputs to the ANN. This method decreases the mean square error and increases the spatial correlation between the modeled temperature and the observed one. The results indicate the EDCDFANN has potential to remove the biases of the model outputs.

  11. An attempt to correct strain data measured with vault-housed extensometers under variations in temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Ken'ichi

    2013-06-01

    Strain data obtained by vault-housed extensometers have precisions on the order of nanostrains, but they are distorted by variations in temperature, which cause two types of noise: "actual variations" due to the thermo-elastic effect of the Earth's crust, and "false variations" due to the thermal expansion of extensometer, which occurs when the extensometers themselves are subjected to variations in temperature. Here, I explore a method of removing false variations, which are severe when the vault is located at shallow depths. If variations in temperature at arbitrary points inside a vault are estimated, false variations can be removed from the recorded variations in strain. I derive formulae that enable variations in temperature to be estimated at various points in a vault, based on measured variations at reference points. The formulation is valid if some simplification is allowed. I examined whether variations in temperature inside a vault can be estimated in terms of the derived formulae, and obtained the following results. When the reference temperature data are obtained from adequate points in the vault, variations in temperature at another point can be estimated with an accuracy of 0.1 °C. However, when the reference temperature data are obtained from outside the vault, estimated variations in temperature are rather inaccurate, which means that the false variations in strain cannot be removed accurately. Moreover, the data indicate that the thermal diffusivity of the ground is temporally variable, and this introduces another difficulty in correcting false variations in strain data. These results indicate that correcting the distortions in strain data due to variations in temperature is much more difficult than anticipated.

  12. Temperature effects and corrections in volume measurements based on liquid-level detection

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, S.; Keisch, B.

    1993-08-01

    Temperature changes affect volume measurements in several ways. The dimensions of the tank, and the density and level of the liquid it contains vary with temperature. In addition, the response signal of the sensor and hence the response of the liquid-level detection device may change with temperature. Level measurement devices can be grouped according to four measurement points of reference: tip of probe, response proportional to the length of probe, top of tank, and liquid surface. This paper describes the physical principles of pressure, capacitance probe, sonic reflections, and visual scales. These are representative of the four types of liquid level detection techniques. Development of the temperature correction algorithm requires that the measurement process be clearly defined, conditions or limitations specified, and that a temperature-effects test be run. Although not difficult or necessarily time-consuming to run, good practice requires a test plan following demonstrated guidelines. Measurement control procedures for remeasurement of the process solution in the tank during normal operation can provide data to validate temperature correction algorithms.

  13. Communication: The Effect of Dispersion Corrections on the Melting Temperature of Liquid Water

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2011-03-28

    We report the results of the melting temperature (Tm) of liquid water for the Becke-Lee- Yang-Parr (BLYP) density functional including Dispersion corrections (BLYP-D) and the TTM3-F ab-initio based classical potential via constant pressure and constant enthalpy (NPH) ensemble molecular dynamics simulations of an ice Ih-liquid coexisting system. The inclusion of dispersion corrections to BLYP lowers the melting temperature of liquid water to Tm=360 K, which is a large improvement over the value of Tm > 400 K obtained with the original BLYP functional. The ab-initio based flexible, polarizable Thole-type model (TTM3-F) produces Tm=248 K from classical molecular dynamics simulations.

  14. Characterization and Correction of Aquarius Long Term Calibration Drift Using On-Earth Brightness Temperature Refernces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Shannon; Misra, Sidharth

    2013-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D mission was launched on June 10, 2011 from Vandenberg Air Force Base. Aquarius consists of an L-band radiometer and scatterometer intended to provide global maps of sea surface salinity. One of the main mission objectives is to provide monthly global salinity maps for climate studies of ocean circulation, surface evaporation and precipitation, air/sea interactions and other processes. Therefore, it is critical that any spatial or temporal systematic biases be characterized and corrected. One of the main mission requirements is to measure salinity with an accuracy of 0.2 psu on montly time scales which requires a brightness temperature stability of about 0.1K, which is a challenging requirement for the radiometer. A secondary use of the Aquarius data is for soil moisture applications, which requires brightness temperature stability at the warmer end of the brightness temperature dynamic range. Soon after launch, time variable drifts were observed in the Aquarius data compared to in-situ data from ARGO and models for the ocean surface salinity. These drifts could arise from a number of sources, including the various components of the retrieval algorithm, such as the correction for direct and reflected galactic emission, or from the instrument brightness temperature calibration. If arising from the brightness temperature calibration, they could have gain and offset components. It is critical that the nature of the drifts be understood before a suitable correction can be implemented. This paper describes the approach that was used to detect and characterize the components of the drift that were in the brightness temperature calibration using on-Earth reference targets that were independent of the ocean model.

  15. A Sheath Collision Model with Thermionic Electron Emission and the Schottky Correction Factor for Work Function of Wall Material

    E-print Network

    Pekker, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a model that expands Godyak's collisional sheath model to the case of hot electrodes (anode or cathode) with thermionic electron emission. In the model, the electrodes are assumed to be made from refractory metals and, consequently, the erosion of the electrodes is small and can be neglected. In the frame of two temperature thermal plasma modeling, this model allows self-consistent calculation of the sheath potential drop, the Schottky correction factor for the work function of the wall material, the thermionic electron current density, and the heat fluxes of the charged particles from the plasma to the wall. The model is applied to the cathode spot at the tungsten cathode in argon. It is shown that the Shottky correction factor plays a crucial role in modeling high-intensity arcs. It is demonstrated that a virtual cathode can be formed in the atmospheric pressure argon plasma at the cathode surface temperature of 4785 K if the cathode current density is sufficiently small. The heat flux t...

  16. Correcting gene expression data when neither the unwanted variation nor the factor of interest are observed

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Laurent; Gagnon-Bartsch, Johann A.; Speed, Terence P.

    2016-01-01

    When dealing with large scale gene expression studies, observations are commonly contaminated by sources of unwanted variation such as platforms or batches. Not taking this unwanted variation into account when analyzing the data can lead to spurious associations and to missing important signals. When the analysis is unsupervised, e.g. when the goal is to cluster the samples or to build a corrected version of the dataset—as opposed to the study of an observed factor of interest—taking unwanted variation into account can become a difficult task. The factors driving unwanted variation may be correlated with the unobserved factor of interest, so that correcting for the former can remove the latter if not done carefully. We show how negative control genes and replicate samples can be used to estimate unwanted variation in gene expression, and discuss how this information can be used to correct the expression data. The proposed methods are then evaluated on synthetic data and three gene expression datasets. They generally manage to remove unwanted variation without losing the signal of interest and compare favorably to state-of-the-art corrections. All proposed methods are implemented in the bioconductor package RUVnormalize. PMID:26286812

  17. Radiative recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting: Polarization insertions in the electron factor

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, M. I.; Shelyuto, V. A.

    2010-01-15

    We consider three-loop radiative recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting in muonium due to insertions of the one-loop polarization operator in the electron factor. The contribution generated by electron polarization insertions is a cubic polynomial in the large logarithm of the electron-muon mass ratio. The leading logarithm cubed and logarithm squared terms are well known for some time. We calculate all single-logarithmic and nonlogarithmic radiative recoil corrections of the order {alpha}{sup 3}(m/M)E{sub F} generated by diagrams with the electron and muon polarization insertions.

  18. Monte Carlo calculated correction factors for diodes and ion chambers in small photon fields.

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, D; Zink, K

    2013-04-21

    The application of small photon fields in modern radiotherapy requires the determination of total scatter factors Scp or field factors ?(f(clin), f(msr))(Q(clin), Q(msr)) with high precision. Both quantities require the knowledge of the field-size-dependent and detector-dependent correction factor k(f(clin), f(msr))(Q(clin), Q(msr)). The aim of this study is the determination of the correction factor k(f(clin), f(msr))(Q(clin), Q(msr)) for different types of detectors in a clinical 6 MV photon beam of a Siemens KD linear accelerator. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the dose to water and the dose to different detectors to determine the field factor as well as the mentioned correction factor for different small square field sizes. Besides this, the mean water to air stopping power ratio as well as the ratio of the mean energy absorption coefficients for the relevant materials was calculated for different small field sizes. As the beam source, a Monte Carlo based model of a Siemens KD linear accelerator was used. The results show that in the case of ionization chambers the detector volume has the largest impact on the correction factor k(f(clin), f(msr))(Q(clin), Q(msr)); this perturbation may contribute up to 50% to the correction factor. Field-dependent changes in stopping-power ratios are negligible. The magnitude of k(f(clin), f(msr))(Q(clin), Q(msr)) is of the order of 1.2 at a field size of 1 × 1 cm(2) for the large volume ion chamber PTW31010 and is still in the range of 1.05-1.07 for the PinPoint chambers PTW31014 and PTW31016. For the diode detectors included in this study (PTW60016, PTW 60017), the correction factor deviates no more than 2% from unity in field sizes between 10 × 10 and 1 × 1 cm(2), but below this field size there is a steep decrease of k(f(clin), f(msr))(Q(clin), Q(msr)) below unity, i.e. a strong overestimation of dose. Besides the field size and detector dependence, the results reveal a clear dependence of the correction factor on the accelerator geometry for field sizes below 1 × 1 cm(2), i.e. on the beam spot size of the primary electrons hitting the target. This effect is especially pronounced for the ionization chambers. In conclusion, comparing all detectors, the unshielded diode PTW60017 is highly recommended for small field dosimetry, since its correction factor k(f(clin), f(msr))(Q(clin), Q(msr)) is closest to unity in small fields and mainly independent of the electron beam spot size. PMID:23514734

  19. Radiative corrections to the Casimir Pressure under the influence of temperature and external fields

    SciTech Connect

    Robaschik, D.; Scharonhorst, K.; Wieczorek, E.

    1987-03-01

    Generalizing the quantum field theory (QFT) with boundary conditions in covariant gauge to the case of finite temperature, we develop the quantum electrodynamics (QED) with boundary conditions in the Matsubara approach as well as in the thermofield formulation. We rederive the known results of the free-field theory for the pressure and the free energy of the Casimir problem. For infinitely thin plates we calculate the radiative corrections in second-order perturbation theory at finite temperature. Thereby it turns out that the calculation in of the vacuum energy at the vanishing temperature via the Z functional is much simplier than the calculation via the energy momentum tensor. This observation allows determination of the influence of static electromagnetic fields on the Casimir problem. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc.

  20. Determination of ion recombination correction factors for a liquid ionization chamber in megavoltage photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang Hyoun; Kim, Kum-Bae; Ji, Young Hoon; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Seonghoon; Huh, Hyun Do

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the ion recombination correction factor for a liquid ionization chamber in a high energy photon beam by using our experimental method. The ion recombination correction factors were determined by using our experimental method and were compared with theoretical and experimental methods proposed by using the theoretical method (Greening, Johansson) and the two-dose rate method in a cobalt beam and a high energy photon beam. In order to apply the liquid ionization chamber in a reference and small field dosimetry, we acquired the absorbed dose to water correction coefficient, the beam quality correction factor, and the influence quantities for the microLion chamber according to the TRS-398 protocol and applied the results to a high energy photon beam used in clinical fields. As a result, our experimental method for ion recombination in a cobalt beam agreed with the results from the heoretical method (Greening theory) better than it did with the results from the two-dose rate method. For high energy photon beams, the two-dose rate and our experimental methods were in good agreement, less than 2% deviation, while the theoretical general collection efficiency (Johansson et al.) deviated greatly from the experimental values. When we applied the factors for the absorbed dose to water measurement, the absorbed dose to water for the microLion chamber was in good agreement, within 1%, compared with the values for the PTW 30013 chamber in 6 and 10 MV Clinac iX and 6 and 15 MV Oncor impression. With these results, not only can the microLion ionization chamber be used to measure the absorbed dose to water in a reference condition, it can also be used to a the chamber for small, non-standard field dosimetry.

  1. Totem-Pole Power-Factor-Correction Converter under Critical-Conduction-Mode Interleaved Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmansyah, Eka; Tomioka, Satoshi; Abe, Seiya; Shoyama, Masahito; Ninomiya, Tamotsu

    This paper proposes a new power-factor-correction (PFC) topology, and explains its operation principle, its control mechanism, related application problems followed by experimental results. In this proposed topology, critical-conduction-mode (CRM) interleaved technique is applied to a bridgeless PFC in order to achieve high efficiency by combining benefits of each topology. This application is targeted toward low to middle power applications that normally employs continuous-conduction-mode boost converter.

  2. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe...STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T ) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used in the...

  3. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe...STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T ) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used in the...

  4. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe...STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T ) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used in the...

  5. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe...STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T ) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used in the...

  6. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe...STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T ) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used in the...

  7. Correcting infrared satellite estimates of sea surface temperature for atmospheric water vapor attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, William J.; Yu, Yunyue; Wick, Gary A.; Schluessel, Peter; Reynolds, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    A new satellite sea surface temperature (SST) algorithm is developed that uses nearly coincident measurements from the microwave special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) to correct for atmospheric moisture attenuation of the infrared signal from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR). This new SST algorithm is applied to AVHRR imagery from the South Pacific and Norwegian seas, which are then compared with simultaneous in situ (ship based) measurements of both skin and bulk SST. In addition, an SST algorithm using a quadratic product of the difference between the two AVHRR thermal infrared channels is compared with the in situ measurements. While the quadratic formulation provides a considerable improvement over the older cross product (CPSST) and multichannel (MCSST) algorithms, the SSM/I corrected SST (called the water vapor or WVSST) shows overall smaller errors when compared to both the skin and bulk in situ SST observations. Applied to individual AVHRR images, the WVSST reveals an SST difference pattern (CPSST-WVSST) similar in shape to the water vapor structure while the CPSST-quadratic SST difference appears unrelated in pattern to the nearly coincident water vapor pattern. An application of the WVSST to week-long composites of global area coverage (GAC) AVHRR data demonstrates again the manner in which the WVSST corrects the AVHRR for atmospheric moisture attenuation. By comparison the quadratic SST method underestimates the SST corrections in the lower latitudes and overestimates the SST in th e higher latitudes. Correlations between the AVHRR thermal channel differences and the SSM/I water vapor demonstrate the inability of the channel difference to represent water vapor in the midlatitude and high latitudes during summer. Compared against drifting buoy data the WVSST and the quadratic SST both exhibit the same general behavior with the relatively small differences with the buoy temperatures.

  8. A physics-based correction model for homogenizing sub-daily temperature series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchmann, R.; BröNnimann, S.

    2012-09-01

    A new physics-based technique for correcting inhomogeneities present in sub-daily temperature records is proposed. The approach accounts for changes in the sensor-shield characteristics that affect the energy balance dependent on ambient weather conditions (radiation, wind). An empirical model is formulated that reflects the main atmospheric processes and can be used in the correction step of a homogenization procedure. The model accounts for short- and long-wave radiation fluxes (including a snow cover component for albedo calculation) of a measurement system, such as a radiation shield. One part of the flux is further modulated by ventilation. The model requires only cloud cover and wind speed for each day, but detailed site-specific information is necessary. The final model has three free parameters, one of which is a constant offset. The three parameters can be determined, e.g., using the mean offsets for three observation times. The model is developed using the example of the change from the Wild screen to the Stevenson screen in the temperature record of Basel, Switzerland, in 1966. It is evaluated based on parallel measurements of both systems during a sub-period at this location, which were discovered during the writing of this paper. The model can be used in the correction step of homogenization to distribute a known mean step-size to every single measurement, thus providing a reasonable alternative correction procedure for high-resolution historical climate series. It also constitutes an error model, which may be applied, e.g., in data assimilation approaches.

  9. Perturbative Corrections to $?_b \\to ?$ Form Factors from QCD Light-Cone Sum Rules

    E-print Network

    Yu-Ming Wang; Yue-Long Shen

    2015-11-29

    We compute radiative corrections to $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ from factors, at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, from QCD light-cone sum rules with $\\Lambda_b$-baryon distribution amplitudes. Employing the diagrammatic approach factorization of the vacuum-to-$\\Lambda_b$-baryon correlation function is justified at leading power in $\\Lambda/m_b$, with the aid of the method of regions. Hard functions entering the factorization formulae are identical to the corresponding matching coefficients of heavy-to-light currents from QCD onto soft-collinear effective theory. The universal jet function from integrating out the hard-collinear fluctuations exhibits richer structures compared with the one involved in the factorization expressions of the vacuum-to-$B$-meson correlation function. Based upon the QCD resummation improved sum rules we observe that the perturbative corrections at ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s)$ shift the $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ from factors at large recoil significantly and the dominant contribution originates from the next-to-leading order jet function instead of the hard coefficient functions. Having at hand the sum rule predictions for the $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ from factors we further investigate several decay observables in the electro-weak penguin $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda \\, \\ell^{+} \\ell^{-}$ transitions in the factorization limit (i.e., ignoring the "non-factorizable" hadronic effects which cannot be expressed in terms of the $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ from factors), including the invariant mass distribution of the lepton pair, the forward-backward asymmetry in the dilepton system and the longitudinal polarization fraction of the leptonic sector.

  10. Correction factors for source strength determination in HDR brachytherapy using the in-phantom method.

    PubMed

    Ubrich, Frank; Wulff, Jörg; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Zink, Klemens

    2014-05-01

    For the purpose of clinical source strength determination for HDR brachytherapy sources, the German society for Medical Physics (DGMP) recommends in their report 13 the usage of a solid state phantom (Krieger-phantom) with a thimble ionization chamber. In this work, the calibration chain for the determination of the reference air-kerma rate Ka,100 and reference dose rate to waterDw,1 by ionization chamber measurement in the Krieger-phantom was modeled via Monte Carlo simulations. These calculations were used to determine global correction factors k(tot), which allows a user to directly convert the reading of an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water, into the desired quantity Ka,100 or Dw,1. The factor k(tot) was determined for four available (192)Ir sources and one (60)Co source with three different thimble ionization chambers. Finally, ionization chamber measurements on three ?Selectron V2 HDR sources within the Krieger-phantom were performed and Ka,100 was determined according to three different methods: 1) using a calibration factor in terms of absorbed dose to water with the global correction factor [Formula: see text] according DGMP 13 2) using a global correction factor calculated via Monte Carlo 3) using a direct reference air-kerma rate calibration factor determined by the national metrology institute PTB. The comparison of Monte Carlo based [Formula: see text] with those from DGMP 13 showed that the DGMP data were systematically smaller by about 2-2.5%. The experimentally determined [Formula: see text] , based on the direct Ka,100 calibration were also systematically smaller by about 1.5%. Despite of these systematical deviations, the agreement of the different methods was in almost all cases within the 1? level of confidence of the interval of their respective uncertainties in a Gaussian distribution. The application of Monte Carlo based [Formula: see text] for the determination of Ka,100 for three ?Selectron V2 sources revealed the smallest deviation to the manufacturer's source certificate. With the calculated [Formula: see text] for a (60)Co source, the user is now able to accurately determine Ka,100 of a HDR (60)Co source via in-phantom measurement. Moreover, using the presented global correction factor [Formula: see text] , the user is able to determine the future source specification quantity Dw,1 with the same in-phantom setup. PMID:24021956

  11. View Angle Bias Corrections of Geostationary Satellite Land Surface Temperature Measurements Using an Empirical Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, P.; Scarino, B. R.; Palikonda, R.; Yost, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of the surface emissivity is essential for retrieving surface skin temperature (Ts), a key parameter for understanding and modeling the surface energy budget, from satellite remote sensors. For a given region, land and ocean Ts is observed at a constant viewing zenith angle (VZA) by any geostationary satellite (GEOsat) imager. Emission from the surface and, hence, Ts is VZA-dependent, varying by 6 K or more with increasing VZA. Although commonly ignored, it has been established that methodologies for angular normalization of Ts are needed to better understand surface emissivity and reduce errors in Ts retrievals. In order to develop corrections for the VZA-dependence of Ts from GEOsats, inter-calibrated GEOsat and MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are collocated, in time and space, for clear scenes observed at different viewing and illumination angles. The radiances in these temporally and spatially matched datasets are used to retrieve coincident Ts using the same one-channel retrieval algorithm, by which Ts is computed from the observed 11-?m brightness temperature (T11) through application of atmospheric absorption corrections appropriate for that spectral channel. Matches from the two instruments are used to build an empirical model that describes the dependence of Ts on VZA by calculating the radiance differences between the near-nadir views and off-nadir data. With matched T11 data from GOES-East, GOES-West, and Aqua-MODIS for North and South America, an adjustment can be computed using matched pairs, for which the Aqua-MODIS VZA is set less than 5º. Applying this correction to the same GOES data removes the angle dependence. Errors are assessed using independent matched land surface temperature datasets from Terra- and Aqua-MODIS and in situ measurements from SURFRAD. The approach can be used to develop corrections for each GEOsat, and should also be applicable to low-Earth orbit satellites. These corrections will be valuable for improving estimates of instantaneous surface emissivity, surface radiation, and surface heat exchange in observations and models.

  12. Thermocouple error correction for measuring the flame temperature with determination of emissivity and heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindasageri, V.; Vedula, R. P.; Prabhu, S. V.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively.

  13. Thermocouple error correction for measuring the flame temperature with determination of emissivity and heat transfer coefficient.

    PubMed

    Hindasageri, V; Vedula, R P; Prabhu, S V

    2013-02-01

    Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively. PMID:23464237

  14. Atmospheric corrections of passive microwave data for estimating land surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zeng-Lin; Wu, Hua; Tang, Bo-Hui; Qiu, Shi; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2013-07-01

    Quantitative analysis of the atmospheric effects on observations made by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) has been performed. The differences between observed brightness temperatures at the top of the atmosphere and at the bottom of the atmosphere were analyzed using a database of simulated observations, which were configured to replicate AMSR-E data. The differences between observed brightness temperatures at the top of the atmosphere and land surface-emitted brightness temperatures were also computed. Quantitative results show that the atmosphere has different effects on brightness temperatures in different AMSR-E channels. Atmospheric effects can be neglected at 6.925 and 10.65 GHz, when the standard deviation is less than 1 K. However, at other frequencies and polarizations, atmospheric effects on observations should not be neglected. An atmospheric correction algorithm was developed at 18.7 GHz vertical polarization, based on the classic split-window algorithm used in thermal remote sensing. Land surface emission can be estimated with RMSE = 0.99 K using the proposed method. Using the known land surface emissivity, Land Surface Temperature (LST) can be retrieved. The RMSE of retrieved LST is 1.17 K using the simulated data. PMID:23842351

  15. Analysis, compensation, and correction of temperature effects on FBG strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, T. C.; Ferguson, S.; Guthrie, D.; Graver, T. W.; Soller, B. J.; Mendez, Alexis

    2013-05-01

    One of the most common fiber optic sensor (FOS) types used are fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), and the most frequently measured parameter is strain. Hence, FBG strain sensors are one of the most prevalent FOS devices in use today in structural sensing and monitoring in civil engineering, aerospace, marine, oil and gas, composites and smart structure applications. However, since FBGs are simultaneously sensitive to both temperature and strain, it becomes essential to utilize sensors that are either fully temperature insensitive or, alternatively, properly temperature compensated to avoid erroneous measurements. In this paper, we introduce the concept of measured "total strain", which is inherent and unique to optical strain sensors. We review and analyze the temperature and strain sensitivities of FBG strain sensors and decompose the total measured strain into thermal and non-thermal components. We explore the differences between substrate CTE and System Thermal Response Coefficients, which govern the type and quality of thermal strain decomposition analysis. Finally, we present specific guidelines to achieve proper temperature-insensitive strain measurements by combining adequate installation, sensor packaging and data correction techniques.

  16. Spectral correction factors for conventional neutron dosemeters used in high-energy neutron environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Sheu, R J

    2015-04-01

    High-energy neutrons (>10 MeV) contribute substantially to the dose fraction but result in only a small or negligible response in most conventional moderated-type neutron detectors. Neutron dosemeters used for radiation protection purpose are commonly calibrated with (252)Cf neutron sources and are used in various workplace. A workplace-specific correction factor is suggested. In this study, the effect of the neutron spectrum on the accuracy of dose measurements was investigated. A set of neutron spectra representing various neutron environments was selected to study the dose responses of a series of Bonner spheres, including standard and extended-range spheres. By comparing (252)Cf-calibrated dose responses with reference values based on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, this paper presents recommendations for neutron field characterisation and appropriate correction factors for responses of conventional neutron dosemeters used in environments with high-energy neutrons. The correction depends on the estimated percentage of high-energy neutrons in the spectrum or the ratio between the measured responses of two Bonner spheres (the 4P6_8 extended-range sphere versus the 6? standard sphere). PMID:25280480

  17. Method and apparatus for correcting eddy current signal voltage for temperature effects

    DOEpatents

    Kustra, Thomas A. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Caffarel, Alfred J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring physical characteristics of an electrically conductive material by the use of eddy-current techniques and compensating measurement errors caused by changes in temperature includes a switching arrangement connected between primary and reference coils of an eddy-current probe which allows the probe to be selectively connected between an eddy current output oscilloscope and a digital ohm-meter for measuring the resistances of the primary and reference coils substantially at the time of eddy current measurement. In this way, changes in resistance due to temperature effects can be completely taken into account in determining the true error in the eddy current measurement. The true error can consequently be converted into an equivalent eddy current measurement correction.

  18. Estimation of absolute water surface temperature based on atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne remote sensing systems, as well as those on board Earth orbiting satellites, sample electromagnetic energy in discrete wavelength regions and convert the total energy sampled into data suitable for processing by digital computers. In general, however, the total amount of energy reaching a sensor system located at some distance from the target is composed not only of target related energy, but, in addition, contains a contribution originating from the atmosphere itself. Thus, some method must be devised for removing or at least minimizing the effects of the atmosphere. The LOWTRAN-6 Program was designed to estimate atmospheric transmittance and radiance for a given atmospheric path at moderate spectral resolution over an operational wavelength region from 0.25 to 28.5 microns. In order to compute the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital values which were recorded in the absence of the atmosphere, the parameters derived from LOWTRAN-6 are used in a correction equation. The TIMS data were collected at 1:00 a.m. local time on November 21, 1983, over a recirculating cooling pond for a power plant in southeastern Mississippi. The TIMS data were analyzed before and after atmospheric corrections were applied using a band ratioing model to compute the absolute surface temperature of various points on the power plant cooling pond. The summarized results clearly demonstrate the desirability of applying atmospheric corrections.

  19. Born-corrections to weak lensing of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstotz, Steffen; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Merkel, Philipp M.

    2015-11-01

    Many weak-lensing calculations make use of the Born approximation where the light ray is approximated by a straight path. We examine the effect of Born-corrections for lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in an analytical approach by taking perturbative corrections to the geodesic into account. The resulting extra power in the lensing potential spectrum is comparable to the power generated by non-linear structure formation and affects especially the polarization spectra, leading to relative changes of the order of 10-3 for the E-mode spectrum and several per cent on all scales to the B-mode spectrum. In contrast, there is only little change of spectra involving the CMB temperature. Additionally, the corrections excite one more degree of freedom resulting in a deflection component which cannot be described as a gradient of the lensing potential as it is related to image rotation in lens-lens coupling. We estimate the magnitude of this effect on the CMB spectra and find it to be negligible.

  20. Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.

    PubMed

    Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John

    2013-04-01

    Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife. PMID:23504884

  1. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Brad; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. This paper will describe the bias correction technique and results from forecasts evaluated by validation against a Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product from CIRA and against Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses.

  2. Partial correction of murine hemophilia A with neo-antigenic murine factor VIII.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, R; Gao, G P; Chirmule, N; Tazelaar, J; Kazazian, H H

    2000-04-10

    We have previously reported a factor VIII knockout (FVIII KO) mouse model for hemophilia A. Here we demonstrate the presence of nonfunctional heavy chain factor VIII protein in the mouse, making it an excellent model for cross-reacting material (CRM)-positive hemophilia A patients, who express normal levels of a dysfunctional FVIII protein. We attempted to correct these mice phenotypically by transduction of wild-type mouse factor VIII cDNA delivered in an E1/E3-deleted adenoviral vector by tail vein injection. All treated mice displayed initial high-level FVIII expression that diminished after 1 month. Ten of 12 mice administered between 6 x 10(9) and 1 x 10(11) particles/mouse along with anti-CD4 antibody showed long-term FVIII activity (0.03-0.05 IU/ml, equivalent to 3-5% of normal FVIII) that corrected the phenotype. Wild-type murine FVIII was a neo-antigen to the KO mice, generating both cytotoxic and humoral immune responses. Immune suppression with anti-CD4 antibody abrogated these immune responses. These data demonstrate that despite the presence of endogenous FVIII protein the immune system still recognizes a species-specific transgene protein as a neo-antigen, eliciting a cytotoxic T cell response. This phenomenon may exist in the treatment of other genetic disorders by gene therapy. PMID:10779165

  3. Calculation of correction factors for ionization chamber measurements with small fields in low-density media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaturo, O.; Pachoud, M.; Bochud, F. O.; Moeckli, R.

    2012-07-01

    The quantity of interest for high-energy photon beam therapy recommended by most dosimetric protocols is the absorbed dose to water. Thus, ionization chambers are calibrated in absorbed dose to water, which is the same quantity as what is calculated by most treatment planning systems (TPS). However, when measurements are performed in a low-density medium, the presence of the ionization chamber generates a perturbation at the level of the secondary particle range. Therefore, the measured quantity is close to the absorbed dose to a volume of water equivalent to the chamber volume. This quantity is not equivalent to the dose calculated by a TPS, which is the absorbed dose to an infinitesimally small volume of water. This phenomenon can lead to an overestimation of the absorbed dose measured with an ionization chamber of up to 40% in extreme cases. In this paper, we propose a method to calculate correction factors based on the Monte Carlo simulations. These correction factors are obtained by the ratio of the absorbed dose to water in a low-density medium ?Dw,Q,V1low averaged over a scoring volume V1 for a geometry where V1 is filled with the low-density medium and the absorbed dose to water ?Dw,QV2low averaged over a volume V2 for a geometry where V2 is filled with water. In the Monte Carlo simulations, ?Dw,QV2low is obtained by replacing the volume of the ionization chamber by an equivalent volume of water, according to the definition of the absorbed dose to water. The method is validated in two different configurations which allowed us to study the behavior of this correction factor as a function of depth in phantom, photon beam energy, phantom density and field size.

  4. Reliability of IGBT in a STATCOM for Harmonic Compensation and Power Factor Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Gopi Reddy, Lakshmi Reddy; Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak; Xu, Yan; Rizy, D Tom

    2012-01-01

    With smart grid integration, there is a need to characterize reliability of a power system by including reliability of power semiconductors in grid related applications. In this paper, the reliability of IGBTs in a STATCOM application is presented for two different applications, power factor correction and harmonic elimination. The STATCOM model is developed in EMTP, and analytical equations for average conduction losses in an IGBT and a diode are derived and compared with experimental data. A commonly used reliability model is used to predict reliability of IGBT.

  5. Determination of the thermodynamic correction factor of fluids confined in nano-metric slit pores from molecular simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Collell, Julien; Galliero, Guillaume

    2014-05-21

    The multi-component diffusive mass transport is generally quantified by means of the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients when using molecular simulations. These coefficients can be related to the Fick diffusion coefficients using the thermodynamic correction factor matrix, which requires to run several simulations to estimate all the elements of the matrix. In a recent work, Schnell et al. [“Thermodynamics of small systems embedded in a reservoir: A detailed analysis of finite size effects,” Mol. Phys. 110, 1069–1079 (2012)] developed an approach to determine the full matrix of thermodynamic factors from a single simulation in bulk. This approach relies on finite size effects of small systems on the density fluctuations. We present here an extension of their work for inhomogeneous Lennard Jones fluids confined in slit pores. We first verified this extension by cross validating the results obtained from this approach with the results obtained from the simulated adsorption isotherms, which allows to determine the thermodynamic factor in porous medium. We then studied the effects of the pore width (from 1 to 15 molecular sizes), of the solid-fluid interaction potential (Lennard Jones 9-3, hard wall potential) and of the reduced fluid density (from 0.1 to 0.7 at a reduced temperature T* = 2) on the thermodynamic factor. The deviation of the thermodynamic factor compared to its equivalent bulk value decreases when increasing the pore width and becomes insignificant for reduced pore width above 15. We also found that the thermodynamic factor is sensitive to the magnitude of the fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interactions, which softens or exacerbates the density fluctuations.

  6. Determination of the thermodynamic correction factor of fluids confined in nano-metric slit pores from molecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collell, Julien; Galliero, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The multi-component diffusive mass transport is generally quantified by means of the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients when using molecular simulations. These coefficients can be related to the Fick diffusion coefficients using the thermodynamic correction factor matrix, which requires to run several simulations to estimate all the elements of the matrix. In a recent work, Schnell et al. ["Thermodynamics of small systems embedded in a reservoir: A detailed analysis of finite size effects," Mol. Phys. 110, 1069-1079 (2012)] developed an approach to determine the full matrix of thermodynamic factors from a single simulation in bulk. This approach relies on finite size effects of small systems on the density fluctuations. We present here an extension of their work for inhomogeneous Lennard Jones fluids confined in slit pores. We first verified this extension by cross validating the results obtained from this approach with the results obtained from the simulated adsorption isotherms, which allows to determine the thermodynamic factor in porous medium. We then studied the effects of the pore width (from 1 to 15 molecular sizes), of the solid-fluid interaction potential (Lennard Jones 9-3, hard wall potential) and of the reduced fluid density (from 0.1 to 0.7 at a reduced temperature T* = 2) on the thermodynamic factor. The deviation of the thermodynamic factor compared to its equivalent bulk value decreases when increasing the pore width and becomes insignificant for reduced pore width above 15. We also found that the thermodynamic factor is sensitive to the magnitude of the fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interactions, which softens or exacerbates the density fluctuations.

  7. QCD corrections to B ? ? form factors from light-cone sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Ming; Shen, Yue-Long

    2015-09-01

    We compute perturbative corrections to B ? ? form factors from QCD light-cone sum rules with B-meson distribution amplitudes. Applying the method of regions we demonstrate factorization of the vacuum-to-B-meson correlation function defined with an interpolating current for pion, at one-loop level, explicitly in the heavy quark limit. The short-distance functions in the factorization formulae of the correlation function involves both hard and hard-collinear scales; and these functions can be further factorized into hard coefficients by integrating out the hard fluctuations and jet functions encoding the hard-collinear information. Resummation of large logarithms in the short-distance functions is then achieved via the standard renormalization-group approach. We further show that structures of the factorization formulae for fB?+ (q2) and fB?0 (q2) at large hadronic recoil from QCD light-cone sum rules match that derived in QCD factorization. In particular, we perform an exploratory phenomenological analysis of B ? ? form factors, paying attention to various sources of perturbative and systematic uncertainties, and extract |Vub | = (3.05-0.38+0.54|th. ± 0.09|exp.) ×10-3 with the inverse moment of the B-meson distribution amplitude ?B+ (?) determined by reproducing fB?+ (q2 = 0) obtained from the light-cone sum rules with ? distribution amplitudes. Furthermore, we present the invariant-mass distributions of the lepton pair for B ? ???? (? = ?, ?) in the whole kinematic region. Finally, we discuss non-valence Fock state contributions to the B ? ? form factors fB?+ (q2) and fB?0 (q2) in brief.

  8. Self-energy correction to the hyperfine splitting and the electron g factor in hydrogenlike ions

    SciTech Connect

    Yerokhin, Vladimir A.; Jentschura, Ulrich D.

    2010-01-15

    The hyperfine structure (hfs) and the g factor of a bound electron are caused by external magnetic fields. For the hfs, the magnetic field is due to the nuclear spin. A uniform-in-space and constant-in-time magnetic field is used to probe the bound-electron g factor. The self-energy corrections to these effects are more difficult to evaluate than those to the Lamb shift. Here, we describe a numerical approach for both effects in the notoriously problematic regime of hydrogenlike bound systems with low nuclear charge numbers. The calculation is nonperturbative in the binding Coulomb field. Accurate numerical values for the remainder functions are provided for 2P states and for nS states with n=1,2,3.

  9. THE CALCULATION OF BURNABLE POISON CORRECTION FACTORS FOR PWR FRESH FUEL ACTIVE COLLAR MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2012-06-19

    Verification of commercial low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel takes place at the fuel fabrication facility as part of the overall international nuclear safeguards solution to the civilian use of nuclear technology. The fissile mass per unit length is determined nondestructively by active neutron coincidence counting using a neutron collar. A collar comprises four slabs of high density polyethylene that surround the assembly. Three of the slabs contain {sup 3}He filled proportional counters to detect time correlated fission neutrons induced by an AmLi source placed in the fourth slab. Historically, the response of a particular collar design to a particular fuel assembly type has been established by careful cross-calibration to experimental absolute calibrations. Traceability exists to sources and materials held at Los Alamos National Laboratory for over 35 years. This simple yet powerful approach has ensured consistency of application. Since the 1980's there has been a steady improvement in fuel performance. The trend has been to higher burn up. This requires the use of both higher initial enrichment and greater concentrations of burnable poisons. The original analytical relationships to correct for varying fuel composition are consequently being challenged because the experimental basis for them made use of fuels of lower enrichment and lower poison content than is in use today and is envisioned for use in the near term. Thus a reassessment of the correction factors is needed. Experimental reassessment is expensive and time consuming given the great variation between fuel assemblies in circulation. Fortunately current modeling methods enable relative response functions to be calculated with high accuracy. Hence modeling provides a more convenient and cost effective means to derive correction factors which are fit for purpose with confidence. In this work we use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX with neutron coincidence tallies to calculate the influence of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} burnable poison on the measurement of fresh pressurized water reactor fuel. To empirically determine the response function over the range of historical and future use we have considered enrichments up to 5 wt% {sup 235}U/{sup tot}U and Gd weight fractions of up to 10 % Gd/UO{sub 2}. Parameterized correction factors are presented.

  10. Experimental setup for the determination of the correction factors of the neutron doseratemeters in fast neutron fields

    SciTech Connect

    Iliescu, Elena; Bercea, Sorin; Dudu, Dorin; Celarel, Aurelia

    2013-12-16

    The use of the U-120 Cyclotron of the IFIN-HH allowed to perform a testing bench with fast neutrons in order to determine the correction factors of the doseratemeters dedicated to neutron measurement. This paper deals with researchers performed in order to develop the irradiation facility testing the fast neutrons flux generated at the Cyclotron. This facility is presented, together with the results obtain in determining the correction factor for a doseratemeter dedicated to the neutron dose equivalent rate measurement.

  11. Break Correction of Swiss Daily and Sub-Daily Temperature Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchmann, Renate; Kuglitsch, Franz; Toreti, Andrea; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Many applications in climate science require high-quality, long-term data at a high temporal resolution. However, such records are often affected by artificial breaks. The challenging task of homogenizing daily and sub-daily data has only been partially addressed in recent years. Therefore, the number of available datasets providing homogeneous daily and sub-daily series is still small compared to the volume of monthly or annual data. In this study, series of daily maximum (Tmax), daily minimum (Tmin), morning (Tmorn), noon (Tnoon) and evening (Teve), and daily mean (Tmean) temperatures measured in 61 stations of the Swiss climate observation network were corrected for artificial breaks. The break detection for the above mentioned series was accomplished in a former study by using a combination of three different break detection methods. Here the previously determined breakpoints are corrected by applying the method of higher-order moments for autocorrelated data (HOMAD), which is an improved version of the higher-order moments method (HOM), providing an objective choice of regression parameters.

  12. Gravity Dual Corrections to the Heavy Quark Potential at Finite-Temperature

    E-print Network

    Hovhannes R. Grigoryan; Yuri V. Kovchegov

    2011-06-23

    We apply gauge/gravity duality to compute $1/N^2_c$ corrections to the heavy quark potentials of a quark--anti-quark pair ($Q\\bar Q$) and of a quark--quark pair ($QQ$) immersed into the strongly coupled N = 4 SYM plasma. On the gravity side these corrections come from the exchanges of supergravity modes between two string worldsheets stretching from the UV boundary of AdS space to the black hole horizon in the bulk and smeared over $S^5$. We find that the contributions to the $Q\\bar Q$ potential coming from the exchanges of all of the relevant modes (such as dilaton, massive scalar, 2-form field, and graviton) are all attractive, leading to an attractive net $Q\\bar Q$ potential. We show that at large separations $r$ and/or high-temperature $T$ the potential is of Yukawa-type, dominated by the graviton exchange, in agreement with earlier findings. On the other hand, at small-$r T$ the $Q\\bar Q$ potential scales as $\\sim (1/r) \\ln (1/rT)$. In the case of $QQ$ potential the 2-form contribution changes sign and becomes repulsive: however, the net $QQ$ potential remains attractive. At large-$r T$ it is dominated by the graviton exchange, while at small-$r T$ the $QQ$ potential becomes Coulomb-like.

  13. Monte Carlo calculated and experimentally determined output correction factors for small field detectors in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmakhlouf, H.; Johansson, J.; Paddick, I.; Andreo, P.

    2015-05-01

    The measurement of output factors (OF) for the small photon beams generated by Leksell Gamma Knife® (LGK) radiotherapy units is a challenge for the physicist due to the under or over estimation of these factors by a vast majority of the detectors commercially available. Output correction factors, introduced in the international formalism published by Alfonso (2008 Med. Phys. 35 5179-86), standardize the determination of OFs for small photon beams by correcting detector-reading ratios to yield OFs in terms of absorbed-dose ratios. In this work output correction factors for a number of detectors have been determined for LGK Perfexion™ 60Co ?-ray beams by Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and measurements. The calculations were made with the MC system PENELOPE, scoring the energy deposited in the active volume of the detectors and in a small volume of water; the detectors simulated were two silicon diodes, one liquid ionization chamber (LIC), alanine and TLD. The calculated LIC output correction factors were within?±?0.4%, and this was selected as the reference detector for experimental determinations where output correction factors for twelve detectors were measured, normalizing their readings to those of the LIC. The MC-calculated and measured output correction factors for silicon diodes yielded corrections of up to 5% for the smallest LGK collimator size of 4 mm diameter. The air ionization chamber measurements led to extremely large output correction factors, caused by the well-known effect of partial volume averaging. The corrections were up to 7% for the natural diamond detector in the 4 mm collimator, also due to partial volume averaging, and decreased to within about?±?0.6% for the smaller synthetic diamond detector. The LIC, showing the smallest corrections, was used to investigate machine-to-machine output factor differences by performing measurements in four LGK units with different dose rates. These resulted in OFs within?±?0.6% and?±?0.2% for the 4 mm and 8 mm collimators, respectively, providing evidence for the use of generic OFs for these LGK beams. Using the experimentally derived output correction factors, OFs can be measured using a wide range of commercially available detectors.

  14. Monte Carlo calculated and experimentally determined output correction factors for small field detectors in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion beams.

    PubMed

    Benmakhlouf, H; Johansson, J; Paddick, I; Andreo, P

    2015-05-21

    The measurement of output factors (OF) for the small photon beams generated by Leksell Gamma Knife® (LGK) radiotherapy units is a challenge for the physicist due to the under or over estimation of these factors by a vast majority of the detectors commercially available. Output correction factors, introduced in the international formalism published by Alfonso (2008 Med. Phys. 35 5179-86), standardize the determination of OFs for small photon beams by correcting detector-reading ratios to yield OFs in terms of absorbed-dose ratios. In this work output correction factors for a number of detectors have been determined for LGK Perfexion™ (60)Co ?-ray beams by Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and measurements. The calculations were made with the MC system PENELOPE, scoring the energy deposited in the active volume of the detectors and in a small volume of water; the detectors simulated were two silicon diodes, one liquid ionization chamber (LIC), alanine and TLD. The calculated LIC output correction factors were within?±?0.4%, and this was selected as the reference detector for experimental determinations where output correction factors for twelve detectors were measured, normalizing their readings to those of the LIC. The MC-calculated and measured output correction factors for silicon diodes yielded corrections of up to 5% for the smallest LGK collimator size of 4 mm diameter. The air ionization chamber measurements led to extremely large output correction factors, caused by the well-known effect of partial volume averaging. The corrections were up to 7% for the natural diamond detector in the 4 mm collimator, also due to partial volume averaging, and decreased to within about?±?0.6% for the smaller synthetic diamond detector. The LIC, showing the smallest corrections, was used to investigate machine-to-machine output factor differences by performing measurements in four LGK units with different dose rates. These resulted in OFs within?±?0.6% and?±?0.2% for the 4 mm and 8 mm collimators, respectively, providing evidence for the use of generic OFs for these LGK beams. Using the experimentally derived output correction factors, OFs can be measured using a wide range of commercially available detectors. PMID:25909660

  15. Physical factors in cataractogenesis: ambient ultraviolet radiation and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Sliney, D.H.

    1986-05-01

    A number of environmental cofactors have been implicated in cataracto-genesis. Two have received the greatest attention: ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and ambient temperature. Unfortunately, both temperature and UVR levels vary similarly with geographical latitude. Careful attention to several more refined physical variables and the geometry of exposure may permit investigators to separate the contributory effects of these two physical agents. This paper briefly reviews the available data, estimates the variation of lenticular temperature with ambient temperature, and provides measurements of short-wavelength (UV-B) UVR exposure to the human eye with different meterological conditions. The study attempts to provide epidemiological investigators with more detailed information necessary to perform more accurate studies of cataract and other ocular pathologies that appear to be related to environmental factors. Ocular UV-B radiation exposure levels were measured at nine locations in the USA near 40 degrees latitude at elevations from sea level to 8000 ft. Terrain reflectance is shown to be much more important than terrain elevation; cloud cover and haze may actually increase ocular exposure; and the value of wearing brimmed hats and spectacles varies with the environment. Several avenues for future research are suggested.

  16. Factors Affecting Clinical Results after Corrective Osteotomy for Lumbar Degenerative Kyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Whoan Jeang; Kang, Sung Il; Sung, Hwan Il; Park, Kun Young; Park, Jae Guk; Kwon, Won Cho; Choy, Won Sik

    2010-01-01

    Study Design This study is a prospective, clinical study for lumbar degenerative kyphosis. Purpose To determine the factors affecting postoperative clinical outcomes in patients who undergo corrective osteotomy for lumbar degenerative kyphosis. Overview of Literature Only a small number of studies have reported clinical results for surgery for lumbar degenerative kyphosis. There are almost no studies about prognostic factors that predict postoperative clinical results. Methods This study involved 25 patients who were diagnosed with lumbar degenerative kyphosis and who underwent corrective osteotomy following gait analysis. A pedicle subtraction osteotomy was done at the third lumbar vertebra (L 3). Regarding the fusion level, surgery was done within a range from T10 proximally to S1 distally. Of these, for rigid fixation of a distal part, an iliac screw was used. Pain was evaluated using a 10-point pain scale and a questionnaire about activities. We also evaluated cosmesis and subjective satisfaction using a modified version of the Scoliosis Research Society Outcome-22 (SRS-22) instrument. This assessment was done using a 5-point scale which was designed by us. We assigned patients to group A (good clinical outcomes) if their postoperative pain score was lower than 4 (of 10 points) and if scores indicating activity, cosmesis and subjective satisfaction were higher than 11 (of 15 points). All other patients were assigned to group B (poor clinical outcomes). Results Clinical outcomes were good in 64% of patients (16/25) and poor in 36% (9/25). Regarding cosmesis and subjective satisfaction, there were significant differences between the two groups. There were also significant differences in physical factors of individual patients such as body mass index (BMI): 23.78 ± 2.79 in group A and 26.44 ± 2.75 in group B. On gait analysis, there was a significant difference in the dynamic pelvic tilt: 7.5 ± 3.3° in group A and 11.72 ± 1.89° in group B. Conclusions There is no correlation between preoperative degree of kyphotic deformity and clinical outcomes. The degree of anterior rotation of pelvic tilt does not change significantly; rather, compensatory mechanisms of the pelvis and BMI were found to have more influence. Because neither the degree of satisfaction with clinical outcomes nor the increased activity was relatively higher, a more sincere decision should be made before recommending corrective osteotomy for degenerative lumbar kyphosis. PMID:20622949

  17. Bias Correction for Assimilation of Retrieved AIRS Profiles of Temperature and Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakenship, Clay; Zavodsky, Bradley; Blackwell, William

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral radiometer aboard NASA's Aqua satellite designed to measure atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. AIRS retrievals are assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over the North Pacific for some cases involving "atmospheric rivers". These events bring a large flux of water vapor to the west coast of North America and often lead to extreme precipitation in the coastal mountain ranges. An advantage of assimilating retrievals rather than radiances is that information in partly cloudy fields of view can be used. Two different Level 2 AIRS retrieval products are compared: the Version 6 AIRS Science Team standard retrievals and a neural net retrieval from MIT. Before assimilation, a bias correction is applied to adjust each layer of retrieved temperature and humidity so the layer mean values agree with a short-term model climatology. WRF runs assimilating each of the products are compared against each other and against a control run with no assimilation. Forecasts are against ERA reanalyses.

  18. Sea surface temperature estimation from the DMSP operational linescan system using a SSM/I-derived water vapor correction

    SciTech Connect

    May, D.A. )

    1993-04-09

    Atmospheric correction algorithms for Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) single channel infrared (IR) estimation of sea surface temperature (SST) have been derived based on Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) water vapor (WV) content retrievals. It is demonstrated that the OLS single IR channel atmospheric correction can be correlated to WV and that the SSM/I-derived correction algorithms provide significant improvement over uncorrected single IR channel SST estimation. Best results are obtained from a correction algorithm that incorporates a quadratic WV term. Use of the quadratic SSM/I-derived WV correction on properly cloud screened OLS IR data produces SST retrievals accurate to within 1.0[degree]C RMS when compared to moored buoy in situ SST measurements. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Separating temperature from other factors in phenological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Hanes, Jonathan M.; Liang, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Phenological observations offer a simple and effective way to measure climate change effects on the biosphere. While some species in northern mixed forests show a highly sensitive site preference to microenvironmental differences (i.e., the species is present in certain areas and absent in others), others with a more plastic environmental response (e.g., Acer saccharum, sugar maple) allow provisional separation of the universal "background" phenological variation caused by in situ (possibly biological/genetic) variation from the microclimatic gradients in air temperature. Moran's I tests for spatial autocorrelation among the phenological data showed significant ( ? ? 0.05) clustering across the study area, but random patterns within the microclimates themselves, with isolated exceptions. In other words, the presence of microclimates throughout the study area generally results in spatial autocorrelation because they impact the overall phenological development of sugar maple trees. However, within each microclimate (where temperature conditions are relatively uniform) there is little or no spatial autocorrelation because phenological differences are due largely to randomly distributed in situ factors. The phenological responses from 2008 and 2009 for two sugar maple phenological stages showed the relationship between air temperature degree-hour departure and phenological change ranged from 0.5 to 1.2 days earlier for each additional 100 degree-hours. Further, the standard deviations of phenological event dates within individual microclimates (for specific events and years) ranged from 2.6 to 3.8 days. Thus, that range of days is inferred to be the "background" phenological variation caused by factors other than air temperature variations, such as genetic differences between individuals.

  20. Evaluation of inhomogeneity correction factors for 6 MV flattening filter-free beams with brass compensators.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Joshua; Opp, Daniel; Zhang, Geoffrey; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    The 6 MV flattening filter-free (FFF) beam has been commissioned for use with compensators at our institution. This novel combination promises advantages in mitigating tumor motion due to the reduced treatment time made possible by the greatly increased dose rate of the FFF beam. Given the different energy spectrum of the FFF beam and the beam hardening effect of the compensator, the accuracy of the treatment planning system (TPS) model in the presence of low-density heterogeneities cannot be assumed. Therefore, inhomogeneity correction factors (ICF) for an FFF beam attenuated by brass slabs were measured and compared to the TPS calculations in this work. The ICF is the ratio of the point dose in the presence of inhomogeneity to the dose in the same point in a homogeneous medium. The ICFs were measured with an ion chamber at a number of points in a flat water-equivalent slab phantom containing a 7.5 cm deep heterogeneity (air or 0.27 g/cm3 wood). Comparisons for the FFF beam were carried out for the field sizes from 5× 5 to 20 × 20 cm2 with the brass slabs ranging from 0 to 5 cm in thickness. For a low-density wood heterogeneity in a slab phantom, with the exception of the point 1cm beyond the proximal buildup interface, the TPS handles the inhomogeneity correction with the brass-filtered 6 MV FFF beam at the requisite 2% error level. The combinations of field sizes and compensator thicknesses when the error exceeds 2% (2.6% maximum) are not likely to be experienced in clinical practice. In terms of heterogeneity corrections, the beam model is adequate for clinical use. PMID:23652238

  1. Design and real time implementation of single phase boost power factor correction converter.

    PubMed

    Bouafassa, Amar; Rahmani, Lazhar; Mekhilef, Saad

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a real time implementation of the single-phase power factor correction (PFC) AC-DC boost converter. A combination of higher order sliding mode controller based on super twisting algorithm and predictive control techniques are implemented to improve the performance of the boost converter. Due to the chattering effects, the higher order sliding mode control (HOSMC) is designed. Also, the predictive technique is modified taking into account the large computational delays. The robustness of the controller is verified conducting simulation in MATLAB, the results show good performances in both steady and transient states. An experiment is conducted through a test bench based on dSPACE 1104. The experimental results proved that the proposed controller enhanced the performance of the converter under different parameters variations. PMID:25457043

  2. Shell correction to the Thomas—Fermi statistical model of plasma with different atomic composition at high and low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpatakovskaya, G. V.; Karpov, V. Ya

    2015-11-01

    The refined semiclassical method based on the Thomas-Fermi statistical model takes into account the shell effects by means of an additive correction. The method has been verified in the calculations of a plasma equation of state at high temperatures. To expand its application range to low temperatures some assumptions are revised that have been made to obtain the simple formula for a shell correction. The validity of the assumptions is discussed and the results of their refusal are analyzed. As examples, a number of single-particle states in the ideal plasma of a few elements with strongly differing atomic numbers is calculated.

  3. Error Detection, Factorization and Correction for Multi-View Scene Reconstruction from Aerial Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Hess-Flores, M

    2011-11-10

    Scene reconstruction from video sequences has become a prominent computer vision research area in recent years, due to its large number of applications in fields such as security, robotics and virtual reality. Despite recent progress in this field, there are still a number of issues that manifest as incomplete, incorrect or computationally-expensive reconstructions. The engine behind achieving reconstruction is the matching of features between images, where common conditions such as occlusions, lighting changes and texture-less regions can all affect matching accuracy. Subsequent processes that rely on matching accuracy, such as camera parameter estimation, structure computation and non-linear parameter optimization, are also vulnerable to additional sources of error, such as degeneracies and mathematical instability. Detection and correction of errors, along with robustness in parameter solvers, are a must in order to achieve a very accurate final scene reconstruction. However, error detection is in general difficult due to the lack of ground-truth information about the given scene, such as the absolute position of scene points or GPS/IMU coordinates for the camera(s) viewing the scene. In this dissertation, methods are presented for the detection, factorization and correction of error sources present in all stages of a scene reconstruction pipeline from video, in the absence of ground-truth knowledge. Two main applications are discussed. The first set of algorithms derive total structural error measurements after an initial scene structure computation and factorize errors into those related to the underlying feature matching process and those related to camera parameter estimation. A brute-force local correction of inaccurate feature matches is presented, as well as an improved conditioning scheme for non-linear parameter optimization which applies weights on input parameters in proportion to estimated camera parameter errors. Another application is in reconstruction pre-processing, where an algorithm detects and discards frames that would lead to inaccurate feature matching, camera pose estimation degeneracies or mathematical instability in structure computation based on a residual error comparison between two different match motion models. The presented algorithms were designed for aerial video but have been proven to work across different scene types and camera motions, and for both real and synthetic scenes.

  4. Output correction factors for nine small field detectors in 6 MV radiation therapy photon beams: A PENELOPE Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Benmakhlouf, Hamza; Sempau, Josep; Andreo, Pedro

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To determine detector-specific output correction factors,k{sub Q} {sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n}}}} {sub ,Q} {sub m{sub s{sub r}}} {sup f{sub {sup {sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n}{sub {sup ,f{sub {sup {sub m}{sub s}{sub r}{sub ,}}}}}}}} in 6 MV small photon beams for air and liquid ionization chambers, silicon diodes, and diamond detectors from two manufacturers. Methods: Field output factors, defined according to the international formalism published byAlfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35, 5179–5186 (2008)], relate the dosimetry of small photon beams to that of the machine-specific reference field; they include a correction to measured ratios of detector readings, conventionally used as output factors in broad beams. Output correction factors were calculated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) system with a statistical uncertainty (type-A) of 0.15% or lower. The geometries of the detectors were coded using blueprints provided by the manufacturers, and phase-space files for field sizes between 0.5 × 0.5 cm{sup 2} and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} from a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV linac used as sources. The output correction factors were determined scoring the absorbed dose within a detector and to a small water volume in the absence of the detector, both at a depth of 10 cm, for each small field and for the reference beam of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}. Results: The Monte Carlo calculated output correction factors for the liquid ionization chamber and the diamond detector were within about ±1% of unity even for the smallest field sizes. Corrections were found to be significant for small air ionization chambers due to their cavity dimensions, as expected. The correction factors for silicon diodes varied with the detector type (shielded or unshielded), confirming the findings by other authors; different corrections for the detectors from the two manufacturers were obtained. The differences in the calculated factors for the various detectors were analyzed thoroughly and whenever possible the results were compared to published data, often calculated for different accelerators and using the EGSnrc MC system. The differences were used to estimate a type-B uncertainty for the correction factors. Together with the type-A uncertainty from the Monte Carlo calculations, an estimation of the combined standard uncertainty was made, assigned to the mean correction factors from various estimates. Conclusions: The present work provides a consistent and specific set of data for the output correction factors of a broad set of detectors in a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV accelerator and contributes to improving the understanding of the physics of small photon beams. The correction factors cannot in general be neglected for any detector and, as expected, their magnitude increases with decreasing field size. Due to the reduced number of clinical accelerator types currently available, it is suggested that detector output correction factors be given specifically for linac models and field sizes, rather than for a beam quality specifier that necessarily varies with the accelerator type and field size due to the different electron spot dimensions and photon collimation systems used by each accelerator model.

  5. Image quality improvements of electronic portal imaging devices by multi-level gain calibration and temperature correction.

    PubMed

    Huber, S; Mooslechner, M; Mitterlechner, B; Weichenberger, H; Serpa, M; Sedlmayer, F; Deutschmann, H

    2013-09-21

    Amorphous silicon (aSi:H) flat panel detectors are prevalent in radiotherapy for megavoltage imaging tasks. Any clinical and dosimetrical application requires a well-defined dose response of the system to achieve meaningful results. Due to radiation damages, panels deteriorate and the linearity of pixel response to dose as well as the stability with regard to changing operating temperatures get worse with time. Using a single level gain correction can lead to an error of about 23% when irradiating a flood field image with 100 MU min(-1) on an old detector. A multi-level gain (MLG) correction is introduced, emending the nonlinearities and subpanel-related artifacts caused by insufficient radiation hardness of amplifiers in the read-out electronics. With rising temperature, offset values typically increase (up to 300 gray values) while the response at higher dose values per frame remain constant for a majority of pixels. To account for temperature-related image artifacts, two additional temperature correction methods have been developed. MLG in combination with temperature corrections can re-establish the aSi:H image quality to the performance required by reliable medical verification tools. Furthermore, the life span and recalibration intervals of these costly devices can be prolonged decisively. PMID:23999060

  6. A Power Factor Corrected SMPS with Improved Power Quality for Welding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, Swati; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneswari, G.; Pandey, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design and implementation of a power factor corrected Arc Welding Power Supply (AWPS) with a boost converter at the front end and three full-bridge (FB) converters connected in parallel at the load end. The modular arrangement of the FB converters offers several meritorious features like usage of power devices with comparatively lower voltage and current ratings, ease of power expandability, easy maintenance, etc. The boost converter operates in continuous conduction mode minimizing the input current ripple and leading to the lowest RMS current thereby improving the input power quality. Individual control loops are designed for each power stage. A dual loop control scheme is employed to incorporate over-current limit on the proposed AWPS which ensures excellent weld bead quality. The proposed AWPS is implemented to validate its performance over a wide range of line/load variations. Test results confirm its fast parametrical response to load and source voltage variations and over-current protection leading to improved welding performance and weld bead quality. The system is found to perform extremely well with very low input current THD and unity power factor, adhering to international power quality norms.

  7. Region of validity of the finite–temperature Thomas–Fermi model with respect to quantum and exchange corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Dyachkov, Sergey; Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutskiy per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 ; Levashov, Pavel; Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Prospekt, Tomsk 634050

    2014-05-15

    We determine the region of applicability of the finite–temperature Thomas–Fermi model and its thermal part with respect to quantum and exchange corrections. Very high accuracy of computations has been achieved by using a special approach for the solution of the boundary problem and numerical integration. We show that the thermal part of the model can be applied at lower temperatures than the full model. Also we offer simple approximations of the boundaries of validity for practical applications.

  8. Factors influencing stereoacuity levels after surgery to correct unilateral developmental cataracts in children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Kim, Wan-Soo

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate factors influencing stereoacuity after surgery to correct unilateral developmental pediatric cataracts. METHODS We retrospectively surveyed 110 patients who had undergone removal of unilateral acquired developmental cataracts and primary posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation between February 1992 and December 2009. In all patients, stereoacuity was assessed using the Titmus test at the last follow-up period of minimum 2 years after surgery. Patients were divided into two groups according to the extent of stereoacuity: group 1 (n=42) had stereoacuity values?100sec/arc and group 2 (n=68) values >100sec/arc. The values of ten parameters associated with stereoacuity were measured in each group: Cataract types, preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the affected eyes, preoperative inter-ocular difference of BCVA, age at cataract surgery, operative method, secondary cataract, postoperative strabismus, postoperative BCVA of the affected eyes, postoperative inter-ocular difference of BCVA, and anisometropia. RESULTS The extent of stereoacuity was significantly associated with both operative method and secondary cataract (P=0.000 and P=0.016, respectively). All patients in whom the posterior capsule was preserved, had poor stereoacuity >100sec/arc. Significant correlations with the extent of stereoacuity were found with postoperative strabismus (P=0.048), postoperative BCVA of the affected eyes (P=0.002), anisometropia (P=0.034). CONCLUSION : Postoperative stereoacuity was better in patients who underwent either optic capture or anterior vitrectomy after posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, and who didn't develop secondary cataracts or strabismus postoperatively. Furthermore, postoperative BCVA of the affected eyes, and anisometropia influenced the stereoacuity of the patients surgically treated for unilateral developmental pediatric cataracts. PMID:23826528

  9. Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

  10. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. 192.115 Section 192.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used...

  11. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. 192.115 Section 192.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used...

  12. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. 192.115 Section 192.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used...

  13. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. 192.115 Section 192.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used...

  14. 49 CFR 192.115 - Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. 192.115 Section 192.115 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... § 192.115 Temperature derating factor (T) for steel pipe. The temperature derating factor to be used...

  15. The value of Seasonal Correction Factors in assessing the health risk from domestic radon: a case study in Northamptonshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Denman, A R; Crockett, R G M; Groves-Kirkby, C J; Phillips, P S; Gillmore, G K; Woolridge, A C

    2007-01-01

    Following an intensive survey of domestic radon levels in the United Kingdom (UK), the former National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), now the Radiation Protection Division of the Health Protection Agency (HPA-RPD), established a measurement protocol and promulgated Seasonal Correction Factors applicable to the country as a whole. Radon levels in the domestic built environment are assumed to vary systematically and repeatably during the year, being generally higher in winter. The Seasonal Correction Factors therefore comprise a series of numerical multipliers, which convert a 1-month or 3-month radon concentration measurement, commencing in any month of the year, to an effective annual mean radon concentration. In a recent project undertaken to assess the utility of short-term exposures in quantifying domestic radon levels, a comparative assessment of a number of integrating detector types was undertaken, with radon levels in 34 houses on common geology monitored over a 12-month period using dose-integrating track-etch detectors exposed in pairs (one upstairs, one downstairs) at 1-month and 3-month resolution. Seasonal variability of radon concentrations departed significantly from that expected on the basis of the HPA-RPD Seasonal Correction Factor set, with year-end discontinuities at both 1-month and 3-month measurement resolutions. Following this study, monitoring with electrets was continued in four properties, with weekly radon concentration data now available for a total duration in excess of three and a half years. Analysis of this data has permitted the derivation of reliable local Seasonal Correction Factors. Overall, these are significantly lower than those recommended by HPA-RPD, but are comparable with other results from the UK and from abroad, particularly those that recognise geological diversity and are consequently prepared on a regional rather than a national basis. This finding calls into question the validity of using nationally aggregated Seasonal Correction Factors, especially for shorter exposures, and the universal applicability of these corrections is discussed in detail. PMID:16899293

  16. Experimental determination of field factors ([Formula: see text]) for small radiotherapy beams using the daisy chain correction method.

    PubMed

    Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Recently, Alfonso et al proposed a new formalism for the dosimetry of small and non-standard fields. The proposed new formalism is strongly based on the calculation of detector-specific beam correction factors by Monte Carlo simulation methods, which accounts for the difference in the response of the detector between the small and the machine specific reference field. The correct calculation of the detector-specific beam correction factors demands an accurate knowledge of the linear accelerator, detector geometry and composition materials. The present work shows that the field factors in water may be determined experimentally using the daisy chain correction method down to a field size of 1 cm × 1 cm for a specific set of detectors. The detectors studied were: three mini-ionization chambers (PTW-31014, PTW-31006, IBA-CC01), three silicon-based diodes (PTW-60018, IBA-SFD and IBA-PFD) and one synthetic diamond detector (PTW-60019). Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements were performed for a 6 MV photon beam at 10 cm depth in water with a source-to-axis distance of 100 cm. The results show that the differences between the experimental and Monte Carlo calculated field factors are less than 0.5%-with the exception of the IBA-PFD-for field sizes between 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm and 5 cm × 5 cm. For the 1 cm × 1 cm field size, the differences are within 2%. By using the daisy chain correction method, it is possible to determine measured field factors in water. The results suggest that the daisy chain correction method is not suitable for measurements performed with the IBA-PFD detector. The latter is due to the presence of tungsten powder in the detector encapsulation material. The use of Monte Carlo calculated [Formula: see text] is encouraged for field sizes less than or equal to 1 cm × 1 cm for the dosimeters used in this work. PMID:26161448

  17. The effect of temperature on attenuation-correction schemes in rain using polarization propagation differential phase shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A. R.

    1992-01-01

    The study elucidates and quantifies differences in the response of the rate of change of polarization propagation differential phase shift Phi, the rate of attenuation for a horizontally/vertically polarized wave A(H,V), and the rate of polarization differential attenuation A(H-V) to temperature. It is shown that if the effects of temperature when estimating A(H) and A(H-V) from Phi are neglected, the average fractional standard error increases only slightly at 9 GHz but significantly at 5 and 3 GHz. Errors at 5 and 3 GHz are about two to three times those at 9 GHz. The performance of Phi-based schemes of attenuation correction at these lower frequencies is much more significantly degraded by temperature uncertainty than at 9 GHz. It is concluded that it is best to use Phi to correct for attenuation at the least-attenuating frequencies.

  18. Myopia Stabilization and Associated Factors Among Participants in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To use the Gompertz function to estimate the age and the amount of myopia at stabilization and to evaluate associated factors in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET) cohort, a large ethnically diverse group of myopic children. Methods. The COMET enrolled 469 ethnically diverse children aged 6 to younger than 12 years with spherical equivalent refraction between ?1.25 and ?4.50 diopters (D). Noncycloplegic refraction was measured semiannually for 4 years and annually thereafter. Right eye data were fit to individual Gompertz functions in participants with at least 6 years of follow-up and at least seven refraction measurements over 11 years. Function parameters were estimated using a nonlinear least squares procedure. Associated factors were evaluated using linear regression. Results. In total, 426 participants (91%) had valid Gompertz curve fits. The mean (SD) age at myopia stabilization was 15.61 (4.17) years, and the mean (SD) amount of myopia at stabilization was ?4.87 (2.01) D. Ethnicity (P < 0.0001) but not sex or the number of myopic parents was associated with the age at stabilization. Ethnicity (P = 0.02) and the number of myopic parents (P = 0.01) but not sex were associated with myopia magnitude at stabilization. At stabilization, African Americans were youngest (mean age, 13.82 years) and had the least myopia (mean, ?4.36 D). Participants with two versus no myopic parents had approximately 1.00 D more myopia at stabilization. The age and the amount of myopia at stabilization were correlated (r = ?0.60, P < 0.0001). Conclusions. The Gompertz function provides estimates of the age and the amount of myopia at stabilization in an ethnically diverse cohort. These findings should provide guidance on the time course of myopia and on decisions regarding the type and timing of interventions. PMID:24159085

  19. Investigation of systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo-calculated beam quality correction factors.

    PubMed

    Wulff, J; Heverhagen, J T; Zink, K; Kawrakow, I

    2010-08-21

    Modern Monte Carlo codes allow for the calculation of ion chamber specific beam quality correction factors k(Q), which are needed for dosimetry in radiotherapy. While statistical (type A) uncertainties of the calculated data can be minimized sufficiently, the influence of systematic (type B) uncertainties is mostly unknown. This study presents an investigation of systematic uncertainties of Monte Carlo-based k(Q) values for a NE2571 thimble ion chamber, calculated with the EGSnrc system. Starting with some general investigation on transport parameter settings, the influence of geometry and source variations is studied. Furthermore, a systematic examination of uncertainties due to cross section is introduced by determining the sensitivity of k(Q) results to changes in cross section data. For this purpose, single components of the photon cross sections and the mean excitation energy I in the electron stopping powers are varied. The corresponding sensitivities are subsequently applied with information of standard uncertainties for the cross section data found in the literature. It turns out that the calculation of k(Q) factors with EGSnrc is mostly insensitive to transport settings within the statistical uncertainties of approximately 0.1%. Severe changes in the dimensions of the chamber lead to comparatively small, insignificant changes. Further, the inclusion of realistic beam models, delivering a complete phase space instead of simple photon spectra, does not significantly influence the result. However, the uncertainties in electron cross sections have an impact on the final uncertainty of k(Q) to a comparatively large degree. For the NE2571 chamber investigated in this work, this uncertainty amounts to 0.4% at 24 MV, decreasing to 0.2% at 6 MV. PMID:20668340

  20. Continuous correction of differential path length factor in near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Tanveer; Moore, Jason H; Diamond, Solomon G

    2013-05-01

    In continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS), changes in the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin can be calculated by solving a set of linear equations from the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Cross-talk error in the calculated hemodynamics can arise from inaccurate knowledge of the wavelength-dependent differential path length factor (DPF). We apply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a dynamical systems model to calculate relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin while simultaneously estimating relative changes in DPF. Results from simulated and experimental CW-NIRS data are compared with results from a weighted least squares (WLSQ) method. The EKF method was found to effectively correct for artificially introduced errors in DPF and to reduce the cross-talk error in simulation. With experimental CW-NIRS data, the hemodynamic estimates from EKF differ significantly from the WLSQ (p < 0.001). The cross-correlations among residuals at different wavelengths were found to be significantly reduced by the EKF method compared to WLSQ in three physiologically relevant spectral bands 0.04 to 0.15 Hz, 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and 0.4 to 2.0 Hz (p < 0.001). This observed reduction in residual cross-correlation is consistent with reduced cross-talk error in the hemodynamic estimates from the proposed EKF method. PMID:23640027

  1. Continuous correction of differential path length factor in near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Tanveer; Moore, Jason H.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2013-05-01

    In continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS), changes in the concentration of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin can be calculated by solving a set of linear equations from the modified Beer-Lambert Law. Cross-talk error in the calculated hemodynamics can arise from inaccurate knowledge of the wavelength-dependent differential path length factor (DPF). We apply the extended Kalman filter (EKF) with a dynamical systems model to calculate relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin while simultaneously estimating relative changes in DPF. Results from simulated and experimental CW-NIRS data are compared with results from a weighted least squares (WLSQ) method. The EKF method was found to effectively correct for artificially introduced errors in DPF and to reduce the cross-talk error in simulation. With experimental CW-NIRS data, the hemodynamic estimates from EKF differ significantly from the WLSQ (p<0.001). The cross-correlations among residuals at different wavelengths were found to be significantly reduced by the EKF method compared to WLSQ in three physiologically relevant spectral bands 0.04 to 0.15 Hz, 0.15 to 0.4 Hz and 0.4 to 2.0 Hz (p<0.001). This observed reduction in residual cross-correlation is consistent with reduced cross-talk error in the hemodynamic estimates from the proposed EKF method.

  2. INTRINSIC COLORS, TEMPERATURES, AND BOLOMETRIC CORRECTIONS OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2013-09-01

    We present an analysis of the intrinsic colors and temperatures of 5-30 Myr old pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars using the F0- through M9-type members of nearby, negligibly reddened groups: the ? Cha cluster, the TW Hydra Association, the ? Pic Moving Group, and the Tucana-Horologium Association. To check the consistency of spectral types from the literature, we estimate new spectral types for 52 nearby pre-MS stars with spectral types F3 through M4 using optical spectra taken with the SMARTS 1.5 m telescope. Combining these new types with published spectral types and photometry from the literature (Johnson-Cousins BVI{sub C} , 2MASS JHK{sub S} and WISE W1, W2, W3, and W4), we derive a new empirical spectral type-color sequence for 5-30 Myr old pre-MS stars. Colors for pre-MS stars match dwarf colors for some spectral types and colors, but for other spectral types and colors, deviations can exceed 0.3 mag. We estimate effective temperatures (T {sub eff}) and bolometric corrections (BCs) for our pre-MS star sample through comparing their photometry to synthetic photometry generated using the BT-Settl grid of model atmosphere spectra. We derive a new T {sub eff} and BC scale for pre-MS stars, which should be a more appropriate match for T Tauri stars than often-adopted dwarf star scales. While our new T {sub eff} scale for pre-MS stars is within ?100 K of dwarfs at a given spectral type for stars

  3. On finite--temperature and --density radiative corrections to the neutrino effective potential in the early Universe

    E-print Network

    R. Horvat

    1997-04-21

    Finite-temperature and -density radiative corrections to the neutrino effective potential in the otherwise CP-symmetric early Universe are considered in the real-time approach of Thermal Field Theory. A consistent perturbation theory endowed with the hard thermal loop resummation techniques developed by Braaten and Pisarski is applied. Special attention is focused on the question whether such corrections can generate any nonzero contribution to the CP-symmetric part of the neutrino potential, if the contact approximation for the W-propagator is used.

  4. Frequency Scalable Non-Linear Waveform Generator for Mixed-Simal Power-Factor-Correction IC Controller'

    E-print Network

    Grant. v power converter driver "ref I Digital I Feedback I LOOP I I Mixed-Signal I NLC Waveform IFrequency Scalable Non-Linear Waveform Generator for Mixed-Simal Power-Factor-Correction IC Controller' Regan Zane and Dragan MaksimoviC Colorado Power Electronics Center (CoPEC) Department

  5. Correction factors for saturation effects in white light and laser absorption spectroscopy for application to low pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Briefi, S.; Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2012-05-15

    In white light absorption spectroscopy, the broadening of the absorption signal due to the apparatus profile of the spectrometer may lead to an underestimation of the determined density as one measures an apparent optical depth. This is in particular true for high optical depth where saturation effects of the transmitted intensity occur. Provided that the line profile of the absorption line is known, the apparent optical depth effect can be accounted for by introducing a correction factor. The impact of the saturation and the approach of considering the effect are demonstrated for argon and indium lines in low pressure plasmas where correction factors of one order of magnitude or even higher are reached very easily. For the indium line, the hyperfine splitting has been taken into account. In laser absorption, the line profile is resolved. However, the weak but rather broad background emission of the laser diode can cause a saturation signal at the photo diode resulting also in an underestimation of the density obtained from the analysis. It is shown that this can be taken into account by fitting the theoretical line profile to the measured absorption signal which yields also a correction factor. The method is introduced and demonstrated at the example of the cesium resonance line including the hyperfine splitting. Typical correction factors around two are obtained for the cesium ground state density at conditions of a low pressure negative hydrogen ion source in which cesium is evaporated to enhance the negative ion production.

  6. Correction factors for ionization chamber dosimetry in CyberKnife: Machine-specific, plan-class, and clinical fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gago-Arias, Araceli; Antolin, Elena; Fayos-Ferrer, Francisco; Simon, Rocio; Gonzalez-Castano, Diego M.; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Gomez, Faustino; Pardo-Montero, Juan

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is the application of the formalism for ionization chamber reference dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields [R. Alfonso, P. Andreo, R. Capote, M. S. Huq, W. Kilby, P. Kjaell, T. R. Mackie, H. Palmans, K. Rosser, J. Seuntjens, W. Ullrich, and S. Vatnitsky, 'A new formalism for reference dosimetry of small and nonstandard fields,' Med. Phys. 35, 5179-5186 (2008)] to the CyberKnife robotic radiosurgery system. Correction factors for intermediate calibration fields, a machine-specific reference field (msr) and two plan-class specific reference fields (pcsr), have been studied. Furthermore, the applicability of the new formalism to clinical dosimetry has been analyzed through the investigation of two clinical treatments. Methods: PTW31014 and Scanditronix-Wellhofer CC13 ionization chamber measurements were performed for the fields under investigation. Absorbed dose to water was determined using alanine reference dosimetry, and experimental correction factors were calculated from alanine to ionization chamber readings ratios. In addition, correction factors were calculated for the intermediate calibration fields and one of the clinical treatment fields using the Monte Carlo method and these were compared with the experimental values. Results: Overall correction factors deviating from unity by approximately 2% were obtained from both measurements and simulations, with values below and above unity for the studied intermediate calibration fields and clinical fields for the ionization chambers under consideration. Monte Carlo simulations yielded correction factors comparable with those obtained from measurements for the machine-specific reference field, although differences from 1% to 3.3% were observed between measured and calculated correction factors for the composite intermediate calibration fields. Dose distribution inhomogeneities are thought to be responsible for such discrepancies. Conclusions: The differences found between overall correction factors associated with the proposed intermediate calibration fields and the clinical fields under investigation show that depending on the clinical field and the detector used, either a machine-specific reference field or a plan-class specific reference field is more representative for the clinical field. Given the experimental and numerical uncertainties and the small number of clinical fields considered in this study the significance of these observations is limited and it remains unclear for the CyberKnife if there would be a significant gain in using a pcsr field rather than a msr field as reference field for relative dosimetry.

  7. Correction analysis for a supersonic water cooled total temperature probe tested to 1370 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagen, Nicholas T.; Seiner, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors address the thermal analysis of a water cooled supersonic total temperature probe tested in a Mach 2 flow, up to 1366 K total temperature. The goal of this experiment was the determination of high-temperature supersonic jet mean flow temperatures. An 8.99 cm exit diameter water cooled nozzle was used in the tests. It was designed for exit Mach 2 at 1366 K exit total temperature. Data along the jet centerline were obtained for total temperatures of 755 K, 1089 K, and 1366 K. The data from the total temperature probe were affected by the water coolant. The probe was tested through a range of temperatures between 755 K and 1366 K with and without the cooling system turned on. The results were used to develop a relationship between the indicated thermocouple bead temperature and the freestream total temperature. The analysis and calculated temperatures are presented.

  8. SU-E-T-464: On the Equivalence of the Quality Correction Factor for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sorriaux, J; Paganetti, H; Testa, M; Giantsoudi, D; Schuemann, J; Bertrand, D; Orban de Xivry, J.; Lee, J; Palmans, H; Vynckier, S; Sterpin, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In current practice, most proton therapy centers apply IAEA TRS-398 reference dosimetry protocol. Quality correction factors (kQ) take into account in the dose determination process the differences in beam qualities used for calibration unit and for treatment unit. These quality correction factors are valid for specific reference conditions. TRS-398 reference conditions should be achievable in both scattered proton beams (i.e. DS) and scanned proton beams (i.e. PBS). However, it is not a priori clear if TRS-398 kQ data, which are based on Monte Carlo (MC) calculations in scattered beams, can be used for scanned beams. Using TOPAS-Geant4 MC simulations, the study aims to determine whether broad beam quality correction factors calculated in TRS-398 can be directly applied to PBS delivery modality. Methods: As reference conditions, we consider a 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} homogeneous dose distribution delivered by PBS system in a water phantom (32/10 cm range/modulation) and an air cavity placed at the center of the spread-out-Bragg-peak. In order to isolate beam differences, a hypothetical broad beam is simulated. This hypothetical beam reproduces exactly the same range modulation, and uses the same energy layers than the PBS field. Ion chamber responses are computed for the PBS and hypothetical beams and then compared. Results: For an air cavity of 2×2×0.2 cm{sup 3}, the ratio of ion chamber responses for the PBS and hypothetical beam qualities is 0.9991 ± 0.0016. Conclusion: Quality correction factors are insensitive to the delivery pattern of the beam (broad beam or PBS), as long as similar dose distributions are achieved. This investigation, for an air cavity, suggests that broad beam quality correction factors published in TRS-398 can be applied for scanned beams. J. Sorriaux is financially supported by a public-private partnership involving the company Ion Beam Applications (IBA)

  9. Dependence of the AES backscattering correction factor on the experimental configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, A.; Powell, C. J.

    2010-10-01

    We present an analysis of the dependence of the backscattering correction factor (BCF) in Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) on the analyzer acceptance angle. Illustrative BCF calculations are presented for Pd M 5N 45N 45 Auger electrons as a function of primary-electron energy for primary-electron angles of incidence, ?0, of 0° and 80° and for various values of the analyzer acceptance angle. It was necessary to generalize the BCF definition for the case of an analyzer with an arbitrarily large acceptance angle; this was done with a new function, the integral emission depth distribution function. BCFs calculated from an advanced model of electron transport in the surface region of the Pd sample varied weakly with analyzer half-cone angle for ?0 = 0° but more strongly for ?0 = 80° where there were BCF differences varying between 19% at a primary energy of 1 keV and 6% at a primary energy of 5 keV. These BCF differences are due in part to variations of the BCF with emission angle and in part to variations of the density of inner-shell ionizations within the information depth for the detected Auger electrons. The latter variations are responsible for differences larger than 10% between BCFs from the widely used simplified BCF model and those from the more accurate advanced model for primary energies less than about 5 keV for ?0 = 80°. For normal incidence of the primary beam, differences greater than 10% between BCFs from the simplified and advanced models were found for primary energies between 1 keV and 4 keV. These BCF differences indicate that the simplified model can provide only approximate BCF values. In addition, the simplified model does not provide any BCF dependence on Auger-electron emission angle or analyzer acceptance angle.

  10. Development of a flow history correction factor for sediment entrainment thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, K. I.; Haynes, H.

    2012-12-01

    A plethora of sediment transport equations exist with which to predict sediment load and morphology of river systems; however, these are often sensitive to the entrainment threshold parameter employed. Many practising river engineers still prefer use of the Shields parameter's critical threshold value ~0.06 (Shields, 1936) as generally applicable for uniform grain size. Yet, recent research suggest that this is value may be highly sensitive to the flow history that the bed is exposed to prior to entrainment (e.g. Paphitis and Collins, 2005; Monteith and Pender, 2005; Haynes and Pender, 2007; Ockelford et al., 2010). Laboratory experiments were conducted for planar sand beds of uniform grain size (D50 = 1.7mm) using a 5m x 0.3 m recirculation flume set to a 1 in 300 gradient. Entrainment threshold was defined using Yalin's visual method (Yalin, 1972) and associated shear stresses estimated using a depth-slope product approach. Beds were subjected to flow histories of 0, 60, 120 and 240 minutes of sub-threshold flow (50% critical shear stress); these were then subjected to incremental increases of applied shear stresses to establish the revised entrainment threshold shear stress. Compared with the Shields diagram and the modified diagram by Parker et al. (2003) results indicate that water-working increases the Shield parameter by 10-60%. Given that data clearly indicate a positive relationship between flow history duration and parameter magnitude, detailed comparison with wider experimental flow history research has been undertaken to propose a novel mathematical correction factor for entrainment threshold. This yields important implications for improved modelling practice for bedload transport in river systems.

  11. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate and Stress-Intensity Factor Corrections for Out-of-Plane Crack Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; Herman, Dave J.; James, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth rate testing is performed by automated data collection systems that assume straight crack growth in the plane of symmetry and use standard polynomial solutions to compute crack length and stress-intensity factors from compliance or potential drop measurements. Visual measurements used to correct the collected data typically include only the horizontal crack length, which for cracks that propagate out-of-plane, under-estimates the crack growth rates and over-estimates the stress-intensity factors. The authors have devised an approach for correcting both the crack growth rates and stress-intensity factors based on two-dimensional mixed mode-I/II finite element analysis (FEA). The approach is used to correct out-of-plane data for 7050-T7451 and 2025-T6 aluminum alloys. Results indicate the correction process works well for high DeltaK levels but fails to capture the mixed-mode effects at DeltaK levels approaching threshold (da/dN approximately 10(exp -10) meter/cycle).

  12. A Physically Based Algorithm for Non-Blackbody Correction of Cloud-Top Temperature and Application to Convection Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chunpeng; Lou, Zhengzhao Johnny; Chen, Xiuhong; Zeng, Xiping; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Huang, Xianglei

    2014-01-01

    Cloud-top temperature (CTT) is an important parameter for convective clouds and is usually different from the 11-micrometers brightness temperature due to non-blackbody effects. This paper presents an algorithm for estimating convective CTT by using simultaneous passive [Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)] and active [CloudSat 1 Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO)] measurements of clouds to correct for the non-blackbody effect. To do this, a weighting function of the MODIS 11-micrometers band is explicitly calculated by feeding cloud hydrometer profiles from CloudSat and CALIPSO retrievals and temperature and humidity profiles based on ECMWF analyses into a radiation transfer model.Among 16 837 tropical deep convective clouds observed by CloudSat in 2008, the averaged effective emission level (EEL) of the 11-mm channel is located at optical depth; approximately 0.72, with a standard deviation of 0.3. The distance between the EEL and cloud-top height determined by CloudSat is shown to be related to a parameter called cloud-top fuzziness (CTF), defined as the vertical separation between 230 and 10 dBZ of CloudSat radar reflectivity. On the basis of these findings a relationship is then developed between the CTF and the difference between MODIS 11-micrometers brightness temperature and physical CTT, the latter being the non-blackbody correction of CTT. Correction of the non-blackbody effect of CTT is applied to analyze convective cloud-top buoyancy. With this correction, about 70% of the convective cores observed by CloudSat in the height range of 6-10 km have positive buoyancy near cloud top, meaning clouds are still growing vertically, although their final fate cannot be determined by snapshot observations.

  13. Finite Volume Corrections to the SU(3) Deconfining Temperature due to a Confined Exterior

    E-print Network

    Bernd A. Berg; Hao Wu

    2011-09-03

    Deconfined regions in relativistic heavy ion collisions are limited to small volumes surrounded by a confined exterior. Using the geometry of a double layered torus, we keep an outside temperature slightly lower than the inside temperature, so that both regions are in the SU(3) scaling region. Deconfined volume sizes are chosen to be in a range typical for such volumes created at the BNL RHIC. Even with small temperature differences a dependence of the (pseudo) deconfining temperature on a colder surrounding temperature is clearly visible. For temporal lattice sizes Ntau=4, 6 and 8 we find consistency with SU(3) scaling behavior for the measured transition temperature signals.

  14. Analytic expressions for threshold corrections to the finite-temperature higgs potential in the minimal supersymmetric standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, A. O. Dolgopolov, M. V.; Dubinin, M. N.; Rykova, E. N.

    2009-01-15

    Within the minimal supersymmwtric standard model (MSSM) featuring an explicit CP violation, one-loop corrections to the parameters of the effective two-doublet potential are calculated at finite temperature for various scales of the mass parameters in the sector of soft supersymmetry breaking. It is shown that the splitting of scalar-quark masses has a strong effect on the effective parameters of the potential and that, in the limiting case where all mass parameters of the squark sector are degenerate and where the temperature is zero, the potential parameters reduce to the results obtained previously.

  15. Quantum corrections to temperature dependent electrical conductivity of ZnO thin films degenerately doped with Si

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Amit K. Ajimsha, R. S.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2014-01-27

    ZnO thin films degenerately doped with Si (Si{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O) in the concentrations range of ?0.5% to 5.8% were grown by sequential pulsed laser deposition on sapphire substrates at 400?°C. The temperature dependent resistivity measurements in the range from 300 to 4.2?K revealed negative temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) for the 0.5%, 3.8%, and 5.8% doped Si{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O films in the entire temperature range. On the contrary, the Si{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O films with Si concentrations of 1.0%, 1.7%, and 2.0% showed a transition from negative to positive TCR with increasing temperature. These observations were explained using weak localization based quantum corrections to conductivity.

  16. Shutterless solution for simultaneous focal plane array temperature estimation and nonuniformity correction in uncooled long-wave infrared camera.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanpeng; Tisse, Christel-Loic

    2013-09-01

    In uncooled long-wave infrared (LWIR) microbolometer imaging systems, temperature fluctuations of the focal plane array (FPA) result in thermal drift and spatial nonuniformity. In this paper, we present a novel approach based on single-image processing to simultaneously estimate temperature variances of FPAs and compensate the resulting temperature-dependent nonuniformity. Through well-controlled thermal calibrations, empirical behavioral models are derived to characterize the relationship between the responses of microbolometer and FPA temperature variations. Then, under the assumption that strong dependency exists between spatially adjacent pixels, we estimate the optimal FPA temperature so as to minimize the global intensity variance across the entire thermal infrared image. We make use of the estimated FPA temperature to infer an appropriate nonuniformity correction (NUC) profile. The performance and robustness of the proposed temperature-adaptive NUC method are evaluated on realistic IR images obtained by a 640 × 512 pixels uncooled LWIR microbolometer imaging system operating in a significantly changed temperature environment. PMID:24085086

  17. Correction factors for on-line microprobe analysis of multielement alloy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unnam, J.; Tenney, D. R.; Brewer, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    An on-line correction technique was developed for the conversion of electron probe X-ray intensities into concentrations of emitting elements. This technique consisted of off-line calculation and representation of binary interaction data which were read into an on-line minicomputer to calculate variable correction coefficients. These coefficients were used to correct the X-ray data without significantly increasing computer core requirements. The binary interaction data were obtained by running Colby's MAGIC 4 program in the reverse mode. The data for each binary interaction were represented by polynomial coefficients obtained by least-squares fitting a third-order polynomial. Polynomial coefficients were generated for most of the common binary interactions at different accelerating potentials and are included. Results are presented for the analyses of several alloy standards to demonstrate the applicability of this correction procedure.

  18. Development of correction factors for landfill gas emission model suiting Indian condition to predict methane emission from landfills.

    PubMed

    Sil, Avick; Kumar, Sunil; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2014-09-01

    Methane emission from landfill gas emission (LandGEM) model was validated through the results of laboratory scale biochemical methane potential assay. Results showed that LandGEM model over estimates methane (CH4) emissions; and the true CH4 potential of waste depends on the level of segregation. Based on these findings, correction factors were developed to estimate CH4 emission using LandGEM model especially where the level of segregation is negligible or does not exist. The correction factors obtained from the study were 0.94, 0.13 and 0.74 for food waste, mixed un-segregated municipal solid waste (MSW) and vegetable wastes, respectively. PMID:24685512

  19. Method to determine the position-dependant metal correction factor for dose-rate equivalent laser testing of semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M.

    2013-07-09

    A method reconstructs the charge collection from regions beneath opaque metallization of a semiconductor device, as determined from focused laser charge collection response images, and thereby derives a dose-rate dependent correction factor for subsequent broad-area, dose-rate equivalent, laser measurements. The position- and dose-rate dependencies of the charge-collection magnitude of the device are determined empirically and can be combined with a digital reconstruction methodology to derive an accurate metal-correction factor that permits subsequent absolute dose-rate response measurements to be derived from laser measurements alone. Broad-area laser dose-rate testing can thereby be used to accurately determine the peak transient current, dose-rate response of semiconductor devices to penetrating electron, gamma- and x-ray irradiation.

  20. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of Iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  1. The effect of empirical-statistical correction of intensity-dependent model errors on the temperature climate change signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobiet, A.; Suklitsch, M.; Heinrich, G.

    2015-10-01

    This study discusses the effect of empirical-statistical bias correction methods like quantile mapping (QM) on the temperature change signals of climate simulations. We show that QM regionally alters the mean temperature climate change signal (CCS) derived from the ENSEMBLES multi-model data set by up to 15 %. Such modification is currently strongly discussed and is often regarded as deficiency of bias correction methods. However, an analytical analysis reveals that this modification corresponds to the effect of intensity-dependent model errors on the CCS. Such errors cause, if uncorrected, biases in the CCS. QM removes these intensity-dependent errors and can therefore potentially lead to an improved CCS. A similar analysis as for the multi-model mean CCS has been conducted for the variance of CCSs in the multi-model ensemble. It shows that this indicator for model uncertainty is artificially inflated by intensity-dependent model errors. Therefore, QM also has the potential to serve as an empirical constraint on model uncertainty in climate projections. However, any improvement of simulated CCSs by empirical-statistical bias correction methods can only be realized if the model error characteristics are sufficiently time-invariant.

  2. Nucleon form factors and final state radiative corrections to e+e-?p ¯ p ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czy?, Henryk; Kühn, Johann H.; Tracz, Szymon

    2014-12-01

    New parametrizations for the electric and the magnetic form factors of a proton and neutron are presented. The proton form factors describe well the recent measurements by the BABAR Collaboration and earlier ones of the ratio of the form factors in a spacelike region. The neutron form factors are consistent with earlier measurements of neutron pair production and ratio of the form factors in the spacelike region. These form factors are implemented into the generator phokhara, which simulates the reactions e+e-?p ¯ p ? and e+e-?n ¯ n ? . The influence of final state radiation is investigated.

  3. Final-state interaction correction to the electromagnetic nucleon form factors in the time-like region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Wiele, Jacques; Ong, Saro

    2015-10-01

    We study the strong energy dependence of the proton electromagnetic form factors in the time-like region, taking into account the one-pion-exchange final-state interaction in a covariant way. This effect is quantified in terms of the corrected Dirac F 1 and Pauli F 2 form factors and in the commonly used electric G E and magnetic G M ones. Our results on the ratio | G E / G M depend only on the values of two free parameters and allow significant comparisons with the BaBar data.

  4. Perturbative Corrections to $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ Form Factors from QCD Light-Cone Sum Rules

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We compute radiative corrections to $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ from factors, at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, from QCD light-cone sum rules with $\\Lambda_b$-baryon distribution amplitudes. Employing the diagrammatic approach factorization of the vacuum-to-$\\Lambda_b$-baryon correlation function is justified at leading power in $\\Lambda/m_b$, with the aid of the method of regions. Hard functions entering the factorization formulae are identical to the corresponding matching coefficients of heavy-to-light currents from QCD onto soft-collinear effective theory. The universal jet function from integrating out the hard-collinear fluctuations exhibits richer structures compared with the one involved in the factorization expressions of the vacuum-to-$B$-meson correlation function. Based upon the QCD resummation improved sum rules we observe that the perturbative corrections at ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s)$ shift the $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ from factors at large recoil significantly and the dominant contribution originat...

  5. Looking for simple correction functions between the mean radiant temperature from the "standard black globe" and the "six-directional" techniques in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) values were calculated and compared to each other in Taiwan based on the six-directional and globe techniques. In the case of the six-directional technique (measurements with pyranometers and pyrgeometers), two different T mrt values were calculated: one representing the radiation load on a standing man [ T mrt(st)] and the other which refers to a spherical reference shape [ T mrt(sp)]. Moreover, T mrt( T g ) was obtained through the globe thermometer technique applying the standard black globe. Comparing T mrt values based on the six-directional technique but with different reference shapes revealed that the difference was always in the +/-5 °C domain. Of the cases, 75 % fell into the +/-5 °C Delta Tmrt range when we compared different techniques with similar reference shapes [ T mrt(sp) and T mrt( T g )] and only 69 % when we compared the different techniques with different reference shapes [ T mrt(st) and T mrt( T g )]. Based on easily accessible factors, simple correction functions were determined to make the T mrt( T g ) values of already existing outdoor thermal comfort databases comparable with other databases which involve sixdirectional T mrt. The corrections were conducted directly between the T mrt( T g ) and T mrt(sp) values and also indirectly, i.e., by using the values of T g to reduce the differences between T mrt(sp) and T mrt( T g ). Both correction methods resulted in considerable improvement and reduced the differences between the T mrt(sp) and the T mrt( T g ) values. However, validations with an independent database from Hungary revealed that it is not suggested to apply the correction functions under totally different background climate conditions.

  6. Critical Factors in Mental Health Programming for Juveniles in Corrections Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Lee A.; Phillips, Annie; von Dresner, Kara; Knight, Pamela D.

    2006-01-01

    Juveniles with mental health and other specialized needs are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, and while juvenile corrections have not historically provided standardized and evidence-based mental health services for its incarcerated youth, the demand is evident. The reality is that juveniles with serious mental illness are committed…

  7. Correction Factors Applied to Finger Dosimetry: A Theoretical Assessment of Appropriate Values for Use in Handling Radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Sherbini, Sami; Ilas, Dan; Eckerman, Keith F; DeCicco, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations limit the dose to the skin to 500 mSv per year. This is also the dose limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The operational quantity recommended by ICRP for quantifying dose to the skin is the personal dose equivalent, Hp(0.07) and is identical to NRC s shallow dose equivalent, Hs, also measured at a skin depth of 7 mg cm 2. However, whereas ICRP recommends averaging the dose to the skin over an area of 1 cm2 regardless of the size of the exposed area of skin, USNRC requires the shallow dose equivalent to be averaged over 10 cm2. To monitor dose to the skin of the hands of workers handling radioactive materials and particularly in radiopharmaceutical manufacturing facilities, which is the focus of this work, workers are frequently required to wear finger ring dosimeters. The dosimeters monitor the dose at the location of the sensitive element, but this is not the dose required to show compliance (i.e., the dose averaged over the highest exposed contiguous 10 cm2 of skin). Therefore, it may be necessary to apply a correction factor that enables estimation of the required skin dose from the dosimeter reading. This work explored the effects of finger ring placement and of the geometry of the radioactive materials being handled by the worker on the relationship between the dosimeter reading and the desired average dose. A mathematical model of the hand was developed for this purpose that is capable of positioning the fingers in any desired grasping configuration, thereby realistically modeling manipulation of any object. The model was then used with the radiation transport code MCNP to calculate the dose distribution on the skin of the hand when handling a variety of radioactive vials and syringes, as well as the dose to the dosimeter element. Correction factors were calculated using the results of these calculations and examined for any patterns that may be useful in establishing an appropriate correction factor for this type of work. It was determined that a correction factor of one applied to the dosimeter reading, with the dosimeter placed at the base of the middle finger, provides an adequate estimate of the required average dose during a monitoring period for most commonly encountered geometries. Different correction factors may be required for exceptional or unusual source geometries and must be considered on a case-by-case basis.

  8. Comprehensive wind correction for a Rayleigh Doppler lidar from atmospheric temperature and pressure influences and Mie contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Ming-Jia; Xia, Hai-Yun; Dou, Xian-Kang; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Yun-Peng; Shu, Zhi-Feng; Xue, Xiang-Hui

    2015-09-01

    A correction considering the effects of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and Mie contamination must be performed for wind retrieval from a Rayleigh Doppler lidar (RDL), since the so-called Rayleigh response is directly related to the convolution of the optical transmission of the frequency discriminator and the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum of the molecular backscattering. Thus, real-time and on-site profiles of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and aerosols should be provided as inputs to the wind retrieval. Firstly, temperature profiles under 35 km and above the altitude are retrieved, respectively, from a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and a Rayleigh integration lidar (RIL) incorporating to the RDL. Secondly, the pressure profile is taken from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) analysis, while radiosonde data are not available. Thirdly, the Klett-Fernald algorithms are adopted to estimate the Mie and Rayleigh components in the atmospheric backscattering. After that, the backscattering ratio is finally determined in a nonlinear fitting of the transmission of the atmospheric backscattering through the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) to a proposed model. In the validation experiments, wind profiles from the lidar show good agreement with the radiosonde in the overlapping altitude. Finally, a continuous wind observation shows the stability of the correction scheme. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41174131, 41274151, 41304123, 41121003 and 41025016).

  9. TEMPERATURE CORRECTION FORMULAE FOR ADJUSTING ESTIMATES OF EMISSIONS FROM AUTOMOBILES. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes an analysis of the effects of temperature on the emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen from autombiles. The analysis was conducted by Vector Research, Incorporated, (VRI) For the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The analysi...

  10. [Measurement of peak correction factor of Farmer chamber for calibration of flattening filter free (FFF) clinical photon beams].

    PubMed

    Kontra, Gábor; Major, Tibor; Polgár, Csaba

    2015-06-01

    Farmer-type ionization chambers are considered the most reliable detectors and for this reason they are most frequently used for the calibration of photon beams of medical linear accelerators. Flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams of linear accelerators have recently started to be used in radiotherapy. The dose profile of FFF beams is peaked in the center of the field and the dose distribution will be inhomogeneous along the axis of the 2.3 cm long measuring volume of the Farmer chamber. The peaked radiation field will result in volume averaging effects in the large Farmer chamber, therefore this chamber will underestimate the true central axis dose. Our objective was to determine the value of the peak correction factor (Kp) of Farmer-type chamber with measurements to avoid the underestimation of the central axis dose during the calibration of FFF radiation fields. Measurements were made with 6 MV and 10 MV flattened (6X and 10X) and FFF beams (6XFFF and 10XFFF) of a Varian TrueBeam medical linear accelerator in a solid water phantom at 10 cm depth. The source surface distance (SSD) was 100 cm, the field size was 10×10 cm and the dose rate was always 400 MU/min during the measurements. We delivered 100 MU in each measurement and the absorbed dose to water was calculated according to the IAEA TRS-398 dosimetry protocol. The measured signals of the ionization chambers were always corrected for the ion recombination loss. The ion recombination correction factors (Kr) were determined with the two-voltage method separately for the used ion chambers and for flattened and unflattened beams. First, we measured the dose to water with PTW TM30012 Farmer chamber in 6XFFF and 6X beams, then calculated the ratio of doses of 6XFFF and 6X beams (R6,Farmer). Immediately after this we repeated the above measurements with PTW TM31010 Semiflex chamber and determined the ratio of doses of 6XFFF and 6X beams again (R6,Semiflex). The length of the sensitive volume of the Semiflex chamber is only 6.5 mm. According to our dose profile measurements the peak correction factor of this chamber equals to unity for both photon energies. As a consequence R6,Semiflex is larger than R6,Farmer and Kp6XFFF = R6,Semiflex / R6,Farmer, where Kp6XFFF is the peak correction factor of the Farmer chamber in 6XFFF beam. The advantage of this method is that we have to calculate ratio of doses, so it is not necessary to know the calibration factors of the chambers. Repeating the above measurements with 10X and 10XFFF beams we determined the peak correction factor of Farmer chamber for 10XFFF beam, too (Kp10XFFF). According to our measurements Kp6XFFF = 1.0025 and Kp10XFFF = 1.009. The bigger peak correction factor for 10XFFF beam is in accordance with the fact that the peak of dose profile is steeper for higher photon energy. The above described method for the determination of Kp can be used for other photon energies and other large volume ionization chambers. PMID:26035159

  11. Basic factors controlling pest in high temperature systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz-Mattuck, J.; Rossetti, M.

    1971-01-01

    The catastrophic disintegration in air at intermediate temperatures of refractory materials which are very resistant to oxidation at high temperatures is known as pest. A study was undertaken to determine whether the mechanism proposed for pest failure in silicides might also be responsible for pest failure in NbAl3. The aim was to correlate oxidation kinetics in the range where disintegration of NbAl3 is observed with delayed failure data obtained under similar conditions. Studies were also undertaken to develop some understanding of deformation mechanisms in both silicides and aluminides.

  12. Impacts of climate change on temperature, precipitation and hydrology in Finland - studies using bias corrected Regional Climate Model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, T.; Jakkila, J.; Veijalainen, N.; Backman, L.; Kaurola, J.; Vehviläinen, B.

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of climate change impacts on climate and hydrology on catchment scale requires reliable information about the average values and climate fluctuations of the past, present and future. Regional Climate Models (RCMs) used in impact studies often produce biased time series of meteorological variables. In this study bias correction of RCM temperature and precipitation for Finland is carried out using different versions of distribution based scaling (DBS) method. The DBS adjusted RCM data is used as input of a hydrological model to simulate changes in discharges in four study catchments in different parts of Finland. The annual mean discharges and seasonal variation simulated with the DBS adjusted temperature and precipitation data are sufficiently close to observed discharges in the control period (1961-2000) and produce more realistic projections for mean annual and seasonal changes in discharges than the uncorrected RCM data. Furthermore, with most scenarios the DBS method used preserves the temperature and precipitation trends of the uncorrected RCM data during 1961-2100. However, if the biases in the mean or the SD of the uncorrected temperatures are large, significant biases after DBS adjustment may remain or temperature trends may change, increasing the uncertainty of climate change projections. The DBS method influences especially the projected seasonal changes in discharges and the use of uncorrected data can produce unrealistic seasonal discharges and changes. The projected changes in annual mean discharges are moderate or small, but seasonal distribution of discharges will change significantly.

  13. Impacts of climate change on temperature, precipitation and hydrology in Finland - studies using bias corrected Regional Climate Model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, T.; Jakkila, J.; Veijalainen, N.; Backman, L.; Kaurola, J.; Vehviläinen, B.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of climate change impacts on climate and hydrology on catchment scale requires reliable information about the average values and climate fluctuations of the past, present and future. Regional climate models (RCMs) used in impact studies often produce biased time series of meteorological variables. In this study bias correction (BC) of RCM temperature and precipitation for Finland is carried out using different versions of the distribution based scaling (DBS) method. The DBS-adjusted RCM data are used as input of a hydrological model to simulate changes in discharges of four study catchments in different parts of Finland. The annual mean discharges and seasonal variation simulated with the DBS-adjusted temperature and precipitation data are sufficiently close to observed discharges in the control period 1961-2000 and produce more realistic projections for mean annual and seasonal changes in discharges than the uncorrected RCM data. Furthermore, with most scenarios the DBS method used preserves the temperature and precipitation trends of the uncorrected RCM data during 1961-2100. However, if the biases in the mean or the standard deviation of the uncorrected temperatures are large, significant biases after DBS adjustment may remain or temperature trends may change, increasing the uncertainty of climate change projections. The DBS method influences especially the projected seasonal changes in discharges and the use of uncorrected data can produce unrealistic seasonal discharges and changes. The projected changes in annual mean discharges are moderate or small, but seasonal distribution of discharges will change significantly.

  14. Influence and correction of temperature on optical measurement for fat and protein contents in a complex food model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuedian; Chang, Min; Xu, Kexin

    2009-11-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy has been proposed as an effective way for measuring complex component compositions noninvasively. However temperature-induced spectral variation can cause accuracy problems if not taken care of in a proper manner. The influence of temperature on optical measurements has been studied for determining fat and protein contents in complex food systems. A model system consisting of mixtures of fat, protein, water and emulsion was developed to create an imitation of complex food systems. The changes in optical properties, including the absorbance coefficients and reduced scattering coefficients, of the system from 25°C to 40°C were measured in the wavelength from 1100 to 1670 nm. Complex changes in the absorbance coefficient and decreasing changes in the reduced scattering coefficients with the increasing temperature were founded. The mechanisms of the influences were analyzed. In order to correct the effect, a statistical method was needed. Then, a method called global robust temperature calibration model is proposed. Accordingly, the validating experiments using the samples made up of 54 complex food systems were executed. The experimental results indicated that the method can significantly reduce the temperature effect on optical measurement.

  15. PHYSICOCHEMICAL FACTORS AFFECTING TOXICITY IN FRESHWATER: HARDNESS, PH, AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A search of the literature for effects of hardness, pH, or temperature on the toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms suggested that the amount of reliable and useful data is limited. uch of the disparity among results reported in the literature was caused by improperly des...

  16. Anomalous Temperature Dependence of the Quality Factor in a Superconducting Coplanar Waveguide Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pin-Jia; Wang, Yi-Wen; Wei, Lian-Fu

    2014-06-01

    We present the measurements of the temperature dependence of the internal quality factor (Qi) of a microwave resonator, well below the superconducting transition temperature. The device is a quarter-wavelength niobium (Tc = 9.2 K) coplanar waveguide resonator. The measured |S21| parameter shows typically the skewed Lorentzian distributions, from which the fitted quality factor monotonically decreases with the temperature increasing from 30 mK to 900 mK. It is observed that for the lower temperature range (i.e., at T < 700 mK) the temperature dependence of the fitted Qi deviates significantly from the predictions of the usual Mattis—Bardeen theory. The measured 3 dB internal quality factor Q'i also verifies such an anomalous temperature dependence. Physically, this phenomenon could be attributed dominantly to the effects of the two-level systems in the device, rather than the usual temperature-dependent complex conductance.

  17. Correct determination of low-temperature free-exciton diffusion profiles in GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieker, S.; Kiessling, T.; Ossau, W.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2015-09-01

    We report on low-temperature spatially resolved photoluminescence (SRPL) experiments to study the diffusion of free excitons in a 1.5 -? m -thick layer of high-purity epitaxial GaAs. Extending previous SRPL experiments, we analyze the stationary diffusion profiles detected on the second LO-phonon replica of the free exciton. This allows us to circumvent the inherent interpretation ambiguities of the free-exciton zero-phonon line. Moreover, a spatially resolved line shape analysis of the (F X ) -2 ? ?LO replica provides direct experimental access to the pump-induced exciton temperature profile. We demonstrate that only resonant optical excitation prevents the buildup of a temperature gradient in the carrier system, which otherwise severely distorts the stationary and time-resolved free-exciton diffusion profiles.

  18. Quantum corrections to resistance of microblock tellurium at ultralow temperatures under phonon freezing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Farbshtein, I. I. Chernyaev, A. V.; Shamshur, D. V.; Averkiev, N. S.

    2010-08-15

    The low-temperature magnetoresistance of bulk tellurium samples with a microcrystalline structure is investigated. At ultralow temperatures T {<=} 1 K, an anomalous positive magnetoresistance (APMR), viz. the antilocalization effect, is observed. It is shown that this effect can be explained using the weak localization theory. The characteristic parameters of the theory are determined. It is concluded that charge carriers produce a predominant effect on the phase breakdown time in the APMR mode of elastic scattering from structure defects, which leads to intervalley transitions without spin flip.

  19. Nuclear-polarization correction to the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions.

    PubMed

    Nefiodov, A V; Plunien, G; Soff, G

    2002-08-19

    The influence of nuclear polarization on the bound-electron g factor in heavy hydrogenlike ions is investigated. Numerical calculations are performed for the K- and L-shell electrons taking into account the dominant virtual nuclear excitations. This determines the ultimate limit for tests of QED utilizing measurements of the bound-electron g factor in highly charged ions. PMID:12190457

  20. Correction Factor for Gaussian Deconvolution of Optically Thick Linewidths in Homogeneous Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastner, S. O.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    Profiles of optically thick, non-Gaussian emission line profiles convoluted with Gaussian instrumental profiles are constructed, and are deconvoluted on the usual Gaussian basis to examine the departure from accuracy thereby caused in "measured" linewidths. It is found that "measured" linewidths underestimate the true linewidths of optically thick lines, by a factor which depends on the resolution factor r congruent to Doppler width/instrumental width and on the optical thickness tau(sub 0). An approximating expression is obtained for this factor, applicable in the range of at least 0 <= tau(sub 0) <= 10, which can provide estimates of the true linewidth and optical thickness.

  1. [Indicators of exchange of bile pigments under the action of ecopathogenic factors on the organism and correction with liposomes].

    PubMed

    Mel'nychuk, D O; Hryshchenko, V A; Vesel'sky?, S P

    2014-01-01

    High levels of anthropogenic impact on the environment requires a detailed study of the features of the influence of heavy metals and ionizing radiation on living organisms, and provides for the development and use of effective means of protecting the body from its negative influence. The purpose of the work was to study the characteristics of the exchange of bile pigments of rats under the action of ecopathogenic factors (ionizing radiation and cadmium) on the organism and the corrective properties of liposomes on the basis of milk phospholipids. An analysis of the chromatographic studies of bilirubin and derivatives (nonconjugated bilirubin, bilirubin sulfate, billirubin glucuronide, urobilin and stercobilin) in the whole blood, liver, jejunum contents and feces under the action on the animal organism of ecopathogenic factors (ionizing radiation and cadmium) indicate material violation of the exchange bile pigments that may be due to the destabilization of the structural and functional hot hepatocytes. Correction of the liposomal form of biologically active additive (BAA) FLP-MD is recommended; the latter is a mixture of phospholipids isolated from milk, with a mixture of unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, linolenic) and antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol and retinol acetate). The additive components exhibit the reparative effect of the action in respect of the damaged membrane structures with simultaneous improving of cholepoietic and billiation liver function, and therefore contribute to the normalization of exchange og bile pigments in terms of action on the body ecopathogenic factors. PMID:25033562

  2. Magnetic field corrections to the repulsive Casimir effect at finite temperature

    E-print Network

    Erdas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    I investigate the finite temperature Casimir effect for a charged and massless scalar field satisfying mixed (Dirichlet-Neumann) boundary conditions on a pair of plane parallel plates of infinite size. The effect of a uniform magnetic field, perpendicular to the plates, on the Helmholtz free energy and Casimir pressure is studied. The zeta-function regularization technique is used to obtain finite results. Simple analytic expressions are obtained for the zeta function and the free energy, in the limits of small plate distance, high temperature and strong magnetic field. The Casimir pressure is obtained in each of the three limits and the situation of a magnetic field present between and outside the plates, as well as that of a magnetic field present only between the plates is examined. It is discovered that, in the small plate distance and high temperature limits, the repulsive pressure is less when the magnetic field is present between the plates but not outside, than it is when the magnetic field is present...

  3. Magnetic field corrections to the repulsive Casimir effect at finite temperature

    E-print Network

    Andrea Erdas

    2015-11-18

    I investigate the finite temperature Casimir effect for a charged and massless scalar field satisfying mixed (Dirichlet-Neumann) boundary conditions on a pair of plane parallel plates of infinite size. The effect of a uniform magnetic field, perpendicular to the plates, on the Helmholtz free energy and Casimir pressure is studied. The zeta-function regularization technique is used to obtain finite results. Simple analytic expressions are obtained for the zeta function and the free energy, in the limits of small plate distance, high temperature and strong magnetic field. The Casimir pressure is obtained in each of the three limits and the situation of a magnetic field present between and outside the plates, as well as that of a magnetic field present only between the plates is examined. It is discovered that, in the small plate distance and high temperature limits, the repulsive pressure is less when the magnetic field is present between the plates but not outside, than it is when the magnetic field is present between and outside the plates.

  4. Metabolic Correction of Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria with iPSCs Free of Reprogramming Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bedel, Aurélie; Taillepierre, Miguel; Guyonnet-Duperat, Véronique; Lippert, Eric; Dubus, Pierre; Dabernat, Sandrine; Mautuit, Thibaud; Cardinaud, Bruno; Pain, Catherine; Rousseau, Benoît; Lalanne, Magalie; Ged, Cécile; Duchartre, Yann; Richard, Emmanuel; de Verneuil, Hubert; Moreau-Gaudry, François

    2012-01-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is due to a deficiency in the enzymatic activity of uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS); such a deficiency leads to porphyrin accumulation and results in skin lesions and hemolytic anemia. CEP is a candidate for retrolentivirus-mediated gene therapy, but recent reports of insertional leukemogenesis underscore the need for safer methods. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened up new horizons in gene therapy because it might overcome the difficulty of obtaining sufficient amounts of autologous hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation and the risk of genotoxicity. In this study, we isolated keratinocytes from a CEP-affected individual and generated iPSCs with two excisable lentiviral vectors. Gene correction of CEP-derived iPSCs was obtained by lentiviral transduction of a therapeutic vector containing UROS cDNA under the control of an erythroid-specific promoter shielded by insulators. One iPSC clone, free of reprogramming genes, was obtained with a single proviral integration of the therapeutic vector in a genomic safe region. Metabolic correction of erythroblasts derived from iPSC clones was demonstrated by the disappearance of fluorocytes. This study reports the feasibility of porphyria gene therapy with the use of iPSCs. PMID:22795135

  5. Factors Controlling Elevated Temperature Strength Degradation of Silicon Carbide Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    For 5 years, the cooperative agreement NCC3-763 has focused on the development and understanding of Sic-based composites. Most of the work was performed in the area of SiC fiber-reinforced composites for UEET and NGLT and in collaboration with Goodrich Corporation under a partially reimbursable Space Act Agreement. A smaller amount of work was performed on C fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites for NGLT. Major accomplishments during this agreement included: Improvements to the interphase used in melt-infiltrated (MI) SiC/SiC composites which increases the life under stressed-oxidation at intermediate temperatures referred to as "outside-debonding". This concept is currently in the patent process and received a Space Act Award. Mechanistic-based models of intermediate temperature degradation for MI SiC/SiC Quantification and relatively robust relationships for matrix crack evolution under stress in SiC/SiC composites which serve as the basis for stress-strain and elevated temperature life models The furthering of acoustic emission as a useful tool in composite damage evolution and the extension of the technique to other composite systems Development of hybrid C-SiC fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites Numerous presentations at conferences, industry partners, and government centers and publications in recognized proceedings and journals. Other recognition of the author's accomplishments by NASA with a TGIR award (2004), NASA's Medal for Public Service (2004), and The American Ceramic Society s Richard M. Fulrath Award (2005). The following will briefly describe the work of the past five years in the three areas of interest: SiC/SiC composite development, mechanistic understanding and modeling of SiC/SiC composites, and environmental durability of C/SiC composites. More detail can be found in the publications cited at the end of this report.

  6. A Fourier approach for estimating and correcting the topographic perturbation of low-temperature thermochronological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotzbach, C.; Braun, J.; van der Beek, P.

    2015-05-01

    Thermochronology is a unique tool to reconstruct the long-term exhumation history of outcropping rocks. Pronounced (palaeo-) topography can markedly perturb near-surface isotherms, which can result in erroneous exhumation histories derived from age-elevation relationships but also offers the possibility to reconstruct palaeo-topography. Here we use a synthetic dataset to illustrate the complex non-linear relationships between the degree of topographic perturbation of thermochronological ages on one hand, and exhumation rate, geothermal gradient, and topographic wavelength and relief on the other. The dataset reveals that, in theory, relief changes can be retrieved for wavelengths as low as 5 km, and wavelength changes are possible to detect for relief as low as 0.5 km. In addition, the data attest that even in regions characterised by very slow exhumation rates (e.g. 0.03 km/Ma), changes in palaeo-topography can be successfully retrieved. Coupling of this dataset with a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm to decompose complex 2D topography into sinusoidal functions allows a rapid and accurate estimation of the topographic perturbation and resulting thermochronological ages assuming steady-state exhumation. This coupled method was successfully implemented to (i) predict most promising sample sites for the estimation of palaeo-topography and (ii) correct exhumation rates derived from non-vertical age-elevation profiles.

  7. Low temperature coefficient of resistance and high gage factor in beryllium-doped silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, J. B.; Littlejohn, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The gage factor and resistivity of p-type silicon doped with beryllium was studied as a function of temperature, crystal orientation, and beryllium doping concentration. It was shown that the temperature coefficient of resistance can be varied and reduced to zero near room temperature by varying the beryllium doping level. Similarly, the magnitude of the piezoresistance gage factor for beryllium-doped silicon is slightly larger than for silicon doped with a shallow acceptor impurity such as boron, whereas the temperature coefficient of piezoresistance is about the same for material containing these two dopants. These results are discussed in terms of a model for the piezoresistance of compensated p-type silicon.

  8. In Vivo Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B: Sustained Partial Correction in Factor IX-Deficient Dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Mark A.; Rothenberg, Steven; Landen, Charles N.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Leland, Frances; Toman, Carol; Finegold, Milton; Thompson, Arthur R.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, Kenneth M.; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1993-10-01

    The liver represents a model organ for gene therapy. A method has been developed for hepatic gene transfer in vivo by the direct infusion of recombinant retroviral vectors into the portal vasculature, which results in the persistent expression of exogenous genes. To determine if these technologies are applicable for the treatment of hemophilia B patients, preclinical efficacy studies were done in a hemophilia B dog model. When the canine factor IX complementary DNA was transduced directly into the hepatocytes of affected dogs in vivo, the animals constitutively expressed low levels of canine factor IX for more than 5 months. Persistent expression of the clotting. factor resulted in reductions of whole blood clotting and partial thromboplastin times of the treated animals. Thus, long-term treatment of hemophilia B patients may be feasible by direct hepatic gene therapy in vivo.

  9. Proton form-factor dependence of the finite-size correction to the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen

    E-print Network

    J. D. Carroll; A. W. Thomas; J. Rafelski; G. A. Miller

    2011-08-12

    The measurement of the 2P^{F=2}_{3/2} to 2S^{F=1}_{1/2} transition in muonic hydrogen by Pohl et al. and subsequent analysis has led to the conclusion that the rms radius of the proton differs from the accepted (CODATA) value by approximately 4%, corresponding to a 4.9 sigma discrepancy. We investigate the finite-size effects - in particular the dependence on the shape of the proton electric form-factor - relevant to this transition using bound-state QED with nonperturbative, relativistic Dirac wave-functions for a wide range of idealised charge-distributions and a parameterization of experimental data in order to comment on the extent to which the perturbation-theory analysis which leads to the above conclusion can be confirmed. We find no statistically significant dependence of this correction on the shape of the proton form-factor.

  10. On the importance of high-frequency air-temperature fluctuations for spectroscopic corrections of open-path carbon dioxide flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoev, Ivan; Helbig, Manuel; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    A growing number of studies report systematic differences in CO2 flux estimates obtained with the two main types of gas analyzers: compared to eddy-covariance systems based on closed-path (CP) gas analyzers, systems with open-path (OP) gas analyzers systematically overestimate CO2 uptake during daytime periods with high positive sensible heat fluxes, while patterns for differences in nighttime CO2 exchange are less obvious. These biases have been shown to correlate with the sign and the magnitude of the sensible heat flux and to introduce large uncertainties when calculating annual CO2 budgets. In general, CP and OP gas analyzers commonly used to measure the CO2 density in the atmosphere operate on the principle of infrared light absorption approximated by Beer-Lambert's law. Non-dispersive interference-based optical filter elements are used to select spectral bands with strong attenuation of light transmission, characteristic to the gas of interest. The intensity of the light passing through the optical sensing path depends primarily on the amount of absorber gas in the measurement volume. Besides the density of the gas, barometric pressure and air temperature are additional factors affecting the strength and the half-width of the absorption lines. These so-called spectroscopic effects are accounted for by measuring barometric pressure and air temperature in the sensing path and scaling the light-intensity measurements before applying the calibration equation. This approach works well for CP gas analyzers with an intake tube that acts as a low-pass filter on fast air-temperature fluctuations. Low-frequency response temperature sensors in the measurement cell are therefore sufficient to account for spectroscopic temperature effects. In contrast, OP gas analyzers are exposed to high-frequency air-temperature fluctuations associated with the atmospheric surface-layer turbulent heat exchange. If not corrected adequately, these fast air-temperature variations can cause systematic errors in the CO2 density measurements. Under conditions of high positive or negative sensible heat flux, air-temperature fluctuations are correlated with fluctuations of the vertical wind component and can lead to significant biases in the CO2 flux estimates. This study demonstrates that sonically derived fast-response air temperature in the optical sensing path of an OP gas analyzer can replace the slow-response measurements from the temperature sensor as a scaling parameter in the calibration model to correct for these air temperature-induced spectroscopic effects. Our approach is evaluated by comparison between different OP and CP gas analyzer-based eddy-covariance systems in ecosystems with low CO2 uptake under a range of sensible heat flux regimes and varying meteorological parameters. We show that ignoring high-frequency spectroscopic effects can lead to false interpretations of net ecosystem CO2 exchange for specific site and environmental conditions.

  11. Region of interest correction factors improve reliability of diffusion imaging measures within and across scanners and field strengths.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vijay K; Gonzalez, Christopher E; Landman, Bennett; Goh, Joshua; Reiter, David A; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-10-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures are commonly used as imaging markers to investigate individual differences in relation to behavioral and health-related characteristics. However, the ability to detect reliable associations in cross-sectional or longitudinal studies is limited by the reliability of the diffusion measures. Several studies have examined the reliability of diffusion measures within (i.e. intra-site) and across (i.e. inter-site) scanners with mixed results. Our study compares the test-retest reliability of diffusion measures within and across scanners and field strengths in cognitively normal older adults with a follow-up interval less than 2.25 years. Intra-class correlation (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CoV) of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were evaluated in sixteen white matter and twenty-six gray matter bilateral regions. The ICC for intra-site reliability (0.32 to 0.96 for FA and 0.18 to 0.95 for MD in white matter regions; 0.27 to 0.89 for MD and 0.03 to 0.79 for FA in gray matter regions) and inter-site reliability (0.28 to 0.95 for FA in white matter regions, 0.02 to 0.86 for MD in gray matter regions) with longer follow-up intervals were similar to earlier studies using shorter follow-up intervals. The reliability of across field strengths comparisons was lower than intra- and inter-site reliabilities. Within and across scanner comparisons showed that diffusion measures were more stable in larger white matter regions (>1500 mm(3)). For gray matter regions, the MD measure showed stability in specific regions and was not dependent on region size. Linear correction factor estimated from cross-sectional or longitudinal data improved the reliability across field strengths. Our findings indicate that investigations relating diffusion measures to external variables must consider variable reliability across the distinct regions of interest and that correction factors can be used to improve consistency of measurement across field strengths. An important result of this work is that inter-scanner and field strength effects can be partially mitigated with linear correction factors specific to regions of interest. These data-driven linear correction techniques can be applied in cross-sectional or longitudinal studies. PMID:26146196

  12. Factors affecting quality of temperature models for the pre-appearance interval of forensically useful insects.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; M?dra, Anna

    2015-02-01

    In the case of many forensically important insects an interval preceding appearance of an insect stage on a corpse (called the pre-appearance interval or PAI) is strongly temperature-dependent. Accordingly, it was proposed to estimate PAI from temperature by using temperature models for PAI of particular insect species and temperature data specific for a given case. The quality of temperature models for PAI depends on the protocols for PAI field studies. In this article we analyze effects of sampling frequency and techniques, temperature data, as well as the size of a sample on the quality of PAI models. Models were created by using data from a largely replicated PAI field study, and their performance in estimation was tested with external body of PAI data. It was found that low frequency of insect sampling distinctly deteriorated temperature models for PAI. The effect of sampling techniques was clearly smaller. Temperature data from local weather station gave models of poor quality, however their retrospective correction clearly improved the models. Most importantly, current results demonstrate that sample size in PAI field studies may be substantially reduced, with no model deterioration. Samples consisting of 11-14 carcasses gave models of high quality, as long as the whole range of relevant temperatures was studied. Moreover, it was found that carcasses exposed in forests and carcasses exposed in early spring are particularly important, as they ensure that PAI data is collected at low temperatures. A preliminary best practice model for PAI field studies is given. PMID:25541074

  13. High School 9th Grade Students' Understanding Level and Misconceptions about Temperature and Factors Affecting It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbas, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding levels and misconceptions about temperature and factors affecting it. The concept of the study was chosen from Geography National Curriculum. In this study, a questionnaire was developed after a pilot study with an aim to ascertain the students' understanding levels of temperature and…

  14. Safety factor corrections to the magnetohydrodynamic internal kink mode in a tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, J. P.; Wahlberg, C.

    2007-08-15

    It has long been acknowledged that the well known and frequently used stability criterion {beta}{sub p}<0.3 for the toroidal ideal magnetohydrodynamic internal kink mode in a tokamak is inaccurate for an empirically relevant safety factor. The present paper outlines the severity of the usual approximation, and presents improved analytical approximations of the general solution in M. N. Bussac, R. Pellat, D. Edery, and J. L. Soule, Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1638 (1975), thus providing new insights into the nature of the instability, together with simple formulas that can be incorporated into transport codes with sawtooth cycle algorithms.

  15. SU-F-BRE-01: A Rapid Method to Determine An Upper Limit On a Radiation Detector's Correction Factor During the QA of IMRT Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Kamio, Y; Bouchard, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Discrepancies in the verification of the absorbed dose to water from an IMRT plan using a radiation dosimeter can be wither caused by 1) detector specific nonstandard field correction factors as described by the formalism of Alfonso et al. 2) inaccurate delivery of the DQA plan. The aim of this work is to develop a simple/fast method to determine an upper limit on the contribution of composite field correction factors to these discrepancies. Methods: Indices that characterize the non-flatness of the symmetrised collapsed delivery (VSC) of IMRT fields over detector-specific regions of interest were shown to be correlated with IMRT field correction factors. The indices introduced are the uniformity index (UI) and the mean fluctuation index (MF). Each one of these correlation plots have 10 000 fields generated with a stochastic model. A total of eight radiation detectors were investigated in the radial orientation. An upper bound on the correction factors was evaluated by fitting values of high correction factors for a given index value. Results: These fitted curves can be used to compare the performance of radiation dosimeters in composite IMRT fields. Highly water-equivalent dosimeters like the scintillating detector (Exradin W1) and a generic alanine detector have been found to have corrections under 1% over a broad range of field modulations (0 – 0.12 for MF and 0 – 0.5 for UI). Other detectors have been shown to have corrections of a few percent over this range. Finally, a full Monte Carlo simulations of 18 clinical and nonclinical IMRT field showed good agreement with the fitted curve for the A12 ionization chamber. Conclusion: This work proposes a rapid method to evaluate an upper bound on the contribution of correction factors to discrepancies found in the verification of DQA plans.

  16. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Miller, John M; Tang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  17. A monomeric von Willebrand factor fragment, Leu-504--Lys-728, inhibits von Willebrand factor interaction with glycoprotein Ib-IX [corrected

    PubMed Central

    Gralnick, H R; Williams, S; McKeown, L; Kramer, W; Krutzsch, H; Gorecki, M; Pinet, A; Garfinkel, L I

    1992-01-01

    von Willebrand factor interaction with glycoprotein Ib alpha (GPIb alpha) plays a critical role in the initial phase of platelet adhesion at high shear rates, and it may also play a role in platelet thrombus formation in partially occluded arteries. Previous studies have indicated that two peptides, Cys-474--Pro-488 (peptide 153) and Ser-692--Pro-708 (peptide 154), inhibit von Willebrand factor--GPIb alpha interaction. We have expressed a recombinant fragment of von Willebrand factor, Leu-504--Lys-728 [corrected], with a single intrachain disulfide bond linking residues Cys-509--Cys-695 and examined its ability to inhibit von Willebrand factor--GPIb alpha interactions and platelet adhesion at high shear forces. This recombinant fragment, named VCL, inhibits ristocetin-induced, botrocetin-induced, and asialo-von Willebrand factor-induced platelet aggregation and binding to platelets at an IC50 = 0.011-0.260 microM, significantly lower than the IC50 of peptide 153 or 154, IC50 = 86-700 microM. Peptides 153 and 154 did not result in any inhibition of platelet adhesion (IC50 greater than 500 microM). In contrast, VCL inhibited 50% of platelet adhesion at 0.94 microM and at 7.6 microM inhibited greater than 80% of platelet adhesion to human umbilical artery subendothelium at high shear forces. VCL inhibited the contact and spreading of platelets and also caused a marked decrease in thrombus formation. These studies indicate that VCL may be an effective antithrombotic agent in preventing arterial thrombus formation in areas of high shear force. PMID:1518808

  18. Correction of Hypertension by Normalization of Endothelial Levels of Fibroblast Growth Factor and Nitric Oxide Synthase in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, Pedro; Garcia-Calvo, Margarita; Carceller, Fernando; Reimers, Diana; Zazo, Mercedes; Cuevas, Begona; Munoz-Willery, Isabel; Martinez-Coso, Victoria; Lamas, Santiago; Gimenez-Gallego, Guillermo

    1996-10-01

    Acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) share a wide range of diverse biological activities. To date, low levels of FGF have not been correlated with a pathophysiologic state. We report that blood vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats are shown to be associated with a marked decrement in endothelial basic FGF content. This decrement correlates both with hypertension and with a decrease in the endothelial content of nitric oxide synthase. restoration of FGF to physiological levels in the vascular wall, either by systemic administration or by in vivo gene transfer, significantly augmented the number of endothelial cells with positive immunostaining for nitric oxide synthase, corrected hypertension, and ameliorated endothelial-dependent responses to vasoconstrictors. These results suggest an important role for FGFs in blood pressure homeostasis and open new avenues for the understanding of the etiology and treatment of hypertension.

  19. Sub-Glass Temperature Dependence of the Segmental Shift Factor for Polycarbonate: Evidence for Arrhenius Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Paul A.

    1998-03-01

    It is generally thought that the glass transition is marked by a strong temperature dependence of the viscosity or segmental relaxation time. Specifically, it is generally assumed, particularly for fragile glass formers such as polymers, that the viscosity has a Vogel-Fulcher-like or WLF-like temperature dependence that extrapolates to a singularity at the Kauzmann temperature approximately 50 K below the kinetic glass temperature. Here we show results obtained by aging a polycarbonate glass into equilibrium at temperatures from 20 K below the glass transition to about 5 K above it. Our results show that the WLF behavior is not followed and that the segmental shift factors follow a temperature dependence that is consistent with an Arrhenius behavior. Very interestingly, such behavior is predicted by a new model of the glass transition by DiMarzio and Yang [1]. 1. E.A. DiMarzio and A. Yang, J. Res. NIST, 102, 135 (1997).

  20. Factors affecting the application of a simple ratio technique for spectral correction of a neutron personnel albedo dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    To accurately assess the dose equivalent indicated by the albedo response of a neutron personnel dosimeter, additional knowledge is generally required in order to apply the needed spectral specific correction factors. This work was designed to evaluate the capability of the USAF Personnel Neutron Dosimeter to self-calibrate for moderated fission neutron spectra. The boron/bare ratio technique is compared with a simple theoretical model of the dosimeter and with the 23 cm (9 in) to 7.6 cm (3 in) Hankins' remmeter calibration technique. The overall goal was to provide dose-equivalent estimates comparable to those provided by the remmeter technique without the necessity of special on-site measurements. Although the boron/bare technique with the present dosimeter design fails to provide calibration factors needed for moderated fission neutron spectra, theoretical predictions based upon the model and the measured dosimeter responses are used to propose a dosimeter design which might fulfill the desired goal. Ancillary data gathered during the study are also presented.

  1. High-temperature measurements of Q-factor in rotated X-cut quartz resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritz, I. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Q-factors of piezoelectric resonators fabricated from natural and synthetic quartz with a 34 deg rotated X-cut orientation were measured at temperatures up to 325 C. The synthetic material, which was purified by electrolysis, retains a higher enough Q to be suitable for high temperature pressure-transducer applications, whereas the natural quartz is excessively lossy above 200 C for this application. The results are compared to results obtained previously at AT-cut resonators.

  2. Temperature and donor concentration dependence of the conduction electron Lande g-factor in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Konakov, Anton A.; Ezhevskii, Alexander A.; Soukhorukov, Andrey V.; Guseinov, Davud V.; Popkov, Sergey A.; Burdov, Vladimir A.

    2013-12-04

    Temperature and donor concentration dependence of the conduction electron g-factor in silicon has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. We performed electron spin resonance experiments on Si samples doped with different densities of phosphorus and lithium. Theoretical consideration is based on the renormalization of the electron energy in a weak magnetic field by the interaction with possible perturbing agents, such as phonons and impurity centers. In the second-order perturbation theory interaction of the electron subsystem with the lattice vibrations as well as ionized donors results in decreasing the conduction electron g-factor, which becomes almost linear function both of temperature and impurity concentration.

  3. Correction of the equilibrium temperature caused by slight evaporation of water in protein crystal growth cells during long-term space experiments at International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Takahisa; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Yoshizaki, Izumi; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Murayama, Kenta; Fukuyama, Seijiro; Hosokawa, Kouhei; Oshi, Kentaro; Ito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Tachibana, Masaru; Miura, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    The normal growth rates of the {110} faces of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals, R, were measured as a function of the supersaturation ? parameter using a reflection type interferometer under ?G at the International Space Station (NanoStep Project). Since water slightly evaporated from in situ observation cells during a long-term space station experiment for several months, equilibrium temperature Te changed, and the actual ?, however, significantly increased mainly due to the increase in salt concentration Cs. To correct ?, the actual Cs and protein concentration Cp, which correctly represent the measured Te value in space, were first calculated. Second, a new solubility curve with the corrected Cs was plotted. Finally, the revised ? was obtained from the new solubility curve. This correction method successfully revealed that the 2.8% water was evaporated from the solution, leading to 2.8% increase in the Cs and Cp of the solution.

  4. Identification of possible factors influencing temperatures elevation during implant site preparation with piezoelectric technique

    PubMed Central

    Lamazza, Luca; Laurito, Domenica; Lollobrigida, Marco; Brugnoletti, Orlando; Garreffa, Girolamo; De Biase, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Overheating during implant site preparation negatively affects the osseointegration process as well the final outcome of implant rehabilitations. Piezoelectric techniques seem to provide to a gentle implant preparation although few scientific reports have investigated the heat generation and its underlying factors. Purpose To investigate, through a proper methodological approach, the main factors influencing temperature rise during piezoelectric implant site preparation. Materials and methods Different piezoelectric tips (IM1s, IM2, P2-3, IM3, Mectron Medical Technology, Carasco, Italy) have been tested. The experimental set-up consisted in a mechanical positioning device equipped with a load cell and a fluoroptic thermometer. Results The first tip of the sequence (IM1s) generated the highest temperature increasing (?T). The diamond tips (IM1s and P2-3) determined higher ?T values than the smooth tips (IM2 and IM3). Further tests with IM1s suggested that the temperature elevation during the first thirty seconds may be predictive of the maximal temperature as well as of the overall thermal impact. Conclusions Working load, working movements management and bone features resulted to be the main factors influencing temperature rise during piezoelectric implant site preparation. Irrigant temperature and clogging effect may also synergically contribute to the heat generation. PMID:25774245

  5. Temperature Data Assimilation with Salinity Corrections: Validation for the NSIPP Ocean Data Assimilation System in the Tropical Pacific Ocean, 1993-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troccoli, Alberto; Rienecker, Michele M.; Keppenne, Christian L.; Johnson, Gregory C.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP) has developed an Ocean data assimilation system to initialize the quasi-isopycnal ocean model used in our experimental coupled-model forecast system. Initial tests of the system have focused on the assimilation of temperature profiles in an optimal interpolation framework. It is now recognized that correction of temperature only often introduces spurious water masses. The resulting density distribution can be statically unstable and also have a detrimental impact on the velocity distribution. Several simple schemes have been developed to try to correct these deficiencies. Here the salinity field is corrected by using a scheme which assumes that the temperature-salinity relationship of the model background is preserved during the assimilation. The scheme was first introduced for a zlevel model by Troccoli and Haines (1999). A large set of subsurface observations of salinity and temperature is used to cross-validate two data assimilation experiments run for the 6-year period 1993-1998. In these two experiments only subsurface temperature observations are used, but in one case the salinity field is also updated whenever temperature observations are available.

  6. SU-E-T-101: Determination and Comparison of Correction Factors Obtained for TLDs in Small Field Lung Heterogenous Phantom Using Acuros XB and EGSnrc

    SciTech Connect

    Soh, R; Lee, J; Harianto, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine and compare the correction factors obtained for TLDs in 2 × 2cm{sup 2} small field in lung heterogenous phantom using Acuros XB (AXB) and EGSnrc. Methods: This study will simulate the correction factors due to the perturbation of TLD-100 chips (Harshaw/Thermoscientific, 3 × 3 × 0.9mm{sup 3}, 2.64g/cm{sup 3}) in small field lung medium for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). A physical lung phantom was simulated by a 14cm thick composite cork phantom (0.27g/cm{sup 3}, HU:-743 ± 11) sandwiched between 4cm thick Plastic Water (CIRS,Norfolk). Composite cork has been shown to be a good lung substitute material for dosimetric studies. 6MV photon beam from Varian Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with field size 2 × 2cm{sup 2} was simulated. Depth dose profiles were obtained from the Eclipse treatment planning system Acuros XB (AXB) and independently from DOSxyznrc, EGSnrc. Correction factors was calculated by the ratio of unperturbed to perturbed dose. Since AXB has limitations in simulating actual material compositions, EGSnrc will also simulate the AXB-based material composition for comparison to the actual lung phantom. Results: TLD-100, with its finite size and relatively high density, causes significant perturbation in 2 × 2cm{sup 2} small field in a low lung density phantom. Correction factors calculated by both EGSnrc and AXB was found to be as low as 0.9. It is expected that the correction factor obtained by EGSnrc wlll be more accurate as it is able to simulate the actual phantom material compositions. AXB have a limited material library, therefore it only approximates the composition of TLD, Composite cork and Plastic water, contributing to uncertainties in TLD correction factors. Conclusion: It is expected that the correction factors obtained by EGSnrc will be more accurate. Studies will be done to investigate the correction factors for higher energies where perturbation may be more pronounced.

  7. The role of demagnetization factor in determining the ‘true’ value of the Curie temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zverev, V.I.; Gimaev, R.R.; Tishin, A.M.; Mudryk, Ya; Gschneidner, Jr., K.A.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    2011-05-20

    The Curie temperature, T{sub c}, is the temperature above which a material loses its long-range ferromagnetic order. Considering the equation of state of a ferromagnet in the mean-field approximation it has been shown theoretically that the value of the demagnetization factor N has a significant influence on the perceived location of T{sub c} on the temperature scale. A series of precise measurements of magnetization using two differently shaped single crystals of high-purity gadolinium was carried out to prove this result experimentally and develop a procedure leading to the 'true' value of T{sub c}.

  8. Correction of temperature and bulk electrical conductivity effects on soil water content measurements using ECH2O EC-5, TE and 5TE sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Ulrike; Huisman, Sander; Vrba, Jan; Vereecken, Harry; Bogena, Heye

    2010-05-01

    For a monitoring of dynamic spatiotemporal soil moisture patterns at the catchment scale, automated and continuously measuring systems that provide spatial coverage and high temporal resolution are needed. Promising techniques like wireless sensor networks (e.g. SoilNet) have to integrate low-cost electromagnetic soil water content sensors [1], [2]. However, the measurement accuracy of such sensors is often deteriorated by effects of temperature and soil bulk electrical conductivity. The objective of this study is to derive and validate correction functions for such temperature and electrical conductivity effects for the ECH2O EC-5, TE and 5TE sensors. We used dielectric liquids with known dielectric properties for two different laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the temperature of eight reference liquids with permittivity ranging from 7 to 42 was varied from 5 to 40°C. All sensor types showed an underestimation of permittivity for low temperatures and an overestimation for high temperatures. In the second experiment, the conductivity of the reference liquids was increased by adding NaCl. The highest deviations occurred for high permittivity and electrical conductivity between ~0.8 and 1.5 dS/m (underestimation from 8 to 16 permittivity units depending on sensor type). For higher electrical conductivity (2.5 dS/m), the permittivity was overestimated (10 permittivity units for the EC-5 and 7 for the 5TE sensor). Based on these measurements on reference liquids, we derived empirical correction functions that are able to correct thermal and conductivity effects on measured sensor response. These correction functions were validated using three soil samples (coarse sand, silty clay loam and bentonite). For the temperature correction function, the results corresponded better with theoretical predictions after correction for temperature effects on the sensor circuitry. It was also shown that the application of the conductivity correction functions improved the accuracy of the soil water content predictions considerably. References: [1] Bogena, H.R., J.A. Huisman, C. Oberdörster, H. Vereecken (2007): Evaluation of a low-cost soil water content sensor for wireless network applications. Journal of Hydrology: 344, 32- 42. [2] Rosenbaum, U., Huisman, J.A., Weuthen, A., Vereecken, H. and Bogena, H.R. (2010): Quantification of sensor-to-sensor variability of the ECH2O EC-5, TE and 5TE sensors in dielectric liquids. Accepted for publication in VZJ (09/2009).

  9. Correction factors kE and kQ for LiF-TLDs for dosimetry in megavoltage electron and photon beams.

    PubMed

    Bruggmoser, Gregor; Saum, Rainer; Saum, Felicitas; Gainey, Mark; Pychlau, Christian; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter; Zink, Klemens

    2015-06-01

    For the determination of absorbed dose to water D,using thermolumeniscence (TL) probes in a beam different from that used for calibration, correction factors for radiation type and radiation quality kE and kQ are needed. Values for kE and kQ for two different shapes of LiF probes (rods and disks) were obtained for high-energy photon and electron beams. The relation between the absorbed dose to the medium (water) D, measured by ion-chambers according to DIN 6800-2, 2008 and TL-probes having a (60)Co-calibration factor, leads for each shape and each batch of LiF probes to correction factors for radiation type and radiation quality kE and kQ.. The influence of the shape on the correction factor of the probes amounts in our experiment up to 2%. Therefore, it is recommended that the correction factors kE and kQ for rods and disks should be checked for each batch of LiF-detectors. PMID:24973310

  10. An algorithm for temperature correcting substrate moisture measurements: aligning substrate moisture responses with environmental drivers in polytunnel-grown strawberry plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodchild, Martin; Janes, Stuart; Jenkins, Malcolm; Nicholl, Chris; Kühn, Karl

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the use of temperature corrected substrate moisture data to improve the relationship between environmental drivers and the measurement of substrate moisture content in high porosity soil-free growing environments such as coir. Substrate moisture sensor data collected from strawberry plants grown in coir bags installed in a table-top system under a polytunnel illustrates the impact of temperature on capacitance-based moisture measurements. Substrate moisture measurements made in our coir arrangement possess the negative temperature coefficient of the permittivity of water where diurnal changes in moisture content oppose those of substrate temperature. The diurnal substrate temperature variation was seen to range from 7° C to 25° C resulting in a clearly observable temperature effect in substrate moisture content measurements during the 23 day test period. In the laboratory we measured the ML3 soil moisture sensor (ThetaProbe) response to temperature in Air, dry glass beads and water saturated glass beads and used a three-phase alpha (?) mixing model, also known as the Complex Refractive Index Model (CRIM), to derive the permittivity temperature coefficients for glass and water. We derived the ? value and estimated the temperature coefficient for water - for sensors operating at 100MHz. Both results are good agreement with published data. By applying the CRIM equation with the temperature coefficients of glass and water the moisture temperature coefficient of saturated glass beads has been reduced by more than an order of magnitude to a moisture temperature coefficient of

  11. Evaluation of Cold Temperatures and Density as Mortality Factors of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer

    E-print Network

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    Evaluation of Cold Temperatures and Density as Mortality Factors of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer) ABSTRACT It was hypothesized that the northward spread of the eucalyptus longhorned borer, Phoracantha into most zones occupied by its eucalyptus host plants. In addition, increasing densities of prepupae

  12. Temperature trumps light: Teasing apart interactive factors controlling non-indigenous Zostera japonica growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Pacific Northwest Zostera marina and Z. japonica co-exist by occupying separate elevation niches. We conducted two mesocosm experiments to evaluate light and temperature as factors controlling the disjunct distribution of congeners. The first study tests the hypothesis t...

  13. Field calibration of multi-scattering correction factor for aethalometer aerosol absorption coefficient during CAPMEX Campaign, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. W.; Yoon, S. C.; Park, R.; Ogren, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Filter-based instrument, such as aethalometer, is being widely used to measure equivalent black carbon(EBC) mass concentration and aerosol absorption coefficient(AAC). However, many other previous studies have poited that AAC and its aerosol absorption angstrom exponent(AAE) are strongly affected by the multi-scattering correction factor(C) when we retrieve AAC from aethalometer EBC mass concentration measurement(Weingartner et al., 2003; Arnott et al., 2005; Schmid et al., 2006; Coen et al., 2010). We determined the C value using the method given in Weingartner et al. (2003) by comparing 7-wavelngth aethalometer (AE-31, Magee sci.) to 3-wavelength Photo-Acoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS-3, DMT) at Gosan climate observatory, Korea(GCO) during Cheju ABC plume-asian monsoon experiment(CAPMEX) campaign(August and September, 2008). In this study, C was estimated to be 4.04 ± 1.68 at 532 nm and AAC retrieved with this value was decreased as approximately 100% as than that retrieved with soot case value from Weingartner et al (2003). We compared the AAC determined from aethalomter measurements to that from collocated Continuous Light Absorption Photometer (CLAP) measurements from January 2012 to December 2013 at GCO and found good agreement in both AAC and AAE. This result suggests the determination of site-specific C is crucially needed when we calculate AAC from aethalometer measurements.

  14. Relations of Tualatin River water temperatures to natural and human-caused factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John C.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic research has long shown that the survival of cold-water fish, such as salmon and trout, decreases markedly as water temperatures increase above a critical threshold, particularly during sensitive life stages of the fish. In an effort to improve the overall health of aquatic ecosystems, the State of Oregon in 1996 adopted a maximum water-temperature standard of 17.8 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit), based on a 7-day moving average of daily maximum temperatures, for most water bodies in the State. Anthropogenic activities are not permitted to raise the temperature of a water body above this level. In the Tualatin River, a tributary of the Willamette River located in northwestern Oregon, water temperatures periodically surpass this threshold during the low-flow summer and fall months.An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey quantified existing seasonal, diel, and spatial patterns of water temperatures in the main stem of the river, assessed the relation of water temperatures to natural climatic conditions and anthropogenic factors (such as wastewater-treatment-plant effluent and modification of riparian shading), and assessed the impact of various flow management practices on stream temperatures. Half-hourly temperature measurements were recorded at 13 monitoring sites from river mile (RM) 63.9 to RM 3.4 from May to November of 1994. Four synoptic water- temperature surveys also were conducted in the upstream and downstream vicinities of two wastewater-treatment-plant outfalls. Temperature and streamflow time-series data were used to calibrate two dynamic-flow heat-transfer models, DAFLOW-BLTM (RM 63.9-38.4) and CE-QUAL-W2 (RM 38.4-3.4). Simulations from the models provided a basis for approximating 'natural' historical temperature patterns, performing effluent and riparian-shading sensitivity analyses, and evaluating mitigation management scenarios under 1994 climatic conditions. Findings from the investigation included (1) under 'natural' conditions the temperature of the river would exceed the State standard of 17.8 degrees Celsius at many locations during the low-flow season, (2) current operation of wastewater-treatment plants increases the temperature of the river downstream of the plants under low-flow conditions, (3) river temperature is significantly affected by riparian shade variations along both the tributaries and the main stem, (4) flow releases during the low-flow season from the Henry Hagg Lake reservoir decrease the river temperature in the upper section, and (5) removal of a low diversion dam at RM 3.4 would slightly decrease temperatures below RM 10.0.

  15. Factors That Affect Riverbank Filtrate Water Temperature in Daesan Plants, Changwon, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, J.; Lim, J.; Lee, K.; Jung, W.; Kim, H.

    2008-12-01

    City of Changwon, Korea, has been using some of riverbank filtrate water for the indoor air-conditioning of Daesan purification plants since 2006. In this method, the most important factor to determine efficiency of heating and cooling is the temperature of the filtrate water. Thus, it is required to predict the available range of groundwater temperature in the case of changing pumping rate, pumping location or in the case of long term operation. Numerical simulation of temperature profile of riverbank filtrate water in Daesan plants using HydroGeoSphere shows that the primary factor in determining filtrate water temperature is the pumping rate. Distance from the river to the wells is long enough to equalize subsurface water temperature through its penetration path and all of the well screen sections are located at the depth of 30 m below surface which is part of the local aquifer. This is why the horizontal distance from the river to each well and the installed screen depth are less important than the pumping rate to determine filtrate water temperature in this facility. It also shows that maintaining the facility operation with present pumping rate for the next 30 years will not cause any significant change of water temperature. However, following the new plan of the city to install additional 37 wells with 6 times higher pumping rate than the current rate might cause about 2? decrease in filtrate water temperature in 10 years after the extension. All of these results demonstrate that basic hydrological study such as aquifer heterogeneity or pumping capacity is prerequisite for calculating and predicting extracted water temperature in riverbank filtration system.

  16. A New Method to Measure Temperature and Burner Pattern Factor Sensing for Active Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The determination of the temperatures of extended surfaces which exhibit non-uniform temperature variation is very important for a number of applications including the "Burner Pattern Factor" (BPF) of turbine engines. Exploratory work has shown that use of BPF to control engine functions can result in many benefits, among them reduction in engine weight, reduction in operating cost, increase in engine life, while attaining maximum engine efficiency. Advanced engines are expected to operate at very high temperature to achieve high efficiency. Brief exposure of engine components to higher than design temperatures due to non-uniformity in engine burner pattern can reduce engine life. The engine BPF is a measure of engine temperature uniformity. Attainment of maximum temperature uniformity and high temperatures is key to maximum efficiency and long life. A new approach to determine through the measurement of just one radiation spectrum by a multiwavelength pyrometer is possible. This paper discusses a new temperature sensing approach and its application to determine the BPF.

  17. Selecting the correct weighting factors for linear and quadratic calibration curves with least-squares regression algorithm in bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays and impacts of using incorrect weighting factors on curve stability, data quality, and assay performance.

    PubMed

    Gu, Huidong; Liu, Guowen; Wang, Jian; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2014-09-16

    A simple procedure for selecting the correct weighting factors for linear and quadratic calibration curves with least-squares regression algorithm in bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays is reported. The correct weighting factor is determined by the relationship between the standard deviation of instrument responses (?) and the concentrations (x). The weighting factor of 1, 1/x, or 1/x(2) should be selected if, over the entire concentration range, ? is a constant, ?(2) is proportional to x, or ? is proportional to x, respectively. For the first time, we demonstrated with detailed scientific reasoning, solid historical data, and convincing justification that 1/x(2) should always be used as the weighting factor for all bioanalytical LC-MS/MS assays. The impacts of using incorrect weighting factors on curve stability, data quality, and assay performance were thoroughly investigated. It was found that the most stable curve could be obtained when the correct weighting factor was used, whereas other curves using incorrect weighting factors were unstable. It was also found that there was a very insignificant impact on the concentrations reported with calibration curves using incorrect weighting factors as the concentrations were always reported with the passing curves which actually overlapped with or were very close to the curves using the correct weighting factor. However, the use of incorrect weighting factors did impact the assay performance significantly. Finally, the difference between the weighting factors of 1/x(2) and 1/y(2) was discussed. All of the findings can be generalized and applied into other quantitative analysis techniques using calibration curves with weighted least-squares regression algorithm. PMID:25157966

  18. The NLO contributions to the scalar pion form factors and the ${\\cal O}(?_s^2)$ annihilation corrections to the $B\\to ??$ decays

    E-print Network

    Shan Cheng; Ya-Lan Zhang; Zhen-Jun Xiao

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, by employing the $k_{T}$ factorization theorem, we made the first calculation for the space-like scalar pion form factor $Q^2 F(Q^2)$ at the leading order (LO) and the next-to-leading order (NLO) level, and then found the time-like scalar pion form factor $F'^{(1)}_{\\rm a,I}$ by analytic continuation from the space-like one. From the analytical evaluations and the numerical results, we found the following points: (a) the NLO correction to the space-like scalar pion form factor has an opposite sign with the LO one but is very small in magnitude, can produce at most $10\\%$ decrease to LO result in the considered $Q^2$ region; (b) the NLO time-like scalar pion form factor $F'^{(1)}_{\\rm a,I}$ describes the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^2)$ contribution to the factorizable annihilation diagrams of the considered $B \\to \\pi\\pi$ decays, i.e. the NLO annihilation correction; (c) the NLO part of the form factor $F'^{(1)}_{\\rm a,I}$ is very small in size, and is almost independent with the variation of cutoff scale $\\mu_0$, but this form factor has a large strong phase around $-55^\\circ$ and may play an important role in producing large CP violation for $B\\to \\pi\\pi$ decays; and (d) for $B^0 \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $ \\pi^0\\pi^0$ decays, the newly known NLO annihilation correction can produce only a very small enhancement to their branching ratios, less than $3\\%$ in magnitude, and therefore we could not interpret the well-known $\\pi\\pi$-puzzle by the inclusion of this NLO correction to the factorizable annihilation diagrams.

  19. Constraints on hard spectator scattering and annihilation corrections in Bu,d ? PV decays within QCD factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junfeng; Chang, Qin; Hu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yueling

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the contributions of hard spectator scattering and annihilation in B ? PV decays within the QCD factorization framework. With available experimental data on B ? ?K* , ?K , ?? and K? decays, comprehensive ?2 analyses of the parameters XA,Hi,f (?A,Hi,f, ?A,Hi,f) are performed, where XAf (XAi) and XH are used to parameterize the endpoint divergences of the (non)factorizable annihilation and hard spectator scattering amplitudes, respectively. Based on ?2 analyses, it is observed that (1) The topology-dependent parameterization scheme is feasible for B ? PV decays; (2) At the current accuracy of experimental measurements and theoretical evaluations, XH = XAi is allowed by B ? PV decays, but XH ? XAf at 68% C.L.; (3) With the simplification XH = XAi, parameters XAf and XAi should be treated individually. The above-described findings are very similar to those obtained from B ? PP decays. Numerically, for B ? PV decays, we obtain (?A,Hi ,?A,Hi [ ° ]) = (2.87-1.95+0.66 , -145-21+14) and (?Af, ? A f [ ° ]) = (0.91-0.13+0.12 , -37-9+10) at 68% C.L. With the best-fit values, most of the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data within errors. However, significant corrections to the color-suppressed tree amplitude ?2 related to a large ?H result in the wrong sign for ACPdir (B- ??0K*-) compared with the most recent BABAR data, which presents a new obstacle in solving "??" and "?K" puzzles through ?2. A crosscheck with measurements at Belle (or Belle II) and LHCb, which offer higher precision, is urgently expected to confirm or refute such possible mismatch.

  20. Temperature sensitivity of the cavity scale factor enhancement for a Gaussian absorption resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myneni, Krishna; Smith, David D.; Chang, Hongrok; Luckay, H. A.

    2015-11-01

    We derive analytic expressions for the on-resonant cavity scale factor enhancement dependence on temperature, S0(T ) , for an intracavity medium with a Gaussian absorption resonance. Results are expressed as functions of the cavity parameters and the two resonance parameters: ?0(T ) , the peak absorption coefficient, and ??R(T ) , the resonance width. A semiempirical model is developed for the temperature-dependent absorption coefficient, ?F(? ,T ) , in an alkali-metal-atom vapor cell, and is used to compare the predicted behavior of ?0(T ) and ??R(T ) with the measured values for the D 2F =2 ?F' resonance in 87Rb, over the temperature range 298-325 K. Measurements of S0(T ) in a low-finesse ring cavity, using the same vapor cell as the intracavity dispersive medium, were performed and found to be in agreement with the temperature-dependent behavior predicted by our theory, with quantitative agreement to 2 K for the critical temperature. The practical range of S0 is found to be limited by the achievable temperature stability of the resonance parameters of the dispersive medium.

  1. Balmer ratios, the abundance discrepancy factor and a two temperature component nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohigas, J.

    2015-10-01

    Large values of the H?/H? line ratio are preferentially found in planetary nebulae (PNe) with large abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs) for O+2. This connection can be understood if there is a cold component in these objects. An equation relating the ADF with H?/H? was derived from a simple two-component model. This equation involves the density, temperature and mass of the hot and cold components, as well as their relative abundance of O+2. Sensible solutions were found in 12 of the 15 PNe considered in this paper. Solutions where the mean H+ temperature is closer to the Balmer jump temperature and/or the cold component temperature is closer to temperatures found from O+2 recombination line ratios, almost always imply an O+2 abundance that is a few times larger in the cold component, a cold-to-hot H+ mass ratio between 0.15 and 2.01 and a cold component density close to 100 cm-3.

  2. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of Iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947: Draft. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  3. Correction of the equilibrium temperature caused by slight evaporation of water in protein crystal growth cells during long-term space experiments at International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takahisa; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Yoshizaki, Izumi; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Murayama, Kenta; Fukuyama, Seijiro; Hosokawa, Kouhei; Oshi, Kentaro; Ito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Tachibana, Masaru; Miura, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    The normal growth rates of the {110} faces of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals, R, were measured as a function of the supersaturation ? parameter using a reflection type interferometer under ?G at the International Space Station (NanoStep Project). Since water slightly evaporated from in situ observation cells during a long-term space station experiment for several months, equilibrium temperature T(e) changed, and the actual ?, however, significantly increased mainly due to the increase in salt concentration C(s). To correct ?, the actual C(s) and protein concentration C(p), which correctly represent the measured T(e) value in space, were first calculated. Second, a new solubility curve with the corrected C(s) was plotted. Finally, the revised ? was obtained from the new solubility curve. This correction method successfully revealed that the 2.8% water was evaporated from the solution, leading to 2.8% increase in the C(s) and C(p) of the solution. PMID:26329200

  4. A method for determining an effective porosity correction factor for thermal conductivity in fast reactor uranium-plutonium oxide fuel pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masaki; Abe, Kazuyuki; Sato, Isamu

    2000-10-01

    A reliable method has been developed for determining an effective porosity correction factor for calculating a realistic thermal conductivity for fast reactor uranium-plutonium (mixed) oxide fuel pellets. By using image analysis of the ceramographs of transverse sections of mixed-oxide fuel pellets, the fuel morphology could be classified into two basic types. One is a 'two-phase' type that consists of small pores dispersed in the fuel matrix. The other is a 'three-phase' type that has large pores in addition to the small pores dispersed in the fuel matrix. The pore sizes are divided into two categories, large and small, at the 30 ?m area equivalent diameter. These classifications lead to an equation for calculating an effective porosity correction factor by accounting for the small and large pore volume fractions and coefficients. This new analytical method for determining the effective porosity correction factor for calculating the realistic thermal conductivity of mixed-oxide fuel was also experimentally confirmed for high-, medium- and low-density fuel pellets.

  5. Application of the Exradin W1 scintillator to determine Ediode 60017 and microDiamond 60019 correction factors for relative dosimetry within small MV and FFF fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, T. S. A.; Rowland, B. C.; Ferrand, R.; Vieillevigne, L.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we use EBT3 film measurements at 10 MV to demonstrate the suitability of the Exradin W1 (plastic scintillator) for relative dosimetry within small photon fields. We then use the Exradin W1 to measure the small field correction factors required by two other detectors: the PTW unshielded Ediode 60017 and the PTW microDiamond 60019. We consider on-axis correction-factors for small fields collimated using MLCs for four different TrueBeam energies: 6 FFF, 6 MV, 10 FFF and 10 MV. We also investigate percentage depth dose and lateral profile perturbations. In addition to high-density effects from its silicon sensitive region, the Ediode exhibited a dose-rate dependence and its known over-response to low energy scatter was found to be greater for 6 FFF than 6 MV. For clinical centres without access to a W1 scintillator, we recommend the microDiamond over the Ediode and suggest that ‘limits of usability’, field sizes below which a detector introduces unacceptable errors, can form a practical alternative to small-field correction factors. For a dosimetric tolerance of 2% on-axis, the microDiamond might be utilised down to 10?mm and 15?mm field sizes for 6 MV and 10 MV, respectively.

  6. Extremely high Q-factor mechanical modes in quartz bulk acoustic wave resonators at millikelvin temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Goryachev, M.; Creedon, D. L.; Ivanov, E. N.; Tobar, M. E.; Galliou, S.; Bourquin, R.

    2014-12-04

    We demonstrate that Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator cooled down to millikelvin temperatures are excellent building blocks for hybrid quantum systems with extremely long coherence times. Two overtones of the longitudinal mode at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz demonstrate a maximum f.Q product of 7.8×10{sup 16} Hz. With this result, the Q-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained in other mechanical systems. Tested quartz resonators possess the ultra low acoustic losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state.

  7. High Thermoelectric Power Factor Near Room Temperature in Full-Heusler Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoug, Eric J.; Zhou, Chen; Pei, Yanzhong; Morelli, Donald T.

    2009-07-01

    We present results on the electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity for the Heusler alloys Fe2VAl1- x Si x and Fe2VAl1- x Sn x synthesized using standard arc-melting techniques. While alloys with x = 0 are p-type, upon substitution of Si or Sn for Al the alloys can be made n-type with optimized sample compositions exhibiting thermoelectric power factors in excess of that of bismuth telluride near room temperature. The lattice thermal conductivity ? L of these alloys is too large to produce a high figure of merit; the prospects for and initial attempts at lowering ? L are discussed.

  8. Extrahepatic sources of factor VIII potentially contribute to the coagulation cascade correcting the bleeding phenotype of mice with hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Zanolini, Diego; Merlin, Simone; Feola, Maria; Ranaldo, Gabriella; Amoruso, Angela; Gaidano, Gianluca; Zaffaroni, Mauro; Ferrero, Alessandro; Brunelleschi, Sandra; Valente, Guido; Gupta, Sanjeev; Prat, Maria; Follenzi, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    A large fraction of factor VIII in blood originates from liver sinusoidal endothelial cells although extrahepatic sources also contribute to plasma factor VIII levels. Identification of cell-types other than endothelial cells with the capacity to synthesize and release factor VIII will be helpful for therapeutic approaches in hemophilia A. Recent cell therapy and bone marrow transplantation studies indicated that Küpffer cells, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells could synthesize factor VIII in sufficient amount to ameliorate the bleeding phenotype in hemophilic mice. To further establish the role of blood cells in expressing factor VIII, we studied various types of mouse and human hematopoietic cells. We identified factor VIII in cells isolated from peripheral and cord blood, as well as bone marrow. Co-staining for cell type-specific markers verified that factor VIII was expressed in monocytes, macrophages and megakaryocytes. We additionally verified that factor VIII was expressed in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and endothelial cells elsewhere, e.g., in the spleen, lungs and kidneys. Factor VIII was well expressed in sinusoidal endothelial cells and Küpffer cells isolated from human liver, whereas by comparison isolated human hepatocytes expressed factor VIII at very low levels. After transplantation of CD34+ human cord blood cells into NOD/SCID?Null-hemophilia A mice, fluorescence activated cell sorting of peripheral blood showed >40% donor cells engrafted in the majority of mice. In these animals, plasma factor VIII activity 12 weeks after cell transplantation was up to 5% and nine of 12 mice survived after a tail clip-assay. In conclusion, hematopoietic cells, in addition to endothelial cells, express and secrete factor VIII: this information should offer further opportunities for understanding mechanisms of factor VIII synthesis and replenishment. PMID:25911555

  9. Location specific forecasting of maximum and minimum temperatures over India by using the statistical bias corrected output of global forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durai, V. R.; Bhardwaj, Rashmi

    2014-06-01

    The output from Global Forecasting System (GFS) T574L64 operational at India Meteorological Department (IMD), New Delhi is used for obtaining location specific quantitative forecast of maximum and minimum temperatures over India in the medium range time scale. In this study, a statistical bias correction algorithm has been introduced to reduce the systematic bias in the 24-120 hour GFS model location specific forecast of maximum and minimum temperatures for 98 selected synoptic stations, representing different geographical regions of India. The statistical bias correction algorithm used for minimizing the bias of the next forecast is Decaying Weighted Mean (DWM), as it is suitable for small samples. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the skill of Direct Model Output (DMO) and Bias Corrected (BC) GFS for location specific forecast of maximum and minimum temperatures over India. The performance skill of 24-120 hour DMO and BC forecast of GFS model is evaluated for all the 98 synoptic stations during summer (May-August 2012) and winter (November 2012-February 2013) seasons using different statistical evaluation skill measures. The magnitude of Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) for BC GFS forecast is lower than DMO during both summer and winter seasons. The BC GFS forecasts have higher skill score as compared to GFS DMO over most of the stations in all day-1 to day-5 forecasts during both summer and winter seasons. It is concluded from the study that the skill of GFS statistical BC forecast improves over the GFS DMO remarkably and hence can be used as an operational weather forecasting system for location specific forecast over India.

  10. Factors Affecting Process Temperature and Biogas Production in Small-scale Rural Biogas Digesters in Winter in Northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pham, C. H.; Vu, C. C.; Sommer, S. G.; Bruun, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the main factors influencing digester temperature and methods to reduce heat losses during the cold season in the subtropics. Four composite digesters (two insulated and two uninsulated) were buried underground to measure their internal temperature (°C) at a depth of 140 cm and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry in the mixing tank until its temperature peak at around 14:00 h will increase the temperature in the digester and thus increase potential biogas production. Algorithms are provided linking digester temperature to the temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. PMID:25050049

  11. Monte Carlo correction factors for a Farmer 0.6 cm3 ion chamber dose measurement in the build-up region of the 6 MV clinical beam.

    PubMed

    Pena, J; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Capote, R; Terrón, J A; Gómez, F

    2006-03-21

    Reference dosimetry of photon fields is a well-established subject and currently available protocols (such as the IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51) provide methods for converting the ionization chamber (IC) reading into dose to water, provided reference conditions of charged particle equilibrium (CPE) are fulfilled. But these protocols cannot deal with the build-up region, where the lack of CPE limits the applicability of the cavity theorems and so the chamber correction factors become depth dependent. By explicitly including the IC geometry in the Monte Carlo simulations, depth-dependent dose correction factors are calculated for a PTW 30001 0.6 cm(3) ion chamber in the build-up region of the 6 MV photon beam. The corrected percentage depth dose (PDD) agrees within 2% with that measured using the NACP 02 plane-parallel ion chamber in the build-up region at depths greater than 0.4 cm, where the Farmer chamber wall reaches the phantom surface. PMID:16510960

  12. Factors influencing the acquisition and correct and consistent use of the top-lit updraft cookstove in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Namagembe, Allen; Muller, Nancy; Scott, Lisa Mueller; Zwisler, Greg; Johnson, Michael; Arney, Jennifer; Charron, Dana; Mugisha, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This study looked at the effects of select behavior change interventions on the purchase and the correct and consistent use of a locally fabricated top-lit updraft (TLUD) stove in Uganda. Behavior change interventions included training of community sales agents and village health team volunteers on household air pollution and correct use, referral of interested community members to sales agents, community cooking demonstrations, information flyers, and direct sales of TLUDs and processed wood. Qualitative and quantitative research methods shaped interventions and were used to understand attitudes and practices related to TLUD stove acquisition and use. Results showed that TLUDs were appreciated because they use wood efficiently, cook quickly, reduce smoke, and produce charcoal. However, the substantial purchase price barrier, combined with the cost of processed wood, effectively eliminated the cost savings from its significant fuel efficiency. This made it difficult for the TLUD to be a meaningful part of most households' cooking practices. PMID:25839205

  13. A physically based algorithm for non-blackbody correction of the cloud top temperature for the convective clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Luo, Z. J.; Chen, X.; Zeng, X.; Tao, W.; Huang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Cloud top temperature is a key parameter to retrieval in the remote sensing of convective clouds. Passive remote sensing cannot directly measure the temperature at the cloud tops. Here we explore a synergistic way of estimating cloud top temperature by making use of the simultaneous passive and active remote sensing of clouds (in this case, CloudSat and MODIS). Weighting function of the MODIS 11?m band is explicitly calculated by feeding cloud hydrometer profiles from CloudSat retrievals and temperature and humidity profiles based on ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis into a radiation transfer model. Among 19,699 tropical deep convective clouds observed by the CloudSat in 2008, the averaged effective emission level (EEL, where the weighting function attains its maximum) is at optical depth 0.91 with a standard deviation of 0.33. Furthermore, the vertical gradient of CloudSat radar reflectivity, an indicator of the fuzziness of convective cloud top, is linearly proportional to, d_{CTH-EEL}, the distance between the EEL of 11?m channel and cloud top height (CTH) determined by the CloudSat when d_{CTH-EEL}<0.6km. Beyond 0.6km, the distance has little sensitivity to the vertical gradient of CloudSat radar reflectivity. Based on these findings, we derive a formula between the fuzziness in the cloud top region, which is measurable by CloudSat, and the MODIS 11?m brightness temperature assuming that the difference between effective emission temperature and the 11?m brightness temperature is proportional to the cloud top fuzziness. This formula is verified using the simulated deep convective cloud profiles by the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model. We further discuss the application of this formula in estimating cloud top buoyancy as well as the error characteristics of the radiative calculation within such deep-convective clouds.

  14. Factors controlling cloud microphysics, precipitation rate, and brightness temperature of tropical convective and stratiform clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashino, T.; Casella, D.; Mugnai, A.; Sano, P.; Smith, E. A.; Tripoli, G.

    2008-12-01

    This paper discusses factors controlling cloud microphysics, precipitation rate and brightness temperature of tropical convective and stratiform clouds. Tropical convective and stratiform clouds are important in radiative forcing of climates and distribution of precipitation over the ocean. The possible effects of climate change on these clouds are still not well understood. Recent studies show that the higher CCN concentration in a convective cloud can lead to more vigorous updrafts and a higher evaporation/precipitation ratio. The stronger updraft often means stronger downdraft and gust fronts, which can trigger convection nearby. This implies that increases in CCN concentration can result in an increase in area coverage and persistence of tropical cirrus and stratiform clouds. The increased cloudiness would then be expected to lower sensible and latent heat flux from the ocean by lowering sea surface temperature, affecting the future development of convective clouds. The sea surface temperature may also change in a local area due to change of ocean circulation in climate change scenarios. Satellite remote sensing is a powerful tool to study tropical and global precipitation distribution. Many physically-based passive-microwave (MW) satellite precipitation algorithms make use of cloud radiation databases (CRDs), which typically consist of microphysical profiles from cloud resolving model (CRMs) and simulated MW brightness temperature (Tb). Thus, it is important to validate Tb simulated by a CRM against the observed Tb. Also, it is important to study how any changes in the tropical clouds due to aerosols and sea surface temperature translate into the precipitation and brightness temperature. The case study chosen is KWAJEX campaign that took place from 23 July to 14 September 1999. Authors have developed microphysical physical framework (Advanced Microphysics Prediction System) to predict ice particle properties explicitly in a CRM (University of Wisconsin-Nonhydrostatic Modeling System) (Hashino and Tripoli, 2007). AMPS also predicts aerosol and liquid spectrum by explicitly resolving sizes. For this study UW-NMS AMPS is set up for 2D simulation with periodic conditions over KWAJEX campaign area with synoptic forcing. The microphysical prediction of AMPS is then validated against in-situ microphysical observations and TRMM TMI measurements. Finally, sensitivity tests to study effects of aerosol properties and sea surface temperature on precipitation rate and Tb are discussed.

  15. Nuclear temperature measurements with helium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniball/Multics Collaboration; Xi, H.; Tsang, M. B.; Huang, M. J.; Lynch, W. G.; Dinius, J. D.; Gaff, S. J.; Gelbke, C. K.; Glasmacher, T.; Kunde, G. J.; Martin, L.; Montoya, C. P.; Azzano, M.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Milazzo, P. M.; Rui, R.; Vannini, G.; Celano, L.; Colonna, N.; Tagliente, G.; D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Fiandri, M. L.; Gramegna, F.; Ferrero, A.; Iori, I.; Moroni, A.; Petruzzelli, F.; Mastinu, P. F.

    1998-07-01

    Temperatures extracted with the family of (3He, 4He) isotope ratio thermometers, THe, have been studied and cross-checked with temperatures, T(4He*) constructed from excited and ground state populations of 4He. Empirical correction factors provide baseline corrections for sequential decay effects for THe<4.5 MeV, independent of projectile, target and incident energies. After corrections for fluctuations due to sequential decay, statistical calculations predict that THe and T(4He*) should agree.

  16. [Variation of apple tree canopy-air temperature difference and its relations to environment factors].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-Song; Gao, Jun; Wang, He-Song; Ren, Qing-Fu

    2007-09-01

    By using portable infrared thermometer, the canopy temperature (Tc) of apple tree in its main growth season was measured in 2002-2005. Combined with the synchronous micro-meteorological data on the canopy, such as net radiation (Rn), wind speed (V), air temperature (Ta) and relative humidity (RH), as well as the soil water content (SW) at 0-80 cm depth, the variation of apple tree canopy-air temperature differential (DeltaT) and its relationships to environmental factor were analyzed. The results showed that from bud stage to fruit-developing stage, there were several peaks in the diurnal curve of DeltaT, with the maximum at 12:00-13:00 in fine days, and the absolute value of DeltaT in fine days was higher than that in overcast days. Based on data of 2003 and 2004, the DeltaT at 14:00 was significantly correlated with the RH, V, Rn, SW in fine days, and the regression equation was DeltaT = 7.159 - 0.002Rn - 0.061V - 0.7RH - 46.0SW (P < 0.01, r = 0.825). The partial coefficient for Rn, RH, V and SW was 0.125, -0.078, -0.036, -0.874, respectively, and the stepwise regression equation was DeltaT = 5.317 - 43.1SW (P < 0.01), suggesting that SW was the most important environmental factor affecting DeltaT. After validated with the measured data in 2002 and 2005, it was found that the measured DeltaT was highly accorded with the simulated one (r = 0.9083, P < 0.01, n = 40), and thus, it was of possibility to use the data of DeltaT at 14:00 in fine days to predict the soil water content in apple orchard. PMID:18062308

  17. Correcting artifacts in transition to a wound optic fiber: Example from high-resolution temperature profiling in the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, Ali; Selker, John; Lensky, Nadav

    2014-06-01

    Spatial resolution fiber-optic cables allow for detailed observation of thermally complex heterogeneous hydrologic systems. A commercially produced high spatial resolution helically wound optic fiber sensing cable is employed in the Dead Sea, in order to study the dynamics of thermal stratification of the hypersaline lake. Structured spatial artifacts were found in the data from the first 10 m of cable (110 m of fiber length) following the transition from straight fiber optic. The Stokes and Anti-Stokes signals indicate that this is the result of differential attenuation, thought to be due to cladding losses. Though the overall spatial form of the loss was consistent, the fine structure of the loss changed significantly in time, and was strongly asymmetrical, and thus was not amenable to standard calibration methods. Employing the fact that the cable was built with a duplex construction, and using high-precision sensors mounted along the cable, it was possible to correct the artifact in space and time, while retaining the high-quality of data obtained in the early part of the cable (prior to significant optical attenuation). The defect could easily be overlooked; however, reanalyzing earlier experiments, we have observed the same issue with installations employing similar cables in Oregon and France, so with this note we both alert the community to this persistent concern and provide an approach to correct the data in case of similar problems.

  18. Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Iron Nuggets Forming in Rotary Hearth Furnace Process at Lower Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hongliang; Duan, Dongping; Chen, Siming; Yuan, Peng

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of slag and iron separation, a new idea of "the separation of slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) in rotary hearth furnace process at lower temperature" is put forward. In this paper, the forming process of iron nuggets has been investigated. Based on those results, the forming mechanisms and influencing factors of iron nugget at low temperature are discussed experimentally using an electric resistance furnace simulating a rotary hearth furnace process. Results show that the reduction of iron ore, carburization of reduced iron, and the composition and quantity of slag are very important for producing iron nuggets at lower temperature. Reduction reaction of carbon-containing pellets is mainly at 1273 K and 1473 K (1000 °C and 1200 °C). When the temperature is above 1473 K (1200 °C), the metallization rate of carbon-containing pellets exceeds 93 pct, and the reduction reaction is substantially complete. Direct carburization is the main method for carburization of reduced iron. This reaction occurs above 1273 K (1000 °C), with carburization degree increasing greatly at 1473 K and 1573 K (1200 °C and 1300 °C) after particular holding times. Besides, to achieve the "slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation," the melting point of the slag phase should be increased. Slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation can be achieved below 1573 K (1300 °C), and when the holding time is 20 minutes, C/O is 0.7, basicity is less than 0.5 and a Na2CO3 level of 3 pct, the recovery rate of iron can reach 90 pct, with a proportion of iron nuggets more than 3.15 mm of nearly 90 pct. This study can provide theoretical and technical basis for iron nugget production.

  19. Do current models correctly predict the L-band terrestrial brightness temperature when crops begin to senesce?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microwave terrestrial brightness temperature is sensitive to soil moisture, the water content of the first few centimeters of Earth's surface. The European Space Agency will soon launch the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, the world's first soil moisture satellite that will measu...

  20. The Retrieval of Ice Water Content from Radar Reflectivity Factor and Temperature and Its Use in Evaluating a Mesoscale Model

    E-print Network

    Hogan, Robin

    The Retrieval of Ice Water Content from Radar Reflectivity Factor and Temperature and Its Use­size relationship is used. The com- parisons spanned radar reflectivity values from 15 to 20 dBZ, ice water contents midlatitude aircraft dataset is then used to derive expressions that relate radar reflectivity and temperature

  1. Environmental factors affecting the low temperature isomerization of homohopanes in acidic peat deposits, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xianyu; Meyers, Philip A.; Xue, Jiantao; Gong, Linfeng; Wang, Xinxin; Xie, Shucheng

    2015-04-01

    Progressively more evidence reveals the abundant occurrence of the C31 homohopane with a 17?, 21?-configuration (C31 ??) in immature peats. This compound is commonly considered to be an indicator of thermal maturity in petroleum source rocks, but in peats it has also been interpreted to reflect the oxidation and subsequent decarboxylation reactions of bacteriohopanepolyols with microbially mediated epimerization at C-17 that is catalyzed by the acidic peat conditions. To learn more about the environmental factors that affect the low-temperature isomerization of homohopanes, we investigated the distribution patterns of homohopanes in a well-studied peat core from the Dajiuhu peatland, central China, together with data from modern surface peat samples from Dajiuhu and three other locations. From comparison with paleotemperature and paleohydrologic records in the peat core, we hypothesize that the ratio of C31 ?? hopane relative to the ?? isomer (C31 ??/??) is mainly influenced on a centennial to millennial timescale by ambient temperature with a secondary effect from redox conditions that are defined by peatland water levels. The surface peat samples revealed that relatively high C31 ??/?? values occurred under pH < 6. These results suggest that pH is indeed an important factor in the low-temperature isomerization of C31 homohopanes, although the magnitude of the pH effect may be less than those of ambient temperature and redox conditions. In both surface peat and peat horizons from the Dajiuhu peatland, the amount of the C31 ?? compound with R configuration relative to that with S configuration (C31 R/S) varied closely with C31 ??/??, suggesting that the epimerization at both C-17 and C-22 may happen synchronously and at similar rates. This study reveals that the isomerization of homohopanes has the potential to reflect paleoenvironmental changes in acidic peat deposits. In addition, acidic peat samples investigated in this and previous studies commonly have relatively high values of C31 ??/?? and C31 R/S, highlighting the potential of homohopane isomers to be tracers of the delivery and deposition of organic matter from acidic settings.

  2. Study of effective carrier lifetime and ideality factor of BPW 21 and BPW 34B photodiodes from above room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalapati, P.; Manik, N. B.; Basu, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we have studied the temperature dependence of two most important characteristics of the photodiodes (BPW 21and BPW 34B), namely, the ideality factor and the carrier lifetime; both of which are found to change significantly at low temperature. The effective carrier lifetime measured by the Open Circuit Voltage Decay method (OCVD) shows a gradual increase in value from 350 K to about 250 K then sharply decreases by about thirty percent of its highest value at liquid nitrogen temperature, the trend being similar for both the devices. The dark forward current-voltage characteristics over the same temperature range yield the value of ideality factor which increases nearly by a factor of three for both the photodiodes at the liquid nitrogen temperature. The nature of variation of both the parameters has been qualitatively accounted for in terms of the recent tunneling models. The data generated for the first time for the devices and their broad theoretical understanding will help to improve design and application of the photodiodes, particularly at low temperature.

  3. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW). One of the radionuclides emitted that would affect the radiation dose was iodine-131. This report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  4. Correction of temperature and bulk electrical conductivity effects on dielectric permittivity measurements using ECH2O EC-5, TE and 5TE sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, U.; Bogena, H. R.; Huisman, J. A.; Vrba, J.; Vereecken, H.

    2009-12-01

    For a monitoring of dynamic spatiotemporal soil moisture patterns at the catchment scale, automated and continuously measuring systems that provide spatial coverage and high temporal resolution are needed. Promising techniques like wireless sensor networks (e.g. SoilNet) have to integrate sensors that are able to measure dielectric permittivity accurately as the first step to an accurate soil water content determination. The measurement accuracy of low-budget electromagnetic soil water content sensors operating at a low frequency range (e.g. < 100 MHz) is often deteriorated by temperature and bulk electrical conductivity effects. The objective of this study is to derive correction functions for such temperature and bulk electrical conductivity effects on the electric circuitry of ECH2O EC-5, TE and 5TE sensors. We used dielectric standard liquids (2-isopropoxyethanol- and dioxane-dionized water mixtures) for two different laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the temperatures of eight standard liquids with permittivities ranging from 7 to 42 were varied from 5 to 40° C. The apparent ECH2O sensor permittivity Ka was estimated by applying sensor-specific sensor response-permittivity relationships. The reference static permittivity ?s as a function of temperature was obtained by curve fitting of the Cole-Cole model to open-ended coaxial probe measurements. The difference between the sensor and reference permittivity is due to temperature effects on the sensor circuitry (?Ka). In the second experiment, the apparent ECH2O sensor permittivity as a function of bulk electrical conductivity was determined by adding NaCl to the standard liquids. The temperature experiments showed a negative gradient ??s/T that decreased further with the reference permittivity as expected from the higher water content of the high permittivity standard liquids. We found an empirical 2nd order polynomial function that accurately describes the influence of temperature and water/isopropoxyethanol volume fraction on the reference static permittivity. This relationship was used to determine the temperature effects on the sensor circuitry. The highest thermal effect was obtained for a high water volume fraction for low (permittivity underestimation of ~ 3.5) and high temperature (permittivity overestimation of ~ 2.5). This effect was similar for all three probe types. The temperature effects on the sensor circuitry can be approximated with an empirical 3rd order polynomial function. The conductivity experiment suggests that conductivity has a more distinct effect on the sensor circuitry than temperature. The highest permittivity underestimation occurs for high water volume fractions and bulk soil conductivity between 0.8 and 1.5 dS/m (~8 permittivity units for the EC-5, 5TE; ~16 permittivity units for the TE). The effect of conductivity on dielectric permittivity measurements with ECH2O sensors can be described using empirical 3rd order polynomial functions. The use of temperature and bulk electrical conductivity correction functions improves the accuracy of soil water content measurements using the ECH2O sensors.

  5. Activity-based anorexia: ambient temperature has been a neglected factor.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Emilio; Vázquez, Reyes; Boakes, R A

    2002-06-01

    Activity-based anorexia refers to the self-starvation of rats exposed to experimental conditions that combine restricted access to food with access to an activity wheel. This paper compares previous studies of this phenomenon in relation to the ambient temperatures (AT) that were employed. On this basis, and from some more direct evidence, we argue that AT is an important, but neglected, factor in activity-based anorexia research. More attention to AT is needed in future research, since its neglect threatens the validity of conclusions drawn from those studies. Furthermore, direct examination of the effect of AT on activity-based anorexia will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and the possible clinical implications for the treatment of human anorexia nervosa. PMID:12120785

  6. Low temperature resistivity, thermoelectricity, and power factor of Nb doped anatase TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ja?imovi?, J.; Gaál, R.; Magrez, A.; Piatek, J.; Forró, L.; Nakao, S.; Hirose, Y.; Hasegawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The resistivity of a very high quality anatase TiO2 doped with 6% of Nb was measured from 300 K down to 40 mK. No sign of superconductivity was detected. Instead, a minute quantity of cation vacancies resulted in a Kondo scattering. Measurements of thermo-electric power and resistivity were extended up to 600 K. The calculated power factor has a peak value of 14 ?W/(K2cm) at 350 K, which is comparable to that of Bi2Te3 [Venkatasubramanian et al., Nature 413, 597 (2001)], the archetype thermolectrics. Taking the literature value for the thermal conductivity of Nb doped TiO2 thin films, the calculated figure of merit (ZT) is in the range of 0.1 above 300 K. This value is encouraging for further engineering of the material in order to reach ZT of 1 suitable for high temperature thermoelectrics.

  7. Real-time prediction of earthquake ground motion: time evolutional prediction using data assimilation and real-time correction of site amplification factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, M.

    2012-12-01

    In this presentation, I propose a new approach for real-time prediction of seismic ground motion which is applicable to Earthquake Early Waning (EEW). Many methods of EEW are based on a network method in which hypocenter and magnitude (source parameters) are quickly determined (that is, interpretation of current wavefield), and then the ground motions are predicted, and warnings are issued depending on the strength of the predicted ground motion. In this method, though we can predict ground motions using a few parameters (location of hypocenter, magnitude, site factors) at any points, it is necessary to determine the hypocenter and magnitude at first, and error of the source parameters leads directly to the error of the prediction. It is not easy to take the effects of rupture directivity and source extent into account, and it is impossible to fully reproduce the current wavefield from the interpreted source parameters. In general, wave motion is predictable when boundary condition and initial condition are given. Time evolutional prediction is a method based on this approach using the current wavefield as an initial condition, that is u(x, t+?t)=H(u(x, t)), where u is the wave motion at location x at lapse time t, and H is the prediction operator. Future wave motion, u(x, t+?t), is predicted from the distribution of the current wave motion u(x, t) using H. For H, finite difference technique or boundary integral equation method, such as Kirchhoff integral, is used. In the time evolutional prediction, determination of detailed distribution of current wave motion is a key, so that dense seismic observation network is required. Data assimilation is a technique to produce artificially denser network, which is widely used for numerical weather prediction and oceanography. Distribution of current wave motion is estimated from not only the current real observation of u(x, t), but also the prediction of one step before, H(u(x, t-?t)). Combination of them produces denser artificial network than the real one. Data assimilation is a powerful technique for time evolutional prediction. In seismology and earthquake engineering, however, site amplification factors should be corrected beforehand for applying the data assimilation. A method is proposed in which the frequency dependent site factor can be corrected in real time. The site factor is represented by the causal filter in time domain which is estimated from bilinear transform and warping methods in digital filtering technique. Using the causal filter, the site amplification factor is corrected in real time manner. Instead of rapid estimation of hypocentral location and M, time evolutional prediction is a powerful method for real-time prediction of ground motion for EEW, which is applicable even for cases of strong rupture directivity and large source extent. Techniques of data assimilation and real time correction of site amplification factors will be applied for the time evolutional prediction. An example of the real time correction of site factors is presented using data from borehole seismometer (depth: 500m) in the Kanto region.

  8. Daily and Interannual Variability of Air Temperature and Precipitation As Agricultural Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourkova, G.; Pona, C.

    The problem investigated concerns wheat growing process sensitivity to the changes in climate variability. For the sensitivity analysis five CERES-model runs are held for three stations in Italy: Decimomannu (Sardinia), Brindisi (Apulia) and Ghedi (Padana valley, Veneto). The only difference between these five experiments for each station is a weather input. All five weather inputs for each location are simulated by weather generator WXGEN. First run ("base") is forced by weather input having tempera- ture and precipitation variance equal to the present-day values (1960-1990). Then two crop simulations are made with changed "base" interannual variance of monthly to- tal precipitation by multiplicative factors 0.5 and 2. Temperature variability remains unchanged. Last two model runs are carried out with daily halved and doubled temper- ature variance, precipitation variability is the same as in "base" simulation. Investiga- tion showed that doubled precipitation variability is accompanied at all three locations by the largest amounts of yield variability for all five scenarios. Decreased precipi- tation variability is followed by yield decline and, at the same time the amplitude of yield change is the least compared with other forcings. Decreasing of precipitation variability results in noticeably raised harvest index for the years of minimum yield. For Decimomannu and Brindisi it is almost equal to that of the maximum yield years. In general, more significantly expressed response of the yield amounts occurs for pre- cipitation variability forcings. The influence of temperature variability changes seems to be less for all three locations.

  9. Adaptation of Extremophilic Proteins with Temperature and Pressure: Evidence from Initiation Factor 6.

    PubMed

    Calligari, Paolo A; Calandrini, Vania; Ollivier, Jacques; Artero, Jean-Baptiste; Härtlein, Michael; Johnson, Mark; Kneller, Gerald R

    2015-06-25

    In this work, we study dynamical properties of an extremophilic protein, Initiation Factor 6 (IF6), produced by the archeabacterium Methanocaldococcus jannascii, which thrives close to deep-sea hydrothermal vents where temperatures reach 80 °C and the pressure is up to 750 bar. Molecular dynamics simulations (MD) and quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements give new insights into the dynamical properties of this protein with respect to its eukaryotic and mesophilic homologue. Results obtained by MD are supported by QENS data and are interpreted within the framework of a fractional Brownian dynamics model for the characterization of protein relaxation dynamics. IF6 from M. jannaschii at high temperature and pressure shares similar flexibility with its eukaryotic homologue from S. cerevisieae under ambient conditions. This work shows for the first time, to our knowledge, that the very common pattern of corresponding states for thermophilic protein adaptation can be extended to thermo-barophilic proteins. A detailed analysis of dynamic properties and of local structural fluctuations reveals a complex pattern for "corresponding" structural flexibilities. In particular, in the case of IF6, the latter seems to be strongly related to the entropic contribution given by an additional, C-terminal, 20 amino-acid tail which is evolutionary conserved in all mesophilic IF6s. PMID:25996652

  10. A regional extreme low temperature event and its main atmospheric contributing factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhiqiang; Feng, Guolin; Ren, Fumin; Li, Jianping

    2014-07-01

    The regional extreme low temperature event from December 30, 2010 to February 2, 2011 was a very rare and protracted cold event with the largest integrated index ( Z) since 1979. Two meteorological factors could be responsible for this extreme winter event. First, a persistent blocking pattern existed in the mid-latitudes. This not only allowed cold air to persist in southern China but also enabled each perturbation from the west propagating around the blocking high to trigger downstream cold air intrusions from the north. Second, the consistently downward negative Arctic Oscillation (AO) was favorable for the eastward moving of Rossby waves in middle latitudes, which made the upper reaches positive center in SLP and negative center in Z500 move to East Asia. This stable and consistent situation favored the polar area cold air invasion to the mid-latitude region. Of these two factors, the blocking pattern was likely to be the direct cause, the co-effects of consistently strong downward negative AO from the stratosphere, and the corresponding eastward moving wave train in Z500 and SLP might be the prophase teleconnection culprit.

  11. Correction factors for the ISO rod phantom, a cylinder phantom, and the ICRU sphere for reference beta radiation fields of the BSS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, R.

    2015-03-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) requires in its standard ISO 6980 that beta reference radiation fields for radiation protection be calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to tissue at a depth of 0.07 mm in a slab phantom (30 cm x 30 cm x 15 cm). However, many beta dosemeters are ring dosemeters and are, therefore, irradiated on a rod phantom (1.9 cm in diameter and 30 cm long), or they are eye dosemeters possibly irradiated on a cylinder phantom (20 cm in diameter and 20 cm high), or area dosemeters irradiated free in air with the conventional quantity value (true value) being defined in a sphere (30 cm in diameter, made of ICRU tissue (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)). Therefore, the correction factors for the conventional quantity value in the rod, the cylinder, and the sphere instead of the slab (all made of ICRU tissue) were calculated for the radiation fields of 147Pm, 85Kr, 90Sr/90Y, and, 106Ru/106Rh sources of the beta secondary standard BSS 2 developed at PTB. All correction factors were calculated for 0° up to 75° (in steps of 15°) radiation incidence. The results are ready for implementation in ISO 6980-3 and have recently been (partly) implemented in the software of the BSS 2.

  12. ECOC comparison exercise with identical thermal protocols after temperature offset correction - instrument diagnostics by in-depth evaluation of operational parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panteliadis, P.; Hafkenscheid, T.; Cary, B.; Diapouli, E.; Fischer, A.; Favez, O.; Quincey, P.; Viana, M.; Hitzenberger, R.; Vecchi, R.; Saraga, D.; Sciare, J.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; John, A.; Schwarz, J.; Giannoni, M.; Novak, J.; Karanasiou, A.; Fermo, P.; Maenhaut, W.

    2015-02-01

    A comparison exercise on thermal-optical elemental carbon/organic carbon (ECOC) analysers was carried out among 17 European laboratories. Contrary to previous comparison exercises, the 17 participants made use of an identical instrument set-up, after correcting for temperature offsets with the application of a recently developed temperature calibration kit (Sunset Laboratory Inc, OR, US). Temperature offsets reported by participants ranged from -93 to +100 °C per temperature step. Five filter samples and two sucrose solutions were analysed with both the EUSAAR2 and NIOSH870 thermal protocols. z scores were calculated for total carbon (TC); nine outliers and three stragglers were identified. Three outliers and eight stragglers were found for EC. Overall, the participants provided results between the warning levels with the exception of two laboratories that showed poor performance, the causes of which were identified and corrected through the course of the comparison exercise. The TC repeatability and reproducibility (expressed as relative standard deviations) were 11 and 15% for EUSAAR2 and 9.2 and 12% for NIOSH870; the standard deviations for EC were 15 and 20% for EUSAAR2 and 20 and 26% for NIOSH870. TC was in good agreement between the two protocols, TCNIOSH870 = 0.98 × TCEUSAAR2 (R2 = 1.00, robust means). Transmittance (TOT) calculated EC for NIOSH870 was found to be 20% lower than for EUSAAR2, ECNIOSH870 = 0.80 × ECEUSAAR2 (R2 = 0.96, robust means). The thermograms and laser signal values were compared and similar peak patterns were observed per sample and protocol for most participants. Notable deviations from the typical patterns indicated either the absence or inaccurate application of the temperature calibration procedure and/or pre-oxidation during the inert phase of the analysis. Low or zero pyrolytic organic carbon (POC), as reported by a few participants, is suggested as an indicator of an instrument-specific pre-oxidation. A sample-specific pre-oxidation effect was observed for filter G, for all participants and both thermal protocols, indicating the presence of oxygen donors on the suspended particulate matter. POC (TOT) levels were lower for NIOSH870 than for EUSAAR2, which is related to the heating profile differences of the two thermal protocols.

  13. Arterial to end-tidal Pco2 difference during exercise in normoxia and severe acute hypoxia: importance of blood temperature correction.

    PubMed

    Losa-Reyna, José; Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Henriquez, Juan José González; Calbet, José A L

    2015-10-01

    Negative arterial to end-tidal pco2 differences ((a-ET)pco2) have been reported in normoxia. To determine the influence of blood temperature on (a-ET)pco2, 11 volunteers (21 ± 2 years) performed incremental exercise to exhaustion in normoxia (Nx, Pio2: 143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, Pio2: 73 mmHg), while arterial blood gases and temperature (ABT) were simultaneously measured together with end-tidal pco2 (PE tco2). After accounting for blood temperature, the (a-ET) pco2 was reduced (in absolute values) from -4.2 ± 1.6 to -1.1 ± 1.5 mmHg in normoxia and from -1.7 ± 1.6 to 0.9 ± 0.9 mmHg in hypoxia (both P < 0.05). The temperature corrected (a-ET)pco2 was linearly related with absolute and relative exercise intensity, VO2, VCO2, and respiratory rate (RR) in normoxia and hypoxia (R(2): 0.52-0.59). Exercise CO2 production and PE tco2 values were lower in hypoxia than normoxia, likely explaining the greater (less negative) (a-ET)pco2 difference in hypoxia than normoxia (P < 0.05). At near-maximal exercise intensity the (a-ET)pco2 lies close to 0 mmHg, that is, the mean Paco2 and the mean PE tco2 are similar. The mean exercise (a-ET)pco2 difference is closely related to the mean A-aDO2 difference (r = 0.90, P < 0.001), as would be expected if similar mechanisms perturb the gas exchange of O2 and CO2 during exercise. In summary, most of the negative (a-ET)pco2 values observed in previous studies are due to lack of correction of Paco2 for blood temperature. The absolute magnitude of the (a-ET)pco2 difference is lower during exercise in hypoxia than normoxia. PMID:26508736

  14. Arterial to end-tidal Pco2 difference during exercise in normoxia and severe acute hypoxia: importance of blood temperature correction

    PubMed Central

    Losa-Reyna, José; Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Henriquez, Juan José González; Calbet, José A L

    2015-01-01

    Negative arterial to end-tidal Pco2 differences ((a-ET)Pco2) have been reported in normoxia. To determine the influence of blood temperature on (a-ET)Pco2, 11 volunteers (21 ± 2 years) performed incremental exercise to exhaustion in normoxia (Nx, PIo2: 143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIo2: 73 mmHg), while arterial blood gases and temperature (ABT) were simultaneously measured together with end-tidal Pco2 (PETco2). After accounting for blood temperature, the (a-ET) Pco2 was reduced (in absolute values) from ?4.2 ± 1.6 to ?1.1 ± 1.5 mmHg in normoxia and from ?1.7 ± 1.6 to 0.9 ± 0.9 mmHg in hypoxia (both P < 0.05). The temperature corrected (a-ET)Pco2 was linearly related with absolute and relative exercise intensity, VO2, VCO2, and respiratory rate (RR) in normoxia and hypoxia (R2: 0.52–0.59). Exercise CO2 production and PETco2 values were lower in hypoxia than normoxia, likely explaining the greater (less negative) (a-ET)Pco2 difference in hypoxia than normoxia (P < 0.05). At near-maximal exercise intensity the (a-ET)Pco2 lies close to 0 mmHg, that is, the mean Paco2 and the mean PETco2 are similar. The mean exercise (a-ET)Pco2 difference is closely related to the mean A-aDO2 difference (r = 0.90, P < 0.001), as would be expected if similar mechanisms perturb the gas exchange of O2 and CO2 during exercise. In summary, most of the negative (a-ET)Pco2 values observed in previous studies are due to lack of correction of Paco2 for blood temperature. The absolute magnitude of the (a-ET)Pco2 difference is lower during exercise in hypoxia than normoxia. PMID:26508736

  15. Factors influencing bacterial dynamics along a transect from supraglacial runoff to proglacial lakes of a high Arctic glacier [corrected].

    PubMed

    Mindl, Birgit; Anesio, Alexandre M; Meirer, Katrin; Hodson, Andrew J; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Sommaruga, Ruben; Sattler, Birgit

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial production in glacial runoff and aquatic habitats along a c. 500 m transect from the ablation area of a Svalbard glacier (Midre Lovénbreen, 79 degrees N, 12 degrees E) down to a series of proglacial lakes in its forefield were assessed. In addition, a series of in situ experiments were conducted to test how different nutrient sources (glacial flour and dissolved organic matter derived from goose faeces) and temperature affect bacterial abundance and production in these ecosystems. Bacterial abundance and production increased significantly along this transect and reached a maximum in the proglacial lakes. Bacterial diversity profiles as assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis indicated that communities in glacial runoff were different from those in proglacial lakes. Heterotrophic bacterial production was mainly controlled by temperature and phosphorus limitation. Addition of both glacial flour and dissolved organic matter derived from goose faeces stimulated bacterial production in those lakes. The results suggest that glacial runoff sustains an active bacterial community which is further stimulated in proglacial lakes by higher temperatures and nutrient inputs from bird faeces. Thus, as in maritime temperate and Antarctic settings, bacterial communities developing in the recently deglaciated terrain of Svalbard receive important inputs of nutrients via faunal transfers from adjacent ecosystems. PMID:17313580

  16. Small fields output factors measurements and correction factors determination for several detectors for a CyberKnife{sup Registered-Sign} and linear accelerators equipped with microMLC and circular cones

    SciTech Connect

    Bassinet, C.; Huet, C.; Derreumaux, S.; Baumann, M.; Trompier, F.; Roch, P.; Clairand, I.; Brunet, G.; Gaudaire-Josset, S.; Chea, M.; Boisserie, G.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The use of small photon fields is now an established practice in stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy. However, due to a lack of lateral electron equilibrium and high dose gradients, it is difficult to accurately measure the dosimetric quantities required for the commissioning of such systems. Moreover, there is still no metrological dosimetric reference for this kind of beam today. In this context, the first objective of this work was to determine and to compare small fields output factors (OF) measured with different types of active detectors and passive dosimeters for three types of facilities: a CyberKnife{sup Registered-Sign} system, a dedicated medical linear accelerator (Novalis) equipped with m3 microMLC and circular cones, and an adaptive medical linear accelerator (Clinac 2100) equipped with an additional m3 microMLC. The second one was to determine the k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors introduced in a recently proposed small field dosimetry formalism for different active detectors.Methods: Small field sizes were defined either by microMLC down to 6 Multiplication-Sign 6 mm{sup 2} or by circular cones down to 4 mm in diameter. OF measurements were performed with several commercially available active detectors dedicated to measurements in small fields (high resolution diodes: IBA SFD, Sun Nuclear EDGE, PTW 60016, PTW 60017; ionizing chambers: PTW 31014 PinPoint chamber, PTW 31018 microLion liquid chamber, and PTW 60003 natural diamond). Two types of passive dosimeters were used: LiF microcubes and EBT2 radiochromic films.Results: Significant differences between the results obtained by several dosimetric systems were observed, particularly for the smallest field size for which the difference in the measured OF reaches more than 20%. For passive dosimeters, an excellent agreement was observed (better than 2%) between EBT2 and LiF microcubes for all OF measurements. Moreover, it has been shown that these passive dosimeters do not require correction factors and can then be used as reference dosimeters. Correction factors for the active detectors have then been determined from the mean experimental OF measured by the passive dosimeters.Conclusions: Four sets of correction factors needed to apply the new small field dosimetry formalism are provided for several active detectors. A protocol for small photon beams OF determination based on passive dosimeters measurements has been recently proposed to French radiotherapy treatment centers.

  17. Correction of systematic model forcing bias of CLM using assimilation of cosmic-ray neutrons and land surface temperature: a study in the Heihe catchment, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Rosolem, R.; Jin, R.; Li, X.; Vereecken, H.

    2014-07-01

    The recent development of the non-invasive cosmic-ray soil moisture sensing technique fills the gap between point scale soil moisture measurements and regional scale soil moisture measurements by remote sensing. A cosmic-ray probe measures soil moisture for a footprint with a diameter of ~600 m (at sea level) and with an effective measurement depth between 12 and 76 cm, depending on the soil humidity. In this study, it was tested whether neutron counts also allow to correct for a systematic error in the model forcings. Lack of water management data often cause systematic input errors to land surface models. Here, the assimilation procedure was tested for an irrigated corn field (Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research - HiWATER, 2012) where no irrigation data were available as model input although the area a significant amount of water was irrigated. Measured cosmic-ray neutron counts and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) products were jointly assimilated into the Community Land Model (CLM) with the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter. Different data assimilation scenarios were evaluated, with assimilation of LST and/or cosmic-ray neutron counts, and possibly parameter estimation of leaf area index (LAI). The results show that the direct assimilation of cosmic-ray neutron counts can improve the soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET) estimation significantly, correcting for lack of information on irrigation amounts. The joint assimilation of neutron counts and LST could improve further the ET estimation, but the information content of neutron counts exceeded the one of LST. Additional improvement was achieved by calibrating LAI, which after calibration was also closer to independent field measurements. It was concluded that assimilation of neutron counts was useful for ET and soil moisture estimation even if the model has a systematic bias like neglecting irrigation. However, also the assimilation of LST helped to correct the systematic model bias introduced by neglecting irrigation and LST could be used to update soil moisture with state augmentation.

  18. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C; Tang, Lixin; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L; Miller , John M.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  19. EMRI corrections to the angular velocity and redshift factor of a mass in circular orbit about a Kerr black hole

    E-print Network

    Abhay G. Shah; John L. Friedman; Tobias S. Keidl

    2012-09-26

    This is the first of two papers on computing the self-force in a radiation gauge for a particle moving in circular, equatorial orbit about a Kerr black hole. In the EMRI (extreme-mass-ratio inspiral) framework, with mode-sum renormalization, we compute the renormalized value of the quantity $h_{\\alpha\\beta}u^\\alpha u^\\beta$, gauge-invariant under gauge transformations generated by a helically symmetric gauge vector; and we find the related order $\\frak{m}$ correction to the particle's angular velocity at fixed renormalized redshift (and to its redshift at fixed angular velocity). The radiative part of the perturbed metric is constructed from the Hertz potential which is extracted from the Weyl scalar by an algebraic inversion\\cite{sf2}. We then write the spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics as a sum over spin-weighted spherical harmonics and use mode-sum renormalization to find the renormalization coefficients by matching a series in $L=\\ell+1/2$ to the large-$L$ behavior of the expression for $H := \\frac12 h_{\\alpha\\beta}u^\\alpha u^\\beta $. The non-radiative parts of the perturbed metric associated with changes in mass and angular momentum are calculated in the Kerr gauge.

  20. Two-Dimensional Thermal Boundary Layer Corrections for Convective Heat Flux Gauges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Haddad, George

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) study of two-dimensional thermal boundary layer correction factors for convective heat flux gauges mounted in flat plate subjected to a surface temperature discontinuity with variable properties taken into account. A two-equation k - omega turbulence model is considered. Results are obtained for a wide range of Mach numbers (1 to 5), gauge radius ratio, and wall temperature discontinuity. Comparisons are made for correction factors with constant properties and variable properties. It is shown that the variable-property effects on the heat flux correction factors become significant

  1. High-Temperature Protein G Is an Essential Virulence Factor of Leptospira interrogans

    PubMed Central

    King, Amy M.; Pretre, Gabriela; Bartpho, Thanatchaporn; Sermswan, Rasana W.; Toma, Claudia; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Eshghi, Azad; Picardeau, Mathieu; Murray, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans is a global zoonotic pathogen and is the causative agent of leptospirosis, an endemic disease of humans and animals worldwide. There is limited understanding of leptospiral pathogenesis; therefore, further elucidation of the mechanisms involved would aid in vaccine development and the prevention of infection. HtpG (high-temperature protein G) is the bacterial homolog to the highly conserved molecular chaperone Hsp90 and is important in the stress responses of many bacteria. The specific role of HtpG, especially in bacterial pathogenesis, remains largely unknown. Through the use of an L. interrogans htpG transposon insertion mutant, this study demonstrates that L. interrogans HtpG is essential for virulence in the hamster model of acute leptospirosis. Complementation of the htpG mutant completely restored virulence. Surprisingly, the htpG mutant did not appear to show sensitivity to heat or oxidative stress, phenotypes common in htpG mutants in other bacterial species. Furthermore, the mutant did not show increased sensitivity to serum complement, reduced survival within macrophages, or altered protein or lipopolysaccharide expression. The underlying cause for attenuation thus remains unknown, but HtpG is a novel leptospiral virulence factor and one of only a very small number identified to date. PMID:24366253

  2. Evaluation of Wall Correction Factor of INER's Air-Kerma Primary Standard Chamber and Dose Variation by Source Displacement for HDR 192Ir Brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. H.; Wang, J. N.; Huang, T. T.; Su, S. H.; Chang, B. J.; Su, C. H.; Hsu, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the wall effect of the self-made spherical graphite-walled cavity chamber with the Monte Carlo method for establishing the air-kerma primary standard of high-dose-rate (HDR) 192Ir brachytherapy sources at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER, Taiwan). The Monte Carlo method established in this paper was also employed to respectively simulate wall correction factors of the 192Ir air-kerma standard chambers used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, UK) for comparisons and verification. The chamber wall correction calculation results will be incorporated into INER's HDR 192Ir primary standard in the future. For the brachytherapy treatment in the esophagus or in the bronchi, the position of the isotope may have displacement in the cavity. Thus the delivered dose would differ from the prescribed dose in the treatment plan. We also tried assessing dose distribution due to the position displacement of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy source in a phantom with a central cavity by the Monte Carlo method. The calculated results could offer a clinical reference for the brachytherapy within the human organs with cavity. PMID:24222907

  3. Finite element analysis of the penetration depth/tip radius ratio dependence on the correction factor ? in instrumented indentation of elastic-plastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbes, F.; Troyon, M.; Meza, J. M.; Potiron, S.

    2010-06-01

    Measurements of mechanical properties by instrumented indentation rely heavily upon the relationship between the unloading contact stiffness, Su, the projected contact area, Ac, and the reduced modulus, Er. This relationship is written in the form Su = 2?Er(Ac/?)1/2, where ? is a correction factor that depends on the material properties, the geometry of the indenter and also the penetration depth. Most of the time a constant value of ? is used in experimental measurements, either 1.0 or a value around 1.05, which is not correct since ? strongly depends on the penetration depth as demonstrated by finite element calculations (FEC) on purely elastic materials and also experimentally on the fused quartz, which is the usual sample used for calibration of the contact area function. Here, the dependence of ? on the penetration depth and tip blunting is studied by FEC in the case of elastic-plastic materials generally encountered in engineering. The consequence of not taking into account the influence of ? on hardness and elastic modulus measurements is also investigated.

  4. Spatial downscaling and correction of precipitation and temperature time series to high resolution hydrological response units in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Precipitation is the central driving force of most hydrological processes, and is also the most variable element of the hydrological cycle. As the precipitation to runoff ratio is non-linear, errors in precipitation estimations are amplified in streamflow simulations. Therefore, the accurate estimate of areal precipitation is essential for watershed models and relevant impacts studies. A procedure is presented to demonstrate the spatial distribution of daily precipitation and temperature estimates across the Rocky Mountains within the framework of the ACRU agro-hydrological modelling system (ACRU). ACRU (Schulze, 1995) is a physical-conceptual, semi-distributed hydrological modelling system designed to be responsive to changes in land use and climate. The model has been updated to include specific high-mountain and cold climate routines and is applied to simulate impacts of land cover and climate change on the hydrological behaviour of numerous Rocky Mountain watersheds in Alberta, Canada. Both air temperature and precipitation time series need to be downscaled to hydrological response units (HRUs), as they are the spatial modelling units for the model. The estimation of accurate daily air temperatures is critical for the separation of rain and snow. The precipitation estimation procedure integrates a spatially distributed daily precipitation database for the period 1950 to 2010 at a scale of 10 by 10 km with a 1971-2000 climate normal database available at 2 by 2 km (PRISM). Resulting daily precipitation time series are further downscaled to the spatial resolution of hydrological response units, defined by 100 m elevation bands, land cover, and solar radiation, which have an average size of about 15 km2. As snow measurements are known to have a potential under-catch of up to 40%, further adjustment of snowfall may need to be increased using a procedure by Richter (1995). Finally, precipitation input to HRUs with slopes steeper than 10% need to be further corrected, because the true, sloped area, has a larger area than the planimetric area derived from a GIS. The omission of correcting for sloped areas would result in incorrect calculations of interception volumes, soil moisture storages, groundwater recharge rates, actual evapotranspiration volumes, and runoff coefficients. Daily minimum and maximum air temperatures are estimated for each HRU by downscaling the 10km time series to the HRUs by (a) applying monthly mean lapse rates, estimated either from surrounding climate stations or from the PRISM climate normal dataset in combination with a digital elevation model, (b) adjusting further for aspect of the HRU based on monthly mean incoming solar radiation, and (c) adjusting for canopy cover using the monthly mean leaf area indices. Precipitation estimates can be verified using independent snow water equivalent measurements derived from snow pillow or snow course observations, while temperature estimates are verified against either independent temperature measurements from climate stations, or from fire observation towers.

  5. Metabolic shift in liver: Correlation between perfusion temperature and hypoxia inducible factor-1?

    PubMed Central

    Ferrigno, Andrea; Di Pasqua, Laura Giuseppina; Bianchi, Alberto; Richelmi, Plinio; Vairetti, Mariapia

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study at what temperature the oxygen carried by the perfusate meets liver requirements in a model of organ perfusion. METHODS: In this study, we correlated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1? expression to the perfusion temperature and the hepatic oxygen uptake in a model of isolated perfused rat liver. Livers from Wistar rats were perfused for 6 h with an oxygenated medium at 10, 20, 30 and 37?°C. Oxygen uptake was measured by an oxygen probe; lactate dehydrogenase activity, lactate release and glycogen were measured spectrophotometrically; bile flow was gravitationally determined; pH of the perfusate was also evaluated; HIF-1? mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by real time-polymerase chain reaction and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Livers perfused at 10 and 20?°C showed no difference in lactate dehydrogenase release after 6 h of perfusion (0.96 ± 0.23 vs 0.93 ± 0.09 mU/min per g) and had lower hepatic damage as compared to 30 and 37?°C (5.63 ± 0.76 vs 527.69 ± 45.27 mU/min per g, respectively, Ps < 0.01). After 6 h, tissue ATP was significantly higher in livers perfused at 10 and 20?°C than in livers perfused at 30 and 37?°C (0.89 ± 0.06 and 1.16 ± 0.05 vs 0.57 ± 0.09 and 0.33 ± 0.08 nmol/mg, respectively, Ps < 0.01). No sign of hypoxia was observed at 10 and 20?°C, as highlighted by low lactate release respect to livers perfused at 30 and 37?°C (121.4 ± 12.6 and 146.3 ± 7.3 vs 281.8 ± 45.3 and 1094.5 ± 71.7 nmol/mL, respectively, Ps < 0.02), and low relative HIF-1? mRNA (0.40 ± 0.08 and 0.20 ± 0.03 vs 0.60 ± 0.20 and 1.47 ± 0.30, respectively, Ps < 0.05) and protein (3.72 ± 0.16 and 3.65 ± 0.06 vs 4.43 ± 0.41 and 6.44 ± 0.82, respectively, Ps < 0.05) expression. CONCLUSION: Livers perfused at 10 and 20?°C show no sign of liver injury or anaerobiosis, in contrast to livers perfused at 30 and 37?°C. PMID:25632183

  6. 674 BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES FACTORS GOVERNING THE TEMPERATURE OF THE

    E-print Network

    the temperature of the water that enters the gulffrom the several sources enumerated below (p. 854), warming temperature. This last statement rests on the fact that the capacity of sea water for heat (technically its salinity as 0.939and that of water of 35 per mille salinity as 0.932, both at 17.6° temperature, taking

  7. Influence of sky view factor on outdoor thermal environment and physiological equivalent temperature.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaodong; Miao, Shiguang; Shen, Shuanghe; Li, Ju; Zhang, Benzhi; Zhang, Ziyue; Chen, Xiujie

    2015-03-01

    Sky view factor (SVF), which is an indicator of urban canyon geometry, affects the surface energy balance, local air circulation, and outdoor thermal comfort. This study focused on a continuous and long-term meteorological observation system to investigate the effects of SVF on outdoor thermal conditions and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) in the central business district (CBD) of Beijing (which is located within Chaoyang District), specifically addressed current knowledge gaps for SVF-PET relationships in cities with typical continental/microthermal climates. An urban sub-domain scale model and the RayMan model were used to diagnose wind fields and to calculate SVF and long-term PET, respectively. Analytical results show that the extent of shading contributes to variations in thermal perception distribution. Highly shaded areas (SVF <0.3) typically exhibit less frequent hot conditions during summer, while enduring longer periods of cold discomfort in winter than moderately shaded areas (0.3< SVF <0.5) and slightly shaded areas (SVF >0.5), and vice versa. Because Beijing has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate with hot summers and long, cold, windy, and dry winters, a design project that ideally provides moderate shading should be planned to balance hot discomfort in summer and cold discomfort in winter, which effectively prolongs the comfort periods in outdoor spaces throughout the entire year. This research indicate that climate zone characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and thermal comfort requirements of residents must be accounted for in local-scale scientific planning and design, i.e., for urban canyon streets and residential estates. PMID:24842520

  8. Influence of sky view factor on outdoor thermal environment and physiological equivalent temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaodong; Miao, Shiguang; Shen, Shuanghe; Li, Ju; Zhang, Benzhi; Zhang, Ziyue; Chen, Xiujie

    2015-03-01

    Sky view factor (SVF), which is an indicator of urban canyon geometry, affects the surface energy balance, local air circulation, and outdoor thermal comfort. This study focused on a continuous and long-term meteorological observation system to investigate the effects of SVF on outdoor thermal conditions and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) in the central business district (CBD) of Beijing (which is located within Chaoyang District), specifically addressed current knowledge gaps for SVF-PET relationships in cities with typical continental/microthermal climates. An urban sub-domain scale model and the RayMan model were used to diagnose wind fields and to calculate SVF and long-term PET, respectively. Analytical results show that the extent of shading contributes to variations in thermal perception distribution. Highly shaded areas (SVF <0.3) typically exhibit less frequent hot conditions during summer, while enduring longer periods of cold discomfort in winter than moderately shaded areas (0.3< SVF <0.5) and slightly shaded areas (SVF >0.5), and vice versa. Because Beijing has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate with hot summers and long, cold, windy, and dry winters, a design project that ideally provides moderate shading should be planned to balance hot discomfort in summer and cold discomfort in winter, which effectively prolongs the comfort periods in outdoor spaces throughout the entire year. This research indicate that climate zone characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and thermal comfort requirements of residents must be accounted for in local-scale scientific planning and design, i.e., for urban canyon streets and residential estates.

  9. Correction of systematic model forcing bias of CLM using assimilation of cosmic-ray Neutrons and land surface temperature: a study in the Heihe Catchment, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, X.; Franssen, H.-J. H.; Rosolem, R.; Jin, R.; Li, X.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of the non-invasive cosmic-ray soil moisture sensing technique fills the gap between point-scale soil moisture measurements and regional-scale soil moisture measurements by remote sensing. A cosmic-ray probe measures soil moisture for a footprint with a diameter of ~ 600 m (at sea level) and with an effective measurement depth between 12 and 76 cm, depending on the soil humidity. In this study, it was tested whether neutron counts also allow correcting for a systematic error in the model forcings. A lack of water management data often causes systematic input errors to land surface models. Here, the assimilation procedure was tested for an irrigated corn field (Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research - HiWATER, 2012) where no irrigation data were available as model input although for the area a significant amount of water was irrigated. In the study, the measured cosmic-ray neutron counts and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) products were jointly assimilated into the Community Land Model (CLM) with the local ensemble transform Kalman filter. Different data assimilation scenarios were evaluated, with assimilation of LST and/or cosmic-ray neutron counts, and possibly parameter estimation of leaf area index (LAI). The results show that the direct assimilation of cosmic-ray neutron counts can improve the soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET) estimation significantly, correcting for lack of information on irrigation amounts. The joint assimilation of neutron counts and LST could improve further the ET estimation, but the information content of neutron counts exceeded the one of LST. Additional improvement was achieved by calibrating LAI, which after calibration was also closer to independent field measurements. It was concluded that assimilation of neutron counts was useful for ET and soil moisture estimation even if the model has a systematic bias like neglecting irrigation. However, also the assimilation of LST helped to correct the systematic model bias introduced by neglecting irrigation and LST could be used to update soil moisture with state augmentation.

  10. An improved temperature index model for alpine glaciers using derived degree-day factors from climatic inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, D. G.; Havens, A. P.; Rupper, S.; Christensen, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    Glacier melt rates are strongly affected by minor perturbations in climatic systems. Quantifying changes in glacier melt rates is therefore important, particularly in areas where melt-water contributes to hydroelectric power generation, irrigation, or flood risks. Several methods currently exist for modeling glacier melt rates, but one widely used method is temperature index modeling, also called positive degree-day modeling. This model is often applied due to its simplicity and small number of input variables, but it still depends on an empirically-measured scaling constant (the degree-day factor). These degree-day factors can vary by a factor of five from one glacier to the next, complicating the applicability of the approach to new regions, or to different time periods. Previous work suggests the degree-day factor may be a function of the surface albedo, solar radiation, and near-surface air temperature. Thus, it is possible the degree-day factor itself is predictable. In this study we present a method to derive these melt factors directly from easily obtained climatic variables, thus allowing for the ready application of temperature index modeling to a much wider suite of glaciers with greater accuracy. We used a full energy-balance model to calculate possible degree-day factors over the full range of climate conditions commonly encountered with alpine glaciers. We then constructed a statistical emulator (a linear model which considers numerous interactions and polynomial effects) using select climate variables (insolation, positive degree-days, and albedo) as inputs. The statistical model is tuned using the energy-balance output as training data. The model skill will be tested against a suite of empirically-derived degree-day factors. These results would allow for the application of more accurate glacier melt models with quantified uncertainties to under-sampled glacial regions and paleoclimate reconstructions.

  11. Long-term monitoring of hydrogeological activation behaviour of an active landslide system using time-lapse temperature-corrected electrical resistance geophysical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Andrew; Murphy, William; Chambers, Jonathan; Wilkinson, Paul; West, Jared; Uhlemann, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    If the effects of landslides are to be mitigated and avoided then the causes of landslide activations - and re-activations - must be better understood. The most common subsurface property change in the lead up to rainfall-triggered landslide activation is the moisture content of slope material and associated pore water pressure rises and/or consistency changes. If these characteristic subsurface physical properties can be observed in advance of activation then early warning of imminent slope activation may be possible. Recent advances in geoelectrical monitoring techniques reveal that time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a useful tool, capable of observing hillslope hydrogeological processes. However, most previous studies lasted a short time-frame and compared few tomograms. Therefore, a geophysical imaging system through which the progressive wetting of the ground in response to rainfall leading to saturation and then sliding can be observed would seem to be a sensible approach to explore the forecasting of imminent landslide movement. Presented here is the analysis and interpretation of the results of a four and a half year, long-term and high temporal resolution monitoring campaign of a periodically active inland landslide, located in the UK, by a geoelectrical monitoring system called Automated time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ALERT). Time-lapse temperature-corrected transfer resistances reveal that the system responds very well to rises and falls in piezometric level and seasonal trends of soil desiccation during warmer, drier months and crack annealing and soil moisture accumulation in response to wetter periods. The existence of threshold slope moisture contents, and hence electrical resistances, above which the slope activates are not observed in resistance/resistivity results most probably due to the complex nature of the landslide system, the monitoring system resolution and a number of physical slope processes taking place. An exciting development is our improved understanding of shallow earthflow pre-activation hydrogeological behaviour. When interpreted alongside piezometry, an apparent increase in resistance in the months preceding earthflow activation reveals subtle geomechanical processes occurring, including slip surface drainage, due to soil dilation, as strain develops. Correlation between piezometric level fall and associated temperature-corrected resistance rise highlight the sensitivity of the geophysical monitoring system to landslide hydrogeological processes.

  12. Influence of some psychological factors on temperature dynamics of human hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koreneva, L. G.; Apenisheva, N. P.; Zakharov, Pavel V.; Markov, A. G.

    1993-11-01

    Temperature dynamics of the hands of human subjects was investigated by means of dynamical thermography and shown to depend on the personality and psychological conditions of the subjects. For neurotic personalities, especially under stress, the temperature is shown not to change at all in most cases. Stress resistant `independent' persons show very stable dynamics with relatively small temperature changes (about 2 degrees). The dependence of temperature patterns of `intermediate,' or `active,' personalities on the conditions of stress, mental concentration, and so on, is discussed.

  13. Estimates of rainfall over the United Kingdom and surrounding seas from the SSM/I using the polarization corrected temperature algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, M.C.; Bailey, J.O.

    1995-06-01

    The 85-GHz polarization corrected temperature PCT{sub 85} algorithm, using the V85 and H85 channels of the SSM/I sensor, is evaluated for estimation of midlatitude rainfall. The algorithm {theta} parameter and rain/no-rain thresholds are examined and found to be highly variable. Methods for automatic calibration, to account for variable atmospheric and surface conditions, are presented. Derivation of {theta} and thresholds for each individual scene provides a marked improvement in rainfall identification accuracy over the equivalent monthly values. The algorithm is calibrated by comparison with radar data for the estimation of instantaneous rain rates. Detailed evaluation of a number of case studies suggest the relationship of PCT{sub 85} and rain rate is substantially different for frontal and mesoscale convective system rainfall. For most frontal conditions the PCT{sub 85} provides useful estimates of rain rates with sensitivity to rain intensities as low as 0.1 mm h{sup -1}. Overall, the PCT{sub 85} estimates of instantaneous rain rate at the footprint scale are to within {+-}75% of the radar quantity only 50% of the time. Systematic errors result from both the calibration process and from the inability of microwave scattering methods to identify warm rain processes, including orographically enhanced rainfall over land. The results show the need for improved empirical calibration of passive microwave algorithms to provide sensitivity to subsynoptic-scale surface and atmospheric conditions and rainfall processes. 25 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. A hypothesis about factors that affect maximum stream temperatures across montane landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaak, D.J.; Hubert, W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Temperature is an important variable structuring lotic biotas, but little is known about how montane landscapes function to determine stream temperatures. We developed an a priori hypothesis that was used to predict how watershed elements would interact to affect stream temperatures. The hypothesis was tested in a series of path analyses using temperature data from 26 sites on second-order to fourth-order streams across a fifth-order Rocky Mountain watershed. Based on the performance of the first hypothesis, two revised versions of the hypothesis were developed and tested that proved to be more accurate than the original hypothesis. The most plausible of the revised hypotheses accounted for 82 percent of the variation in maximum stream temperature, had a predicted data structure that did not deviate from the empirical data structure, and was the most parsimonious. The final working hypothesis suggested that stream temperature maxima were directly controlled by a large negative effect from mean basin elevation (direct effect = -0.57, p < 0.01) and smaller effects from riparian tree abundance (direct effect = -0.28, p = 0.03), and cattle density (direct effect = 0.24, p = 0.05). Watershed slope, valley constraint, and the abundance of grass across a watershed also affected temperature maxima, but these effects were indirect and mediated through cattle density and riparian trees. Three variables included in the a priori hypothesis - watershed aspect, stream width, and watershed size - had negligible effects on maximum stream temperatures and were omitted from the final working hypothesis.

  15. Effect of design factors on surface temperature and wear in disk brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santini, J. J.; Kennedy, F. E.; Ling, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    The temperatures, friction, wear and contact conditions that occur in high energy disk brakes are studied. Surface and near surface temperatures were monitored at various locations in a caliper disk brake during drag type testing, with friction coefficient and wear rates also being determined. The recorded transient temperature distributions in the friction pads and infrared photographs of the rotor disk surface both showed that contact at the friction surface was not uniform, with contact areas constantly shifting due to nonuniform thermal expansion and wear. The effect of external cooling and of design modifications on friction, wear and temperatures was also investigated. It was found that significant decreases in surface temperature and in wear rate can be achieved without a reduction in friction either by slotting the contacting face of the brake pad or by modifying the design of the pad support to improve pad compliance. Both design changes result in more uniform contact conditions on the friction surface.

  16. Dominant factors affecting temperature rise in simulations of human thermoregulation during RF exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2011-12-01

    Numerical models of the human thermoregulatory system can be used together with realistic voxel models of the human anatomy to simulate the body temperature increases caused by the power absorption from radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. In this paper, the Pennes bioheat equation with a thermoregulatory model is used for calculating local peak temperatures as well as the body-core-temperature elevation in a realistic human body model for grounded plane-wave exposures at frequencies 39, 800 and 2400 MHz. The electromagnetic power loss is solved by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and the discretized bioheat equation is solved by the geometric multigrid method. Human thermoregulatory models contain numerous thermophysiological and computational parameters—some of which may be subject to considerable uncertainty—that affect the simulated core and local temperature elevations. The goal of this paper is to find how greatly the computed temperature is influenced by changes in various modelling parameters, such as the skin blood flow rate, models for vasodilation and sweating, and clothing and air movement. The results show that the peak temperature rises are most strongly affected by the modelling of tissue blood flow and its temperature dependence, and mostly unaffected by the central control mechanism for vasodilation and sweating. Almost the opposite is true for the body-core-temperature rise, which is however typically greatly lower than the peak temperature rise. It also seems that ignoring the thermoregulation and the blood temperature increase is a good approximation when the local 10 g averaged specific absorption rate is smaller than 10 W kg-1.

  17. Dominant factors affecting temperature rise in simulations of human thermoregulation during RF exposure.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2011-12-01

    Numerical models of the human thermoregulatory system can be used together with realistic voxel models of the human anatomy to simulate the body temperature increases caused by the power absorption from radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. In this paper, the Pennes bioheat equation with a thermoregulatory model is used for calculating local peak temperatures as well as the body-core-temperature elevation in a realistic human body model for grounded plane-wave exposures at frequencies 39, 800 and 2400 MHz. The electromagnetic power loss is solved by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and the discretized bioheat equation is solved by the geometric multigrid method. Human thermoregulatory models contain numerous thermophysiological and computational parameters--some of which may be subject to considerable uncertainty--that affect the simulated core and local temperature elevations. The goal of this paper is to find how greatly the computed temperature is influenced by changes in various modelling parameters, such as the skin blood flow rate, models for vasodilation and sweating, and clothing and air movement. The results show that the peak temperature rises are most strongly affected by the modelling of tissue blood flow and its temperature dependence, and mostly unaffected by the central control mechanism for vasodilation and sweating. Almost the opposite is true for the body-core-temperature rise, which is however typically greatly lower than the peak temperature rise. It also seems that ignoring the thermoregulation and the blood temperature increase is a good approximation when the local 10 g averaged specific absorption rate is smaller than 10 W kg(-1). PMID:22080753

  18. Resource supply overrides temperature as a controlling factor of marine phytoplankton growth.

    PubMed

    Marañón, Emilio; Cermeño, Pedro; Huete-Ortega, María; López-Sandoval, Daffne C; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The universal temperature dependence of metabolic rates has been used to predict how ocean biology will respond to ocean warming. Determining the temperature sensitivity of phytoplankton metabolism and growth is of special importance because this group of organisms is responsible for nearly half of global primary production, sustains most marine food webs, and contributes to regulate the exchange of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. Phytoplankton growth rates increase with temperature under optimal growth conditions in the laboratory, but it is unclear whether the same degree of temperature dependence exists in nature, where resources are often limiting. Here we use concurrent measurements of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation rates in polar, temperate and tropical regions to determine the role of temperature and resource supply in controlling the large-scale variability of in situ metabolic rates. We identify a biogeographic pattern in phytoplankton metabolic rates, which increase from the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to temperate regions and then coastal waters. Variability in phytoplankton growth is driven by changes in resource supply and appears to be independent of seawater temperature. The lack of temperature sensitivity of realized phytoplankton growth is consistent with the limited applicability of Arrhenius enzymatic kinetics when substrate concentrations are low. Our results suggest that, due to widespread resource limitation in the ocean, the direct effect of sea surface warming upon phytoplankton growth and productivity may be smaller than anticipated. PMID:24921945

  19. Calculation of calibration figures and the volume correction factors for 90Y, 125I, 131I and 177Lu radionuclides based on Monte-Carlo ionization chamber simulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryeziu, D.; Tschurlovits, M.; Kreuziger, M.; Maringer, F.-J.

    2007-09-01

    Many metrology laboratories are dealing with activity measurements of different radionuclides with special interest in nuclear medicine as well as in radiopharmaceutical industry. In improving the accuracy of radionuclide activity measurements, a key role plays the calculation of calibration figures and the volume correction factors for the radionuclide under study. It is well known that the chamber calibration factors depend on the measurement geometry including the volume of the source and the type of the measurement vessel. In this work, the activity standards in the form of radioactive solutions are delivered in sealed Jena glass 5 ml FIOLAX ®-klar ampoule. Calculation of the calibration figures (or efficiencies) for 90Y, 125I, 131I and 177Lu radionuclides on 5 ml ampoule are presented in this paper. Additionally, their appropriate volume correction factors are determined. These calibration figures for the ISOCAL IV pressurized well re-entrant ionization chamber (IC) are pointed out based on the Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation method of such chamber using the PENELOPE-2005 MC computer simulation code. The chamber is filled with nitrogen gas pressurized to approximately 1 MPa. In determining the volume correction factors, the variation of calibration factors versus the mass of radioactive solution filling the 5 ml ampoule glass is investigated. From the point of view that impurity of 177 mLu isomer is always accompanying the 177Lu radionuclide, for making possible the correction due to presence of this impurity, the calibration factor and the volume correction factors for 177 mLu are reported as well.

  20. Local tissue temperature: a critical factor in the pathogenesis of bovid herpesvirus 2.

    PubMed

    Letchworth, G J; Carmichael, L E

    1984-03-01

    The effect of local tissue temperature on bovid herpesvirus 2 lesions in bovine skin was studied. Two areas of thoracic skin were multiply inoculated with virus and maintained at different temperatures; one above and the other below the rectal temperature of the animal. An entire inoculation site was removed daily from each area and subjected to virus, viral antigen, and interferon titrations and both light and electron microscopic examinations. Lesions in cold skin appeared sooner after inoculation, were larger and deeper, contained more infectious virus, viral antigen, and interferon, and lasted longer than lesions in hot skin. Differences in viral titers greater than 10(9) 50% tissue culture infective doses per gram were measured on postinfection days 5 to 9. These studies have demonstrated for the first time that temperature effects on viral pathogenesis may operate at the local level rather than by systemic modification of immune responses. The results also suggest that despite the presence of virus in internal organs of bovid herpesvirus 2-infected cattle and the ability of bovid herpesvirus 2 to replicate to very high titers in these tissues in vitro, only the skin is cool enough to permit substantial viral replication and dermal lesions in vivo. The observed restriction of bovid herpesvirus 2 skin lesions to the udder and teats of cattle and the restriction of outbreaks of disease to months when the temperature is declining may also be reflections of this temperature sensitivity. PMID:6199299

  1. Local tissue temperature: a critical factor in the pathogenesis of bovid herpesvirus 2.

    PubMed Central

    Letchworth, G J; Carmichael, L E

    1984-01-01

    The effect of local tissue temperature on bovid herpesvirus 2 lesions in bovine skin was studied. Two areas of thoracic skin were multiply inoculated with virus and maintained at different temperatures; one above and the other below the rectal temperature of the animal. An entire inoculation site was removed daily from each area and subjected to virus, viral antigen, and interferon titrations and both light and electron microscopic examinations. Lesions in cold skin appeared sooner after inoculation, were larger and deeper, contained more infectious virus, viral antigen, and interferon, and lasted longer than lesions in hot skin. Differences in viral titers greater than 10(9) 50% tissue culture infective doses per gram were measured on postinfection days 5 to 9. These studies have demonstrated for the first time that temperature effects on viral pathogenesis may operate at the local level rather than by systemic modification of immune responses. The results also suggest that despite the presence of virus in internal organs of bovid herpesvirus 2-infected cattle and the ability of bovid herpesvirus 2 to replicate to very high titers in these tissues in vitro, only the skin is cool enough to permit substantial viral replication and dermal lesions in vivo. The observed restriction of bovid herpesvirus 2 skin lesions to the udder and teats of cattle and the restriction of outbreaks of disease to months when the temperature is declining may also be reflections of this temperature sensitivity. Images PMID:6199299

  2. Psychophysics of a Nociceptive Test in the Mouse: Ambient Temperature as a Key Factor for Variation

    PubMed Central

    Pincedé, Ivanne; Pollin, Bernard; Meert, Theo; Plaghki, Léon; Le Bars, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background The mouse is increasingly used in biomedical research, notably in behavioral neurosciences for the development of tests or models of pain. Our goal was to provide the scientific community with an outstanding tool that allows the determination of psychophysical descriptors of a nociceptive reaction, which are inaccessible with conventional methods: namely the true threshold, true latency, conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers that trigger the response and latency of the central decision-making process. Methodology/Principal Findings Basically, the procedures involved heating of the tail with a CO2 laser, recording of tail temperature with an infrared camera and stopping the heating when the animal reacted. The method is based mainly on the measurement of three observable variables, namely the initial temperature, the heating rate and the temperature reached at the actual moment of the reaction following random variations in noxious radiant heat. The initial temperature of the tail, which itself depends on the ambient temperature, very markedly influenced the behavioral threshold, the behavioral latency and the conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers but not the latency of the central decision-making. Conclusions/Significance We have validated a psychophysical approach to nociceptive reactions for the mouse, which has already been described for rats and Humans. It enables the determination of four variables, which contribute to the overall latency of the response. The usefulness of such an approach was demonstrated by providing new fundamental findings regarding the influence of ambient temperature on nociceptive processes. We conclude by challenging the validity of using as “pain index" the reaction time of a behavioral response to an increasing heat stimulus and emphasize the need for a very careful control of the ambient temperature, as a prevailing environmental source of variation, during any behavioral testing of mice. PMID:22629325

  3. Role of Hot Water System Design on Factors Influential to Pathogen Regrowth: Temperature, Chlorine Residual, Hydrogen Evolution, and Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Brazeau, Randi H.; Edwards, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Residential water heating is linked to growth of pathogens in premise plumbing, which is the primary source of waterborne disease in the United States. Temperature and disinfectant residual are critical factors controlling increased concentration of pathogens, but understanding of how each factor varies in different water heater configurations is lacking. A direct comparative study of electric water heater systems was conducted to evaluate temporal variations in temperature and water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen levels, hydrogen evolution, total and soluble metal concentrations, and disinfectant decay. Recirculation tanks had much greater volumes of water at temperature ranges with potential for increased pathogen growth when set at 49°C compared with standard tank systems without recirculation. In contrast, when set at the higher end of acceptable ranges (i.e., 60°C), this relationship was reversed and recirculation systems had less volume of water at risk for pathogen growth compared with conventional systems. Recirculation tanks also tended to have much lower levels of disinfectant residual (standard systems had 40–600% higher residual), 4–6 times as much hydrogen, and 3–20 times more sediment compared with standard tanks without recirculation. On demand tankless systems had very small volumes of water at risk and relatively high levels of disinfectant residual. Recirculation systems may have distinct advantages in controlling pathogens via thermal disinfection if set at 60°C, but these systems have lower levels of disinfectant residual and greater volumes at risk if set at lower temperatures. PMID:24170969

  4. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  5. The effects of incomplete annealing on the temperature dependence of sheet resistance and gage factor in aluminum and phosphorus implanted silicon on sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisciotta, B. P.; Gross, C.

    1976-01-01

    Partial annealing of damage to the crystal lattice during ion implantation reduces the temperature coefficient of resistivity of ion-implanted silicon, while facilitating controlled doping. Reliance on this method for temperature compensation of the resistivity and strain-gage factor is discussed. Implantation conditions and annealing conditions are detailed. The gage factor and its temperature variation are not drastically affected by crystal damage for some crystal orientations. A model is proposed to account for the effects of electron damage on the temperature dependence of resistivity and on silicon piezoresistance. The results are applicable to the design of silicon-on-sapphire strain gages with high gage factors.

  6. Uncovering Different Masking Factors on Wrist Skin Temperature Rhythm in Free-Living Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Ortiz-Tudela, Elisabet; Rol, Maria Angeles; Madrid, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Most circadian rhythms are controlled by a major pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Some of these rhythms, called marker rhythms, serve to characterize the timing of the internal temporal order. However, these variables are susceptible to masking effects as the result of activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep. Recently, wrist skin temperature (WT) has been proposed as a new index for evaluating circadian system status. In light of previous evidence suggesting the important relationship between WT and core body temperature regulation, the aim of this work was to purify the WT pattern in order to obtain its endogenous rhythm with the application of multiple demasking procedures. To this end, 103 subjects (18–24 years old) were recruited and their WT, activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep were recorded under free-living conditions for 1 week. WT demasking by categories or intercepts was applied to simulate a “constant routine” protocol (awakening, dim light, recumbent position, low activity and warm environmental temperature). Although the overall circadian pattern of WT was similar regardless of the masking effects, its amplitude was the rhythmic parameter most affected by environmental conditions. The acrophase and mesor were determined to be the most robust parameters for characterizing this rhythm. In addition, a circadian modulation of the masking effect was found for each masking variable. WT rhythm exhibits a strong endogenous component, despite the existence of multiple external influences. This was evidenced by simultaneously eliminating the influence of activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep. We therefore propose that it could be considered a valuable and minimally-invasive means of recording circadian physiology in ambulatory conditions. PMID:23577201

  7. Energy correction factors of LiF powder TLDs irradiated in high-energy electron beams and applied to mailed dosimetry for quality assurance networks.

    PubMed

    Marre, D; Ferreira, I H; Bridier, A; Björeland, A; Svensson, H; Dutreix, A; Chavaudra, J

    2000-12-01

    Absorbed dose determination with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) generally relies on calibration in 60Co gamma-ray reference beams. The energy correction factor fCo(E) for electron beams takes into account the difference between the response of the TLD in the beam of energy E and in the 60Co gamma-ray beam. In this work, fCo(E) was evaluated for an LiF powder irradiated in electron beams of 6 to 20 MeV (Varian 2300C/D) and 10 to 50 MeV (Racetrack MM50), and its variation with electron energy, TLD size and nature of the surrounding medium was also studied for LiF powder. The results have been applied to the ESTRO-EQUAL mailed dosimetry quality assurance network. Monte Carlo calculations (EGS4, PENELOPE) and experiments have been performed for the LiF powder (rho = 1.4 g cm3) (DTL937, Philitech, France), read on a home made reader and a PCL3 automatic reader (Fimel, France). The TLDs were calibrated using Fricke dosimetry and compared with three ionization chambers (NE2571, NACP02, ROOS). The combined uncertainties in the experimental fCo(E) factors determined in this work are less than about 0.4% (1 SD), which is appreciably smaller than the uncertainties up to 1.4% (1 SD) reported for other calculated values in the literature. Concerning the Varian 2300C/D beams, the measured fCo(E) values decrease from 1.065 to 1.049 +/- 0.004 (1 SD) when the energy at depth in water increases from 2.6 to 14.1 MeV; the agreement with Monte Carlo calculations is better than 0.5%. For the Racetrack MM50 pulsed-scanned beams, the average experimental value of fCo(E) is 1.071 +/- 0.005 (1 SD) for a mean electron energy at depth Ez ranging from 4.3 to 36.3 MeV: fCo(E) is up to 2% higher for the MM50 beams than for the 2300C/D beams in the range of the tested energies. The energy correction factor for LiF powder (3 mm diameter and 15 mm length) varies with beam quality and type (pulsed or pulsed-scanning), cavity size and nature of the surrounding medium. The fCo(E) values obtained for the LiF powder (3 mm diameter and 15 mm length) irradiated in water, have been applied to the EQUAL external audit network, leading to a good agreement between stated and measured doses, with a mean value of 1.002 +/- 0.022 (1 SD), for 170 beam outputs checked (36 electron beam energies) in 13 'reference' radiotherapy centres in Europe. Such fCo(E) data improve the accuracy of the absorbed dose TLD determination in electron beams, justifying their use for quality control in radiotherapy. PMID:11131191

  8. The analysis of anthropogenic factors in regional temperature change over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaodan; Huang, Jianping; Guo, Ruixia

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the variability of surface air temperature (SAT) over different types of regions in East Asia are studied by using observation data from 1980-2012 under fast developing in economic. We found that the warming trends of the semi-arid regions are higher than other lands, which have increased 2.42°C as compared to the global annual mean temperature increase of 1.13°C over land. To investigate the causes of Enhanced Semi-Arid Warming (ESAW), we used an advanced dynamic-adjusted method proposed by Wallace et al. (2012) to analyse the adjusted temperature change. Our results point that the aerosol maybe takes the main role in adjusted temperature, especially in cold season. The anthropogenic-warming peak over semi-arid region plays the main role in the ESAW. Such anthropogenic-warming peak may be related to the long wave radiation change induced by aerosol in the air or the reduction of snow cover due to black carbon (BC) emission by fuels for winter residential heating. Besides the impact of aerosol over semi-arid region, the agricultural mulch creation, wind farms and other types of human activities may also make attribution to local SAT changes that need to be further studied.

  9. Calibration factor of track etch detectors at different temperatures of water 

    E-print Network

    Yasmeen, Nuzhat

    1997-01-01

    Research was performed to determine track density as a function of radon exposure in water and exposure temperature for the track etch detectors Kodak LR II 5 Type 2 and CR-39. Films were submerged in water containing a known concentration...

  10. Temperature, Relative Humidity and Pathogen Factors Influencing Phytophthora Infestans Development on Hairy Nightshade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides Sendt) is a common weed that can serve as an alternate host for potato late blight. Although environmental and pathogen factors are key variables affecting the development of late blight, little is known regarding their potential effects on infection of hairy n...

  11. Growth, condition factor, and bioenergetics modeling link warmer stream temperatures below a small dam to reduced performance of juvenile steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, S.T.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the growth and feeding performance of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss using field measures and bioenergetics modeling. Juvenile steelhead populations were sampled from mid-June through August 2004 at study sites upstream and downstream of Hemlock Dam. The growth and diet of juvenile steelhead were determined for a warm (summer) and subsequent (late summer) transitional period at each study site. Empirical data on the growth and diet of juvenile steelhead and mean daily temperatures were used in a bioenergetics model to estimate the proportion of maximum consumption achieved by juvenile steelhead by site and period. Modeled estimates of feeding performance were better for juvenile steelhead at the upstream compared to the downstream site during both periods. The median condition factor of juvenile steelhead did not change over the summer at the upstream site, but showed a significant decline over time at the downstream site. A negative trend in median condition factor at the downstream site supported bioenergetics modeling results that suggested the warmer stream temperatures had a negative impact on juvenile steelhead. Bioenergetics modeling predicted a lower feeding performance for juvenile steelhead rearing downstream compared to upstream of Hemlock Dam although food availability appeared to be limited at both study sites during the warm period. Warmer water temperatures, greater diel variation, and change in diel pattern likely led to the reduced feeding performance and reduced growth, which could have affected the overall survival of juvenile steelhead downstream of Hemlock Dam. ?? 2010 by the Northwest Scientific Association.

  12. Assessment of factors limiting Klamath River fall Chinook salmon production potential using historical flows and temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, John M.; Henriksen, James A.

    2006-01-01

    We parameterized and applied a deterministic salmon production model to infer the degree to which river flows and temperatures may limit freshwater production potential of the Klamath River in California. Specific parameter requirements, data sources, and significant assumptions are discussed in detail. Model simulations covered a wide variety of historical hydrologic and meteorologic conditions for 40+ years of environmental data. The model was calibrated only qualitatively, appearing to perform well in predicted outmigrant timing, but overestimating growth. Egg-to-outmigrant survival was near that reported for other rivers north of the Klamath River. Predicted production potential appeared to be determined by multiple causes involving both regularly occurring habitat-related constraints and irregularly occurring exposure to high water temperatures. Simulated production was greatest in years of intermediate water availability and was constrained in both dry and wet years, but for different reasons. Reducing mortality associated with limitations to juvenile habitat, if possible, would be expected to have the highest payoff in increasing production. Water temperature was important in determining predicted production in some years but overall was not predicted to be as important as physical microhabitat. No single mortality cause acted as a true a??bottlenecka?? on productiona?|

  13. Influence of various stabilizing factors on an elemental sulfur emulsion during high-temperature leaching of nickel-pyrrhotine concentrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftal', M. N.; Naboichenko, S. S.; Salimzhanova, E. V.; Bol'shakova, O. V.; Saverskaya, T. P.

    2015-03-01

    It is shown that the problems of decomposition of the three-phase sulfur emulsions that form during hydrothermal oxidation of pyrrhotine and the choice of conditions of their stabilization represent one of the main problems of the theory and practice of the pressure oxidizing leaching (POL) of nickel-pyrrhotine concentrates (NPCs) carried out at high temperatures. The character and the degree of influence of a number of stabilizing factors (mixing intensity, consumption of commercial lignosulphonates (LSNs), amount of added gangue) on the particle size distribution of elemental sulfur during POL of NPCs, which have different contents of the main components, are studied. Mathematical statistics is used to derive regression equations and response surfaces to describe the dependence of the extraction of elemental sulfur into hard-to-float particle size classes (-10 µm, +150 µm) on the factors under study. It is found that the key factor that determines the particle size distribution of elemental sulfur is the consumption of LSN surfactants during high-temperature leaching of NPCs irrespective of the chemical-mineralogical composition. A pronounced synergetic effect of a positive influence of LSN and a rock-containing addition is experimentally detected during leaching of high-sulfur NPC.

  14. Increase of Ozone Concentrations, Its Temperature Sensitivity and the Precursor Factor in South China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.; Wenig, M.; Lam, Y. F.; Ning, Z.; Hao, S.; Lai, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about the possible connections between the local and regional photochemical problem and global warming. The current study assesses the trend of ozone in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in South China and investigates the interannual changes of sensitivity of ozone to air temperature, as well as the trends in regional precursors. Results reveal, at the three monitoring sites from the mid-1990s to 2010, an increase in the mean ozone concentrations from 1.0 to 1.6 microgram m(exp -3) per year. The increase occurred in all seasons, with the highest rate in autumn. This is consistent with trends and temperature anomalies in the region. The increase in the sensitivity of ozone to temperature is clearly evident from the correlation between ozone (OMI [Ozone Monitoring Instrument] column amount) and surface air temperature (from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) displayed in the correlation maps for the PRD during the prominently high ozone period of July September. It is observed to have increased from 2005 to 2010, the latter being the hottest year on record globally. To verify this temporal change in sensitivity, the ground-level trends of correlation coefficients/regression slopes are analysed. As expected, results reveal a statistically significant upward trend over a 14-year period (19972010). While the correlation revealed in the correlation maps is in agreement with the corresponding OMI ozone maps when juxtaposed, temperature sensitivity of surface ozone also shows an association with ozone concentration, with R0.5. These characteristics of ozone sensitivity are believed to have adverse implications for the region. As shown by ground measurements and/or satellite analyses, the decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO2) and NO(sub x) in Hong Kong is not statistically significant whileNO2 of thePRD has only very slightly changed. However, carbon dioxide has remarkably declined in the whole region. While these observations concerning precursors do not seem to adequately support an increasing ozone trend, measured surface levels of formaldehyde, a proxy for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, have risen significantly in the PRD (20042010). Hence, the reactive VOCs in the PRD are likely to be the main culprit for the increase of ozone, as far as precursors are concerned. Despite the prevailing problem, model simulations suggest prospects for improvement in the future.

  15. Factors in the design and manufacture of large high pressure and high temperature triaxial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuBois, Andrew

    Factors important to the design of vessels for testing the physical and hydraulic properties of rock samples of the order of one meter diameter by three meters long are discussed. The stored energy of water and nitrogen gas pressurized at 60 MPa and 200° C are shown to be comparable. Some constraints imposed by heating needs, vessel material selection, cell geometry, materials handling, and safety are reviewed.

  16. Sensitivity of the hydrological cycle to corrections of the sea surface temperature biases over southern Africa in a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Torsten; Hänsler, Andreas; Jacob, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    High resolution climate change projections of the hydrological cycle are of particular importance for southern Africa since possible changes of the climate will affect the water availability and thus the lives of the people in this region. In order to obtain high resolution climate change information for the future, regional climate models (RCMs) are used to downscale climate change projections generated with general circulation models (GCMs). These GCMs are usually coupled with an ocean model providing ocean parameters such as sea surface temperature (SST) needed by GCMs. The hydrological cycle in southern Africa is strongly affected by the moisture transport from the Atlantic and Indian Ocean and, consequently, from their SSTs. In the Atlantic Ocean, the cold up-welling Benguela current flows up the west coast of southern Africa whereas the Agulhas current flows down the east coast in the Indian Ocean. Deficiencies in the description and representation of such currents in ocean models cause biases in simulated SSTs and affect the moisture uptake of lower air layers. Initially, a historical simulation conducted with the general circulation model ECHAM6 was downscaled with the regional climate model REMO to a spatial resolution of 50 x 50 km² for the whole African continent. To analyse the sensitivity of the hydrological cycle to SST corrections, five experiments were carried out with REMO covering five simulation years. The five sensitivity experiments were downscaled with REMO to a spatial resolution of 25 x 25 km² for southern Africa using the coarser simulation as input. In the first experiment, the entire SST in the coupled ECHAM6 simulation both of the Atlantic and Indian ocean was replaced by the SST from the ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and in two another ones, only the Atlantic Ocean with the Benguela current and the Indian Ocean including the Agulhas current were replaced by the SST from the ERA-Interim reanalysis data, respectively. Besides a control experiment, in which the SST from the coupled ECHAM6 simulation has been kept unchanged, an experiment with perturbed atmospheric conditions was performed with REMO to assess the internal model variability. The results show a distinct impact of the SST biases on the hydrological cycle in southern Africa. In particular, the contribution of the SST bias of the Atlantic Ocean is stronger, which should be taken into account for climate change projections.

  17. Single-crystal sapphire resonator at millikelvin temperatures: Observation of thermal bistability in high-Q factor whispering gallery modes

    SciTech Connect

    Creedon, Daniel L.; Tobar, Michael E.; Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Duty, Timothy

    2010-09-01

    Resonance modes in single crystal sapphire ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) exhibit extremely high electrical and mechanical Q factors ({approx_equal}10{sup 9} at 4 K), which are important characteristics for electromechanical experiments at the quantum limit. We report the cool down of a bulk sapphire sample below superfluid liquid-helium temperature (1.6 K) to as low as 25 mK. The electromagnetic properties were characterized at microwave frequencies, and we report the observation of electromagnetically induced thermal bistability in whispering gallery modes due to the material T{sup 3} dependence on thermal conductivity and the ultralow dielectric loss tangent. We identify ''magic temperatures'' between 80 and 2100 mK, the lowest ever measured, at which the onset of bistability is suppressed and the frequency-temperature dependence is annulled. These phenomena at low temperatures make sapphire suitable for quantum metrology and ultrastable clock applications, including the possible realization of the quantum-limited sapphire clock.

  18. Stress, temperature, heart rate, and hibernating factors in hamsters. [pathophysiological conditions resulting from exposure to zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1974-01-01

    Pathophysiological conditions resulting from prolonged exposure to zero gravity, cabin constraint, altered ambient environment, whether it be noise, vibrations, high temperatures, or combinations of such factors, are studied in laboratory animals and applied to manned space flight. Results and plans for further study are presented. Specific topics covered include: thermoregulation and its role in reflecting stress and adaptation to the gravity free environment and cabin confinement with its altered circadian forcings; renal function and its measurement in electrolyte distribution and blood flow dynamics; gastronintestinal function and an assessment of altered absorptive capacity in the intestinal mucosa; and catecholamine metabolism in terms of distribution and turnover rates in specific tissues.

  19. Factors influencing the formation of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine: Temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration.

    PubMed

    Bordiga, M; Lorenzo, C; Pardo, F; Salinas, M R; Travaglia, F; Arlorio, M; Coïsson, J D; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2016-04-15

    The validation of a HPLC-PDA-MS/MS chromatographic method for the quali/quantitative characterization of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine has been described and discussed. Four standards showed a good linearity with high correlation coefficient values (over 0.9989) and LOD and LOQ were 0.001-0.015mg/L and 0.004-0.045mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, this study reported how factors such as temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration are able to influence the formation of these four alcohols in Monastrell wines. The quantification values of these alcohols has been detected both at the half and end of alcoholic fermentation, and at the end of malolactic fermentation. In relation to interactions between factors, several significant variations emerged (p?0.001). The impact of amino acids supplementation in Monastrell must it has been demonstrated, mainly in regards to histaminol and tryptophol. PMID:26675839

  20. Factors affecting sorption of nitro explosives to biochar: pyrolysis temperature, surface treatment, competition, and dissolved metals.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seok-Young; Seo, Yong-Deuk

    2015-05-01

    The application of rice straw-derived biochar for removing nitro explosives, including 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), from contaminated water was investigated through batch experiments. An increase in the pyrolysis temperature from 250 to 900°C in general led to higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), point of zero charge, and C:O ratio of biochar. The maximum sorption capacity estimated by a mixed sorption-partition model increased when pyrolysis temperatures were elevated from 250 to 900°C, indicating that C content and aromaticity of biochar were strongly related to the sorption of nitro explosives to biochar. Surface treatment with acid or oxidant increased the sorption capacity of biochar for the two strong ?-acceptor compounds (DNT and TNT) but not for RDX. However, the enhancement of sorption capacity was not directly related to increased surface area and CEC. Compared with single-sorption systems, coexistence of explosives or cationic metals resulted in decreased sorption of each explosive to biochar, suggesting that sorption of nitro explosives and cationic metals to electron-rich portions in biochar was competitive. Our results suggest that ?-? electron donor acceptor interactions are main sorption mechanisms and that changing various conditions can enhance or reduce the sorption of nitro explosives to biochar. PMID:26024263

  1. Genotype-specific risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus in Swiss dairy herds with an elevated yield-corrected herd somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Berchtold, B; Bodmer, M; van den Borne, B H P; Reist, M; Graber, H U; Steiner, A; Boss, R; Wohlfender, F

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a frequent problem in Swiss dairy herds. One of the main pathogens causing significant economic loss is Staphylococcus aureus. Various Staph. aureus genotypes with different biological properties have been described. Genotype B (GTB) of Staph. aureus was identified as the most contagious and one of the most prevalent strains in Switzerland. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the herd-level presence of Staph. aureus GTB and Staph. aureus non-GTB in Swiss dairy herds with an elevated yield-corrected herd somatic cell count (YCHSCC). One hundred dairy herds with a mean YCHSCC between 200,000 and 300,000cells/mL in 2010 were recruited and each farm was visited once during milking. A standardized protocol investigating demography, mastitis management, cow husbandry, milking system, and milking routine was completed during the visit. A bulk tank milk (BTM) sample was analyzed by real-time PCR for the presence of Staph. aureus GTB to classify the herds into 2 groups: Staph. aureus GTB-positive and Staph. aureus GTB-negative. Moreover, quarter milk samples were aseptically collected for bacteriological culture from cows with a somatic cell count ?150,000cells/mL on the last test-day before the visit. The culture results allowed us to allocate the Staph. aureus GTB-negative farms to Staph. aureus non-GTB and Staph. aureus-free groups. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression models were built to identify risk factors associated with the herd-level presence of Staph. aureus GTB and Staph. aureus non-GTB. The prevalence of Staph. aureus GTB herds was 16% (n=16), whereas that of Staph. aureus non-GTB herds was 38% (n=38). Herds that sent lactating cows to seasonal communal pastures had significantly higher odds of being infected with Staph. aureus GTB (odds ratio: 10.2, 95% CI: 1.9-56.6), compared with herds without communal pasturing. Herds that purchased heifers had significantly higher odds of being infected with Staph. aureus GTB (rather than Staph. aureus non-GTB) compared with herds without purchase of heifers. Furthermore, herds that did not use udder ointment as supportive therapy for acute mastitis had significantly higher odds of being infected with Staph. aureus GTB (odds ratio: 8.5, 95% CI: 1.6-58.4) or Staph. aureus non-GTB (odds ratio: 6.1, 95% CI: 1.3-27.8) than herds that used udder ointment occasionally or regularly. Herds in which the milker performed unrelated activities during milking had significantly higher odds of being infected with Staph. aureus GTB (rather than Staph. aureus non-GTB) compared with herds in which the milker did not perform unrelated activities at milking. Awareness of 4 potential risk factors identified in this study guides implementation of intervention strategies to improve udder health in both Staph. aureus GTB and Staph. aureus non-GTB herds. PMID:24881801

  2. Study of Inactivation Factors in Low Temperature Surface-wave Plasma Sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mrityunjai Kumar; Xu, Lei; Ogino, Akihisa; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    In this study we investigated the low temperature surface-wave plasma sterilization of directly and indirectly exposed Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores with a large-volume microwave plasma device. The air-simulated gas mixture was used to produce the plasma. The water vapor addition to the gas mixture improved the sterilization efficiency significantly. The effect of ultraviolet photons produced along with plasma to inactivate the spores was studied using a separate chamber, which was evacuated to less than one mTorr and was observed that spores were sterilized within 60 min. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed no significant changes in the actual size of the spores with that of untreated spores despite the survival curve shown that the spores were inactivated.

  3. [Temperature as a factor of development of psychrotolerant mycelial bacteria complexes in soils of north regions].

    PubMed

    Zenova, G M; Kozhevin, P A; Manucharova, N A; Dubrova, M S; Zviagintsev, D G

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that complexes of mycelial bacteria (actinomycetes), in which the amount of psychrotolerant actinomycetes reaches hundreds of thousands of CFU/g of the soil (frequently exceeding the portion of mesophilic forms), are developed in peat and podzolic soils of the tundra and taiga at low temperatures. As actinomycetes grow and develop in cold soils, their mycelium increases in length. Use of the molecular in situ hybridization method (fluorescent in situ hybridization, FISH) demonstrated that the portion of metabolically active mycelial actinobacteria exceeds the portion of unicellular actinobacteria in the Actinobacteria phylum. Specific peculiarities of psychrotolerant populations in relation to the spectrum of consumed substrates (histidine, mannitol, saccharose) were established by the method of multirespirometric testing. PMID:23136737

  4. Light, temperature and nutrients as factors in photosynthetic adjustment to elevated carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bunce, J.; Lee, D. )

    1991-05-01

    It has been noted many times that the short-term stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated carbon dioxide usually observed in C3 plants may not persist in the long-term. Experiments were designed to test the hypotheses that photosynthetic adjustment to elevated carbon dioxide is due to (a) feedback inhibition resulting from excess photosynthate production relative to use, and (b) nutrient deficiency resulting from more rapid growth. Soybeans and sugarbeets were grown in controlled environment chambers at 350 and 700 ppm carbon dioxide, at two temperatures, two levels of photosynthetically active radiation, and with three nutrient regimes in a factorial design. Net carbon dioxide uptake rates of individual leaves from all growth conditions were measured at both 350 and 700 ppm carbon dioxide to assay photosynthetic adjustment to the elevated carbon dioxide. Growth at elevated carbon dioxide reduced rates of photosynthesis measured at standard carbon dioxide levels in both species. Photosynthetic rates measured at 350 ppm were lower on average by 33% in sugarbeet and 23% in soybean after growth at elevated carbon dioxide. Photosynthetic adjustment to elevated carbon dioxide was not greater after growth at 1.0 than 0.5 mmol m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} PPFD, was not greater at 20 than 25C growth temperature, and could not be overcome by high rates of nutrient application. These results do not support either the feedback inhibition nor nutrient deficiency hypotheses of photosynthetic adjustment to elevated carbon dioxide. In soybeans, complete photosynthetic adjustment could be induced by a single night at elevated carbon dioxide.

  5. Predictive factors for obtaining a correct therapeutic range using antivitamin K anticoagulants: a tertiary center experience of patient adherence to anticoagulant therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jurcu?, Ruxandra; Militaru, Sebastian; Geavlete, Oliviana; Dr?gotoiu, Nic; Sipo?, Sergiu; Ro?ulescu, R?zvan; Ginghin?, Carmen; Jurcu?, Ciprian

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient adherence is an essential factor in obtaining efficient oral anticoagulation using vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), a situation with a narrow therapeutic window. Therefore, patient education and awareness are crucial for good management. Auditing the current situation would help to identify the magnitude of the problem and to build tailored education programs for these patients. Methods This study included 68 hospitalized chronically anticoagulated patients (mean age 62.6±13.1 years; males, 46%) who responded to a 26-item questionnaire to assess their knowledge on VKA therapy management. Laboratory and clinical data were used to determine the international normalized ratio (INR) at admission, as well as to calculate CHA2DS2-VASC and HAS-BLED scores for patients with atrial fibrillation. Results The majority of patients (62%) were receiving VKA for atrial fibrillation, the others for a mechanical prosthesis and previous thromboembolic disease or stroke. In the atrial fibrillation group, the mean CHA2DS2-VASC score was 3.1±1.5, while the average HAS-BLED score was 1.8±1.2. More than half of the patients (53%) had an INR outside of the therapeutic range at admission, with the majority (43%) having a low INR. A correct INR value was predicted by education level (higher education) and the diagnostic indication (patients with mechanical prosthesis being best managed). Patients presenting with a therapeutic INR had a trend toward longer treatment duration than those outside the therapeutic range (62±72 months versus 36±35 months, respectively, P=0.06). There was no correlation between INR at admission and the patient’s living conditions, INR monitoring frequency, and bleeding history. Conclusion In a tertiary cardiology center, more than half of patients receiving VKAs are admitted with an INR falling outside the therapeutic range, irrespective of the bleeding or embolic risk. Patients with a mechanical prosthesis and complex antithrombotic regimens appear to be the most careful with INR monitoring, especially if they have a higher level of education. Identifying patient groups with the lowest time interval spent in the therapeutic range could help attending physicians educate patients focusing on specific awareness issues. PMID:26388689

  6. Factors regulating soil surface CO2 and NOx flux in response to high temperature, pulse water events, and nutrient fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Grantz, D. A.; Chatterjee, A.; Eberwein, J. R.; Allsman, L. A.; Jenerette, D.

    2012-12-01

    Trace gas emissions from the soil surface are often underestimated due to poor understanding of the factors regulating fluxes under extreme conditions when moisture can be highly variable. In particular, dynamics of soil surface trace gas emissions from hot agricultural regions can be difficult to predict due to the sporadic use of flood irrigation and nitrogen fertilization. Soil surface CO2 and NOx fluxes are especially difficult to predict due to nonlinear responses to pulse water and fertilization events. Additionally, models such as Lloyd and Taylor (1994) and Yienger and Levy II (1995) are not well parameterized for soil surface CO2 and NOx flux, respectively, under excessively high temperatures. We measured soil surface CO2 and NOx flux in an agricultural field transitioning from fallow to biofuel crop production (Sorghum bicolor). Soil surface CO2 flux was measured using CO2 probes coupled with the flux-gradient method. NOx measurements were made using chambers coupled with a NOx monitor. Our field site is located at the University of California Desert Research and Extension Center in the Imperial Valley of CA. Air temperatures regularly exceed 42°C in the summer. Flood irrigation is used at the site as well as nitrogen fertilizers. Soil respiration ranged from 0-15 ?moles CO2 m-2 s-1, with strong hysteresis observed both with and without plants. Soil CO2 fluxes measured in the fallow field before the biofuel crop was planted were temperature independent and mainly regulated by soil moisture. When plants were introduced, temperature became an important predictor for soil respiration as well as canopy height. NOx fluxes were highest at intermediate soil moisture and varied significantly across an irrigation cycle. NOx emissions were temperature dependent, ranging from 3-113 ng N cm-2 hr-1. Neither CO2 nor NOx emissions showed inhibition at soil temperatures up to 55°C. Models may underestimate fluxes of CO2 and NOx from hot agricultural regions due to their inability to account for high temperature emission behavior, responses to irrigation and fertilization events, and influence of vegetation on soil surface trace gas flux.

  7. Exercise hyperthermia as a factor limiting physical performance - Temperature effect on muscle metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, S.; Brzezinska, Z.; Kruk, B.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of trunk cooling on the muscle contents of ATP, ADP, AMP, creatine phosphate (CrP), and creatine, as well as of glycogen, some glycolytic intermediates, pyruvate, and lactate were assessed in 11 fasted dogs exercised at 20 C on treadmill to exhaustion. Without cooling, dogs were able to run 57 min, and their rectal (Tre) and muscle (Tm) temperatures increased to 41.8 and 43.0 C, respectively. Cooling with ice packs prolonged the ability to run by 45 percent, and resulted in lower Tre (by 1.1 C) and Tm (by 1.2 C). Depletion of muscle content of total high-energy phosphates (ATP + CrP) and glycogen, and increases in contents of AMP, pyruvate, and lactate were lower in cooled dogs than in non-cooled dogs. The muscle content of lactiate correlated positively with TM. These results indicate that hypothermia accelerates glycolysis, and shifts the equilibrium between high- and low-energy phosphates in favor of the latter. The adverse effect of hypothermia on muscle metabolism may be relevant to the limitation of endurance.

  8. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 °C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO2), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos ? values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos ? values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability.

  9. RECIPES FOR WRITING ALGORITHMS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CORRECTIONS AND TEMPERATURE/EMISSIVITY SEPARATIONS IN THE THERMAL REGIME FOR A MULTI-SPECTRAL SENSOR

    SciTech Connect

    C. BOREL; W. CLODIUS

    2001-04-01

    This paper discusses the algorithms created for the Multi-spectral Thermal Imager (MTI) to retrieve temperatures and emissivities. Recipes to create the physics based water temperature retrieval, emissivity of water surfaces are described. A simple radiative transfer model for multi-spectral sensors is developed. A method to create look-up-tables and the criterion of finding the optimum water temperature are covered. Practical aspects such as conversion from band-averaged radiances to brightness temperatures and effects of variations in the spectral response on the atmospheric transmission are discussed. A recipe for a temperature/emissivity separation algorithm when water surfaces are present is given. Results of retrievals of skin water temperatures are compared with in-situ measurements of the bulk water temperature at two locations are shown.

  10. Experimental determination of field factors (\\Omega _{{{Q}_{\\text{clin}}},{{Q}_{\\text{msr}}}}^{{{f}_{\\text{clin}}},{{f}_{\\text{msr}}}} ) for small radiotherapy beams using the daisy chain correction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Recently, Alfonso et al proposed a new formalism for the dosimetry of small and non-standard fields. The proposed new formalism is strongly based on the calculation of detector-specific beam correction factors by Monte Carlo simulation methods, which accounts for the difference in the response of the detector between the small and the machine specific reference field. The correct calculation of the detector-specific beam correction factors demands an accurate knowledge of the linear accelerator, detector geometry and composition materials. The present work shows that the field factors in water may be determined experimentally using the daisy chain correction method down to a field size of 1?cm??×??1?cm for a specific set of detectors. The detectors studied were: three mini-ionization chambers (PTW-31014, PTW-31006, IBA-CC01), three silicon-based diodes (PTW-60018, IBA-SFD and IBA-PFD) and one synthetic diamond detector (PTW-60019). Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements were performed for a 6 MV photon beam at 10?cm depth in water with a source-to-axis distance of 100?cm. The results show that the differences between the experimental and Monte Carlo calculated field factors are less than 0.5%—with the exception of the IBA-PFD—for field sizes between 1.5?cm??×??1.5?cm and 5?cm??×??5?cm. For the 1?cm??×??1?cm field size, the differences are within 2%. By using the daisy chain correction method, it is possible to determine measured field factors in water. The results suggest that the daisy chain correction method is not suitable for measurements performed with the IBA-PFD detector. The latter is due to the presence of tungsten powder in the detector encapsulation material. The use of Monte Carlo calculated k{{Q\\text{clin}},{{Q}\\text{msr}}}{{f\\text{clin}},{{f}\\text{msr}}} is encouraged for field sizes less than or equal to 1?cm??×??1?cm for the dosimeters used in this work.

  11. Statistically corrected ocean thermography.

    PubMed

    Yoshimori, K; Itoh, K; Ichioka, Y

    1994-10-20

    A corrected thermal imaging method for a wind-roughened water surface is proposed. This method can be applied even if the imaging system is placed at low altitudes, say on a ship or on land, as well as on an airborne platform. Such a technique is desirable from the following points of view: the surveillance of bioresources (fish), environmental assessments of a seaside industrial zone (hot waste water), and temporal complement and spatial interpolation of satellite observations of thermal images. The method is based on the analysis of optical characteristics of a model of a wind-roughened water surface, namely, the Gaussian-Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) model, where the surface displacement obeys Gaussian distribution while its spectrum is specified by the JONSWAP wave spectral model. We present the basic temperature-correction formula and the algorithm for correction. The correction takes into account thermal emission of the water's surface, radiation of the sky reflected on the water's surface, and both absorption and emission by the atmosphere along the light path. This formula can be used for temperature correction of an infrared image of sky and random water surface. The experimental results that we obtained are encouraging. PMID:20941260

  12. Temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, with an underlying assumption that at minimum ambient temperatures, flies (Musca domestica) play a role in the epidemiology and seasonality of...

  13. High Q-factor Sapphire Whispering Gallery Mode Microwave Resonator at Single Photon Energies and milli-Kelvin Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Daniel L. Creedon; Yarema Reshitnyk; Warrick Farr; John M. Martinis; Timothy L. Duty; Michael E. Tobar

    2011-04-01

    The microwave properties of a crystalline sapphire dielectric whispering gallery mode resonator have been measured at very low excitation strength (E/hf=1) and low temperatures (T = 30 mK). The measurements were sensitive enough to observe saturation due to a highly detuned electron spin resonance, which limited the loss tangent of the material to about 2e-8 measured at 13.868 and 13.259 GHz. Small power dependent frequency shifts were also measured which correspond to an added magnetic susceptibility of order 1e-9. This work shows that quantum limited microwave resonators with Q-factors > 1e8 are possible with the implementation of a sapphire whispering gallery mode system.

  14. Identification, classification, and expression profiles of heat shock transcription factors in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) under temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Li, Xing-Hui; Huang, Ying; Li, Hui; Wang, Yong-Xin; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-01-15

    In vascular plants, heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate heat stress response by regulating the expression of heat shock proteins. This study systematically and comprehensively analyzed the Hsf family in tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. A total of 16 CsHsfs were identified from the transcriptome database of tea plant and analyzed for their phylogenetic relationships, motifs, and physicochemical characteristics. On the basis of the phylogenetic comparison of tea plant with Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Theobroma cacao, and Oryza sativa, the CsHsfs were classified into three classes, namely, A (56.25%), B (37.50%), and C (6.25%). Heat mapping showed that the expression profiles of CsHsf genes under non-stress conditions varied among four tea plant cultivars, namely, 'Yunnanshilixiang', 'Chawansanhao', 'Ruchengmaoyecha', and 'Anjibaicha'. Six CsHsf genes (CsHsfA1a, CsHsfA1b, CsHsfA6, CsHsfB1, CsHsfB2b, and CsHsfC1) were selected from classes A, B, and C to analyze the expression profiles of CsHsf genes through quantitative real-time PCR in 'Yingshuang', 'Anjibaicha', and 'Yunnanshilixiang' under high (38°C) or low (4°C) temperature stress. Temperature stress positively or negatively regulated all of the selected CsHsf genes, and the expression levels evidently varied even among CsHsf genes belonging to the same class. This study provided a relatively detailed summary of Hsfs in tea plant and may serve as a reference for further studies on the mechanism of temperature stress regulation by CsHsfs. PMID:26431998

  15. Metabolic fingerprinting of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) liver to track interactions between dietary factors and seasonal temperature variations

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Ana M.R.; Conceição, Luís E.C.; Dias, Jorge P.; Rodrigues, Pedro M.L.; Richard, Nadège

    2014-01-01

    Farmed gilthead seabream is sometimes affected by a metabolic syndrome, known as the “winter disease”, which has a significant economic impact in the Mediterranean region. It is caused, among other factors, by the thermal variations that occur during colder months and there are signs that an improved nutritional status can mitigate the effects of this thermal stress. For this reason, a trial was undertaken where we assessed the effect of two different diets on gilthead seabream physiology and nutritional state, through metabolic fingerprinting of hepatic tissue. For this trial, four groups of 25 adult gilthead seabream were reared for 8 months, being fed either with a control diet (CTRL, low-cost commercial formulation) or with a diet called “Winter Feed” (WF, high-cost improved formulation). Fish were sampled at two time-points (at the end of winter and at the end of spring), with liver tissue being taken for FT-IR spectroscopy. Results have shown that seasonal temperature variations constitute a metabolic challenge for gilthead seabream, with hepatic carbohydrate stores being consumed over the course of the inter-sampling period. Regarding the WF diet, results point towards a positive effect in terms of performance and improved nutritional status. This diet seems to have a mitigating effect on the deleterious impact of thermal shifts, confirming the hypothesis that nutritional factors can affect the capacity of gilthead seabream to cope with seasonal thermal variations and possibly contribute to prevent the onset of “winter disease”. PMID:25210655

  16. Static and Dynamic Structure Factors with Account of the Ion Structure for High-temperature Alkali and Alkaline Earth Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polatovna Sadykova, Saltanat; Ebeling, Werner; Tkachenko, Igor M.

    2010-11-01

    The electron-electron, electron-ion, ion-ion and charge-charge static structure factors (SSF) are calculated for alkali and Be^2+ plasmas at various temperatures and concentrations using the method described by G. Gregori et al., Phys. Rev. E 74, 026402 (2006); High Energy Density Phys. 3, 99 (2007). The dynamic structure factors (DSF) for alkali plasmas are calculated using the method of moments developed by V. M. Adamjan et al., High. Temp. 21, 307 (1983). In both methods the screened Hellmann-Gurskii-Krasko potential, obtained on the basis of Bogolyubov's method, has been used taking into account not only the quantum-mechanical effects but also reflects important features of the ion structure (S. Sadykova et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 49, 76 (2009)). Our results on the SSFs for Be^2+ plasma deviate from the data obtained by Gregori et al., while our DSFs are in a reasonable agreement with those of S. V. Adamjan et al., Phys. Rev. E 48, 2067 (1993). We conclude that the short range forces, which we take into account by means of the HGK model potential, which deviates from the Coulomb and Deutsch ones, employed by S. V. Adamjan et al. and Gregori et al. correspondingly, influence the SSFs and DSFs significantly.

  17. Aureolegraph internal scattering correction.

    PubMed

    DeVore, John; Villanucci, Dennis; LePage, Andrew

    2012-11-20

    Two methods of determining instrumental scattering for correcting aureolegraph measurements of particulate solar scattering are presented. One involves subtracting measurements made with and without an external occluding ball and the other is a modification of the Langley Plot method and involves extrapolating aureolegraph measurements collected through a large range of solar zenith angles. Examples of internal scattering correction determinations using the latter method show similar power-law dependencies on scattering, but vary by roughly a factor of 8 and suggest that changing aerosol conditions during the determinations render this method problematic. Examples of corrections of scattering profiles using the former method are presented for a range of atmospheric particulate layers from aerosols to cumulus and cirrus clouds. PMID:23207299

  18. Hardcopy global color correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Yousun; Kim, Yuntae; Choh, Heui-Keun

    2006-01-01

    When time, temperature or an external environment change, a laser electrophotographic printer produces quite different color tones from original ones. To achieve consistent color reproduction, many researchers have tried to characterize printer tone curves and developed methods to correct color tones. Color channel independent methods are most widely used, and there are two approaches in color channel independent method: (1) Instrument-based correction and (2) visual correction. Two approaches provide some trade-offs between cost and accuracy. In this paper we propose a methodology which combines the strengths of these two approaches. We describe how we design a calibration page and how we characterize lightness variation of a reference patch. We then present the procedure of our global tone correction method based on visual appearance match of end-users as well as the predetermined reference lightness model. We simulate tone distortion state by varying hardware parameters, and perform visual appearance match experiments to subjects. Our experimental results show that our method can significantly reduce color difference between the original print and the print at the distortion state. This suggests that we can reliably estimate the distortion parameter, and correct tones close to an original state.

  19. Postexposure factors influencing the duration of postantibiotic effect: significance of temperature, pH, cations, and oxygen tension.

    PubMed Central

    Fuursted, K

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess and compare the impacts of various postexposure conditions on postantibiotic effect (PAE). PAEs were induced in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by exposing the organisms to different antibiotics (penicillin G, ampicillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin) at 5 or 10 times the MIC in plain Mueller-Hinton broth for 1 h at 35 degrees C. Regrowth was determined by measuring the viable counts after drug removal by a 10(-3) or 10(-4) dilution procedure under various postexposure conditions (incubation temperatures at 20, 25, 30, or 35 degrees C; growth under shaken, unshaken, anaerobic conditions; pH 6.0, 7.4, or 9.0; and with sodium chloride concentrations at 0, 1, 3, or 6%). PAE increased in response to a decrease in incubation temperature from 35 to 20 degrees C, and a significant correlation between bacterial generation times and duration of PAEs (r2, 0.82 to 0.97) was demonstrated. The duration of PAE was also modified by the pH in the regrowth medium. PAE increased considerably for S. aureus at pH 6.0 and 9.0 compared to that at pH 7.4 after induction with penicillin G, and with gentamicin the PAE against S. aureus recovering at pH 6.0 also increased considerably. A high concentration of sodium chloride in the regrowth medium produced the most extensive changes in PAE except for that against E. coli induced by ampicillin. PAE increased significantly in response to increased salinity. No recovery even after overnight incubation was detected for S. aureus after preexposure to penicillin, ciprofloxacin, or gentamicin. Only minor changes in the duration of PAE were observed in relation to recovery oxygen tension. It is concluded that many postexposure factors have a profound effect on the duration of PAE. PMID:9257743

  20. Alternate corrections for estimating actual wetland evapotranspiration from potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, Shoemaker W.; Sumner, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Corrections can be used to estimate actual wetland evapotranspiration (AET) from potential evapotranspiration (PET) as a means to define the hydrology of wetland areas. Many alternate parameterizations for correction coefficients for three PET equations are presented, covering a wide range of possible data-availability scenarios. At nine sites in the wetland Everglades of south Florida, USA, the relatively complex PET Penman equation was corrected to daily total AET with smaller standard errors than the PET simple and Priestley-Taylor equations. The simpler equations, however, required less data (and thus less funding for instrumentation), with the possibility of being corrected to AET with slightly larger, comparable, or even smaller standard errors. Air temperature generally corrected PET simple most effectively to wetland AET, while wetland stage and humidity generally corrected PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman most effectively to wetland AET. Stage was identified for PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman as the data type with the most correction ability at sites that are dry part of each year or dry part of some years. Finally, although surface water generally was readily available at each monitoring site, AET was not occurring at potential rates, as conceptually expected under well-watered conditions. Apparently, factors other than water availability, such as atmospheric and stomata resistances to vapor transport, also were limiting the PET rate. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  1. The Bacillus subtilis sigma(X) protein is an extracytoplasmic function sigma factor contributing to survival at high temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, X; Decatur, A; Sorokin, A; Helmann, J D

    1997-01-01

    The sigX gene, identified as part of the international effort to sequence the Bacillus subtilis genome, has been proposed to encode an alternative sigma factor of the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) subfamily. The sigX gene is cotranscribed with a downstream gene, ypuN, during logarithmic and early stationary phases of growth. We now report that strains lacking sigma(X) are impaired in the ability to survive at high temperature whereas a ypuN mutant has increased thermotolerance. We overproduced and purified sigma(X) from Escherichia coli and demonstrate that in vitro, both sigma(A) and sigma(X) holoenzymes recognize promoter elements within the sigX-ypuN control region. However, they have distinct salt optima such that sigma(A)-dependent transcription predominates at low salt while sigma(X)-dependent transcription predominates at high salt. A 54-bp region upstream of sigX suffices as a sigma(X)-dependent promoter in vivo, demonstrating that sigX is at least partially under positive autoregulatory control. Mutation of ypuN increases expression from the sigma(X)-dependent promoter in vivo, suggesting that ypuN may encode a negative regulator of sigma(X) activity. PMID:9139908

  2. A CORRECTION.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D

    1940-03-22

    IN a recently published volume on "The Origin of Submarine Canyons" the writer inadvertently credited to A. C. Veatch an excerpt from a submarine chart actually contoured by P. A. Smith, of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. The chart in question is Chart IVB of Special Paper No. 7 of the Geological Society of America entitled "Atlantic Submarine Valleys of the United States and the Congo Submarine Valley, by A. C. Veatch and P. A. Smith," and the excerpt appears as Plate III of the volume fist cited above. In view of the heavy labor involved in contouring the charts accompanying the paper by Veatch and Smith and the beauty of the finished product, it would be unfair to Mr. Smith to permit the error to go uncorrected. Excerpts from two other charts are correctly ascribed to Dr. Veatch. PMID:17839404

  3. Determination and Use of the Local Recovery Factor for Calculating the Effectiveness Gas Temperature for Turbine Blades / Jack B. Esgar and Alfred L. Lea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esgar, Jack B; Lea, Alfred L

    1951-01-01

    In an in experimental investigation of local recovery factors for a blade having a pressure distribution similar to that of a typical reaction-type turbine blade, it a was found that the recovery factors were essentially independent of Mach number, Reynolds number, pressure gradient, and position on the blade surface except for regions where the boundary layer was probably in the transition range from laminar to turbulent. The recommended value of local subsonic recovery factor for use in calculating the effective gas temperature for gas turbine blades was 0.89.

  4. Factors Influencing Oral Corrective Feedback Provision in the Spanish Foreign Language Classroom: Investigating Instructor Native/Nonnative Speaker Status, SLA Education, & Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurzynski-Weiss, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The role of interactional feedback has been a critical area of second language acquisition (SLA) research for decades and while findings suggest interactional feedback can facilitate SLA, the extent of its influence can vary depending on a number of factors, including the native language of those involved in communication. Although studies have…

  5. Radiosondes Corrected for Inaccuracy in RH Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Miloshevich, Larry

    2008-01-15

    Corrections for inaccuracy in Vaisala radiosonde RH measurements have been applied to ARM SGP radiosonde soundings. The magnitude of the corrections can vary considerably between soundings. The radiosonde measurement accuracy, and therefore the correction magnitude, is a function of atmospheric conditions, mainly T, RH, and dRH/dt (humidity gradient). The corrections are also very sensitive to the RH sensor type, and there are 3 Vaisala sensor types represented in this dataset (RS80-H, RS90, and RS92). Depending on the sensor type and the radiosonde production date, one or more of the following three corrections were applied to the RH data: Temperature-Dependence correction (TD), Contamination-Dry Bias correction (C), Time Lag correction (TL). The estimated absolute accuracy of NIGHTTIME corrected and uncorrected Vaisala RH measurements, as determined by comparison to simultaneous reference-quality measurements from Holger Voemel's (CU/CIRES) cryogenic frostpoint hygrometer (CFH), is given by Miloshevich et al. (2006).

  6. Elastic and dynamic form factors of an atomic nucleus in the shell model with correction for the center-of-mass motion

    E-print Network

    A. Yu. Korchin; A. V. Shebeko

    2006-01-05

    Analytical expressions for the elastic and dynamic form factors (FFs) are derived in the shell model (SM) with a potential well of finite depth. The consideration takes into account the motion of the target-nucleus center of mass (CM). Explanation is suggested for a simultaneous shrinking of the density and momentum distributions of nucleons in nuclei. The convenient working formulae are given to handle the expectation values of relevant multiplicative operators in case of the 1s-1p shell nuclei.

  7. Metallurgical factors influencing the susceptibility of non-sensitized stainless steel to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking in high-temperature, high purity water environments

    SciTech Connect

    Akashi, Masatsune; Nakayama, Guen; Komatsu, Hajime; Abe, Seizaburo

    1999-07-01

    Sensitized stainless steels exhibit intergranular stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility in high-temperature and high purity-water environments with oxygen dissolved at certain levels. Non-sensitized stainless steels have been noted to display slight susceptibility to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking under such conditions but the factors involved are not fully understood. This paper discusses the metallurgical factors to be responsible for the susceptibility of non-sensitized stainless steel to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking in a high-temperature, high-purity water environment. The experimental results show that the amorphic CaS phase precipitated on grain boundaries as films is the major material factor for the susceptibility to appear, and that the Laves phase precipitated on grain boundaries tends to mitigate the susceptibility as well. Furthermore, the tendency was clearly seen that the higher austenite stability clearly increases the susceptibility of material to intergranular stress-corrosion cracking.

  8. Nested Quantum Annealing Correction

    E-print Network

    Walter Vinci; Tameem Albash; Daniel A. Lidar

    2015-11-22

    We present a general error-correcting scheme for quantum annealing that allows for the encoding of a logical qubit into an arbitrarily large number of physical qubits. Given any Ising model optimization problem, the encoding replaces each logical qubit by a complete graph of degree $C$, representing the distance of the error-correcting code. A subsequent minor-embedding step then implements the encoding on the underlying hardware graph of the quantum annealer. We demonstrate experimentally that the performance of a D-Wave Two quantum annealing device improves as $C$ grows. We show that the performance improvement can be interpreted as arising from an effective increase in the energy scale of the problem Hamiltonian, or equivalently, an effective reduction in the temperature at which the device operates. The number $C$ thus allows us to control the amount of protection against thermal and control errors, and in particular, to trade qubits for a lower effective temperature that scales as $C^{-\\eta}$, with $\\eta \\leq 2$. This effective temperature reduction is an important step towards scalable quantum annealing.

  9. Detector signal correction method and system

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, Robert M. (Glastonbury, CT); Duran, Andrew J. (Oviedo, FL); Kudman, Irwin (Boca Raton, FL)

    1995-07-11

    Corrective factors are applied so as to remove anomalous features from the signal generated by a photoconductive detector, and to thereby render the output signal highly linear with respect to the energy of incident, time-varying radiation. The corrective factors may be applied through the use of either digital electronic data processing means or analog circuitry, or through a combination of those effects.

  10. Perturbative renormalization factors and O(a{sup 2}) corrections for lattice four-fermion operators with improved fermion/gluon actions

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinou, Martha; Panagopoulos, Haralambos; Skouroupathis, Apostolos; Stylianou, Fotos; Dimopoulos, Petros; Frezzotti, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    In this work we calculate the corrections to the amputated Green's functions of four-fermion operators, in 1-loop lattice perturbation theory. One of the novel aspects of our calculations is that they are carried out to second order in the lattice spacing, O(a{sup 2}). We employ the Wilson/clover action for massless fermions (also applicable for the twisted mass action in the chiral limit) and a family of Symanzik improved actions for gluons. Our calculations have been carried out in a general covariant gauge. Results have been obtained for several popular choices of values for the Symanzik coefficients (Plaquette, Tree-level Symanzik, Iwasaki, TILW and DBW2 action). While our Green's function calculations regard any pointlike four-fermion operators which do not mix with lower dimension ones, we pay particular attention to {Delta}F=2 operators, both parity conserving and parity violating (F stands for flavor: S, C, B). By appropriately projecting those bare Green's functions we compute the perturbative renormalization constants for a complete basis of four-fermion operators and we study their mixing pattern. For some of the actions considered here, even O(a{sup 0}) results did not exist in the literature to date. The correction terms which we calculate (along with our previous O(a{sup 2}) calculation of Z{sub {Psi}}[M. Constantinou, V. Lubicz, H. Panagopoulos, and F. Stylianou, J. High Energy Phys. 10 (2009) 064.][M. Constantinou, P. Dimopoulos, R. Frezzotti, G. Herdoiza, K. Jansen, V. Lubicz, H. Panagopoulos, G. C. Rossi, S. Simula, F. Stylianou, and A. Vladikas, J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 068.][C. Alexandrou, M. Constantinou, T. Korzec, H. Panagopoulos, and F. Stylianou (unpublished).]) are essential ingredients for minimizing the lattice artifacts which are present in nonperturbative evaluations of renormalization constants with the RI{sup '}-MOM method. Our perturbative results, for the matrix elements of {Delta}F=2 operators and for the corresponding renormalization matrices, depend on a large number of parameters: coupling constant, number of colors, lattice spacing, external momentum, clover parameter, Symanzik coefficients, gauge parameter. To make these results most easily accessible to the reader, we have included them in the distribution package of this paper, as an ASCII file named: 4-fermi.m; the file is best perused as Mathematica input. The main results of this work have been applied to improve nonperturbative estimates of the B{sub K}-parameter in N{sub F}=2 twisted mass lattice QCD [M. Constantinou, P. Dimopoulos, R. Frezzotti, K. Jansen, V. Gimenez, V. Lubicz, F. Mescia, H. Panagopoulos, M. Papinutto, G. C. Rossi, S. Simula, A. Skouroupathis, F. Stylianou, and A. Vladikas, arXiv:1009.5606.].

  11. Transcription factors and anthocyanin genes related to low-temperature tolerance in rd29A:RdreB1BI transgenic strawberry.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xianbin; Chen, Yahua; Gao, Zhihong; Qiao, Yushan; Wang, Xiuyun

    2015-04-01

    Dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) transcription factors play critical roles in plant stress responses and signal transduction. To further understand how DREB regulates genes expression to promote cold-hardiness, Illumina/Solexa sequencing technology was used to compare the transcriptomes of non-transgenic and rd29A:RdreB1BI transgenic strawberry plants exposed to low temperatures. Approximately 3.5 million sequence tags were obtained from non-transgenic (NT) and transgenic (T) strawberry untreated (C) or low-temperature treated (LT) leaf samples. Over 1000 genes were differentially expressed between the NT-C and T-C plants, and also the NT-C and NT-LT, as well as the T-C and T-LT plants. Analysis of the genes up-regulated following low-temperature treatment revealed that the majority are linked to metabolism, biosynthesis, transcription and signal transduction. Uniquely up-regulated transcription factors as well as anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes are discussed. Accumulation of anthocyanin in the stolon and the base of the petiole differed between non-treated NT and T plants, and this correlated with gene expression patterns. The differentially expressed genes that encode transcription factors and anthocyanin enzymes may contribute to the cold hardiness of RdreB1BI transgenic strawberry. The transcriptome data provide a valuable resource for further studies of strawberry growth and development and DREB-mediated gene regulation under low-temperature stress. PMID:25686702

  12. Effects of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) on sleep and temperature following predictable controllable and uncontrollable stress in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, Laurie L.; Yang, Linghui; Sanford, Larry D.

    2015-01-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a major mediator of central nervous system responses to stressors, including alterations in wakefulness and sleep. However, its role in mediating stress-induced alterations in sleep has not been fully delineated. In this study, we assessed the role of CRF and the non-specific CRF antagonist, astressin (AST), in regulating changes in sleep produced by signaled, escapable shock (SES) and signaled inescapable shock (SIS), two stressors that can increase or decrease sleep, respectively. Male BALB/cJ mice were surgically implanted with transmitters (DataSciences ETA10-F20) for recording EEG, activity and core body temperature by telemetry and a cannula for intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinjections. After baseline (Base) sleep recording, mice were presented tones (90 dB, 2 kHz) that started 5.0 s prior to and co-terminated with footshock (0.5 mA; 5.0 s maximum duration). SES mice (n = 9) always received shock but could terminate it by moving to the non-occupied chamber in a shuttlebox. Yoked SIS mice (n = 9) were treated identically, but could not alter shock duration. Training with SES or SIS was conducted over 2 days to stabilize responses. Afterwards, the mice received saline, CRF [0.4 ?g (0.42 mM) or AST (1.0 ?g (1.4 mM)] prior to SES or SIS. Sleep was analyzed over 20 h post-stress recordings. After administration of saline, REM was significantly greater in SES mice than in SIS mice whereas after CRF or AST, REM was similar in both groups. Total 20 h NREM did not vary across condition or group. However, after administration of saline and CRF, NREM episode duration was significantly decreased, and NREM episode number significantly increased, in SIS mice compared to SES animals. SES and SIS mice showed similar stress induced hyperthermia (SIH) across all conditions. These data demonstrate that CRF can mediate stress-induced changes in sleep independently of SIH, an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. PMID:26283899

  13. Investigation of the Dominant Factors Influencing the ERA15 Temperature Increments at the Subtropical and Temperate Belts with a Focus over the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Pinhas; Hirsch-Eshkol, Tali; Baharad, Anat

    2015-04-01

    A Stepwise Multi Regression-based statistics was employed for prioritizing the influence of several factors, both anthropogenic and natural, on the ERA15 temperature increments. The 5 factors which are defined as predictors are;topography, aerosol index (TOMS-AI), atmospheric vertical velocity along with two anthropogenic factors population density and land use changes (LUCI and NDVI trends). The seismic hazard assessment factor was also chosen as the "dummy variable", for validity. Special focus was given to the land use change factor, which was based on two different data sets; HITE data of historical land use/ land cover data and of NDVI trends during 1982- 1991. The Increment Analysis Updates of temperature (IAU(T)), the predicted data, was obtained from the ERA15 (1979-1993) reanalysis. The research consists of both spatial and vertical analyses as well as potential synergies of the selected variables. The spatial geographic analysis is divided into three categories; (a) Coarse region (b) Sub regions analysis and (c) A "small cell" of 4°X4° analysis. It is shown that the following three factors;Topography, TOMS-AI and NDVI are statistically significant (at p<0.05 level) in being the most effective predictors of IAU(T), especially at the 700mb level during March - June. In contrast, the 850mb presents the weakest contribution to IAU(T)probably due to contradictive influence of the various variables at this level. The land use as expressed by the NDVI trends factor, shows a very clear dependency with height, i.e. decreasing, and is one of the most influential factors over the Eastern Mediterranean, which explains up to 20% of the temperature increments in January at 700mb. Moreover, its influence is significant (p<0.05) through all research stages and the different combinations of the multiple regression runs. A major finding not quantified earlier. Reference: T. Hirsch-Eshkol, A. Baharad and P. Alpert, "Investigation of the dominant factors influencing the ERA15 temperature increments at the subtropical and temperate belts with a focus over the Eastern Mediterranean region", Land, 3, 1015-1036; doi:10.3390/land3031015, 2014.

  14. Electronic measurement correction devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mahns, R.R.

    1984-04-01

    The electronics semi-conductor revolution has touched every industry and home in the nation. The gas industry is no exception. Sophisticated gas measurement instrumentation has been with us for several decades now, but only in the last 10 years or so has it really begun to boom. First marketed were the flow computers dedicated to orifice meter measurement; but with steadily decreasing manufacturing costs, electronic instrumentation is now moving into the area of base volume, pressure and temperature correction previously handled almost solely by mechanical integrating instruments. This paper takes a brief look at some of the features of the newcomers on the market and how they stack up against the old standby mechanical base volume/pressure/temperature correctors.

  15. Numerical simulation of the effect of low-temperature transformation expansion on residual stress in cold cracking test specimens of different restraint factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Noriyoshi; Mikami, Yoshiki; Mochizuki, Masahito; Hiraoka, Kazuo

    2012-08-01

    Ni-Cr based high-strength weld metals have been developed to reduce preheating processes. In the development process of a welding wire, the evaluation of cold cracking resistance is important. In this study, the effect of low-temperature transformation expansion on the residual stress reduction of welds with different restraint factors in cold cracking test specimens was examined by numerical simulation. The results indicated that the weld metal with low-temperature transformation expansion exhibits the effect of residual stress reduction at a high restraint factor. The reduction decreased for a low restraint factor. Even if the restraint factor changes, the distribution of the restraint factor in the Y-groove weld cracking test is different from that in the H-type restrained weld cracking test. Distributions of residual stresses at the weld root in cold cracking in the Y-groove test and the H-type test have different tendencies. Thus, the difference should be considered when conducting the cold cracking test.

  16. Limitations of ZAF correction factors in the determination of calcium/phosphorus ratios: Important forensic science considerations relevant to the analysis of bone fragments using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, C.M.; Cromey, D.W. )

    1990-05-01

    A series of calcium phosphate standards having calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) molar ratios of 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, and 1.67, respectively, was prepared for bulk specimen analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA). The standards were mounted on carbon planchettes as either pure crystals or crystals embedded in epoxy resin. Ten different samples of each embedded and non-embedded standard were analyzed in a JEOL 100 CX electron microscope interfaced with a Kevex 8000 EDXA system using a lithium-drifted silicon detector and a multichannel analyzer. The Ca/P ratios were determined by calculating both net peak intensities without matrix corrections and atomic kappa-ratios using the MAGIC V computer program with ZAF correction factors for quantitative analysis. There was such extensive absorption of phosphorus X-rays in standards embedded in an epoxy matrix that the observed Ca/P ratios were statistically compatible with four different standards ranging in theoretical Ca/P ratios from 1.0 to 1.67. Although the non-embedded crystals showed a greater separation in the Ca/P ratios, both methods of preparation produced serious flaws in analysis. Direct application of the discovery of this caveat to the identification of suspected bone fragments for forensic science purposes is discussed.

  17. Influence of salinity and temperature on the physiology of Limia melanonotata (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae): A search for abiotic factors limiting insular distribution in Hispaniola

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haney, D.C.; Walsh, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated salinity and temperature effects on routine metabolic rate (RMR), temperature tolerance (CTMax, critical thermal maximum), and salinity tolerance of Limia melanonotata, a poecliid fish that occurs in west-central inland waters of Hispaniola. Routine metabolic rate and CTMax were measured in fish acclimated to three salinities (0, 30, and 60 ppt) and temperatures (25??, 30??, and 35??C) for nine temperature-salinity combinations. Salinity and temperature did not significantly interact in their effect on RMR. For combined salinity acclimations, adjusted RMR (ANCOVA) was significantly lower at 25??C than either 30?? or 35??C. For combined temperature acclimations, mean RMR was significantly lower at 60 ppt than either 0 or 30 ppt. Salinity and temperature had a significant interactive effect on temperature tolerance. Mean CTMax was significantly higher at 30?? than 25??C at all salinities, but at 35??C was significantly higher than at 25?? or 30??C only among fish acclimated in fresh water. Fish exposed to a chronic increase in salinity experienced most mortality in a salinity range of 70-107 ppt, with females exhibiting greater salinity tolerance than males. Limia melanonotata approaches the upper extreme in salinity and temperature tolerances known for poeciliids. Our results also suggest that L. melanonotata may reduce energy expenditures at environmental extremes to tolerate harsh conditions for extended periods. Despite its curythermal and euryhaline adaptations, L. melanonotata has a relatively restricted inland range in Hispaniola and is unknown from inshore brackish or marine habitats. The present distribution of this species and congeners may be the result of a combination of factors that include historical zoogeography and ecological requirements.

  18. Effects of lipid and urea extraction on ?15N values of deep-sea sharks and hagfish: Can mathematical correction factors be generated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Diana A.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Dean Grubbs, R.

    2015-05-01

    Stable isotope analysis is broadly employed to investigate diverse ecological questions. In order to make appropriate comparisons among multiple taxa, however, it is necessary to standardize values to account for interspecific differences in factors that affect isotopic ratios. For example, varying concentrations of soluble nitrogen compounds, such as urea or trimethylamine oxide, can affect the analysis and interpretation of ?15N values of sharks or hagfish. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of a standard chloroform/methanol extraction on the stable isotope values of muscle tissue obtained from 10 species of sharks and three species of hagfish collected from poorly-known deep-water (>200 m) communities. We detected significant differences in ?15N, %N, and C:N values as a result of extractions in 8 of 10 shark and all three hagfish species. We observed increased ?15N values, but shifts in %N and C:N values were not unidirectional. Mathematical normalizations for ?15N values were successfully created for four shark and two hagfish species. However, they were not successful for two shark species. Therefore, performing extractions of all samples is recommended.

  19. Quasar Spectrum Classification with PCA - II: Introduction of Five Classes, Artificial Quasar Spectrum, the Mean Flux Correction Factor dF,and the Identification of Emission Lines in the Ly alpha Forest

    E-print Network

    Nao Suzuki

    2005-03-10

    We investigate the variety in quasar UV spectra (1020-1600A) with emphasis on the weak emission lines in the Ly alpha forest region using principal component analysis (PCA). This paper is a continuation of Suzuki et al. (2005, Paper I), but with a different approach. We use 50 smooth continuum fitted quasar spectra (0.14 Ly alpha forest are identified as FeII 1070.95A, FeII+FeIII 1123.17A, and CIII* 1175.88A. Using first two standardized PCS coefficients, we introduce five classifications: Class Zero and Class I-IV. These classifications will guide us in finding the continuum level in the Ly alpha forest, and we discuss the characteristics of each class. We show weak emission lines in the Ly alpha forest become eminent for Class III and IV. By actively using PCS, we can generate artificial quasar spectra which are useful to test the detection of quasars, DLAs, and the continuum calibration. We provide 10,000 artificially generated spectra. We show that the power-law extrapolated continuum is inadequate to perform precise measurements of the mean flux in the Ly alpha forest because of the weak emission lines and the extended tails of Ly alpha and Ly beta/OVI emission lines. We introduce a correction factor dF such that the true mean flux can be related to that is measured by using power-law continuum extrapolation: = dF. The correction factor dF ranges from 0.84 to 1.05 with a mean of 0.947 and a standard deviation of 0.031 for our 50 quasars. This result means that we miss 5.3% of flux on average and we show that there are cases where we would miss 16% of flux using a power-law extrapolation.

  20. Factors contributing to the degradation of poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) fibers under elevated temperature and humidity conditions 

    E-print Network

    O'Neil, Joseph M

    2006-10-30

    The moisture absorption behavior of Zylon fibers was characterized in various high temperature and high humidity conditions in a controlled environment. The results of these thermal cycling tests show that PBO fibers not only absorb, but also retain...

  1. Evidence for cumulative temperature as an initiating and terminating factor in downstream migratory behavior of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, G.B.; Haro, A.; McCormick, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Temperature control of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt migration was tested using a novel technique allowing nearly continuous monitoring of behavior with complete control over environmental conditions. Parr and presmolts were implanted with passive integrated transponder tags, placed in simulated streams, and monitored for upstream and downstream movements. Beginning 18 April, temperature was increased 1??C every third day (advanced), fourth day (ambient), and tenth day (delayed). Smolt downstream movements were initially low, peaked in mid-May, and subsequently declined under all conditions. Parr downstream movements were significantly lower than those of smolts in all treatments (0.8 ?? 0.5 movement??day-1 versus 26.5 ?? 4.5 movements??day-1, mean ?? SE) and showed no increase. At delayed temperatures, smolts sustained downstream movements through July; those under ambient and advanced conditions ceased activity by mid-June. Initiation and termination of downstream movements occurred at significantly different temperatures but at the same number of degree-days in all treatments. Physiological changes associated with smolting (gill Na+,K +-ATPase activity and plasma thyroxine) were coincident with behavioral changes. This is the first evidence of a behavioral component to the smolt window. We found that temperature experience over time is more relevant to initiation and termination of downstream movement than a temperature threshold. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  2. Entropic corrections to Newton's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R.

    2012-06-01

    In this short paper, we calculate separately the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and self-gravitational corrections to Newton's gravitational formula. We show that for a complete description of the GUP and self-gravity effects, both the temperature and entropy must be modified.

  3. Entropic corrections to Newton's law

    E-print Network

    M. R. Setare; D. Momeni; R. Myrzakulov

    2012-04-24

    In this short letter we calculate separately the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and self gravitational corrections to the Newton's gravitational formula. We show that for a complete description of the GUP and self-gravity effects, both temperature and the entropy must be modified.

  4. Controlling factors of Ca isotope fractionation in scleractinian corals evaluated by temperature, pH and light controlled culture experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Mayuri; Gussone, Nikolaus; Koga, Yasuko; Iwase, Akihiro; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the 44Ca/40Ca ratios of Porites australiensis grown under three different culture experiments composed of temperature, pH and light controlled culture experiments are measured. The temperature dependent isotope fractionation of 0.02‰/°C deduced from this study is similar to inorganic aragonite, but the degree of isotope fractionation is about +0.4‰ offset in corals. These observations agree with earlier results on different coral species, suggesting Ca isotope fractionation during Ca transmembrane transport in corals. While in cultured corals a significant temperature dependence of ?44Ca is observed, the relationships between calcium isotope fractionation and pH as well as light intensity are negligible. Therefore variation of ?44Ca in Porites corals is mainly controlled by temperature. A combination of ?44Ca and Sr/Ca of corals in temperature controlled experiments cannot be explained by Rayleigh type fractionation directly from a fluid, which is seawater-like in terms of ?44Ca and Sr/Ca. Through coral-specific biomineralization processes, overall mean ?44Ca of scleractinian corals including previous studies are different from biogenic aragonites secreted by sclerosponges and pteropods, but are comparable with those of bivalves as well as calcitic coccolithophores and foraminifers. These findings are important for better understanding biomineralization in corals and in order to constrain the Ca isotopic composition of oceanic Ca sinks in response to climate changes and associated with shifts of calcite and aragonite seas.

  5. Factors which affect the morphology of AlN particles made by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R.; Chen, K.; Agathopoulos, S.; Ferreira, J. M. F.

    2006-10-01

    AlN was produced from Al powder via self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) at 8 and 12 MPa N 2 pressure. In the light of earlier studies, the discussion of the experimental results points out that AlN diluents, the endothermic nature of NH 4F decomposition, and the reducing capability of carbon black are features that can be considered for controlling the combustion temperature as well as the temperature and the prolongation of the after-burning period, which are all determinants of the morphology of the produced AlN particles. The presence of iron as mineralizer resulted in a complex microstructure, probably reflecting a complicate reaction mechanism.

  6. Factors relating to eating style, social desirability, body image and eating meals at home increase the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report measures of diet using recovery biomarkers: findings from the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent to which psychosocial and diet behavior factors affect dietary self-report remains unclear. We examine the contribution of these factors to measurement error of self-report. Methods In 450 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen were used as biomarkers of objective measures of total energy expenditure and protein. Self-report was captured from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), four day food record (4DFR) and 24 hr. dietary recall (24HR). Using regression calibration we estimated bias of self-reported dietary instruments including psychosocial factors from the Stunkard-Sorenson Body Silhouettes for body image perception, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Desirability Scale, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (R-18) for cognitive restraint for eating, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. We included a diet behavior factor on number of meals eaten at home using the 4DFR. Results Three categories were defined for each of the six psychosocial and diet behavior variables (low, medium, high). Participants with high social desirability scores were more likely to under-report on the FFQ for energy (??=?-0.174, SE?=?0.054, p?factors to calibration equations significantly increases the amount of total variance explained for protein density and their inclusion would be expected to strengthen the precision of calibration equations correcting self-report for measurement error. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00000611 PMID:23679960

  7. Deformation of contour and Hawking temperature

    E-print Network

    Chikun Ding; Jiliang Jing

    2010-01-19

    It was found that, in an isotropic coordinate system, the tunneling approach brings a factor of 1/2 for the Hawking temperature of a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper, we address this kind of problem by studying the relation between the Hawking temperature and the deformation of integral contour for the scalar and Dirac particles tunneling. We find that correct Hawking temperature can be obtained exactly as long as the integral contour deformed corresponding to the radial coordinate transform if the transformation is a non-regular or zero function at the event horizon.

  8. PREDICTIVE THERMAL INACTIVATION MODEL FOR SALMONELLA SEROTYPES WITH TEMPERATURE, SODIUM LACTATE, NAC1 AND SODIUM PYROPHOSPHATE AS CONTROLLING FACTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analyses of survival data of an eight strain cocktail of Salmonella spp. in ground beef with different concentrations of salt, sodium pyrophosphate (SPP), and sodium lactate (NaL) obtained after heating at different temperatures (55, 60, 65, and 71.1°C) indicated that heat resistance of Salmonella i...

  9. Temperature and pressure effects on capacitance probe cryogenic liquid level measurement accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Lawrence G.; Haberbusch, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The inaccuracies of liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen level measurements by use of a coaxial capacitance probe were investigated as a function of fluid temperatures and pressures. Significant liquid level measurement errors were found to occur due to the changes in the fluids dielectric constants which develop over the operating temperature and pressure ranges of the cryogenic storage tanks. The level measurement inaccuracies can be reduced by using fluid dielectric correction factors based on measured fluid temperatures and pressures. The errors in the corrected liquid level measurements were estimated based on the reported calibration errors of the temperature and pressure measurement systems. Experimental liquid nitrogen (LN2) and liquid hydrogen (LH2) level measurements were obtained using the calibrated capacitance probe equations and also by the dielectric constant correction factor method. The liquid levels obtained by the capacitance probe for the two methods were compared with the liquid level estimated from the fluid temperature profiles. Results show that the dielectric constant corrected liquid levels agreed within 0.5 percent of the temperature profile estimated liquid level. The uncorrected dielectric constant capacitance liquid level measurements deviated from the temperature profile level by more than 5 percent. This paper identifies the magnitude of liquid level measurement error that can occur for LN2 and LH2 fluids due to temperature and pressure effects on the dielectric constants over the tank storage conditions from 5 to 40 psia. A method of reducing the level measurement errors by using dielectric constant correction factors based on fluid temperature and pressure measurements is derived. The improved accuracy by use of the correction factors is experimentally verified by comparing liquid levels derived from fluid temperature profiles.

  10. High Q-factor sapphire whispering gallery mode microwave resonator at single photon energies and millikelvin temperatures

    E-print Network

    Martinis, John M.

    High Q-factor sapphire whispering gallery mode microwave resonator at single photon energies The microwave properties of a crystalline sapphire dielectric whispering gallery mode resonator have been with the implementation of a sapphire whispering gallery mode system. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. doi:10

  11. Identifying the Most Important Factors Promoting Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Contamination in Maize (Corn): Effects of Temperature and Bt-Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Background Maize (corn, Zea mays L.) is grown worldwide in both industrialized and developing countries. Maize is unusually susceptible to mycotoxin contamination, with aflatoxin being the most important mycotoxin. Our research program seeks to identify what pre-harvest factors are most important...

  12. Elevated air temperature alters an old-field insect community in a multi-factor climate change experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Villalpando, Sean; Williams, Ray; Norby, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    To address how multiple, interacting climate drivers may affect plant-insect community associations, we sampled the insect community from a constructed old-field plant community grown under simultaneous [CO2], temperature, and water manipulation. Insects were identified to morphospecies, assigned to feeding guilds and abundance, richness and evenness quantified. Warming significantly increased Order Thysanoptera abundance and reduced overall morphospecies richness and evenness. Non-metric multidimensional scaling clearly supported the effect of warming on insect community composition. Reductions in richness for herbivores and parasitoids suggest trophic-level effects within the insect community. Analysis of dominant insects demonstrated the effects of warming were limited to a relatively small number of morphospecies. Reported reductions in whole-community foliar N at elevated [CO2] unexpectedly did not result in any effects on herbivores. These results demonstrate climatic warming may alter certain insect communities via effects on insect species most responsive to higher temperature, contributing to a change in community structure.

  13. Factors for consideration in the interpretation of the adverse effects of elevated environmental temperatures on reproduction in the male rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrak, E.; Chap, Z.; Fried, K.

    1980-06-01

    Continuous exposure of male rats to an elevated environmental temperature (33 35° C) for 3 weeks led to heat-acclimatized (HA) rats whose serum testosterone concentratrion was significantly lower (P<0.01) than that of control (C) rats (20 22° C). The decrease in the androgen level was independent of major changes in serum FSH and LH concentrations, as well as hypothalamic content of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (THR), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, the prostaglandin F2?(PGF2?) content of the hypothalamus of HA rats was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of C. The number of receptors for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was significantly lower in testicular tissue of HA rats as compared to C males. Histological examination of the testis disclosed that exposure to heat adversely affected the sperm production and integrity of the Sertoli cells. Activity of enzymes associated with testosterone biosynthesis in testicular tissue of rats incubated at temperatures similar to those prevailing in the scrotum of HA rats resembled the activity of these enzymes observed in HA animals. Catabolism of testosterone was enhanced when kidney and liver of C rats were incubated at temperatures similar to the deep-body temperatures of HA rats, supporting the thesis that acclimatization to heat is coupled, inter alin, with increase androgen catabolism and excretion. It is suggested that the lower reproductive performance of HA rats is associated with several phenomena: a low number of receptors for hCG in the testes, decreased testoster one production rate by the Leydig cells, increased cata bolism and excretion of androgen, and partial atrophy of seminiferous tubules and Sertoli cells. These changes appear to be independent of either alteration in serum gonadotropin concentration or hypothalamic contents of TRH, GnR H and PGE2. The physiological significance in the response of PGF2? awaits further clarification.

  14. Soil moisture surpasses elevated CO2 and temperature as a control on soil carbon dynamics in a multi-factor climate change experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Classen, Aimee T; Norby, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    Some single-factor experiments suggest that elevated CO2 concentrations can increase soil carbon, but few experiments have examined the effects of interacting environmental factors on soil carbon dynamics. We undertook studies of soil carbon and nitrogen in a multi-factor (CO2 x temperature x soil moisture) climate change experiment on a constructed old-field ecosystem. After four growing seasons, elevated CO2 had no measurable effect on carbon and nitrogen concentrations in whole soil, particulate organic matter (POM), and mineral-associated organic matter (MOM). Analysis of stable carbon isotopes, under elevated CO2, indicated between 14 and 19% new soil carbon under two different watering treatments with as much as 48% new carbon in POM. Despite significant belowground inputs of new organic matter, soil carbon concentrations and stocks in POM declined over four years under soil moisture conditions that corresponded to prevailing precipitation inputs (1,300 mm yr-1). Changes over time in soil carbon and nitrogen under a drought treatment (approximately 20% lower soil water content) were not statistically significant. Reduced soil moisture lowered soil CO2 efflux and slowed soil carbon cycling in the POM pool. In this experiment, soil moisture (produced by different watering treatments) was more important than elevated CO2 and temperature as a control on soil carbon dynamics.

  15. Group 3 sigma factors in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 are required for growth at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Inoue-Sakamoto, Kaori; Gruber, Tanja M; Christensen, Suzanne K; Arima, Hiromi; Sakamoto, Toshio; Bryant, Donald A

    2007-04-01

    Three genes, sigF, sigG and sigH, encoding group 3 sigma factors have been cloned and characterized in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002. The sigF gene product was similar to sigma factors involved in general stress response and sporulation in other organisms, and the sigG and sigH gene products were similar to extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors. The sigG and sigH genes were associated with the putative regulatory genes and the sizes of transcripts for sigG and sigH genes were large enough to be cotranscribed with the associated downstream genes. The sigG downstream gene was designated sapG (sigG-associated protein), and yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that SigG and SapG interact when produced in yeast cells. Null mutants of these three group 3 sigma factor genes were created by interposon mutagenesis. The growth of the sigF mutant strain was much slower than the wild-type strain at 15 degrees C, although the growth rates at 22 degrees C and 38 degrees C were identical to those of the wild-type strain. The sigG mutant could not grow continuously at 22 degrees C, and no growth occurred at 15 degrees C. Since SigG and SapG interact in yeast cells and the sigG and sapG mutants showed a similar growth phenotype, SapG is likely to be a regulatory protein for SigG involved in the same pathway in transcriptional regulation in this cyanobacterium. PMID:17575449

  16. Nuclear correction factors from neutrino DIS

    E-print Network

    K. Kovarik

    2011-07-15

    Neutrino Deep Inelastic Scattering on nuclei is an essential process to constrain the strange quark parton distribution functions in the proton. The critical component on the way to using the neutrino DIS data in a proton PDF analysis is understanding the nuclear effects in parton distribution functions. We parametrize these effects by nuclear parton distribution functions and we use this framework to analyze the consistency of neutrino DIS data with other nuclear data.

  17. Genetic Variation for Thermotolerance in Lettuce Seed Germination Is Associated with Temperature-Sensitive Regulation of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1).

    PubMed

    Yoong, Fei-Yian; O'Brien, Laurel K; Truco, Maria Jose; Huo, Heqiang; Sideman, Rebecca; Hayes, Ryan; Michelmore, Richard W; Bradford, Kent J

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of most lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars are susceptible to thermoinhibition, or failure to germinate at temperatures above approximately 28°C, creating problems for crop establishment in the field. Identifying genes controlling thermoinhibition would enable the development of cultivars lacking this trait and, therefore, being less sensitive to high temperatures during planting. Seeds of a primitive accession (PI251246) of lettuce exhibited high-temperature germination capacity up to 33°C. Screening a recombinant inbred line population developed from PI215246 and cv Salinas identified a major quantitative trait locus (Htg9.1) from PI251246 associated with the high-temperature germination phenotype. Further genetic analyses discovered a tight linkage of the Htg9.1 phenotype with a specific DNA marker (NM4182) located on a single genomic sequence scaffold. Expression analyses of the 44 genes encoded in this genomic region revealed that only a homolog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (termed LsERF1) was differentially expressed between PI251246 and cv Salinas seeds imbibed at high temperature (30°C). LsERF1 belongs to a large family of transcription factors associated with the ethylene-signaling pathway. Physiological assays of ethylene synthesis, response, and action in parental and near-isogenic Htg9.1 genotypes strongly implicate LsERF1 as the gene responsible for the Htg9.1 phenotype, consistent with the established role for ethylene in germination thermotolerance of Compositae seeds. Expression analyses of genes associated with the abscisic acid and gibberellin biosynthetic pathways and results of biosynthetic inhibitor and hormone response experiments also support the hypothesis that differential regulation of LsERF1 expression in PI251246 seeds elevates their upper temperature limit for germination through interactions among pathways regulated by these hormones. Our results support a model in which LsERF1 acts through the promotion of gibberellin biosynthesis to counter the inhibitory effects of abscisic acid and, therefore, promote germination at high temperatures. PMID:26574598

  18. Smooth eigenvalue correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrikse, Anne; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2013-12-01

    Second-order statistics play an important role in data modeling. Nowadays, there is a tendency toward measuring more signals with higher resolution (e.g., high-resolution video), causing a rapid increase of dimensionality of the measured samples, while the number of samples remains more or less the same. As a result the eigenvalue estimates are significantly biased as described by the Mar?enko Pastur equation for the limit of both the number of samples and their dimensionality going to infinity. By introducing a smoothness factor, we show that the Mar?enko Pastur equation can be used in practical situations where both the number of samples and their dimensionality remain finite. Based on this result we derive methods, one already known and one new to our knowledge, to estimate the sample eigenvalues when the population eigenvalues are known. However, usually the sample eigenvalues are known and the population eigenvalues are required. We therefore applied one of the these methods in a feedback loop, resulting in an eigenvalue bias correction method. We compare this eigenvalue correction method with the state-of-the-art methods and show that our method outperforms other methods particularly in real-life situations often encountered in biometrics: underdetermined configurations, high-dimensional configurations, and configurations where the eigenvalues are exponentially distributed.

  19. INTEGRATING NEPHELOMETER RESPONSE CORRECTIONS FOR BIMODAL SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Correction factors are calculated for obtaining true scattering extinction coefficients from integrating nephelometer measurements. The corrections are based on the bimodal representation of ambient aerosol size distributions, and take account of the effects of angular truncation...

  20. Single Crystal Sapphire at milli-Kelvin Temperatures: Observation of Electromagnetically Induced Thermal Bistability in High Q-factor Whispering Gallery Modes

    E-print Network

    Daniel L. Creedon; Michael E. Tobar; Jean-Michel Le Floch; Yarema Reshitnyk; Timothy Duty

    2010-09-03

    Resonance modes in single crystal sapphire ($\\alpha$-Al$_2$O$_3$) exhibit extremely high electrical and mechanical Q-factors ($\\approx 10^9$ at 4K), which are important characteristics for electromechanical experiments at the quantum limit. We report the first cooldown of a bulk sapphire sample below superfluid liquid helium temperature (1.6K) to as low as 25mK. The electromagnetic properties were characterised at microwave frequencies, and we report the first observation of electromagnetically induced thermal bistability in whispering gallery modes due to the material $T^3$ dependence on thermal conductivity and the ultra-low dielectric loss tangent. We identify "magic temperatures" between 80 to 2100 mK, the lowest ever measured, at which the onset of bistability is suppressed and the frequency-temperature dependence is annulled. These phenomena at low temperatures make sapphire suitable for quantum metrology and ultra-stable clock applications, including the possible realization of the first quantum limited sapphire clock.

  1. Single Crystal Sapphire at milli-Kelvin Temperatures: Observation of Electromagnetically Induced Thermal Bistability in High Q-factor Whispering Gallery Modes

    E-print Network

    Creedon, Daniel L; Floch, Jean-Michel Le; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Duty, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Resonance modes in single crystal sapphire ($\\alpha$-Al$_2$O$_3$) exhibit extremely high electrical and mechanical Q-factors ($\\approx 10^9$ at 4K), which are important characteristics for electromechanical experiments at the quantum limit. We report the first cooldown of a bulk sapphire sample below superfluid liquid helium temperature (1.6K) to as low as 25mK. The electromagnetic properties were characterised at microwave frequencies, and we report the first observation of electromagnetically induced thermal bistability in whispering gallery modes due to the material $T^3$ dependence on thermal conductivity and the ultra-low dielectric loss tangent. We identify "magic temperatures" between 80 to 2100 mK, the lowest ever measured, at which the onset of bistability is suppressed and the frequency-temperature dependence is annulled. These phenomena at low temperatures make sapphire suitable for quantum metrology and ultra-stable clock applications, including the possible realization of the first quantum limite...

  2. Temperature-Compensated Clock Skew Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Secilla, Jose María; Palomares, Jose Manuel; Olivares, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    This work analyzes several drift compensation mechanisms in wireless sensor networks (WSN). Temperature is an environmental factor that greatly affects oscillators shipped in every WSN mote. This behavior creates the need of improving drift compensation mechanisms in synchronization protocols. Using the Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol (FTSP), this work demonstrates that crystal oscillators are affected by temperature variations. Thus, the influence of temperature provokes a low performance of FTSP in changing conditions of temperature. This article proposes an innovative correction factor that minimizes the impact of temperature in the clock skew. By means of this factor, two new mechanisms are proposed in this paper: the Adjusted Temperature (AT) and the Advanced Adjusted Temperature (A2T). These mechanisms have been combined with FTSP to produce AT-FTSP and A2T-FTSP Both have been tested in a network of TelosB motes running TinyOS. Results show that both AT-FTSP and A2T-FTSP improve the average synchronization errors compared to FTSP and other temperature-compensated protocols (Environment-Aware Clock Skew Estimation and Synchronization for WSN (EACS) and Temperature Compensated Time Synchronization (TCTS)). PMID:23966192

  3. Temperature Independent Differential Absorption Spectroscopy (tidas) and Simplified Atmospheric Air Mass Factor (samf) Techniques For The Measurement of Ozone Vertical Content From Gome Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, C.; Casadio, S.; di Sarra, A.; Putz, E.

    A simple technique for the fast retrieval of ozone vertical amount from GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) spectra is described in detail. The TIDAS (Tempera- ture Independent Differential Absorption Spectroscopy) technique uses GOME's ca- pability of measuring atmospheric spectra over a broad wavelength range with high spectral resolution. The ozone slant columns are retrieved by applying the Beer- Lambert law to two spectral windows where the ozone absorption cross sections show similar temperature dependence. A simple geometric air mass factor is computed for a fixed height spherical atmosphere (SAMF: Simplified Atmospheric air Mass Factor) to retrieve ozone vertical amounts. Vertical ozone values are compared to the GDP (GOME Data Processor), and to ground based ozone measurements.

  4. Time-of-flight neutron diffraction investigation of temperature factors in the Zn blende semiconductor InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, C.; Bocchi, C.; Moze, O.; Wilson, C. C.; Fornari, R.

    1992-06-01

    A structural investigation of the Zn blende structure semiconductor InP has been carried out using the single crystal diffractometer SXD at the pulsed neutron facility ISIS. The ability to measure structure factors accurately at large Q values even with highly absorbing materials such as InP is demonstrated. Measurements were performed on a single crystal of InP at 293, 100 and 50 K with the <1 overline10> crystallographic axis mounted perpendicular to the scattering plane. This enabled collection of ( h h l) reflections up to a maximum with Miller indices (10, 10, 8).

  5. Magnesium correction to the NaKCa chemical geothermometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Potter, R.W., II

    1979-01-01

    Equations and graphs have been devised to correct for the adverse effects of magnesium upon the Na-K-Ca chemical geothermometer. Either the equations or graphs can be used to determine appropriate temperature corrections for given waters with calculated NaKCa temperatures > 70??C and R 50 are probably derived from relatively cool aquifers with temperatures approximately equal to the measured spring temperature, irrespective of much higher calculated Na-K-Ca temperatures. ?? 1979.

  6. Coincidence-Summing Corrections for Close Geometry Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gueray, R. Taygun

    2008-11-11

    For a given stellar temperature, nuclear reactions take place in the energy range of the Gamow window with the relatively low energies of the astrophysical interest for charged particle induced reactions. In order to measure the nuclear reaction cross sections with the activation method at projectile energies as low as possible, a gamma counting system that consists of Ge detectors and the irradiated target in close geometry is required. The presence of cascade transitions requires coincidence summing corrections that can not be ignored because of the very large solid angle. In this study, the determination of the summing correction factor and photopeak efficiency for a gamma spectrometer, as an example, composed of two Ge clover detectors in close geometry is briefly described.

  7. Detector signal correction method and system

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, R.M.; Duran, A.J.; Kudman, I.

    1995-07-11

    Corrective factors are applied so as to remove anomalous features from the signal generated by a photoconductive detector, and to thereby render the output signal highly linear with respect to the energy of incident, time-varying radiation. The corrective factors may be applied through the use of either digital electronic data processing means or analog circuitry, or through a combination of those effects. 5 figs.

  8. Speed of sound in quark gluon plasma with one loop correction in mean field potential

    E-print Network

    S. Somorendro Singh; R. Ramanathan

    2015-05-14

    We study thermodynamic properties and speed of sound in a free en- ergy evolution of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with one loop correction factor in the mean-field potential. The values of the thermodynamic prop- erties like pressure, entropy and specific heat are calculated for a range of temperatures. The results agree with the recent lattice results. The speed of sound is found to be C2 s = 0.3 independent of parameters used in the loop correction which matches almost with lattice calculations.

  9. 77 FR 72199 - Technical Corrections; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... correcting a final rule that was published in the Federal Register on July 6, 2012 (77 FR 39899), and... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On July 6, 2012 (77 FR 39899), the NRC published a final rule in the Federal Register... necessary to correct the statutory authority that is cited in one of the authority citations in the...

  10. Incubation temperature as a modifying factor on survival of Tenebrio molitor reared in selenium-containing media.

    PubMed

    Audas, A; Hogan, G R; Razniak, H

    1995-01-01

    Newly emerged Tenebrio molitor were reared at 4, 25, and 37 degrees C in nutrient media supplemented with sodium selenate (0.0125, 0.0200, 0.0500, and 0.1000%). Ten insects comprised each group. Controls were maintained in unsupplemented medium at the same temperatures as the experimental groups. Survival percentages were determined. Survival curves were estimated at given times postincubation. Controls at 4 and 37 degrees C showed an increased lethality compared to those insects at 25 degrees C. Data indicate that 4 degrees C had a protective effect on survival for insects reared in media containing the three highest concentrations of selenium. For insects at 37 degrees C, killing was striking and equivalent for all groups, irrespective of media supplementation. PMID:7823325

  11. On the relationship factor between the PV module temperature and the solar radiation on it for various BIPV configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplanis, S.; Kaplani, E.

    2014-10-01

    Temperatures of c-Si, pc-Si and a-Si PV modules making part of a roof in a building or hanging outside windows with various inclinations were measured with respect to the Intensity of the solar radiation on them under various environmental conditions. A relationship coefficient f was provided whose values are compared to those from a PV array operating in a free standing mode on a terrace. A theoretical model to predict f was elaborated. According to the analysis, the coefficient f takes higher values for PV modules embedded on a roof compared to the free standing PV array. The wind effect is much stronger for the free standing PV than for any BIPV configuration, either the PV is part of the roof, or placed upon the roof, or is placed outside a window like a shadow hanger. The f coefficient depends on various parameters such as angle of inclination, wind speed and direction, as well as solar radiation. For very low wind speeds the effect of the angle of inclination, ?, of the PV module with respect to the horizontal on PV temperature is clear. As the wind speed increases, the heat transfer from the PV module shifts from natural flow to forced flow and this effect vanishes. The coefficient f values range from almost 0.01 m2°C/W for free standing PV arrays at strong wind speeds, vW>7m/s, up to around 0.05 m2°C/W for the case of flexible PV modules which make part of the roof in a BIPV system.

  12. On the relationship factor between the PV module temperature and the solar radiation on it for various BIPV configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplanis, S. Kaplani, E.

    2014-10-06

    Temperatures of c-Si, pc-Si and a-Si PV modules making part of a roof in a building or hanging outside windows with various inclinations were measured with respect to the Intensity of the solar radiation on them under various environmental conditions. A relationship coefficient f was provided whose values are compared to those from a PV array operating in a free standing mode on a terrace. A theoretical model to predict f was elaborated. According to the analysis, the coefficient f takes higher values for PV modules embedded on a roof compared to the free standing PV array. The wind effect is much stronger for the free standing PV than for any BIPV configuration, either the PV is part of the roof, or placed upon the roof, or is placed outside a window like a shadow hanger. The f coefficient depends on various parameters such as angle of inclination, wind speed and direction, as well as solar radiation. For very low wind speeds the effect of the angle of inclination, ?, of the PV module with respect to the horizontal on PV temperature is clear. As the wind speed increases, the heat transfer from the PV module shifts from natural flow to forced flow and this effect vanishes. The coefficient f values range from almost 0.01 m{sup 2°}C/W for free standing PV arrays at strong wind speeds, v{sub W}>7m/s, up to around 0.05 m{sup 2°}C/W for the case of flexible PV modules which make part of the roof in a BIPV system.

  13. Factors Affecting Date of Implantation, Parturition, and Den Entry Estimated from Activity and Body Temperature in Free-Ranging Brown Bears

    PubMed Central

    Friebe, Andrea; Evans, Alina L.; Arnemo, Jon M.; Blanc, Stéphane; Brunberg, Sven; Fleissner, Günther; Swenson, Jon E.; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of factors influencing the timing of reproduction is important for animal conservation and management. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are able to vary the birth date of their cubs in response to their fat stores, but little information is available about the timing of implantation and parturition in free-ranging brown bears. Body temperature and activity of pregnant brown bears is higher during the gestation period than during the rest of hibernation and drops at parturition. We compared mean daily body temperature and activity levels of pregnant and nonpregnant females during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. Additionally we tested whether age, litter size, primiparity, environmental conditions, and the start of hibernation influence the timing of parturition. The mean date of implantation was 1 December (SD?=?12), the mean date of parturition was 26 January (SD?=?12), and the mean duration of the gestation period was 56 days (SD?=?2). The body temperature of pregnant females was higher during the gestation and lactation periods than that of nonpregnant bears. The body temperature of pregnant females decreased during the gestation period. Activity recordings were also used to determine the date of parturition. The parturition dates calculated with activity and body temperature data did not differ significantly and were the same in 50% of the females. Older females started hibernation earlier. The start of hibernation was earlier during years with favorable environmental conditions. Dates of parturition were later during years with good environmental conditions which was unexpected. We suggest that free-ranging pregnant brown bears in areas with high levels of human activities at the beginning of the denning period, as in our study area, might prioritize investing energy in early denning than in early parturition during years with favorable environmental conditions, as a strategy to prevent disturbances caused by human. PMID:24988486

  14. Quantum corrected non-thermal radiation spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism

    E-print Network

    Subenoy Chakraborty; Subhajit Saha; Christian Corda

    2015-05-28

    Tunnelling mechanism is today considered a popular and widely used method in describing Hawking radiation. However, in relation to black hole (BH) emission, this mechanism is mostly used to obtain the Hawking temperature by comparing the probability of emission of an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. On the other hand, Banerjee and Majhi reformulated the tunnelling framework deriving a black body spectrum through the density matrix for the outgoing modes for both the Bose-Einstein distribution and the Fermi-Dirac distribution. In contrast, Parikh and Wilczek introduced a correction term performing an exact calculation of the action for a tunnelling spherically symmetric particle and, as a result, the probability of emission of an outgoing particle corresponds to a non-strictly thermal radiation spectrum. Recently, one of us (C. Corda) introduced a BH effective state and was able to obtain a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism corresponding to the probability of emission of an outgoing particle found by Parikh and Wilczek. The present work introduces the quantum corrected effective temperature and the corresponding quantum corrected effective metric is written using Hawking's periodicity arguments. Thus, we obtain further corrections to the non-strictly thermal BH radiation spectrum as the final distributions take into account both the BH dynamical geometry during the emission of the particle and the quantum corrections to the semiclassical Hawking temperature.

  15. Statistical Corrections of HIRLAM and HARMONIE Forecasts for Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, Alexander; Petersen, Claus; Amstrup, Bjarne; Sass, Bent

    2015-04-01

    Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) for northern regions, and especially, in the Arctic is very complex due to multiple factors. Complexity of physical processes and interactions is not so well studied compared to other geographical regions and first of all, because of limited observational network. Model verification results show that forecasts have larger errors compared to other regions of the world. As a possible solution, statistical corrections to forecasts can be applied. Such corrections can be based on analysis of long-term time-series of meteorological observations and forecasts. The developed method is based on using forecasted meteorological parameters (2m air, dew point, and surface temperatures as well as 10m wind speed) and observations covering only a pre-historical period (ranging from 3 to 30 days). The singular value decomposition method is applied for faster calculations. Then, further improvement/adjustment of forecasts is based on generated statistics of forecasted meteorological parameters. For Greenland, DMI operationally runs two NWP models - HIRLAM (HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) and HARMONIE (Hirlam Aladin Regional/Meso-scale Operational NWP In Europe). The 1st model (HIRLAM-K05, at 5 km horizontal resolution; runs at 00, 06, 12, and 18 UTC) is run over the entire territory of Greenland. The 2nd model (HARMONIE-GLB, at 2.5 km horizontal resolution; runs at 03, 09, 15, and 21 UTC) is run over the southern (most populated) part of Greenland. The operationalized procedure for statistical correction of the air temperature and wind speed forecasts has been implemented for both models outputs covering forecast lengths up to 48 hours. The procedure includes extraction of observational and model forecast data, assigning data to forecast lengths, calculation of statistical correction to selected meteorological parameters, evaluation of model performance (before vs. after correction applied) for current and previous days with decision-making on using corrections by each of synoptical stations, interpolation, visualisation of corrections and final fields, and storage/backup. Results of verifications for Greenland synoptical stations for both (HIRLAM and HARMONIE) models outputs are presented and evaluated, as well as steps based on application of non-parametric statistics towards correction of cloud cover, wind direction and precipitation for NWP operational forecasts are discussed.

  16. Precision corrections and supersymmetric unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matchev, Konstantin Tzvetanov

    1998-07-01

    In this thesis we compute a full set of one-loop corrections to the masses and couplings in the minimal supersymmetric standard model and study their implications in various precision analyses: (1) We use the weak-scale gauge and Yukawa threshold corrections, including the non-logarithmic terms, in a complete next- to-leading order analysis of gauge and Yukawa coupling unification, both for the case of the minimal supergravity and gauge-mediated models. We then examine the effects of unification-scale threshold corrections in the minimal and missing-doublet SU(5) models. (2) We show the generic size of the one-loop mass corrections to the supersymmetric spectrum and provide a set of compact approximations which hold over the unified parameter space of the supergravity models. (3) We compute the superpartner spectrum across the entire parameter space of the gauge-mediated models, comparing it to that of the minimal supergravity model. We delineate the regions where the lightest neutralino or tau slepton is the next- to-lightest supersymmetric particle, and compute its lifetime and various branching ratios. (4) We make a classification of the tree-level mass sum rules, derive in the supergravity and gauge-mediated unification models, and study their stability against radiative corrections. (5) We calculate the leading order QCD correction to K-/overline[K] mixing within a general supersymmetric model. Using an effective field theory language, we construct /Delta S = 2 effective Lagrangians for different hierarchies of the gluino and the first two generation squark masses. For each case, we show the size of the corrections and find that they usually modify previous bounds on intergenerational squark mass mixing by more than a factor of two.

  17. Factors affecting ion kinetic temperature, number density, and containment time in the NASA Lewis bumpy-torus plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The degree of toroidal symmetry of the plasma, the number of midplane electrode rings, the configuration of electrode rings, and the location of the diagnostic instruments with respect to the electrode rings used to generate the plasma are discussed. Impurities were deliberately introduced into the plasma, and the effects of the impurity fraction on ion kinetic temperature and electron number density were observed. It is concluded that, if necessary precautions are taken, the plasma communicates extremely well along the magnetic field lines and displays a high degree of symmetry from sector to sector for a wide range of electrode ring configurations and operating conditions. Finally, some characteristic data taken under nonoptimized conditions are presented, which include the highest electron number density and the longest particle containment time (1.9 msec) observed. Also, evidence from a paired comparison test is presented which shows that the electric field acting along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma improves the plasma density and the calculated containment time more than an order of magnitude if the electric field points inward, relative to the values observed when it points (and pushes ions) radially outward.

  18. Aerosol effects and corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hervig, Mark E.; Russell, James M., III; Gordley, Larry L.; Daniels, John; Drayson, S. Roland; Park, Jae H.

    1995-01-01

    The eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991 increased stratospheric aerosol loading by a factor of 30, affecting chemistry, radiative transfer, and remote measurements of the stratosphere. The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) instrument on board Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) makes measurements globally for inferring profiles of NO2, H2O, O3, HF, HCl, CH4, NO, and temperature in addition to aerosol extinction at five wavelengths. Understanding and removing the aerosol extinction is essential for obtaining accurate retrievals from the radiometer channels of NO2, H2O and O3 in the lower stratosphere since these measurements are severely affected by contaminant aerosol absorption. If ignored, aerosol absorption in the radiometer measurements is interpreted as additional absorption by the target gas, resulting in anomalously large mixing ratios. To correct the radiometer measurements for aerosol effects, a retrieved aerosol extinction profile is extrapolated to the radiometer wavelengths and then included as continuum attenuation. The sensitivity of the extrapolation to size distribution and composition is small for certain wavelength combinations, reducing the correction uncertainty. The aerosol corrections extend the usable range of profiles retrieved from the radiometer channels to the tropopause with results that agree well with correlative measurements. In situations of heavy aerosol loading, errors due to aerosol in the retrieved mixing ratios are reduced to values of about 15, 25, and 60% in H2O, O3, and NO2, respectively, levels that are much less than the correction magnitude.

  19. L-Carnitine and Pyruvate Are Prosurvival Factors During the Storage of Stallion Spermatozoa at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Zamira; Lambourne, Sarah R; Quadrelli, Julianne; Smith, Nathan D; Aitken, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    The spermatozoa of many stallions do not tolerate being cooled, restricting the commercial viability of these animals and necessitating the development of a chemically defined room temperature (RT) storage medium. This study examined the impact of two major modulators of oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate (Pyr) and L-carnitine (L-C), on the storage of stallion spermatozoa at RT. Optimal concentrations of Pyr (10 mM) and L-C (50 mM) were first identified and these concentrations were then used to investigate the effects of these compounds on sperm functionality and oxidative stress at RT. Mitochondrial and cytosolic reactive oxygen species, along with lipid peroxidation, were all significantly suppressed by the addition of L-C (48 h MitoSOX Red negative: 46.2% vs. 26.1%; 48 and 72 h dihydroethidium negative: 61.6% vs. 43.1% and 64.4% vs. 46.9%, respectively; 48 and 72 h 4-hydroxynonenal negative: 37.1% vs. 23.8% and 41.6% vs. 25.7%, respectively), while the Pyr + L-C combination resulted in significantly higher motility compared to the control at 72 h (total motility: 64.2% vs. 39.4%; progressive motility: 34.2% vs. 15.2%). In addition, supplementation with L-C significantly reduced oxidative DNA damage at 72 h (9.0% vs. 15.6%). To investigate the effects of L-C as an osmolyte, comparisons were made between media that were osmotically balanced with NaCl, choline chloride, or L-C. This analysis demonstrated that spermatozoa stored in the L-C balanced medium had significantly higher total motility (55.0% vs. 39.0%), rapid motility (44.0% vs. 25.7%), and ATP levels (70.9 vs. 12.8 ng/ml) following storage compared with the NaCl treatment, while choline chloride did not significantly improve these parameters compared to the control. Finally, mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate that a combination of Pyr and L-C produced significantly higher acetyl-L-carnitine production than any other treatment (6.7 pg/10(6) spermatozoa vs. control at 4.0 pg/10(6) spermatozoa). These findings suggest that Pyr and L-C could form the basis of a novel, effective RT storage medium for equine spermatozoa. PMID:26316064

  20. 78 FR 75449 - Miscellaneous Corrections; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ...its regulations. The final rule contained minor errors in grammar, punctuation, and referencing. This document corrects the...The final rule inadvertently included additional errors in grammar and punctuation in 10 CFR 40.36(e)(2), appendix...

  1. Research in Correctional Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Forty-three leaders in corrections and rehabilitation participated in the seminar planned to provide an indication of the status of research in correctional rehabilitation. Papers include: (1) "Program Trends in Correctional Rehabilitation" by John P. Conrad, (2) "Federal Offenders Rahabilitation Program" by Percy B. Bell and Merlyn Mathews, (3)…

  2. Quantum correction to the entropy of noncommutative BTZ black hole

    E-print Network

    Anacleto, M A; Passos, E; Cavalcanti, A G; Spinelly, J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) in the tunneling formalism via Hamilton-Jacobi method to determine the quantum-corrected Hawking temperature and entropy for noncommutative BTZ black hole. In our results we obtain several types of corrections including the expected logarithmic correction to the area entropy associated with the noncommutative BTZ black holes.

  3. EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the same game. In today's PC physics, no such complications arise because all forms of energy are equal and unlabelled. I accept the reasoning behind this - that understanding processes is more important than attaching labels - but what am I supposed to call ½mv2, mgh and mc??? On which subject.... What am I allowed to say about heat? It seems that objects can be heated up. I can switch on the central heating. But I cannot get heat from a Bunsen burner. In PC physics, heat is banned - at least as a noun. Instead, I have to talk about 'energy transferred because of a temperature difference'. And I must stop saying 'transferred' in circumstances where I really mean 'transformed'. I find it difficult to argue with the logic behind the new approach to energy, but the loss of such an elegantly simple word as 'heat' is proving a severe restriction on my use of language. The loss is especially galling because engineers will go on talking about heat engines, heat pumps and heat sinks. In primary schools, saucepans will still conduct heat, and the Sun will continue to give off heat and light. Moreover, I suspect that most teachers will be using 'heat' in the privacy of the classroom, even if they won't admit to it in public. We shall all become closet heatists. Before PC physics takes over by stealth, we need a full and open debate on what is or isn't conceptually acceptable for students at different stages. Perhaps we need a conference. If so, I will be there at the back with my banner. But this time, it won't read 'Save the whale' or 'Save the rainforests'. It will read 'Save heat', or maybe 'Save all forms of energy'.

  4. Medicare program; Medicare coverage of hepatitis B vaccine for high and intermediate risk individuals, hemophilia clotting factors and certain x-ray services--HCFA. Correction of final rule.

    PubMed

    1990-08-01

    This document corrects technical errors to the final rule regarding Medicare coverage for hepatitis B vaccine published in the June 4, 1990 issue of the Federal Register [FR Doc. 90-12845], 55 FR 22785. PMID:10106830

  5. Multifactorial Effects of Ambient Temperature, Precipitation, Farm Management, and Environmental Factors Determine the Level of Generic Escherichia coli Contamination on Preharvested Spinach

    PubMed Central

    Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Jun, Mikyoung; Han, Daikwon; Ivanek, Renata

    2015-01-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to identify farm management, environment, weather, and landscape factors that predict the count of generic Escherichia coli on spinach at the preharvest level. E. coli was enumerated for 955 spinach samples collected on 12 farms in Texas and Colorado between 2010 and 2012. Farm management and environmental characteristics were surveyed using a questionnaire. Weather and landscape data were obtained from National Resources Information databases. A two-part mixed-effect negative binomial hurdle model, consisting of a logistic and zero-truncated negative binomial part with farm and date as random effects, was used to identify factors affecting E. coli counts on spinach. Results indicated that the odds of a contamination event (non-zero versus zero counts) vary by state (odds ratio [OR] = 108.1). Odds of contamination decreased with implementation of hygiene practices (OR = 0.06) and increased with an increasing average precipitation amount (mm) in the past 29 days (OR = 3.5) and the application of manure (OR = 52.2). On contaminated spinach, E. coli counts increased with the average precipitation amount over the past 29 days. The relationship between E. coli count and the average maximum daily temperature over the 9 days prior to sampling followed a quadratic function with the highest bacterial count at around 24°C. These findings indicate that the odds of a contamination event in spinach are determined by farm management, environment, and weather factors. However, once the contamination event has occurred, the count of E. coli on spinach is determined by weather only. PMID:25636850

  6. A note of the simplified formula for atmospheric correction in satellite laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Q.; Tan, D.; Yang, F.

    The paper is a supplement of a previous article in which a simplified formula for atmospheric correction in satellite laser ranging was given. The deductive process of the formula is given in this paper, and in order to compare the accuracy between Marini's formula (1974) and the simplified one, numerical computations for different temperature, air pressure, and latitude have been done. It is shown that the difference between the two formulas is only 2 cm above 20 deg elevation, although the temperature factor has not been included in the equation.

  7. 78 FR 75449 - Miscellaneous Corrections; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... INFORMATION: The NRC published a final rule in the Federal Register on June 7, 2013 (78 FR 34245), to make... the sections that contain these errors. Rulemaking Procedure Under the Administrative Procedure Act (5... with corrections to certain CFR sections related only to management, organization, procedure,...

  8. Choices in correction of aphakia during vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Bastawrous, Andrew; Parkes, Craig; Prasad, Som

    2011-01-01

    Phacoemulsification with an intraocular lens implant is a safe and effective means of correction of visual loss from cataract. The high frequency of this procedure world wide means inevitable direct surgical complications will be numerous even though infrequent. The approach to correcting aphakia following complicated cataract surgery is dependent on multiple factors including the degree to which the capsular bag is intact and the type of intraocular lens that has been inserted. We discuss several approaches and strategies for managing dropped intraocular lenses, the correction of aphakia and the safety and long-term results of anterior chamber intraocular lens placement. PMID:21778780

  9. Dead-time Corrected Disdrometer Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    2008-03-05

    Original and dead-time corrected disdrometer results for observations made at SGP and TWP. The correction is based on the technique discussed in Sheppard and Joe, 1994. In addition, these files contain calculated radar reflectivity factor, mean Doppler velocity and attenuation for every measurement for both the original and dead-time corrected data at the following wavelengths: 0.316, 0.856, 3.2, 5, and 10cm (W,K,X,C,S bands). Pavlos Kollias provided the code to do these calculations.

  10. Multi-site Field Verification of Laboratory Derived FDOM Sensor Corrections: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraceno, J.; Shanley, J. B.; Aulenbach, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    Fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) is an excellent proxy for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in natural waters. Through this relationship, in situ FDOM can be utilized to capture both high frequency time series and long term fluxes of DOC in small streams. However, in order to calculate accurate DOC fluxes for comparison across sites, in situ FDOM data must be compensated for matrix effects. Key matrix effects, include temperature, turbidity and the inner filter effect due to color. These interferences must be compensated for to develop a reasonable relationship between FDOM and DOC. In this study, we applied laboratory-derived correction factors to real time data from the five USGS WEBB headwater streams in order to gauge their effectiveness across a range of matrix effects. The good news is that laboratory derived correction factors improved the predicative relationship (higher r2) between DOC and FDOM when compared to uncorrected data. The relative importance of each matrix effect (i.e. temperature) varied by site and by time, implying that each and every matrix effect should be compensated for when available. In general, temperature effects were more important on longer time scales, while corrections for turbidity and DOC inner filter effects were most prevalent during hydrologic events, when the highest instantaneous flux of DOC occurred. Unfortunately, even when corrected for matrix effects, in situ FDOM is a weaker predictor of DOC than A254, a common surrogate for DOC, implying that either DOC fluoresces at varying degrees (but should average out over time), that some matrix effects (e.g. pH) are either unaccounted for or laboratory-derived correction factors do not encompass the site variability of particles and organics. The least impressive finding is that the inherent dependence on three variables in the FDOM correction algorithm increases the likelihood of record data gaps which increases the uncertainty in calculated DOC flux values.

  11. Estimating temperature exposure of burnt bone - A methodological review.

    PubMed

    Ellingham, Sarah T D; Thompson, Tim J U; Islam, Meez; Taylor, Gillian

    2015-05-01

    Forensic anthropologists are frequently confronted with the need to interpret burnt bone. Regardless of the context, one of the key factors for the correct interpretation of the remains and a reconstruction of the incidents leading to incineration is the estimation of the maximum exposure temperature. The recent years have seen an influx in experimental research focusing on temperature estimation, spanning from colour assessment, mechanical strength measurements, histology and structural observations, biochemical changes and crystallinity studies, vastly advancing the understanding of heat induced changes in bone, thus facilitating a more accurate interpretation. This paper draws together and evaluates all currently available methodologies for temperature estimation. PMID:25934370

  12. VIZTAB - the VIZ table correction model

    SciTech Connect

    Luers, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    The VIZ atmospheric temperature correction model VIZCOR calculates the temperature correction for the VIZ rod thermistor as a function of environmental parameters. The specified environmental input parameters are used in LOWTRAN7 to define the radiation environment experienced by the radiosonde. Running VIZCOR, with the associated LOWTRAN7 model, requires nearly 5 minutes of computer time on a 486x5O processor. Because this computer execution time is excessive for processing large quantities of radiosonde data, a regression model was developed that parameterizes the results of many runs of the VIZCOR model. The regression model, which contains table look-up algorithms, has been designated VIZTAB.

  13. Teaching in Correctional Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Koning, Mireille; Striedinger, Angelika

    2009-01-01

    In early 2009, Education International conducted a study amongst its member organisations on education in correctional settings in their respective countries. Findings reveal that education in correctional settings and the conditions of teachers working in them vary greatly between regions. Generally speaking, in most regions, but specifically in…

  14. Global orbit corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Symon, K.

    1987-11-01

    There are various reasons for preferring local (e.g., three bump) orbit correction methods to global corrections. One is the difficulty of solving the mN equations for the required mN correcting bumps, where N is the number of superperiods and m is the number of bumps per superperiod. The latter is not a valid reason for avoiding global corrections, since, we can take advantage of the superperiod symmetry to reduce the mN simultaneous equations to N separate problems, each involving only m simultaneous equations. Previously, I have shown how to solve the general problem when the machine contains unknown magnet errors of known probability distribution; we made measurements of known precision of the orbit displacements at a set of points, and we wish to apply correcting bumps to minimize the weighted rms orbit deviations. In this report, we will consider two simpler problems, using similar methods. We consider the case when we make M beam position measurements per superperiod, and we wish to apply an equal number M of orbit correcting bumps to reduce the measured position errors to zero. We also consider the problem when the number of correcting bumps is less than the number of measurements, and we wish to minimize the weighted rms position errors. We will see that the latter problem involves solving equations of a different form, but involving the same matrices as the former problem.

  15. SOLAR ABUNDANCE CORRECTIONS DERIVED THROUGH THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOCONVECTION SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbian, D.; Khomenko, E.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Nordlund, A. E-mail: khomenko@iac.e E-mail: aake@nbi.d

    2010-12-01

    We explore the effect of the magnetic field when using realistic three-dimensional convection experiments to determine solar element abundances. By carrying out magnetoconvection simulations with a radiation-hydro code (the Copenhagen stagger code) and through a posteriori spectral synthesis of three Fe I lines, we obtain evidence that moderate amounts of mean magnetic flux cause a noticeable change in the derived equivalent widths compared with those for a non-magnetic case. The corresponding Fe abundance correction for a mean flux density of 200 G reaches up to {approx}0.1 dex in magnitude. These results are based on space- and time-averaged line profiles over a time span of 2.5 solar hours in the statistically stationary regime of the convection. The main factors causing the change in equivalent widths, namely the Zeeman broadening and the modification of the temperature stratification, act in different amounts and, for the iron lines considered here, in opposite directions; yet, the resulting |{Delta}log {epsilon}{sub sun}(Fe)| coincides within a factor of 2 in all of them, even though the sign of the total abundance correction is different for the visible and infrared lines. We conclude that magnetic effects should be taken into account when discussing precise values of the solar and stellar abundances and that an extended study is warranted.

  16. Revisiting the Entropic corrections to Newton's law

    E-print Network

    Setare, M R

    2010-01-01

    In this short letter we calculate separately the GUP and self gravitational corrections to the Newton's gravitational formula. We show that for a complete description of the GUP and self-gravity effects both temperature and the entropy must be modified.

  17. 77 FR 45469 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... National Emergency With Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor Correction In Presidential... paragraph of the main text, the words ``Federal Register'' should appear in italics. (Presidential Sig.)...

  18. Correcting Hubble Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, John M.; Sheahen, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the theory behind the workings of the Hubble Space Telescope, the spherical aberration in the primary mirror that caused a reduction in image quality, and the corrective device that compensated for the error. (JRH)

  19. Correcting Illumina data.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Michael; Ilie, Lucian

    2015-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies revolutionized the ways in which genetic information is obtained and have opened the door for many essential applications in biomedical sciences. Hundreds of gigabytes of data are being produced, and all applications are affected by the errors in the data. Many programs have been designed to correct these errors, most of them targeting the data produced by the dominant technology of Illumina. We present a thorough comparison of these programs. Both HiSeq and MiSeq types of Illumina data are analyzed, and correcting performance is evaluated as the gain in depth and breadth of coverage, as given by correct reads and k-mers. Time and memory requirements, scalability and parallelism are considered as well. Practical guidelines are provided for the effective use of these tools. We also evaluate the efficiency of the current state-of-the-art programs for correcting Illumina data and provide research directions for further improvement. PMID:25183248

  20. Health Tip: Walk Correctly

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154789.html Health Tip: Walk Correctly Tips to avoid hurting yourself ... and Physical Fitness Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness About MedlinePlus Site ...

  1. Adaptable DC offset correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  2. Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor

    DOEpatents

    Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John

    2013-09-17

    A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.

  3. Quantum corrections to inflaton and curvaton dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Markkanen, Tommi; Tranberg, Anders E-mail: anders.tranberg@nbi.dk

    2012-11-01

    We compute the fully renormalized one-loop effective action for two interacting and self-interacting scalar fields in FRW space-time. We then derive and solve the quantum corrected equations of motion both for fields that dominate the energy density (such as an inflaton) and fields that do not (such as a subdominant curvaton). In particular, we introduce quantum corrected Friedmann equations that determine the evolution of the scale factor. We find that in general, gravitational corrections are negligible for the field dynamics. For the curvaton-type fields this leaves only the effect of the flat-space Coleman-Weinberg-type effective potential, and we find that these can be significant. For the inflaton case, both the corrections to the potential and the Friedmann equations can lead to behaviour very different from the classical evolution. Even to the point that inflation, although present at tree level, can be absent at one-loop order.

  4. On the output factor measurements of the CyberKnife iris collimator small fields: Experimental determination of the k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors for microchamber and diode detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pantelis, E.; Moutsatsos, A.; Zourari, K.; Petrokokkinos, L.; Sakelliou, L.; Kilby, W.; Antypas, C.; Papagiannis, P.; Karaiskos, P.; Georgiou, E.; Seimenis, I.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To measure the output factors (OFs) of the small fields formed by the variable aperture collimator system (iris) of a CyberKnife (CK) robotic radiosurgery system, and determine the k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors for a microchamber and four diode detectors. Methods: OF measurements were performed using a PTW PinPoint 31014 microchamber, four diode detectors (PTW-60017, -60012, -60008, and the SunNuclear EDGE detector), TLD-100 microcubes, alanine dosimeters, EBT films, and polymer gels for the 5 mm, 7.5 mm, 10 mm, 12.5 mm, and 15 mm iris collimators at 650 mm, 800 mm, and 1000 mm source to detector distance (SDD). The alanine OF measurements were corrected for volume averaging effects using the 3D dose distributions registered in polymer gel dosimeters. k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors for the PinPoint microchamber and the diode dosimeters were calculated through comparison against corresponding polymer gel, EBT, alanine, and TLD results. Results: Experimental OF results are presented for the array of dosimetric systems used. The PinPoint microchamber was found to underestimate small field OFs, and a k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factor ranging from 1.127 {+-} 0.022 (for the 5 mm iris collimator) to 1.004 {+-} 0.010 (for the 15 mm iris collimator) was determined at the reference SDD of 800 mm. The PinPoint k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factor was also found to increase with decreasing SDD; k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} values equal to 1.220 {+-} 0.028 and 1.077 {+-} 0.016 were obtained for the 5 mm iris collimator at 650 mm and 1000 mm SDD, respectively. On the contrary, diode detectors were found to overestimate small field OFs and a correction factor equal to 0.973 {+-} 0.006, 0.954 {+-} 0.006, 0.937 {+-} 0.007, and 0.964 {+-} 0.006 was measured for the PTW-60017, -60012, -60008 and the EDGE diode detectors, respectively, for the 5 mm iris collimator at 800 mm SDD. The corresponding correction factors for the 15 mm iris collimator were found equal to 0.997 {+-} 0.010, 0.994 {+-} 0.009, 0.988 {+-} 0.010, and 0.986 {+-} 0.010, respectively. No correlation of the diode k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors with SDD was observed. Conclusions: This work demonstrates an experimental procedure for the determination of the k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors required to obtain small field OF results of increased accuracy.

  5. Regional climate downscaling with prior statistical correction of the global climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colette, A.; Vautard, R.; Vrac, M.

    2012-07-01

    A novel climate downscaling methodology that attempts to correct climate simulation biases is proposed. By combining an advanced statistical bias correction method with a dynamical downscaling it constitutes a hybrid technique that yields nearly unbiased, high-resolution, physically consistent, three-dimensional fields that can be used for climate impact studies. The method is based on a prior statistical distribution correction of large-scale global climate model (GCM) 3-dimensional output fields to be taken as boundary forcing of a dynamical regional climate model (RCM). GCM fields are corrected using meteorological reanalyses. We evaluate this methodology over a decadal experiment. The improvement in terms of spatial and temporal variability is discussed against observations for a past period. The biases of the downscaled fields are much lower using this hybrid technique, up to a factor 4 for the mean temperature bias compared to the dynamical downscaling alone without prior bias correction. Precipitation biases are subsequently improved hence offering optimistic perspectives for climate impact studies.

  6. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were unaffected.

  7. Peteye detection and correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Jonathan; Luo, Huitao; Tretter, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Redeyes are caused by the camera flash light reflecting off the retina. Peteyes refer to similar artifacts in the eyes of other mammals caused by camera flash. In this paper we present a peteye removal algorithm for detecting and correcting peteye artifacts in digital images. Peteye removal for animals is significantly more difficult than redeye removal for humans, because peteyes can be any of a variety of colors, and human face detection cannot be used to localize the animal eyes. In many animals, including dogs and cats, the retina has a special reflective layer that can cause a variety of peteye colors, depending on the animal's breed, age, or fur color, etc. This makes the peteye correction more challenging. We have developed a semi-automatic algorithm for peteye removal that can detect peteyes based on the cursor position provided by the user and correct them by neutralizing the colors with glare reduction and glint retention.

  8. String Corrections to the Hawking-Page Phase Transition

    E-print Network

    Landsteiner, K

    1999-01-01

    We compute the O(alpha'^3) corrections to the AdS_5 Black hole metric in type IIB string theory. Contrary to previous work in this direction we keep the Black Hole radius finite. Thus the topology of the boundary is S^3 x S^1. We find the corrections to the free energy and the critical temperature of the phase transition.

  9. String Corrections to the Hawking-Page Phase Transition

    E-print Network

    Karl Landsteiner

    1999-01-28

    We compute the O(alpha'^3) corrections to the AdS_5 Black hole metric in type IIB string theory. Contrary to previous work in this direction we keep the Black Hole radius finite. Thus the topology of the boundary is S^3 x S^1. We find the corrections to the free energy and the critical temperature of the phase transition.

  10. Refraction corrections for surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angle are distorted by the earth's atmosphere. High precision refraction correction equations are presented which are ideally suited for surveying because their inputs are optically measured range and optically measured elevation angle. The outputs are true straight line range and true geometric elevation angle. The 'short distances' used in surveying allow the calculations of true range and true elevation angle to be quickly made using a programmable pocket calculator. Topics covered include the spherical form of Snell's Law; ray path equations; and integrating the equations. Short-, medium-, and long-range refraction corrections are presented in tables.

  11. Correction coil cable

    DOEpatents

    Wang, S.T.

    1994-11-01

    A wire cable assembly adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies for the Superconducting Super Collider. The correction coil cables have wires collected in wire array with a center rib sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly. The core assembly is surrounded by an assembly housing having an inner spiral wrap and a counter wound outer spiral wrap. An alternate embodiment of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable on a particle tube in a particle tube assembly. 7 figs.

  12. Thermoelectric corrections to quantum voltage measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergfield, Justin P.; Stafford, Charles A.

    2014-12-01

    A generalization of Büttiker's voltage probe concept for nonzero temperatures is an open third terminal of a quantum thermoelectric circuit. An explicit analytic expression for the thermoelectric correction to an ideal quantum voltage measurement in linear response is derived and interpreted in terms of local Peltier cooling/heating within the nonequilibrium system. The thermoelectric correction is found to be large (up to ±24 % of the peak voltage) in a prototypical ballistic quantum conductor (graphene nanoribbon). The effects of measurement nonideality are also investigated. Our findings have important implications for precision local electrical measurements.

  13. Experimental Constraints on Polarizability Corrections to Hydrogen Hyperfine Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nazaryan, Vahagn; Carlson, Carl E.; Griffioen, Keith A.

    2006-04-28

    We present a state-of-the-art evaluation of the polarizability corrections--the inelastic nucleon corrections--to the hydrogen ground-state hyperfine splitting using analytic fits to the most recent data. We find a value {delta}{sub pol}=1.3{+-}0.3 ppm. This is 1-2 ppm smaller than the value of {delta}{sub pol} deduced using hyperfine splitting data and elastic nucleon corrections obtained from modern form factor fits.

  14. New experimental constraints on polarizability corrections to hydrogen hyperfine structure

    SciTech Connect

    Vahagn Nazaryan; Carl Carlson; Keith Griffioen

    2006-04-01

    We present a state-of-the-art evaluation of the polarizability corrections--the inelastic nucleon corrections--to the hydrogen ground-state hyperfine splitting using analytic fits to the most recent data. We find a value {Delta}{sub pol} = 1.3 {+-} 0.3 ppm. This is 1-2 ppm smaller than the value of {Delta}{sub pol} deduced using hyperfine splitting data and elastic nucleon corrections obtained from modern form factor fits.

  15. Correcting vital information: estimating infant mortality, Brazil, 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    de Frias, Paulo Germano; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges; de Almeida, Wanessa da Silva; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a simplified method of correcting vital information and estimating the coefficient of infant mortality in Brazil. METHODS Vital data in the information systems on mortality and live births were corrected using correction factors, estimated based on events not reported to the Brazilian Ministry of Health and obtained by active search. This simplified method for correcting vital information for the period 2000-2009 for Brazil and its federal units establishes the level of adequacy of information on deaths and live births by calculating the overall coefficient of mortality standardized by age and the ratio between reported and expected live births, respectively, in each Brazilian municipality. By applying correction factors to the number of deaths and live births reported in each county, the vital statistics were corrected, making it possible to estimate the coefficient of infant mortality. RESULTS The highest correction factors were related to infant deaths, reaching values higher than 7 for municipalities with very precarious mortality information. For deaths and live births, the correction factors exhibit a decreasing gradient as indicators of adequacy of the vital information improve. For the year 2008, the vital information corrected by the simplified method per state were similar to those obtained in the research of active search. Both the birth rate and the infant mortality rate decreased in the period in all Brazilian regions. In the Northeast, the annual rate of decline was 6.0%, the highest in Brazil (4.7%). CONCLUSIONS The active search of deaths and births allowed correction factors to be calculated by level of adequacy of mortality information and live births. The simplified method proposed here allowed vital information to be corrected per state for the period 2000-2009 and the progress of the coefficient of infant mortality in Brazil, its regions and states to be assessed. PMID:24626543

  16. Factors affecting the thermal environment of Agassiz’s Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) cover sites in the Central Mojave Desert during periods of temperature extremes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Jeremy S.; Berry, Kristin H.; Miller, David; Carlson, Andrea S.

    2015-01-01

    Agassiz's Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) spend >95% of their lives underground in cover sites that serve as thermal buffers from temperatures, which can fluctuate >40°C on a daily and seasonal basis. We monitored temperatures at 30 active tortoise cover sites within the Soda Mountains, San Bernardino County, California, from February 2004 to September 2006. Cover sites varied in type and structural characteristics, including opening height and width, soil cover depth over the opening, aspect, tunnel length, and surficial geology. We focused our analyses on periods of extreme temperature: in summer, between July 1 and September 1, and winter, between November 1 and February 15. With the use of multivariate regression tree analyses, we found cover-site temperatures were influenced largely by tunnel length and subsequently opening width and soil cover. Linear regression models further showed that increasing tunnel length increased temperature stability and dampened seasonal temperature extremes. Climate change models predict increased warming for southwestern North America. Cover sites that buffer temperature extremes and fluctuations will become increasingly important for survival of tortoises. In planning future translocation projects and conservation efforts, decision makers should consider habitats with terrain and underlying substrate that sustain cover sites with long tunnels and expanded openings for tortoises living under temperature extremes similar to those described here or as projected in the future.

  17. Multivariate - Intervariable, Spatial, and Temporal - Bias Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friederichs, Petra; Vrac, Mathieu

    2015-04-01

    Statistical methods to bias correct global or regional climate model output are now common to get data closer to observations in distribution. However, most bias correction (BC) methods work for one variable and one location at a time and basically reproduce the temporal structure of the models. The intervariable, spatial, and temporal dependencies of the corrected data are usually poor compared to observations. Here, we propose a novel method for multivariate BC. The empirical copula-bias correction (EC-BC) combines a one-dimensional BC with a shuffling technique that restores an empirical multidimensional copula. Several BC methods are investigated and compared to high-resolution reference data over the French Mediterranean basin: notably, (i) a 1D BC method applied independently to precipitation and temperature fields, (ii) a recent conditional correction approach developed for producing correct two-dimensional intervariable structures, and (iii) the EC-BC method. Assessments are realized in terms of intervariable, spatial, and temporal dependencies, and an objective evaluation using the integrated quadratic distance (IQD) is presented. As expected, the 1D methods cannot produce correct multidimensional properties. The conditional technique appears efficient for intervariable properties but not for spatial and temporal dependencies. EC-BC provides realistic dependencies in all respects: intervariable, spatial, and temporal. The IQD results are clearly in favor of EC-BC. As many BC methods, EC-BC relies on a stationarity assumption and is only able to reproduce patterns inherited from historical data. However, because of its ease of coding, its speed of application, and the quality of its results, the EC-BC method is a very good candidate for all needs in multivariate bias correction.

  18. Stability Analysis of ITER Side Correction Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Fang; Xiaoyu, Chen; Wei, Zhou; Liangfeng, Liu; Yuntao, Song; Weiyue, Wu

    The stability of the Side Correction Coils (SCC) cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been analyzed by the formulas and the code Gandalf. This paper describes the 1-dimensional mathematical code Gandalf, uses the code to simulate the quench and the recovery status of ITER SCC CICC, discusses the dependence of the stability margin on various operating parameters including operating current, operating temperature and mass flow rate, and analyzes the differences between the simulated values and the calculated values. The ITER SCC's quenching is also simulated to investigate its temperature distribution and temperature margin. Dependence of temperature margin on magnetic fields and operating temperature has been researched. The studies of ITER SCC provide a basis for the stable operation and optimization design of SCC CICC.

  19. Refraction corrections for surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angles are distorted by refraction of Earth's atmosphere. Theoretical discussion of effect, along with equations for determining exact range and elevation corrections, is presented in report. Potentially useful in optical site surveying and related applications, analysis is easily programmed on pocket calculator. Input to equation is measured range and measured elevation; output is true range and true elevation.

  20. IN THIS ISSUE... Corrections

    E-print Network

    Ullrich, Paul

    Opportunties Registered UC Davis Student Groups SHA Complex Announcments Sorority and Fraternity Life Updates TAPS Guide to Getting Home Social Survival Guide: Skills for College Life Aggie Reader Archive Corrections Having trouble viewing this email?Click here Volume 2 | Issue 4 |September 18, 2015

  1. EMPLOYERS STRATEGIES Correctional institutions

    E-print Network

    Turc, Catalin

    EMPLOYERS STRATEGIES Correctional institutions Court systems Federal, state and local government's or other social service agencies. Learn to work well with diverse populations. Develop excellent leader positions. Earn a master's degree in social work, counseling or other related fields to increase

  2. Ionospheric Correction Using Tomography

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    Ionospheric Correction Using Tomography Andrew J. Hansen Todd Walter Per Enge Stanford University to the ight crew within six seconds. The ionosphere is the foremost impedi- ment to satisfying for estimat- ing the ionosphere in real-time. Previous research has established a connection between

  3. New Directions in Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    A picture of the American prison situation in the past and in its present changing form is presented. The object of the correctional community is becoming more and more that of successfully reintegrating the ex-offender into the social community from which he has been separated. It is predicted that within the next five years: (1) Every state will…

  4. The rice R2R3-MYB transcription factor OsMYB55 is involved in the tolerance to high temperature and modulates amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Bi, Yong-Mei; Ranathunge, Kosala; Beatty, Perrin H; Good, Allen G; Rothstein, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Temperatures higher than the optimum negatively affects plant growth and development. Tolerance to high temperature is a complex process that involves several pathways. Understanding this process, especially in crops such as rice, is essential to prepare for predicted climate changes due to global warming. Here, we show that OsMYB55 is induced by high temperature and overexpression of OsMYB55 resulted in improved plant growth under high temperature and decreased the negative effect of high temperature on grain yield. Transcriptome analysis revealed an increase in expression of several genes involved in amino acids metabolism. We demonstrate that OsMYB55 binds to the promoter regions of target genes and directly activates expression of some of those genes including glutamine synthetase (OsGS1;2) glutamine amidotransferase (GAT1) and glutamate decarboxylase 3 (GAD3). OsMYB55 overexpression resulted in an increase in total amino acid content and of the individual amino acids produced by the activation of the above mentioned genes and known for their roles in stress tolerance, namely L-glutamic acid, GABA and arginine especially under high temperature condition. In conclusion, overexpression of OsMYB55 improves rice plant tolerance to high temperature, and this high tolerance is associated with enhanced amino acid metabolism through transcription activation. PMID:23251677

  5. Measurements of passive correction of magnetization higher multipoles in one meter long dipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Althaus, R.F.; Barale, P.J.; Benjegerdes, R.W.; Gilbert, W.S.; Green, M.I.; Scanlan, R.M.; Taylor, C.E.

    1990-09-01

    The use of passive superconductor to correct the magnetization sextupole and decapole in SSC dipoles appears to be promising. This paper presents the results of a series of experiments of passive superconductor correctors in one meter long dipole magnets. Reduction of the magnetization sextupole by a factor of five to ten has been achieved using the passive superconductor correctors. The magnetization decapole was also reduced. The passive superconductor correctors reduced the sextupole temperature sensitivity by an order of magnitude. Flux creep decay was partially compensated for by the correctors. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Correction of the spectral calibration of the Joint European Torus core light detecting and ranging Thomson scattering diagnostic using ray tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, J.; Scannell, R.; Maslov, M.; Migozzi, J. B.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-10-15

    This work isolated the cause of the observed discrepancy between the electron temperature (T{sub e}) measurements before and after the JET Core LIDAR Thomson Scattering (TS) diagnostic was upgraded. In the upgrade process, stray light filters positioned just before the detectors were removed from the system. Modelling showed that the shift imposed on the stray light filters transmission functions due to the variations in the incidence angles of the collected photons impacted plasma measurements. To correct for this identified source of error, correction factors were developed using ray tracing models for the calibration and operational states of the diagnostic. The application of these correction factors resulted in an increase in the observed T{sub e}, resulting in the partial if not complete removal of the observed discrepancy in the measured T{sub e} between the JET core LIDAR TS diagnostic, High Resolution Thomson Scattering, and the Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostics.

  7. Fixing human factor IX (fIX): correction of a cryptic RNA splice enables the production of biologically active fIX in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Yull, F; Harold, G; Wallace, R; Cowper, A; Percy, J; Cottingham, I; Clark, A J

    1995-01-01

    Transgenic mice and sheep secrete only low levels of human factor IX in their milk because of an aberrant splicing of the transgene RNA in the mammary gland. Removal of the cryptic 3' splice site prevents this splicing and leads to the production of relatively high levels of factor IX. The purified protein is fully active showing that the mammary gland is capable of the efficient post-translational modification of this protein and that transgenic animals are a suitable means of its production. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7479906

  8. Stray-Light Correction of the Marine Optical Buoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Steven W.; Johnson, B. Carol; Flora, Stephanie J.; Feinholz, Michael E.; Yarbrough, Mark A.; Barnes, Robert A.; Kim, Yong Sung; Lykke, Keith R.; Clark, Dennis K.

    2003-01-01

    In ocean-color remote sensing, approximately 90% of the flux at the sensor originates from atmospheric scattering, with the water-leaving radiance contributing the remaining 10% of the total flux. Consequently, errors in the measured top-of-the atmosphere radiance are magnified a factor of 10 in the determination of water-leaving radiance. Proper characterization of the atmosphere is thus a critical part of the analysis of ocean-color remote sensing data. It has always been necessary to calibrate the ocean-color satellite sensor vicariously, using in situ, ground-based results, independent of the status of the pre-flight radiometric calibration or the utility of on-board calibration strategies. Because the atmosphere contributes significantly to the measured flux at the instrument sensor, both the instrument and the atmospheric correction algorithm are simultaneously calibrated vicariously. The Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY), deployed in support of the Earth Observing System (EOS) since 1996, serves as the primary calibration station for a variety of ocean-color satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Japanese Ocean Color Temperature Scanner (OCTS) , and the French Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER). MOBY is located off the coast of Lanai, Hawaii. The site was selected to simplify the application of the atmospheric correction algorithms. Vicarious calibration using MOBY data allows for a thorough comparison and merger of ocean-color data from these multiple sensors.

  9. Temperature-dependent factors contributing to T/sub 0/ in graded-index separate-confinement-heterostructure single quantum well lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Leopold, M.M.; Specht, A.P.; Zmudzinski, C.A.; Givens, M.E.; Coleman, J.J.

    1987-05-18

    The temperature dependence of threshold current in graded-index, separate-confinement-heterostructure, single quantum well lasers has been investigated and analyzed. The conventional parameter used to describe this temperature dependence, T/sub 0/, is measured and shown to increase with cavity length. The temperature dependences of the loss coefficient ..cap alpha.. and the differential gain ..beta.. have also been measured. Both parameters decrease linearly with temperature in the range 20--70 /sup 0/C. Competition between ..cap alpha..(T) and ..beta..(T) is shown to account for the dependence of T/sub 0/ on cavity length and to suggest guidelines for designing high T/sub 0/ lasers.

  10. Quantum-corrected finite entropy of noncommutative acoustic black holes

    E-print Network

    Anacleto, M A; Luna, G C; Passos, E; Spinelly, J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the generalized uncertainty principle in the tunneling formalism via Hamilton-Jacobi method to determine the quantum-corrected Hawking temperature and entropy for 2+1-dimensional noncommutative acoustic black holes. In our results we obtain an area entropy, a correction logarithmic in leading order, a correction term in subleading order proportional to the radiation temperature associated with the noncommutative acoustic black holes and an extra term that depends on a conserved charge. Thus, as in the gravitational case, there is no need to introduce the ultraviolet cut-off and divergences are eliminated.

  11. Quantum-corrected finite entropy of noncommutative acoustic black holes

    E-print Network

    M. A. Anacleto; F. A. Brito; G. C. Luna; E. Passos; J. Spinelly

    2015-01-31

    In this paper we consider the generalized uncertainty principle in the tunneling formalism via Hamilton-Jacobi method to determine the quantum-corrected Hawking temperature and entropy for 2+1-dimensional noncommutative acoustic black holes. In our results we obtain an area entropy, a correction logarithmic in leading order, a correction term in subleading order proportional to the radiation temperature associated with the noncommutative acoustic black holes and an extra term that depends on a conserved charge. Thus, as in the gravitational case, there is no need to introduce the ultraviolet cut-off and divergences are eliminated.

  12. Quantum-corrected finite entropy of noncommutative acoustic black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Luna, G. C.; Passos, E.; Spinelly, J.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we consider the generalized uncertainty principle in the tunneling formalism via Hamilton-Jacobi method to determine the quantum-corrected Hawking temperature and entropy for 2 + 1-dimensional noncommutative acoustic black holes. In our results we obtain an area entropy, a correction logarithmic in leading order, a correction term in subleading order proportional to the radiation temperature associated with the noncommutative acoustic black holes and an extra term that depends on a conserved charge. Thus, as in the gravitational case, there is no need to introduce the ultraviolet cut-off and divergences are eliminated.

  13. Method and system for photoconductive detector signal correction

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, R.M.; Hamblen, D.G.; Brouillette, C.R.

    1992-08-04

    A corrective factor is applied so as to remove anomalous features from the signal generated by a photoconductive detector, and to thereby render the output signal highly linear with respect to the energy of incident, time-varying radiation. The corrective factor may be applied through the use of either digital electronic data processing means or analog circuitry, or through a combination of those effects. 5 figs.

  14. Method and system for photoconductive detector signal correction

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, Robert M. (Glastonbury, CT); Hamblen, David G. (East Hampton, CT); Brouillette, Carl R. (West Hartford, CT)

    1992-08-04

    A corrective factor is applied so as to remove anomalous features from the signal generated by a photoconductive detector, and to thereby render the output signal highly linear with respect to the energy of incident, time-varying radiation. The corrective factor may be applied through the use of either digital electronic data processing means or analog circuitry, or through a combination of those effects.

  15. A Review of Target Mass Corrections

    SciTech Connect

    I. Schienbein; V. Radescu; G. Zeller; M. E. Christy; C. E. Keppel; K. S. McFarland; W. Melnitchouk; F. I. Olness; M. H. Reno; F. Steffens; J.-Y. Yu

    2007-09-06

    With recent advances in the precision of inclusive lepton-nuclear scattering experiments, it has become apparent that comparable improvements are needed in the accuracy of the theoretical analysis tools. In particular, when extracting parton distribution functions in the large-x region, it is crucial to correct the data for effects associated with the nonzero mass of the target. We present here a comprehensive review of these target mass corrections (TMC) to structure functions data, summarizing the relevant formulas for TMCs in electromagnetic and weak processes. We include a full analysis of both hadronic and partonic masses, and trace how these effects appear in the operator product expansion and the factorized parton model formalism, as well as their limitations when applied to data in the x -> 1 limit. We evaluate the numerical effects of TMCs on various structure functions, and compare fits to data with and without these corrections.

  16. Correction coil cable

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Sou-Tien (Danville, CA)

    1994-11-01

    A wire cable assembly (10, 310) adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies (532) for the superconducting super collider. The correction coil cables (10, 310) have wires (14, 314) collected in wire arrays (12, 312) with a center rib (16, 316) sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly (18, 318 ). The core assembly (18, 318) is surrounded by an assembly housing (20, 320) having an inner spiral wrap (22, 322) and a counter wound outer spiral wrap (24, 324). An alternate embodiment (410) of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable (410) on a particle tube (733) in a particle tube assembly (732).

  17. Hard-thermal-loop corrections in leptogenesis II: solving the Boltzmann equations

    SciTech Connect

    Kießig, Clemens P.; Plümacher, Michael E-mail: pluemi@mpp.mpg.de

    2012-09-01

    We investigate hard-thermal-loop (HTL) corrections to the final lepton asymmetry in leptogenesis. To this end we solve the Boltzmann equations with HTL-corrected rates and CP asymmetries, which we calculated in paper I of this series. We pay special attention to the influence of the two leptonic quasiparticles that arise at non-zero temperature. We include only decays and inverse decays and allow for the lepton modes to be either decoupled from each other, or to be in chemical equilibrium by some strong interaction, simulating the interaction with gauge bosons. In two additional cases, we approximate the full HTL lepton propagators with zero-temperature propagators, where we replace the zero-temperature mass by the thermal mass of the leptons m{sub l}(T) or the asymptotic mass (2){sup 1/2} m{sub l}(T). We compare the final lepton asymmetries of the four thermal cases and the zero-temperature case for zero, thermal and dominant initial neutrino abundance. The final lepton asymmetries of the thermal cases differ considerably from the vacuum case and from each other in the weak washout regime for zero initial neutrino abundance and in the intermediate regime for dominant initial neutrino abundance. In the strong washout regime, the final lepton asymmetry can be enhanced by a factor of two in the case of strongly interacting lepton modes.

  18. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  19. Fisheye video correction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jin; Li, Chen-Feng; Hu, Shi-Min; Martin, Ralph R; Tai, Chiew-Lan

    2012-10-01

    Various types of video can be captured with fisheye lenses; their wide field of view is particularly suited to surveillance video. However, fisheye lenses introduce distortion, and this changes as objects in the scene move, making fisheye video difficult to interpret. Current still fisheye image correction methods are either limited to small angles of view, or are strongly content dependent, and therefore unsuitable for processing video streams. We present an efficient and robust scheme for fisheye video correction, which minimizes time-varying distortion and preserves salient content in a coherent manner. Our optimization process is controlled by user annotation, and takes into account a wide set of measures addressing different aspects of natural scene appearance. Each is represented as a quadratic term in an energy minimization problem, leading to a closed-form solution via a sparse linear system. We illustrate our method with a range of examples, demonstrating coherent natural-looking video output. The visual quality of individual frames is comparable to those produced by state-of-the-art methods for fisheye still photograph correction. PMID:21788670

  20. Weak interaction rate Coulomb corrections in big bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Christel J.; Fuller, George M.

    2010-03-15

    We have applied a fully relativistic Coulomb wave correction to the weak reactions in the full Kawano/Wagoner big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) code. We have also added the zero-temperature radiative correction. We find that using this higher accuracy Coulomb correction results in good agreement with previous work, giving only a modest {approx}0.04% increase in helium mass fraction over correction prescriptions applied previously in BBN calculations. We have calculated the effect of these corrections on other light element abundance yields in BBN, and we have studied these yields as functions of electron neutrino lepton number. This has allowed insights into the role of the weak neutron-proton interconversion processes in the setting of the neutron-to-proton ratio during the BBN epoch. We find that the lepton capture processes' contributions to this ratio are only second order in the Coulomb correction.

  1. Drag Corrections in High-Speed Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwieg, H.

    1947-01-01

    In the vicinity of a body in a wind tunnel the displacement effect of the wake, due to the finite dimensions of the stream, produces a pressure gradient which evokes a change of drag. In incompressible flow this change of drag is so small, in general, that one does not have to take it into account in wind-tunnel measurements; however, in compressible flow it beoomes considerably larger, so that a correction factor is necessary for measured values. Correction factors for a closed tunnel and an open jet with circular cross sections are calculated and compared with the drag - corrections already bown for high-speed tunnnels.

  2. The primordial abundance of deuterium: ionization correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Ryan; Pettini, Max

    2016-01-01

    We determine the relative ionization of deuterium and hydrogen in low metallicity damped Lyman ? (DLA) and sub-DLA systems using a detailed suite of photoionization simulations. We model metal-poor DLAs as clouds of gas in pressure equilibrium with a host dark matter halo, exposed to the Haardt & Madau background radiation of galaxies and quasars at redshift z ? 3. Our results indicate that the deuterium ionization correction correlates with the H I column density and the ratio of successive ion stages of the most commonly observed metals. The N(N II)/N(N I) column density ratio provides the most reliable correction factor, being essentially independent of the gas geometry, H I column density, and the radiation field. We provide a series of convenient fitting formulae to calculate the deuterium ionization correction based on observable quantities. The ionization correction typically does not exceed 0.1 per cent for metal-poor DLAs, which is comfortably below the current measurement precision (2 per cent). However, the deuterium ionization correction may need to be applied when a larger sample of D/H measurements becomes available.

  3. A critical analysis of climatic influences on indoor radon concentrations: Implications for seasonal correction.

    PubMed

    Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J; Crockett, Robin G M; Denman, Antony R; Phillips, Paul S

    2015-10-01

    Although statistically-derived national Seasonal Correction Factors (SCFs) are conventionally used to convert sub-year radon concentration measurements to an annual mean, it has recently been suggested that external temperature could be used to derive local SCFs for short-term domestic measurements. To validate this approach, hitherto unanalysed radon and temperature data from an environmentally-stable location were analysed. Radon concentration and internal temperature were measured over periods totalling 1025 days during an overall period of 1762 days, the greatest continuous sampling period being 334 days, with corresponding meteorological data collected at a weather station 10 km distant. Mean daily, monthly and annual radon concentrations and internal temperatures were calculated. SCFs derived using monthly mean radon concentration, external temperature and internal-external temperature-difference were cross-correlated with each other and with published UK domestic SCF sets. Relatively good correlation exists between SCFs derived from radon concentration and internal-external temperature difference but correlation with external temperature, was markedly poorer. SCFs derived from external temperature correlate very well with published SCF tabulations, confirming that the complexity of deriving SCFs from temperature data may be outweighed by the convenience of using either of the existing domestic SCF tabulations. Mean monthly radon data fitted to a 12-month sinusoid showed reasonable correlation with many of the annual climatic parameter profiles, exceptions being atmospheric pressure, rainfall and internal temperature. Introducing an additional 6-month sinusoid enhanced correlation with these three parameters, the other correlations remaining essentially unchanged. Radon latency of the order of months in moisture-related parameters suggests that the principal driver for radon is total atmospheric moisture content rather than relative humidity. PMID:26093853

  4. Motivation Defect correction The algorithm Summary Defect correction in optimization

    E-print Network

    Hemker, P.W.

    Motivation Defect correction The algorithm Summary Defect correction in optimization "Manifold Mapping" P.W. Hemker IPIR/CWI/UvA June 11, 2010 Manifold Mapping P.W. Hemker #12;Motivation Defect correction The algorithm Summary Motivation Motivation determine x1, x2, x1, x3, x4, x5, x6, x7 Manifold

  5. Using Online Annotations to Support Error Correction and Corrective Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Shiou-Wen; Lo, Jia-Jiunn

    2009-01-01

    Giving feedback on second language (L2) writing is a challenging task. This research proposed an interactive environment for error correction and corrective feedback. First, we developed an online corrective feedback and error analysis system called "Online Annotator for EFL Writing". The system consisted of five facilities: Document Maker,…

  6. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation studies support an in vivo interaction between the F-BOX protein COLD TEMPERATURE GERMINATING10 and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Arabidopsis thaliana F-BOX protein COLD TEMPERATURE GERMINATING10 (CTG10) was identified from an activation tagged mutant screen as causing seeds to complete germination faster than wild type at 10°C when its expression is increased (Salaita et al. 2005. J. Exp. Bot. 56: 2059). Our unpublished d...

  7. Survival and growth of Salmonella Enteritidis in membrane processed liquid egg white with pH, temperature and storage conditions as controlling factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was undertaken to determine the effect of variation in solution pH and process temperature on the removal and regrowth of Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid egg white (LEW) by microfiltration (MF) membrane process. Influence of various storage conditions on growth of Salmonella in membrane sep...

  8. Next-generation transcriptome profiling reveals insights into genetic factors contributing to growth differences and temperature adaptation in Australian populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    PubMed

    Newton, James R; Zenger, Kyall R; Jerry, Dean R

    2013-09-01

    Identification of genetically-regulated adaptation in fish is a precursor to understanding how populations will respond to future climate induced stressors like temperature. Australian populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) show strong evidence of local adaptation to temperature. However, the phenotypic consequences of this adaptation are unknown and the genetic mechanisms underlying this response are poorly understood. In the current study, two populations of barramundi from temperature extremes of the species Australian distribution were communally reared at cool (22°C), control (28°C) and hot (36°C) water temperatures for 3.5months. Southern populations of barramundi originating from a cooler environment grew significantly faster at 22°C than northern populations of warm adapted barramundi. However, no difference in population growth was present at either 28°C or 36°C. The underlying transcriptome profile of barramundi was examined via Illumina mRNA deep sequencing to determine the major contributing gene categories giving rise to phenotypic differences in barramundi population growth. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed enrichment in categories relating to the regulation of peptidase activity as well as microtubule, cytoplasmic and cellular metabolic based processes. Further analysis of the GO category "microtubule based process" with associated genes from the "response to stress" category revealed an apparent re-organization of cytoskeletal elements in response to an induced cold stress in northern barramundi reared at 22°C, when compared with northern barramundi reared at 36°C. Between southern barramundi and northern barramundi reared at 36°C, an analysis of the "endopeptidase inhibitor activity" GO category in conjunction with stress genes indicated a suppression of the complement system in southern barramundi along with an increase in the cellular stress response. The results of the present study show that southern populations of barramundi exhibit underlying molecular adaptation to cooler water temperatures, but still retain a tolerance for warm water temperatures. Furthermore, GO profiling has revealed groups of genes that underlie population differences in temperature tolerance as a means to prioritize the analysis of differential gene expression in studies of local adaptation in the future. PMID:23948424

  9. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Tweet What are contacts? Contact lenses are ... on the surface of the eye. They correct vision like eyeglasses do and are safe when used ...

  10. Finite temperature effects on cosmological baryon diffusion and inhomogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, I.; Mathews, G.J.

    1998-12-01

    We have studied finite temperature corrections to the baryon transport cross sections and diffusion coefficients. These corrections are based upon our recently computed renormalized electron mass and modified state density due to the background thermal bath in the early universe. It is found that the optimum nucleosynthesis yields computed using our diffusion coefficients shift to longer distance scales by a factor of about 3. We also find that the primordial {sup 4}He abundance decreases by {Delta}Y{sub p}{approx_equal}0.01 while {ital D} and {sup 7}Li increase. The effects of these results on constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis are discussed. In particular, we find that a large baryonic contribution to the closure density ({Omega}{sub b}h{sub 50}{sup 2}{approx_lt}0.4) may be allowed in inhomogeneous models corrected for finite temperature. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Coincidence summing corrections for a clover detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Chhavi; Danu, L. S.; Gathibandhe, M.; Goswami, A.; Biswas, D. C.

    2014-11-01

    The true coincidence summing effect on the full energy peak efficiency calibration of a clover HPGe detector for point sources has been determined as a function of sample-to-detector distance using mono-energetic and multi-energetic gamma ray sources. The coincidence summing effect has been observed to increase at closer distances with the correction factors as high as 1.25 at closest distance studied. The correction factors for the total and the photopeak efficiencies have been obtained using the analytical method. The clover detector response has been simulated using MCNP code, taking care of the bevels and the flat surfaces of the clover detector. The geometry of the clover detector has been optimized to match the experimental and the theoretical efficiencies. The true coincidence summing correction factors (kTCS) have also been experimentally obtained by taking the ratio of corresponding mono-energetic extrapolated efficiencies to multi-energetic efficiencies. The kTCS obtained from analytical method has been found to match with the experimental kTCS with the simulated values within 1-5%.

  12. Yearbook of Correctional Education 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguid, Stephen, Ed.

    This yearbook contains conference papers, commissioned papers, reprints of earlier works, and research-in-progress. They offer a retrospective view as well as address the mission and perspective of correctional education, its international dimension, correctional education in action, and current research. Papers include "Correctional Education and…

  13. Turbulence compressibility corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, T. J.; Horstman, C. C.; Marvin, J. G.; Viegas, J. R.; Bardina, J. E.; Huang, P. G.; Kussoy, M. I.

    1994-01-01

    The basic objective of this research was to identify, develop and recommend turbulence models which could be incorporated into CFD codes used in the design of the National AeroSpace Plane vehicles. To accomplish this goal, a combined effort consisting of experimental and theoretical phases was undertaken. The experimental phase consisted of a literature survey to collect and assess a database of well documented experimental flows, with emphasis on high speed or hypersonic flows, which could be used to validate turbulence models. Since it was anticipated that this database would be incomplete and would need supplementing, additional experiments in the NASA Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (HWT) were also undertaken. The theoretical phase consisted of identifying promising turbulence models through applications to simple flows, and then investigating more promising models in applications to complex flows. The complex flows were selected from the database developed in the first phase of the study. For these flows it was anticipated that model performance would not be entirely satisfactory, so that model improvements or corrections would be required. The primary goals of the investigation were essentially achieved. A large database of flows was collected and assessed, a number of additional hypersonic experiments were conducted in the Ames HWT, and two turbulence models (kappa-epsilon and kappa-omega models with corrections) were determined which gave superior performance for most of the flows studied and are now recommended for NASP applications.

  14. Inelastic neutron scattering, Raman, vibrational analysis with anharmonic corrections, and scaled quantum mechanical force field for polycrystalline L-alanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Robert W.; Schlücker, Sebastian; Hudson, Bruce S.

    2008-01-01

    A scaled quantum mechanical harmonic force field (SQMFF) corrected for anharmonicity is obtained for the 23 K L-alanine crystal structure using van der Waals corrected periodic boundary condition density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the PBE functional. Scale factors are obtained with comparisons to inelastic neutron scattering (INS), Raman, and FT-IR spectra of polycrystalline L-alanine at 15-23 K. Calculated frequencies for all 153 normal modes differ from observed frequencies with a standard deviation of 6 wavenumbers. Non-bonded external k = 0 lattice modes are included, but assignments to these modes are presently ambiguous. The extension of SQMFF methodology to lattice modes is new, as are the procedures used here for providing corrections for anharmonicity and van der Waals interactions in DFT calculations on crystals. First principles Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) calculations are performed on the L-alanine crystal structure at a series of classical temperatures ranging from 23 K to 600 K. Corrections for zero-point energy (ZPE) are estimated by finding the classical temperature that reproduces the mean square displacements (MSDs) measured from the diffraction data at 23 K. External k = 0 lattice motions are weakly coupled to bonded internal modes.

  15. Influence of LaCl3 concentration and annealing temperature on the diode ideality factor of LaF3/porous-silicon structure prepared by chemical bath deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafijur Rahman, Md.; Ismail, Abu Bakar Md.

    2015-08-01

    Effect of LaCl3 concentration and annealing temperature on the diode ideality factor of LaF3/PS heterojunction has been investigated in this report. LaF3 layers have been deposited by a novel chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. With this simple technique LaF3 produced as LaCl3 are made to react with hydrofluoric acid on the porous silicon (PS) substrate. This enables direct deposition of LaF3 on the pore walls of the PS leading to a successful passivation of PS. The compositions of the deposited LaF3 were confirmed by energy dispersive of X-ray analysis. The diode ideality factor increases with LaCl3 concentration and decreases with annealing temperature. Therefore, by changing the LaCl3 concentration and annealing temperature quality of the LaF3 layer on PS can be optimized. It was also seen that the Ag/LaF3/PS/Si/Ag structure showed the formation of Schottky diode with a threshold voltage of about 5.5 V. From the experimental results it can be concluded that lanthanum fluorides can be deposited into the pores as well as on the top of PS by the CBD technique, which provides the required passivation for PS. This passivation can enable the PS to be considered as an important material for photonics.

  16. Investigation of temperature dependence of semiconductor detectors used in medicine for radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozleyis Altunkok, Simay; Tuncel, Nina; Ucar, Nazim

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the temperature dependence of p-type semiconductor diodes that are a part of in-vivo dosimetry system was assessed in Co-60 photon energy. The collimator and gantry angle on zero degree, SSD 100 cm, field size 20x20 cm2 was selected. The IBA EDP-5, EDP-10 and EDP-20 diode types that included in this study have different thickness of build-up material so the depth of measurements at water equivalent phantom by FC65-p ion chamber was selected at 5, 10 and 20 mm. Along the process the room and phantom temperature was measured and recorded (19°C). The special water filled PMMA phantom was used for diode set-up on its surface and a thermometer for determine phantom temperature was employed. Each type of diodes irradiated separately for one minute and the signal to dose sensitivity and calibration was performed at room temperature (19°C) by OmniPro-InViDos software with DPD-12 electrometer. Examination was repeated from 33°C to 20°C temperatures. The temperature correction factors were found from slope of the linear drawings for each diode types. The obtained correction factor for EDP-5 and EDP-10 was 0.29 %°C/cGy and 0.30 %°C/cGy respectively, that higher than recommended factor (%0.25°C/cGy). While the more fluctuation for EDP-20 was realized.

  17. Interaction of temperature and salinity on the expression of immunity factors in different tissues of juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus based on response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhihui; Ma, Aijun; Wang, Xin'an; Lei, Jilin; Li, Weiye; Wang, Ting; Yang, Zhi; Qu, Jiangbo

    2015-01-01

    Central Composite Design (CCD) and response surface methodology were used in the experiment to examine the combined effect of temperature (16-28°C) and salinity (18-42) on Hsp70 and IgM genes expression levels in turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) liver and kidney. The results showed that the coefficients of determination ( R 2 =0.965 2 for liver Hsp70, 0.972 9 for kidney Hsp70, 0.921 for liver IgM and 0.962 1 for kidney IgM) and probability values ( P<0.01) were significant for the regression model. The interactive effect between temperature and salinity on liver Hsp70, kidney Hsp70 and liver IgM were not significant ( P>0.05), while the interactive effect between temperature and salinity on kidney IgM was significant ( P<0.01). The model equation could be used in practice for forecasting Hsp70 and IgM genes expression levels in the liver and kidney of juvenile turbot via applying statistical optimization of the response of interest, at which the maximum liver Hsp70, kidney Hsp70, liver IgM and kidney IgM of 1.48, 1.49, 2.48, and 1.38, respectively, were reached. The present model may be valuable in assessing the feasibility of turbot farming at different geographic locations and, furthermore, could be a useful reference for scientists studying the immunity of turbot.

  18. TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE AND METALLICITY IN H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Monica; GarcIa-Rojas, Jorge E-mail: jogarcia@iac.e

    2010-01-10

    The metallicities implied by collisionally excited lines (CELs) of heavy elements in H II regions are systematically lower than those implied by recombination lines (RLs) by factors of approx2, introducing uncertainties of the same order in the metallicities inferred for the interstellar medium of any star-forming galaxy. Most explanations of this discrepancy are based on the different sensitivities of CELs and RLs to electron temperature, and invoke either some extra heating mechanism producing temperature fluctuations in the ionized region or the addition of cold gas in metal-rich inclusions or ionized by cosmic rays or X-rays. These explanations will change the temperature structure of the ionized gas from the one predicted by simple photoionization models, and depending on which one is correct, will imply different metallicities for the emitting gas. We select nine H II regions with observed spectra of high quality and show that simple models with metallicities close to the ones implied by oxygen CELs reproduce easily their temperature structure, measured with T{sub e}([N II])/T{sub e}([O III]), and their oxygen CELs emission. We discuss the strong constraints that this agreement places on the possible explanations of the discrepancy and suggest that the simplest explanation, namely errors in the line recombination coefficients by factors approx2, might be the correct one. In such case, CELs will provide the best estimates of metallicity.

  19. Unbiased Correction Relations for Galaxy Cluster properties Derived from Chandra and XMM-Newton

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Hai-Hui; Chen, Yong; Jia, Shu-Mei; Song, Li-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We use a sample of 62 clusters of galaxies to investigate the discrepancies of gas temperature and total mass within r500 between XMM-Newton and Chandra data. Comparisons of the properties show that: (1) Both the de-projected and projected temperatures determined by Chandra are higher than those of XMM-Newton and there is a good linear relation for the de-projected temperature. (2) The Chandra mass is much higher than XMM-Newton mass with a bias of 0.15. To explore the reasons for the discrepancy in mass, we recalculate the Chandra mass (expressed as M_c) by modifying its temperature with the de-projected temperature relation. The results show that M_c is more close to the XMM-Newton mass with the bias reducing to 0.02. Moreover, M_c are corrected with the r500 measured by XMM-Newton and the intrinsic scatter is significantly improved with the value reducing from 0.20 to 0.12. These mean that the temperature bias may be the main factor causing the mass bias. At last, we find that M_c is consistent with the co...

  20. [Metabolic correction: a biochemical option against diseases].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; González, Michael J; Rodriguez-Gomez, José R; Duconge, Jorge; Allende-Vigo, Myriam Z; Jiménez Ramirez, Francisco J; Cintrón, Kenneth; Ricart, Carlos; Zaragoza-Urdaz, Rafael; Berdiel, Miguel Jabbar; Vázquez, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Human development and its physiology depends on a number of complex biochemical body processes, many of which are interactive and codependent. The speed and the degree in which many physiological reactions are completed depend on enzyme activity, which in turn depends on the bioavailability of co-factors and micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals. To achieve a healthy physiological state, organism need that biochemical reactions occur in a controlled and specific way at a particular speed and level or grade fully completed. To achieve this, is required an optimal metabolic balance. Factors such as, a particular genetic composition, inadequate dietary consumption patterns, traumas, diseases, toxins and environmental stress all of these factors rising demands for nutrients in order to obtain optimal metabolic balance. Metabolic correction is a biochemical and physiological concept that explains how improvements in cellular biochemistry of an organism can help the body achieve metabolic and physiological optimization. We summarize the contribution of several pioneers in understanding the role of micronutrients in health management. The concept of metabolic correction is becoming a significant term due to the presence of genetic variants that affect the speed of reactions of enzymes, causing metabolic alterations that enhance or promote the state/development of multiple diseases. Decline in the nutritional value of the food we eat, the increase in demand for certain nutrients caused by normal development, diseases and medications induce, usually, nutrients consumption. These nutritional deficiencies and insufficiencies are causing massive economic costs due to increased morbidity and mortality in our society. In summary, metabolic correction improves the enzymatic function, which favors the physiological normal functions, thus, contributing to improving health and the welfare of the human being. The purpose of this paper is to describe and introduce the concept of optimal metabolic correction as a functional cost-effective mechanism against disease, in addition, to contribute to diseases prevention and regeneration of the body and health. PMID:26434086

  1. Bootstrap Confidence Intervals for Ordinary Least Squares Factor Loadings and Correlations in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Luo, Shanhong

    2010-01-01

    This article is concerned with using the bootstrap to assign confidence intervals for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in ordinary least squares exploratory factor analysis. Coverage performances of "SE"-based intervals, percentile intervals, bias-corrected percentile intervals, bias-corrected accelerated percentile intervals, and…

  2. Temperature-dependent structural property and power factor of n type thermoelectric Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10} and Bi{sub 0.86}Sb{sub 0.14} alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, K.; Das, Diptasikha; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, Aritra; Center for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, JD-2, Sector-III, Saltlake City, Kolkata 700 098 ; Mandal, P.; Srihari, Velaga

    2013-12-09

    Thermal variation of structural property, linear thermal expansion coefficient (?), resistivity (?), thermopower (S), and power factor (PF) of polycrystalline Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} (x?=?0.10 and 0.14) samples are reported. Temperature-dependent powder diffraction experiments indicate that samples do not undergo any structural phase transition. Rietveld refinement technique has been used to perform detailed structural analysis. Temperature dependence of ? is found to be stronger for Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10}. Also, PF for direct band gap Bi{sub 0.90}Sb{sub 0.10} is higher as compared to that for indirect band gap Bi{sub 0.86}Sb{sub 0.14}. Role of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering on ?, S, and PF has been discussed.

  3. Endoscopic orientation correction.

    PubMed

    Höller, Kurt; Penne, Jochen; Schneider, Armin; Jahn, Jasper; Guttiérrez Boronat, Javier; Wittenberg, Thomas; Feussner, Hubertus; Hornegger, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    An open problem in endoscopic surgery (especially with flexible endoscopes) is the absence of a stable horizon in endoscopic images. With our "Endorientation" approach image rotation correction, even in non-rigid endoscopic surgery (particularly NOTES), can be realized with a tiny MEMS tri-axial inertial sensor placed on the tip of an endoscope. It measures the impact of gravity on each of the three orthogonal accelerometer axes. After an initial calibration and filtering of these three values the rotation angle is estimated directly. Achievable repetition rate is above the usual endoscopic video frame rate of 30 Hz; accuracy is about one degree. The image rotation is performed in real-time by digitally rotating the analog endoscopic video signal. Improvements and benefits have been evaluated in animal studies: Coordination of different instruments and estimation of tissue behavior regarding gravity related deformation and movement was rated to be much more intuitive with a stable horizon on endoscopic images. PMID:20426020

  4. [Effects of plastic mulch on soil moisture and temperature and limiting factors to yield increase for dryland spring maize in the North China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng-Yao; Zhang, Li-Feng; Li, Zhi-Hong; Jia, Jian-Ming; Fan, Feng-Cui; Shi, Yu-Fang

    2014-11-01

    Four treatments, including ridge tillage with plastic mulch (RP), ridge tillage without mulch (RB), flat tillage with plastic mulch (FP) and flat tillage without mulch (FB), were carried out to examine the tillage type and mulch on the effects of soil moisture and temperature, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of dry land spring maize in the North China. Results showed that the average soil temperature was increased by 1-3 °C and the accumulated soil temperature was increased by 155.2-280.9 °C from sowing to tasseling by plastic mulch, and the growing duration was extended by 5.9-10.7 d. The water conservation effect of plastic mulch was significant from sowing to the seedling establishment, with WUE being increased by 81.6%-136.4% under mulch as compared with that without mulch. From the seedling to jointing stage, which coincided with the dry period in the region, soil water utilization by the maize under mulch could reach the depth of 80-100 cm, and its WUE was about 17.0%-21.6% lower than the maize without mulch, since the latter was affected by dry stress. With the coming of rainy season around the trumpeting stage, soil water in each treatment was replenished and maintained at relative high level up to harvest. Yield of maize was increased by 9.5% under RP as compared with RB. However, yield was reduced by 5.0% under FP, due to the plastic film under flat tillage prevented the infiltration of rainfall and waterlogging occurred. No significant difference in yield was found between RB and FB. Higher yield of spring maize was limited because of the mismatching in water supply and demand characterized by soil water shortage before the rainy season and abundant soil water storage after the rainy season. PMID:25898617

  5. A two reservoir model of quantum error correction

    E-print Network

    James P. Clemens; Julio Gea-Banacloche

    2005-08-22

    We consider a two reservoir model of quantum error correction with a hot bath causing errors in the qubits and a cold bath cooling the ancilla qubits to a fiducial state. We consider error correction protocols both with and without measurement of the ancilla state. The error correction acts as a kind of refrigeration process to maintain the data qubits in a low entropy state by periodically moving the entropy to the ancilla qubits and then to the cold reservoir. We quantify the performance of the error correction as a function of the reservoir temperatures and cooling rate by means of the fidelity and the residual entropy of the data qubits. We also make a comparison with the continuous quantum error correction model of Sarovar and Milburn [Phys. Rev. A 72 012306].

  6. String-corrected dilatonic black holes in d dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, Filipe

    2011-02-15

    We solve the dilaton field equation in the background of a spherically symmetric black hole in bosonic or heterotic string theory with curvature-squared corrections in arbitrary d spacetime dimensions. We then apply this result to obtain a spherically symmetric black hole solution with dilatonic charge and curvature-squared corrections in bosonic or heterotic string theory compactified on a torus. For this black hole, we obtain its free energy, entropy, temperature, specific heat, and mass.

  7. String-corrected dilatonic black holes in d dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Filipe

    2011-02-01

    We solve the dilaton field equation in the background of a spherically symmetric black hole in bosonic or heterotic string theory with curvature-squared corrections in arbitrary d spacetime dimensions. We then apply this result to obtain a spherically symmetric black hole solution with dilatonic charge and curvature-squared corrections in bosonic or heterotic string theory compactified on a torus. For this black hole, we obtain its free energy, entropy, temperature, specific heat, and mass.

  8. Topographic slope correction for analysis of thermal infrared images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K. (princpal investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A simple topographic slope correction using a linearized thermal model and assuming slopes less than about 20 degrees is presented. The correction can be used to analyzed individual thermal images or composite products such as temperature difference or thermal inertia. Simple curves are provided for latitudes of 30 and 50 degrees. The form is easily adapted for analysis of HCMM images using the DMA digital terrain data.

  9. Measurement Errors in Polymerase Chain Reaction Are a Confounding Factor for a Correct Interpretation of 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism Effects on Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Critical Analysis of a Previously Published Meta-Analysis of Six Studies

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy K. C.; Olivier, Berend; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Waldinger, Marcel D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze a recently published meta-analysis of six studies on 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Methods Calculation of fraction observed and expected genotype frequencies and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of cases and controls. LL,SL and SS genotype frequencies of patients were subtracted from genotype frequencies of an ideal population (LL25%, SL50%, SS25%, p?=?1 for HWE). Analysis of PCRs of six studies and re-analysis of the analysis and Odds ratios (ORs) reported in the recently published meta-analysis. Results Three studies deviated from HWE in patients and one study deviated from HWE in controls. In three studies in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies from a theoretical population not-deviating from HWE was small: LL(1.7%), SL(?2.3%), SS(0.6%). In three studies not-in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies was high: LL(?3.3%), SL(?18.5%) and SS(21.8%) with very low percentage SL genotype concurrent with very high percentage SS genotype. The most serious PCR deviations were reported in the three not-in-HWE studies. The three in-HWE studies had normal OR. In contrast, the three not-in-HWE studies had a low OR. Conclusions In three studies not-in-HWE and with very low OR, inadequate PCR analysis and/or inadequate interpretation of its gel electrophoresis resulted in very low SL and a resulting shift to very high SS genotype frequency outcome. Consequently, PCRs of these three studies are not reliable. Failure to note the inadequacy of PCR tests makes such PCRs a confounding factor in clinical interpretation of genetic studies. Currently, a meta-analysis can only be performed on three studies-in-HWE. However, based on the three studies-in-HWE with OR of about 1 there is not any indication that in men with lifelong PE the frequency of LL,SL and SS genotype deviates from the general male population and/or that the SL or SS genotype is in any way associated with lifelong PE. PMID:24595335

  10. Compression-ignition Engine Performance at Altitudes and at Various Air Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Collins, John H

    1937-01-01

    Engine test results are presented for simulated altitude conditions. A displaced-piston combustion chamber on a 5- by 7-inch single cylinder compression-ignition engine operating at 2,000 r.p.m. was used. Inlet air temperature equivalent to standard altitudes up to 14,000 feet were obtained. Comparison between performance at altitude of the unsupercharged compression-ignition engine compared favorably with the carburetor engine. Analysis of the results for which the inlet air temperature, inlet air pressure, and inlet and exhaust pressure were varied indicates that engine performance cannot be reliably corrected on the basis of inlet air density or weight of air charge. Engine power increases with inlet air pressure and decreases with inlet air temperatures very nearly as straight line relations over a wide range of air-fuel ratios. Correction factors are given.

  11. Corrected Entropy of a General Spherically Symmetric Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tang-mei; Yang, Jin-bo; Wu, Feng-jie

    2012-07-01

    Adopting the tortoise coordinates transformation in the advanced Eddington coordinates and applying the generalized law of thermodynamics, we discuss the corrected entropy of a general spherically symmetric black hole beyond the semi-classical limit. We give the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking area law following from the modified Hawking temperature. Two examples are explicitly worked out. The conclusion is that the corrected entropy includes a logarithmically term and an inverse term to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, which is the same form as that of the static and the stationary black holes discussed by using the loop quantum gravity and the string theory.

  12. Entropic corrections to Newton's law

    E-print Network

    Modesto, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    It has been known for some time that there is a deep connection between thermodynamics and gravity, with perhaps the most dramatic implication that the Einstein equations can be viewed as a thermodynamic equation of state. Recently Verlinde has proposed a model for gravity with a simple statistical mechanical interpretation that is applicable in the non-relatvistic regime. After critically analyzing the construction, we present a strong consistency check of the model. Specifically, we consider two well-motivated corrections to the area-entropy relation, the log correction and the volume correction, and follow Verlinde's construction to derive corrections to Newton's law of gravitation. We show that the deviations from Newton's law stemming from the log correction have the same form as the lowest order quantum effects of perturbative quantum gravity, and the deviations stemming from the volume correction have the same form as some modified Newtonian gravity models designed to explain the anomalous galactic rot...

  13. Entropic corrections to Newton's law

    E-print Network

    Leonardo Modesto; Andrew Randono

    2010-03-09

    It has been known for some time that there is a deep connection between thermodynamics and gravity, with perhaps the most dramatic implication that the Einstein equations can be viewed as a thermodynamic equation of state. Recently Verlinde has proposed a model for gravity with a simple statistical mechanical interpretation that is applicable in the non-relatvistic regime. After critically analyzing the construction, we present a strong consistency check of the model. Specifically, we consider two well-motivated corrections to the area-entropy relation, the log correction and the volume correction, and follow Verlinde's construction to derive corrections to Newton's law of gravitation. We show that the deviations from Newton's law stemming from the log correction have the same form as the lowest order quantum effects of perturbative quantum gravity, and the deviations stemming from the volume correction have the same form as some modified Newtonian gravity models designed to explain the anomalous galactic rotation curves.

  14. Nested Quantum Error Correction Codes

    E-print Network

    Zhuo Wang; Kai Sun; Hen Fan; Vlatko Vedral

    2009-09-28

    The theory of quantum error correction was established more than a decade ago as the primary tool for fighting decoherence in quantum information processing. Although great progress has already been made in this field, limited methods are available in constructing new quantum error correction codes from old codes. Here we exhibit a simple and general method to construct new quantum error correction codes by nesting certain quantum codes together. The problem of finding long quantum error correction codes is reduced to that of searching several short length quantum codes with certain properties. Our method works for all length and all distance codes, and is quite efficient to construct optimal or near optimal codes. Two main known methods in constructing new codes from old codes in quantum error-correction theory, the concatenating and pasting, can be understood in the framework of nested quantum error correction codes.

  15. Moduli evolution in the presence of thermal corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro, Tiago; de Carlos, Beatriz; Copeland, Edmund J.; Nunes, Nelson J.

    2008-09-01

    We study the effect of thermal corrections on the evolution of moduli in effective supergravity models. This is motivated by previous results in the literature suggesting that these corrections could alter and even erase the presence of a minimum in the zero temperature potential, something that would have disastrous consequences in these particular models. We show that, in a representative sample of flux compactification constructions, this need not be the case, although we find that the inclusion of thermal corrections can dramatically decrease the region of initial conditions for which the moduli are stabilized. Moreover, the bounds on the reheating temperature coming from demanding that the full, finite temperature potential, has a minimum can be considerably relaxed given the slow pace at which the evolution proceeds.

  16. Correction to hill (2005).

    PubMed

    Hill, Clara E

    2006-01-01

    Reports an error in "Therapist Techniques, Client Involvement, and the Therapeutic Relationship: Inextricably Intertwined in the Therapy Process" by Clara E. Hill (Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 2005 Win, Vol 42(4), 431-442). An author's name was incorrectly spelled in a reference. The correct reference is presented. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2006-03309-003.) I propose that therapist techniques, client involvement, and the therapeutic relationship are inextricably intertwined and need to be considered together in any discussion of the therapy process. Furthermore, I present a pantheoretical model of how these three variables evolve over four stages of successful therapy: initial impression formation, beginning the therapy (involves the components of facilitating client exploration and developing case conceptualization and treatment strategies), the core work of therapy (involves the components of theory-relevant tasks and overcoming obstacles), and termination. Theoretical propositions as well as implications for training and research are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122098

  17. Forward Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuochi, Takashi

    In this chapter, forward error correction (FEC) techniques for optical communications are described. In Sect. 17.1, the basic concepts of FEC and its terminology are explained. The various FECs developed to date for optical communications are classified as belonging to three generations. In Sect. 17.2, the first-generation FEC represented by RS(255,239) is described. The second-generation FECs are explained in Sect. 17.3, where recently developed concatenated codes are discussed. In Sect. 17.4, the third-generation FECs, which are more powerful FECs based on soft-decision decoding, are analyzed in detail. A block turbo code and low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes showing a record NCG of around 10 dB are discussed in detail. In Sect. 17.5, we compare each generation of FEC with the Shannon limit. The ultimate NCG is discussed as a function of code rate. FEC error count and its application are discussed in Sect. 17.6.

  18. Thermodynamics of error correction

    E-print Network

    Pablo Sartori; Simone Pigolotti

    2015-04-24

    Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and dissipated work of the process. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics, hence its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  19. Entropic Corrections to Coulomb's Law

    E-print Network

    S. H. Hendi; A. Sheykhi

    2011-10-17

    Two well-known quantum corrections to the area law have been introduced in the literatures, namely, logarithmic and power-law corrections. Logarithmic corrections, arises from loop quantum gravity due to thermal equilibrium fluctuations and quantum fluctuations, while, power-law correction appears in dealing with the entanglement of quantum fields in and out the horizon. Inspired by Verlinde's argument on the entropic force, and assuming the quantum corrected relation for the entropy, we propose the entropic origin for the Coulomb's law in this note. Also we investigate the Uehling potential as a radiative correction to Coulomb potential in 1-loop order and show that for some value of distance the entropic corrections of the Coulomb's law is compatible with the vacuum-polarization correction in QED. So, we derive modified Coulomb's law as well as the entropy corrected Poisson's equation which governing the evolution of the scalar potential $\\phi$. Our study further supports the unification of gravity and electromagnetic interactions based on the holographic principle.

  20. Atmospheric scattering corrections to solar radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Box, M. A.; Deepak, A.

    1979-01-01

    Whenever a solar radiometer is used to measure direct solar radiation, some diffuse sky radiation invariably enters the detector's field of view along with the direct beam. Therefore, the atmospheric optical depth obtained by the use of Bouguer's transmission law (also called Beer-Lambert's law), that is valid only for direct radiation, needs to be corrected by taking account of the scattered radiation. This paper discusses the correction factors needed to account for the diffuse (i,e., singly and multiply scattered) radiation and the algorithms developed for retrieving aerosol size distribution from such measurements. For a radiometer with a small field of view (half-cone angle of less than 5 deg) and relatively clear skies (optical depths less than 0.4), it is shown that the total diffuse contribution represents approximately 1% of the total intensity.