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1

Creep deformation and rupture properties of unirradiated Zircaloy-4 nuclear fuel cladding tube at temperatures of 727 to 857 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep deformation and rupture properties of an unirradiated Zircaloy-4 tube were examined at temperatures of 727 to 857 K to obtain data for evaluating spent fuel integrity under the off-normal dry storage condition. Creep tests were carried out on internally gas pressurized tubular specimens with end plugs welded to both ends. The hoop creep strain up to the steady-state creep region was given by the following equation: ? = 0.05{1- exp[-10( ?st) 0.51]} + ?st, where ?s = 1.02 10 5( E/ T) exp (4060 ?/ E) exp (- Q/ RT) ( S-1), t is time (s), E is the elastic modulus (MPa), T is the temperature (K), ? is the applied stress (MPa), R is the gas constant (= 8.314 J/mol K), and Q the apparent activation energy (233 kJ/mol). The total creep deformation curve over the accelerated creep region could also be presented by the equation expressed as a function of true stress formulated on the basis of constant stress creep data. It is inferred that the transition from the steady-state to the accelerated creep region occurs without changing the deformation mechanism. It was also shown that most of the creep strain to rupture exceeded 100% and Zircaloy-4 had an extremely ductile rupture property.

Mayuzumi, Masami; Onchi, Takeo

1990-12-01

2

Creep, fatigue, and deformation of alpha and alpha-beta titanium alloys at ambient temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium and it alloys are extensively utilized in critical applications that require materials with high strength to weight ratios, rigidities, and toughnesses. This being the case, over 70 years of research have been devoted to the measurement, understanding, and tailoring of the mechanical properties of these alloys. Despite these efforts, surveys of the current knowledge base and understanding of the mechanical responses of Ti alloys demonstrate that numerous mechanical behaviors have yet to be investigated and explained. It has been noted, but generally not appreciated, that commercially important materials display modest strength differentials near room temperature when deformed under quasi-static loading conditions at modest rates (10 -5 to 10-3 s-1 ). Under static loading, subtle variations in plastic flow behavior leads to dramatically weaker materials when loaded in tension versus compression. The asymmetric material responses of single and two-phase alloys deformed under monotonic constant rate and creep conditions have been investigated and related to the fundamental slip behavior observed in single crystalline materials. Two-phase titanium alloys containing a majority volume fraction of the alpha (HCP) phase have long been known to undergo creep deformation at lower temperatures (T < Tm) and stresses (sigma < sigmays). The time dependence of this plasticity, stemming from slip in the alpha-phase, has been found to be sensitive to microstructural condition. The nature of low temperature creep in heat-treatment modified beta-annealed Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo has been investigated. Microstructural features, particularly primary alpha-lathe and beta-rib structure (secondary alpha morphology and content), were systematically modified, and the resulting structures were deformed under both creep and constant strain rate loading conditions. Variations in plastic response are discussed in terms of strain hardening and strain rate sensitivity parameters. The mechanical performance of engineering Ti alloys has long been known to be sensitive to the to nature of applied load waveform. A review of the open literature elucidates several gaping holes in the current understanding of waveform induced plastic response of cyclically loaded materials. This study addresses several of those issues. Sustained load hold time effects during the fatigue an aalpha-Ti alloy is investigated with respect to loading conditions and slip planarity and compared to cyclic fatigue and creep responses at room temperature.

Brandes, Matt

3

Creep Deformation of Allvac 718Plus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creep deformation behavior of Allvac 718Plus was studied over the temperature range of 923 K to 1005 K (650 C to 732 C) at initial applied stress levels ranging from 517 to 655 MPa. Over the entire experimental temperature-stress regime this alloy exhibits Class M-type creep behavior with all creep curves exhibiting a decelerating strain rate with strain or time throughout primary creep. However, unlike pure metals or simple solid solution alloys, this gamma prime strengthened superalloy does not exhibit steady-state creep. Rather, primary creep is instantly followed by a long duration of accelerating strain rate with strain or time. These creep characteristics are common among the gamma prime strengthened superalloys. Allvac 718Plus also exhibits a very high temperature dependence of creep rate. Detailed TEM examination of the deformation structures of selected creep samples reveals dislocation mechanisms similar to those found in high volume fraction gamma prime strengthened superalloys. Strong evidence of microtwinning is found in several of the deformation structures. The presence of microtwinning may account for the strong temperature dependence of creep rate observed in this alloy. In addition, due to the presence of Nb and thus, grain boundary delta phase, matrix dislocation activity which is not present in non-Nb-bearing superalloys occurs in this alloy. The creep characteristics and dislocation mechanisms are presented and discussed in detail.

Hayes, Robert W.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Nasrollahzadeh, Maryam

2014-11-01

4

Creep Deformation of Allvac 718Plus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creep deformation behavior of Allvac 718Plus was studied over the temperature range of 923 K to 1005 K (650 C to 732 C) at initial applied stress levels ranging from 517 to 655 MPa. Over the entire experimental temperature-stress regime this alloy exhibits Class M-type creep behavior with all creep curves exhibiting a decelerating strain rate with strain or time throughout primary creep. However, unlike pure metals or simple solid solution alloys, this gamma prime strengthened superalloy does not exhibit steady-state creep. Rather, primary creep is instantly followed by a long duration of accelerating strain rate with strain or time. These creep characteristics are common among the gamma prime strengthened superalloys. Allvac 718Plus also exhibits a very high temperature dependence of creep rate. Detailed TEM examination of the deformation structures of selected creep samples reveals dislocation mechanisms similar to those found in high volume fraction gamma prime strengthened superalloys. Strong evidence of microtwinning is found in several of the deformation structures. The presence of microtwinning may account for the strong temperature dependence of creep rate observed in this alloy. In addition, due to the presence of Nb and thus, grain boundary delta phase, matrix dislocation activity which is not present in non-Nb-bearing superalloys occurs in this alloy. The creep characteristics and dislocation mechanisms are presented and discussed in detail.

Hayes, Robert W.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Nasrollahzadeh, Maryam

2015-01-01

5

Elevated Temperature Creep Deformation in Solid Solution <001> NiAL-3.6Ti Single Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1100 to 1500 K slow plastic strain rate compressive properties of <001> oriented NiAl-3.6Ti single crystals have been measured, and the results suggests that two deformation processes exist. While the intermediate temperature/faster strain rate mechanism is uncertain, plastic flow at elevated temperature/slower strain rates in NiAl-3.6Ti appears to be controlled by solute drag as described by the Cottrell-Jaswon solute drag model for gliding b = a(sub 0)<101> dislocations. While the calculated activation energy of deformation is much higher (approximately 480 kJ/mol) than the activation energy for diffusion (approximately 290 kJ/mol) used in the Cottrell-Jaswon creep model, a forced temperature compensated - power law fit using the activation energy for diffusion was able to adequately (greater than 90%) predict the observed creep properties. Thus we conclude that the rejection of a diffusion controlled mechanism can not be simply based on a large numerical difference between the activation energies for deformation and diffusion.

Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Noebe, Ronald D.; Darolia, Ram

2003-01-01

6

High temperature deformation characteristics of Zirlo tubing via ring-creep and burst tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cladding tubing acting as a barrier between coolant and radioactive fuel pellets in light water reactors undergo a combination of mechanical and thermal effects along with corrosive conditions during normal operations as well as accident situations, such as LOCA, etc. Therefore, the mechanical integrity of the cladding tubing is of critical importance. In this study, high temperature deformation characteristics

C. S. Seok; B. Marple; Y. J. Song; S. Gollapudi; I. Charit; K. L. Murty

2011-01-01

7

The high temperature creep deformation of Si3N4-6Y2O3-2Al2O3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creep properties of silicon nitride containing 6 wt percent yttria and 2 wt percent alumina have been determined in the temperature range 1573 to 1673 K. The stress exponent, n, in the equation epsilon dot varies as sigma sup n, was determined to be 2.00 + or - 0.15 and the true activation energy was found to be 692 + or - 25 kJ/mol. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed that deformation occurred in the grain boundary glassy phase accompanied by microcrack formation and cavitation. The steady state creep results are consistent with a diffusion controlled creep mechanism involving nitrogen diffusion through the grain boundary glassy phase.

Todd, J. A.; Xu, Zhi-Yue

1988-01-01

8

Estimating creep deformation of glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic resin and fiber-reinforced thermo-plastics (FRTPs) were used without post-cure treatment as molded material. For such materials, creep behavior and physical aging occur simultaneously. This study examined the creep behavior of polycarbonate (PC) and glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate (GFRPC) injection moldings, including the effect of physical aging and fiber content, and determined that the time temperature superposition principle could be applied to the creep behavior for different fiber contents. The effects of physical aging on creep behavior were evaluated quantitatively on pure resin and with various fiber contents without heat treatment. We found that the effect of physical aging could be evaluated with the proposed factor, aging shift rate. To discuss the linearity of viscoelasticity in FRTPs, this study used two shift factors: time and modulus shift factors. The fiber content affected creep behavior by both retarding and restraining it through changing the elastic modulus. This was shown by generating a grand master curve of creep compliance, which included the effects of time, temperature, and fiber content. Using the grand master curve of creep compliance and shift factors, it was possible to estimate the creep deformation of molded materials under varying conditions and fiber contents. The estimated creep deformation gave a very good fit to the experimental creep deformation.

Sakai, Takenobu; Somiya, Satoshi

2006-09-01

9

Spatial fluctuations in transient creep deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spatial fluctuations of transient creep deformation of materials as a function of time, both by digital image correlation (DIC) measurements of paper samples and by numerical simulations of a crystal plasticity or discrete dislocation dynamics model. This model has a jamming or yielding phase transition, around which power law or Andrade creep is found. During primary creep, the relative strength of the strain rate fluctuations increases with time in both casesthe spatially averaged creep rate obeys the Andrade law epsilont ~ t - 0.7, while the time dependence of the spatial fluctuations of the local creep rates is given by ?epsilont ~ t - 0.5. A similar scaling for the fluctuations is found in the logarithmic creep regime that is typically observed for lower applied stresses. We review briefly some classical theories of Andrade creep from the point of view of such spatial fluctuations. We consider these phenomenological, time-dependent creep laws in terms of a description based on a non-equilibrium phase transition separating evolving and frozen states of the system when the externally applied load is varied. Such an interpretation is discussed further by the data collapse of the local deformations in the spirit of absorbing state/depinning phase transitions, as well as deformation-deformation correlations and the width of the cumulative strain distributions. The results are also compared with the order parameter fluctuations observed close to the depinning transition of the 2d linear interface model or the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson equation.

Laurson, Lasse; Rosti, Jari; Koivisto, Juha; Miksic, Amandine; Alava, Mikko J.

2011-07-01

10

Fluctuations and Scaling in Creep Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial fluctuations of deformation are studied in the creep in Andrades power law and the logarithmic phases, using paper samples. Measurements by the digital image correlation technique show that the relative strength of the strain rate fluctuations increases with time, in both creep regimes. In the Andrade creep phase characterized by a power-law decay of the strain rate ?tt-?, with ??0.7, the fluctuations obey ??tt-?, with ??0.5. The local deformation follows a data collapse appropriate for a phase transition. Similar behavior is found in a crystal plasticity model, with a jamming or yielding transition.

Rosti, Jari; Koivisto, Juha; Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J.

2010-09-01

11

Creep Response and Deformation Processes in Nanocluster Strengthened Ferritic Steels  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing demand for oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys that possess both high-temperature strength and irradiation resistance. Improvement of the high-temperature properties requires an understanding of the operative deformation mechanisms. In this study, the microstructures and creep properties of the oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloy 14YWT have been evaluated as a function of annealing at 1000 C for 1 hour up to 32 days. The ultra-fine initial grain size (approx. 100nm) is stable after the shortest annealing time, and even after subsequent creep at 800 C. Longer annealing periods lead to anomalous grain growth that is further enhanced following creep. Remarkably, the minimum creep rate is relatively insensitive to this dramatic grain-coarsening. The creep strength is attributed to highly stable, Ti-rich nanoclusters that appear to pin the initial primary grains, and present strong obstacles to dislocation motion in the large, anomalously grown grains.

Hayashi, Taisuke [Ohio State University; Sarosi, P. M. [Ohio State University; Schneibel, Joachim H [ORNL; Mills, Michael J. [Ohio State University

2008-01-01

12

Deformation and Fracture Mode during Small Punch Creep Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creep damage condition of components under elevated temperature is a requirement to guarantee safe life extension and continued operation. Destructive and/or non-destructive assessments are regularly applied to assess the remaining life of components during service. Uniaxial creep specimens have been traditionally employed for conventional tests to examine a series of high temperature creep properties. However the ability to remove these relatively large uniaxial specimens is limited due to the required size of the specimens with respect to the component dimensions. To overcome this shortcoming, small element testing techniques such as miniature creep (MC) and small punch creep (SPC) tests have recently been proposed to investigate creep properties. However their applications are limited as there is no established standard for the testing procedures and subsequent data evaluation. In order to aid the standardization of the SPC test method, this paper investigated the deformation and fracture of interrupted SPC tests. Results showed that the creep deformation in the SPC test could be classified into three conventional stages. Firstly, the crack of about 1mm in the diameter developed on the extended surface of the disc specimen at the end of the primary creep stage. Secondly, during secondary creep, circumferential cracking progressed in the through-thickness direction by about 0.1mm. Lastly, the tertiary creep region was extremely short and only appeared just before final fracture and failure. The result showed that the ratio of load in the SPC test to stress in the uniaxial creep proposed past was smaller than the experiment value. This result was due to the early crack formation in the disc specimen and the shear type crack development, and the difference of loading ball's diameter.

Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi; Kajihara, Ikumi; Koyama, Hideo; Stratford, Gavin C.

13

Room temperature creep deformation and its effect on yielding behaviour of a line pipe steel with discontinuous yielding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to understand post-yield creep behaviour and its effect on the subsequent tensile behaviour of X-52 line pipe steel at room temperature. As a result of the carbon-locking effect, this steel exhibits a distinct yield point followed by a range of discontinuous yielding. Although normally not observed during re-loading after the first yielding, there was a yield

Sheng-Hui Wang; Weixing Chen

2001-01-01

14

Creep deformation of an unirradiated zircaloy nuclear fuel cladding tube under dry storage conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of creep deformation were made on an internally gas pressurized tubular Zircaloy-4 specimen with plugs welded to its ends. Creep tests were conducted at temperatures between 577 and 693 K for holding times of up to 26640 ks, to formulate the creep equation needed for predicting creep strain during dry storage of spent fuel. Discussion was also given to the difference of creep behaviour between irradiated and unirradiated fuel cladding, indicating that the equation derived is applicable for predicting creep strain of spent fuel cladding during dry storage.

Mayuzumi, Masami; Onchi, Takeo

1990-05-01

15

Oxidation induced localized creep deformation in Zircaloy-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive plastic deformation in the metal underneath the oxide scale in autoclave tested Zircaloy-2 was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was concluded that the plastic deformation is created by creep during oxidation, and is not caused by surface treatment, sample preparation or cooling from autoclave temperatures. Evidence of large strains was found in the form of dislocation tangles, dislocation patches and sub-grain formation, and also indications of twinning were found. The heavily deformed layer is around a few ?m thick and no obvious difference could be seen between alloys with different strength or different oxide thickness.

Tejland, Pia; Andrn, Hans-Olof

2014-01-01

16

Threshold Stress Creep Behavior of Alloy 617 at Intermediate Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep of Alloy 617, a solid solution Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, was studied in the temperature range of 1023 K to 1273 K (750 C to 1000 C). Typical power-law creep behavior with a stress exponent of approximately 5 is observed at temperatures from 1073 K to 1273 K (800 C to 1000 C). Creep at 1023 K (750 C), however, exhibits threshold stress behavior coinciding with the temperature at which a low volume fraction of ordered coherent ?' precipitates forms. The threshold stress is determined experimentally to be around 70 MPa at 1023 K (750 C) and is verified to be near zero at 1173 K (900 C)temperatures directly correlating to the formation and dissolution of ?' precipitates, respectively. The ?' precipitates provide an obstacle to continued dislocation motion and result in the presence of a threshold stress. TEM analysis of specimens crept at 1023 K (750 C) to various strains, and modeling of stresses necessary for ?' precipitate dislocation bypass, suggests that the climb of dislocations around the ?' precipitates is the controlling factor for continued deformation at the end of primary creep and into the tertiary creep regime. As creep deformation proceeds at an applied stress of 121 MPa and the precipitates coarsen, the stress required for Orowan bowing is reached and this mechanism becomes active. At the minimum creep rate at an applied stress of 145 MPa, the finer precipitate size results in higher Orowan bowing stresses and the creep deformation is dominated by the climb of dislocations around the ?' precipitates.

Benz, Julian K.; Carroll, Laura J.; Wright, Jill K.; Wright, Richard N.; Lillo, Thomas M.

2014-06-01

17

Creep deformation behavior and dislocation substructures of MgY binary alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressive creep behavior and deformation substructures of binary MgY alloys containing 0.22.4 mol% Y were investigated at 550650 K under 4200 MPa. The addition of yttrium improves creep strength of magnesium more efficiently than aluminum and manganese. This efficiency decreases with increasing temperature. The apparent activation energy for creep is substantially greater than that for self-diffusion in magnesium. Transmission electron

Mayumi Suzuki; Hiroyuki Sato; Kouich Maruyama; Hiroshi Oikawa

2001-01-01

18

Mechanisms of creep deformation in gamma-based titanium aluminide alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creep behavior of gamma-based titanium aluminide alloys has been characterized phenomenologically in detail in recent years but is still not well understood mechanistically. It is apparent that a large number of variables potentially influence creep behavior; however, isolation of the effects of individual variables has been difficult. In order to understand creep deformation mechanisms and the sources which contribute to creep strain, this investigation has thoroughly examined the effect of several critical variables by conducting experiments on materials where microstructure and composition have been carefully controlled. Important variables examined include the effects of phase morphology/distribution, grain size, aluminum and molybdenum content, stress, temperature, structure stability, and prior deformation path. The resulting effects of these variables on creep properties was assessed by careful experiments examining minimum creep rates, evolution of creep rate with time and strain, sliding at grain boundaries, creep transients, and deformation substructure development. Results of the heat treatment study have shown that microstructure development in this system is highly dependent upon processing variables including heating rate, cooling rate, and annealing temperature. Controlled gamma phase grain growth can also be achieved near the binary alloy eutectoid temperature. Results of creep experiments indicate that the minimum creep rate of a wide range of multiphase structures, including equiaxed and duplex morphologies, is relatively insensitive to second phase morphology. Molybdenum present in solid solution in the gamma phase decreases minimum creep rates. A similar reduction occurs with increased aluminum content on the aluminum-lean side of stoichiometry. Grain boundary sliding contributes significantly to creep deformation for grain sizes of 10--100um with as much as 25% of the strain being attributed to sliding. Examination of dislocation substructures developed during creep indicates that creep is likely to be controlled by solute drag processes at low stresses. At high stresses, deformation appears to be controlled by glide processes involving the dragging of jogged screw dislocations. Resulting stress exponents typically transition from approximately 3 to 7 as stress is increased. Twinning occurs at 760C during creep and tensile deformation at high stresses, but does not result in a significant prior deformation path dependence of creep rate.

Ott, Eric A.

19

A New Creep Constitutive Model for 7075 Aluminum Alloy Under Elevated Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure of aluminum alloy to an elastic loading, during "creep-aging forming" or other manufacturing processes at relatively high temperature, may lead to the lasting creep deformation. The creep behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy are investigated by uniaxial tensile creep experiments over wide ranges of temperature and external stress. The results show that the creep behaviors of the studied aluminum alloy strongly depend on the creep temperature, external stress, and creep time. With the increase of creep temperature and external stress, the creep strain increases quickly. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the Bailey-Norton law and ? projection method, a new constitutive model is proposed to describe the variations of creep strain with time for the studied aluminum alloy. In the proposed model, the dependences of creep strain on the creep temperature, external stress, and creep time are well taken into account. A good agreement between the predicted and measured creep strains shows that the established creep constitutive model can give an accurate description of the creep behaviors of 7075 aluminum alloy. Meanwhile, the obtained stress exponent indicates that the creep process is controlled by the dislocation glide, which is verified by the microstructural observations.

Lin, Y. C.; Jiang, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Hua-Min; Liu, Guan

2014-12-01

20

Threshold Stress Creep Behavior of Alloy 617 at Intermediate Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Creep of Alloy 617, a solid solution Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, was studied in the temperature range of 1023 K to 1273 K (750 C to 1000 C). Typical power-law creep behavior with a stress exponent of approximately 5 is observed at temperatures from 1073 K to 1273 K (800 C to 1000 C). Creep at 1023 K (750 C), however, exhibits threshold stress behavior coinciding with the temperature at which a low volume fraction of ordered coherent y' precipitates forms. The threshold stress is determined experimentally to be around 70 MPa at 1023 K (750 C) and is verified to be near zero at 1173 K (900 C)temperatures directly correlating to the formation and dissolution of y' precipitates, respectively. The y' precipitates provide an obstacle to continued dislocation motion and result in the presence of a threshold stress. TEM analysis of specimens crept at 1023 K (750 C) to various strains, and modeling of stresses necessary for y' precipitate dislocation bypass, suggests that the climb of dislocations around the y' precipitates is the controlling factor for continued deformation at the end of primary creep and into the tertiary creep regime. As creep deformation proceeds at an applied stress of 121 MPa and the precipitates coarsen, the stress required for Orowan bowing is reached and this mechanism becomes active. At the minimum creep rate at an applied stress of 145 MPa, the finer precipitate size results in higher Orowan bowing stresses and the creep deformation is dominated by the climb of dislocations around the y' precipitates.

J.K. Benz; L.J. Carroll; J.K. Wright; R.N. Wright; T. Lillo

2014-06-01

21

Creep Behavior and Deformation Mechanisms for Nanocluster-Strengthened Ferritic Steels  

SciTech Connect

Mechanically alloyed, nanostructured ferritic steels represent a class of alloys that can display high resistance to radiation and creep deformation, which are derived from the presence of nanoclusters, precipitates and solute segregation to the grain boundaries. The creep responses for a 14YWT nanostructured ferritic steel were measured over a range of temperatures and stress levels. The stress exponent was observed to vary non-linearly with applied stress; stress exponents were found to decrease with decreasing stress approaching unity at low stress. Transmission electron microscopy studies clearly demonstrated that creep deformation proceeds by a dislocation glide within nanoscale grains and that glide dislocations are attracted to and pinned by nanoclusters. In light of these observations, a new model of the creep response, inspired by the Kocks-Argon-Ashby model, is developed to explain the low creep rates and small stress exponents that are exhibited by these alloys.

Brandes, Matthew C [Ohio State University; Kovarik, L. [Ohio State University; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Daehn, Glenn [Ohio State University; Mills, Michael J. [Ohio State University

2011-01-01

22

Effect of Tungsten on Primary Creep Deformation and Minimum Creep Rate of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of tungsten on transient creep deformation and minimum creep rate of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel has been assessed. Tungsten content in the 9Cr-RAFM steel has been varied between 1 and 2 wt pct, and creep tests were carried out over the stress range of 180 and 260 MPa at 823 K (550 C). The tempered martensitic steel exhibited primary creep followed by tertiary stage of creep deformation with a minimum in creep deformation rate. The primary creep behavior has been assessed based on the Garofalo relationship, , considering minimum creep rate instead of steady-state creep rate . The relationships between (i) rate of exhaustion of transient creep r' with minimum creep rate, (ii) rate of exhaustion of transient creep r' with time to reach minimum creep rate, and (iii) initial creep rate with minimum creep rate revealed that the first-order reaction-rate theory has prevailed throughout the transient region of the RAFM steel having different tungsten contents. The rate of exhaustion of transient creep r' and minimum creep rate decreased, whereas the transient strain ? T increased with increase in tungsten content. A master transient creep curve of the steels has been developed considering the variation of with . The effect of tungsten on the variation of minimum creep rate with applied stress has been rationalized by invoking the back-stress concept.

Vanaja, J.; Laha, Kinkar; Mathew, M. D.

2014-10-01

23

On the creep deformation of nickel foams under compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite-element computational strategy is developed to study the viscoplastic deformation mechanisms at work in a nickel foam sample under compression creep. The constitutive law for pure nickel accounts for both diffusional and dislocation creep mechanisms. The finite-element results show the competition between both mechanisms due to the strong heterogeneity of the stress distribution in the foam. The initiation of the viscoplastic buckling phenomenon leading to cell crushing in tertiary creep is illustrated. The overall model prediction is compared to the results of compression creep tests performed in vacuo at 900 C. xml:lang="fr"

Burteau, Anthony; Bartout, Jean-Dominique; Bienvenu, Yves; Forest, Samuel

2014-10-01

24

Features controlling the early stages of creep deformation of Waspaloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model has been presented for describing primary and second stage creep. General equations were derived for the amount and time of primary creep. It was shown how the model can be used to extrapolate creep data. Applicability of the model was demonstrated for Waspaloy with gamma prime particle sizes from 75 - 1000 A creep tested in the temperature range 1000 - 1400 F (538 - 760 C). Equations were developed showing the dependence of creep parameters on dislocation mechanism, gamma prime volume fraction and size.

Ferrari, A.; Wilson, D. J.

1974-01-01

25

Stress versus temperature dependence of activation energies for creep  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is associated with lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from dislocation climb to obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change in deformation mechanism occurs a change in the activation energy. When the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is obstacle-controlled dislocation glide, it is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does better than a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy in correlating steady-state creep data for both copper and LiF-22mol percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

1992-01-01

26

Estimating the creep behavior of polycarbonate with changes in temperature and aging time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic resins are typically used without any kind of physical aging treatment. For such materials, creep behavior and physical aging, which depend on time and temperature, occur simultaneously. The effects of these processes are evident after quenching and are recorded in the material as a thermal history. This history strongly influences mechanical properties and creep behavior in particular. Thus, a more thorough understanding of the physical aging process is desirable. We examined the creep deformation of polycarbonate (PC) to reveal the effects of physical aging on creep behavior. The effects were dependent on both time and temperature. The relationship between physical aging and creep behavior exemplified superposition principles with regard to time and both pre-test aging time and pre-test aging temperature. The superposition principles allowed the calculation of creep deformations at a given temperature; the calculated results were corroborated by experimental data.

Sakai, Takenobu; Somiya, Satoshi

2012-08-01

27

Creeping deformation mechanisms for mixed hydrate-sediment submarine landslides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globally widespread gas hydrates are proposed to stabilize the seafloor by increasing sediment peak shear strength; while seafloor failure localises at the base of the gas hydrate stability field (BGHS). The primary mechanism by which gas hydrates are proposed to induce slope failure is by temperature or pressure controlled dissociation of hydrate to free gas resulting in a significant pore pressure increase at the BGHS. Direct evidence for this process is lacking however, and the interaction between gas hydrate and seafloor stability remains poorly understood. We present evidence that, contrary to conventional views, gas hydrate can itself destabilize the seafloor. Morphological (Kongsberg-Simrad EM300 and EM302 multibeam) and high-resolution multichannel seismic refection data from a 100 km2 submarine landslide complex in ~450 m water depth, 20 km off the east coast of New Zealand indicate flow-like deformation within gas hydrate-bearing sediments. This "creeping" deformation occurs immediately downslope of where the BGHS reaches the seafloor, as indicated by a hydrate-indicating bottom simulating reflector (BSR) cutting through the landslide debris, suggesting involvement of gas hydrates. We propose two mechanisms to explain how the shallow gas hydrate system could control these landslides. 1) The Hydrate Valve: Overpressure and/or temperature fluctuations below low-permeability gas hydrate-bearing sediments causes hydrofracturing where the BGHS approaches the landslide base, both weakening sediments and creating a valve for transferring excess pore pressure into the upper landslide body. 2) Hydrate-sediment Glacier: Gas hydrate-bearing sediment exhibits time-dependent plastic deformation enabling glacial-style deformation. This second hypothesis is supported by recent laboratory observations of time-dependent behaviour of gas-hydrate-bearing sands. Given the ubiquitous occurrence of gas hydrates on continental slopes, our results may require a re-evaluation of slope stability following future climate-forced variation in bottom water temperatures.

Mountjoy, Joshu; Pecher, Ingo; Henrys, Stuart; Barnes, Philip; Plaza-Faverola, Andreia

2013-04-01

28

Creep of pure aluminum at cryogenic temperatures  

E-print Network

CREEP OF PURE ALUMINUM AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis by LACY CLARK MCDONALD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AgrM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1989 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering CREEP OF PURE ALUMINUM AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis by LACY CLARK MCDONALD Approved a. s to style and content by: K. Ted Hartwig (Chair ol' Committee) Walter L. Bradley (Member) Mehrda. d...

McDonald, Lacy Clark

2012-06-07

29

Exhumation of UHP rocks: Elastic Deformation or Shearing Creep?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1967, Chinese geophysicists have carried out deep seismic reflection, magnetotellulic, geothermal and potential-field observations in Sulu area where the Chinese continental scientific drilling site is located. In order to perfect interpretation of these data, we have measured physical properties of main rocks in the area at room pressure/temperature laboratories. Geophysical data reveal both external and internal structures along the UHP belt, including the Triassic collisional and subduction structures, occurrence of UHP and HP rocks in the upper crust, eclogite occurrence and magnetization history, multi-cycle ductile shear zones, etc. These features are useful to understand processes of the UHP metamorphic dynamics. The crustal structures in the area are characterized by following facts. (a) Some seismic signatures of Triassic collisional and subduction structures are remained in the current crust, but most seismic signatures illustrate extensional structures formed after the Triassic event. (b) The UHP rock slices only appear within the upper crust and are surrounded by non-UHP rocks, the seismic patterns of the middle and lower crust are typically extensional. (c) Multiple superimposed ductile shear zones densely develop in the crust and coexist with UHP rocks. (d) In the upper crust, UHP and HP rock slumps are coexist and superimposed each other with contact zones mostly the shearing faults. (e) The strike-dip of eclogite bodies is different from the shearing faults. (f) There are two groups of eclogites that have different permanent magnetization directions and magnetization history, possibly implying rotation of the UHP rock slumps. The exhumation dynamics of the UHP rocks can hardly explained by theories based on elastic deformation, which could hardly result the crustal structures mentioned above. On the contrary, the exhumation of the UHP rocks in the Sulu area might strongly relate to rheological creeps, especially complex shearing creep motions occurred in the lithosphere and upper mantle in the late Triassic. As a matter of fact, evidences of viscous flow can be seen not only in the UHP rock samples and cores, but also in the lithospheric structures, such as the ductile shearing faults. Though we have not measured the shear creep compliance of the UHP rocks, we know that these rocks have high yield strength and high fracture energy. However, their enclosing rocks, such as gneisses or most of lower-crust rocks, could act in shearing creep manners with a considerable rate under high temperature and pressure, pushing the UHP rock slices exhumed onto the upper crust.

Yang, W.

2004-12-01

30

Elevated temperature deformation of TD-nickel base alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensitivity of the elevated temperature deformation of TD-nickel to grain size and shape was examined in both tension and creep. Elevated temperature strength increased with increasing grain diameter and increasing L/D ratio. Measured activation enthalpies in tension and creep were not the same. In tension, the internal stress was not proportional to the shear modulus. Creep activation enthalpies increased with increasing L/D ratio and increasing grain diameter, to high values compared with that of the self diffusion enthalpy. It has been postulated that two concurrent processes contribute to the elevated temperature deformation of polycrystalline TD-nickel: (1) diffusion controlled grain boundary sliding, and (2) dislocation motion.

Petrovic, J. J.; Kane, R. D.; Ebert, L. J.

1972-01-01

31

Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

1990-01-01

32

The applicability of the strain-hardening rule to creep deformation of Zircaloy fuel cladding tube under dry storage condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variable stress and temperature creep tests were carried out at temperatures between 626 and 693 K for the Zircaloy-4 tubular specimens in the hoop stress regime 55 to 125 MPa to examine the applicability of the strain hardening rule to creep deformation of Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding tube. Results were compared with those of the constant temperature/stress tests, indicating that the strain hardening rule but not the time hardening rule can be applicable for predicting creep deformation of fuel cladding tube at temperatures tested. It is also suggested that although Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding tube tends to deform under multiaxial condition, it can satisfy the requirements for the strain hardening rule at temperatures of interest during dry storage condition.

Mayuzumi, Masami; Onchi, Takeo

1991-01-01

33

Effect of hydrogen on creep behavior of Ti-6AI-4V alloy at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room temperature creep was investigated for a commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy containing 80 ppm to 720 ppm hydrogen. It was shown that dissolved hydrogen promoted the creep of this alloy at room temperature, markedly increasing both the creep strain and rate in the primary stage. The results indicated that dissolved hydrogen does not change the primary creep mechanism, but rather increases mobility of glide dislocations. It is suggested that dissolved hydrogen atoms soften the alloy at the beginning of deformation due to this increase in dislocation mobility. The initial deformation results in hydrogen build-up near the subboundaries due to the "sweeping" effect of the glide dislocations, thereby causing hydrogen embrittlement in a later stage of deformation.

Gao, G. Y.; Dexter, S. C.

1991-01-01

34

Effect of hydrogen on creep behavior of Ti-6AI-4V alloy at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room temperature creep was investigated for a commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy containing 80 ppm to 720 ppm hydrogen. It was shown that dissolved hydrogen promoted the creep of this alloy at room temperature, markedly increasing both the creep strain and rate in the primary stage. The results indicated that dissolved hydrogen does not change the primary creep mechanism, but rather increases mobility of glide dislocations. It is suggested that dissolved hydrogen atoms soften the alloy at the beginning of deformation due to this increase in dislocation mobility. The initial deformation results in hydrogen build-up near the subboundaries due to the "sweeping" effect of the glide dislocations, thereby causing hydrogen embrittlement in a later stage of deformation.

Gao, G. Y.; Dexter, S. C.

1987-01-01

35

Temperature-dependent transient creep and dynamics of cratonic lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale mantle convection forms the upper boundary layer (lithosphere) where the vertical temperature drop is about 1300 K. Theoretical rheology and laboratory experiments with rock samples show that transient creep occurs while creep strains are sufficiently small. The transient creep is described by the temperature-dependent Andrade rheological model. Since plate tectonics allows only small deformations in lithospheric plates, creep of the lithosphere plates is transient whereas steady-state creep, described by non-Newtonian power-law rheological model, takes place in the underlying mantle. The solution of stability problem shows that the lithosphere is stable but small-scale convective oscillations are attenuated very weakly in regions of thickened lithosphere beneath continental cratons (subcratonic roots) where the thickness of the lithosphere is about 200 km. These oscillations create small-scale convective cells (the horizontal dimensions of the cells are of the order of the subcratonic lithosphere thickness). Direction of motion within the cells periodically changes (the period of convective oscillations is of the order of 3 108 yr). In this study, the oscillations of cratonic lithosphere caused by initial relief perturbation are considered. This relief perturbation is assumed to be created by overthrusting in orogenic belts surrounding cratons. The perturbation of the Earth's surface relief leads to a fast isothermal process of isostatic recovery. In the presence of vertical temperature gradient, vertical displacements, associated with the recovery process in the lithosphere interior, instantly produce the initial temperature perturbations exciting thermoconvective oscillations in the cratonic lithosphere. These small-amplitude convective oscillations cause oscillatory crustal movements which form sedimentary basins on cratons.

Birger, Boris I.

2013-11-01

36

High temperature creep behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened NiAl intermetallics  

SciTech Connect

The intermetallic compound NiAl is a promising candidate material for high-temperature applications, provided its creep strength can be raised by some strengthening strategy. Oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) NiAl has been produced by powder-metallurgical methods and its creep behavior at temperatures up to 1,723 K (1,450 C) has been studied. Exceptional creep properties, with high stresses and stress sensitivities when compared to dispersoid-free NiAl, are found, which confirms the effectiveness of dispersion strengthening in this material. The creep behavior is interpreted in the light of creep models. Detachment-controlled models satisfactorily describe the deformation in coarse-grained ODS-NiAl, but modifications are necessary for fine-grained material. In technical terms, ODS-NiAl recommends itself as a strong, light and oxidation-resistant high-temperature alloy for applications up to 1,700 K.

Arzt, E.; Grahle, P. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)] [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

1998-05-01

37

High temperature creep properties of zirconium and Zircaloy-4 in vacuum and oxygen environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A special set-up has been used to follow the evolution of mechanical parameters under various applied stresses in in situ conditions (controlled temperature and atmosphere). This experimental set-up is used to study the creep behavior of zirconium and Zircaloy-4 in the temperature range 723-823 K. The influence of applied stresses, atmosphere and alloy grade on the deformation and oxidation processes are specifically analyzed. The results underline the presence of two distinct deformation domains for both alloy grades, depending on the applied stress value and the temperature. The results show that the presence of an oxide scale only leads to slight modifications of the creep behavior.

Moulin, G.; El Tahhan, R.; Favergeon, J.; Bigerelle, M.; Viennot, M.

2007-05-01

38

Room Temperature Creep Of SiC/SiC Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During a recent experimental study, time dependent deformation was observed for a damaged Hi-Nicalon reinforced, BN interphase, chemically vapor infiltrated SiC matrix composites subjected to static loading at room temperature. The static load curves resembled primary creep curves. In addition, acoustic emission was monitored during the test and significant AE activity was recorded while maintaining a constant load, which suggested matrix cracking or interfacial sliding. For similar composites with carbon interphases, little or no time dependent deformation was observed. Evidently, exposure of the BN interphase to the ambient environment resulted in a reduction in the interfacial mechanical properties, i.e. interfacial shear strength and/or debond energy. These results were in qualitative agreement with observations made by Eldridge of a reduction in interfacial shear stress with time at room temperature as measured by fiber push-in experiments.

Morscher, Gregory N.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew; Levine, Stanley (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

39

Creep deformation and rupture behavior of CLAM steel at 823 K and 873 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel is selected as the candidate structural material in Fusion Design Study (FDS) series fusion reactor conceptual designs. The creep property of CLAM steel has been studied in this paper. Creep tests have been carried out at 823 K and 873 K over a stress range of 150-230 MPa. The creep curves showed three creep regimes, primary creep, steady-state creep and tertiary creep. The relationship between minimum creep rate (??min) and the applied stress (?) could be described by Norton power law, and the stress exponent n was decreased with the increase of the creep temperature. The creep mechanism was analyzed with the fractographes of the rupture specimens which were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The coarsening of precipitates observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated the microstructural degradation after creep test.

Zhong, Boyu; Huang, Bo; Li, Chunjing; Liu, Shaojun; Xu, Gang; Zhao, Yanyun; Huang, Qunying

2014-12-01

40

Final Report on In-Reactor Creep-Fatigue Deformation Behaviour of a  

E-print Network

Reactor (ITER). In service, both these components will be exposed to an intense flux of fusion (14MeFinal Report on In-Reactor Creep- Fatigue Deformation Behaviour of a CuCrZr Alloy: COFAT 2 B3) , J. Dekeyser3) , and J.F. Stubbins4) Title: Final Report on In-reactor Creep-fatigue Deformation

41

High temperature creep resistant austenitic alloy  

DOEpatents

An improved austenitic alloy having in wt % 19-21 Cr, 30-35 Ni, 1.5-2.5 Mn, 2-3 Mo, 0.1-0.4 Si, 0.3-0.5 Ti, 0.1-0.3 Nb, 0.1-0.5 V, 0.001-0.005 P, 0.08-0.12 C, 0.01-0.03 N, 0.005-0.01 B and the balance iron that is further improved by annealing for up to 1 hour at 1150.degree.-1200.degree. C. and then cold deforming 5-15 %. The alloy exhibits dramatically improved creep rupture resistance and ductility at 700.degree. C.

Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Swindeman, Robert W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goodwin, Gene M. (Lenoir City, TN)

1989-01-01

42

Improved high temperature creep resistant austenitic alloy  

DOEpatents

An improved austenitic alloy having in wt% 19-21 Cr, 30-35 Ni, 1.5-2.5 Mn, 2-3 Mo, 0.1-0.4 Si, 0.3-0.5 Ti, 0.1-0.3 Nb, 0.1-0.5 V, 0.001-0.005 P, 0.08-0.12 C, 0.01-0.03 N, 0.005-0.01 B and the balance iron that is further improved by annealing for up to 1 hour at 1150-1200/degree/C and then cold deforming 5-15%. The alloy exhibits dramatically improved creep rupture resistance and ductility at 700/degree/C. 2 figs.

Maziasz, P.J.; Swindeman, R.W.; Goodwin, G.M.

1988-05-13

43

Long-term performance of ceramic matrix composites at elevated temperatures: Modelling of creep and creep rupture  

SciTech Connect

The models developed, contain explicit dependences on constituent material properties and their changes with time, so that composite performance can be predicted. Three critical processes in ceramic composites at elevated temperatures have been modeled: (1) creep deformation of composite vs stress and time-dependent creep of fibers and matrix, and failure of these components; (2) creep deformation of ``interface`` around broken fibers; and (3) lifetime of the composite under conditions of fiber strength loss over time at temperature. In (1), general evolution formulas are derived for relaxation time of matrix stresses and steady-state creep rate of composite; the model is tested against recent data on Ti-MMCs. Calculations on a composite of Hi-Nicalon fibers in a melt-infiltrated SiC matrix are presented. In (2), numerical simulations of composite failure were made to map out time-to-failure vs applied load for several sets of material parameters. In (3), simple approximate relations are obtained between fiber life and composite life that should be useful for fiber developers and testers. Strength degradation data on Hi-Nicalon fibers is used to assess composite lifetime vs fiber lifetime for Hi-Nicalon fiber composites.

Curtin, W.A.; Fabeny, B.; Ibnabdeljalil, M.; Iyengar, N.; Reifsnider, K.L. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics

1996-07-31

44

Elevated temperature creep properties of the 54Fe-29Ni-17Co "Kovar" alloy.  

SciTech Connect

The outline of this presentation is: (1) Applications of Kovar Alloy in metal/ceramic brazing; (2) Diffusion bonding of precision-photoetched Kovar parts; (3) Sample composition and annealing conditions; (4) Intermediate temperature creep properties (350-650 C); (5) Power law creep correlations--with and without modulus correction; (6) Compressive stress-strain properties (23-900 C); (7) Effect of creep deformation on grain growth; and (8) Application of the power law creep correlation to the diffusion bonding application. The summary and conclusions are: Elevated temperature creep properties of Kovar from 750-900 C obey a power law creep equation with a stress exponent equal to 4.9, modulus compensated activation energy of 47.96 kcal/mole. Grain growth in Kovar creep samples tested at 750 and 800 C is quite sluggish. Significant grain growth occurs at 850 C and above, this is consistent with isothermal grain growth studies performed on Kovar alloy wires. Finite element analysis of the diffusion bonding of Kovar predict that stresses of 30 MPa and higher are needed for good bonding at 850 C, we believe that 'sintering' effects must be accounted for to allow FEA to be predictive of actual processing conditions. Additional creep tests are planned at 250-650 C.

Stephens, John Joseph, Jr.; Rejent, Jerome Andrew; Schmale, David T.

2009-01-22

45

Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Deformation of an Ultra-Fine Precipitate Strengthened Advanced Austenitic Alloy  

SciTech Connect

An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high-temperature ultrafine-precipitation-strengthened), has been identified as an ideal candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS alloys demonstrate improved creep resistance relative to 316 stainless steel (SS) through additions of Ti and Nb, which precipitate to form a widespread dispersion of stable nanoscale metallic carbide (MC) particles in the austenitic matrix. The low-cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue behavior of an HT-UPS alloy have been investigated at 650 C and a 1.0% total strain, with an R-ratio of -1 and hold times at peak tensile strain as long as 150 min. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is directly compared to that of standard 316 SS. The measured values for total cycles to failure are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and in qualitative observations of the deformed microstructures. Crack propagation is primarily transgranular in fatigue and creep-fatigue of both alloys at the investigated conditions. Internal grain boundary damage in the form of fine cracks resulting from the tensile hold is present for hold times of 60 min and longer, and substantially more internal cracks are quantifiable in 316 SS than in HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material differ significantly; an equiaxed cellular structure is observed in 316 SS, whereas in HT-UPS the microstructure takes the form of widespread and relatively homogenous tangles of dislocations pinned by the nanoscale MC precipitates. The significant effect of the fine distribution of precipitates on observed fatigue and creep-fatigue response is described in three distinct behavioral regions as it evolves with continued cycling.

M.C. Carroll; L.J. Carroll

2012-10-01

46

High temperature indentation creep tests on anhydrite - a promising first look  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indentation creep tests are established in materials engineering, providing information on rheology, deformation mechanisms, and related microstructures of materials. Here we explore the potential of this method on natural, polycrystalline anhydrite. The tests are run at atmospheric pressure, temperatures between 700 and 920 C, and reference stresses between 7 and 30 MPa. An activation energy Q of 338 kJ mol-1 and a stress exponent n of 3.9 are derived. Deformation is localized into shear zones bounding a less deformed approximately conical plug underneath the indenter. Shear zone microstructures reveal inhomogeneous crystal-plastic deformation, subgrains, and extensive strain-induced grain boundary migration, while mechanical twinning appears not to be activated. Microstructure and mechanical data are consistent with deformation by dislocation creep.

Dorner, D.; Rller, K.; Stckhert, B.

2014-08-01

47

Creep-strengthening of steel at high temperatures using nano-sized carbonitride dispersions.  

PubMed

Creep is a time-dependent mechanism of plastic deformation, which takes place in a range of materials under low stress-that is, under stresses lower than the yield stress. Metals and alloys can be designed to withstand creep at high temperatures, usually by a process called dispersion strengthening, in which fine particles are evenly distributed throughout the matrix. For example, high-temperature creep-resistant ferritic steels achieve optimal creep strength (at 923 K) through the dispersion of yttrium oxide nanoparticles. However, the oxide particles are introduced by complicated mechanical alloying techniques and, as a result, the production of large-scale industrial components is economically unfeasible. Here we report the production of a 9 per cent Cr martensitic steel dispersed with nanometre-scale carbonitride particles using conventional processing techniques. At 923 K, our dispersion-strengthened material exhibits a time-to-rupture that is increased by two orders of magnitude relative to the current strongest creep-resistant steels. This improvement in creep resistance is attributed to a mechanism of boundary pinning by the thermally stable carbonitride precipitates. The material also demonstrates enough fracture toughness. Our results should lead to improved grades of creep-resistant steels and to the economical manufacture of large-scale steel components for high-temperature applications. PMID:12867976

Taneike, Masaki; Abe, Fujio; Sawada, Kota

2003-07-17

48

Creep behaviour of Cu-30 percent Zn at intermediate temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present, intermediate-temperature (573-823 K) range investigation of creep properties for single-phase Cu-30 percent Zn alpha-brass observed inverse, linear, and sigmoidal primary-creep transients above 573 K under stresses that yield minimum creep rates in the 10 to the -7th to 2 x 10 to the -4th range; normal primary creep occurred in all other conditions. In conjunction with a review of the pertinent literature, a detailed analysis of these data suggests that no clearly defined, classes M-to-A-to-M transition exists in this alloy notwithstanding the presence of both classes' characteristics under nominally similar stresses and temperatures.

Raj, S. V.

1991-01-01

49

High-temperature deformation of dry diabase with application to tectonics on Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed an experimental study to quantify the high-temperature creep behavior of natural diabase rocks under dry deformation conditions. Samples of both Maryland diabase and Columbia diabase were investigated to measure the effects of temperature, oxygen fugacity, and plagioclase-to-pyroxene ratio on creep strength. Flow laws determined for creep of these diabases were characterized by an activation energy of Q

S. J. Mackwell; M. E. Zimmerman; D. L. Kohlstedt

1998-01-01

50

Dislocation decorrelation and relationship to deformation microtwins during creep of a y' precipitate strengthened Ni-based superalloy  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of microtwins during high temperature creep deformation in a strengthened Ni-base superalloy has been investigated through a combination of creep testing, TEM characterization, theoretical modeling and computer simulation. Experimentally, microtwin nucleation sources were identified and their evolution was tracked by characterizing the deformation substructure at different stages of the creep deformation. Initially, deformation is highly localized around stress concentrators such as carbides, borides and serrated grain boundaries, which act as sources of a/2<110> matrix type dislocations. Due to microstructural effects such as fine channels between particles and low matrix stacking fault energies, the a/2<110> matrix dislocations dissociate into a/6<112> Shockley partials, which were commonly observed to be decorrelated from one another, creating extended intrinsic stacking faults in the matrix. As deformation progress further, microtwins form via partial dislocations cooperatively shearing both and phases on adjacent {111} glide planes. The TEM observations lead directly to an analysis of dislocation-precipitate interactions. Through phase field simulations and theoretical analysis based on Orowan looping, the important processes of dislocation dissociation and decorrelation are modeled in detail, providing comprehensive insight into the microstructural features and applied stress conditions that favor the microtwinning deformation mode in strengthened Ni-based superalloys.

Unocic, R. R.; Zhou, N.; Kovarik, Libor; Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Mills, M. J.

2011-11-01

51

Time temperature-stress dependence of boron fiber deformation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexural stress relaxation (FSR) and flexural internal friction (FIF) techniques were employed to measure the time-dependent deformation of boron fibers from -190 to 800 C. The principal specimens were 203 micrometers diameter fibers commercially produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a 13 micrometer tungsten substrate. The observation of complete creep strain recovery with time and temperature indicated that CVD boron fibers deform flexurally as anelastic solids with no plastic component.

Dicarlo, J. A.

1976-01-01

52

Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is one of the leading concepts of the Generation IV nuclear reactor development, which is the core component of Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The major challenge in the research and development of NGNP is the performance and reliability of structure materials at high temperature. Alloy 617, with an exceptional combination of high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, has been selected as a primary candidate material for structural use, particularly in Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) which has an outlet temperature in the range of 850 to 950C and an inner pressure from 5 to 20MPa. In order to qualify the material to be used at the operation condition for a designed service life of 60 years, a comprehensive scientific understanding of creep behavior at high temperature and low stress regime is necessary. In addition, the creep mechanism and the impact factors such as precipitates, grain size, and grain boundary characters need to be evaluated for the purpose of alloy design and development. In this study, thermomechanically processed specimens of alloy 617 with different grain sizes were fabricated, and creep tests with a systematic test matrix covering the temperatures of 850 to 1050C and stress levels from 5 to 100MPa were conducted. Creep data was analyzed, and the creep curves were found to be unconventional without a well-defined steady-state creep. Very good linear relationships were determined for minimum creep rate versus stress levels with the stress exponents determined around 3-5 depending on the grain size and test condition. Activation energies were also calculated for different stress levels, and the values are close to 400kJ/mol, which is higher than that for self-diffusion in nickel. Power law dislocation climb-glide mechanism was proposed as the dominant creep mechanism in the test condition regime. Dynamic recrystallization happening at high strain range enhanced dislocation climb and are believed to be responsible for the monotonically increasing creep rates. Apart from dislocation creep, diffusional creep in existence at low stress level in fine-grained (ASTM 8) material also contributed partly to the creep rates. A reasonable prediction on the long term performance of alloy 617 was also made by extrapolation method using optimized parameters based on creep test data. Furthermore, microstructure characterization was performed utilizing Optical Microscopy (OM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and related analytical techniques on samples from both before and after creep, with special attention given to grain size effects, grain boundary type, and dislocation substructures. Evidences for dislocation climb and dislocation glide were found through detailed dislocation analysis by TEM, proving the dislocation climb-glide mechanism. The formation of subgrain boundary, the changes in boundary characters and grain sizes was confirmed by EBSD analysis for dynamic recrystallization. The effects of initial grain size and grain boundary character distribution on the creep behavior and mechanism were also evaluated. Through the results obtained from this experimental study, new insights were provided into how changes in microstructure take place during high temperature creep of alloy 617, creep mechanism at different conditions was identified, and the creep deformation model was discussed. The results will also serve to technological and code case development and design of materials for NGNP.

Wen, Xingshuo

53

Temperature effects on creep behavior of continuous fiber GMT composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature on the tensile creep of continuous random fiber glass mat thermoplastic composite (GMT) have been studied following an accelerated characterization procedure. The objectives of this work are twofold. First, is to obtain a long-term creep model using timetemperature superposition (TTS) that can represent behavior within the linear viscoelastic regime (up to 20MPa) at room temperature. The

Prasad Dasappa; Pearl Lee-Sullivan; Xinran Xiao

2009-01-01

54

Dislocation decorrelation and relationship to deformation microtwins during creep of a precipitate strengthened Ni-based superalloy  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of microtwins during high temperature creep deformation in a strengthened Ni-base superalloy has been investigated through a combination of creep testing, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), theoretical modeling, and computer simulation. Experimentally, microtwin nucleation sources were identified and their evolution was tracked by characterizing the deformation substructure at different stages of creep deformation. Deformation is highly localized around stress concentrators such as carbides, borides and serrated grain boundaries, which act as sources of a/2<110> matrix-type dislocations. Due to fine channels between particles, coupled with the low matrix stacking fault energy, the a/2<110> matrix dislocations dissociate into a/6<112> Shockley partials, which were commonly observed to be decorrelated from one another, creating extended intrinsic stacking faults in the matrix. Microtwins are common and form via Shockley partial dislocations cooperatively shearing both and phases on adjacent {111} glide planes. The TEM observations lead directly to an analysis of dislocation-precipitate interactions. Through phase field simulations and theoretical analyses based on Orowan looping, the important processes of dislocation dissociation and decorrelation are modeled in detail, providing comprehensive insight into the microstructural features and applied stress conditions that favor the microtwinning deformation mode in strengthened Ni-based superalloys.

Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Zhou, Ning [Ohio State University; Kovarik, Libor [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Shen, Chen [GE Global Research; Wang, Yunzhi [Ohio State University; Mills, Michael J. [Ohio State University

2011-01-01

55

Creep and Environmental Effects on High Temperature Creep-Fatigue Behavior of Alloy 617  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 617 is the leading candidate material for Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), expected to have an outlet temperature as high as 950 C. System start-ups and shut-downs as well as power transients will produce low cycle fatigue (LCF) loadings of components. Acceptance of Alloy 617 in Section III of the ASME Code for nuclear construction requires a detailed understanding of the creep-fatigue behavior in both air and impure helium, representative of the VHTR primary coolant. Strain controlled LCF tests including hold times at maximum tensile strain were conducted at total strain range of 0.3% in air at 950 C. Creep-fatigue testing was also performed in a simulated VHTR impure helium coolant for selected experimental conditions. The fatigue resistance decreased when a hold time was added at peak tensile stress, consistent with the observed change in fracture mode from transgranular to intergranular with introduction of a tensile hold. Increases in the tensile hold time, beyond 180 sec, was not detrimental to the creep-fatigue resistance. Grain boundary damage in the form of grain boundary cracking was present in the bulk of the creep-fatigue specimens. This bulk cracking was quantified and found to be similar for hold times of up to 1800 sec consistent with the saturation in failure lives and rapid stress relaxation observed during the creep portion of the creep-fatigue cycle.

L. J. Carroll; C. Cabet; R. Madland; R. Wright

2011-06-01

56

CREEP-2: Long-term time-dependent rock deformation in a deep-sea observatory.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake rupture and volcanic eruptions are the most spectacular manifestations of dynamic failure of a critically stressed crust. But these are actually rather rare events, and most of the crust spends most of its time in a highly-stressed but sub-critical state. Below a few hundred metres, the crust is saturated, and water-rock chemical reactions lead to time-dependent deformation that allows rocks to fail over extended periods of time at stresses far below their short-term strength by the mechanism of stress corrosion crack growth. This process is highly non-linear and a change in applied stress of around 5% can lead to a change in the time-to-failure of more than an order of magnitude. Theoretical calculations based on reaction rate theory suggest that such cracking may occur down to stresses as low as 20% of the rock strength, implying that time-dependent cracking will be an important deformation mechanism over geological time and at typical tectonic strain rates. A number of theoretical models have been proposed to explain this behaviour. However, it is currently not possible to discriminate between these competing models due to the relatively narrow bandwidth of strain rates that are practicably achievable in conventional laboratory experiments. Ultra-long-term experiments at very low strain rates are clearly essential to address this problem. We have therefore used the stability of the deep-sea environment to conduct ultra-long-term experiments. At depth, the temperature remains constant throughout the year and water pressure also remains essentially constant, especially in the Ionian Sea where the tidal range is minimal. We have successfully conducted a pilot experiment (CREEP-1) in which we used the constant sea-water pressure at depth to provide both a constant confining pressure and a constant deforming stress for our rock samples. Building on that success, we are now building a multi-sample deformation observatory (CREEP-2) to be deployed at approximately 2000m water depth at the NEMO-SN1 test site in the Ionian Sea using the deep-sea shuttle (DSS) operated by INGV. CREEP-2 will be connected to the underwater electro-optical cable operated by INFN and INGV that runs some 25 km from the test site to the shore station sited in the laboratory of LNS-INFN at the port of Catania. This arrangement provides for both power to the deformation apparatus and fast, real-time data transfer from the apparatus.

Boon, Steve; Meredith, Philip; Heap, Michael; Berenzoli, Laura; Favali, Paolo

2010-05-01

57

Stress-deformation relationship before the onset of accelerated creep at (0.50.65) T m for some austenite steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.An analysis has been made of the dependence of stress sa bringing on in a given time the transition to a third creep stage, and of the deformation in the first two periods of creep, on temperature in the interval 600900C and time t1+2 for four brands of austenite steel. It is shown that the relationship between time to

O. A. Bannykh

1970-01-01

58

High temperature creep of refractory bricks. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The uniaxial compressive creep of the 13 high chromia-commercial refractories that are candidate materials for lining coal gasification vessels was studied using stresses from 50 to 1500 psi (0.34 MPa to 10.3 MPa) and temperature from 1900{degrees}F to 2600{degrees}F (1038{degrees} to 1427{degrees}C). The regimes to stress and temperature in which creep was active varied widely, depending on impurities and microstructure, not chromia content, and was active at lower stresses and temperatures than would be expected from hot strength data. The creep was always primary, going through steady state to failure as a transient phase. One specimen with a liquid phase at temperature gave a longer steady-state region. The primary creep time exponent varied from 0.4 to nearly one. It was smaller at low stresses and temperatures, but was often a linear function of stress. Activation enthalpies were less for refractories containing a significant liquid phase at temperature, and were in the range expected for cation diffusion. Current theoretical models to not fit these systems. Two models are suggested to explain the primary creep regime. More research to correlate primary creep with microstructure is needed.

McGee, T.D. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

1991-05-15

59

The constitutive representation of high-temperature creep damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elastic-viscoplastic constitutive equations of Bodner-Partom were applied to modeling creep damage in a high temperature Ni-alloy, B1900 + Hf. Both tertiary creep in bulk materials and creep crack growth in flawed materials were considered. In the latter case, the energy rate line integral was used for characterizing the crack driving force, and the rate of crack extension was computed using a local damage formulation that assumed fracture was controlled by cavitation occurring within the crack-tip process zone. The results of this investigation were used to assess the evolution equation for isotropic damage utilized in the Bodner-Partom constitutive equations.

Chan, K. S.

1988-01-01

60

Marine ice deformation experiments: an empirical validation of creep parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine ice is increasingly recognized as an important component of ice shelves in Antarctica. Because it mainly accretes in "weak" locations, it plays a crucial role in ice shelf stability. Little is known however on the rheology of this particular material (low salinity, no bubbles, specific fabrics). We present marine ice deformation experiments in unconfined uniaxial compression at -10 C, -6 C, and -3 C. Generally, marine ice samples confirm the value of n = 3 for Glen's power law. It also appears to behave systematically "harder" than artificial or meteoric isotropic ice samples used in the past, in the studied stress condition. Bulk salinity does not seem to have a significant impact on the viscosity. All deformation curves compare well with a generalized empirical temperature/viscosity relationship. They represent the first experimental validation of the lower boundary of this rheological relationship recommended for use in modeling ice dynamics.

Dierckx, Marie; Tison, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

61

A model for high temperature creep of single crystal superalloys based on nonlocal damage and viscoplastic material behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for high temperature creep of single crystal superalloys is developed, which includes constitutive laws for nonlocal damage and viscoplasticity. It is based on a variational formulation, employing potentials for free energy, and dissipation originating from plasticity and damage. Evolution equations for plastic strain and damage variables are derived from the well-established minimum principle for the dissipation potential. The model is capable of describing the different stages of creep in a unified way. Plastic deformation in superalloys incorporates the evolution of dislocation densities of the different phases present. It results in a time dependence of the creep rate in primary and secondary creep. Tertiary creep is taken into account by introducing local and nonlocal damage. Herein, the nonlocal one is included in order to model strain localization as well as to remove mesh dependence of finite element calculations. Numerical results and comparisons with experimental data of the single crystal superalloy LEK94 are shown.

Trinh, B. T.; Hackl, K.

2014-07-01

62

The high temperature creep behavior of oxides and oxide fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thorough review of the literature was conducted on the high-temperature creep behavior of single and polycrystalline oxides which potentially could serve as fiber reinforcements in ceramics or metal matrix applications. Sapphire when oriented with the basal plane perpendicular to the fiber axis (c-axis oriented) is highly creep resistant at temperatures in excess of 1600 C and applied loads of 100 MPa and higher. Pyramidal slip is preferentially activated in sapphire under these conditions and steady-state creep rates in the range of 10(exp -7) to 10 (exp -8)/s were reported. Data on the creep resistance of polycrystalline beryllia suggest that C-axiz oriented single crystal beryllia may be a viable candidate as a fiber reinforcement material; however, the issure of fabricability and moisture sensitivity must be addressed for this material. Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) also appears to be a fiber candidate material having a high resistance to creep which is due to it's complex crystal structure and high Peierl resistance. The high creep resistance of garnet suggests that there may be other complex ternary oxides such as single crystal mullite which may also be candidate materials for fiber reinforcements. Finally, CVD and single crystal SiC, although not oxides, do possess a high resistance to creep in the temperature range between 1550 and 1850 C and under stresses of 110 to 220 MPa. From a review of the literature, it appears that for high creep resistant applications sapphire, silicon carbide, yttrium aluminum garnet, mullite, and beryllia are desirable candidate materials which require further investigation.

Jones, Linda E.; Tressler, Richard E.

1991-01-01

63

Identification of wavelengths of strain heterogeneities during creep deformation in Carrara Marble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a new technique combining microfabrication technology and compression tests to map the strain field at a micrometric scale in polycrystalline materials. The motivation of such high-resolution mapping is to identify characteristic wavelengths of heterogeneities for different plasticity mechanisms under varying creep conditions. The micro-strain mapping technique was applied to Carrara Marble under different deformation regimes, at a confining pressure of 300 MPa and temperatures ranging from 200 to 700 C. In samples deformed to 10% strain in compression at 400C, 500C and 600C, at a 3x10-5 s-1 strain rate, strain can be up to 5 times greater along twins and grain boundaries compared to the macroscopic strain accommodated over the entire sample. Strain averaged across a particular grain may vary by as much as 100%. Moreover, there is a gradual but clear change in the accommodation of strain, from twins to grain boundaries as temperature increases. For a fixed temperature of 600C, varying strain from 10% to 30% does not appear to increase the wavelength of heterogeneities (i.e. the strain field does not homogenize). Macroscopically, strain hardening is minimal and there seems to be a constant generation of perturbations of similar wavelength.

Quintanilla-Terminel, Alejandra; Evans, Brian

2014-05-01

64

Elevated temperature deformation of thoria dispersed nickel-chromium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The deformation behavior of thoria nickel-chromium (TD-NiCr) was examined over the temperature range 593 C (1100 F) to 1260 C (2300 F) in tension and compression and at 1093 C (2000 F) in creep. Major emphasis was placed on: (1) the effects of the material and test related variables (grain size, temperature, stress and strain rate) on the deformation process; and (2) the evaluation of single crystal TD-NiCr material produced by a directional recrystallization process. Elevated temperature yield strength levels and creep activation enthalpies were found to increase with increasing grain size reaching maximum values for the single crystal TD-NiCr. Stress exponent of the steady state creep rate was also significantly higher for the single crystal TD-NiCr as compared to that determined for the polycrystalline materials. The elevated temperature deformation of TD-NiCr was analyzed in terms of two concurrent, parallel processes: diffusion controlled grain boundary sliding, and dislocation motion.

Kane, R. D.; Ebert, L. J.

1974-01-01

65

Plastic Deformation of Aluminum Single Crystals at Elevated Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the results of a comprehensive study of plastic deformation of aluminum single crystals over a wide range of temperatures. The results of constant-stress creep tests have been reported for the temperature range from 400 degrees to 900 degrees F. For these tests, a new capacitance-type extensometer was designed. This unit has a range of 0.30 inch over which the sensitivity is very nearly linear and can be varied from as low a sensitivity as is desired to a maximum of 20 microinches per millivolt with good stability. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of small amounts of prestraining, by two different methods, on the creep and tensile properties of these aluminum single crystals. From observations it has been concluded that plastic deformation takes place predominantly by slip which is accompanied by the mechanisms of kinking and polygonization.

Johnson, R D; Young, A P; Schwope, A D

1956-01-01

66

Post- and interseismic deformation due to both localized and distributed creep at depth (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two end-member representations of the ductile lithosphere (i.e., the lower crust and uppermost mantle) commonly used in models of post- and interseismic deformation around strike-slip faults: either (1) laterally homogeneous ductile layers, with sharp contrasts in rheological properties between the layers, in which creep is distributed; or (2) discrete extensions of the fault at depth in which creep is fully localized. The most realistic representation of the ductile lithosphere on earthquake cycle time scales likely falls between these two end-members. Researchers have considered both distributed and localized creep when interpreting post- and interseismic deformation, although the two mechanisms are most commonly treated separately, with the localized creep often approximated by kinematic slip on planar faults. There are a few noteworthy models that considered the feedback between both distributed and localized creep, although those models were largely constrained to 2D geometries of infinite length faults. The thickness of shear zones in the ductile lithosphere may be comparable to the locking depth of the fault, and the existence of a deep shear zone does not preclude the possibility that some distributed creep occurs in the surrounding lithosphere. Furthermore, variations in rheology, including both rheological models and their parameters, may be more subtle than the discrete contrasts typically assumed. In this presentation, we consider models of postseismic deformation following a finite length, strike-slip fault, as well as models of interseismic deformation around an infinite length strike-slip fault. Both sets of models are capable of localized and distributed creep at depth, and use Maxwell viscoelasticity. We show that the horizontal surface velocities during the early postseismic period are most sensitive to the viscosity of the shear zone; however during much of the interseismic period the shear zone is not apparent from the surface deformation, which is consistent with very large uniform viscosities in the ductile lithosphere. On the other hand, the vertical postseismic surface deformation is highly sensitive to the depth-dependent distribution of viscosities, regardless of whether the model contains purely distributed creep or also includes a component of localized creep. Hence, vertical postseismic deformation can discriminate vertical contrasts in viscosity, but is not a good discriminant of localized vs. distributed creep at depth. Models that contain components of both localized and distributed creep predict transient postseismic deformation, characterized by a fast relaxation phase followed by a slower relaxation phase, even when the model only contains steady Maxwell viscosities. This transience is equivalent to that predicted in models that approximate the ductile lithosphere with transient viscoelasticity, and we discuss the implication on the lithosphere rheology inferred from deformation following the 1997 Manyi, China, earthquake. Finally, we address the mechanism in which shear zones might develop under strike-slip faults and the implication of power-law creep rheologies.

Hetland, E. A.; Zhang, G.; Hines, T.

2013-12-01

67

High-Temperature Deformation of Enstatite Aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although enstatite is a significant component of the upper mantle, its rheology is still poorly understood. We have performed an experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of enstatite at high pressure and temperature in the proto- and ortho-enstatite stability fields. Synthetic enstatite powders were produced by reacting San Carlos olivine powders with lab-grade quartz. Powders were hot-pressed at high PT, and were then baked at 1000C under controlled oxygen fugacity conditions to remove all hydrous defect species. The polycrystalline enstatite samples were deformed in a Paterson gas-medium apparatus at temperatures of 1200-1300C, an oxygen fugacity buffered at Ni/NiO, and confining pressures of 300 or 450 MPa. Under these conditions, samples were in the orthoenstatite field at 450 MPa and likely mainly in the protoenstatite field at 300 MPa. At both confining pressures, the mechanical data display a progressive increase of the stress exponent n from 1 to 3 as a function of differential stress, suggesting a transition from diffusional to dislocation creep. Non-linear least-square fits to the high-stress data yielded flow laws with n=3 and activation energies of 600 and 720 kJ/mol for ortho- and proto-enstatite, respectively. The measured strengths are significantly higher than those derived from Raleigh et al. (1971) and Ross and Nielsen (1978), due to the influence of water on the mechanical behavior of their samples. Deformed samples were analysed using optical microscopy, SEM and TEM. Because enstatite reverts to clinoenstatite during quenching, the microstructures present highly twinned grains composed of thin alternating domains of clino- and ortho-pyroxene. Nevertheless, the microstructures show evidence of dislocation processes in the form of undulatory extinction and kink bands. Crystallographic preferred orientations measured by EBSD are axisymmetric and indicate preferential slip on (100)[001]. High resolution TEM indicates that for samples deformed at 450MPa, the thin ortho- and clino-pyroxene lamellae are bound by partial c dislocations in (100) planes, suggesting extensive gliding of partial c dislocations on (100) in samples deformed in the orthoenstatite field. Our high-stress mechanical data for protoenstatite is in perfect agreement with the extrapolation of the flow law for dislocation creep on (100)[001], obtained for single crystals deformed in the protoenstatite stability field (Mackwell, 1991). This confirms that the deformation in our samples is likely controlled by slip on (100)[001], arguably the weakest slip system in enstatite. Comparison of our results with dislocation creep flow laws for olivine indicates that enstatite is almost half an order of magnitude stronger than olivine at our experimental conditions. However, as enstatite has a slightly higher activation energy than olivine, the difference in strength is not likely to be as high in the upper mantle.

Bystricky, M.; Lawlis, J.; Mackwell, S. J.; Heidelbach, F.; Raterron, P. C.

2011-12-01

68

Cavitation in the neck of a deformed Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr creep specimen  

SciTech Connect

In creep deformation, intergranular cavitation is the predominant damage process that leads to fracture. In addition to the strain rate, nucleation and growth of cavities are the most important issues to examine when considering material lifetimes. Cavities tend to grow on boundaries normal to the tensile stress axis. Constrained cavity growth models describe how the growth rate is retarded due to the need for the surrounding matrix to accommodate the volume increase. Near-{gamma} TiAl has a microstructure that is very sensitive to heat treatment and deformation history. In this study, the authors investigate a necked creep specimen upon which creep rates were evaluated in a history that started with a large stress and steadily decreased by stress changes through the end of the experiment. Since creep rates at similar stresses are as much as an order of magnitude higher than in a specimen deformed in a generally increasing stress change history, the cavitation evident in the neck is expected to be strongly affected by the particular deformation history in the material.

Sneary, P.R.; Beals, R.S.; Bieler, T.R. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mechanics] [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mechanics

1996-05-15

69

Effect of stress and temperature on the micromechanics of creep in highly irradiated bone and dentin.  

PubMed

Synchrotron X-ray diffraction is used to study in situ the evolution of phase strains during compressive creep deformation in bovine bone and dentin for a range of compressive stresses and irradiation rates, at ambient and body temperatures. In all cases, compressive strains in the collagen phase increase with increasing creep time (and concomitant irradiation), reflecting macroscopic deformation of the sample. By contrast, compressive elastic strains in the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase, created upon initial application of compressive load on the sample, decrease with increasing time (and irradiation) for all conditions; this load shedding behavior is consistent with damage at the HAP-collagen interface due to the high irradiation doses (from ~100 to ~9,000 kGy). Both the HAP and fibril strain rates increase with applied compressive stress, temperature and irradiation rate, which is indicative of greater collagen molecular sliding at the HAP-collagen interface and greater intermolecular sliding (i.e., plastic deformation) within the collagen network. The temperature sensitivity confirms that testing at body temperature, rather than ambient temperature, is necessary to assess the in vivo behavior of bone and teeth. The characteristic pattern of HAP strain evolution with time differs quantitatively between bone and dentin, and may reflect their different structural organization. PMID:23827597

Singhal, Anjali; Deymier-Black, Alix C; Almer, Jonathan D; Dunand, David C

2013-04-01

70

Deformation mechanisms during low-and high-temperature superplasticity in 5083 Al-Mg alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The controlling deformation mechanisms and grain boundary sliding behavior during low-, medium-, and high-temperature superplasticity (LTSP, MTSP, and HTSP) in fine-grained 5083 Al-Mg base alloys are systematically examined as a function of strain. Grain boundary sliding was observed to proceed at temperatures as low as 200 C. With increasing LTSP straining from the initial (?<0.5) to later stages (?>1.0), the strain rate sensitivity m, plastic anisotropy factor R, high-angle grain boundary fraction, grain size exponent p, and grain boundary sliding contribution all increased. During the initial LTSP stage, there was little grain size dependence and the primary deformation mechanisms were solute drag creep plus minor power-law creep. At later stages, grain size dependence increased and grain boundary sliding gradually controlled the deformation. During MTSP and HTSP, solute drag creep and grain boundary sliding were the dominant deformation mechanisms.

Hsiao, I. C.; Huang, J. C.

2002-05-01

71

Update of CSFM Creep and Creep Rupture Models for Determining Temperature Limits for Dry Storage of Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Creep rupture is believed to be a dominant mode of cladding failure during dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. This paper describes a methodology to determine the maximum allowable temperature for dry SNF storage based on expected time-in-storage, cooling time after discharge, fuel rod inner pressure, burnup, and material properties of Zircalay cladding. The methodology employs a Monkman-Grant correlation to predict the time-to-rupture as a function of steady-state creep rate. The steady-state creep rate is calculated using different creep mechanisms developed from recently published experimental data. Several creep mechanisms were found to be active during dry SNF storage conditions. The methodology incorporates creep adjustment factors due to irradiation damage and thermal annealing.

Gilbert, Edgar R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Beyer, Carl E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Simonen, Edward P. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Medvedev, Pavel G. (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY)

2002-06-09

72

Elevated temperature creep behavior of Inconel alloy 625  

SciTech Connect

Inconel 625 in the solution-annealed condition has been selected as the clad material for the fuel and control rod housing assemblies of the Upgraded Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT Upgrade or TU). The clad is expected to be subjected to temperatures up to about 1100/sup 0/C. Creep behavior for the temperature range of 800/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C of Inconel alloy 625, in four distinct heat treated conditions, was experimentally evaluated.

Purohit, A.; Burke, W.F.

1984-07-01

73

Creep damage prediction of the steam pipelines with high temperature and high pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep is the significant factor that caused failure of steam pipelines with high temperature and high pressure in the period of long-term service. In this paper, the creep tests were performed at serviced temperature of 520C for 1.25Cr0.5Mo pipe material, and the creep and fracture constants were obtained by fitting the creep test data. Based on the modified KarchanovRabotnov constitutive

Xiao-Chi Niu; Jian-Ming Gong; Yong Jiang; Jun-Tao Bao

2009-01-01

74

The Mechanics of Creep Deformation in Polymer Derived Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation and Dow Corning Corporation was to study the effects of temperature, stress, fiber type and fiber architecture on the time-dependent deformation and stress-rupture behavior of polymer-derived ceramic matrix composites developed by the Dow Corning Corporation. Materials reinforced with CG-Nicalon{trademark}, Hi-Nicalon{trademark} and Sylramic{reg_sign} fibers were evaluated under fast fracture, stress-relaxation, and stress-rupture conditions at temperatures between 700 C and 1400 C in ambient air and for stresses between 50 and 200 MPa. Some of the stress-rupture tests conducted as part of this program are among the longest-duration experiments ever conducted with these materials. The possibility of using accelerated test techniques to evaluate the very-long term stress-rupture/creep behavior of these materials was investigated by means of stress-relaxation experiments. However it was found that because these materials exhibit non-linear stress-strain behavior at stresses larger than the matrix cracking stress and because of environmentally-induced changes in the micro and mesostructure of the material, particularly at elevated temperatures, this approach is impractical. However, the results of stress-relaxation experiments will be useful to predict the behavior of these materials in applications where stresses are thermally-induced and therefore driven by strains (e.g., when components are subjected to thermal gradients). The evolution of the microstructure of the fibers, matrix and fiber-matrix interface was studied as a function of stress and temperature, using analytical electron microscopy. The results from these analyses were essential to understand the relationships between environment, stress, temperature and processing on the microstructure and properties of these materials.

Lara-Curzio, E.

2001-01-30

75

A Low-Temperature Creep Experiment Using Common Solder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment will help to illustrate creep in metals at room temperature. Step by step instructions are included for instructors to set up specimens to use in the demonstration. This activity would be appropriate for high school and college level students. The lesson should take about one week of class time; the class may spend a few minute per class period observing the experiment. This document will serve as a framework for instructors and may be downloaded in PDF format.

Bunnell, L. Roy

76

Computer solution of two-dimensional elastoplastic and creep deformation problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for the calculation of a two-dimensional stress distribution ar, ~0' TrO, and the corresponding displacements U and V, under elastic, elastoplastic, and creep deformation conditions. The method can be applied using a program written for the Ural-2 computer. Stress concentrations and the stress vs strain (a i, at) characteristics of the material are taken into

A. V. Amel'yanchik; Yu. S. Gutorova; V. T. Lapteva

1970-01-01

77

GRAVITATIONAL CREEP OF ROCK SLOPES AS PRE-COLLAPSE DEFORMATION AND SOME PROBLEMS IN ITS MODELLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-collapse creep is a widespread component of complex slope movements. Its study requires a preliminary kinematic classification,\\u000a based on the relations between style and rate of gravitational dislocations and geological structure of rock massifs. Complexity\\u000a and variability of slope deformations determine the shortcoming of the traditional deterministic approach. Thus, probabilistic\\u000a analysis considering different scenarios and event trees seems to be

A. A. VARGA; Volokolamskoye Shosse

78

Multimechanism-Deformation Parameters of Domal Salts Using Transient Creep Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Use of Gulf Coast salt domes for construction of very large storage caverns by solution mining has grown significantly in the last several decades. In fact, among the largest developers of storage caverns along the Gulf Coast is the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) which has purchased or constructed 62 crude oil storage caverns in four storage sites (domes). Although SPR and commercial caverns have been operated economically for many years, the caverns still exhibit some relatively poorly understood behaviors, especially involving creep closure volume loss and hanging string damage from salt falls. Since it is possible to postulate that some of these behaviors stem from geomechanical or reformational aspects of the salt, a method of correlating the cavern response to mechanical creep behavior as determined in the laboratory could be of considerable value. Recently, detailed study of the creep response of domal salts has cast some insight into the influence of different salt origins on cavern behavior. The study used a simple graphical analysis of limited non-steady state data to establish an approach or bound to steady state, as an estimate of the steady state behavior of a given salt. This permitted analysis of sparse creep databases for domal salts. It appears that a shortcoming of this steady state analysis method is that it obscures some critical differences of the salt material behavior. In an attempt to overcome the steady state analysis shortcomings, a method was developed based on integration of the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) creep constitutive model to obtain fits to the transient response. This integration process permits definition of all the material sensitive parameters of the model, while those parameters that are constants or material insensitive parameters are fixed independently. The transient analysis method has proven more sensitive to differences in the creep characteristics and has provided a way of defining different behaviors within a given dome. Characteristics defined by the transient analysis are related quantitatively to the volume loss creep rate of the SPR caverns. This increase in understanding of the domal material creep response already has pointed to the possibility y of delineating the existence of material spines within a specific dome. Further definition of the domal geology and structure seems possible only through expansion of the creep databases for domal salts.

MUNSON, DARRELL E

1999-09-01

79

HIGH TEMPERATURE CREEP PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURAL EXAMINATIONS OF P92 WELDS  

E-print Network

1 HIGH TEMPERATURE CREEP PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURAL EXAMINATIONS OF P92 WELDS Kalck Charlotte1: charlotte.kalck@cea.fr Abstract The present study deals with the creep properties of welded joints made of P surfaces and the microstructural examination of welded joints prior to and after creep tests allow

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

Creep behavior during the eutectoid transformation of albite: Implications for the slab deformation in the lower mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate effects of the post-spinel transformation on rheological behavior of descending slabs, we conducted simultaneous deformation and eutectoid reaction experiments using an analogue reaction from albite to jadeite and quartz by a deformation-DIA apparatus. Flow stress and transformed fraction were quantitatively obtained by in-situ X-ray observations during the constant strain rate deformation. The microstructures of recovered samples as well as the flow and kinetic data suggest sequential variation of the creep mechanism from dislocation creep of the transformed eutectoid colony followed by the grain-size sensitive creep in the degenerated eutectoid structure. Our study demonstrated that the creep behavior during the eutectoid transformation involves various processes than previously thought. The slabs may not be weaken promptly after entering into the lower mantle when the size of eutectoid colony is enough large, and keep their strength (or harden) over a period of time depending on the degeneration kinetics of the colony.

Doi, Naoko; Kato, Takumi; Kubo, Tomoaki; Noda, Masahiko; Shiraishi, Rei; Suzuki, Akio; Ohtani, Eiji; Kikegawa, Takumi

2014-02-01

81

Influence of mineral fraction on the rheological properties of forsterite + enstatite during grain-size-sensitive creep: 2. Deformation experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

order to understand the effects of secondary minerals on the flow properties of rocks, we have conducted uniaxial compression experiments on polycrystalline forsterite (Fo) + enstatite (En) samples. At constant temperature and strain rate, the flow stress of the samples decreases with increasing enstatite volume fraction ( fEn) for samples with 0 < fEn < 0.5 and increases with increasing fEn for samples with 0.5 < fEn < 1. The values of the preexponential term, stress and grain size exponents, and activation energy in the constitutive equation for a wide range of fEn were determined. Samples with a low fEn(?0.03) deformed at strain rates of 2 10-5 to 2 10-4/s exhibit creep characteristics that correspond to dislocation-accommodated grain boundary sliding creep (i.e., stress exponent, n = 3), whereas diffusion-accommodated grain boundary sliding creep is typical of high fEn samples (i.e., stress exponent, n = 1). The change of flow strength as a function of fEn during grain-size-sensitive creep is primarily due to changes in grain size of both phases and secondarily due to changes in the volume fraction of phases with different flow strengths. Viscosities of all samples can be reproduced in a viscosity model that takes into account (1) the grain sizes estimated by the grain growth laws established in our part 1 paper and (2) flow laws determined for the individual phases, in this case, forsterite and enstatite. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our model can be extended to make predictions of viscosity in other mineral assemblages.

Tasaka, Miki; Hiraga, Takehiko; Zimmerman, Mark E.

2013-08-01

82

Understanding creep in sandstone reservoirs - theoretical deformation mechanism maps for pressure solution in granular materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface exploitation of the Earth's natural resources removes the natural system from its chemical and physical equilibrium. As such, groundwater extraction and hydrocarbon production from subsurface reservoirs frequently causes surface subsidence and induces (micro)seismicity. These effects are not only a problem in onshore (e.g. Groningen, the Netherlands) and offshore hydrocarbon fields (e.g. Ekofisk, Norway), but also in urban areas with extensive groundwater pumping (e.g. Venice, Italy). It is known that fluid extraction inevitably leads to (poro)elastic compaction of reservoirs, hence subsidence and occasional fault reactivation, and causes significant technical, economic and ecological impact. However, such effects often exceed what is expected from purely elastic reservoir behaviour and may continue long after exploitation has ceased. This is most likely due to time-dependent compaction, or 'creep deformation', of such reservoirs, driven by the reduction in pore fluid pressure compared with the rock overburden. Given the societal and ecological impact of surface subsidence, as well as the current interest in developing geothermal energy and unconventional gas resources in densely populated areas, there is much need for obtaining better quantitative understanding of creep in sediments to improve the predictability of the impact of geo-energy and groundwater production. The key problem in developing a reliable, quantitative description of the creep behaviour of sediments, such as sands and sandstones, is that the operative deformation mechanisms are poorly known and poorly quantified. While grain-scale brittle fracturing plus intergranular sliding play an important role in the early stages of compaction, these time-independent, brittle-frictional processes give way to compaction creep on longer time-scales. Thermally-activated mass transfer processes, like pressure solution, can cause creep via dissolution of material at stressed grain contacts, grain-boundary diffusion and precipitation on pore walls. As a first step to better describe creep in sands and sandstones, we have derived a simple model for intergranular pressure solution (IPS) within an ordered pack of spherical grains, employing existing IPS rate models, such as those derived by Renard et al. (1999) and Spiers et al. (2004). This universal model is able to predict the conditions under which each of the respective pressure solution serial processes, i.e. diffusion, precipitation or dissolution, is dominant. In essence, this creates generic deformation mechanism maps for any granular material. We have used our model to predict the amount and rate of compaction for sandstone reservoirs, and compared our predictions to known subsidence rates for reservoirs around the world. This gives a first order-comparison to verify whether or not IPS is an important mechanism in controlling reservoir compaction.

Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Christopher

2014-05-01

83

Elevated temperature creep properties of NiAl cryomilled with and without Y2O3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creep properties of lots of NiAl cryomilled with and without Y2O3 have been determined in compression and tension. Although identical cryomilling procedures were used, differences in composition were found between the lot ground with 0.5 vol% yttria and the lot ground without Y2O3. Compression testing between 1000 and 1300 K yielded similar creep strengths for both materials, while tensile creep rupture testing indicated that the yttria-containing alloy was slightly stronger than the Y2O3-free version. Both compression and tensile testing showed two deformation regimes; whereas the stress state did not affect the high stress exponent (n approximately equals 10) mechanism, the low stress exponent regime n was approximately 6 in tension and approximately 2 in compression. The strengths in tension were somewhat less than those measured in compression, but the estimated activation energies (Q) of approximately 600 kJ/mol for tensile testing were closer to the previously measured values (approximately 700 kJ/mol) for NiAl-AlN and very different from the Q's of 400 and 200 kJ/mol for compression tests in the high and low stress exponent regimes, respectively. A Larson-Miller comparison indicated that cryomilling can produce an alloy with long-term, high-temperature strength at least equal to conventional superalloys.

Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Luton, Michael J.

1995-01-01

84

Deterministic Multiaxial Creep and Creep Rupture Enhancements for CARES/Creep Integrated Design Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature and long duration applications of monolithic ceramics can place their failure mode in the creep rupture regime. A previous model advanced by the authors described a methodology by which the creep rupture life of a loaded component can be predicted. That model was based on the life fraction damage accumulation rule in association with the modified Monkman-Grant creep rupture criterion. However, that model did not take into account the deteriorating state of the material due to creep damage (e.g., cavitation) as time elapsed. In addition, the material creep parameters used in that life prediction methodology, were based on uniaxial creep curves displaying primary and secondary creep behavior, with no tertiary regime. The objective of this paper is to present a creep life prediction methodology based on a modified form of the Kachanov-Rabotnov continuum damage mechanics (CDM) theory. In this theory, the uniaxial creep rate is described in terms of sum, temperature, time, and the current state of material damage. This scalar damage state parameter is basically an abstract measure of the current state of material damage due to creep deformation. The damage rate is assumed to vary with stress, temperature, time, and the current state of damage itself. Multiaxial creep and creep rupture formulations of the CDM approach are presented in this paper. Parameter estimation methodologies based on nonlinear regression analysis are also described for both, isothermal constant stress states and anisothermal variable stress conditions This creep life prediction methodology was preliminarily added to the integrated design code CARES/Creep (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures/Creep), which is a postprocessor program to commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) packages. Two examples, showing comparisons between experimental and predicted creep lives of ceramic specimens, are used to demonstrate the viability of Ns methodology and the CARES/Creep program.

Jadaan, Osama M.

1998-01-01

85

Creep of 304 LN and 316 L stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Creep behavior of Type 304 LN plate and 316 L shielded-metal-arc (SMA)-deposited stainless weld metal was investigated at 4/sup 0/K. Testing was performed at constant load in a creep machine with a cryostat designed for long-term stability. Both transient and steady-state creep were observed during tests lasting over 2000 hours. Steady-state creep rates were much greater than expected from extrapolations of 300-K creep data. Creep rates on the order of 10/sup -10/ s/sup -1/ were observed at stresses around the yield stress for both materials. The stress exponent under these conditions if approx.2.3. Possible creep mechanisms at this temperature and the impact of these results on the design of engineering structures for long-term structural stability at cryogenic temperatures are discussed.

Roth, L.D.; Manhardt, A.E.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Kershaw, R.P. Jr.

1985-08-07

86

A new high-temperature deformation strenthening and toughening process for titanium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high-temperature deformation strengthening and toughening process for titanium alloys, which consists of near beta transus forging, rapid water quenching, high-temperature toughening and low-temperature strengthening treatment, has been developed. The materials processed by this method produce a new tri-modal microstructure, which shows a high low-cycle fatigue property, high fatigue-creep interaction life, high fracture toughness and a high service temperature

Y. G. Zhou; W. D. Zeng; H. Q. Yu

1996-01-01

87

Dissolution and Replacement Creep:A Significant Deformation Mechanism in Mid-crustal Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zoning patterns and zoning truncations in metamorphic minerals in a granodioritic orthogneiss from the Bronson Hill terrane, New England indicate that strain and S-C fabrics in these rocks were produced by dissolution, precipitation, and replacement processes, even at epidote-amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions. The metamorphic fabric is defined by alternating layers and folia dominated by quartz, feldspars, and biotite + epidote. Zoning patterns in most metamorphic plagioclase, orthoclase, epidote, and sphene are truncated at boundaries normal to the shortening direction, suggesting dissolution. Interfaces of relict igneous orthoclase phenocrysts that face the shortening direction are embayed and replaced by biotite, epidote and myrmekitic intergrowths of plagioclase and quartz. Metamorphic plagioclase grains are also replaced by epidote. We interpret these microstructures to reflect strain-enhanced dissolution. The cores of many grains show asymmetric overgrowths with at least two generations of beards, all oriented on the ends of grains that face the extension direction. We interpret these textures to reflect precipitation of components dissolved by deformation enhanced dissolution. While biotite and quartz probably deformed by dislocation creep, the overall deformation was accommodated by dissolution perpendicular to the shortening direction, and precipitation parallel to it. These chemical processes must have been activated at lower stresses than the dislocation creep predicted from extrapolations of data from experiments in dry rocks. Thus wet crust is likely to be weaker than calculated from these experimental studies. Where such processes dominate, stress may not be high enough to reach brittle failure.

Wintsch, R. P.

2001-12-01

88

Dissolution and replacement creep: a significant deformation mechanism in mid-crustal rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zoning patterns and zoning truncations in metamorphic minerals in a granodioritic orthogneiss indicate that strain and S- C fabrics in these rocks were produced by dissolution, precipitation, and replacement processes, even at epidote-amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions. The metamorphic fabric is defined by alternating layers and folia dominated by quartz, feldspars, and biotite+epidote. Zoning patterns in most metamorphic plagioclase, orthoclase, epidote, and sphene are truncated at boundaries normal to the shortening direction, suggesting dissolution. Interfaces of relict igneous orthoclase phenocrysts that face the shortening direction are embayed and replaced by biotite, epidote, and myrmekitic intergrowths of plagioclase and quartz. Metamorphic plagioclase grains are also replaced by epidote. We interpret these microstructures to reflect strain-enhanced dissolution. The cores of many grains show asymmetric overgrowths with at least two generations of beards, all oriented on the ends of grains that face the extension direction. We interpret these textures to reflect precipitation of components dissolved by deformation-enhanced dissolution. While biotite and quartz probably deformed by dislocation creep, the overall deformation was accommodated by dissolution perpendicular to the shortening direction, and precipitation parallel to it. These chemical processes must have been activated at lower stresses than the dislocation creep predicted from extrapolations of data from experiments in dry rocks. Thus wet crust is likely to be weaker than calculated from these experimental studies.

Wintsch, R. P.; Yi, Keewook

2002-07-01

89

Elevated temperature flow strength, creep resistance and diffusion welding characteristics of Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the flow strength, creep resistance and diffusion welding characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo has been conducted. Two mill-processed forms of this alloy were examined. The forged material had been processed above the beta transus (approximately 1275 K) while the rolled form had been subjected to work below the beta transus. Between 1150 and 1250 K, the forged material was stronger and more creep resistant than the rolled alloy. Both forms exhibit superplastic characteristics in this temperature range. Strain measurements during diffusion welding experiments at 1200 K reveal that weld interfaces have no measurable effect on the overall creep deformation. Significant deformation appears to be necessary to produce a quality diffusion weld between superplastic materials. A 'soft' interlayer inserted between faying surfaces would seemingly allow manufacture of quality diffusion welds with little overall deformation.

Whittenberger, J. D.; Moore, T. J.

1979-01-01

90

Elevated-temperature flow strength, creep resistance and diffusion welding characteristics of Ti-gAl-2Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the flow strength, creep resistance and diffusion welding characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Nb-1Ta-0.8Mo was conducted. Two mill-processed forms of this alloy were examined. The forged material was essentially processed above the beta transus while the rolled form was subjected to considerable work below the beta transus. Between 1150 and 1250 K, the forged material was stronger and more creep resistant than the rolled alloy. Both forms exhibit superplastic characteristics in this temperature range. Strain measurements during diffusion welding experiments at 1200 K reveal that weld interfaces have no measurable effect on the overall creep deformation. Significant deformation appears to be necessary to produce a quality diffusion weld between superplastic materials. A 'soft' interlayer inserted between faying surfaces would seemingly allow manufacture of quality diffusion welds with little overall deformation.

Whittenberger, J. D.; Moore, T. J.

1977-01-01

91

High temperature tensile deformation behavior of Grade 92 steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Candidate structural materials for advanced reactors need to have superior high temperature strength and creep-rupture properties among other characteristics. The ferritic-martensitic Grade 92 steel (Fe-9Cr-2W-0.5Mo, wt.%) is considered such a candidate structural material. Tensile tests were performed at temperatures of 600, 650 and 700 C in the strain rate range of 10-5-10-3 s-1. After analyzing the tensile results using the Bird-Mukherjee-Dorn (BMD) equation, a stress exponent of about 9.5 and an activation energy of about 646 kJ/mol were obtained. In the light of high values of the stress exponent and activation energy, the threshold stress concept was used to elucidate the operating high temperature deformation mechanism. As a result of this modification, the true activation energy and stress exponent of the high temperature deformation in Grade 92 steel were found to be about 245 kJ/mol and 5, respectively. Thus, the dominant high temperature deformation mechanism was identified as the high temperature climb of edge dislocations and the appropriate constitutive equation was developed.

Alsagabi, Sultan; Shrestha, Triratna; Charit, Indrajit

2014-10-01

92

High-Temperature Deformation of Dry Diabase, with Application to Crustal Deformation on Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed an experimental and textural study to characterize the high-temperature creep behavior of natural diabase rock under dry deformation conditions. Samples of both Maryland diabase and Columbia diabase were investigated to measure the effects of temperature, oxygen fugacity, and ratio of plagioclase to pyroxene on the creep strength. The Maryland diabase is composed of ~56 vol% plagioclase, ~38 vol% augite, ~5 vol% pigeonite, ~1 vol% magnetite-ilmenite, and trace chlorite (altered from pyroxene); the grain size of the plagioclase is ~30 microns x 100 microns, while that of the pyroxenes is ~50 microns. The Columbia diabase is composed of ~70 vol% plagioclase, ~6 vol% augite, ~17 vol% hypersthene, ~3% magnetite-ilmenite, and ~3% chlorite (altered from pyroxene); the grain size of the plagioclase is ~100 microns x 600 microns, while that of the pyroxenes is ~200 microns. Samples of each diabase were heated in a controlled-atmosphere room-pressure apparatus at 1000 degrees C for 50 h under controlled oxygen fugacity conditions, causing the dehydration of the hydrous minerals. In subsequent deformation experiments, the more plagioclase-rich Columbia diabase (Mackwell et al. 1995) has a significantly lower strength than the more pyroxene-rich Maryland diabase.

Mackwell, S. J.; Bystricky, M.; White, J. C.; Zimmerman, M. E.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

1996-03-01

93

Constitutive Modeling of High Temperature Uniaxial Creep-Fatigue and Creep-Ratcheting Responses of Alloy 617  

SciTech Connect

Inconel Alloy 617 is a high temperature creep and corrosion resistant alloy and is a leading candidate for use in Intermediate Heat Exchangers (IHX) of the Next Generation Nuclear Plants (NGNP). The IHX of the NGNP is expected to experience operating temperatures in the range of 800 degrees - 950 degrees C, which is in the creep regime of Alloy 617. A broad set of uniaxial, low-cycle fatigue, fatigue-creep, ratcheting, and ratcheting-creep experiments are conducted in order to study the fatigue and ratcheting responses, and their interactions with the creep response at high temperatures. A unified constitutive model developed at North Carolina State University is used to simulate these experimental responses. The model is developed based on the Chaboche viscoplastic model framework. It includes cyclic hardening/softening, strain rate dependence, strain range dependence, static and dynamic recovery modeling features. For simulation of the alloy 617 responses, new techniques of model parameter determination are developed for optimized simulations. This paper compares the experimental responses and model simulations for demonstrating the strengths and shortcomings of the model.

P.G. Pritchard; L.J. Carroll; T. Hassan

2013-07-01

94

Creep and Creep Rupture of Granitic Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is given of recent experimental studies of flow properties and processes of granitic rocks deformed over a wide range of physical conditions. Preliminary new creep data for Westerly granite, deformed to low strains, were obtained in dry compression tests in a Griggs solid pressure medium apparatus at 1.0 GPa confining pressure, temperatures from 470 to 765C, constant stress differences of from 0.6 to 1.2 GPa, all in the ? quartz stability field. High-temperature transient creep data fit an exponential decay flow law very well and were also fit to a power law, for comparison with previous work, with the result ?t = 7 10-5 ?2.2 t0.5 exp (-30.5/RT 10-3) for stress in MPa, where time is in seconds and E is in kcal/mole. Steady state creep results fit a power law ?s = 1.4 10-9 exp (-25.3/RT 10-3)?2.9. Because of experimental uncertainties, differences in the activation energies and stress exponents for ?t and ?s are regarded as insignificant. The experiments and analyses indicate that high-temperature transient creep gives way to steady state creep at strains less than 1% and in short times. Steady state flow should thus dominate natural creep of granitic rocks at moderate to high temperatures. Preliminary optical and TEM analyses of the specimens indicate that these low creep strains are accommodated primarily by quartz, secondarily by micas, and little, if at all, by feldspars, as seems to be true also of several naturally deformed granitic rocks examined petrographically. The close accord of the activation energies for creep of granitic rocks observed here and in previous studies with those found for steady state creep of quartzite [Koch et al., 1980] also suggests that deformation of quartz controls the creep rate of granitic rocks. Activation energies for creep of feld-spars, under most favorable conditions for low energies [Tullis and Yund, 1979b], appear to be too high to account for the results.

Carter, Neville L.; Anderson, Douglas A.; Hansen, Francis D.; Kranz, Robert L.

95

Generation of long time creep data on refractory alloys at elevated temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrahigh vacuum creep tests were conducted on tantalum, tungsten, and molybdenum alloys to develop creep data and to evaluate the influence of liquid lithium exposure on the creep behavior of the tantalum alloy T-111. Test conditions were generally selected to provide 1% creep in 1000 to 10,000 hours, with test temperatures ranging from 1600 to 2912 F (1144 to 1873 K). Tests on T-111 specimens exposed to vacuum and to liquid lithium for various times and temperatures showed large reductions in creep strength for exposures in the 1800 to 1900 F (1255 to 1310 K) range. Tests on the ASTAR 811c showed a significant influence of grain size on the creep strength of this material, with larger grain size specimens being significantly stronger above the equicohesive temperature of 2000 F (1366 K).

Sheffler, K. D.; Ebert, R. R.

1971-01-01

96

Generation of long time creep data on refractory alloys at elevated temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrahigh vacuum creep tests were performed on tungsten, molybdenum, and tantalum alloys to develop design creep data and to evaluate the influence of liquid lithium exposure on the creep resistance of a tantalum alloy. Test conditions were generally selected to provide 1% creep in 1000 to 10,000 hours, with the test temperatures ranging between 1600 and 2900 F (1144 K and 1866 K). One percent creep life data from a tantalum-base T-111 alloy (Ta-8%W-2%Hf) were analyzed using a station function method to provide an improved parametric representation of the T-111 data. In addition, the minimum creep rate data from an ASTAR 811C alloy (Ta-8%W-1%Re-0.7%Hf0.025%C) were analyzed to determine the stress and temperature dependence of creep rate. Results of this analysis indicated that the activation energy for creep decreased from about 150 Kcal/mole (5130 J/mole) above 2400 F (1589 K) to about 110 Kcal/mole (3760 J/mole) below 2000 F (1361 K). This temperature range corresponds to the range where the creep mechanism changes from grain boundary sliding to intragranular creep.

Sheffler, K. D.

1971-01-01

97

Correlation of creep rate with microstructural changes during high temperature creep  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The techniques of electron microscopy were used to examine the microstructural changes which occur during primary creep for two important types of engineering alloys: (1) alloys strengthened by solid-solution additions, and (2) dispersion-strengthened alloys. The metals chosen for study are unalloyed titanium, Ti-6Al-4V, and the cobalt-base alloy, Haynes 188. Results to date on NGR 47-004-108 show that development of prior dislocation substructure in Haynes 188 by 10% prestrain and annealing for one hour at 1800 F increases the time to reach 0.5% creep strain at 1600 F by more than an order of magnitude for creep stresses from 3 to 20 ksi. For creep at 1800 F, similar results were obtaind for stresses above 7 ksi, but the prior substructure decreases creep resistance below 7 ksi. This effect appears to be related to instability of grain structure at 1800 F in prestrained material.

Young, C. T.; Hochella, W. A.; Lytton, J. L.

1973-01-01

98

Experimental characterization of crack tip deformation fields in Alloy 718 at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A series of fracture mechanics tests were conducted at temperatures of 650 C and 704 C in air, using Inconel 719. A noncontacting measurement technique, based on computer vision and digital image correlation, was applied to directly measure surface displacements and strains prior to and during creep crack growth. For the first time, quantitative comparisons at elevated temperatures are presented between experimentally measured near-crack-tip deformation fields and theoretical linear elastic and viscoelastic fracture mechanics solutions. The results establish that linear elastic conditions dominate the near-crack-tip displacements and strains at 650 C during crack growth, and confirm that K{sub 1} is a viable continuum-based fracture parameter for creep crack growth characterization. Postmortem fractographic analyses indicate that grain boundary embrittlement leads to crack extension before a significant amount of creep occurs at this temperature. At higher temperatures, however, no crack growth was observed due to crack tip blunting and concurrent stress reduction after load application.

Liu, J.; Lyons, J.; Sutton, M.; Reynolds, A. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1998-01-01

99

Mechanisms of High Temperature/Low Stress Creep of Ni-Based Superalloy Single Crystals  

SciTech Connect

Cast nickel-based superalloys are used for blades in land-based, energy conversion and powerplant applications, as well as in aircraft gas turbines operating at temperatures up to 1100 C, where creep is one of the life-limiting factors. Creep of superalloy single crystals has been extensively studied over the last several decades. Surprisingly, only recently has work focused specifically on the dislocation mechanisms that govern high temperature and low stress creep. Nevertheless, the perpetual goal of better engine efficiency demands that the creep mechanisms operative in this regime be fully understood in order to develop alloys and microstructures with improved high temperature capability. At present, the micro-mechanisms controlling creep before and after rafting (the microstructure evolution typical of high temperature creep) has occurred have yet to be identified and modeled, particularly for [001] oriented single crystals. This crystal orientation is most interesting technologically since it exhibits the highest creep strength. The major goal of the program entitled ''Mechanisms of High Temperature/Low Stress Creep of Ni-Based Superalloy Single Crystals'' (DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER46137) has been to elucidate these creep mechanisms in cast nickel-based superalloys. We have utilized a combination of detailed microstructure and dislocation substructure analysis combined with the development of a novel phase-field model for microstructure evolution.

Michael J. Mills

2009-03-05

100

Creep and creep fracture of zirconium and zirconium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creep and creep failure mechanisms for zirconium and zirconium alloys have not been established, yet these properties are required to establish safe conditions for the interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of this research, then, is to determine the relevant creep and creep fracture mechanisms controlling the deformation and failure of zirconium and zirconium alloys at elevated temperatures. Currently, the maximum allowable temperatures for the storage of spent nuclear fuel are defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission based on a limited set of experimental data. Recent changes in regulations will be evaluated and recommendations made regarding their applicability. Various studies in the past have reported that zirconium and zirconium alloys exhibit anomalous creep properties. A detailed analysis of the creep properties of zirconium and zirconium alloys is presented based on an extensive literature review. Next, developments in creep fracture phenomena in engineering materials over the past several decades will be discussed and related to the creep fracture of zirconium alloys. As will be discussed, the mechanism for plasticity can be intimately tied to the fracture mechanism. The results of uniaxial creep tests on zirconium at temperatures of 350--700C and stresses of 8--70 MPa and uniaxial creep tests on Zircaloy-2 at temperatures of 300--600C and stresses of 24--382 MPa and subsequent microstructural investigation using a scanning electron microscope will be discussed, particularly as relevant to the fracture mechanisms for this alloy.

Hayes, Troy Allyn

101

Creep and creep-rupture behavior of Alloy 718  

SciTech Connect

Data obtained from creep and creep-rupture tests conducted on 18 heats of Alloy 718 were used to formulate models for predicting high temperature time dependent behavior of this alloy. Creep tests were conducted on specimens taken from a number of commercial product forms including plate, bar, and forgoing material that had been procured and heat treated in accordance with ASTM specifications B-670 or B-637. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 427 to 760{degree}C ad at test times to about 87,000 h. Comparisons are given between experimental data and the analytical models. The analytical models for creep-rupture included one based on lot-centering regression analysis and two based on the Minimum Commitment Method. A master'' curve approach was used to develop and equation for estimating creep deformation up to the onset of tertiary creep. 11 refs., 13 figs.

Brinkman, C.R.; Booker, M.K.; Ding, J.L.

1991-01-01

102

Implications of Microstructural Studies of the SAFOD Gouge for the Strength and Deformation Mechanisms in the Creeping Segment of the San Andreas Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Andreas Fault zone (SAF) in the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD)in central California is characterized by an average 21 mm/year aseismic creep and strain release through repeating M<3 earthquakes. Seismic inversion studies indicate that the ruptures occur on clusters of stationary patches making up 1% or less of the total fault surface area. The existence of these so-called asperity patches, although not critical in determining the fault strength, suggests interaction of different deformation mechanisms. What are the deformation mechanisms, and how do the mechanisms couple and factor into the current strength models for the SAF? The SAFOD provides core samples and geophysical data including cores from two shear zones where the main borehole casing is deforming. The studies so far show a weak fault zone with about 200m of low-permeability damage zone without anomalous temperature or high fluid pressure (Zoback et al. EOS 2010). To answer the above questions, we studied core samples and thin sections ranging in measured depths (MD) from 3059m to 3991m including gouge from borehole casing deformation zones. The methods of study included high resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence imaging, X-ray fluorescence mapping, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The microstructural and analytical data suggest that deformation is by a coupling of cataclastic flow and pressure solution accompanied by widespread alteration of feldspar to clay minerals and other neomineralizations. The clay contents of the gouge and streaks of serpentinite are not uniformly distributed, but weakness of the creeping segment is likely to be due to intrinsically low frictional strength of the fault material. This conclusion, which is based on the overall ratio of clay/non-clay constituents and the presence of talc in the actively deforming zones, is consistent with the 0.3-0.45 coefficient of friction for the drill cuttings tested by others. We also considered weakening by diffusion-accommodated grain boundary sliding. There are two main trends in the microstructural data that provide a basis for explaining the creep rate and seismic activity: 1. Clay content of the gouge including serpentinite and talc increases toward the 1-3m wide borehole casing deformation zones, which are expected to be deforming at above the average creep rate 2. Evidence of pressure solution creep and fracture sealing is more abundant in the siltstone cataclasites than in the shale. Such rocks could act as rigid inclusions that are repeatedly loaded to seismic failure by creep of the surrounding clay gouge. Regular cycles of fracture and restrengthening by fracture sealing in and around the inclusions are thus expected. The inclusions may be viewed as asperity patches (or cluster of patches) that predominantly deform by pressure solution at below the average creep rate.

Hadizadeh, J.; Gratier, J. L.; Mittempergher, S.; Renard, F.; Richard, J.; di Toro, G.; Babaie, H. A.

2010-12-01

103

Effect of hydrogen on the low-temperature creep of a submicrocrystalline Ti-6Al-4V alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of alloying with 0.002-0.24 wt % H on the creep of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy at a temperature of 0.15 T m ( T m is the melting temperature) is studied. The formation of a submicrocrystalline structure in the alloy is found to increase the stress-rupture strength and the hydrogen embrittlement resistance. Possible causes of the increase in the deformation localization resistance of the alloy in the presence of hydrogen in a solid solution are discussed.

Grabovetskaya, G. P.; Zabudchenko, O. V.; Stepanova, E. N.

2010-03-01

104

Creep of brazed plate-fin structures in high temperature compact heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the need for high temperature heat exchangers to improve the efficiency of power and chemical conversion\\u000a systems has been growing. However, the creep design of the high temperature compact heat exchangers has been a primary concern\\u000a because the working temperature can be well above the creep limit of the materials. To establish the high temperature design\\u000a criterion

Shantung Tu; Guoyan Zhou

2009-01-01

105

Creep mechanisms of a new Ni-Co-base disc superalloy at an intermediate temperature.  

PubMed

The microstructures of a new Ni-Co-base disc superalloy, TMW-4M3, before and after the creep test at 725 C/630 MPa have been systematically investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crept microstructures were marked as three different deformation stages (I, II and III) corresponding to the gradually increased strain. At stage I, stacking fault (SF) shearing was the main deformation mechanism. The SF was extrinsic and lay on {111} plane. However, deformation microtwinning became the dominant mode at stage II and III. The average spacing of deformation twins decreased from 109 15 nm at stage II to 76 12 nm at stage III, whereas the twin thickness did not change significantly. The influence of stacking fault energy (SFE) of ? matrix on the deformation mechanism is discussed. It is suggested that lower SFE in TMW-4M3 is partly responsible for the enhanced creep resistance. PMID:22834947

Yuan, Y; Gu, Y F; Zhong, Z H; Osada, T; Cui, C Y; Tetsui, T; Yokokawa, T; Harada, H

2012-10-01

106

Quantitative analysis of microstructure deformation in creep fenomena of ferritic SA-213 T22 and austenitic SA-213 TP304H material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure of critical component of fossil fired power plant that operated in creep range (high stress, high temperature and in the long term) depends on its microstructure characteristics. Ferritic low carbon steel (2.25Cr-1Mo) and Austenitic stainless alloy (18Cr-8Ni) are used as a boiler tube in the secondary superheater outlet header to deliver steam before entering the turbin. The tube failure is occurred in a form of rupture, resulting trip that disrupts the continuity of the electrical generation. The research in quantification of the microstructure deformation has been done in predicting the remaining life of the tube through interrupted accelerated creep test. For Austenitic Stainless Alloy (18Cr-8Ni), creep test was done in 550C with the stress 424.5 MPa and for Ferritic Low Carbon Steel (2.25Cr-1Mo) in 570C with the stress 189 MPa. The interrupted accelerated creep test was done by stopping the observation in condition 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of remaining life, the creep test fracture was done before. Then the micro hardness test, photo micro, SEM and EDS were obtained from those samples. Refer to ASTM E122, microstructure parameters were calculated. The results indicated that there are a consistency of decreasing their grain diameters, increasing their grain size numbers, micro hardness, and the length of crack or void number per unit area with the decreasing of remaining life. While morphology of grain (stated in parameter ?=LV/LH) relatively constant for austenitic. However, for ferritic the change of morphology revealed significantly. Fracture mode propagation of ferritic material is growth with voids transgranular and intergranular crack, and for austenitic material the fracture growth with intergranular creep fracture void and wedge crack. In this research, it was proposed a formulation of mathematical model for creep behavior corresponding their curve fitting resulted for the primary, secondary and tertiary in accelerated creep test. In addition, it was also developed a new method for predicting the remaining life using quantification of microstructure and using expansion of parameter Larson Miller from Taylor series for critical component in high temperature in industry. It was found that the proposed method was easier to be applied in field with the results more accurate then Larson Miller Method.

Mulyana, Cukup; Taufik, Ahmad; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Siregar, Rustam Efendi

2013-09-01

107

TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT CREEP EXPANSION OF Ti-6Al-4V LOW DENSITY CORE SANDWICH STRUCTURES  

E-print Network

to create a plate consisting of a core with a finely dispersed pore distribution. The structure contains of expansion. Recently, in-situ sensors [5], microstructural modeling [6] and superplastic foaming under temper by creep. The creep constitutive response is a function of stress, temperature, accumulated strain

Wadley, Haydn

108

Elevated Temperature Behavior of Creep and Fatigue in Welded P92 Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatigue strength and life of weldment at high temperature is very important for high temperature materials used in power plants. In this study, creep properties of weld metal, HAZ and base metal of P92 steel were evaluated by SP (small punch) creep test method. Fatigue crack growth behaviors in weld metal, HAZ and base metal of P92 steel were investigated at high temperature. Microstructure and microhardness of the weldment were also investigated for better analysis.

Lim, Byeongsoo; Kim, Bumjoon; Park, Moonhee; Won, Sungjoon

109

Processing, Microstructure and Creep Behavior of Mo-Si-B-Based Intermetallic Alloys for Very High Temperature Structural Applications  

SciTech Connect

This research project is concerned with developing a fundamental understanding of the effects of processing and microstructure on the creep behavior of refractory intermetallic alloys based on the Mo-Si-B system. In the first part of this project, the compression creep behavior of a Mo-8.9Si-7.71B (in at.%) alloy, at 1100 and 1200 C was studied, whereas in the second part of the project, the constant strain rate compression behavior at 1200, 1300 and 1400 C of a nominally Mo-20Si-10B (in at.%) alloy, processed such as to yield five different {alpha}-Mo volume fractions ranging from 5 to 46%, was studied. In order to determine the deformation and damage mechanisms and rationalize the creep/high temperature deformation data and parameters, the microstructure of both undeformed and deformed samples was characterized in detail using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with back scattered electron imaging (BSE) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD)/orientation electron microscopy in the SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructure of both alloys was three-phase, being composed of {alpha}-Mo, Mo{sub 3}Si and T2-Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} phases. The values of stress exponents and activation energies, and their dependence on microstructure were determined. The data suggested the operation of both dislocation as well as diffusional mechanisms, depending on alloy, test temperature, stress level and microstructure. Microstructural observations of post-crept/deformed samples indicated the presence of many voids in the {alpha}-Mo grains and few cracks in the intermetallic particles and along their interfaces with the {alpha}-Mo matrix. TEM observations revealed the presence of recrystallized {alpha}-Mo grains and sub-grain boundaries composed of dislocation arrays within the grains (in Mo-8.9Si-7.71B) or fine sub-grains with a high density of b = 1/2<111> dislocations (in Mo-20Si-10B), which are consistent with the values of the respective stress exponents and activation energies that were obtained and provide confirmatory evidence for the operation of diffusional (former alloy) or dislocation (latter alloy) creep mechanisms. In contrast, the intermetallic phases contained very few dislocations, but many cracks. The relative contributions of the {alpha}-Mo and the intermetallic particles to the overall deformation process, including their individual and collective dependence on temperature and strain rate are discussed in light of the present results and those from previous reports.

Vijay Vasudevan

2008-03-31

110

ACCEPT: a three-dimensional finite element program for large deformation elastic-plastic-creep analysis of pressurized tubes (LWBR/AWBA Development Program)  

SciTech Connect

ACCEPT is a three-dimensional finite element computer program for analysis of large-deformation elastic-plastic-creep response of Zircaloy tubes subjected to temperature, surface pressures, and axial force. A twenty-mode, tri-quadratic, isoparametric element is used along with a Zircaloy materials model. A linear time-incremental procedure with residual force correction is used to solve for the time-dependent response. The program features an algorithm which automatically chooses the time step sizes to control the accuracy and numerical stability of the solution. A contact-separation capability allows modeling of interaction of reactor fuel rod cladding with fuel pellets or external supports.

Hutula, D.N.; Wiancko, B.E.

1980-03-01

111

The effect of low angle boundary misorientation on creep deformation in the superalloy CM 247 LC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of low angle boundary misorientation on the creep properties of superalloy CM 247LC bicrystals has been investigated in the medium temperature - medium stress creep regime. Constant load tensile creep tests were performed on mixed Low Angle Boundary (LAB) samples with misorientations ranging from 3o-16o; the LABs where the boundaries were oriented approximately transverse to the tensile axis. Five repeats of each LAB sample were ruptured with an initial stress of 300 MPa and three repeats of each LAB sample were ruptured with an initial stress of 200 MPa, both at 950C. A drastic decrease in creep rupture life and strain to failure was observed in bicrystals with misorientations greater than 10. Fractography of the fracture surfaces indicated that a transition from ductile transgranular fracture to intergranular fracture coincided with the decrease in creep properties. The decrease in strain to failure was correlated to a decrease in the slip compatibility factor m'. Specimens of several misorientations were also interrupted prior to failure at strains of 2%, 5% and 10% and examined by electron microscopy techniques in an effort to better understand the sequences leading to failure. For samples that fractured intergranularly, voids formed adjacent to large MC carbides located at the LABs and propagated along the boundary, ultimately linking to cracks that initiated at the specimen edge. Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) scans were performed and Crystal reference Orientation (CO) maps were generated from the partially crept specimens. An increase in misorientation from the crystal reference orientation was observed with increasing LAB misorientation for a given interrupted strain level indicative of the poorer slip compatibility at the higher misorientations Two bicrystals with nearly identical scalar misorientation, both 10, exhibited surprisingly different behavior with one failing intergranularly at low strain to failure and the other failing transgranularly at high strain to failure; these differences were related to the different slip compatibilities as determined by an analysis of the nature of their misorientations. In addition, grain boundary migration was prevalent in the samples that fractured transgranularly, but was rarely observed on any specimen that fractured intergranularly. Based on the collective observations, it is concluded that (1) it is necessary to consider more than just the scalar misorientation when considering whether a single crystal containing LABs should be rejected and (2) characterization of the properties of superalloy bicrystals grown using traditional Bridgman methods is difficult due to the complex, non-planar nature of the resulting LABs that is associated with their dendritic growth.

Kirsch, Mathew

112

Generation of long time creep data on refractory alloys at elevated temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four separate studies of various aspects of the vacuum creep behavior of two tantalum alloys (T-111 and ASTAR 811C) and of pure CVD tungsten are reported. The first part of the program involved a study of the influence of high temperature pre-exposure to vacuum or to liquid lithium on the subsequent creep behavior T-111 alloy. Results of this study revealed significant effects of pre-exposure on the 1% creep life of T-111, with life reductions of about 3 orders of magnitude being observed in extreme cases. The second part of this study involved an investigation of the creep behavior of T-111 under conditions of continuously increasing stress and decreasing temperature which simulated the conditions anticipated in radioisotope capsule service. Results of this study showed that such test conditions produced a creep curve having a very unusual shape, and led to the identification of a new creep design parameter for this type of service. The third area of investigation was a study of the influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and creep behavior of ASTAR 811C. The fourth part of the program was directed toward a preliminary characterization of the 1% creep life of CVD tungsten as obtained from two different sources.

Sheffler, K. D.; Ebert, R. R.

1973-01-01

113

Effect of carbide precipitation on the creep behavior of Alloy 800HT in the Temperature Range 700 to 900  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creep behavior of alloy 800HT was studied at 700 , 800 , and 900 under stresses ranging from 30 to 170 MPa. Samples that were tested in the as-quenched condition after solution treatment exhibited longer creep life than those that were overaged before testing. This difference in creep life was found to increase at lower creep stresses at a given temperature. This phenomenon is attributed to the precipitation of M23C6carbides during the early stages of creep, which strengthen the material by exerting threshold stresses on moving dislocations and thereby reducing the creep rate. A model is developed to describe the influence of carbide precipitation during creep on the behavior of the material under different creep temperatures and stresses. Comparison with the experimental results shows that the model gives accurate predictions of the creep behavior of the material in the range of stresses and temperatures used in the present study. In addition to its predictive value, the model is useful in understanding the factors that affect the creep behavior of materials when precipitation of hard phases is taking place during creep. The strengthening effect of particle precipitation during creep, as represented by the value of the threshold stress, is shown to be a complex function of the supersaturation of the matrix, the applied creep stress, and the test temperature.

El-Magd, E.; Nicolini, G.; Farag, M.

1996-03-01

114

Deterministic and Probabilistic Creep and Creep Rupture Enhancement to CARES/Creep: Multiaxial Creep Life Prediction of Ceramic Structures Using Continuum Damage Mechanics and the Finite Element Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature and long duration applications of monolithic ceramics can place their failure mode in the creep rupture regime. A previous model advanced by the authors described a methodology by which the creep rupture life of a loaded component can be predicted. That model was based on the life fraction damage accumulation rule in association with the modified Monkman-Grant creep ripture criterion However, that model did not take into account the deteriorating state of the material due to creep damage (e.g., cavitation) as time elapsed. In addition, the material creep parameters used in that life prediction methodology, were based on uniaxial creep curves displaying primary and secondary creep behavior, with no tertiary regime. The objective of this paper is to present a creep life prediction methodology based on a modified form of the Kachanov-Rabotnov continuum damage mechanics (CDM) theory. In this theory, the uniaxial creep rate is described in terms of stress, temperature, time, and the current state of material damage. This scalar damage state parameter is basically an abstract measure of the current state of material damage due to creep deformation. The damage rate is assumed to vary with stress, temperature, time, and the current state of damage itself. Multiaxial creep and creep rupture formulations of the CDM approach are presented in this paper. Parameter estimation methodologies based on nonlinear regression analysis are also described for both, isothermal constant stress states and anisothermal variable stress conditions This creep life prediction methodology was preliminarily added to the integrated design code CARES/Creep (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures/Creep), which is a postprocessor program to commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) packages. Two examples, showing comparisons between experimental and predicted creep lives of ceramic specimens, are used to demonstrate the viability of this methodology and the CARES/Creep program.

Jadaan, Osama M.; Powers, Lynn M.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

1998-01-01

115

High temperature tensile and creep behaviour of low pressure plasma-sprayed Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y coating alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high temperature tensile and creep behavior of low pressure plasma-sprayed plates of a typical Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y alloy has been studied. From room temperature to 800 K, the Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y alloy studied has nearly a constant low ductility and a high strength. At higher temperatures, it becomes weak and highly ductile. At and above 1123 K, the behavior is highly dependent on strain rate and exhibits classic superplastic characteristics with a high ductility at intermediate strain rates and a strain rate sensitivity of about 0.5. At either higher or lower strain rates, the ductility decreases and the strain rate sensitivities are about 0.2. In the superplastic deformation range, the activation energy for creep is 120 + or - 20 kJ/mol, suggesting a diffusion-aided grain boundary sliding mechanism. Outside the superplastic range, the activation energy for creep is calculated to be 290 + or - 20 kJ/mol.

Hebsur, M. G.; Miner, R. V.

1986-01-01

116

Update of CSFM Creep and Creep Rupture Models for Determining Temperature Limits for Dry Storage of Spent Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep rupture is believed to be a dominant mode of cladding failure during dry storage of spent nuclear fuel. This paper describes a methodology to determine the maximum allowable temperature for dry SNF storage based on expected time-in-storage, cooling time after discharge, fuel rod inner pressure, burnup, and material properties of Zircalay cladding. The methodology employs a Monkman-Grant correlation to

Edgar R. Gilbert; Carl E. Beyer; Edward P. Simonen; Pavel G. Medvedev

2002-01-01

117

Temperature dependence of creep compliance of highly cross-linked epoxy: A molecular simulation study  

SciTech Connect

We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect of temperature on the creep compliance of neat cross-linked epoxy. Experimental studies of mechanical behavior of cross-linked epoxy in literature commonly report creep compliance values, whereas molecular simulations of these systems have primarily focused on the Youngs modulus. In this work, in order to obtain a more direct comparison between experiments and simulations, atomistically detailed models of the cross-linked epoxy are used to study their creep compliance as a function of temperature using MD simulations. The creep tests are performed by applying a constant tensile stress and monitoring the resulting strain in the system. Our results show that simulated values of creep compliance increase with an increase in both time and temperature. We believe that such calculations of the creep compliance, along with the use of time temperature superposition, hold great promise in connecting the molecular insight obtained from molecular simulation at small length- and time-scales with the experimental behavior of such materials. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first reported effort that investigates the creep compliance behavior of cross-linked epoxy using MD simulations.

Khabaz, Fardin, E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu; Khare, Ketan S., E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu; Khare, Rajesh, E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

2014-05-15

118

Creep behavior of uranium carbide-based alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work gives the results of experiments on the influence of zirconium carbide and tungsten on the creep properties of uranium carbide. The creep behavior of high-density UC samples follows the classical time-dependence pattern of (1) an instantaneous deformation, (2) a primary creep region, and (3) a period of steady-state creep. Creep rates for unalloyed UC-1.01 and UC-1.05 are several orders of magnitude greater than those measured for carbide alloys containing a Zr-C and/or W dispersoid. The difference in creep strength between alloyed and unalloyed materials varies with temperature and applied stress.

Seltzer, M. S.; Wright, T. R.; Moak, D. P.

1975-01-01

119

High temperature inelastic deformation under uniaxial loading - Theory and experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elevated-temperature uniaxial inelastic deformation behavior of an Ni-base alloy, B1900 + Hf, is investigated by performing isothermal tensile, creep, cyclic, stress relaxation, and thermomechanical fatigue tests. The range of strain rates examined is from 10 to the -7th to 100 per sec, while the test temperatures range from 25 to 1093 C. This extensive constitutive data base has been used for evaluating the unified constitutive models of Bodner and Partom (1972) and of Walker (1972) which apply for the small-strain regime. Comparison of test results with independent model predictions indicates good agreement over a broad range of loading conditions, demonstrating the applicability of the unified-constitutive-equation approach for describing the strongly nonlinear and temperature-dependent response of meals under a wide range of deformation and thermal histories. Thus the results give confidence that the unified approach is an effective and efficient approach in which complex history-dependent thermoviscoplastic flow can be represented within a single inelastic strain-rate term.

Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Walker, K. P.

1989-01-01

120

Creep and creep rupture of strongly reinforced metallic composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A creep and creep damage theory is presented for metallic composites with strong fibers. Application is to reinforced structures in which the fiber orientation may vary throughout but a distinct fiber direction can be identified locally (local transverse isotropy). The creep deformation model follows earlier work and is based on a flow potential function that depends on invariants reflecting stress and the material symmetry. As the focus is on the interaction of creep and damage, primary creep is ignored. The creep rupture model is an extension of continuum damage mechanics and includes an isochronous damage function that depends on invariants specifying the local maximum transverse tension and the maximum longitudinal shear stress. It is posited that at high temperature and low stress, appropriate to engineering practice, these stress components damage the fiber/matrix interface through diffusion controlled void growth, eventually causing creep rupture. Experiments are outlined for characterizing a composite through creep rupture tests under transverse tension and longitudinal shear. Application is made to a thin-walled pressure vessel with reinforcing fibers at an arbitrary helical angle. The results illustrate the usefulness of the model as a means of achieving optimal designs of composite structures where creep and creep rupture are life limiting.

Robinson, D. N.; Binienda, W. K.; Miti-Kavuma, M.

1990-01-01

121

Generation of long time creep data on refractory alloys at elevated temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Creep tests were conducted on two tantalum alloys (ASTAR 811C and T-111 alloy), on a molybdenum alloy (TZM), and on CVD tungsten. The T-111 alloy 1% creep life data have been subjected to Manson's station function analysis, and the progress on this analysis is described. In another test program, the behavior of T-111 alloy with continuously varying temperatures and stresses has been studied. The results indicated that the previously described analysis predicts the observed creep behavior with reasonable accuracy. In addition to the T-111 test program, conventional 1% creep life data have been obtained for ASTAR 811C alloy. Previously observed effects of heat treatment on the creep strength of this material have been discussed and a model involving carbide strengthening primarily at the grain boundaries, rather than in a classical dispersion hardening mechanism, has been proposed to explain the observed results.

Sheffler, K. D.

1970-01-01

122

On-line fatiguecreep monitoring system for high-temperature components of power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system has been developed for on-line monitoring of various aging effects, such as fatigue, creep and fatiguecreep interaction. This can take care of the fluctuations of the process fluid temperature, pressure and flow rate and the piping loads such as axial forces and bending moments. The system converts the plant transients to temperature\\/stress responses using the finite element method

N. K Mukhopadhyay; B. K Dutta; H. S Kushwaha

2001-01-01

123

Investigation of the rate-controlling mechanism(s) for high temperature creep and the relationship between creep and melting by use of high pressure as a variable  

SciTech Connect

Using high pressure as a variable, the rate-controlling mechanism for high temperature creep and the relationship between creep and melting is investigated for silicon and nickel. An apparatus is used in which the samples are heated to melting point and subjected to 1 to 3 GigaPascal pressure. The stress behavior of the materials are then studied.

Not Available

1991-01-01

124

Deformation of contour and Hawking temperature  

E-print Network

It was found that, in an isotropic coordinate system, the tunneling approach brings a factor of 1/2 for the Hawking temperature of a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper, we address this kind of problem by studying the relation between the Hawking temperature and the deformation of integral contour for the scalar and Dirac particles tunneling. We find that correct Hawking temperature can be obtained exactly as long as the integral contour deformed corresponding to the radial coordinate transform if the transformation is a non-regular or zero function at the event horizon.

Chikun Ding; Jiliang Jing

2010-01-18

125

Effect of creep in titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V at elevated temperature on aircraft design and flight test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Short-term compressive creep tests were conducted on three titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V coupons at three different stress levels at a temperature of 714 K (825 F). The test data were compared to several creep laws developed from tensile creep tests of available literature. The short-term creep test data did not correlate well with any of the creep laws obtained from available literature. The creep laws themselves did not correlate well with each other. Short-term creep does not appear to be very predictable for titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Aircraft events that result in extreme, but short-term temperature and stress excursions for this alloy should be approached cautiously. Extrapolations of test data and creep laws suggest a convergence toward predictability in the longer-term situation.

Jenkins, J. M.

1984-01-01

126

Damage analysis and life prediction of a main steam pipeline at elevated temperature based on creep damage mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main steam pipelines are important components of power plants and chemical plants, which operated at elevated temperature and high pressure for the long term. Creep is a potential mechanism of failure of these pipelines. In this paper, the modified Karchanov-Rabotnov creep damage constitutive equation has been incorporated into finite element program ABAQUS through its user subroutine to predict the creep

L. Y. Geng; J. M. Gong; D. Liu; Y. Jiang

2009-01-01

127

Creep deformation and buttressing capacity of damaged ice shelves: theory and application to Larsen C ice shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the perimeter of Antarctica, much of the ice sheet discharges to the ocean through floating ice shelves. The buttressing provided by ice shelves is critical for modulating the flux of ice into the ocean, and the presently observed thinning of ice shelves is believed to be reducing their buttressing capacity and contributing to the acceleration and thinning of the grounded ice sheet. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role that fractures play in the ability of ice shelves to sustain and transmit buttressing stresses. Here, we present a new framework for quantifying the role that fractures play in the creep deformation and buttressing capacity of ice shelves. We apply principles of continuum damage mechanics to derive a new analytical relation for the creep of an ice shelf that accounts for the softening influence of fractures on longitudinal deformation using a state damage variable. We use this new analytical relation, combined with a temperature calculation for the ice, to partition an inverse method solution for ice shelf rigidity into independent solutions for softening damage and stabilizing backstress. Using this new approach, field and remote sensing data can be utilized to monitor the structural integrity of ice shelves, their ability to buttress the flow of ice at the grounding line, and thus their indirect contribution to ice sheet mass balance and global sea level. We apply this technique to the Larsen C ice shelf using remote sensing and Operation IceBridge data, finding damage in areas with known crevasses and rifts. Backstress is highest near the grounding line and upstream of ice rises, in agreement with patterns observed on other ice shelves. The ice in contact with the Bawden ice rise is weakened by fractures, and additional damage or thinning in this area could diminish the backstress transmitted upstream. We model the consequences for the ice shelf if it loses contact with this small ice rise, finding that flow speeds would increase by 25% or more over an area the size of the former Larsen B ice shelf. Such a perturbation could potentially destabilize the northern part of Larsen C along pre-existing lines of weakness, highlighting the importance of the feedback between buttressing and fracturing in an ice shelf.

Borstad, C. P.; Rignot, E.; Mouginot, J.; Schodlok, M. P.

2013-12-01

128

Creep deformation and buttressing capacity of damaged ice shelves: theory and application to Larsen C ice shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the perimeter of Antarctica, much of the ice sheet discharges to the ocean through floating ice shelves. The buttressing provided by ice shelves is critical for modulating the flux of ice into the ocean, and the presently observed thinning of ice shelves is believed to be reducing their buttressing capacity and contributing to the acceleration and thinning of the grounded ice sheet. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role that fractures play in the flow and stability of ice shelves and their capacity to buttress the flow of grounded ice. Here, we develop an analytical framework for describing the role that fractures play in the creep deformation and buttressing capacity of ice shelves. We apply principles of continuum damage mechanics to derive a new analytical relation for the creep of an ice shelf as a function of ice thickness, temperature, material properties, resistive backstress and damage. By combining this analytical theory with an inverse method solution for the spatial rheology of an ice shelf, both backstress and damage can be calculated. We demonstrate the applicability of this new theory using satellite remote sensing and Operation IceBridge data for the Larsen C ice shelf, finding damage associated with known crevasses and rifts. We find that increasing thickness of mlange between rift flanks correlates with decreasing damage, with some rifts deforming coherently with the ice shelf as if completely healed. We quantify the stabilizing backstress caused by ice rises and lateral confinement, finding high backstress associated with two ice rises that likely stabilize the ice front in its current configuration. Though overall the ice shelf appears stable at present, the ice in contact with the Bawden ice rise is weakened by fractures, and additional damage or thinning in this area could portend significant change for the shelf. Using this new approach, field and remote sensing data can be utilized to monitor the structural integrity of ice shelves, their ability to buttress the flow of ice at the grounding line, and thus their indirect contribution to ice sheet mass balance and global sea level.

Borstad, C. P.; Rignot, E.; Mouginot, J.; Schodlok, M. P.

2013-07-01

129

Low Temperature Creep of a Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-2Cb-1Ta-0.8Mo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a methodology for the analysis of low temperature creep of titanium alloys in order to establish design limitations due to the effect of creep. The creep data on a titanium Ti-6Al-2Cb-1Ta-0.8Mo are used in the analysis. A creep equation is formulated to determine the allowable stresses so that creep at ambient temperatures can be kept within an acceptable limit during the service life of engineering structures or instruments. Microcreep which is important to design of precision instruments is included in the discussion also.

Chu, H. P.

1997-01-01

130

Strain measurement technique for elevated temperature tensile and creep testing of foil-gage metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a strain measurement technique suitable for elevated-temperature tensile and creep testing of foil-gage metals, using a modified commonly available mechanical extensometer in conjunction with a displacement transducer. The extensometer was modified by attaching to it a counterbalance (to reduce the effect of the extensometer weight on the total maximum test load) and by incorporating a conical tip/flat-edge design (to minimize induced stresses in the specimen resulting from extensometer attachment). Creep tests were performed on 0.102-mm-thick specimens of Ti-6Al-4V at temperatures of 427 and 538 C, at nominal applied stresses of 310.3 and 172.4 MPa, respectively. Examination of the resulting creep curves suggested that the strain measurement system provided actual creep strain values with good accuracy.

Blackburn, L. B.

1988-01-01

131

Creeping Deformation by the Precise Leveling Survey at the central part of the Longitudinal valley fault, Southeast Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We would like to know the distributed asperity for seismic hazard and forecast. It is closely related to slip distribution on the fault in interseismic. We focused on the accumulating process of the stress at the boundary between the creeping and the locking zone, to clear the behavior on the fault. The Longitudinal Valley Fault (LVF), 150 km long and NNE-SSW striking, passes through the eastern Taiwan, and represents the obvious surface expression of the collision boundary between the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian continental plate. Owing to such a high deformation rate, many earthquakes have occurred along the LVF. The 1951 earthquake sequence represents a good example. The southern of LVF segment is observed to be high speed creeping based on the creep meter and leveling survey etc. The northern of LVF segment is not observed to be creeping and are found huge earthquakes evidence by paleo-seismology study in the trench. Yuili fault is one of the active segments of the longitudinal valley faults, is located around the boundary between creeping and locking area. It is reverse fault with east dip. We established about 30km leveling route from Yuli to Changbin to detect the vertical deformation in detail. Murase et al. (2009, 2010, and 2011) established about 30 km densely leveling route from Yuli to Changbin to detect the vertical deformation across the LVF for two years. As a result, the vertical displacement is 1.7 cm in 200 m across the LVF and 2.7 cm in 1000 m, referred to the west end of our route. In addition, a synclinal deformation is detected on the hanging wall side of the fault. This result is caused by the geometry of and the slipping distribution on the fault. The deformation detected in the period from 2009 to 2010 denotes the same tendency and rate of that from 2008 to 2009. We compared to the airphotographs which are taken by Taiwanese government at different age (1978 and 2007). If the creeping on the fault has continued for 30 years, the accumulation of displacement reaches about 1m, which is significantly-distinguishable by photogrammetric method. We measure profiles across the fault on 1978 and 2007 air-photograph by photogrammetric system respectively. The comparing result is shown that there are regional differences in deformation in relatively narrow region. About this result, we think two possibility; one is the creeping is not uniformity along the fault, second is the photogrammetry is not enough quality. We should actually check the creeping or not. We made thee new leveling survey lines in last year. In this August , we carried out second leveling survey in three area. We can show the variation of the deformation pattern and uplift rate across the LVF in this presentation.

Matta, N.; Murase, M.; Ishiguro, S.; Ozawa, K.; Lin, J.; Chen, W.; Lin, C.

2011-12-01

132

Local TimeTemperature-dependent Deformation of a Woven Composite  

E-print Network

­temperature- dependent response, Moiré interferometry, creep and stress relaxation, multilayer circuit boards, textile composites Introduction Multilayer printed circuit boards (PCBs) are used exten- sively in electronic

Sottos, Nancy R.

133

Creep-fatigue interaction in aircraft gas turbine components by simulation and testing at scaled temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced gas turbine engines, which use hot section airfoil cooling, present a wide range of design problems. The frequencies of applied loads and the natural frequencies of the blade also are important since they have significant effects on failure of the component due to fatigue phenomenon. Due to high temperature environment the thermal creep and fatigue are quite severe. One-dimensional creep model, using ANSYS has been formulated in order to predict the creep life of a gas turbine engine blade. Innovative mathematical models for the prediction of the operating life of aircraft components, specifically gas turbine blades, which are subjected to creep-fatigue at high temperatures, are proposed. The components are modeled by FEM, mathematically, and using similitude principles. Three models have been suggested and evaluated numerically and experimentally. Using FEM method for natural frequencies causes phenomena such as curve veering which is studied in more detail. The simulation studies on the life-limiting modes of failure, as well as estimating the expected lifetime of the blade, using the proposed models have been carried out. Although the scale model approach has been used for quite some time, the thermal scaling has been used in this study for the first time. The only thermal studies in literature using scaling for structures is by NASA in which materials of both the prototype and the model are the same, but in the present study materials also are different. The finite element method is employed to model the structure. Because of stress redistribution due to the creep process, it is necessary to include a full inelastic creep step in the finite element formulation. Otherwise over-conservative creep life predictions will be estimated if only the initial elastic stresses are considered. The experimental investigations are carried out in order to validate the models. The main contributions in the thesis are: (1) Using similitude theory for life prediction of components in general, and specifically using thermal scaling for the first time for prototype and model with two different materials. (2) Developing 1-D creep ANSYS macro to study creep effects to get meaningful results for industrial applications of gas turbine blade. (3) Analyzing the curve veering and flattening phenomena in rotating blade at thermal environment, using Lagrange-Bhat method. (4) Simple constitutive models in creep-fatigue interaction are proposed that can predict the lifetime in complicated situations of creep-fatigue, using the pure creep and pure fatigue test data.

Sabour, Mohammad Hossein

134

High temperature deformation of NiAl matrix composites  

SciTech Connect

The intermetallic compound, NiAl, has many attractive properties at a high temperature structural materials. However, its lack of creep resistance prevents practical applications. Adding ceramic reinforcements, such as TiB{sub 2} particles, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles or whiskers can significantly improve the strength of binary NiAl at high temperatures. However, the increase in the yield stress of the discontinuous NiAl matrix composites as compared with monolithic NiAl is difficult to explain. The purposes of this research were to understand the deformation mechanisms which cause the increase in strength achieved by adding TiB{sub 2} particles, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles or whiskers to NiAl, and to recognize the principles of the deformation process in NiAl matrix composites. In order to accomplish these objectives, mechanical properties and thermal activation parameters in NiAl matrix composites with different types, shapes and sizes of reinforcements have been systematically evaluated. Microstructures and dislocation structures in NiAl matrix composites have also been thoroughly characterized before and after deformation. It was found that the size of the reinforcement had a large influence on the microstructures of the composites, and the nominal activation energies for all the composites were the same and within the range of the activation energy of self-diffusion for pure NiAl. It was further concluded that the reinforcement addition only increased the non-thermally activated component of the yield stress.

Xu, K.; Arsenault, R.J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

1999-08-10

135

Elevated-temperature tensile and creep properties of several ferritic stainless steels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elevated-temperature mechanical properties of several ferritic stainless steels were determined. The alloys evaluated included Armco 18SR, GE 1541, and NASA-18T-A. Tensile and creep strength properties at 1073 and 1273 K and residual room temperature tensile properties after creep testing were measured. In addition, 1273 K tensile and creep tests and residual property testing were conducted with Armco 18SR and GE 1541 which were exposed for 200 hours to a severe oxidizing environment in automotive thermal reactors. Aside from the residual tensile properties for Armco 18SR, prior exposure did not affect the mechanical properties of either alloy. The 1273 K creep strength parallel to the sheet-rolling direction was similar for all three alloys. At 1073 K, NASA-18T-A had better creep strength than either Armco 18SR or GE 1541. NASA-18T-A possesses better residual properties after creep testing than either Armco 18SR or Ge 1541.

Whittenberger, J. D.

1977-01-01

136

Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at low neutron fluences  

SciTech Connect

The irradiation creep behavior of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide was investigated using the bend stress relaxation method under neutron irradiation up to 1.9 dpa. The creep deformation was observed at all temperatures ranging from 380 to 1180 C mainly from the irradiation creep but with the increasing contributions from the thermal creep at higher temperatures. Microstructural observation and data analysis were performed.

Koyanagi, Takaaki [ORNL; Shimoda, Kazuya [Kyoto University, Japan; Kondo, Sosuke [Kyoto University, Japan; Hinoki, Tatsuya [Kyoto University, Japan; Ozawa, Kazumi [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL

2014-01-01

137

Investigation of the Compressive Strength and Creep Lifetime of 2024-T3 Aluminum-Alloy Plates at Elevated Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of elevated-temperature compressive strength and creep tests of 2024-t3 (formerly 24s-t3) aluminum alloy plates supported in v-grooves are presented. The strength-test results indicate that a relation previously developed for predicting plate compressive strength for plates of all materials at room temperature is also satisfactory for determining elevated-temperature strength. Creep-lifetime results are presented for plates in the form of master creep-lifetime curves by using a time-temperature parameter that is convenient for summarizing tensile creep-rupture data. A comparison is made between tensile and compressive creep lifetime for the plates and a method that made use of isochronous stress-strain curves for predicting plate-creep failure stresses is investigated.

Mathauser, Eldon E; Deveikis, William D

1957-01-01

138

Effects of cold rolling deformation on microstructure, hardness, and creep behavior of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of cold rolling deformation on the microstructure, hardness, and creep behavior of high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel (HNASS) are investigated. Microstructure characterization shows that 70% cold rolling deformation results in significant refinement of the microstructure of this steel, with its average twin thickness reducing from 6.4 ?m to 14 nm. Nanoindentation tests at different strain rates demonstrate that the hardness of the steel with nano-scale twins (nt-HNASS) is about 2 times as high as that of steel with micro-scale twins (mt-HNASS). The hardness of nt-HNASS exhibits a pronounced strain rate dependence with a strain rate sensitivity (m value) of 0.0319, which is far higher than that of mt-HNASS (m = 0.0029). nt-HNASS shows more significant load plateaus and a higher creep rate than mt-HNASS. Analysis reveals that higher hardness and larger m value of nt-HNASS arise from stronger strain hardening role, which is caused by the higher storage rate of dislocations and the interactions between dislocations and high density twins. The more significant load plateaus and higher creep rates of nt-HNASS are due to the rapid relaxation of the dislocation structures generated during loading.

Sun, Shi-Cheng; Sun, Gui-Xun; Jiang, Zhong-Hao; Ji, Chang-Tao; Liu, Jia-An; Lian, Jian-She

2014-02-01

139

The influence of cavitation damage upon high temperature creep under stationary and non-stationary loading conditions. Part III: Creep at steady increasing load and true stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper for ideally plastic materials the influence of high temperature cavitation damage upon creep at steady increasing loads is investigated. The damage function A(t) enters a constitutive equation for plastc flow through an effective stress ? e. For given loading conditions the latter is derived from the solution of Hart's tensile test equation. In the present paper the case of time linear increase in load ( F = constant) and in true stress ( /.s = constant) is investigated. The creep equations for cavitating as well as for non-cavitating materials are derived and the volume change during creep at /.F = constant are calculated.

Bo?ek, M.; Hoffmann, M.

1984-11-01

140

Strain localization and grain size reduction during high-stress low-temperature plasticity and subsequent creep below the seismogenic zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sequence of high-stress crystal-plasticity with accompanying microcracking and subsequent creep at low stresses in the plastosphere can be triggered by the rupture of a fault in a major earthquake within the overlying seismogenic zone. In this study, microfabrics are analyzed by polarized light microscopy and electron microscopic techniques (SEM/EBSD, FIB, TEM) in rocks (vein quartz, peridotite) experimentally deformed at conditions that correspond to those prevailing in the upper plastosphere following a major earthquake. The experiments are carried out in a Griggs-type solid medium apparatus with a deformation stage at low temperature (300 to 600 C) and high stress ("kick") followed by a stage at higher temperature (900 to 1000 C) and isostatic ("cook") or low stress ("creep"). The resulting microfabrics show amazing resemblance to those observed in rocks from natural deep continuations of seismically active fault zones (i.e., shear zones). Localized zones of small new grains (a few m in diameter) without systematic crystallographic preferred orientation within deformed host grains occur. The new grains develop by grain-boundary migration driven by the reduction in surface and strain energies at low stresses from highly damaged zones formed by initial low-temperature plasticity with associated cataclasis at high-stress deformation. A high variability in grain size is observed with the smallest grain size in the center of the highly damaged zones. The grain size reduction is controlled by strain during the initial high-stress deformation and growth is occurring only during the low-stress stage - rendering conventional grain size piezometers inappropriate. In large remnant host grains, short-wavelength undulatory extinction is reflecting low-stress modification (recovery) outside the highly damaged zones but in areas of original high dislocation densities formed at high-stress low-temperature plasticity. Extrapolation to natural conditions suggests that the observed characteristic microstructures may develop within as little as tens of years and less than ten thousands of years. The characteristic deformation and recrystallization microstructures can be expected to be stable over geological time scales, since driving forces for further modification are not sufficient to erase the characteristic heterogeneities. Thus, they are diagnostic for a past sequence of high-stress deformation (a combination of brittle failure and low-temperature plasticity) followed by creep at low stresses (recovery and recrystallization) in shear zones as deep continuations of seismically active fault zones. Such a sequence can explain initial grain size reduction localized along highly damaged zones during high-stress crystal-plasticity further leading to localized recrystallization during subsequent low-stress creep.

Trepmann, Claudia

2014-05-01

141

Thermally activated low temperature creep and primary water stress corrosion cracking of NiCrFe alloys  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological SCC-CGR model is developed based on an apriori assumption that the SCC-CGR is controlled by low temperature creep (LTC). This mode of low temperature time dependent deformation occurs at stress levels above the athermal flow stress by a dislocation glide mechanism that is thermally activated and may be environmentally assisted. The SCC-CGR model equations developed contain thermal activation parameters descriptive of the dislocation creep mechanism. Thermal activation parameters are obtained by fitting the CGR model to SCC-CGR data obtained on Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750. These SCC-CGR activation parameters are compared to LTC activation parameters obtained from stress relaxation tests. When the high concentration of hydrogen at the tip of an SCC crack is considered, the SCC-CGR activation energies and rate sensitivities are shown to be quantitatively consistent with hydrogen reducing the activation energy and increasing the strain rate sensitivity in LTC stress relaxation tests. Stress dependence of SCC-CGR activation energy consistent with that found for the LTC activation energy. Comparisons between temperature dependence of the SCC-CGR stress sensitivity and LTC stress sensitivity provide a basis for speculation on effects of hydrogen and solute carbon on SCC crack growth rates.

Hall, M.M. Jr.

1993-10-01

142

Experimental deformation of a synthetic dunite at high temperature and pressure. I. Mechanical behavior, optical microstructure and deformation mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed a series of 27 deformation experiments on a very dry synthetic dunite, using the Griggs solid medium apparatus. Strain rates ranged from 1 10 4 to 1 10 7 sec 1, temperatures varied from 1100 to 1300 C, and the confining pressure was maintained at 10 or (more usually) 15 kbar. MACOR IM, a commercially available, anhydrous, machinable glass ceramic with a low melting point, was used in many of the experiments. We find that strength measurements performed using macor as a confining medium are similar to results obtained using sodium chloride as the confining solid. Tests performed in undried sample assemblies using air-dried dunite specimens resulted in creep strengths greater than those found in any earlier studies except those of Post (1973. 1977). A single test on a sample for which both sample and assembly were dried at a temperature sufficiently high to drive off any adsorbed water resulted in a creep strength comparable to that determined by Post (1973, 1977) for very dry Mt. Burnett dunite. Despite our experimental difficulties, we are led to believe that our synthetic dunite exhibits mechanical behavior consistent with that determined in other experimental studies in which natural dunites and peridotites were used. Furthermore, we conclude that dry dunite is very probably as strong as the oft-disputed results of Post earlier indicated. Finally, we show that the optical textures of our highly recrystallized experimental specimens are essentially identical to naturally produced porphyroclastic textures and that the deformation mechanism in both the experimental and natural specimens is probably dislocation creep with recovery by dynamic recrystallization.

Zeuch, David H.; Green, H. W.

1984-12-01

143

Low Cycle Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Behavior of Alloy 617 at High Temperature  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 617 is the leading candidate material for an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) application of the Very High Temperature Nuclear Reactor (VHTR), expected to have an outlet temperature as high as 950 degrees C. Acceptance of Alloy 617 in Section III of the ASME Code for nuclear construction requires a detailed understanding of the creep-fatigue behavior. Initial creep-fatigue work on Alloy 617 suggests a more dominant role of environment with increasing temperature and/or hold times evidenced through changes in creep-fatigue crack growth mechanism/s and failure life. Continuous cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue testing of Alloy 617 was conducted at 950 degrees C and 0.3% and 0.6% total strain in air to simulate damage modes expected in a VHTR application. Continuous cycle specimens exhibited transgranular cracking. Intergranular cracking was observed in the creep-fatigue specimens, although evidence of grain boundary cavitation was not observed. Despite the absence of grain boundary cavitation to accelerate crack propagation, the addition of a hold time at peak tensile strain was detrimental to cycle life. This suggests that creepfatigue interaction may occur by a different mechanism or that the environment may be partially responsible for accelerating failure.

Cabet, Celine; Carroll, Laura; Wright, Richard

2013-10-01

144

Creep performance of oxide ceramic fiber materials at elevated temperature in air and in steam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural aerospace components that operate in severe conditions, such as extreme temperatures and detrimental environments, require structural materials that have superior long-term mechanical properties and that are thermochemically stable over a broad range of service temperatures and environments. Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) capable of excellent mechanical performance in harsh environments are prime candidates for such applications. Oxide ceramic materials have been used as constituents in CMCs. However, recent studies have shown that high-temperature mechanical performance of oxide-oxide CMCs deteriorate in a steam-rich environment. The degradation of strength at elevated temperature in steam has been attributed to the environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth in the oxide fibers. Furthermore, oxide-oxide CMCs have shown significant increases in steady-state creep rates in steam. The present research investigated the effects of steam on the high-temperature creep and monotonic tension performance of several oxide ceramic materials. Experimental facilities were designed and configured, and experimental methods were developed to explore the influence of steam on the mechanical behaviors of ceramic fiber tows and of ceramic bulk materials under temperatures in the 1100--1300C range. The effects of steam on creep behavior of Nextel(TM)610 and Nextel(TM)720 fiber tows were examined. Creep rates at elevated temperatures in air and in steam were obtained for both types of fibers. Relationships between creep rates and applied stresses were modeled and underlying creep mechanisms were identified. For both types of fiber tows, a creep life prediction analysis was performed using linear elastic fracture mechanics and a power-law crack velocity model. These results have not been previously reported and have critical design implications for CMC components operating in steam or near the recommended design limits. Predictions were assessed and validated via comparisons with experimental results. Additionally, the utility of the Monkman-Grant relationship to predicting creep-rupture life of the fiber tows at elevated temperature in air and in steam was demonstrated. Furthermore, the effects of steam on the compressive creep performance of bulk ceramic materials were also studied. Performance of fine grained, polycrystalline alumina (Al2O3) was investigated at 1100 and 1300C in air and in steam. To evaluate the effect of silica doping during material processing both undoped and silica doped polycrystalline alumina specimens were tested. Finally, compressive creep performance of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) was evaluated at 1300C in air and in steam. Both undoped and silica doped YAG specimens were included in the study. YAG is being considered as the next-generation oxide fiber material. However, before considerable funding and effort are invested in a fiber development program, it is necessary to evaluate the creep performance of YAG at elevated temperature in steam. Results of this research demonstrated that both the undoped YAG and the silica doped YAG exhibited exceptional creep resistance at 1300C in steam for grain sizes 1 microm. These results supplement the other promising features of YAG that make it a strong candidate material for the next generation ceramic fiber.

Armani, Clinton J.

145

A study on the pre-cyclic-load-induced burst of creep deformation of a pipeline steel under subsequent static load  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature creep of X-52 pipeline steel was studied under various loading conditions. Due to cyclic hardening, the steel exhibits cyclic creep retardation, which is less pronounced at lower stress-ratio and under cyclic load with periodical hold at peak stress. Pre-cyclic loading has significant effect on subsequent static creep. Up to 40 cycles, pre-cyclic load results in a smaller cumulative

Sheng-Hui Wang; Weixing Chen

2002-01-01

146

High-Temperature Deformation and Ductility of a Modified 5083 Al Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-temperature deformation of a 5.5% Mg and 0.6% Ca modified 5083 aluminum alloy was investigated in the temperature range from 573 to 723 K at strain rates in the range of 10-5-10-1 s-1. Ca was added to form an insoluble second phase in the range of temperatures tested to improve the high-temperature characteristics of this alloy. It was shown that the deformation behavior of the alloy could be divided into two regions with stress exponent, n of 3.5 and 13 at low and high strain rates, respectively. The apparent activation energy determined in both regions suggested that the deformation process is diffusion controlled in both regions. The slightly high value of n at the low-strain rate region (viscous glide) was attributed to the presence of threshold stress. The values of threshold stress showed an exponential increase with decreasing temperature and a dependence with an energy term Qo = 16.5 kJ mol-1. Analysis of creep data in terms of threshold stress and using diffusivity of Mg in normalizing the strain rates, revealed two types of deformation behavior. At high values of normalized strain rate (kT} {DGb}}} > 10^{{ - 9}} ), a high value of stress exponent of n = 10 is observed, and the exponential law creep takes place. At low normalized strain rates ?10-9, the n value is 3 and the true activation energy, Q, is equal to 123 kJ mol-1 suggesting viscous glide of dislocations as rate-controlling mechanism. Enhanced ductility has been observed in the region of viscous-glide controlled deformation as a result of high strain-rate sensitivity.

El-Danaf, Ehab A.; Almajid, Abdulhakim A.; Soliman, Mahmoud S.

2008-08-01

147

Microstructural Evolution during Creep of Alloy 800HT in the Temperature Range 600 C to 1000 C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure of SANICRO 31HT (alloy 800HT) creep tested to a maximum of 85,388 hours in the temperature range of 600 C to 1000 C was investigated. Coarse Ti(C, N) precipitates were found to form in the melt and remained stable after solution annealing and aging at all temperatures investigated. M23C6 precipitating in the range of 600 C to 700 C was found in two different distributions: as intergranular precipitates and as small intragranular particles. The ?' precipitation sequence was followed at 600 C, 650 C, and 700 C, and the volume fraction and precipitate diameter was assessed using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM). The ?' precipitates grew and coarsened slowly at 600 C (10 to 30 nm) but somewhat faster at 650 C (25 to 50 nm). The volume fraction was largest at 600 C. The ?' precipitates formed at 700 C were not homogeneously distributed in the matrix. Instead, ?' was observed in the immediate vicinity of M23C6 and Ti(C, N) precipitates. Atom probe field ion microscope analysis of ?'-precipitate showed that it contained slightly more Ti than Al and that its Fe content was a few atomic percent. Nitrogen uptake was very pronounced in creep-deformed material aged at 1000 C, and AlN formed as grain boundary needles and in the interior of grains.

Erneman, J.; Nilsson, J.-O.; Andrn, H.-O.; Tobjrk, D.

2009-03-01

148

Measuring the high-temperature strain and creep in nonfired refractories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumentation and methodology for the experimental study of high-temperature strain and creep under load in phosphate-bonded\\u000a nonfired refractories are described. Results for nonfired aluminosilicate, corundum, silicon nitride, and other refractory\\u000a composites are reported.

U. Sh. Shayakhmetov; V. S. Bakunov; I. M. Valeev; V. R. Bikbulatov

2006-01-01

149

Steady-state creep of single-phase crystalline matter at high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 15 years important advances have been made in the experimental study of the microstructural changes occurring during the non-linear steady-state creep of single phase crystalline matter at elevated temperatures. Curiously, although the results of these painstaking studies have gone a long way toward elucidating the mechanism of this phenomenon, they have been largely ignored in favour of

S. Takeuchi; A. S. Argon

1976-01-01

150

Deformation and fracture of TiAl + W at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The ternary alloy, Ti - 49 at% Al -2 at. % W, was produced using Rotating Electrode Powder (REP) compacted by hot extrusion. The tensile properties of this alloy (strength, ductility and fracture mode) were studied from room temperature to 900{degrees}C. Constant load creep properties were measured from 700 to 900{degrees}C and analyzed using conventional power law equations to calculate the stress exponent and activation energy. These parameters were approximately 4 and 400 KJ/mole respectively. TEM examination showed that the W was held in solid solution during the tensile and creep deformation when the material was tested in the as-extruded' condition. These results are interpreted as evidence for solid solution strengthening of the TiAl matrix by the W solute. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Martin, P.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Lipsitt, H.A. (Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Materials Engineering)

1990-01-01

151

Creep Testing of High-Temperature Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb Alloy Completed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb (Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb) alloy is under development for high-temperature, high heatflux applications, such as actively cooled, hypersonic vehicle heat exchangers and rocket engine combustion chambers. Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb offers a superior combination of strength and conductivity. It has also shown exceptional low-cycle fatigue properties. Following preliminary testing to determine the best processing route, a more detailed testing program was initiated to determine the creep lives and creep rates of Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb alloy specimens produced by extrusion. Testing was conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center with constant-load vacuum creep units. Considering expected operating temperatures and mission lives, we developed a test matrix to accurately determine the creep properties of Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb between 500 and 800 C. Six bars of Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb were extruded. From these bars, 54 creep samples were machined and tested. The figure on the left shows the steady-state, or second-stage, creep rates for the samples. Comparison data for NARloy-Z (Cu-3 wt % Ag-0.5 wt % Zr), the alloy currently used in combustion chamber liners, were not unavailable. Therefore the steady-state creep rates for Cu at similar temperatures are presented. As expected, in comparison to pure Cu, the creep rates for Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb are much lower. The lives of the samples are presented in the figure on the right. As shown, Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb at 800 C is comparable to NARloy-Z at 648 C. At equivalent temperatures, Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb enjoys a 20 to 50 percent advantage in stress for a given life and 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater life at a given stress. The improved properties allow for design tradeoffs and improvements in new and existing heat exchangers such as the next generation of combustion chamber liners. Average creep rates for Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb and pure Cu are shown. Average creep lives for Cu-8 Cr- 4 Nb and NARloy-Z are also shown. Currently, two companies are interested in the commercial usage of the Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb alloy. The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International is conducting independent testing to analyze the properties for their projected needs in advanced rocket engine applications. Metallamics, a company based in Traverse City, Michigan, is entering into a Space Act Agreement to evaluate and test Cu-Cr-Nb alloys as materials for welding electrodes that are used in robotic welding operations. Creep rate is one of the alloy properties that determines the degree to which a welding electrode will mushroom or expand at the tip. A material with a low creep rate will resist mushrooming and give the electrode a longer life, minimizing downtime. This application holds the potential for large-scale usage of the alloy in the automotive and other industries. Success here would dramatically decrease the cost of the alloy and increase availability for aerospace applications.

1995-01-01

152

Creep failures of overheated boiler, superheater and reformer tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internally pressurised tubes are critical components in heat-exchanger applications, such as boiler water tubes, steam superheater elements and chemical plant reformer tubes. Tubes in such applications are vulnerable to temperature excursions: as a consequence the material may enter the creep regime, and creep deformation (bulging) and even fracture (longitudinal rupture) may subsequently occur, with serious consequences. It is estimated that

D. R. H. Jones

2004-01-01

153

A Fictive Stress Model Calculation of Creep Deformation of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glass in the Glass Transition Region under a Constant Load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model calculation based on the fictive stress is conducted on the creep deformation of a Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 bulk metallic glass near the glass transition temperature under a constant applied load. The model successfully reproduces qualitatively the main features associated with creep viscoelastic behavior at various initial applied stresses, ?0. Whenever the value of ?0 exceeds the critical flow stress, ?c ({=}80 MPa), the flow stress curve, log?-log t, shows a dip due to stress-induced softening, and the stress dependent viscosity, ?(?), initially decreases. It attains a minimum value, ?min(?min), as the glass attains an equilibrium structure corresponding to the imposed stress, ?. For stress, ?, less than the viscosity minimum stress, the ?(?) curves all decrease and tend to merge together, and may be fit with a master curve established previously. This reveals that the model curves depend mainly on the choice of structural relaxation time, ?fic, and little on the value of Youngs modulus used in a simple Maxwell model calculation. We found a systematic deviation between the model and experimental curves, such that the model tends to overestimate the structural softening in case with smaller initial applied stress. The cause of this deviation is unclear and is a subject for future studies.

Kato, Hidemi; Inoue, Akihisa; Chen, Ho-Sou

2004-12-01

154

Microbending losses in double-coated optical fibers caused by axial strain-induced creep deformation of polymeric coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The viscoelastic behavior of commercial UV-cured polymeric coatings of optical fibers is evaluated using dynamic mechanic analysis. The results indicate that relaxation of stresses and/or strains in these coatings occurs by creep deformation. The axial strain-induced viscoelastic stresses in optical fibers are derived from the exact viscoelastic behavior of the polymeric coatings. Compressive radial stress on the glass fiber produces microbending losses, and therefore, microbending losses in double-coated optical fibers that are caused by axial strain-induced creep deformation of polymeric coatings are investigated. These microbending losses can be minimized by suitably selecting the thickness and physical properties of the polymeric coatings, as follows. The radius, Poisson's ratio, and strain ratio of the primary coating should be increased, but the Young's modulus and relaxation time of the primary coating should be decreased. The radius, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and strain ratio of the secondary coating should be decreased, but the relaxation time of the secondary coating should be increased. When the thickness and physical properties of the polymeric coating are chosen to minimize the microbending loss, the thickness and Young's modulus of the secondary coatings should be large enough to withstand an external mechanical force.

Hsueh, Yu-Chun; Lai, Liang-Hsun; Tseng, Tzu-Fan; Wu, Jeng-Yue; Shiue, Sham-Tsong

2010-09-01

155

Creep-fatigue of High Temperature Materials for VHTR: Effect of Cyclic Loading and Environment  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 617 is the one of the leading candidate materials for Intermediate Heat eXchangers (IHX) of a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). System start-ups and shut-downs as well as power transients will produce low cycle fatigue (LCF) loadings of components. Furthermore, the anticipated IHX operating temperature, up to 950C, is in the range of creep so that creep-fatigue interaction, which can significantly increase the fatigue crack growth, may be one of the primary IHX damage modes. To address the needs for Alloy 617 codification and licensing, a significant creep-fatigue testing program is underway at Idaho National Laboratory. Strain controlled LCF tests including hold times up to 1800s at maximum tensile strain were conducted at total strain range of 0.3% and 0.6% in air at 950C. Creep-fatigue testing was also performed in a simulated VHTR impure helium coolant for selected experimental conditions. The creep-fatigue tests resulted in failure times up to 1000 hrs. Fatigue resistance was significantly decreased when a hold time was added at peak stress and when the total strain was increased. The fracture mode also changed from transgranular to intergranular with introduction of a tensile hold. Changes in the microstructure were methodically characterized. A combined effect of temperature, cyclic and static loading and environment was evidenced in the targeted operating conditions of the IHX. This paper This paper reviews the data previously published by Carroll and co-workers in references 10 and 11 focusing on the role of inelastic strain accumulation and of oxidation in the initiation and propagation of surface fatigue cracks.

Celine Cabet; L. Carroll; R. Wright; R. Madland

2011-05-01

156

Compressive Creep Performance and High Temperature Dimensional Stability of Conventional Silica Refractories  

SciTech Connect

Furnace designers and refractory engineers recognize that optimized furnace superstructure design and refractory selection are needed as glass production furnaces are continually striving toward greater output and efficiencies. Harsher operating conditions test refractories to the limit, while changing production technology (such as the conversion to oxy-fuel from traditional air-fuel firing) can alter the way the materials perform. Refractories for both oxy- and air-fuel fired furnace superstructures are subjected to high temperatures during service that may cause them to excessively creep or subside if the refractory material is not creep resistant, or if it is subjected to high stress, or both. Furnace designers can ensure that superstructure structural integrity is maintained if the creep behavior of the refractory material is well understood and well represented by appropriate engineering creep models. Several issues limit the abilities of furnace designers to (1) choose the optimum refractory for their applications, (2) optimize the engineering design, or (3) predict the service mechanical integrity of their furnace superstructures. Published engineering creep data are essentially non-existent for almost all commercially available refractories used for glass furnace superstructures. The limited data that do exist are supplied by the various refractory suppliers. Unfortunately, these suppliers generally have different ways of conducting their mechanical testing and they also interpret and report their data differently; this makes it hard for furnace designers to draw fair comparisons between competing grades of candidate refractories. Furthermore, the refractory supplier's data are often not available in a form that can be readily used for furnace design and for the prediction and design of long-term structural integrity of furnace superstructures. With the aim of providing such comparable data, the US DOE's Office of Industrial Technology and its Advanced Industrial Materials program is sponsoring work to conduct creep testing and analysis on refractories of interest to the glass industry. An earlier stage of the project involved identifying which refractories to test and this is described elsewhere. Conventional silica was one such identified refractory category, and the present report describes the creep behavior of this class of refractories. To portray a more complete understanding of how these refractories perform at service temperatures, their fundamental corrosion resistances, dimensional stabilities, and microstructure were characterized as well.

Karakus, M.; Kirkland, T.P.; Liu, K.C.; Moore, R.E.; Pint, B.A.; Wereszczak, A.A.

1999-03-01

157

Low-temperature plastic deformation of a perovskite ceramic material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalous plastic deformation properties at ambient temperature were demonstrated for lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM). Bar samples fabricated from a range of compositions exhibited plastic deformation under ambient conditions when subjected to bending stresses of 40 MPa or less. The transition from the plastic deformation properties of LSM to the rigid properties of ceria was demonstrated via a series of composite

D. Laurence Meixner; Raymond A Cutler

2002-01-01

158

Vortex creep and the internal temperature of neutron stars The Crab pulsar and PSR 0525 + 21  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of the Crab pulsar following the 1969 and 1975 glitches and the postglich behavior of the old pulsar PSR 0525 + 21 are explained as resulting from internal torques due to the thermal creep of vortex lines in pinned superfluid regions. An overview of vortex creep theory is first given, and the immediate postglitch behavior of the Crab pulsar is calculated and compared with observation. The persistent shift in the spin-down rate observed for the Crab pulsar following the 1975 glitch is considered, and the internal and surface temperatures of this pulsar are deduced. The postglich behavior expected for very old pulsars is examined, showing that PSR 0525 + 21 falls into this category. It is concluded that the behavior of the Crab pulsar following both glitches can be characterized by the same two pinning regions. A comparison of the internal temperature for the Crab and Vela pulsars provides a significant constraint on the cooling of neutron stars.

Alpar, M. A.; Nandkumar, R.; Pines, D.

1985-01-01

159

Evaluation of Permanent Deformation of CRM-Reinforced SMA and Its Correlation with Dynamic Stiffness and Dynamic Creep  

PubMed Central

Today, rapid economic and industrial growth generates increasing amounts of waste materials such as waste tyre rubber. Attempts to inspire a green technology which is more environmentally friendly that can produce economic value are a major consideration in the utilization of waste materials. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of waste tyre rubber (crumb rubber modifier (CRM)), in stone mastic asphalt (SMA 20) performance. The virgin bitumen (80/100) penetration grade was used, modified with crumb rubber at four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 12%, 16%, and 20% by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the indirect tensile (dynamic stiffness), dynamic creep, and wheel tracking tests. By the experimentation, the appropriate amount of CRM was found to be 16% by weight of bitumen. The results show that the addition of CRM into the mixture has an obvious significant effect on the performance properties of SMA which could improve the mixture's resistance against permanent deformation. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the rut depth and permanent strain as compared to resilient modulus; thus dynamic creep test might be a more reliable test in evaluating the rut resistance of asphalt mixture. PMID:24302883

Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

2013-01-01

160

Evaluation of permanent deformation of CRM-reinforced SMA and its correlation with dynamic stiffness and dynamic creep.  

PubMed

Today, rapid economic and industrial growth generates increasing amounts of waste materials such as waste tyre rubber. Attempts to inspire a green technology which is more environmentally friendly that can produce economic value are a major consideration in the utilization of waste materials. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of waste tyre rubber (crumb rubber modifier (CRM)), in stone mastic asphalt (SMA 20) performance. The virgin bitumen (80/100) penetration grade was used, modified with crumb rubber at four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 12%, 16%, and 20% by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the indirect tensile (dynamic stiffness), dynamic creep, and wheel tracking tests. By the experimentation, the appropriate amount of CRM was found to be 16% by weight of bitumen. The results show that the addition of CRM into the mixture has an obvious significant effect on the performance properties of SMA which could improve the mixture's resistance against permanent deformation. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the rut depth and permanent strain as compared to resilient modulus; thus dynamic creep test might be a more reliable test in evaluating the rut resistance of asphalt mixture. PMID:24302883

Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

2013-01-01

161

The transition from high temperature creep to fracture in Maryland diabase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition from high-temperature creep to brittle fracture in Maryland diabase was investigated as a function of confining pressure and strain rate. Experiments were conducted at 1000C. Confining pressure was varied to 450 MPa and strain rates from 210-3 s-1 to 410-6 s-1. At fixed strain rate, the rock strength first increased with pressure, reached a maximum, and then decreased

Y. Caristan

1982-01-01

162

Is Low-Temperature Creep of Asphalt Mastic Independent of Filler Shape and Mineralogy?Arguments from Multiscale Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the effect of filler on the low-temperature creep of asphalt mastic. Based on experimental results obtained from bending-beam rheometer BBR experiments for both pure bitumen and mastic characterized by different filler types and content, a recently proposed multiscale model is employed for the prediction of low-temperature creep properties of the bitumen-filler composite. Accounting for the distinct

Roman Lackner; Markus Spiegl; Ronald Blab; Josef Eberhardsteiner

2005-01-01

163

Low-temperature creep behavior of ultrafine-grained 5083 Al alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low temperature creep behavior of ECAPed Al 5083 alloy with grain sizes of approximately 300 nm was investigated at temperatures\\u000a of 498, 523 and 548 K. The value of the stress exponent was found to be 3.5 at a low stress level and increased to 5.0 at\\u000a a high stress level. At the low stress level, the creep curve exhibits

Ho-Kyung Kim

2010-01-01

164

Effect of Phosphorous Inoculation on Creep Behavior of a Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep behavior of Al-Si hypereutectic alloys inoculated with phosphorus was investigated using the impression creep testing. The results showed that at stress regimes of up to 400-450 MPa and temperatures up to 300 C, no significant creep deformation occurred in both uninoculated and inoculated specimens; however, at temperatures above 300 C, the inoculated alloys presented better creep properties. Creep data were used to calculate the stress exponent of steady-state creep rate, n, and creep activation energy, Q, for different additive conditions where n was found varied between 5 and 8. Owing to the fact that most alloys have lower values for n (4, 5), threshold stress was estimated for studied conditions. The creep governing mechanisms for different conditions are discussed here, with a particular attention to the effect of phosphorous addition on the microstructural features, including number of primary silicon particles, mean primary silicon spacing, and morphology and distribution of eutectic silicon.

Faraji, Masoumeh; Khalilpour, Hamid

2014-10-01

165

Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at low neutron fluences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The irradiation creep behavior of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide was investigated using the bend stress relaxation method under neutron irradiation up to 1.9 dpa. The creep deformation was observed at all temperatures ranging from 380 to 1180 C mainly from the irradiation creep but with the increasing contributions from the thermal creep at higher temperatures. The apparent stress exponent of the irradiation creep slightly exceeded unity, and instantaneous creep coefficient at 380-790 C was estimated to be ?1 10-5 [MPa-1 dpa-1] at ?0.1 dpa and 1 10-7 to 1 10-6 [MPa-1 dpa-1] at ?1 dpa. The irradiation creep strain appeared greater than that for the high purity SiC. Microstructural observation and data analysis indicated that the grain-boundary sliding associated with the secondary phases contributes to the irradiation creep at 380-790 C to 0.01-0.11 dpa.

Koyanagi, T.; Shimoda, K.; Kondo, S.; Hinoki, T.; Ozawa, K.; Katoh, Y.

2014-12-01

166

Elevated temperature tension, compression and creep-rupture behavior of (001)-oriented single crystal superalloy PWA 1480  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tensile and compressive flow behavior at various temperatures and strain rates, and tensile creep rupture behavior at 850 and 1050 C and various stresses were studied for (001)-oriented single crystals of the Ni-base superalloy PWA 1480. At temperatures up to 760 C, the flow stress is insensitive to strain rate and of greater magnitude in tension than in compression. At temperatures of 800 C and above, the flow stress decreases continuously with decreasing strain rate and the tension/compression anisotropy diminishes. The second stage creep rate and rupture time exhibited power law relationships with the applied stress for both 850 and 1050 C, however with different stress dependencies. The stress exponent for the steady state creep rate was about 7 at 1050 C, but much higher at 850 C, about 12. Directional coarsening of the gamma' phase occurred during creep at 1050 C, but not at 850 C.

Hebsur, Mohan G.; Miner, Robert V.

1987-01-01

167

Creep of chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The creep, thermal expansion, and elastic modulus properties for chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers were measured between 1000 and 1500 C. Creep strain was observed to increase logarithmically with time, monotonically with temperature, and linearly with tensile stress up to 600 MPa. The controlling activation energy was 480 + or - 20 kJ/mole. Thermal pretreatments near 1200 and 1450 C were found to significantly reduce fiber creep. These results coupled with creep recovery observations indicate that below 1400 C fiber creep is anelastic with neglible plastic component. This allowed a simple predictive method to be developed for describing fiber total deformation as a function of time, temperature, and stress. Mechanistic analysis of the property data suggests that fiber creep is the result of beta-SiC grain boundary sliding controlled by a small percent of free silicon in the grain boundaries.

Dicarlo, J. A.

1984-01-01

168

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURAL DAMAGE DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE CREEP-FATIGUE OF A NICKEL ALLOY  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 617 is the leading candidate material for an Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). To evaluate the behavior of this material in the expected service conditions, strain-controlled cyclic tests that include hold times up to 9000 s at maximum tensile strain were conducted at 950 degrees C. The fatigue resistance decreased when a hold time was added at peak tensile strain, owing to the mechanisms resulting in a change in fracture mode from transgranular in pure fatigue to intergranular in creepfatigue. Increases in the tensile hold duration beyond an initial value were not detrimental to the creepfatigue resistance. An analysis of the evolving failure modes was facilitated by interrupting tests during cycling for ex situ microstructural investigation.

L.J. Carroll; M.C. Carroll; C. Cabet; R.N. Wright

2013-02-01

169

Effect of nitrogen high temperature plasma based ion implantation on the creep behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen high temperature plasma based ion implantation (HTPBII) performed on Ti-6Al-4V significantly improved the creep behavior of the alloy. Treatments were performed for 1 h at a working pressure of 4 mbar and negative high voltage pulses of 7.5 kV, 30 ?s and 500 Hz were applied on the specimens heated at 800 C and 900 C, respectively. Microstructural characterization of the treated samples revealed the formation of nitrided layers, with simultaneous formation of TiN and Ti2N. The most intense peaks of these compounds were obtained at higher treatment temperature, probably due to the diffusion of nitrogen into titanium. The presence of nitrides caused surface hardening up to three times higher in comparison with untreated alloy. Constant load creep tests were conducted on a standard creep machine in air atmosphere, at stress level of 319 MPa at 600 C. Significant reductions of the steady-state creep rates (?) were measured for martensitic Ti-6Al-4V treated by nitrogen HTPBII, reaching minimum creep rates of 0.0318 h-1 in comparison with 0.1938 h-1 for untreated sample. The improvement of the creep resistance seems to be associated with the formation of a thick nitrided layer, which acts as a barrier to oxygen diffusion into the material. In addition, the increase of the grain size generated by the heating of the substrate during the treatment can affect some creep mechanisms, leading to a significant reduction of ?.

Oliveira, A. C.; Oliveira, R. M.; Reis, D. A. P.; Carreri, F. C.

2014-08-01

170

The cryostat for deformation of crystals at low temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cryostat was worked out, helped to deform the crystals at 80 K with different degree of deformation and to register luminescence, absorption and thermally activated characteristics of crystals, also to record the ionic and thermally stimulated currents of the dipole defects depolarization. The degree of crystal's deformation is given by compressing screw pitch which is equal to 1 mm at a complete revolution of the crystal holder. The construction of the cryostat allows to set experimentally the desired degree of crystal's deformation. Deformation can be removed from the crystal and re-update at different temperatures.

Shunkeyev, K.; Sarmukhanov, E.; Bekeshev, A.; Sagimbaeva, Sh; Bizhanova, K.

2012-12-01

171

Influence of deformation temperature on texture evolution in HPT deformed NiAl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NiAl is an intermetallic compound with a brittle-to-ductile transition temperature at about 300C and ambient pressure. At standard conditions, it is very difficult to deform, but fracture stress and fracture strain are increased under high hydrostatic pressure. On account of this, deformation at low temperatures is only possible at high hydrostatic pressure, as for instance used in high pressure torsion. In order to study the influence of temperature on texture evolution, small discs of polycrystalline NiAl were deformed by high pressure torsion at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 500C. At room temperature, a typical shear texture of body centred cubic metals is found, while at 500C a strong oblique cube component dominates. These textures can be well simulated with the viscoplastic self-consistent polycrystal deformation model using the primary and secondary slip systems activated at low and high temperatures. The oblique cube component is a dynamic recrystallization component.

Trnkner, C.; Chulist, R.; Skrotzki, W.; Beausir, B.; Lippmann, T.; Horky, J.; Zehetbauer, M.

2014-08-01

172

Dislocation creep of fine-grained olivine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformation experiments conducted in a gas medium apparatus at temperatures from 1200 to 1350C with a fine-grained, solution-gelation derived Fe-bearing olivine show a stress dependence of the strain rate at stresses above 150 MPa, which is much stronger than previously reported for polycrystalline samples. The data can be fit by a power law with ???n with n 7-8, or equally well by a Peierls creep law with exponential stress dependence. Due to the observed strong stress dependence the samples deform at significantly higher strain rates at a given stress than single crystals or coarse-grained polycrystals with n 3.5. TEM observations indicate the presence of dislocations with at least two different Burgers vectors, with free dislocations predominantly of screw character. Subgrain walls are present but are only weakly developed and have small misorientation angles. Both the rheology and dislocation structures are consistent with creep rate-limited by dislocation glide or cross slip for aggregates with grain sizes smaller than or approaching the recrystallized grain size. Deformation mechanism maps extrapolated to lithospheric temperatures using the melt-free diffusion creep rheology of Faul and Jackson (2007), the dislocation creep rheology of Hirth and Kohlstedt (2003), and the results described here indicate that deformation conditions of ultramylonitic shear zones fall near the triple point of Peierls, dislocation, and diffusion creep.

Faul, U. H.; Fitz Gerald, J. D.; Farla, R. J. M.; Ahlefeldt, R.; Jackson, I.

2011-01-01

173

Development of a constitutive model for creep and life prediction of advanced silicon nitride ceramics  

SciTech Connect

A constitutive model capable of describing deformation and predicting rupture life was developed for high temperature ceramic materials under general thermal-mechanical loading conditions. The model was developed based on the deformation and fracture behavior observed from a systematic experimental study on an advanced silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramic material. Validity of the model was evaluated with reference to creep and creep rupture data obtained under constant and stepwise-varied loading conditions, including the effects of annealing on creep and creep rupture behavior.

Ding, J.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US); Liu, K.C.; Brinkman, C.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US)

1992-12-31

174

Vortex creep and the internal temperature of neutron stars - Linear and nonlinear response to a glitch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamics of pinned superfluid in neutron stars is determined by the thermal 'creep' of vortices. Vortex creep can respond to changes in the rotation rate of the neutron star crust and provide the observed types of dynamical relaxation following pulsar glitches. It also gives rise to energy dissipation, which determines the thermal evolution of pulsars once the initial heat content has been radiated away. The different possible regimes of vortex creep are explored, and it is shown that the nature of the dynamical response of the pinned superfluid evolves with a pulsar's age. Younger pulsars display a linear regime, where the response is linear in the initial perturbation and is a simple exponential relaxation as a function of time. A nonliner response, with a characteristic nonlinear dependence on the initial perturbation, is responsible for energy dissipation and becomes the predominant mode of response as the pulsar ages. The transition from the linear to the nonlinear regime depends sensitively on the temperature of the neutron star interior. A preliminary review of existing postglitch observations is given within this general evolutionary framework.

Alpar, M. A.; Cheng, K. S.; Pines, D.

1989-01-01

175

Vortex creep and the internal temperature of neutron stars - Linear and nonlinear response to a glitch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of pinned superfluid in neutron stars is determined by the thermal 'creep' of vortices. Vortex creep can respond to changes in the rotation rate of the neutron star crust and provide the observed types of dynamical relaxation following pulsar glitches. It also gives rise to energy dissipation, which determines the thermal evolution of pulsars once the initial heat content has been radiated away. The different possible regimes of vortex creep are explored, and it is shown that the nature of the dynamical response of the pinned superfluid evolves with a pulsar's age. Younger pulsars display a linear regime, where the response is linear in the initial perturbation and is a simple exponential relaxation as a function of time. A nonliner response, with a characteristic nonlinear dependence on the initial perturbation, is responsible for energy dissipation and becomes the predominant mode of response as the pulsar ages. The transition from the linear to the nonlinear regime depends sensitively on the temperature of the neutron star interior. A preliminary review of existing postglitch observations is given within this general evolutionary framework.

Alpar, M. A.; Cheng, K. S.; Pines, D.

1989-11-01

176

Elevated temperature compressive steady state deformation and failure in the oxide dispersion strengthened alloy MA 6000E  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The compressive flow strength-strain rate behavior of the oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloy MA 6000E has been studied in the temperature range 1144-1366 K, with strain rates ranging from 2.1 x 10 to the -5th to 2.1 x 10 to the -7th per s. It is found that the inherent strength of the alloy is essentially the same in all test directions and that the low strength observed in tensile tests results from the inability of grain boundaries to support high tensile stresses. The failure of MA 6000E under high-temperature, slow plastic flow conditions is shown to be the result of concentrated slip. Slow plastic deformation in MA 6000E can be described by a threshold stress model of creep where threshold stresses are calculated from relatively fast testing procedures and the effective stress exponent for creep is assumed to be 3.5.

Whittenberger, J. D.

1984-01-01

177

Vortex creep and the internal temperature of neutron stars. II - VELA pulsar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed complex postglitch behavior of the Vela pulsar is explained as resulting from coupling of the crust to crustal neutron superfluid, specifically that part of the superfluid in which vortex lines are pinned to crustal nuclei. It is shown how the general theory of vortex creep provides an excellent fit to the timing observations of Downs which span the decade 1969-1979 and include four giant glitches. Relaxation times, inertial moments, and limits on superfluid pinning parameters are extracted for three distinct regions of vortex pinning in the star, with results which are consistent with microscopic theories of its internal structure. Relaxation times due to vortex creep are directly proportional to the internal temperature of the star, so that the limits obtained for pinning parameters translate to bounds on this temperature. It is concluded that the internal temperature of the Vela pulsar is about 10-million K and discuss the extent to which improved calculations of vortex pinning as well as soft X-ray observations of other stars will make possible an improved determination of the pulsar temperature.

Alpar, M. A.; Anderson, P. W.; Pines, D.; Shaham, J.

1984-03-01

178

Elevated Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Severely Deformed Titanium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this investigation, compression tests were performed at a strain rate of 0.001-0.1 s-1 in the range of 600-900 C to study the high temperature deformation behavior and flow stress model of commercial purity (CP) titanium after severe plastic deformation (SPD). It was observed that SPD via equal channel angular extrusion can considerably enhance the flow strength of CP titanium deformed at 600 and 700 C. Post-compression microstructures showed that, a fine grained structure can be retained at a deformation temperature of 600 C. Based on the kinematics of dynamic recovery and recrystallization, the flow stress constitutive equations were established. The validity of the model was demonstrated with reasonable agreement by comparing the experimental data with the numerical results. The error values were less than 5% at all deformation temperatures except 600 C.

Sajadifar, Seyed Vahid; Yapici, Guney Guven

2014-05-01

179

Investigation of the rate-controlling mechanism(s) for high temperature creep and the relationship between creep and melting by use of high pressure as a variable. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Using high pressure as a variable, the rate-controlling mechanism for high temperature creep and the relationship between creep and melting is investigated for silicon and nickel. An apparatus is used in which the samples are heated to melting point and subjected to 1 to 3 GigaPascal pressure. The stress behavior of the materials are then studied.

Not Available

1991-12-31

180

Influence of Grain Boundary Character on Creep Void Formation in Alloy 617  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alloy 617, a high-temperature creep-resistant, nickel-based alloy, is being considered for the primary heat exchanger for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which will operate at temperatures exceeding 760 C and a helium pressure of approximately 7 MPa. Observations of the crept microstructure using optical microscopy indicate creep stress does not significantly influence the creep void fraction at a given creep strain over the relatively narrow set of creep conditions studied. Void formation was found to occur only after significant creep in the tertiary regime (>5 pct total creep strain) had occurred. Also, orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) was used to characterize the grain boundaries in the vicinity of creep voids that develop during high-temperature creep tests (900 C to 1000 C at creep stresses ranging from 20 to 40 MPa) terminated at creep strains ranging from 5 to 40 pct. Preliminary analysis of the OIM data indicates voids tend to form on grain boundaries parallel, perpendicular, or 45 deg to the tensile axis, while few voids are found at intermediate inclinations to the tensile axis. Random grain boundaries intersect most voids, while coincident site lattice (CSL)-related grain boundaries did not appear to be consistently associated with void development. Similar results were found in oxygen-free, high-conductivity (OFHC) copper, severely deformed using equal channel angular extrusion, and creep tested at 450 C and 14 MPa.

Lillo, Thomas; Cole, James; Frary, Megan; Schlegel, Scott

2009-12-01

181

High-temperature creep rupture of low alloy ferritic steel butt-welded pipes subjected to combined internal pressure and end loadings.  

PubMed

Constitutive equations are reviewed and presented for low alloy ferritic steels which undergo creep deformation and damage at high temperatures; and, a thermodynamic framework is provided for the deformation rate potentials used in the equations. Finite element continuum damage mechanics studies have been carried out using these constitutive equations on butt-welded low alloy ferritic steel pipes subjected to combined internal pressure and axial loads at 590 and 620 degrees C. Two dominant modes of failure have been identified: firstly, fusion boundary failure at high stresses; and, secondly, Type IV failure at low stresses. The stress level at which the switch in failure mechanism takes place has been found to be associated with the relative creep resistance and lifetimes, over a wide range of uniaxial stresses, for parent, heat affected zone, Type IV and weld materials. The equi-biaxial stress loading condition (mean diameter stress equal to the axial stress) has been confirmed to be the worst loading condition. For this condition, simple design formulae are proposed for both 590 and 620 degrees C. PMID:16243708

Vakili-Tahami, F; Hayhurst, D R; Wong, M T

2005-11-15

182

Compilation of Surface Creep on California Faults and Comparison of WGCEP 2007 Deformation Model to Pacific-North American Plate Motion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Appendix contains 3 sections that 1) documents published observations of surface creep on California faults, 2) constructs line integrals across the WG-07 deformation model to compare to the Pacific ? North America plate motion, and 3) constructs strain tensors of volumes across the WG-07 deformation model to compare to the Pacific ? North America plate motion. Observation of creep on faults is a critical part of our earthquake rupture model because if a fault is observed to creep the moment released as earthquakes is reduced from what would be inferred directly from the fault?s slip rate. There is considerable debate about how representative creep measured at the surface during a short time period is of the whole fault surface through the entire seismic cycle (e.g. Hudnut and Clark, 1989). Observationally, it is clear that the amount of creep varies spatially and temporally on a fault. However, from a practical point of view a single creep rate is associated with a fault section and the reduction in seismic moment generated by the fault is accommodated in seismic hazard models by reducing the surface area that generates earthquakes or by reducing the slip rate that is converted into seismic energy. WG-07 decided to follow the practice of past Working Groups and the National Seismic Hazard Map and used creep rate (where it was judged to be interseismic, see Table P1) to reduce the area of the fault surface that generates seismic events. In addition to following past practice, this decision allowed the Working Group to use a reduction of slip rate as a separate factor to accommodate aftershocks, post seismic slip, possible aseismic permanent deformation along fault zones and other processes that are inferred to affect the entire surface area of a fault, and thus are better modeled as a reduction in slip rate. C-zones are also handled by a reduction in slip rate, because they are inferred to include regions of widely distributed shear that is not completely expressed as earthquakes large enough to model. Because the ratio of the rate of creep relative to the total slip rate is often used to infer the average depth of creep, the ?depth? of creep can be calculated and used to reduce the surface area of a fault that generates earthquakes in our model. This reduction of surface area of rupture is described by an ?aseismicity factor,? assigned to each creeping fault in Appendix A. An aseismicity factor of less than 1 is only assigned to faults that are inferred to creep during the entire interseismic period. A single aseismicity factor was chosen for each section of the fault that creeps by expert opinion from the observations documented here. Uncertainties were not determined for the aseismicity factor, and thus it represents an unmodeled (and difficult to model) source of error. This Appendix simply provides the documentation of known creep, the type and precision of its measurement, and attempts to characterize the creep as interseismic, afterslip, transient or triggered. Parts 2 and 3 of this Appendix compare the WG-07 deformation model and the seismic source model it generates to the strain generated by the Pacific - North American plate motion. The concept is that plate motion generates essentially all of the elastic strain in the vicinity of the plate boundary that can be released as earthquakes. Adding up the slip rates on faults and all others sources of deformation (such as C-zones and distributed ?background? seismicity) should approximately yield the plate motion. This addition is usually accomplished by one of four approaches: 1) line integrals that sum deformation along discrete paths through the deforming zone between the two plates, 2) seismic moment tensors that add up seismic moment of a representative set of earthquakes generated by a crustal volume spanning the plate boundary, 3) strain tensors generated by adding up the strain associated with all of the faults in a crustal volume spanning the plate

Wisely, Beth A.; Schmidt, David A.; Weldon, Ray J., II

2008-01-01

183

Development of a steady state creep behavior model of polycrystalline tungsten for bimodal space reactor application  

SciTech Connect

The fuel element for one of the many reactor concepts being currently evaluated for bimodal applications in space consists of spherical fuel particles clad with tungsten or alloys of tungsten. The fuel itself consists of stabilized UO{sub 2}. One of the life limiting phenomena for the fuel element is failure of the cladding because of creep deformation. This report summarizes the information available in literature regarding the creep deformation of tungsten and its alloys and proposes a relation to be used for calculating the creep strains for elevated temperatures in the low stress region ({sigma} {le} 20 MPa). Also, results of the application of this creep relation to one of the reactor design concepts (NEBA-3) are discussed. Based on the traditional definition of creep deformation, the temperatures of 1500 K to 2900 K for tungsten and its alloys are considered to be in the {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} temperature range. In this temperature range, the rate controlling mechanisms for creep deformation are believed to be non-conservative motion of screw dislocations and short circuit diffusional paths. Extensive theoretical work on creep and in particular for creep of tungsten and its alloys have been reported in the literature. These theoretical efforts have produced complex mathematical models that require detailed materials properties. These relations, however, are not presently suitable for the creep analysis because of lack of consistent material properties required for their use. Variations in material chemistry and thermomechanical pre-treatment of tungsten have significant effects on creep and the mechanical properties. Analysis of the theoretical models and limited data indicates that the following empirical relation originally proposed by M. Jacox of INEL and the Air Force Phillips Laboratory, for calculating creep deformation of tungsten cladding, can be used for the downselection of preliminary bimodal reactor design concepts.

Purohit, A.; Hanan, N.A.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Gruber, E.E.

1995-02-01

184

Investigation of the low-temperature performance of asphalt mixtures via fatigue and linear contraction and creep test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of asphalt mixtures, including asphalt concrete (AC), stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and porous asphalt (PA) with a 13mm gradation, are chosen to study the fatigue behavior, linear contraction and creep performance of them. The analysis of the experimental results is summarized as follows. The asphalt mixture exhibits longer fatigue life at low temperature than that at high temperature.

Conghui Liu; Shaopeng Wu; Bo Li; Jingang Wang

2008-01-01

185

Temperature-dependent elastic anisotropy and mesoscale deformation in a nanostructured ferritic alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured ferritic alloys are a new class of ultrafine-grained oxide dispersion-strengthened steels that have promising properties for service in extreme environments in future nuclear reactors. This is due to the remarkable stability of their complex microstructures containing numerous Y-Ti-O nanoclusters within grains and along grain boundaries. Although nanoclusters account primarily for the exceptional resistance to irradiation damage and high-temperature creep, little is known about the mechanical roles of the polycrystalline grains that constitute the ferritic matrix. Here we report an in situ mesoscale characterization of anisotropic responses of ultrafine ferrite grains to stresses using state-of-the-art neutron diffraction. We show the experimental determination of single-crystal elastic constants for a 14YWT alloy, and reveal a strong temperature-dependent elastic anisotropy that leads to elastic softening and instability of the ferrite. We also demonstrate, from anisotropy-induced intergranular strains, that a deformation crossover exists from low-temperature lattice hardening to high-temperature lattice softening in response to extensive plastic deformation.

Stoica, G. M.; Stoica, A. D.; Miller, M. K.; Ma, D.

2014-10-01

186

Temperature-dependent elastic anisotropy and mesoscale deformation in a nanostructured ferritic alloy.  

PubMed

Nanostructured ferritic alloys are a new class of ultrafine-grained oxide dispersion-strengthened steels that have promising properties for service in extreme environments in future nuclear reactors. This is due to the remarkable stability of their complex microstructures containing numerous Y-Ti-O nanoclusters within grains and along grain boundaries. Although nanoclusters account primarily for the exceptional resistance to irradiation damage and high-temperature creep, little is known about the mechanical roles of the polycrystalline grains that constitute the ferritic matrix. Here we report an in situ mesoscale characterization of anisotropic responses of ultrafine ferrite grains to stresses using state-of-the-art neutron diffraction. We show the experimental determination of single-crystal elastic constants for a 14YWT alloy, and reveal a strong temperature-dependent elastic anisotropy that leads to elastic softening and instability of the ferrite. We also demonstrate, from anisotropy-induced intergranular strains, that a deformation crossover exists from low-temperature lattice hardening to high-temperature lattice softening in response to extensive plastic deformation. PMID:25300893

Stoica, G M; Stoica, A D; Miller, M K; Ma, D

2014-01-01

187

Influence of creep-fatigue interaction on high temperature fatigue crack growth behavior of Ti1100  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of crack growth experiments has been performed on the near alpha titanium alloy, Ti-1100, to determine the mechanism of the creep-fatigue interaction. Based on pure creep crack growth results, the increase in the creep-fatigue crack growth rate is not amenable to separate contributions of creep crack growth and fatigue crack growth. A mechanism has been proposed to account

A. H. Rosenberger; H. Ghonem

1994-01-01

188

Creep property and microstructure evolution of a nickel-base single crystal superalloy in [011] orientation  

SciTech Connect

The creep property and microstructure evolution of a single crystal superalloy with [011] orientation were investigated at the temperatures of 700 C, 900 C and 1040 C. It is shown that there exist stages of primary, steady-state, and tertiary creep under the lower temperature 700 C. As the temperature increases to high temperatures of 900 C and 1040 C, steady-state creep stage is reduced or disappears and the shape of creep curves is dominated by an extensive tertiary stage. The minimum creep strain rate exhibits power law dependence on the applied stress; the stress exponents at 700 C, 900 C and 1040 C are 28, 13 and 6.5, respectively. Microstructure observation shows that the morphologies of ?? phase almost keep original shape at the lower temperature 700 C and high applied stress. With the increasing creep temperature, ?? precipitates tend to link together and form lamellar structure at an angle of 45 inclined to the applied stress. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations reveal that multiple < 110 > (111) slip systems gliding in the matrix channels and shearing ?? precipitates by stacking faults or bending dislocation pairs are the main deformation mechanism at the lower temperature of 700 C. At the high temperatures of 900 C and 1040 C, dislocation networks are formed at ?/?? interfaces and the ?? rafts are sheared by dislocation pairs. - Highlights: Creep properties of < 011 >-oriented single crystal superalloys were investigated. ?? phases become rafting at an angle of 45 inclined to the applied stress. Creep deformation mechanisms depend on temperature and stress.

Han, G.M., E-mail: gmhan@imr.ac.cn; Yu, J.J.; Hu, Z.Q.; Sun, X.F.

2013-12-15

189

Flaw assessment guide for high-temperature reactor components subject to creep-fatigue loading  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature flaw assessment procedure is described. This procedure is a result of a collaborative effort between Electric Power Research Institute in the United States, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan, and Nuclear Electric plc in the United Kingdom. The procedure addresses preexisting defects subject to creep-fatigue loading conditions. Laws employed to calculate the crack growth per cycle are defined in terms of fracture mechanics parameters and constants related to the component material. The crack-growth laws can be integrated to calculate the remaining life of a component or to predict the amount of crack extension in a given period. Fatigue and creep crack growth per cycle are calculated separately, and the total crack extension is taken as the simple sum of the two contributions. An interaction between the two propagation modes is accounted for in the material properties in the separate calculations. In producing the procedure, limitations of the approach have been identified. 25 refs., 1 fig.

Ainsworth, R.A. (Nuclear Electric PLC, Berkeley (UK). Berkeley Nuclear Labs.); Ruggles, M.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Takahashi, Y. (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.)

1990-10-01

190

High temperature deformation of hot-pressed polycrystalline orthoenstatite. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artificial hot pressed polycrystalline samples were prepared from purified powder of Bamble, Norway, orthoenstatite, (Mg0.86Fe0.14)SiO3. The uniaxial creep behavior of the polycrystalline orthoenstatite was studied over stress ranges of 10-180 MPa and temperatures of 1500-1700 K (0.82-0.93 T sub m) under two different oxygen fugacities, namely equilibrium (Mo-MoO2 buffer) and a reducing (graphite heating element) atmosphere, respectively. An intergranular glassy phase of different compositions with a cavitational creep deformation were observed. In the Mo-MoO2 buffer atmosphere with PO2 approx. 10 to the minus 11 power - 10 to the minus 13 power atmospheres, the results of an analytical electron microscopy analysis indicate that the glassy phases are richer in Ca and Al due to the residual impurities after hot pressing. In the reducing atmosphere with an oxygen fugacity of PO2 approx. 10 to the minus 3 power - 10 to the minus 25 power atmospheres, the results of analytical electron microscopy analysis indicate that the glassy phase is almost pure silica with the presence of free iron precipitate on grain facets and at triple junctions due to the reduction of bulk materials.

Dehghan-Banadaki, A.

1983-01-01

191

Application of time-temperature-stress superposition on creep of wood-plastic composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-temperature-stress superposition principle (TTSSP) was widely applied in studies of viscoelastic properties of materials. It involves shifting curves at various conditions to construct master curves. To extend the application of this principle, a temperature-stress hybrid shift factor and a modified Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation that incorporated variables of stress and temperature for the shift factor fitting were studied. A wood-plastic composite (WPC) was selected as the test subject to conduct a series of short-term creep tests. The results indicate that the WPC were rheologically simple materials and merely a horizontal shift was needed for the time-temperature superposition, whereas vertical shifting would be needed for time-stress superposition. The shift factor was independent of the stress for horizontal shifts in time-temperature superposition. In addition, the temperature- and stress-shift factors used to construct master curves were well fitted with the WLF equation. Furthermore, the parameters of the modified WLF equation were also successfully calibrated. The application of this method and equation can be extended to curve shifting that involves the effects of both temperature and stress simultaneously.

Chang, Feng-Cheng; Lam, Frank; Kadla, John F.

2013-08-01

192

Temperature Dependence of Plastic Deformation in White Tin Single Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensile experiments have been carried out over a wide range of temperatures on single crystals of high-purity white tin with low dislocation density. From the observations of slip lines it is found that different slip systems are activated for different temperature regions and for different orientations of specimens. By deformation with the (100)[010] slip system the cell structure is formed

Muneo Nagasaka

1989-01-01

193

Bend stress relaxation and tensile primary creep of a polycrystalline alpha-SiC fiber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the thermomechanical behavior (creep and stress relaxation) of ceramic fibers is of both practical and basic interest. On the practical level, ceramic fibers are the reinforcement for ceramic matrix composites which are being developed for use in high temperature applications. It is important to understand and model the total creep of fibers at low strain levels where creep is predominantly in the primary stage. In addition, there are many applications where the component will only be subjected to thermal strains. Therefore, the stress relaxation of composite consituents in such circumstances will be an important factor in composite design and performance. The objective of this paper is to compare and analyze bend stress relaxation and tensile creep data for alpha-SiC fibers produced by the Carborundum Co. (Niagara Falls, NY). This fiber is of current technical interest and is similar in composition to bulk alpha-SiC which has been studied under compressive creep conditions. The temperature, time, and stress dependences will be discussed for the stress relaxation and creep results. In addition, some creep and relaxation recovery experiments were performed in order to understand the complete viscoelastic behavior, i.e. both recoverable and nonrecoverable creep components of these materials. The data will be presented in order to model the deformation behavior and compare relaxation and/or creep behavior for relatively low deformation strain conditions of practical concern. Where applicable, the tensile creep results will be compared to bend stress relaxation data.

Hee Man, Yun; Goldsby, Jon C.; Morscher, Gregory N.

1995-01-01

194

Modeling the Role of Dislocation Substructure During Class M and Exponential Creep. Revised  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The different substructures that form in the power-law and exponential creep regimes for single phase crystalline materials under various conditions of stress, temperature and strain are reviewed. The microstructure is correlated both qualitatively and quantitatively with power-law and exponential creep as well as with steady state and non-steady state deformation behavior. These observations suggest that creep is influenced by a complex interaction between several elements of the microstructure, such as dislocations, cells and subgrains. The stability of the creep substructure is examined in both of these creep regimes during stress and temperature change experiments. These observations are rationalized on the basis of a phenomenological model, where normal primary creep is interpreted as a series of constant structure exponential creep rate-stress relationships. The implications of this viewpoint on the magnitude of the stress exponent and steady state behavior are discussed. A theory is developed to predict the macroscopic creep behavior of a single phase material using quantitative microstructural data. In this technique the thermally activated deformation mechanisms proposed by dislocation physics are interlinked with a previously developed multiphase, three-dimensional. dislocation substructure creep model. This procedure leads to several coupled differential equations interrelating macroscopic creep plasticity with microstructural evolution.

Raj, S. V.; Iskovitz, Ilana Seiden; Freed, A. D.

1995-01-01

195

Temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in pure amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect

High temperature nanoindentation has been performed on pure ion-implanted amorphous silicon (unrelaxed a-Si) and structurally relaxed a-Si to investigate the temperature dependence of mechanical deformation, including pressure-induced phase transformations. Along with the indentation load-depth curves, ex situ measurements such as Raman micro-spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analysis on the residual indents reveal the mode of deformation under the indenter. While unrelaxed a-Si deforms entirely via plastic flow up to 200?C, a clear transition in the mode of deformation is observed in relaxed a-Si with increasing temperature. Up to 100?C, pressure-induced phase transformation and the observation of either crystalline (r8/bc8) end phases or pressure-induced a-Si occurs in relaxed a-Si. However, with further increase of temperature, plastic flow rather than phase transformation is the dominant mode of deformation. It is believed that the elevated temperature and pressure together induce bond softening and defect formation in structurally relaxed a-Si, leading to the inhibition of phase transformation due to pressure-releasing plastic flow under the indenter.

Kiran, M. S. R. N., E-mail: kiran.mangalampalli@anu.edu.au; Haberl, B.; Williams, J. S.; Bradby, J. E. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia)

2014-03-21

196

Deformation mechanisms of low-temperature superplasticity in 8090 Al-Li alloys  

SciTech Connect

The 8090 Al-Li alloys, after special thermomechanical processes, exhibited low-temperature superplasticity (LTSP) from 350 to 450 C, behaving differently from the conventional high-temperature superplasticity (HTSP). The LTSP sheets after {approximately} 700% elongation at 350 C and 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1} still possessed fine (sub)grains 3.7 {micro}m in size and narrow surface Li-depletion zones 11 {micro}m in width. It results in a post-SP T6 strength of {approximately} 500 MPa, which is higher than that of the conventional superplastic 8090 alloys tested at 525 C or above. The tensile behavior and deformation mechanisms of the LTSP and HTSP sheets were investigated over the strain-rate range 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} and strain range 0.5--1.0. At {var_epsilon} 0.5, the strain rate sensitivity (m-value) for the LTSP and HTSP materials was found to be {approximately} 0.33 and 0.50, respectively. The activation energy was extracted to be 92 kJ/mole for the LTSP sheets and to be 141 kJ/mole for the HTSP sheets. As straining to {var_epsilon} = 1.0 the m-value of the LTSP materials increased to 0.37 and the activation energy decreased slightly to 82 kJ/mole. By SEM examinations, the movement of surface grains in LTSP samples confirmed the role of grain boundary sliding (GBS). TEM observations revealed that the deformation mechanism consists of a large amount of dislocation motion resulting in the subgrain formation and rotation; and TEM observations from the transverse section might explain the anisotropic deformation behavior during the initial superplastic strain. The primary and rate-controlling deformation mechanisms for the HTSP and LTSP sheets are considered to be GBS and dislocation creep, respectively.

Pu, H.P.; Huang, J.C. [National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31

197

High-temperature low cycle fatigue, creepfatigue and thermomechanical fatigue of steels and their welds  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature low cycle fatigue (LCF) is influenced by various time-dependent processes such as creep, oxidation, phase transformations and dynamic strain ageing (DSA) depending on test conditions of strain rate and temperature. In this paper, the detrimental effects of DSA and oxidation in high-temperature LCF are discussed with reference to extensive studies on 316L(N) stainless steel and modified 9Cr1Mo steel. DSA

S. L. Mannan; M. Valsan

2006-01-01

198

Modeling of combined high-temperature creep and cyclic plasticity in components using continuum damage mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer-based finite-element viscoplastic damage solver is presented to analyze structural components subject to combined cyclic thermal and mechanical loading. The solver is capable of predicting the combined evolution of creep and cyclic plasticity damage by solution of the combined boundary-initial value problem. The solver has been used to predict the high-temperature behavior of a slag tap component subjected to cyclic thermal loading generated by infrared heaters and water cooling ducts. It is found that the initiation of damage and microcracking occur early in the lifetime at about 3000 cycles adjacent to the cooling duct. The propagation of failure zones stabilizes at 60,000 cycles after which no further damage evolution occurs.

Dunne, F. P. E.; Hayhurst, D. R.

1992-06-01

199

Determination of Static Strength and Creep Buckling of Unstiffened Circular Cylinders Subjected to Bending at Elevated Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method based on a semiempirical procedure is presented for predicting static strength and creep buckling of unstiffened circular cylinders subjected to pure bending at elevated temperatures. The method is applicable to cylinders that are loaded into the inelastic stress range prior to buckling and fail in a local mode. The predicted bending moments associated with static strength and creep buckling are compared with experimental data (taken from NACA RM 57El7) obtained from tests at 500 F on 5052-0 aluminum-alloy cylinders with radius- thickness ratios ranging from 125 to 250.

Mathauser, Eldon E.; Berkovits, Avraham

1959-01-01

200

Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

Firestone, R.F.; Logan, W.R.; Adams, J.W.

1982-11-01

201

Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts  

SciTech Connect

The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and temperature to produce several time increments (stages) of different creep conditions. Clearly, the ability to analyze these limited data and to correlate them with each other could be of considerable potential value in establishing the mechanical characteristics of salt domes, both generally and specifically. In any analysis, it is necessary to have a framework of rules to provide consistency. The basis for the framework is the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) constitutive model. This model utilizes considerable general knowledge of material creep deformation to supplement specific knowledge of the material response of salt. Because the creep of salt is controlled by just a few micromechanical mechanisms, regardless of the origin of the salt, certain of the material parameters are values that can be considered universal to salt. Actual data analysis utilizes the methodology developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program, and the response of a bedded pure WIPP salt as the baseline for comparison of the domal salts. Creep data from Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Bayou Choctaw, and Big Hill salt domes, which are all sites of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, were analyzed, as were data from the Avery Island, Moss Bluff, and Jennings salt domes. The analysis permits the parameter value sets for the domal salts to be determined in terms of the M-D model with various degrees of completeness. In turn this permits detailed numerical calculations simulating cavern response. Where the set is incomplete because of the sparse database, reasonable assumptions permit the set to be completed. From the analysis, two distinct response groups were evident, with the salts of one group measurably more creep resistant than the other group. Interestingly, these groups correspond well with the indirectly determined creep closure of the SPR storage caverns, a correlation that probably should be expected. Certainly, the results suggest a simple laboratory determination of the creep characteristics of a salt material from a dome site can indicate the relative behavior of any potential cavern placed within that dome.

Munson, D.E.

1999-02-16

202

Fracture and deformation potential of magnesium alloys at low temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal dependency of uni-axial mechanical properties in ZK60 and fracture resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloys were determined at low temperatures regime. In ZK60, this mechanical behavior was characterized in terms of stress, strain, deformation and fracture modes, followed by Acoustic Emission (AE) tracking. In AZ31, fracture toughness was assessed in relation to crack orientations, accompanied by fracture modes classification and AE monitoring. As for the former alloy, a moderate decrease in ductility was found, followed by a considerable increase in stresses, while decreasing test temperature. In addition, regardless of low temperatures, slip is still a predominant deformation mode, which controls the early stages of plastic deformation. The transition to mechanical twinning propagation mode controls the linear strain hardening stage. This transition was found to be temperature-dependent, expressed by a moderate decrease in transition strain, whereas the transition stress remains almost constant. In AZ31 alloy, a significant decrease in fracture toughness was found in the L-T orientation at low temperatures. This transition was accompanied by a mixed fracture mode, a pop-in phenomenon in the load-cod curves and by changes in AE parameters. The unlike mechanical behavior at low temperature of ZK60 compared to AZ31 was attributed to the occurrence of additional slip deformation mechanisms, based on literature findings concerning the addition of elements to pure magnesium.

Bussiba, A.; Kupiec, M.; Ifergane, S.; Stechman, A.; Ben-Artzi, A.

2002-05-01

203

Vortex creep and the internal temperature of neutron stars. I - General theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of a neutron star superfluid coupled to normal matter via thermal creep against pinning forces is developed in some detail. General equations of motion for a pinned rotating superfluid and their form for vortex creep are given. Steady state creep and the way in which the system approaches the steady state are discussed. The developed formalism is applied to the postglitch relaxation of a pulsar, and detailed models are developed which permit explicit calculation of the postglitch response. The energy dissipation associated with creep and glitches is considered.

Alpar, M. A.; Pines, D.; Anderson, P. W.; Shaham, J.

1984-01-01

204

Development of constitutive models for cyclic plasticity and creep behavior of super alloys at high temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An uncoupled constitutive model for predicting the transient response of thermal and rate dependent, inelastic material behavior was developed. The uncoupled model assumes that there is a temperature below which the total strain consists essentially of elastic and rate insensitive inelastic strains only. Above this temperature, the rate dependent inelastic strain (creep) dominates. The rate insensitive inelastic strain component is modelled in an incremental form with a yield function, blow rule and hardening law. Revisions to the hardening rule permit the model to predict temperature-dependent kinematic-isotropic hardening behavior, cyclic saturation, asymmetric stress-strain response upon stress reversal, and variable Bauschinger effect. The rate dependent inelastic strain component is modelled using a rate equation in terms of back stress, drag stress and exponent n as functions of temperature and strain. A sequence of hysteresis loops and relaxation tests are utilized to define the rate dependent inelastic strain rate. Evaluation of the model has been performed by comparison with experiments involving various thermal and mechanical load histories on 5086 aluminum alloy, 304 stainless steel and Hastelloy X.

Haisler, W. E.

1983-01-01

205

Temperature Dependence of Internal Deformation Field in Zeolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied temperature dependent internal deformation field distributions in zeolite microcrystals using coherent x-ray diffraction. We measured the coherent x-ray diffraction patterns around (200) and (020) Bragg peaks of the crystals. The three-dimensional real space images were obtained by phasing and inverting the oversampled diffraction patterns using the phase retrieval algorithm combined with error reduction and hybrid input-output method. The internal deformation fields show unusual temperature dependent behaviors which might be originated from the synthesis and calcination process.

Cha, Wonsuk; Song, Sanghoon; Jeong, Nak Cheon; Pham, Tung; Harder, Ross; Xiong, Gang; Yoon, Kyung Byung; Robinson, Ian K.; Kim, Hyunjung

2011-03-01

206

Comparison of measured temperatures, thermal stresses and creep residues with predictions on a built-up titanium structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temperature, thermal stresses, and residual creep stresses were studied by comparing laboratory values measured on a built-up titanium structure with values calculated from finite-element models. Several such models were used to examine the relationship between computational thermal stresses and thermal stresses measured on a built-up structure. Element suitability, element density, and computational temperature discrepancies were studied to determine their impact on measured and calculated thermal stress. The optimum number of elements is established from a balance between element density and suitable safety margins, such that the answer is acceptably safe yet is economical from a computational viewpoint. It is noted that situations exist where relatively small excursions of calculated temperatures from measured values result in far more than proportional increases in thermal stress values. Measured residual stresses due to creep significantly exceeded the values computed by the piecewise linear elastic strain analogy approach. The most important element in the computation is the correct definition of the creep law. Computational methodology advances in predicting residual stresses due to creep require significantly more viscoelastic material characterization.

Jenkins, Jerald M.

1987-01-01

207

A New Creep Instability at Intermediate Homologous Temperatures with Application to Slow Earthquakes and Non-Volcanic Tremor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent high-pressure torsion experiments in metals have revealed a mechanism that produces unstable creep at intermediate homologous temperatures similar to those at the base of the seismogenic zone in the crust [Edalati et al., 2013]1. In these experiments a thin disc or ring is first subjected to a normal stress in the range of 2 to 6 GPa, and then to a simple shear deformation by the rotation of one of the loading pistons. The high normal stress suppresses fracture thus allowing ductile flow at intermediate values of T/Tm. The decrease in shear strength was observed to be associated with dynamic recrystallization and the growth of crystals with a relatively low dislocation density. This new mechanism is especially promising for slow earthquakes because, unlike thermal weakening which is a run-away process, the strain-weakening associated with recrystallization is not catastrophic but extends over a large strain thereby producing the large slip-weakening displacement that leads to slow earthquakes. It is interesting that this weakening mechanism is observed in aluminum, magnesium and zinc but not in copper. Two possible explanations are: 1) Al, Mg and Zn are being deformed at a significantly higher homologous temperature and 2) the stacking fault energy in Al, Mg and Zn are significantly higher than that in Cu. The high stacking fault energy means that the separation between partial dislocations is very small (on the order of the atomic spacing). A small separation promotes easy cross-slip of the dislocations to other slip planes, which promotes the observed recrystallization. In copper, the separation between partial dislocations is on the order of 12 times the atomic spacing. Although there are no robust observations of stacking faults in olivine, it is expected to be very high because the separation between the partial dislocations is very small (l < 40 ) [vander Sande and Kohlstedt, 1976]2. The implication is that shear weakening through dynamic recrystallization is likely in olivine at or near the brittle-ductile transition. 1Mat. Sci. and Eng. A, 559, 506-509. 2Phil. Mag. 34, 653-658.

Sammis, C. G.; Langdon, T. G.

2013-12-01

208

Transient Creep of a Composite Lower Crust. 2; A Polymineralic Basis for Rapidly Evolving Postseismic Deformation Modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Postseismic horizontal strain and displacement following the June 28, 1992, Landers, California, earthquake (M(sub W) 7.3) is broad scale and cannot be explained solely by delayed afterslip located at the rupturing fault trace. Both the observed strain at Pifion Flat Observatory (PFO) and observed Global Positioning System receiver velocities evolve rapidly after the Landers-Big Bear earthquake sequence. The observed exponential decay of these motions, with timescales of 4-34 days, may reflect a soft creep rheology in the lower crust and brittle-ductile transition zone or even within the seismogenic crust itself. Here a simple model of a two-dimensional screw dislocation in a layered Maxwell viscoelastic Earth is employed in conjunction with a composite rheology to demonstrate that the short timescale transient response modes (approx. = 4-34 days) are consistent with the behavior of a biviscous lower crust. The lowest viscosity of this system is derivable from laboratory experimental data on the long-term creep of natural quarztites, and the highest viscosity is consistent with isostasy-related lower crustal flow in a continental extensional tectonic environment. The model predicts significant stress relaxation at the base of the seismogenic crust. Near the base of the seismogenic zone, and about 4 km away from the mainshock, the rate of predicted relaxation is of the order of 0.01 MPa/ d during the first 20 days of postseismic flow. Oblate spheroidal inclusions at 5% concentration levels that are both aligned and fairly flat in shape and that have a viscosity of 3-4 x 10(exp 15) Pa s are consistent with both the amplitude and decay time of horizontal crustal strain observed at PFO after the Landers mainshock. It is speculated that the structures exposed in cross sections and in seismic reflection profiles of the lower crust that have mylonitic associations are, in part, the cause of such rapid postseismic evolution in southeastern California. Unmylonitized quartz-rich rock at sufficiently elevated temperatures could also contribute to the rapid decay modes.

Ivins, Erik R.

1996-01-01

209

Effect of microstructure on creep deformation of 45XD TiAl alloy at low and high stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stabilized fully lamellar (stabilized FL) structure and a nearly lamellar (NL) structure were prepared by selected heat treatments in a Ti45Al2Nb2Mn (wt.%)+0.8vol.% TiB2 (45XD) alloy. Tensile creep tests were performed at 760C using applied stresses of 138 and 207MPa. The stabilized FL structure exhibits a lower minimum creep rate and a longer rupture life compared to the NL structure

Hanliang Zhu; D. Y. Seo; K. Maruyama; P. Au

2008-01-01

210

Elevated temperature creep-fatigue crack propagation in nickel-base alloys and 1 Cr-Mo-V steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crack growth behavior of several high temperature nickel-base alloys, under cyclic and static loading, is studied and reviewed. In the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) MA 6000 and MA 754 alloys, the high temperature crack propagation exhibited orientation dependence under cyclic as well as under static loading. The creep crack growth (CCG) behavior of cast nickel-base IN-738 and IN-939* superalloys at 850 C could be characterized by the stress intensity factor, K 1. In the case of the alloy IN-901 at 500 C and 600 C, K 1 was found to be the relevant parameter to characterize the creep crack growth behavior. The energy rate line integral, C*, may be the appropriate loading parameter to describe the creep crack growth behavior of the nickel-iron base IN-800H alloy at 800 C. The creep crack growth data of 1 Cr-Mo-V steel, with bainitic microstructure, at 550 C could be correlated better by C * than by K 1.

Nazmy, M.; Hoffelner, W.; Wthrich, C.

1988-04-01

211

Overview of Strategies for High-Temperature Creep and Oxidation Resistance of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A family of creep-resistant, alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel alloys is under development for structural use in fossil energy conversion and combustion system applications. The AFA alloys developed to date exhibit comparable creep-rupture lives to state-of-the-art advanced austenitic alloys, and superior oxidation resistance in the ~923 K to 1173 K (650 C to 900 C) temperature range due to the formation of a protective Al2O3 scale rather than the Cr2O3 scales that form on conventional stainless steel alloys. This article overviews the alloy design approaches used to obtain high-temperature creep strength in AFA alloys via considerations of phase equilibrium from thermodynamic calculations as well as microstructure characterization. Strengthening precipitates under evaluation include MC-type carbides or intermetallic phases such as NiAl-B2, Fe2(Mo,Nb)-Laves, Ni3Al-L12, etc. in the austenitic single-phase matrix. Creep, tensile, and oxidation properties of the AFA alloys are discussed relative to compositional and microstructural factors.

Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; Santella, M. L.; Bei, H.; Maziasz, P. J.; Pint, B. A.

2011-04-01

212

Influence of creep-fatigue interaction on high temperature fatigue crack growth behavior of Ti-1100  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of crack growth experiments has been performed on the near alpha titanium alloy, Ti-1100, to determine the mechanism of the creep-fatigue interaction. Based on pure creep crack growth results, the increase in the creep-fatigue crack growth rate is not amenable to separate contributions of creep crack growth and fatigue crack growth. A mechanism has been proposed to account for the increase in creep-fatigue crack growth rate that is based on the planar slip of titanium alloys which results in the formation of dislocation pileups at the prior beta grain boundaries and leads to intergranular fracture. This mechanism has been validated through crack growth experiments preformed on a Ti-1100 that has been microstructurally modified through the precipitation of internal slip barriers. These show that the intergranular fracture and increase in crack growth rate are absent.

Rosenberger, A. H.; Ghonem, H.

1994-04-01

213

Two-temperature continuum thermomechanics of deforming amorphous solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an ever-growing need for predictive models for the elasto-viscoplastic deformation of solids. Our goal in this paper is to incorporate recently developed out-of-equilibrium statistical concepts into a thermodynamically consistent, finite-deformation, continuum framework for deforming amorphous solids. The basic premise is that the configurational degrees of freedom of the material - the part of the internal energy/entropy that corresponds to mechanically stable microscopic configurations - are characterized by a configurational temperature that might differ from that of the vibrational degrees of freedom, which equilibrate rapidly with an external heat bath. This results in an approximate internal energy decomposition into weakly interacting configurational and vibrational subsystems, which exchange energy following a Fourier-like law, leading to a thermomechanical framework permitting two well-defined temperatures. In this framework, internal variables, that carry information about the state of the material equilibrate with the configurational subsystem, are explicitly associated with energy and entropy of their own, and couple to a viscoplastic flow rule. The coefficients that determine the rate of flow of entropy and heat between different internal systems are proposed to explicitly depend on the rate of irreversible deformation. As an application of this framework, we discuss two constitutive models for the response of glassy materials, a simple phenomenological model and a model related to the concept of Shear-Transformation-Zones as the basis for internal variables. The models account for several salient features of glassy deformation phenomenology. Directions for future investigation are briefly discussed.

Kamrin, Ken; Bouchbinder, Eran

2014-12-01

214

Creep deformation and stress-induced structural disorder near Tg in a Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 glassy alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep deformation under a constant applied load in a Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 glassy alloy at the glass transition region is investigated. At an initial stress, ?0, less than a critical stress, ?c=80 MPa, the glass shows a Newtonian flow. When ?0??c, the flow viscosity, ?, initially decreases and attains a minimum. It then increases as the true stress, ?, decreases with further deformation. The initial decrease in ? and the attendance of viscosity minimum are due to the stress-induced structural disorder and the structural equilibration with the applied stress, respectively. For stress, ?, less than the viscosity minimum stress, the stress dependence of viscosity, ?(?), curves all tend to merge together, and is fitted well with a master curve, ?(?), established previously for the steady-state flow under constant strain-rate experiments. These results render further support to the hypothesis of stress-induced structural disorder and the concept of fictive stress.

Kato, H.; Inoue, A.; Chen, H. S.

2001-12-01

215

Cast heat-resistant austenitic steel with improved temperature creep properties and balanced alloying element additions and methodology for development of the same  

DOEpatents

The present invention addresses the need for new austenitic steel compositions with higher creep strength and higher upper temperatures. The new austenitic steel compositions retain desirable phases, such as austenite, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and MC in its microstructure to higher temperatures. The present invention also discloses a methodology for the development of new austenitic steel compositions with higher creep strength and higher upper temperatures.

Pankiw, Roman I; Muralidharan, Govindrarajan; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Maziasz, Philip J

2012-11-27

216

Creep of Rocks Under Small Mechanical Loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study of rocks under small (typically s = 0.1 MPa) mechanical loading is of great importance both for a better understanding of geological deformation features and for the analysis of rock mass behavior at large distance from underground openings. A very small amount of experimental data is available. Very long-term tests are required, as the creep rates induced by such small mechanical loading are exceedingly small (10 13 to 10-12s-1). Accurate displacement measurements and a thorough control of both hygrometry and temperature must be used. We used high resolution displacements sensors, whose resolution is 10-9m, designed for purpose by P.A.Blum from IPG Paris. The creep test system were set in a 20-m deep gallery where hygrometry is close to 100%PHs suburbs ; and in a 200-m deep salt mine where hygrometry is 54+/-2% RH . In both sites daily temperature fluctuations are smaller than a few hundredth of a Celsius degree, allowing for quite constant ambient conditions during several month long tests, the observed displacement-versus-time curves can be corrected from the thermoelastic effects. Creep of salt samples was measured in the 200-m deep mine ; transient creep, steady-state creep and the effcts of stress drop were observed during a 18-month long test. The measured steady-state creep rates (10-12s-1) are much faster than the values extrapolated from standard tests performed under larger mechanical loading. Argillite creep was measured in the 20-m deep gallery. High hygrometry conditions result in relatively fast clay swelling. In this context, argillite creep rate, which is slower than swelling rate by one order of magnitude, is difficult to identify

Berest, P.; Charpentier, J. P.; Vales, F.

217

High-temperature flexural creep of ZrB2-SiC ceramics in argon atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Four-point flexure creep deformation of ZrB2-30 vol% SiC ceramics in argon atmosphere under a static load of 19 MPa for 0-100 h at 1500 and 1600 C was investigated. The strain rate at 1600 oC was 3.7 times higher than that at 1500 oC. Microstructural evolution during creep consisted of nucleation and growth of triple-point cavitations which were always associated with SiC particles. Due to the low stress, only isolated cavitations were nucleated, and no microcracks were formed. For up to 100 h at 1500 and 1600 C, the grains maintained their size and shape. The cavitations in both size and number showed no obvious difference from 26 to 100 h at 1500 C, whereas that showed a significant increase from 26 to 100 h at 1600 C. Present study suggested that ZrB2-30 vol% SiC exhibited relatively good microstructural stability and creep resistance at 1500 C in argon atmosphere.

Guo, Wei-Ming [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS); Zhang, Guo-Jun [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS); Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL

2012-01-01

218

Creep Strain and Strain Rate Response of 2219 Al Alloy at High Stress Levels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a result of high localized plastic deformation experienced during proof testing in an International Space Station connecting module, a study was undertaken to determine the deformation response of a 2219-T851 roll forging. After prestraining 2219-T851 Al specimens to simulate strains observed during the proof testing, creep tests were conducted in the temperature range from ambient temperature to 107 C (225 F) at stress levels approaching the ultimate tensile strength of 2219-T851 Al. Strain-time histories and strain rate responses were examined. The strain rate response was extremely high initially, but decayed rapidly, spanning as much as five orders of magnitude during primary creep. Select specimens were subjected to incremental step loading and exhibited initial creep rates of similar magnitude for each load step. Although the creep rates decreased quickly at all loads, the creep rates dropped faster and reached lower strain rate levels for lower applied loads. The initial creep rate and creep rate decay associated with primary creep were similar for specimens with and without prestrain; however, prestraining (strain hardening) the specimens, as in the aforementioned proof test, resulted in significantly longer creep life.

Taminger, Karen M. B.; Wagner, John A.; Lisagor, W. Barry

1998-01-01

219

Microstructural development and mechanical behavior of eutectic bismuth-tin and eutectic indium-tin in response to high temperature deformation  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical behavior and microstructure of eutectic Bi-Sn and In-Sn solders were studied in parallel in order to better understand high temperature deformation of these alloys. Bi-Sn solder joints were made with Cu substrates, and In-Sn joints were made with either Cu or Ni substrates. The as-cast microstructure of Bi-Sn is complex regular, with the two eutectic phases interconnected in complicated patterns. The as-cast microstructure of In-Sn depends on the substrate. In-Sn on Cu has a non-uniform microstructure caused by diffusion of Cu into the solder during sample preparation, with regions of the Sn-rich {gamma} phase imbedded in a matrix of the In-rich {beta} phase. The microstructure of In-Sn on Ni is uniform and lamellar and the two phases are strongly coupled. The solders deform non-uniformly, with deformation concentrating in a band along the length of the sample for Bi-Sn and In-Sn on Cu, though the deformation is more diffuse in In-Sn than in Bi-Sn. Deformation of In-Sn on Ni spreads throughout the width of the joint. The different deformation patterns affect the shape of the stress-strain curves. Stress-strain curves for Bi-Sn and In-Sn on Cu exhibit sharp decays in the engineering stress after reaching a peak. Most of this stress decay is removed for In-Sn on Ni. The creep behavior of In-Sn also depends on the substrate, with the creep deformation controlled by the soft P phase of the eutectic for In-Sn on Cu and controlled by the harder {gamma} phase for In-Sn on Ni. When In-Sn on Ni samples are aged, the microstructure coarsens and changes to an array of {gamma} phase regions in a matrix of the {beta} phase, and the creep behavior changes to resemble that of In-Sn on Cu. The creep behavior of Bi-Sn changes with temperature. Two independent mechanisms operate at lower temperatures, but there is still some question as to whether one or both of these, or a third mechanism, operates at higher temperatures.

Goldstein, J.L.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering; [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-11-01

220

Creep: Long-term Time-Dependent Rock Deformation in a Deep-sea Laboratory in the Ionian sea: a Pilot Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-dependent brittle rock deformation is of first-order importance for understanding the long-term behavior of water saturated rocks in the Earth's upper crust. Interpretation of results from traditional laboratory brittle creep experiments have generally been in terms of three individual creep phases; primary (decelerating), secondary (constant strain rate or quasi-steady-state) and tertiary (accelerating or unstable). The deformation may be distributed during the first two, but localizes onto a fault plane during phase three. More recently, models have been proposed that explain the trimodal shape of creep curves in terms of the competition between a weakening mechanism and a strengthening mechanism, with the weakening mechanism eventually dominating and leading to localized failure. However, a major problem is that it is difficult to distinguish between these competing mechanisms and models given the lower limit of strain rates achievable in laboratory experiments over practicable time scales. This study aims to address that problem directly by extending significantly the range of achievable strain rates through much longer-term experiments conducted in a deep-sea laboratory in the Ionian sea. The project takes advantage of a collaboration with the NEMO Group-INFN, a consortium that is developing a large volume (1 km3) deep-sea detector for high-energy (>1019 eV) cosmic neutrinos. A suitable test site has been identified, some 20km north-east of Catania in Sicily, at a depth of 2100m. Within the CREEP deformation apparatus, confining pressure is provided by the ambient water pressure (>22MPa), and the constant axial stress is provided by an actuator that amplifies this pressure. Measurement transducers and a data acquisition system are sealed internally, with power provided for up to 6 months by an internal battery pack. The great advantage of operating in the deep sea in this way is that the system is essentially passive, has few moving parts, and requires no maintenance. The apparatus is held in place by a disposable cast-iron anchor and supported above the seabed by a deep-sea buoyage system. On completion of each experiment, an acoustic release detaches from the anchor and allows the apparatus to float to the surface to be recovered by the oceanographic research vessel.

Meredith, P. G.; Boon, S.; Vinciguerra, S.; Bowles, J.; NEMO Group,.

2003-12-01

221

High temperature deformation behavior of the molybdenum alloy TZM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molybdenum alloy TZM (Mo-0.5wt%Ti-0.08wt%Zr) is a commonly used constructional material for high-temperature applications. It is well known that molybdenum and its alloys develop a distinct subgrain structure and texture during hot deformation. These microstructural aspects have a significant effect on strength at elevated temperatures. It was observed that with proceeding primary recrystallization and therefore with disappearance of subgrains the yield strength drops almost to the level of pure molybdenum. The aim of the present work was to investigate and describe the strain hardening of hot deformed TZM on a microstructural basis. For this purpose sintered and prerolled TZM rods were recrystallized and each of them deformed to a specific degree of deformation afterwards. Especially the evolution of disorientation distributions was analyzed by electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) and used to describe the work hardening effect. The yield strength was determined by tensile tests between room temperature and 1473 K. By analyzing disorientation profiles the formation and evolution of geometrically necessary and incidental dislocation boundaries could be observed. A model developed by Pantleon was used to describe the work hardening of TZM.

Mrotzek, T.; Martin, U.; Hoffmann, A.

2010-07-01

222

Mechanisms of high-temperature, solid-state flow in minerals and ceramics and their bearing on the creep behavior of the mantle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The problem of applying laboratory silicate-flow data to the mantle, where conditions can be vastly different, is approached through a critical review of high-temperature flow mechanisms in ceramics and their relation to empirical flow laws. The intimate association of solid-state diffusion and high-temperature creep in pure metals is found to apply to ceramics as well. It is shown that in ceramics of moderate grain size, compared on the basis of self-diffusivity and elastic modulus, normalized creep rates compare remarkably well. This comparison is paralleled by the near universal occurrence of similar creep-induced structures, and it is thought that the derived empirical flow laws can be associated with dislocation creep. Creep data in fine-grained ceramics, on the other hand, are found to compare poorly with theories involving the stress-directed diffusion of point defects and have not been successfully correlated by self-diffusion rates. We conclude that these fine-grained materials creep primarily by a quasi-viscous grain-boundary sliding mechanism which is unlikely to predominate in the earth's deep interior. Creep predictions for the mantle reveal that under most conditions the empirical dislocation creep behavior predominates over the mechanisms involving the stress-directed diffusion of point defects. The probable role of polymorphic transformations in the transition zone is also discussed. ?? 1973.

Kirby, S.H.; Raleigh, C.B.

1973-01-01

223

Creep-constitutive behavior of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder using an internal stress approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental tensile creep deformation of bulk Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder at temperatures between 263 K and 398 K, covering lifetimes up to 3,500 h, has been rationalized using constitutive equations that incorporate structure-related internal state variables. Primary creep is accounted for using an evolving internal back stress, due to the interaction between the soft matrix phase and a more creep-resistant particle phase. Steady-state creep is incorporated using a conventional power law, modified to include the steady-state value of internal stress. It is demonstrated that the observed behavior is well-fitted using creep constants for pure tin in the modified creep power law. A preliminary analysis of damage-induced tertiary creep is also presented.

Rist, Martin A.; Plumbridge, W. J.; Cooper, S.

2006-05-01

224

CREEP AND CREEP-FATIGUE OF ALLOY 617 WELDMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) may be joined to piping or other components by welding. Creep-fatigue deformation is expected to be a predominant failure mechanism of the IHX1 and thus weldments used in its fabrication will experience varying cyclic stresses interrupted by periods of elevated temperature deformation. These periods of elevated temperature deformation are greatly influenced by a materials creep behavior. The nickel-base solid solution strengthened alloy, Alloy 617, is the primary material candidate for a VHTR-type IHX, and it is expected that Alloy 617 filler metal will be used for welds. Alloy 617 is not yet been integrated into Section III of the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, however, nuclear component design with Alloy 617 requires ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code qualification. The Code will dictate design for welded construction through significant performance reductions. Despite the similar compositions of the weldment and base material, significantly different microstructures and mechanical properties are inevitable. Experience of nickel alloy welds in structural applications suggests that most high temperature failures occur at the weldments or in the heat-affected zone. Reliably guarding against this type of failure is particularly challenging at high temperatures due to the variations in the inelastic response of the constituent parts of the weldment (i.e., weld metal, heat-affected zone, and base metal) [ref]. This work focuses on the creep-fatigue behavior of nickel-based weldments, a need noted during the development of the draft Alloy 617 ASME Code Case. An understanding of Alloy 617 weldments when subjected to this important deformation mode will enable determination of the appropriate design parameters associated with their use. Specifically, the three main areas emphasized are the performance reduction due to a weld discontinuity in terms of the reduced number of the cycles to failure and whether a saturation in reduced cycle life with increased hold times is observed, the microstructural stability over long cycle times, and finally, the location of the generated weldment data on a creep-fatigue damage diagram (D-diagram).

Jill Wright; Laura Carroll; Richard Wright

2014-08-01

225

Large deformation micromechanics of particle filled acrylics at elevated temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of this study is to investigate stress whitening and associated micro-deformation mechanism in thermoformed particle filled acrylic sheets. For stress whitening quantification, a new index was developed based on image histograms in logarithmic scale of gray level. Stress whitening levels in thermoformed acrylic composites was observed to increase with increasing deformation limit, decreasing forming rate and increasing forming temperatures below glass transition. Decrease in stress whitening levels above glass transition with increasing forming temperature was attributed to change in micro-deformation behavior. Surface deformation feature investigated with scanning electron microscopy showed that source of stress whitening in thermoformed samples was a combination of particle failure and particle disintegration depending on forming rate and temperature. Stress whitening level was strongly correlated to intensity of micro-deformation features. On the other hand, thermoformed neat acrylics displayed no surface discoloration which was attributed to absence of micro-void formation on the surface of neat acrylics. Experimental damage measures (degradation in initial, secant, unloading modulus and strain energy density) have been inadequate in describing damage evolution in successive thermoforming applications on the same sample at different levels of deformation. An improved version of dual-mechanism viscoplastic material model was proposed to predict thermomechanical behavior of neat acrylics under non-isothermal conditions. Simulation results and experimental results were in good agreement and failure of neat acrylics under non-isothermal conditions ar low forming temperatures were succesfully predicted based on entropic damage model. Particle and interphase failure observed in acrylic composites was studied in a multi-particle unit cell model with different volume fractions. Damage evolution due to particle failure and interphase failure was simulated by implementing imperfect interphase within particle agglomerates and imperfect interphase between filler and matrix through a user defined interphase model. In parametric studies, influence of interphase strength, interphase stiffness and interparticle distance was studied to determine conditions that will favor particle and/or interphase failure between matrix and filler. Composite elastic modulus results from finite element analysis results of unit cell models were in good agreement with experimental results and analytical model predictions at different temperatures for various volume fractions of fillers. A temperature dependent strength criterion for initiation of particle failure in acrylic composites was determined based on comparison of finite element analysis results of unit cell model with expereimental results for acrylic composites.

Gunel, Eray Mustafa

226

Plastic deformation behaviour and deformation substructure in Al-rich TiAl single crystals deformed at high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic deformation behaviour in Ti54.7at.%Al and Ti58.0at.%Al single crystals was examined around and above the anomalous strengthening peak temperature (Tp) focusing on the effect of Al5Ti3 superstructure. The Al5Ti3 superstructure developed in the L10 matrix of Ti58.0at.%Al, and the size of the Al5Ti3 phase once increased during annealing at 800C and then decreased with increasing temperature, while no significant evidence

K. Hayashi; T Nakano; Y Umakoshi

2001-01-01

227

Creep of rocksalt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is presented of the fundamental flow properties and processes in experimentally deformed natural and synthetic halite single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates. Included in the summary are discussions of: (a) microstructures induced during steady-state creep; (b) creep-rupture of rocksalt; (c) experiments associated with "Project Salt Vault" and more recent field studies; and (d) brine migration. A representative steady-state flow law determined for natural aggregates and maximum natural deviatoric stresses deduced from subgrain sizes are applied briefly to considerations of creep in waste repositories and of salt dome dynamics. While the mechanical behavior of rocksalt is probably better understood than for all other rock types, further investigations, especially on load path, stress history and creep-rupture are clearly mandated. Furthermore, additional investigations of brine migration and of bench and field-scale deformations are needed, the latter incorporating realistic rocksalt flow properties into numerical simulations of natural rock-mass response.

Carter, Neville L.; Hansen, Francis D.

1983-03-01

228

Temperature Dependent Cyclic Deformation Mechanisms in Haynes 188 Superalloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cyclic deformation behavior of a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188, has been investigated over a range of temperatures between 25 and 1000 C under isothermal and in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions. Constant mechanical strain rates (epsilon-dot) of 10(exp -3)/s and 10(exp -4)/s were examined with a fully reversed strain range of 0.8%. Particular attention was given to the effects of dynamic strain aging (DSA) on the stress-strain response and low cycle fatigue life. A correlation between cyclic deformation behavior and microstructural substructure was made through detailed transmission electron microscopy. Although DSA was found to occur over a wide temperature range between approximately 300 and 750 C the microstructural characteristics and the deformation mechanisms responsible for DSA varied considerably and were dependent upon temperature. In general, the operation of DSA processes led to a maximum of the cyclic stress amplitude at 650 C and was accompanied by pronounced planar slip, relatively high dislocation density, and the generation of stacking faults. DSA was evidenced through a combination of phenomena, including serrated yielding, an inverse dependence of the maximum cyclic hardening with epsilon-dot, and an instantaneous inverse epsilon-dot sensitivity verified by specialized epsilon-dot -change tests. The TMF cyclic hardening behavior of the alloy appeared to be dictated by the substructural changes occuring at the maximum temperature in the TMF cycle.

Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Castelli, Michael G.; Allen, Gorden P.; Ellis, John R.

1995-01-01

229

Probabilistic Material Strength Degradation Model for Inconel 718 Components Subjected to High Temperature, Mechanical Fatigue, Creep and Thermal Fatigue Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This thesis presents the on-going development of methodology for a probabilistic material strength degradation model. The probabilistic model, in the form of a postulated randomized multifactor equation, provides for quantification of uncertainty in the lifetime material strength of aerospace propulsion system components subjected to a number of diverse random effects. This model is embodied in the computer program entitled PROMISS, which can include up to eighteen different effects. Presently, the model includes four effects that typically reduce lifetime strength: high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue. Statistical analysis was conducted on experimental Inconel 718 data obtained from the open literature. This analysis provided regression parameters for use as the model's empirical material constants, thus calibrating the model specifically for Inconel 718. Model calibration was carried out for four variables, namely, high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue. Methodology to estimate standard deviations of these material constants for input into the probabilistic material strength model was developed. Using the current version of PROMISS, entitled PROMISS93, a sensitivity study for the combined effects of mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue was performed. Results, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, illustrated the sensitivity of lifetime strength to any current value of an effect. In addition, verification studies comparing a combination of mechanical fatigue and high temperature effects by model to the combination by experiment were conducted. Thus, for Inconel 718, the basic model assumption of independence between effects was evaluated. Results from this limited verification study strongly supported this assumption.

Bast, Callie Corinne Scheidt

1994-01-01

230

Experimental high-stress deformation and annealing of peridotite : simulating coseismic deformation and postseismic creep in the upper mantle of the oceanic lithosphere.  

E-print Network

??Deformations-Prozesse im oberen Mantel der ozeanischen Lithosphre als Folge von Spannungsumverteilungen bei groen Erdbeben, wurden experimentell simuliert. Nicht-stationre Deformations- und isostatische Annealings-Experimente wurden bei verschiedenen (more)

Druiventak, Anthony

2012-01-01

231

Correlation between permanent deformation-related performance parameters of asphalt concrete mixes and binders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines methods to predict the performance of hot asphalt concrete mixes based on performance parameters of binders. Specifically, relationships between binder parameters determined from multiple stress creep and recovery tests were correlated to the creep parameters of hot asphalt concrete mixes obtained from cyclic load compression testing. For the determination of creep parameters, a modified expression of the creep curve is proposed to cover the entire spectrum of permanent deformation; including the tertiary creep phase. Non-recoverable compliance, unrecovered strain, and recoverable strain of binders show good correlation to creep parameters of hot asphalt concrete mixes such as creep rate and high temperature performance ratio. Additionally, unrecovered strain and non-recoverable compliance of binders correlates well with mean rut depth of asphalt concrete mixes. However, no correlation has been detected between the difference in non-recoverable compliance of binders and permanent deformation parameters of asphalt concrete mixes.

Adorjnyi, Klmn; Fleki, Pter

2013-09-01

232

Mechanisms of elevated-temperature deformation in the B2 aluminides NiAl and CoAl  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A strain rate change technique, developed previously for distinguishing between pure-metal and alloy-type creep behavior, was used to study the elevated-temperature deformation behavior of the intermetallic compounds NiAl and CoAl. Tests on NiAl were conducted at temperatures between 1100 and 1300 K while tests on CoAl were performed at temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1400 K. NiAl exhibits pure-metal type behavior over the entire temperature range studied. CoAl, however, undergoes a transition from pure-metal to alloy-type deformation behavior as the temperature is decreased from 1400 to 1200 K. Slip appears to be inherently more difficult in CoAl than in NiAl, with lattice friction effects limiting the mobility of dislocations at a much higher tmeperature in CoAl than in NiAl. The superior strength of CoAl at elevated temperatures may, therefore, be related to a greater lattice friction strengthening effect in CoAl than in NiAl.

Yaney, D. L.; Nix, W. D.

1988-01-01

233

Investigation of the low-temperature performance of asphalt mixtures via fatigue and linear contraction and creep test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of asphalt mixtures, including asphalt concrete (AC), stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and porous asphalt (PA) with a 13mm gradation, are chosen to study the fatigue behavior, linear contraction and creep performance of them. The analysis of the experimental results is summarized as follows. The asphalt mixture exhibits longer fatigue life at low temperature than that at high temperature. But the fatigue life is more sensitive to the loading stress at low temperature. At the same time, the fatigue lives of all the three mixture gradations show decreasing trends with the increasing stress, which implies that restraining over-loading of highways is quite important. The linear contractive quotiety shows great distinction with the types of asphalt mixture gradations and temperature span, which indicates that modified asphalt and lower air voids can benefit to the contractive properties of asphalt mixtures at low temperature. Additionally, the linear contractive quotiety decreases with the falling of the temperature, meanwhile the distinctions between different temperature spans tend to slower. The creep test indicates that lower air voids and larger asphalt content are beneficial to the low temperature performance of asphalt.

Liu, Conghui; Wu, Shaopeng; Li, Bo; Wang, Jingang

2008-11-01

234

Dislocation and diffusion creep of synthetic anorthite aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic fine-grained anorthite aggregates were deformed at 300 MPa confining pressure in a Paterson-type gas deformation apparatus. Creep tests were performed at temperatures ranging from 1140 to 1480 K, stresses from 30 to 600 MPa, and strain rates between 210-6 and 110-3s-1. We prepared samples with water total contents of 0.004 wt % (dry) and 0.07 wt % (wet), respectively.

E. Rybacki; G. Dresen

2000-01-01

235

Low temperature deformation detwinning - a reverse mode of twinning.  

SciTech Connect

The origin of the plasticity in bulk nanocrystalline metals have, to date, been attributed to the grain-boundary-mediated process, stress-induced grain coalescence, dislocation plasticity, and/or twinning. Here we report a different mechanism - detwinning, which operates at low temperatures during the tensile deformation of an electrodeposited Cu with a high density of nanosized growth twins. Both three-dimensional XRD microscopy using the Laue method with a submicron-sized polychromatic beam and high-energy XRD technique with a monochromatic beam provide the direct experimental evidences for low temperature detwinning of nanoscale twins.

Wang, Y. D.; Liu, W.; Lu, L.; Ren, Y.; Nie, Z. H.; Almer, J.; Cheng, S.; Shen, Y. F.; Zuo, L.; Liaw, P. K.; Lu, K. (X-Ray Science Division); (Beijing Inst. of Tech.); (Chinese Academy of Sciences); (Univ. of Tennessee); (Northeastern Univ. - China)

2010-01-01

236

Creep: long-term time-dependent rock deformation in a deep-sea laboratory in the ionian sea: a pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-dependent brittle rock deformation is of first-order importance for understanding the long-term behaviour of water saturated rocks in the Earth's upper crust. The traditional way of investigating this has been to carry out laboratory "brittle creep" experiments. Results have been interpreted involving three individual creep phases; primary (decelerating), secondary (constant strain rate or steady state) and tertiary (accelerating or unstable). The deformation may be distributed during the first two, but localizes onto a fault plane during phase three. However, it is difficult to distinguish between competing mechanisms and models given the lower limit of strain rates practicably achievable in the laboratory. The study reported here aims to address this problem directly by extending significantly the range of achievable strain rates through much longer-term experiments conducted in a deep-sea laboratory in the Ionian sea. The project takes advantage of a collaboration with the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), that is developing a deep-sea laboratory for a very large volume (1 km3) deep-sea detector of high-energy (>1019 eV) cosmic neutrinos (NEMO). A suitable deep-sea site has been identified, some 20km south-west of Catania in Sicily, with flat bathymetry at a depth of 2100m. The CREEP deformation apparatus is driven by an actuator that amplifies the ambient water pressure, while the confining pressure around the rock sample is provided by the ambient water pressure (>20MPa). Measurement transducers and a low-energy data acquisition system are sealed internally, with power provided for up to 6 months by an internal battery pack. The great advantage of operating in the deep sea in this way is that the system is simple; it is "passive", has few moving parts, and requires no maintenance. The apparatus is fixed approximately 10m above the seabed; held in place by a disposable concrete anchor and supported by a deep-sea buoyage system. On completion of each experiment, an acoustic release detaches the anchor and allows the apparatus to float to the surface to be recovered by the oceanographic research vessel.

Meredith, P.; Boon, S.; Vinciguerra, S.; Bowles, J.; Hughes, N.; Migneco, E.; Musumeci, M.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Vinciguerra, D.

2003-04-01

237

Improved High-Temperature Microstructural Stability and Creep Property of Novel Co-Base Single-Crystal Alloys Containing Ta and Ti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of Ta and Ti additions on microstructural stability and creep behavior in novel Co-Al-W base single-crystal alloys has been investigated. Compared to the ternary alloy, the ?' solvus temperature and ?' volume fraction were raised by individual additions of Ta and Ti, and increased further in the quinary alloy containing both alloying additions. In contrast to ternary and quaternary alloys, an improved microstructural stability with the stable ?- ?' two-phase microstructure and more than 60% ?' volume fraction existed in the quinary alloy after prolonged aging treatment at 1050C for 1000 h. The creep behavior at 900C revealed lower creep rates and longer rupture lives in the quaternary alloys compared to the ternary alloy, whereas the quinary alloy exhibited even better creep resistance. When the creep temperature was elevated to about 1000C, the creep resistance of the quinary alloy exceeded the previously reported Co-Al-W-base alloys and first-generation Ni-base single-crystal superalloys. The improved creep resistance at approximately 1000C was considered to be associated with high ?' volume fraction, ?' directional coarsening, and dislocation substructure, which included ?- ?' interfacial dislocation networks and the sheared ?' precipitates containing stacking faults and anti-phase boundaries.

Xue, F.; Zhou, H. J.; Feng, Q.

2014-12-01

238

Experimental characterization of crack tip deformation fields in Alloy 718 at high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of fracture mechanics tests were conducted at temperatures of 650 C and 704 C in air, using Inconel 719. A noncontacting measurement technique, based on computer vision and digital image correlation, was applied to directly measure surface displacements and strains prior to and during creep crack growth. For the first time, quantitative comparisons at elevated temperatures are presented

Jin Liu; Jed Lyons; Michael Sutton; Anthony Reynolds

1998-01-01

239

A study of mechanisms of time-dependent crack growth at elevated temperature: Progress report, July 1986 to June 1987. [Cu-Sb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective of this study is to conduct creep and creep-fatigue crack growth tests on Cu-Sb and to characterize the crack tip damage mechanisms in a model material which is known to cavitate at the grain boundaries under creep deformation. The data will be used to develop mechanistic models for cumulative crack tip damage under complex loading conditions at elevated temperature.

A. Saxena; S. R. Stock; B. Gieseke; J. T. Staley

1987-01-01

240

Influence of creep anisotropy on the stress-strain state of channel tubes  

SciTech Connect

The authors compile a mathematical model depicting creep behavior and swelling under the effects of neutron irradiation and temperature in zirconium alloy reactor channels. The model accounts for coolant pressure and thermoradiational creep anisotropy and performs a stress-strain analysis which incorporates elastic and plastic deformation and possible mechanical interference with graphite moderators. Test results against experimental conditions encountered in the RBMK-1000 reactor are given.

Zheltukhin, K.K.; Tutnov, A.A.; Ul'yanov, A.I.

1988-02-01

241

Mechanical behavior of low porosity carbonate rock: from brittle creep to ductile creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical compaction and associated porosity reduction play an important role in the diagenesis of porous rocks. They may also affect reservoir rocks during hydrocarbon production, as the pore pressure field is modified. This inelastic compaction can lead to subsidence, cause casing failure, trigger earthquake, or change the fluid transport properties. In addition, inelastic deformation can be time - dependent. In particular, brittle creep phenomena have been deeply investigated since the 90s, especially in sandstones. However knowledge of carbonates behavior is still insufficient. In this experimental study, we focus on the mechanical behavior of a low porosity (9%) white Tavel (France) carbonate rock (>98% calcite) at P-Q conditions beyond the elastic domain. It has been shown that in sandstones composed of quartz, cracks are developing under these conditions. However, in carbonates, calcite minerals can meanwhile also exhibit microplasticity. The samples were deformed in the triaxial cell of the Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris at effective confining pressures ranging from 35 MPa to 85 MPa and room temperature. Experiments were carried on dry and water saturated samples to explore the role played by the pore fluids. Time dependency was investigated by a creep steps methodology: at each step, differential stress was increased rapidly and kept constant for at least 24h. During these steps elastic wave velocities (P and S) and permeability were measured continuously. Our results show two different creep behaviors: (1) brittle creep is observed at low confining pressures, whereas (2) ductile creep is observed at higher confining pressures. These two creep behaviors have a different signature in term of elastic wave velocities and permeability changes. Indeed, in the brittle domain, the primary creep is associated with a decrease of elastic wave velocities and an increase of permeability, and no secondary creep is observed. In the ductile domain, the primary creep is also associated with a decreased in elastic wave velocity and an increase of the permeability. However, the secondary creep is associated with an increase of velocities and a decrease of permeability (pointing to recovery). This behavior observed in the ductile regime can be explained by two mechanisms: cracks propagation and plasticity. Indeed, the increase of stress induces fractures. When long term plastic phenomena take place at the tips of the cracks, these fractures close partially.

Nicolas, A.; Fortin, J.; Gueguen, Y.

2013-12-01

242

The instantaneous rate dependence in low temperature laboratory rock friction and rock deformation experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake occurrence probabilities that account for stress transfer and time-dependent failure depend on the product of the effective normal stress and a lab-derived dimensionless coefficient a. This coefficient describes the instantaneous dependence of fault strength on deformation rate, and determines the duration of precursory slip. Although an instantaneous rate dependence is observed for fracture, friction, crack growth, and low temperature plasticity in laboratory experiments, the physical origin of this effect during earthquake faulting is obscure. We examine this rate dependence in laboratory experiments on different rock types using a normalization scheme modified from one proposed by Tullis and Weeks [1987]. We compare the instantaneous rate dependence in rock friction with rate dependence measurements from higher temperature dislocation glide experiments. The same normalization scheme is used to compare rate dependence in friction to rock fracture and to low-temperature crack growth tests. For particular weak phyllosilicate minerals, the instantaneous friction rate dependence is consistent with dislocation glide. In intact rock failure tests, for each rock type considered, the instantaneous rate dependence is the same size as for friction, suggesting a common physical origin. During subcritical crack growth in strong quartzofeldspathic and carbonate rock where glide is not possible, the instantaneous rate dependence measured during failure or creep tests at high stress has long been thought to be due to crack growth; however, direct comparison between crack growth and friction tests shows poor agreement. The crack growth rate dependence appears to be higher than the rate dependence of friction and fracture by a factor of two to three for all rock types considered. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

Beeler, N.M.; Tullis, T.E.; Kronenberg, A.K.; Reinen, L.A.

2007-01-01

243

Helium effects on creep properties of Fe-14CrWTi ODS steel at 650 C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper, the effects of helium on creep properties of Fe-14CrWTi ODS steel were studied by in-beam and post He-implantation creep tests. In-situ creep was performed in an in-beam creep device under uniaxial tensile stresses from 350 to 370 MPa during homogeneous helium implantation. Helium ions of energies varying from 0 to 25 MeV were implanted at a rate of 6 10-3 appm/s (corresponding to a displacement dose rate of 1.5 10-6 dpa/s). The average temperature was controlled to 650 C within 2 C. In addition, post He-implantation creep tests were conducted at 650 C as well. Subsequently, fracture surfaces and helium bubble evolution were studied in detail by SEM and TEM observations, respectively. Preliminary creep results show that helium slightly shortens the creep life time of ODS steel at 650 C. Fracture surfaces of reference as well as implanted specimens, show areas with various grades of deformation. Areas of highest deformation can be interpreted as necking, while areas of low deformation show in helium implanted specimens a more granular structure. The results are discussed in terms of possible embrittlement of ODS steels by helium.

Chen, J.; Jung, P.; Rebac, T.; Duval, F.; Sauvage, T.; de Carlan, Y.; Barthe, M. F.

2014-10-01

244

Recovery and deformation substructures of zircaloy-4 in high temperature plasticity under stationary or non-stationary stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was the aim of the present investigation to examine how the recovery rate in creep is influenced by a non-stationary stress. For purposes of phenomenological analysis it is postulated that, irrespective of whether the applied stress is stationary or not, for large strains the mean internal stress ? i approaches a stationary value ? i,s. The stationary recovery rate R s for constant load creep turns out be governed by the applied stress indicating that the recovery mechanism is dynamic in nature. For ?-ramp loading, R s is dependent on the stress rate ?. In tensional stress cycling, R s is governed by the maximum stress ? M and is also dependent on the ratio of ? M to the minimum stress ? 0. TEM examination of Zircaloy-4 specimens crept at 800C at constant and cycling load respectively could not reveal any differences in the deformation substructure for the two loading types. Subgrain formation did not appear, individual dislocations were observed only rarely. However, typical networks were formed as well as pileups which perhaps are responsible for the back stress in high temperature plasticity (HTP).

Bo?ek, M.; Armas, I.

1982-02-01

245

Creep in Topopah Spring Member welded tuff. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory investigation has been carried out to determine the effects of elevated temperature and stress on the creep deformation of welded tuffs recovered from Busted Butte in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Water saturated specimens of tuff from thermal/mechanical unit TSw2 were tested in creep at a confining pressure of 5.0 MPa, a pore pressure of 4.5 MPa, and temperatures of 25 and 250 C. At each stress level the load was held constant for a minimum of 2.5 {times} 10{sup 5} seconds and for as long as 1.8 {times} 10{sup 6} seconds. One specimen was tested at a single stress of 80 MPa and a temperature of 250 C. The sample failed after a short time. Subsequent experiments were initiated with an initial differential stress of 50 or 60 MPa; the stress was then increased in 10 MPa increments until failure. The data showed that creep deformation occurred in the form of time-dependent axial and radial strains, particularly beyond 90% of the unconfined, quasi-static fracture strength. There was little dilatancy associated with the deformation of the welded tuff at stresses below 90% of the fracture strength. Insufficient data have been collected in this preliminary study to determine the relationship between temperature, stress, creep deformation to failure, and total failure time at a fixed creep stress.

Martin, R.J. III; Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S. [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-06-01

246

Effects of NaCl, pH, and Potential on the Static Creep Behavior of AA1100  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creep rates of AA1100 are measured during exposure to a variety of aggressive environments. NaCl solutions of various concentrations have no influence on the steady-state creep behavior, producing creep rates comparable to those measured in lab air at room temperature. However, after an initial incubation period of steady strain rate, a dramatic increase of strain rate is observed on exposure to HCl solutions and NaOH solutions, as well as during cathodic polarization of specimens in NaCl solutions. Creep strain produces a continuous deformation and elongation of the sample surface that is comparable to slow strain rates at crack tips thought to control the kinetics of crack growth during stress corrosion cracking (SCC). In this experiment, we separate the strain and surface deformation from the complex geometry of the crack tip to better understand the processes at work. Based on this concept, two possible explanations for the environmental influences on creep strain rates are discussed relating to the anodic dissolution of the free surface and hydrogen influences on deformation mechanisms. Consistencies of pH dependence between corrosion creep and SCC at low pH prove a creep-involved SCC mechanism, while the discrepancies between corrosion creep behavior and previous SCC results at high pH indicate a rate-limit step change in the crack propagation of the SCC process.

Wan, Quanhe; Quesnel, David J.

2013-03-01

247

Effect of particle size and temperature on rheology and creep behavior of barley ?-d-glucan concentrate dough.  

PubMed

Concentrated ?-D-glucan has been added in the formulation of food products development that attributing human health. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of particle size (74, 105, 149, 297 and 595 ?m) of barley ?-D-glucan concentrate (BGC) on two fundamental rheological properties namely oscillatory rheology and creep in a dough system (sample to water = 1:2). The water holding capacity, sediment volume fraction and protein content increased with an increase in particle size from 74 ?m to 595 ?m, which directly influences the mechanical strength and visco-elasticity of the dough. The dough exhibited predominating solid-like behavior (elastic modulus, G'>viscous modulus, G"). The G' decreased systematically with increasing temperature from 25 to 85 C at the frequency range of 0.1-10 Hz except for the dough having particle size of 105 ?m, which could be associated with increase in protein content in the fraction. A discrete retardation spectrum is employed to the creep data to obtain retardation time and compliance parameters which varied significantly with particle size and the process temperature. All those information could be helpful to identify the particle size range of BGC that could be useful to produce a ?-D-glucan enriched designed food. PMID:25037333

Ahmed, Jasim

2014-10-13

248

Dislocation creep behavior in MgAlZn alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The climb-controlled dislocation creep behavior was investigated in MgAlZn alloys of AZ31, AZ61 and AZ91 with different aluminum contents. The flow stress increased with the increase of aluminum content under the same deformation conditions. At high temperatures, the stress exponent was 5 and the activation energy was close to that for lattice diffusion of magnesium, whereas at low temperatures the

Hidetoshi Somekawa; Kinji Hirai; Hiroyuki Watanabe; Yorinobu Takigawa; Kenji Higashi

2005-01-01

249

Creep, fatigue, and deformation of alpha and alpha-beta titanium alloys at ambient temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium and it alloys are extensively utilized in critical applications that require materials with high strength to weight ratios, rigidities, and toughnesses. This being the case, over 70 years of research have been devoted to the measurement, understanding, and tailoring of the mechanical properties of these alloys. Despite these efforts, surveys of the current knowledge base and understanding of the

Matt Brandes

2008-01-01

250

Analysis of creep behavior in thermoplastics based on visco-elastic theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plastics and fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are used in the aerospace industry because of their mechanical properties. However, despite their excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, plastics and FRP eventually deform visco-elastically at high temperatures. Most of the research has focused on the creep behavior of FRPs, but few studies have investigated the linear visco-elastic behavior. Linear visco-elastic behavior and non-linear visco-elastic behavior occur with physical aging in these plastics. In this study, the non-linear visco-elastic behavior of plastics and FRP was investigated based on the bending creep deformation of polycarbonate (PC) and polyoxymethylene (POM). Moreover, the effects of the fiber volume fraction on the creep characteristics were investigated using glass fiber-reinforced polycarbonate (GFRPC). The creep deformation was calculated using the linear visco-elastic theory based on these effects, and comparison between experimental and estimated data showed that the creep analysis sufficiently predicted the creep behavior.

Sakai, Takenobu; Somiya, Satoshi

2011-08-01

251

Mechanisms of time-dependent deformation in porous limestone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed triaxial deformation experiments on a water-saturated porous limestone under constant strain rate and constant stress (creep) conditions. The tests were conducted at room temperature and at low effective pressures Peff=10 and Peff=20 MPa, in a regime where the rock is nominally brittle when tested at a constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1. Under these conditions and at constant stress, the phenomenon of brittle creep occurs. At Peff=10 MPa, brittle creep follows similar trends as those observed in other rock types (e.g., sandstones and granites): only small strains are accumulated before failure, and damage accumulation with increasing strain (as monitored by P wave speeds measurements during the tests) is not strongly dependent on the applied stresses. At Peff=20 MPa, brittle creep is also macroscopically observed, but when the creep strain rate is lower than ?10-7 s-1, we observe that (1) much larger strains are accumulated, (2) less damage is accumulated with increasing strain, and (3) the deformation tends to be more compactant. These observations can be understood by considering that another deformation mechanism, different from crack growth, is active at low strain rates. We explore this possibility by constructing a deformation mechanism map that includes both subcritical crack growth and pressure solution creep processes; the increasing contribution of pressure solution creep at low strain rates is consistent with our observations.

Brantut, Nicolas; Heap, Michael J.; Baud, Patrick; Meredith, Philip G.

2014-07-01

252

Influence of the strain rate and deformation temperature on the deformability of Ti-Ni SMAs: A preliminary study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strain-rate sensitivity of coarse-grained Ti-50.0at.%Ni alloy was studied in the 20 to 500C temperature range and 10-3 to 10-5 s-1 strain-rate range using the stain-rate jump test. The strain rate sensitivity at a strain rate as low as 10-6 s-1 was determined using the creep test. A maximum strain-rate-sensitivity exponent m of 0.5 was measured at 500C in the [10-5 -10-6]s-1 strain-rate range.

Kreitcberg, A.; Prokoshkin, S.; Brailovski, V.; Gunderov, D.; Khomutov, M.

2014-08-01

253

Extended-time-scale creep measurement on Maraging cantilever blade springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two controlled temperature facilities were built to induce an accelerated creep rate in a Maraging steel GAS spring and to measure the material's creep over an artificially extended period of time. The data acquisition of the first experiment lasted for almost a year, but then the blades were allowed to creep for six more years before measuring the permanent deformation integrated over time. The data from this first experiment was polluted by a defect in the data acquisition software, but yielded overall creep limits and an evaluation of the Arrhenius acceleration of creep speed with temperature (1.280.13 C -1). The duration of the second experiment was only 1 year but more free of systematic errors. The effective test period of this second experiment (normalized with the Arrhenius acceleration measured in the first experiment) extends in billions of years showing no sign of anomalous creep. The result of both experiments also produced a simple procedure capable of eliminating all practical effects of creep from the Advanced LIGO seismic isolation and suspensions. Measurements of creep under various stress levels, and of the thermal variations of Young's modulus (2.023 (0.013)10 -4 C -1) are reported as well.

Virdone, Nicole; Agresti, Juri; Bertolini, Alessandro; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Stellacci, Rosalia; Kamp, Justin; Mantovani, Maddalena; Sannibale, Virginio; Tarallo, Marco; Kaltenegger, Lisa

2008-08-01

254

Effects of Dissolution-Precipitation Creep on the Crystallographic Preferred Orientation of Quartz Within the Purgatory Conglomerate, RI.  

E-print Network

??Crystallographic Preferred Orientations (CPO) are common in deformed rocks, and usually result from crystal plastic deformation by dislocation creep. Whether deformation mechanisms that occur at (more)

McPherren, Eric

2010-01-01

255

Vortex creep and the internal temperature of neutron stars Timing noise in pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vortex creep theory is used to construct model noise power spectra for three physically distinct types of events which might give rise to pulsar timing noise. These are 'pure' events, in which vortex unpinning is the source of the initial frequency jump; 'mixed' events, in which the initial frequency jump is produced by some physical process other than vortex unpinning but leads to the unpinning of some vortices; and 'external' events, in which the initial frequency jumps responsible for noise do not involve any vortex unpinning. For the first two types of events, it is found that relaxation processes in the region responsible for the noise will give rise to structure in the observed power spectra, while for external events, the resulting noise spectra will not be influenced by vortex creep. The theoretical results are compared with observed power spectra for 25 pulsars. The absence of structure in the observed power spectra of the Crab and Vela pulsars within the range of time scales which characterize their postglitch behavior indicates that the pinning regions which play a role in postglitch behavior do not experience the small unpinning events leading to timing noise.

Alpar, M. Ali; Nandkumar, Radha; Pines, David

1986-12-01

256

Influence of impurities and deformation temperature on the saturation microstructure and ductility of HPT-deformed nickel  

PubMed Central

Ni with different purities between 99.69 and 99.99wt.% was deformed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) to high strains, where no further refinement of the microstructure is observed. The HPT deformation temperature varied between ?196 and 400C. Both impurities and temperature significantly affect the lower limit of the grain size obtained by HPT. In the investigated samples, carbon was the most important impurity element in controlling the limit of grain refinement. The decrease in grain size due to an increase in the carbon content from 0.008 to 0.06wt.% for HPT-deformed Ni samples at room temperature enhanced the ultimate tensile strength from 1000 to 1700MPa. Surprisingly, the carbon content did not deteriorate the ductility, defined as the reduction in area, which is mainly limited by the total amount of impurities besides carbon. Furthermore, the deformation temperature dependency on ductility was not very pronounced and only visible for deformation temperatures above 200C. PMID:22163380

Rathmayr, Georg B.; Pippan, Reinhard

2011-01-01

257

Elevated temperature crack growth in aluminum alloys: Tensile deformation of 2618 and FVS0812 aluminum alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the damage tolerance of aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures is essential for safe applications of advanced materials. The objective of this project is to investigate the time dependent subcritical cracking behavior of powder metallurgy FVS0812 and ingot metallurgy 2618 aluminum alloys at elevated temperatures. The fracture mechanics approach was applied. Sidegrooved compact tension specimens were tested at 175, 250, and 316 C under constant load. Subcritical crack growth occurred in each alloy at applied stress intensity levels (K) of between about 14 and 25 MPa/m, well below K (sub IC). Measured load, crack opening displacement and displacement rate, and crack length and growth rate (da/dt) were analyzed with several continuum fracture parameters including, the C-integral, C (sub t), and K. Elevated temperature growth rate data suggest that K is a controlling parameter during time dependent cracking. For FVS0812, da/dt is highest at 175 C when rates are expressed as a function of K. While crack growth rate is not controlled by C (sub t) at 175 C, da/dt appears to better correlate with C (sub t) at higher temperatures. Creep brittle cracking at intermediate temperatures, and perhaps related to strain aging, is augmented by time dependent transient creep plasticity at higher temperatures. The C (sub t) analysis is, however, complicated by the necessity to measure small differences in the elastic crack growth and creep contributions to the crack opening displacement rate. A microstructural study indicates that 2618 and FVS0812 are likely to be creep brittle materials, consistent with the results obtained from the fracture mechanics study. Time dependent crack growth of 2618 at 175 C is characterized by mixed transgranular and intergranular fracture. Delamination along the ribbon powder particle boundaries occurs in FVS0812 at all temperatures. The fracture mode of FVS0812 changes with temperature. At 175 C, it is characterized as dimpled rupture, and at 316 C as mixed matrix superplastic rupture and matrix-dipersoid debonding.

Leng, Yang; Gangloff, Richard P.

1990-01-01

258

Brief summary of the evolution of high-temperature creep-fatigue life prediction models for crack initiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of high-temperature, creep-fatigue, life-prediction methods used for cyclic crack initiation is traced from inception in the late 1940's. The methods reviewed are material models as opposed to structural life prediction models. Material life models are used by both structural durability analysts and by material scientists. The latter use micromechanistic models as guidance to improve a material's crack initiation resistance. Nearly one hundred approaches and their variations have been proposed to date. This proliferation poses a problem in deciding which method is most appropriate for a given application. Approaches were identified as being combinations of thirteen different classifications. This review is intended to aid both developers and users of high-temperature fatigue life prediction methods by providing a background from which choices can be made. The need for high-temperature, fatigue-life prediction methods followed immediately on the heels of the development of large, costly, high-technology industrial and aerospace equipment immediately following the second world war. Major advances were made in the design and manufacture of high-temperature, high-pressure boilers and steam turbines, nuclear reactors, high-temperature forming dies, high-performance poppet valves, aeronautical gas turbine engines, reusable rocket engines, etc. These advances could no longer be accomplished simply by trial and error using the 'build-em and bust-em' approach. Development lead times were too great and costs too prohibitive to retain such an approach. Analytic assessments of anticipated performance, cost, and durability were introduced to cut costs and shorten lead times. The analytic tools were quite primitive at first and out of necessity evolved in parallel with hardware development. After forty years more descriptive, more accurate, and more efficient analytic tools are being developed. These include thermal-structural finite element and boundary element analyses, advanced constitutive stress-strain-temperature-time relations, and creep-fatigue-environmental models for crack initiation and propagation. The high-temperature durability methods that have evolved for calculating high-temperature fatigue crack initiation lives of structural engineering materials are addressed. Only a few of the methods were refined to the point of being directly useable in design. Recently, two of the methods were transcribed into computer software for use with personal computers.

Halford, Gary R.

1993-01-01

259

Creep Behavior of Glass/Ceramic Sealant Used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

High operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells require that sealant must function at high temperature between 600o and 900oC and in the oxidizing and reducing environments of fuel and air. It should be noted that creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 800oC, which exceeds the glass transition temperature Tg for most glass ceramic materials. The goal of the study is to develop a creep model to capture the creep behavior of glass ceramic materials at high temperature and to investigate the effect of creep of glass ceramic sealant materials on stresses in glass seal and on the various interfaces of glass seal with other layers. The self-consistent creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the stresses in various parts. The stress in glass seals were released due to its creep behavior during the operating environments.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2010-01-02

260

Segregation At Stacking Faults Within The ?? Phase Of Two Ni-base Superalloys Following Intermediate Temperature Creep  

SciTech Connect

Using state-of-the-art energy dispersive spectroscopy, it has been established for the first time that there exists significant compositional variation (enrichment of Co and Cr and deficiency of Ni and Al) associated with superlattice intrinsic stacking faults created in the ordered c0 precipitates following intermediate temperature deformation of two commercial superalloys. The results indicate that long range diffusion of these elements is intimately involved in the precipitate shearing process and is therefore closely linked to the time-dependent deformation of the alloys.

Viswanathan, G. B.; Shi, R.; Genc, Arda; Vorontsov, V. A.; Kovarik, Libor; Rae, C.M. F.; Mills, M. J.

2015-01-01

261

Characterization of a 14Cr ODS steel by means of small punch and uniaxial testing with regard to creep and fatigue at elevated temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 14Cr ODS steel was characterized at elevated temperatures with regard to its behavior in small punch and uniaxial creep tests and in low cycle fatigue tests. A comparison of small punch and uniaxial creep tests at 650 C revealed a strong anisotropy of the material when strained parallel and perpendicular to the extrusion direction with rupture times being several orders of magnitude lower for the perpendicular direction. The stress-rupture and Larson-Miller plots show a very large scatter of the creep data. This scatter is strongly reduced when rupture time is plotted against minimum deflection rate or minimum creep rate (Monkman-Grant plot). Fatigue tests have been carried out at 650 C and 750 C. The alloy is cyclically very stable with practically no hardening/softening. Results from the tests at both temperatures can be described by a common power law. An increase in the test temperature has little influence on the fatigue ductility exponent. For a given total strain level, the fatigue life of the alloy is reduced with increasing temperature.

Bruchhausen, M.; Turba, K.; de Haan, F.; Hhner, P.; Austin, T.; de Carlan, Y.

2014-01-01

262

Advanced Procedures for Long-Term Creep Data Prediction for 2.25 Chromium Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical review of recent creep studies concluded that traditional approaches such as steady-state behavior, power law equations, and the view that diffusional creep mechanisms are dominant at low stresses should be seriously reconsidered. Specifically, creep strain rate against time curves show that a decaying primary rate leads into an accelerating tertiary stage, giving a minimum rather than a secondary period. Conventional steady-state mechanisms should therefore be abandoned in favor of an understanding of the processes governing strain accumulation and the damage phenomena causing tertiary creep and fracture. Similarly, creep always takes place by dislocation processes, with no change to diffusional creep mechanisms with decreasing stress, negating the concept of deformation mechanism maps. Alternative descriptions are then provided by normalizing the applied stress through the ultimate tensile stress and yield stress at the creep temperature. In this way, the resulting Wilshire equations allow accurate prediction of 100,00 hours of creep data using only property values from tests lasting 5000 hours for a series of 2.25 chromium steels, namely grades 22, 23, and 24.

Whittaker, Mark T.; Wilshire, Brian

2013-01-01

263

Non-Classical Creep Behavior of Fusion-Cast Alumina Refractories  

SciTech Connect

The compressive creep behavior of a typical 50% ?-/50% ?-alumina fusion-cast refractory block was examined as a function of temperature. Test temperatures (1450-1650oC) were chosen to correspond to those typical of service conditions, while relatively high compressive test stresses (0.6 and 1.0 MPa compared to 0.2-0.4 MPa which is typical of service) were chosen to promote exaggerated deformation and to more accurately measure the resulting creep strain. It was found that the measured creep strain responses in this alumina were a sum of (contracting) compressive creep strain and expansion strain due to time and temperature dependent microcracking. Long term, isothtermal expansion tests were also conducted, and their results allowed for the deconvolution of the compressive creep and expansion strains present in the measured creep strain test data. The analysis shows that despite complications associated with conflicting expansion and contraction effects, classical creep analysis may be used with this alumina refractory after the strains associated with the non-steady-state mechanism are considered and accounted for.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

2009-01-01

264

The effect of deformation temperature on the microstructure evolution of Inconel 625 superalloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot compression tests of Inconel 625 superalloy were conducted using a Gleeble-1500 simulator between 900 C and 1200 C with different true strains and a strain rate of 0.1 s -1. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction technique (EBSD) were employed to investigate the effect of deformation temperature on the microstructure evolution and nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX). It is found that the relationship between the DRX grain size and the peak stress can be expressed by a power law function. Significant influence of deformation temperatures on the nucleation mechanisms of DRX are observed at different deformation stages. At lower deformation temperatures, continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) characterized by progressive subgrain rotation is considered as the main mechanism of DRX at the early deformation stage. However, discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) with bulging of the original grain boundaries becomes the operating mechanism of DRX at the later deformation stage. At higher deformation temperatures, DDRX is the primary mechanism of DRX, while CDRX can only be considered as an assistant mechanism at the early deformation stage. Nucleation of DRX can also be activated by the twinning formation. With increasing the deformation temperature, the effect of DDRX accompanied with twinning formation grows stronger, while the effect of CDRX grows weaker. Meanwhile, the position of subgrain formation shifts gradually from the interior of original grains to the vicinity of the original boundaries.

Guo, Qingmiao; Li, Defu; Guo, Shengli; Peng, Haijian; Hu, Jie

2011-07-01

265

Influence of precipitate morphology on intermediate temperature creep properties of a nickel-base superalloy single crystal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relative creep behavior of cuboidal (as-heat treated) and rafted (precrept at 1000 C) gamma-prime microstructures in the single-crystal Ni-based superalloy NASAIR 100 at 760 C was investigated using SEM and TEM examinations of materials at various stages of creep. It was found that, at high applied stresses, the crystals with cuboidal gamma-prime structure had both lower minimum creep rates and longer rupture lives than the crystals with lamellar gamma-prime. At lower stress levels, the initially cuboidal gamma-prime microstructure maintained a lower creep rate, but exhibited a similar rupture life compared to the prerafted crystals.

Nathal, M. V.; Mackay, R. A.; Miner, R. V.

1989-01-01

266

A Method to Identify Steady Creep Strain from Indentation Creep Using a New Reference Area of Indentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the design of high-density electronic packages, finite element method (FEM) analyses to evaluate strength reliabilities of solder joints should be conducted by employing the material parameters which can precisely reflect the creep properties of solder joints in actual electronic equipment. To obtain accurate results of the structural analyses of the solder joints, a method to evaluate the steady-state creep deformation in situ must be developed. The indentation creep test is an effective method to evaluate the creep properties of the solder joints in situ; however, the creep properties obtained by this method do not give the same results as those obtained by tensile creep tests using bulk specimens. In this paper, the indentation creep test at 1 N loading for 9,000 s duration was experimentally conducted to confirm that the steady-state creep deformation obtained by the indentation creep test did not coincide with that by the tensile creep tests using bulk specimens. To identify the reason, the indentation creep simulation was conducted by FEM analysis. As a result, it was found that the reference area used to obtain the creep strain from the indentation creep test should be modified. A method to obtain the new reference area is proposed from comparisons of experiments with simulations. Finally, this paper shows that the creep properties obtained by the indentation creep test using the new reference area coincided with those obtained by tensile creep tests using bulk specimens.

Takita, Atsuko; Sasaki, Katsuhiko; Ohguchi, Ken-ichi

2014-07-01

267

Water Weakening of Clinopyroxene in the Dislocation Creep Regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our experimental studies, we investigated water weakening in the dislocation creep regime of natural Sleaford Bay clinopyroxenite containing diopside of compostion Ca1.0Mg0.8Fe0.2Si2O6. Samples were deformed in a gas-medium apparatus at confining pressures of 300 to 400 MPa and temperatures of 1373 to 1498 K with the oxygen fugacity buffered by the solid state reaction between Ni and NiO. A small amount of free water was added to each sample to obtain water-saturated conditions. Based on results from compressive creep experiments on seven samples deformed under hydrous condition, coarse-grained natural clinopyroxene yielded a stress exponent of n = 3.6+/- 0.6 and an activation energy of Q = 520+/-63KJ/mol. Compared to published data for dislocation creep of dry clinopyroxene, the wet aggregate flows up to 150 times faster at a given stress and temperature. Together with creep data for olivine, which show that olivine flows less than 10 times faster under hydrous condition than under anhydrous condition, the water weakening effect is much more significant in clinopyroxene than in olivine.

Chen, S.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

2003-12-01

268

Sessile dislocations by reactions in NiAl severely deformed at room temperature  

PubMed Central

B2 ordered NiAl is known for its poor room temperature (RT) ductility; failure occurs in a brittle like manner even in ductile single crystals deforming by single slip. In the present study NiAl was severely deformed at RT using the method of high pressure torsion (HPT) enabling the hitherto impossible investigation of multiple slip deformation. Methods of transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the dislocations formed by the plastic deformation showing that as expected dislocations with Burgers vector a?100? carry the plasticity during HPT deformation at RT. In addition, we observe that they often form a?110? dislocations by dislocation reactions; the a?110? dislocations are considered to be sessile based on calculations found in the literature. It is therefore concluded that the frequently encountered 3D dislocation networks containing sessile a?110? dislocations are pinned and lead to deformation-induced embrittlement. In spite of the severe deformation, the chemical order remains unchanged. PMID:25663749

Geist, D.; Gammer, C.; Rentenberger, C.; Karnthaler, H.P.

2015-01-01

269

Microdeformation experiments on chalk - fluids, fracture and creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chalks are fine grained aggregates of biogenic calcite that creep and fracture and the deformation is very sensitive to the nature of the fluid present. Close to yield there is a time scale and spatial scale of transition from distributed to localized deformation. This transition is governed by the grain scale mechanism involved - subcritical crack growth, pore collapse, ion exchange in the grain contact, mechanochemical processes and others. We present a microdeformation rig with accurate control of temperature, small strains and the pore fluid. The thin chalk samples are imaged at different scales with a resolution down to 0.5 micrometers. Deformation measurements are performed by digital image correlation. Examples of localized and distributed deformation and effects of rapid change of pore fluid during deformation are presented.

Bergsaker, Anne; Neuville, Amelie; Ryne, Anja; Dysthe, Dag Kristian

2014-05-01

270

High temperature deformation mechanisms and strain heterogeneities in calcite rocks  

E-print Network

In nature, carbonates often accumulate large amounts of strain in localized shear zones. Such marble sequences play a key role in crustal deformation processes. Despite extensive field and laboratory investigation, many ...

Xu, Lili, Sh. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

271

Strengthening mechanism for deformed austenitic steel during high temperature aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.The effect of initial deformation on the structural and mechanical properties of aged 1Kh18N9 steel was investigated under conditions involving development of martensitic transformation. It was established that initial tensile stress up to the maximum value of uniform residual deformation (e1=35%) leads to an increase in the elastic limit of aged steel for constant values (e1=20%) of the ultimate

N. K. Barats; . S. Istomina; S. B. Nizhnik; V. M. Pelepelin; N. I. Chernyak

1970-01-01

272

Deformation Mechanisms in Austenitic TRIP/TWIP Steel as a Function of Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-alloy austenitic CrMnNi steel was deformed at temperatures between 213 K and 473 K (-60 C and 200 C) and the resulting microstructures were investigated. At low temperatures, the deformation was mainly accompanied by the direct martensitic transformation of ?-austenite to ?'-martensite (fcc ? bcc), whereas at ambient temperatures, the transformation via ?-martensite (fcc ? hcp ? bcc) was observed in deformation bands. Deformation twinning of the austenite became the dominant deformation mechanism at 373 K (100 C), whereas the conventional dislocation glide represented the prevailing deformation mode at 473 K (200 C). The change of the deformation mechanisms was attributed to the temperature dependence of both the driving force of the martensitic ? ? ?' transformation and the stacking fault energy of the austenite. The continuous transition between the ?-martensite formation and the twinning could be explained by different stacking fault arrangements on every second and on each successive {111} austenite lattice plane, respectively, when the stacking fault energy increased. A continuous transition between the transformation-induced plasticity effect and the twinning-induced plasticity effect was observed with increasing deformation temperature. Whereas the formation of ?'-martensite was mainly responsible for increased work hardening, the stacking fault configurations forming ?-martensite and twins induced additional elongation during tensile testing.

Martin, Stefan; Wolf, Steffen; Martin, Ulrich; Krger, Lutz; Rafaja, David

2014-12-01

273

Present-day deformation along the El Pilar Fault in eastern Venezuela: Evidence of creep along a major transform boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The right-lateral strike-slip El Pilar Fault is one of the major structures that accommodate the relative displacement between the Caribbean and South-America Plates. This fault, which trends East-West along the northeastern Venezuela margin, is a seismogenic source, and shows numerous evidence for active tectonics, including deformation of the Quaternary sediments filling the Cariaco Gulf. Because the main El Pilar Fault strand belongs to a set of strike-slip faults and thrusts between the stable Guyana shield (South) and the Caribbean oceanic floor (North), a GPS network was designed and installed to measure the relative motion of the El Pilar Fault and other faults. The results obtained from the comparison of 2003 and 2005 surveys indicate: (i) a lack of significant displacement (especially shortening) in the Serrania del Interior (Neogene cordillera overthrusted above the Guyana craton), (ii) an eastward displacement (relative to fixed south America plate) up to 22 mm/year of benchmarks located north of the El Pilar Fault. Velocities simulations using dislocations in an elastic half-space show: (1) the concentration along the El Pilar Fault of the whole Caribbean-South America relative displacement, (2) the existence of an important component of aseismic displacement along the upper part of the El Pilar Fault. Between 12 km depth and the surface, only 40% of displacement is locked for the western segment and 50% for the eastern segment. This last phenomenon may be related to the existence of serpentinite lenses along the fault zone as observed for segments of San Andreas and North Anatolian faults.

Jouanne, Franois; Audemard, Franck A.; Beck, Christian; Van Welden, Aurlien; Ollarves, Reinaldo; Reinoza, Carlos

2011-05-01

274

Creep Measurement Video Extensometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding material behavior under load is critical to the efficient and accurate design of advanced aircraft and spacecraft. Technologies such as the one disclosed here allow accurate creep measurements to be taken automatically, reducing error. The goal was to develop a non-contact, automated system capable of capturing images that could subsequently be processed to obtain the strain characteristics of these materials during deformation, while maintaining adequate resolution to capture the true deformation response of the material. The measurement system comprises a high-resolution digital camera, computer, and software that work collectively to interpret the image.

Jaster, Mark; Vickerman, Mary; Padula, Santo, II; Juhas, John

2011-01-01

275

Model for transient creep of southeastern New Mexico rock salt  

SciTech Connect

In a previous analysis, existing experimental data pertaining to creep tests on rock salt from the Salado formation of S.E. New Mexico were fitted to an exponential transient creep law. While very early time portions of creep strain histories were not fitted very well for tests at low temperatures and stresses, initial creep rates in particular generally being underestimated, the exponential creep law has the property that the transient creep strain approaches a finite limit with time, and is therefore desirable from a creep modelling point of view. In this report, an analysis of transient creep is made. It is found that exponential transient creep can be related to steady-state creep through a universal creep curve. The resultant description is convenient for creep analyses where very early time behavior is not important.

Herrmann, W; Wawersik, W R; Lauson, H S

1980-11-01

276

Temperature dependence of lifetime statistics for single Kevlar 49 filaments in creep-rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data are presented for the strength and lifetime under constant stress of single Kevlar 49 aramid filaments at two elevated temperatures, 80 and 130 C. As seen in previously published work performed at room temperature (21 C), the strength data could be fitted to a two-parameter Weibull distribution; increasing the temperature caused a decrease in the Weibull scale parameter

H. F. Wu; S. L. Phoenix; P. Schwartz

1988-01-01

277

Brief summary of the evolution of high-temperature creep-fatigue life prediction models for crack initiation  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of high-temperature, creep-fatigue, life-prediction methods used for cyclic crack initiation is traced from inception in the late 1940`s. The methods reviewed are material models as opposed to structural life prediction models. Material life models are used by both structural durability analysts and by material scientists. The latter use micromechanistic models as guidance to improve a material`s crack initiation resistance. Nearly one hundred approaches and their variations have been proposed to date. This proliferation poses a problem in deciding which method is most appropriate for a given application. Approaches were identified as being combinations of thirteen different classifications. This review is intended to aid both developers and users of high-temperature fatigue life prediction methods by providing a background from which choices can be made. The need for high-temperature, fatigue-life prediction methods followed immediately on the heels of the development of large, costly, high-technology industrial and aerospace equipment immediately following the second world war. Major advances were made in the design and manufacture of high-temperature, high-pressure boilers and steam turbines, nuclear reactors, high-temperature forming dies, high-performance poppet valves, aeronautical gas turbine engines, reusable rocket engines, etc. These advances could no longer be accomplished simply by trial and error using the `build-em and bust-em` approach. Development lead times were too great and costs too prohibitive to retain such an approach. Analytic assessments of anticipated performance, cost, and durability were introduced to cut costs and shorten lead times. The analytic tools were quite primitive at first and out of necessity evolved in parallel with hardware development. After forty years more descriptive, more accurate, and more efficient analytic tools are being developed.

Halford, G.R.

1993-10-01

278

ORNL irradiation creep facility  

SciTech Connect

A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

1980-09-01

279

Application of two creep fatigue life models for the prediction of elevated temperature crack initiation of a nickel base alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cyclic Damage Accumulation (CDA) and Total Strain-Strain Range Partitioning (TS-SRP) models for predicting the creep-fatigue crack initiation life of high temperature alloys are presented. The models differ in their fundamental assumptions regarding the controlling parameters for fatigue crack initiation and in the amount of data required to determine model constants. The CDA model represents a ductility exhaustion approach and uses stress quantities to calculate the cyclic fatigue damage. The TS-SRP model is based on the use of total mechanical strain and earlier concepts of the Strain Range Partitioning Method. Both models were applied to a well controlled fatigue data set at a high temperature nickel base alloy, B1900 + Hf, tested at 1600 F and 1800 F. The tests were divided into a baseline data set required to determine model constants and a verification data set for evaluation of the predictive capability of the models. Both models correlated the baseline data set to within factors of two in life, and predicted the verification data set to within a factor of three or better. In addition, sample calculations to demonstrate the application of each model and discusions of the predictive capabilities and areas requiring further development are presented.

Moreno, V.; Nissley, D. M.; Halford, G. R.; Saltsman, J. F.

1985-01-01

280

Cleavage and creep fracture of rock salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant failure mechanism in rock salt at ambient temperature is either cleavage or creep fracture. Since the transition of creep fracture to cleavage in a compressive stress field is not well understood, failure of rock salt by cleavage and creep fracture is analyzed in this paper to elucidate the effect of stress state on the competition between these two

K. S. Chan; D. E. Munson; S. R. Bodner; A. F. Fossum

1996-01-01

281

Study of creep crack growth in 2618 and 8009 aluminum alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep crack growth (CCG) has been investigated in an 8009 (Al-Fe-V-S) P/M alloy at 175 , 250 , and 316 and in a 2618 ingot alloy at 150 , 175 , and 200 . Under sustained load, subcritical crack growth is observed at stress intensity levels lower than K ic ; for 2618, at 200 , crack growth is observed at stress intensities more than 40 pct lower than K ic . Alloys 8009 and 2618 exhibit creep brittle behavior, i.e., very limited creep deformation, during CCG. The CCG rates do not correlate with CCG parameters C* and C but correlate with the stress intensity factor, K, and the J integral. Generally, crack growth rates increase with increasing temperature. Micromechanisms of CCG have been studied with regard to microstructural deg-radation, environmental attack, and creep damage. Although theoretical estimation indicates that CCG resistance decreases with second-phase coarsening, such coarsening has not been observed at the crack tip. Also, no evidence is found for hydrogen- or oxygen-induced crack growth in comparing test results in moist air and in vacuum. Creep deformation and cavitation ahead of crack tip are responsible for observed time-dependent crack growth. Based on the cavitation damage in the elastic field, a micromechanical model is proposed which semiquantitatively explains the correlations between the creep crack growth rate and stress intensity factor, K.

Leng, Yang

1995-02-01

282

Creep Properties of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Glass-Ceramic Seal G18  

SciTech Connect

This study utilizes nanoindentation to investigate and measure creep properties of a barium calcium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic used for solid oxide fuel cell seals (SOFCs). Samples of the glassceramic seal material were aged for 5h, 50h, and 100h to obtain different degrees of crystallinity. Instrumented nanoindentation was performed on the samples with different aging times at different temperatures to investigate the strain rate sensitivity during inelastic deformation. The temperature dependent behavior is important since SOFCs operate at high temperatures (800-1000C). Results show that the samples with higher crystallinity were more resistant to creep, and the creep compliance tended to decrease with increasing temperature, especially with further aged samples.

Milhans, Jacqueline; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Tehrani, Mehran; Al-Haik, Marwan; Garmestani, Hamid

2010-11-01

283

Microstructural Characterization of Dislocation Networks During Harper-Dorn Creep of fcc, bcc, and hcp Metals and Alloys  

SciTech Connect

Harper-Dorn (H-D) creep is observed in metals and geological materials exposed to very low stresses at temperatures close to the melting point. It is one of several types of creep processes wherein the steady-state strain rate is proportional to the applied stress, Nabarro-Herring creep and Coble creep being two other important processes. H-D creep can be somewhat insidious because the creep rates are much larger than those expected for Nabarro-Herring or Coble creep. Since the working conditions of structural components of power plants and propulsion systems, as well as the motion of the earths mantle all involve very low stresses, an understanding of the factors controlling H-D creep is critical in preventing failures associated with those higher-than-expected creep rates. The purpose of this investigation was to obtain missing microstructural information on the evolution of the dislocation structures during static annealing of materials with fcc, bcc and hcp structure and use obtained results to test predictive capabilities of the dislocation network theory of H-D creep. In our view the evolutionary processes during static annealing and during Harper-Dorn creep are intimately related. The materials used in this study were fcc aluminum, hcp zinc and bcc tin. All characterizations of dislocation structures, densities and dislocation link length distributions were carried out using the etch pit method. To obtain quantitative information on the evolution of the dislocation networks during annealing the pure fcc aluminum samples were pre-deformed by creep at 913 and 620 K and then annealed. The higher deformation temperature was selected to generate starting dislocation networks similar to those forming during Harper-Dorn creep and the lower, to obtain higher dislocation densities suitable for reliable estimates of the parameters of the network growth law. The measured experimental link length distribution were, after scaling, (1) the same for all annealing temperatures, (2) time invariant and (3) identical to the distributions obtained previously for Harper-Dorn creep. This has never been shown before and confirms our theoretical expectations that evolution of the dislocation networks during annealing and H-D creep is governed by the same growth law. Obtained results were also used to predict H-D steady creep rates from annealing kinetics data using equations of the dislocation network theory. For the three considered stresses the theory predicts systematically smaller creep rates by the average factor of 4.5. Considering that the creep rates have been predicted from the annealing data alone and without any adjustable parameters, this results shout be considered as outstanding. In case of hcp zinc the samples were pre-deformed in compression at constant stress of 4 MPa at temperature of 573 K and subsequently annealed at the same temperature. During annealing samples readily recrystallized, but it was possible to obtain information on the link length distributions from several unrecrystallized grains. The results showed that the scaled link length distributions were time invariant and similar to those of the aluminum. The annealing studies on bcc tin were also curtailed by the concurrent recrystallization. It was only possible to obtain link length distribution for samples deformed in compression at constant load of 2 MPa at 423 K after unloading. The link length distribution was also in this case similar to that of the aluminum and zinc. These results suggest that the scaled link length distribution is universal and the same for the three considered crystal structures. This supports theoretical findings of these studies that appropriately scaled dislocation link length distribution should both universal and time invariant. We have also investigated the possibility of using alternative methods of estimating local dislocation densities from etch pits which could give more precise estimates of the dislocation link-lengths. The two most promising method are based on the use of Voronoi diagrams and uniform 3-connected nets

Przystupa, Marek A.

2007-12-13

284

Thermal creep model for CWSR zircaloy-4 cladding taking into account the annealing of the irradiation hardening  

SciTech Connect

After irradiation and cooling in a pool, spent nuclear fuel assemblies are either transported for wet storage to a devoted site or loaded in casks for dry storage. During dry transportation or at the beginning of dry storage, the cladding is expected to be submitted to creep deformation under the hoop stress induced by the internal pressure of the fuel rod. The thermal creep is a potential mechanism that might lead to cladding failure. A new creep model was developed, based on a database of creep tests on as-received and irradiated cold-worked stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding in a wide range of temperatures (310 degrees C to 470 degrees C) and hoop stress (80 to 260 MPa). Based on three laws-a flow law, a strain-hardening recovery law, and an annealing of irradiation hardening law this model allows the simulation of not only the transient creep and the steady-state creep, but also the early creep acceleration observed on irradiated samples tested in severe conditions, which was not taken into account in the previous models. The extrapolation of the creep model in the conditions of very long-term creep tests is reassuring, proving the robustness of the chosen formalism. The creep model has been assessed in progressively decreasing stress conditions, more representative of a transport. Set up to predict the cladding creep behavior under variable temperature and stress conditions, this model can easily be implemented into codes in order to simulate the thermomechanical behavior of spent fuel rods in various scenarios of postirradiation phases. (authors)

Cappelaere, Chantal; Limon, Roger; Duguay, Chrstelle; Pinte, Gerard; Le Breton, Michel [CEA Saclay, DEN, Serv Etud Mat Irradies, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Bouffioux, Pol [EDF R et D Renardieres, F-77818 Ecuelles, Moret Sur Loing, (France); Chabretou, Valerie [AREVA NP SAS, AREVA, F-69456 Lyon 6, (France); Miquet, Alain [EDF SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne, (France)

2012-02-15

285

Continuous turbine blade creep measurement based on Moir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moir imaging has been used to measure creep in the airfoil section of gas turbine blades. The ability to accurately assess creep and other failure modes has become an important engineering challenge, because gas turbine manufacturers are putting in place condition-based maintenance programs. In such maintenance programs, the condition of individual components is assessed to determine their remaining lives. Using pad-print technology, a grating pattern was printed directly on a turbine blade for localized creep detection using the spacing change of moir pattern fringes. A creep measurement prototype was assembled for this application which contained a lens, reference grating, camera and lighting module. This prototype comprised a bench-top camera system that can read moir patterns from the turbine blade sensor at shutdown to determine creep level in individual parts by analyzing the moir fringes. Sensitivity analyses and noise factor studies were performed to evaluate the system. Analysis software was also developed. A correlation study with strain gages was performed and the measurement results from the moir system align well with the strain gage readings. A mechanical specimen subjected to a one cycle tensile test at high temperature to induce plastic deformation in the gage was used to evaluate the system and the result of this test exhibited good correlation to extensometer readings.

Liao, Yi; Tait, Robert; Harding, Kevin; Nieters, Edward J.; Hasz, Wayne C.; Piche, Nicole

2012-11-01

286

Invited review paper: Fault creep caused by subduction of rough seafloor relief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the wide range of thermal, petrologic, hydrological, and structural factors that potentially affect subduction earthquakes, the roughness of the subducting seafloor is among the most important. By reviewing seismic and geodetic studies of megathrust locking/creeping state, we find that creeping is the predominant mode of subduction in areas of extremely rugged subducting seafloor such as the Kyushu margin, Manila Trench, northern Hikurangi, and southeastern Costa Rica. In Java and Mariana, megathrust creeping state is not yet constrained by geodetic observations, but the very rugged subducting seafloor and lack of large earthquakes also suggest aseismic creep. Large topographic features on otherwise relatively smooth subducting seafloor such as the Nazca Ridge off Peru, the Investigator Fracture Zone off Sumatra, and the Joban seamount chain in southern Japan Trench also cause creep and often stop the propagation of large ruptures. Similar to all other known giant earthquakes, the Tohoku earthquake of March 2011 occurred in an area of relatively smooth subducting seafloor. The Tohoku event also offers an example of subducting seamounts stopping rupture propagation. Very rugged subducting seafloor not only retards the process of shear localization, but also gives rise to heterogeneous stresses. In this situation, the fault zone creeps because of distributed deformation of fractured rocks, and the creep may take place as transient events of various spatial and temporal scales accompanied with small and medium-size earthquakes. This process cannot be described as stable or unstable friction along a single contact surface. The association of large earthquakes with relatively smooth subducting seafloor and creep with very rugged subducting seafloor calls for further investigation. Seafloor near-trench geodetic monitoring, high-resolution imaging of subduction fault structure, studies of exhumed ancient subduction zones, and laboratory studies of low-temperature creep will greatly improve our understanding of the seismogenic and creep processes and their hazard implications.

Wang, Kelin; Bilek, Susan L.

2014-01-01

287

Influence of grain size on the creep behavior of HfC-dispersed NiAl  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid solidification technology has been utilized to produce a NiAl-4(wt pct)HfC composite containing about 0.3 vol pct HfC as dispersed 50 nm particles. Study of the 1300 K compressive creep properties demonstrated that the initial, small grain size microstructure was unstable under slow strain rate deformation conditions. The grain growth which occurred during testing led to considerable strengthening. Subsequent measurements of the creep properties of the coarse grained specimens revealed that this strength was achieved by a large increase in the activation energy for deformation without any change in the stress exponent. Based on this work, it is concluded that large grain microstructures will be required for optimum elevated temperature creep properties in dispersed NiAl.

Whittenberger, J. D.; Ray, Ranjan; Jha, Sunil C.

1992-01-01

288

Creep-Fatigue Interaction Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fatigue fives in metals are nominally time independent below 0.5 T(sub Melt). At higher temperatures, fatigue lives are altered due to time-dependent, thermally activated creep. Conversely, creep rates are altered by super. imposed fatigue loading. Creep and fatigue generally interact synergistically to reduce material lifetime. Their interaction, therefore, is of importance to structural durability of high-temperature structures such as nuclear reactors, reusable rocket engines, gas turbine engines, terrestrial steam turbines, pressure vessel and piping components, casting dies, molds for plastics, and pollution control devices. Safety and lifecycle costs force designers to quantify these interactions. Analytical and experimental approaches to creep-fatigue began in the era following World War II. In this article experimental and life prediction approaches are reviewed for assessing creep-fatigue interactions of metallic materials. Mechanistic models are also discussed briefly.

Halford, Gary R.

2001-01-01

289

Creep crack growth behavior of several structural alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep crack growth behavior of several high temperature alloys, Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Inconel X-750, Hastelloy X, Nimonic PE-16, Incoloy 800, and Haynes 25 (HS-25) was examined at 540, 650, 760, and 870 C. Crack growth rates were analyzed in terms of both linear elastic stress intensity factor and J*-integral parameter. Among the alloys Inconel 600 and Hastelloy X did not show any observable crack growth. Instead, they deformed at a rapid rate resulting in severe blunting of the crack tip. The other alloys, Inconel 625, Inconel X-750, Incoloy 800, HS-25, and PE-16 showed crack growth at one or two temperatures and deformed continuously at other temperatures. Crack growth rates of the above alloys in terms ofJ* parameter were compared with the growth rates of other alloys published in the literature. Alloys such as Inconel X-750, Alloy 718, and IN-100 show very high growth rates as a result of their sensitivity to an air environment. Based on detailed fracture surface analysis, it is proposed that creep crack growth occurs by the nucleation and growth of wedge-type cracks at triple point junctions due to grain boundary sliding or by the formation and growth of cavities at the boundaries. Crack growth in the above alloys occurs only in some critical range of strain rates or temperatures. Since the service conditions for these alloys usually fall within this critical range, knowledge and understanding of creep crack growth behavior of the structural alloys are important.

Sadananda, K.; Shahinian, P.

1983-07-01

290

Creeping eruption  

MedlinePLUS

... burrow into your skin. They cause an intense inflammatory response that leads to a rash and severe itching. Creeping eruption is more common in countries with warm climates. In the United States, the southeast has the highest rates of infection. ...

291

Computational simulation of probabilistic lifetime strength for aerospace materials subjected to high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a fourth year effort of a research program conducted for NASA-LeRC by The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) are presented. The research included on-going development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to a number of effects or primitive variables. These primitive variables may include high temperature, fatigue, or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation was randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above-described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with regression analysis of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constants for each effect or primitive variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from industry and the open literature for materials typically for applications in aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 was analyzed using the developed methodology.

Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.; Trimble, Greg A.

1992-01-01

292

Computational simulation of probabilistic lifetime strength for aerospace materials subjected to high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a fourth year effort of a research program, conducted for NASA-LeRC by the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The research included on-going development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subject to a number of effects or primitive variables. These primitive variables may include high temperature, fatigue or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation has been randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISS. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above-described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with regression analysis of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constants for each effect or primitive variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from industry and the open literature for materials typically for applications in aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 has been analyzed using the developed methodology.

Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.; Trimble, Greg A.

1992-01-01

293

Electrochemical control of creep in nanoporous gold  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the mechanical stability of nanoporous gold (npg) in an electrochemical environment, using in situ dilatometry and compression experiments. It is demonstrated that the gold nano-ligaments creep under the action of surface stress which leads to spontaneous volume contractions in macroscopic npg samples. The creep of npg, under or without external forces, can be controlled electrochemically. The creep rate increases with increasing potential in double-layer potential region, and deceases to almost zero when the gold surface is adsorbed with oxygen. Surprisingly, we also noticed a correlation between creep and surface diffusivity, which links the deformation of nanocrystals to mobility of surface atoms.

Ye, Xing-Long; Jin, Hai-Jun, E-mail: hjjin@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)] [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

2013-11-11

294

Constitutive modeling of creep of single crystal superalloys  

E-print Network

In this work, a constitutive theory is developed, within the context of continuum mechanics, to describe the creep deformation of single crystal superalloys. The con- stitutive model that is developed here is based on the fact that as bodies deform...

Prasad, Sharat Chand

2006-10-30

295

Low cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue behavior of Ni-based alloy 230 at 850 C  

SciTech Connect

Strain-controlled low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue testing of Ni-based alloy 230 were carried out at 850 C. The material creep-fatigue life decreased compared with its low cycle fatigue life at the same total strain range. Longer hold time at peak tensile strain further reduced the material creep-fatigue life. Based on the electron backscatter diffraction, a novel material deformation characterization method was applied, which revealed that in low cycle fatigue testing as the total strain range increased, the deformation was segregated to grain boundaries since the test temperature was higher than the material equicohesive temperature and grain boundaries became weaker regions compared with grains. Creep-fatigue tests enhanced the localized deformation, resulting in material interior intergranular cracking, and accelerated material damage. Precipitation in alloy 230 helped slip dispersion, favorable for fatigue property, but grain boundary cellular precipitates formed after material exposure to the elevated temperature had a deleterious effect on the material low cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue property.

Chen, Xiang [ORNL; Yang, Zhiqing [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL; ERDMAN III, DONALD L [ORNL; Mo, Kun [ORNL; Stubbins, James [ORNL

2013-01-01

296

High-temperature deformation and microstructural analysis for Si3N4-Sc2O3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was indicated that Si3N4 doped with Sc2O3 may exhibit high temperature mechanical properties superior to Si3N4 systems with various other oxide sintered additives. High temperature deformation of samples was studied by characterizing the microstructures before and after deformation. It was found that elements of the additive, such as Sc and O, exist in small amounts at very thin grain boundary layers and most of them stay in secondary phases at triple and multiple grain boundary junctions. These secondary phases are devitrified as crystalline Sc2Si2O7. Deformation of the samples was dominated by cavitational processes rather than movements of dislocations. Thus the excellent deformation resistance of the samples at high temperature can be attributed to the very small thickness of the grain boundary layers and the crystalline secondary phase.

Cheong, Deock-Soo; Sanders, William A.

1990-01-01

297

High-temperature deformation and microstructural analysis for silicon nitride-scandium(III) oxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was indicated that Si3N4 doped with Sc2O3 may exhibit high temperature mechanical properties superior to Si3N4 systems with various other oxide sintered additives. High temperature deformation of samples was studied by characterizing the microstructures before and after deformation. It was found that elements of the additive, such as Sc and O, exist in small amounts at very thin grain boundary layers and most of them stay in secondary phases at tripple and multiple grain boundary junctions. These secondary phases are devitrified as crystalline Sc2Si2O7. Deformation of the samples was dominated by cavitational processes rather than movements of dislocations. Thus the excellent deformation resistance of the samples at high temperature can be attributed to the very small thickness of the grain boundary layers and the crystalline secondary phase.

Cheong, Deock-Soo; Sanders, William A.

1992-01-01

298

Reactive infiltration processing and secondary compressive creep of NiAl and NiAl-W composites  

SciTech Connect

Reactive infiltration processing was used to fabricate bulk NiAl and fiber-reinforced NiAl composites. Homogeneous, pore-free materials were obtained by chemical reaction between nickel and aluminum after complete infiltration with liquid aluminum of performs of nickel wires (containing tungsten wires for the composites) with low surface-to-volume ratio, high permeability, and regular infiltration paths. Reactively-processed, monolithic NiAl exhibited compressive creep properties at 715 C and 1,025 C in good agreement with those of conventionally processed NiAl. The compressive creep behavior of NiAl composites reinforced with 5 to 20 vol pct W was also characterized at the same temperatures. At 715 C, the NiAl-W composites exhibited secondary creep with little primary and tertiary creep, while at 1,025 C, the composites displayed all three stages. Microstructurally, secondary creep was characterized by pure uniaxial compression of tungsten fibers. The measured composite secondary creep rates could be predicted reasonably well with the role-of-mixtures isostrain model developed for composites where both phases undergo creep deformation using tensile creep data measured on the as-received tungsten fibers.

Venkatesh, T.A.; Dunand, D.C.

2000-03-01

299

Cryogenic deformation of high temperature superconductive composite structures  

DOEpatents

An improvement in a process of preparing a composite high temperature oxide superconductive wire is provided and involves conducting at least one cross-sectional reduction step in the processing preparation of the wire at sub-ambient temperatures.

Roberts, Peter R. (Groton, MA); Michels, William (Brookline, MA); Bingert, John F. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2001-01-01

300

The Role of Eta Phase Formation on the Creep Strength and Ductility of INCONEL Alloy 740 at 1023 K (750 C)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INCONEL alloy 740 is an age-hardenable nickel-based superalloy proposed for advanced ultrasupercritical steam boiler applications operating at high stress and long times above 973 K (700 C), where creep will be the dominate deformation mode. During high-temperature exposure, the alloy can form eta phase platelets that many have suggested may be detrimental to creep strength and ductility. In this study, creep-rupture tests were conducted on smooth and notched bars of INCONEL alloy 740 at 1023 K (750 C) for times up to 20,000 hours. Examination of the creep-rupture life, creep ductility, failure modes, and microstructure by quantitative electron microscopy shows that a small amount of eta phase does not diminish the creep performance. Applied stress appears to have a minor effect on the precipitation of the eta phase but not its growth rate. Based on the observation that the microstructure after 20,000 hours of creep exposure has reached equilibrium in comparison to thermodynamic calculations, it is concluded that 20,000 hour creep tests are adequate for prediction of long-term creep performance.

Shingledecker, J. P.; Pharr, G. M.

2012-06-01

301

Temperature and angular momentum dependence of the quadrupole deformation in sd-shell  

E-print Network

Temperature and angular momentum dependence of the quadrupole deformation is studied in the middle of the sd-shell for 28Si and 27Si isotopes using the spherical shell model approach. The shell model calculations have been performed using the standard USD interaction and the canonical partition function constructed from the calculated eigen-solutions. It is shown that the extracted average quadrupole moments show a transitional behavior as a function of temperature and the inferred transitional temperature is shown to vary with angular-momentum. The quadrupole deformation of the individual eigen-states is also analyzed.

P. A. Ganai; J. A. Sheikh; I. Maqbool; R. P. Singh

2009-06-16

302

Creep fatigue life prediction for engine hot section materials (isotropic)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first two years of a two-phase program aimed at improving the high temperature crack initiation life prediction technology for gas turbine hot section components are discussed. In Phase 1 (baseline) effort, low cycle fatigue (LCF) models, using a data base generated for a cast nickel base gas turbine hot section alloy (B1900+Hf), were evaluated for their ability to predict the crack initiation life for relevant creep-fatigue loading conditions and to define data required for determination of model constants. The variables included strain range and rate, mean strain, strain hold times and temperature. None of the models predicted all of the life trends within reasonable data requirements. A Cycle Damage Accumulation (CDA) was therefore developed which follows an exhaustion of material ductility approach. Material ductility is estimated based on observed similarities of deformation structure between fatigue, tensile and creep tests. The cycle damage function is based on total strain range, maximum stress and stress amplitude and includes both time independent and time dependent components. The CDA model accurately predicts all of the trends in creep-fatigue life with loading conditions. In addition, all of the CDA model constants are determinable from rapid cycle, fully reversed fatigue tests and monotonic tensile and/or creep data.

Moreno, Vito; Nissley, David; Lin, Li-Sen Jim

1985-01-01

303

Increase of Austenite Grain Coarsening Temperature in Banded Ferrite/Pearlite Steel by Cold Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The grain coarsening temperature ( T c) is quite low in a ferrite/pearlite (F/P) banded steel as compared with a non-banded steel. Here it is shown that the low T c in the F/P banded steel can be increased significantly by applying cold deformation prior to austenitizing. The kinetics of abnormal grain coarsening above T c is also largely retarded by cold deformation. These observations should be attributed to the uniform distribution of fine AlN precipitates caused by cold deformation.

Zhang, Xianguang; Matsuura, Kiyotaka; Ohno, Munekazu

2015-01-01

304

Flow Unit Perspective on Room Temperature Homogeneous Plastic Deformation in Metallic Glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mandrel winding method, which can realize remarkable homogeneous plastic deformation at room temperature for various metallic glasses, is applied to characterize plastic flow units and study their relationship with macroscopic deformations and relaxations. The method can provide information on the activation energy, activation time, size, intrinsic relaxation time, distribution, and density of flow units. We find the plasticity of a metallic glass can be controlled through modulating the features of flow units. The results have benefits for better understanding the structural origins of deformations and relaxations, and for designing metallic glasses with improved performances.

Lu, Z.; Jiao, W.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y.

2014-07-01

305

Evidence of dislocation cross-slip in MAX phase deformed at high temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ti2AlN nanolayered ternary alloy has been plastically deformed under confining pressure at 900C. The dislocation configurations of the deformed material have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The results show a drastic evolution compared to the dislocation configurations observed in the Ti2AlN samples deformed at room temperature. In particular, they evidence out-of-basal-plane dislocations and interactions. Moreover numerous cross-slip events from basal plane to prismatic or pyramidal planes are observed. These original results are discussed in the context of the Brittle-to-Ductile Transition of the nanolayered ternary alloys.

Guitton, Antoine; Joulain, Anne; Thilly, Ludovic; Tromas, Christophe

2014-09-01

306

Flow unit perspective on room temperature homogeneous plastic deformation in metallic glasses.  

PubMed

A mandrel winding method, which can realize remarkable homogeneous plastic deformation at room temperature for various metallic glasses, is applied to characterize plastic flow units and study their relationship with macroscopic deformations and relaxations. The method can provide information on the activation energy, activation time, size, intrinsic relaxation time, distribution, and density of flow units. We find the plasticity of a metallic glass can be controlled through modulating the features of flow units. The results have benefits for better understanding the structural origins of deformations and relaxations, and for designing metallic glasses with improved performances. PMID:25105632

Lu, Z; Jiao, W; Wang, W H; Bai, H Y

2014-07-25

307

Processing and creep behaviour of silicon carbide-platelet reinforced alumina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creep rates of SiC whisker reinforced Al2O3 have been found to be one or two orders of magnitude lower than the creep rate of unreinforced alumina. However, whiskers are a serious health hazard due to their asbestos-like geometry, they are expensive (thousands of dollars per kilogram), and they tend to get damaged during processing. Platelets have been proposed as an alternative to whiskers due to their reinforcement potential comparable to that of whiskers, forgiving geometry (with respect to safety), better thermal stability, lower price (hundreds of dollars per kilogram) and ease of processing. Up to now, research in platelet reinforced ceramics has concentrated mainly in room temperature properties and little is known about their high temperature mechanical properties. The aim of this work was to study the way in which different reinforcement network morphologies affect the creep behaviour of SiC-platelet/Al2O3 composites and to determine the important deformation mechanisms at the studied temperature (1250C). To this end, composites with different platelet volume fractions (0 to 30%) and orientation distributions were fabricated. The samples were subjected to flexure and compression creep tests and characterized using optical and electron microscopy, dilatometry, and neutron diffraction. The analysis of the creep behaviour was found to be complicated by the differences in impurity content in the samples and the increase in glass content with the platelets volume fraction. However, the results clearly indicate a strong influence of the reinforcement morphology on the creep properties. Special attention was given to an unusual time-dependent transition from high to low creep strain rate in some of the composites. The phenomenon was ascribed to the possible relief of bending strains in the platelets. In addition, some of the possible main mechanisms responsible for the increased creep resistance in SiC-whisker reinforced ceramics were found not be operative in platelet-reinforced ceramics.

Ham-Su, Rosaura

1998-12-01

308

Deformation mechanisms in granodiorite at effective pressures to 100 MPa and temperatures to partial melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformation mechanisms in room-dry and water-saturated specimens of Charcoal Granodiorite, shortened at 10⁻⁴s⁻¹, at effective pressures (Pe) to 100 MPa and temperatures to partial melting (less than or equal to 1050°C) are documented with a view toward providing criteria to recognize and characterize the deformation for geological and engienering applications. Above 800°C strength decreases dramatically at effective pressures greater than

M. Friedman; J. Handin; S. J. Bauer

1981-01-01

309

Resist deformation at low temperature in nanoimprint lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the squeeze flow of thin polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) films into nanocavities has been investigated in order to understand and optimise the imprint process conditions. This work was focused primarily on the PMMA flow behaviour at temperatures below the glass transition temperature Tg (<105C). The cavity and structure patterns were fabricated on silicon nitride molds. An ABAQUS\\/CAE finite

K. Mohamed; M. M. Alkaisi; J. Smaill

2006-01-01

310

The Use of CDM Analysis Techniques in High Temperature Creep Failure of Welded Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques are reviewed for the calibration of constitutive relationships for the different phases of the weld. It is shown how the calibration is carried out using property ratios, and a knowledge of the constitutive equations of the parent material. The results of CDM analyses, obtained using the two-dimensional solver Damage XX, are reviewed for: a butt-welded pipe at 565C and, a welded cylinder-sphere pipe intersection at 590C. Results are then presented of a three-dimensional CDM solution for a three-degree slice of the welded cylinder-sphere pipe intersection, and shown to be in close agreement with the two-dimensional, Damage XX, solution. Then the paper examines damage growth at a constant temperature of 590C in a ferritic steel butt-welded pipe subjected to a combined constant internal pressure of 4MPa and a constant global bending moment of 49kNm. The CDM results for a three-dimensional analysis are compared with qualitative experimental results, and good correlation is indicated.

Hayhurst, David R.; Wong, Man Tak; Vakili-Tahami, Farid

311

Deformation mechanisms of NiAl cyclicly deformed near the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intermetallic compound NiAl is one of many advanced materials which is being scrutinized for possible use in high temperature, structural applications. Stoichiometric NiAl has a high melting temperature, excellent oxidation resistance, and good thermal conductivity. Past research has concentrated on improving monotonic properties. The encouraging results obtained on binary and micro-alloyed NiAl over the past ten years have led to the broadening of NiAl experimental programs. The purpose of this research project was to determine the low cycle fatigue properties and dislocation mechanisms of stoichiometric NiAl at temperatures near the monotonic brittle-to-ductile transition. The fatigue properties were found to change only slightly in the temperature range of 600 to 700 K; a temperature range over which monotonic ductility and fracture strength increase markedly. The shape of the cyclic hardening curves coincided with the changes observed in the dislocation structures. The evolution of dislocation structures did not appear to change with temperature.

Cullers, Cheryl L.; Antolovich, Stephen D.

1993-01-01

312

Temperature Effects on Deformation and Serration Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys (HEAs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many materials are known to deform under shear in an intermittent way with slip avalanches detected as acoustic emission and serrations in the stress-strain curves. Similar serrations have recently been observed in a new class of materials, called high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Here, we discuss the serration behaviors of several HEAs from cryogenic to elevated temperatures. The experimental results of slow compression and tension tests are compared with the predictions of a slip-avalanche model for the deformation of a broad range of solids. The results shed light on the deformation processes in HEAs. Temperature effects on the distributions of stress drops and the decrease of the cutoff (i.e., of the largest observed slip size) for increasing temperature qualitatively agree with the model predictions. The model is used to quantify the serration characteristics of HEAs, and pertinent implications are discussed.

Antonaglia, J.; Xie, X.; Tang, Z.; Tsai, C.-W.; Qiao, J. W.; Zhang, Y.; Laktionova, M. O.; Tabachnikova, E. D.; Yeh, J. W.; Senkov, O. N.; Gao, M. C.; Uhl, J. T.; Liaw, P. K.; Dahmen, K. A.

2014-10-01

313

Structure and phase composition of alloyed intermetallic compound Ni3Al after annealing and high-temperature creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and phase composition of a VKNA-25 alloy based on the Ni3Al intermetallic compound, produced by directional solidification, and alloyed with rare-earth metals are studied in the following two states: after annealing at 1100C and after creep at 1100C.

Vershinina, T. N.; Golosova, O. A.; Kolobov, Yu. R.; Povarova, K. B.

2011-05-01

314

Effect of hydrogen on the low-temperature deformation properties of neutron-irradiated vanadium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of hydrogen on the low temperature deformation characteristics of neutron-irradiated vanadium single crystals\\u000a has been investigated in compression in the temperature range from 77 to 550 K. The addition of hydrogen to neutron-irradiated\\u000a vanadium causes a local perturbation in the temperature dependence of yield stress that is similar to unirradiated vanadium.\\u000a A mechanism based on the stress induced

C. C. Chen; R. J. Arsenault

1976-01-01

315

Shear creep and attenuation in Newtonian-viscous, polycrystalline olivine and olivine-based partial melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature (1100sp C{-}1285sp C), driven torsional attenuation and creep experiments have been performed on both nominally melt-free (MF) and melt-bearing (MB; 5 wt% synthetic high-potassium basalt), fine-grained (d{}3?m) synthetic dunites. Both materials are mechanically linear (i.e., strain, strain rate are both proportional to the applied stress) over the entirety of the testing conditions, implying that deformation is accomplished via a diffusional mechanism. The creep response of both materials is characterized by a decelerating transient in the creep rate that leads to an apparent steady state, and is accurately modeled by the Andrade creep function. Both aggregates display an activation energy of 700\\ kJ{*}molsp{-1} for the entirety of the creep response, with the MB aggregates displaying creep rates approximately six times higher than the MF aggregates, in agreement with solution-precipitation-enhanced diffusional creep models. No additional transient response is evident in the MB materials. At temperatures above 1100sp C, both materials display relatively high shear attenuation ({cal Q}sbsp{G}{-1}) values ({-2 < logsb{10}}({cal Q}sbsp{G}{-1}) < 0.5) that are moderately dependent upon frequency (f), with {cal Q}sbsp{G}{-1}{}fsp{-0.35}, consistent with seismic observations. The {cal Q}sbsp{G}{-1} behavior in both materials can be predicted directly from Andrade-model fits to the creep response. At identical experimental conditions, the values of {cal Q}sbsp{G}{-1} for the MB aggregates are consistently 0.35 logsb{10} units higher than those for the MF aggregates. The difference in magnitude of {cal Q}sbsp{G}{-1} is shown to be solely a consequence of the enhanced creep rates in the MB material and is not related to any other, unique, melt-based attenuation mechanism. The transient creep and corresponding {cal Q}sbsp{G}{-1} behavior observed in both aggregates is due to the evolution of the grain boundary tractions from an initial state, one characterized by large tractions at triple junctions and low values elsewhere along the grain face, to a nominally parabolic distribution that allows for steady-state creep. This transient is intrinsic to diffusional creep; in a uniform-grain-sized aggregate it will produce the characteristic power-law-of-time signature of the transient in the Andrade model. Thus, an attenuation "band", i.e., {cal Q}sbsp{G}{-1}{}fsp{-q} with 0.25? q? 0.5 can arise from the grain-boundary-diffusion response; a broad spatial distribution of a microstructural feature is not a priori required.

Gribb, Tye Travis

316

High-temperature behavior of a deformed Fermi gas obeying interpolating statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An outstanding idea originally introduced by Greenberg is to investigate whether there is equivalence between intermediate statistics, which may be different from anyonic statistics, and q-deformed particle algebra. Also, a model to be studied for addressing such an idea could possibly provide us some new consequences about the interactions of particles as well as their internal structures. Motivated mainly by this idea, in this work, we consider a q-deformed Fermi gas model whose statistical properties enable us to effectively study interpolating statistics. Starting with a generalized Fermi-Dirac distribution function, we derive several thermostatistical functions of a gas of these deformed fermions in the thermodynamical limit. We study the high-temperature behavior of the system by analyzing the effects of q deformation on the most important thermostatistical characteristics of the system such as the entropy, specific heat, and equation of state. It is shown that such a deformed fermion model in two and three spatial dimensions exhibits the interpolating statistics in a specific interval of the model deformation parameter 0 < q < 1. In particular, for two and three spatial dimensions, it is found from the behavior of the third virial coefficient of the model that the deformation parameter q interpolates completely between attractive and repulsive systems, including the free boson and fermion cases. From the results obtained in this work, we conclude that such a model could provide much physical insight into some interacting theories of fermions, and could be useful to further study the particle systems with intermediate statistics.

Algin, Abdullah; Senay, Mustafa

2012-04-01

317

Experimental Creep Life Assessment for the Advanced Stirling Convertor Heater Head  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States Department of Energy is planning to develop the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for potential use on future space missions. The ASRG provides substantial efficiency and specific power improvements over radioisotope power systems of heritage designs. The ASRG would use General Purpose Heat Source modules as energy sources and the free-piston Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) to convert heat into electrical energy. Lockheed Martin Corporation of Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, is integrating the ASRG systems, and Sunpower, Inc., of Athens, Ohio, is designing and building the ASC. NASA Glenn Research Center of Cleveland, Ohio, manages the Sunpower contract and provides technology development in several areas for the ASC. One area is reliability assessment for the ASC heater head, a critical pressure vessel within which heat is converted into mechanical oscillation of a displacer piston. For high system efficiency, the ASC heater head operates at very high temperature (850 C) and therefore is fabricated from an advanced heat-resistant nickel-based superalloy Microcast MarM-247. Since use of MarM-247 in a thin-walled pressure vessel is atypical, much effort is required to assure that the system will operate reliably for its design life of 17 years. One life-limiting structural response for this application is creep; creep deformation is the accumulation of time-dependent inelastic strain under sustained loading over time. If allowed to progress, the deformation eventually results in creep rupture. Since creep material properties are not available in the open literature, a detailed creep life assessment of the ASC heater head effort is underway. This paper presents an overview of that creep life assessment approach, including the reliability-based creep criteria developed from coupon testing, and the associated heater head deterministic and probabilistic analyses. The approach also includes direct benchmark experimental creep assessment. This element provides high-fidelity creep testing of prototypical heater head test articles to investigate the relevant material issues and multiaxial stress state. Benchmark testing provides required data to evaluate the complex life assessment methodology and to validate that analysis. Results from current benchmark heater head tests and newly developed experimental methods are presented. In the concluding remarks, the test results are shown to compare favorably with the creep strain predictions and are the first experimental evidence for a robust ASC heater head creep life.

Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Shah, Ashwin R.; Korovaichuk, Igor

2010-01-01

318

Grain-boundary diffusion creep in nanocrystalline palladium by molecular-dynamics simulation.  

SciTech Connect

Molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of fully three-dimensional (3D), model nanocrystalline face-centered cubic metal microstructures are used to study grain-boundary (GB) diffusion creep, one mechanism considered to contribute to the deformation of nanocrystalline materials. To overcome the well-known limitations associated with the relatively short time interval used in our MD simulation (typically <10{sup -8} s), our simulations are performed at elevated temperatures where the distinct effects of GB diffusion are clearly identifiable. In order to prevent grain growth and thus to enable steady-state diffusion creep to be observed, our input microstructures were tailored to (1) have a uniform grain shape and a uniform grain size of nm dimensions and (2) contain only high-energy GBs which are known to exhibit rather fast, liquid-like self-diffusion. Our simulations reveal that under relatively high tensile stresses these microstructures, indeed, exhibit steady-state diffusion creep that is homogeneous, with a strain rate that agrees quantitatively with that given by the Coble-creep formula. The grain-size scaling of the Coble creep is found to decrease from d{sup -3} to d{sup -2} when the grain diameter becomes of the order of the GB width. For the first time a direct observation of the grain-boundary sliding as an accommodation mechanism for the Coble creep, known as Lifshitz sliding, is reported.

Yamakov, V.; Wolf, D.; Phillpot, S. R.; Gleiter, H.; Materials Science Division; Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

2002-01-08

319

Temperature deformations of the mirror of a radio telescope antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stress informed state of the mirror of an antenna, with a diameter of 3 m, for a radio interferometer used in space, and located in a temperature field is examined. The mirror represents a parabolic shell, consisting of 19 identical parts. The problem is based on representations of the thermoelasticity of thin shells.

Avdeyev, V. I.; Grach, S. A.; Kozhakhmetov, K. K.; Kostenko, F. I.

1979-01-01

320

Deformation, Stress Relaxation, and Crystallization of Lithium Silicate Glass Fibers Below the Glass Transition Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The deformation and crystallization of Li(sub 2)O (center dot) 2SiO2 and Li(sub 2)O (center dot) 1.6SiO2 glass fibers subjected to a bending stress were measured as a function of time over the temperature range -50 to -150 C below the glass transition temperature (Tg). The glass fibers can be permanently deformed at temperatures about 100 C below T (sub)g, and they crystallize significantly at temperatures close to, but below T,, about 150 C lower than the onset temperature for crystallization for these glasses in the no-stress condition. The crystallization was found to occur only on the surface of the glass fibers with no detectable difference in the extent of crystallization in tensile and compressive stress regions. The relaxation mechanism for fiber deformation can be best described by a stretched exponential (Kohlrausch-Williams-Watt (KWW) approximation), rather than a single exponential model.The activation energy for stress relaxation, Es, for the glass fibers ranges between 175 and 195 kJ/mol, which is considerably smaller than the activation energy for viscous flow, E, (about 400 kJ/mol) near T, for these glasses at normal, stress-free condition. It is suspected that a viscosity relaxation mechanism could be responsible for permanent deformation and crystallization of the glass fibers below T,

Ray, Chandra S.; Brow, Richard K.; Kim, Cheol W.; Reis, Signo T.

2004-01-01

321

Low-temperature plastic deformation of AZ31 magnesium alloy with different microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plastic deformation of AZ31 magnesium alloy under tension at temperatures of 4.2-295K is studied as a function of its microstructure following squeeze casting (SC) and after severe plastic deformation (SPD) by hot rolling and equal-channel angular pressing. SPD reduces the average grain size and creates a texture that favors basal-plane dislocation glide. It is found that plastic deformation becomes unstable (serrated) at temperatures of 4.2-25K and more stress jerks occur in the SPD polycrystal than in the SC alloy. The temperature dependence of the yield stress of the alloy is typical of thermally activated unpinning of dislocations from short-range barriers. The ratio of the yield stresses for the SPD and SC alloys at a given temperature is explained by hardening owing to a reduction in grain size and softening owing to a favorable texture. As the grain size is reduced, the rate of strain hardening of the alloy falls off, but its ductility (strain to fracture) increases because of the texture. The strain rate sensitivity of the alloy for T ?100K is independent of microstructure and is determined by intersections with forest dislocations. As the temperature is raised over 150-295K the strain rate sensitivity becomes greater owing to activation of dynamic recovery and an enhanced contribution from diffusion processes during plastic deformation of micrograined materials.

Estrin, Yu. Z.; Zabrodin, P. A.; Braude, I. S.; Grigorova, T. V.; Isaev, N. V.; Pustovalov, V. V.; Fomenko, V. S.; Shumilin, S. E.

2010-12-01

322

DEFORMATION MECHANISMS OF SALT UNDER REPOSITORY CONDITIONS F. D. Hansen, RE/SPEC Inc., P. 0. Box 725, Rapid City, SD 57709, U.S.A.  

E-print Network

the various processes of plastic defor- mation. Creep of natural rock salt in the laboratory under repository711 DEFORMATION MECHANISMS OF SALT UNDER REPOSITORY CONDITIONS F. D. Hansen, RE/SPEC Inc., P. 0, the strain rate should be a function of stress différence, temperature, and structure. Deformation of salt

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

Creep analysis of solid oxide fuel cell with bonded compliant seal design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) requires good sealant because it works in harsh conditions (high temperature, thermal cycle, oxidative and reducing gas environments). Bonded compliant seal (BCS) is a new sealing method for planar SOFC. It uses a thin foil metal to bond the window frame and cell, achieving the seal between window frame and cell. At high temperature, a comprehensive evaluation of its creep strength is essential for the adoption of BCS design. In order to characterize the creep behavior, the creep induced by thermal stresses in SOFC with BCS design is simulated by finite element method. The results show that the foil is compressed and large thermal stresses are generated. The initial peak thermal stress is located in the thin foil because the foil acts as a spring stores the thermal stresses by elastic and plastic deformation in itself. Serving at high temperature, initial thermal displacement is partially recovered because of the creep relaxation, which becomes a new discovered advantage for BCS design. It predicts that the failures are likely to happen in the middle of the cell edge and BNi-2 filler metal, because the maximum residual displacement and creep strain are located.

Jiang, Wenchun; Zhang, Yucai; Luo, Yun; Gong, J. M.; Tu, S. T.

2013-12-01

324

Creep of cold-worked Zry-4 at 673 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep data, at 673 K, up to times of about 400 h and stresses between 117.6 and 264.7 MPa, in flat specimens of cold-worked Zry-4, are reported. When viewed in a ?-/.? diagram, the data can be represented by Hart's equation of state /.? = /.? ?[ln(? ?/?)] {-1}/{?}, where ? ? and /.? ? are related to the plastic strain and ? is a constant, with a value similar to that obtained by measurements of the stress-relaxation in bending of the same material and at the same temperature. No distinction is made between primary and steady-state creep, indicating that the same mechanism is controlling the plastic deformation in both regions. The apparent activation energy was found to be independent of stress with a value close to that for self diffusion.

Povolo, F.; Marzocca, A. J.

1981-04-01

325

Anomalous deformation twinning in fcc metals at high temperatures Tanushree Sinha and Yashashree Kulkarnia)  

E-print Network

Anomalous deformation twinning in fcc metals at high temperatures Tanushree Sinha and Yashashree shown strong promise as optimal motifs for strength, ductility, and grain stability in fcc metals observed before in fcc metals. Although the origins of this intriguing behavior are not yet clear to us, we

Kulkarni, Yashashree

326

High-temperature deformation in the Neoproterozoic transpressional Ribeira belt, southeast Brazil  

E-print Network

High-temperature deformation in the Neoproterozoic transpressional Ribeira belt, southeast Brazil^ncias da Universidade de Sa~o Paulo, Rua do Lago 562, Cep: 05508-080, Sa~o Paulo, SP, Brazil b Laboratoire Geologia, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, 35400-000, Ouro Pre^to, MG, Brazil Received 5 April 2001

Bascou, Jérôme

327

In-situ Phase Transformation and Deformation of Iron at High Pressure andTemperature  

SciTech Connect

With a membrane based mechanism to allow for pressure change of a sample in aradial diffraction diamond anvil cell (rDAC) and simultaneous infra-red laser heating, itis now possible to investigate texture changes during deformation and phasetransformations over a wide range of temperature-pressure conditions. The device isused to study bcc (alpha), fcc (gamma) and hcp (epislon) iron. In bcc iron, room temperature compression generates a texture characterized by (100) and (111) poles parallel to the compression direction. During the deformation induced phase transformation to hcp iron, a subset of orientations are favored to transform to the hcp structure first and generate a texture of (01-10) at high angles to the compression direction. Upon further deformation, the remaining grains transform, resulting in a texture that obeys the Burgers relationship of (110)bcc // (0001)hcp. This is in contrast to high temperature results that indicate that texture is developed through dominant pyramidal {2-1-12}<2-1-13> and basal (0001)-{2-1-10} slip based on polycrystal plasticity modeling. We also observe that the high temperature fcc phase develops a 110 texture typical for fcc metals deformed in compression.

Miyagi, Lowell; Kunz, Martin; Knight, Jason; Nasiatka, James; Voltolini, Marco; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

2008-07-01

328

Brittle metallic glass deforms plastically at room temperature in glassy multilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk metallic glasses are emerging as a new class of materials that can have applications ranging from structural materials to materials for future nanotechnology. However, catastrophic mechanical failure is a serious issue hindering the use of these materials in engineering applications. Here we introduce an approach to understanding and solving the problem of brittleness of metallic glasses. We have shown that even a very brittle metallic glass (La based) can be forced to deform plastically at room temperature if it is made in the form of multilayers involving other metallic glasses, i.e., a two-phase glass. The mechanically soft glassy layer (La based) having a lower critical shear stress acts as a nucleation or an initiation site for shear bands and the mechanically hard glassy layer (Zr based) acts as an obstacle to the propagation of shear bands. This process results in the multiplication of shear bands. Since the shear bands are associated with a local rise in temperature, a large number of shear bands can raise the overall temperature of the soft layer and eventually can drive it to the supercooled liquid state, where deformation of metallic glass is very large and homogeneous. The results reported here not only clarify the mechanism of large plastic deformation in two-phase glassy alloys but also suggest the possibility of a different kind of two-phase bulk glassy alloys exhibiting large plastic deformation at room temperature.

Sharma, Parmanand; Yubuta, Kunio; Kimura, Hisamichi; Inoue, Akihisa

2009-07-01

329

Creep in chipboard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deflection under 4-point bending of a range of board types was measured for up to six months. Results were obtained under steady-state conditions of stress level (30%, 45%, 60%, 67.5% and 75% of the short term breaking stress), relative humidity (30%, 65% and 90% rh) and temperature (10C, 20C and 30C). These results are presented in terms of relative creep

J. M. Dinwoodie; D. J. Robson; B. H. Paxton; J. S. Higgins

1991-01-01

330

Low-temperature AMS and the quantification of subfabrics in deformed rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the application and significance of Low-Temperature Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (LT-AMS) measurements in deformed mudrocks. Originally conceived as a way to enhance paramagnetic relative to ferromagnetic susceptibility, LT-AMS studies offer significant potential in constraining the coexistence of subfabrics that are due to phyllosilicate grains with different preferred orientations. In this study we report a detailed procedure to obtain such directional susceptibilities, measuring samples in multiple orientations at liquid nitrogen temperatures in order to determine the LT-AMS. Due to unequal changes of magnetic susceptibility in micas at low-temperature, the enhancement of standard AMS at low-temperature better separates interacting fabrics in natural rocks, particularly depositional fabrics versus deformational fabrics. LT-AMS is a non-destructive technique that readily offers an ability to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic fabrics, and allows the characterization and quantification of multiple fabrics in natural rocks.

Pars, Josep M.; van der Pluijm, Ben A.

2014-08-01

331

Analyzing thermal deformation of large mirrors caused by temperature gradient using a simplified way  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some space-based telescopes have primary mirrors with great size which make active thermal control almost impossible. Sunshield is introduced to provide a relatively stable environment. Primary mirror's diameter is commonly several meters large and several millimeters thick such as in NGST or JWST. Even after segmented, it still could be one meter large. If temperature difference exists between two sides of mirror commonly with no heat source inside, great deformation could happen and then decrease performance of whole system. Theories to analyze deformation considering radius, thickness and material properties of mirror based on simplified models are proposed. Primary mirror is supposed to be spherical. Considering axial symmetry, only part of primary mirror is analyzed. To be convenient, thermal stress is converted to a moment by select proper thermal refercence. Most deformation caused by thermal stress can be seen as impacts of equivalent moment at both ends of selected part. Based on such hypotheses, analysis can be greatly simplified. At last, relationship between deformation and radius, thickness or material properties of primary mirror is given. To testify results, thermal deformation cause by thermal gradient along radius is also calculated using finite element method software: MSC NASTRAN/PATRAN. Considering axial symmetry, only 1/4 part of the segmented primary mirror is modeled. Fitful boundary conditions and temperature loads are also applied to it. Finally results from theoretical and finite element method were coincident. Simplified theories were proved to be accurate.

Bin, Xie; Chi, Yu J.; Ji, Guo P.; Hong, Xiao Z.

2006-02-01

332

High-temperature deformation processes and strengthening mechanisms in intermetallic particulate composites. Final technical report, Dec 88-Dec 91  

SciTech Connect

Research on the high temperature deformation processes and strengthening mechanisms in Intermetallic Particulate Composites is described. Work of the grant included high temperature compression tests of Ni3Al - Al2O3 composites; mechanical alloying of Ni3 Al + Y 2 03 ; transient deformation studies of the intermetallics Ni 3 Al, NiAl , NiBe; and development of a model of dislocation structure control of plastic deformation. Work during the past year on the high temperature deformation of NiAl single crystals is also described.

Nix, W.D.; Forbes, K.R.; Sternbergh, D.D.

1992-03-31

333

Effect of trace impurities in helium on the creep behavior of Alloy 617 for very high temperature reactor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of trace impurities, methane and oxygen, in helium on the creep behavior of Alloy 617, has been investigated. The creep rupture life at relatively low applied stresses was shortest in a helium environment containing 500 vppm oxygen (He + O 2), while it was the longest in helium containing 675 vppm methane (He + CH 4). However, the rupture strain was significantly lower in the He + CH 4 environment compared to that in pure helium (He) and He + O 2. The low rupture strain in the He + CH 4 is caused by cleavage fracture. In the He + CH 4 environment, the fracture mode was cleavage at lower applied stresses and ductile at higher applied stresses while in the He and He + O 2, a ductile fracture was observed at all stress levels. The apparent activation energy for creep was determined in all three environments, and it appears to be independent of stress in the He, dependent in the He + CH 4, while in the He + O 2 environment the stress dependence could not be conclusively established.

Shankar, P. S.; Natesan, K.

2007-06-01

334

Deformation mechanisms during low-and high-temperature superplasticity in 5083 Al-Mg alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controlling deformation mechanisms and grain boundary sliding behavior during low-, medium-, and high-temperature superplasticity (LTSP, MTSP, and HTSP) in fine-grained 5083 Al-Mg base alloys are systematically examined as a function of strain. Grain boundary sliding was observed to proceed at temperatures as low as 200 C. With increasing LTSP straining from the initial (?1.0), the strain rate sensitivity m,

I. C. Hsiao; J. C. Huang

2002-01-01

335

Deformation mechanisms during low-and high-temperature superplasticity in 5083 Al-Mg alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controlling deformation mechanisms and grain boundary sliding behavior during low-, medium-, and high-temperature superplasticity\\u000a (LTSP, MTSP, and HTSP) in fine-grained 5083 Al-Mg base alloys are systematically examined as a function of strain. Grain boundary\\u000a sliding was observed to proceed at temperatures as low as 200 C. With increasing LTSP straining from the initial (?<0.5)\\u000a to later stages (?>1.0), the

I. C. Hsiao; J. C. Huang

2002-01-01

336

Beyond the D-DIA: new initiatives for deformation experiments at higher pressure and temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in experimental high-pressure, high-temperature deformation have relied to a large extent on technological developments. From the pioneer work of F.D. Adams [1] in generating differential stress at high pressure to deform rocks plastically to Griggs' famous deformation apparatus [2], each new invention has enabled numerous scientific publications and brought our understanding of rock deformation to a new level. For the past few years, two major workhorses in deformation experiments above 3 GPa are the rotational deformation apparatus (RDA) [3] and the deformation DIA (D-DIA) [4]. These developments brought us to almost 20 GPa under controlled differential stress and strain rates. Several new initiatives are being undertaken at GSECARS aiming at further enhancing experimental capabilities to higher pressures, temperatures and better in situ characterization of the deforming samples. We constructed a modified RDA with microtomography capability at high pressure which is used to image, in situ and in 3D, fabric evolution in multi-phase composites under large shear strains, to shed lights on the physics of complex earth materials during deformation. A large version of D-DIA (DDIA-30) has also been developed taking advantages of the rigidity of large guide blocks for much improved alignment. A 6-6 multianvil cell (MA6-6) [5] is used for deformation experiments with various truncated edge lengths, without having to change the large first-stage anvils. This configuration has the potential to reach pressure conditions corresponding to the lower mantle. We present recent results of these developments, and their potential applications for understanding dynamic processes from the upper mantle to the lower mantle. [1] Adams, F. D. and J. T. Nicolson (1900) Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. A, 195: 363-401. [2] Griggs, D.T. (1967) Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. Soc., 14:19-31. [3] Yamazaki, D., and S. Karato (2001) Rev. Sci. Instrum., 72:4207-4211. [4] Wang, Y., I. Getting, W. Durham, D. Weidner (2003) Rev. Sci. Instrum., 74:3002-3011. [5] Nishiyama, N., Y. Wang, T. Sanehira, T. Irifune, M. Rivers (2008) High Pres. Res., 28, 307-314.

Wang, Y.; Jing, Z.; Yu, T.; Hilairet, N.; Nishiyama, N.

2011-12-01

337

Compressive Creep Behavior of Spark Plasma Sintered 8 mol% Yttria Stabilized Cubic Zirconia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes compressive creep behavior of cubic 8 mol% Yttria-stabilized Zirconia, fabricated by spark plasma sintering, in the temperature range of 1300-1330 C at a stress level of 78-193 MPa in vacuum. The pre- and post-creep microstructures, along with the values of the stress exponent ( n = 1.7-2.7) and the activation energy ( Q = 711-757 kJ/mol) suggest that a mixed mode of plastic deformation, dominated by grain boundary sliding, occurred in this material. The relatively high activation energy observed was related to the pinning of the grain boundaries by voids during creep, leading to microcrack formation, shear strain-induced grain exfoliation, and finally creation of new voids at grain boundaries.

Robles Arellano, K. D.; Bichler, L.; Mondal, K.; Fong, R.

2014-10-01

338

Structural Benchmark Creep Testing for the Advanced Stirling Convertor Heater Head  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified the high efficiency Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) as a candidate power source for use on long duration Science missions such as lunar applications, Mars rovers, and deep space missions. For the inherent long life times required, a structurally significant design limit for the heater head component of the ASRG Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) is creep deformation induced at low stress levels and high temperatures. Demonstrating proof of adequate margins on creep deformation and rupture for the operating conditions and the MarM-247 material of construction is a challenge that the NASA Glenn Research Center is addressing. The combined analytical and experimental program ensures integrity and high reliability of the heater head for its 17-year design life. The life assessment approach starts with an extensive series of uniaxial creep tests on thin MarM-247 specimens that comprise the same chemistry, microstructure, and heat treatment processing as the heater head itself. This effort addresses a scarcity of openly available creep properties for the material as well as for the virtual absence of understanding of the effect on creep properties due to very thin walls, fine grains, low stress levels, and high-temperature fabrication steps. The approach continues with a considerable analytical effort, both deterministically to evaluate the median creep life using nonlinear finite element analysis, and probabilistically to calculate the heater head s reliability to a higher degree. Finally, the approach includes a substantial structural benchmark creep testing activity to calibrate and validate the analytical work. This last element provides high fidelity testing of prototypical heater head test articles; the testing includes the relevant material issues and the essential multiaxial stress state, and applies prototypical and accelerated temperature profiles for timely results in a highly controlled laboratory environment. This paper focuses on the last element and presents a preliminary methodology for creep rate prediction, the experimental methods, test challenges, and results from benchmark testing of a trial MarM-247 heater head test article. The results compare favorably with the analytical strain predictions. A description of other test findings is provided, and recommendations for future test procedures are suggested. The manuscript concludes with describing the potential impact of the heater head creep life assessment and benchmark testing effort on the ASC program.

Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bowman, Randy R.; Shah, Ashwin R.

2008-01-01

339

Grain-boundary diffusion creep in nanocrystalline palladium by molecular-dynamics simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of fully three-dimensional (3D), model nanocrystalline face-centered cubic metal microstructures are used to study grain-boundary (GB) diffusion creep, one mechanism considered to contribute to the deformation of nanocrystalline materials. To overcome the well-known limitations associated with the relatively short time interval used in our MD simulation (typically <10?8 s), our simulations are performed at elevated temperatures where

V. Yamakov; D. Wolf; S. R. Phillpot; H. Gleiter; Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

2002-01-01

340

Transient creep and convective instability of the lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory experiments with rock samples show that transient creep, at which strain grows with time and strain rate decrease at constant stress, occurs while creep strains are sufficiently small. The transient creep at high temperatures is described by the Andrade rheological model. Since plate tectonics allows only small deformations in lithospheric plates, creep of the lithosphere plates is transient whereas steady-state creep, described by non-Newtonian power-law rheological model, takes place in the underlying mantle. At the transient creep, the effective viscosity, found in the study of postglacial flows, differs significantly from the effective viscosity, which characterizes convective flow, since timescales of these flows are very different. Besides, the transient creep changes the elastic crust thickness estimated within the power-law rheology of the lithosphere. Two problems of convective stability for the lithosphere with the Andrade rheology are solved. The solution of the first problem shows that the state, in which large-scale convective flow in the mantle occurs under lithospheric plates, is unstable and must bifurcate into another more stable state at which the lithospheric plates become mobile and plunge into the mantle at subduction zones. If the lithosphere had the power-law fluid rheology, the effective viscosity of the stagnant lithospheric plates would be extremely high and the state, in which large-scale convection occurs under the stagnant plates, would be stable that contradicts plate tectonics. The mantle convection forms mobile lithospheric plates if the effective viscosity of the plate is not too much higher than the effective viscosity of the underlying mantle. The Andrade rheology lowers the plate effective viscosity corresponding to the power-law fluid rheology and, thus, leads to instability of the state in which the plates are stagnant. The solution of the second stability problem shows that the state, in which the lithospheric plate moves as a whole with constant velocity, is stable but small-amplitude oscillations are imposed on this motion in regions of thickened lithosphere beneath continental cratons (subcratonic roots) where the thickness of the lithosphere is about 200 km. These oscillations create small-scale convective cells (the horizontal dimensions of the cells are of the order of the subcratonic lithosphere thickness). Direction of motion within the cells periodically changes (the period of oscillations is of the order of 108 yr). The small-amplitude convective oscillations cause small strains and do not destroy the thickening of the lithosphere beneath cratons. Thus, the transient creep of the lithosphere explains not only mobility of the lithospheric plates but longevity of subcratonic roots as well.

Birger, Boris I.

2012-12-01

341

Deformation Behavior of AZ80 Wrought Magnesium Alloy at Cryogenic Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The influence of temperature on the deformation and failure behavior of AZ80 wrought Mg alloy has been examined from 77K to 298K. It is found that the yield strength (YS) and ultimate strength (UTS) are increasing with the temperature decreasing, while the elongation is decreasing especial between 213K and 143K. Based on the mechanical tests, observation of environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), it is proposed that the alloy deforms mainly by slips and twins, but undergoes different mechanism of cleavage in the range of testing temperature. At T>213K, the alloy ductility is higher because the dislocations could pass through twins but pile up at precipitate phase: Mg17Al12, which causes the crack nucleate. At T<143K, the alloy ductility is lower because the dislocation slip are suppressed greatly and dislocations pile up at twins, and cause crack nucleate and expand along twins quickly. At 143Ktemperature. The twins play an important role in deformation and failure of Mg alloys at cryogenic temperature.

Tang Wei; Li Xiuyan; Han Enhou; Xu Yongbo; Li Yiyi [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110016 (China)

2006-03-31

342

Simulation of Viscoplastic Deformation of Low Carbon Steel Structures at Elevated Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deformation response of a low carbon structural steel subjected to high temperature simulating fire conditions is generated using a viscoplastic material constitutive model which acknowledges the evolution of the material hardening parameters during the loading history. The material model is implemented in an ABAQUS subroutine (UMAT) which requires the determination of the material constants as a function of temperature. Both the temperature dependency and strain-rate sensitivity of the material parameters have been examined by the analysis of a single steel beam and a steel-framed structure subjected to temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 C. Sequentially coupled thermal-stress analysis is applied to a structure under simulated fire condition. Results of this analysis show that above a transitional temperature, the deformation of the steel is strain-rate dependent. The combined effect of heat flux and loading rate on the complex deformation of a two-story steel structure is examined and the significance of employing a viscoplastic material model is discussed.

Sun, Y.; Maciejewski, K.; Ghonem, H.

2012-07-01

343

High-temperature behavior of a deformed Fermi gas obeying interpolating statistics.  

PubMed

An outstanding idea originally introduced by Greenberg is to investigate whether there is equivalence between intermediate statistics, which may be different from anyonic statistics, and q-deformed particle algebra. Also, a model to be studied for addressing such an idea could possibly provide us some new consequences about the interactions of particles as well as their internal structures. Motivated mainly by this idea, in this work, we consider a q-deformed Fermi gas model whose statistical properties enable us to effectively study interpolating statistics. Starting with a generalized Fermi-Dirac distribution function, we derive several thermostatistical functions of a gas of these deformed fermions in the thermodynamical limit. We study the high-temperature behavior of the system by analyzing the effects of q deformation on the most important thermostatistical characteristics of the system such as the entropy, specific heat, and equation of state. It is shown that such a deformed fermion model in two and three spatial dimensions exhibits the interpolating statistics in a specific interval of the model deformation parameter 0 < q < 1. In particular, for two and three spatial dimensions, it is found from the behavior of the third virial coefficient of the model that the deformation parameter q interpolates completely between attractive and repulsive systems, including the free boson and fermion cases. From the results obtained in this work, we conclude that such a model could provide much physical insight into some interacting theories of fermions, and could be useful to further study the particle systems with intermediate statistics. PMID:22680435

Algin, Abdullah; Senay, Mustafa

2012-04-01

344

Bulk and particle strain analysis in high-temperature deformation experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental data alone are not sufficient to describe the rheology of deformed geomaterials. To fully characterize a material's rheological properties, independent verification of deformation mechanisms is required. Here, we use standard image analysis techniques to semi-quantify the physical changes in experimentally deformed cores of soda-lime silica glass beads and rhyolite ash previously described by Quane and Russell [Quane, S.L., Russell, J.K., 2005a. Welding: insights from high-temperature analogue experiments. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 142, 67-87]. The properties we measure by image analysis include porosity, radial bulging and particle elongation. The image analysis measurements combined with digital output from the experiments allow us to determine the amount of total axial and radial strain accumulated by the bulk sample ( ?b) and by individual particles ( ?p). We demonstrate that these metrics of strain are nearly equal to the one-dimensional strain recorded by the deformation apparatus ( ?m) and sample shortening ( ?s), confirming that all strain introduced by the deformation apparatus is being transferred into both the bulk sample and individual particles. We also show that ?b is manifest as two discrete components: axial ( ?a) and radial ( ?r) strain. We use these independent components of strain accumulation to show that, despite having nearly identical strain-time and stress-strain deformation paths, glass bead cores and rhyolite ash cores have strikingly different mechanisms of strain accumulation. In the higher porosity rhyolite ash cores, axial strain dominates, implying that, under the conditions present, natural glassy particulate geomaterials deform almost entirely by porosity loss.

Quane, Steven L.; Russell, J. K.

2006-06-01

345

CREEP STRAIN CORRELATION FOR IRRADIATED CLADDING  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to predict the creep deformation of spent nuclear fuel cladding under the repository conditions, different correlations have been developed. One of them, which will be referred to as Murty's correlation in the following, and whose expression is given in Henningson (1998), was developed on the basis of experimental points related to unirradiated Zircaloy cladding (Henningson 1998, p. 56). The objective of this calculation is to adapt Murty's correlation to experimental points pertaining to irradiated Zircaloy cladding. The scope of the calculation is provided by the range of experimental parameters characterized by Zircaloy cladding temperature between 292 C and 420 C, hoop stress between 50 and 630 MPa, and test time extending to 8000 h. As for the burnup of the experimental samples, it ranges between 0.478 and 64 MWd/kgU (i.e., megawatt day per kilogram of uranium), but this is not a parameter of the adapted correlation.

P. Macheret

2001-01-23

346

Fiber Creep Evaluation by Stress Relaxation Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple bend stress relaxation (BSR) test has been used to measure the creep related properties of a chemically vapor-deposited SiC fiber. Time, temperature, and strain dependent BSR data were analyzed to ascertain the ability of the stress relaxation results to predict tensile creep as a function of the same parameters. The predictions compared very well to actual creep data obtained by axial measurements, indicating that the BSR test could be used for determining both creep and stress relaxation of polycrystalline ceramic fibers under tensile loading.

Morscher, Gregory N.; Dicarlo, James A.; Wagner, Timothy

1991-01-01

347

Fiber creep evaluation by stress relaxation measurements  

SciTech Connect

A simple bend stress relaxation (BSR) test has been used to measure the creep related properties of a chemically vapor-deposited SiC fiber. Time, temperature, and strain dependent BSR data were analyzed to ascertain the ability of the stress relaxation results to predict tensile creep as a function of the same parameters. The predictions compared very well to actual creep data obtained by axial measurements, indicating that the BSR test could be used for determining both creep and stress relaxation of polycrystalline ceramic fibers under tensile loading. 10 refs.

Morscher, G.N.; Dicarlo, J.A.; Wagner, T.

1991-08-01

348

Probabilistic Material Strength Degradation Model for Inconel 718 Components Subjected to High Temperature, High-Cycle and Low-Cycle Mechanical Fatigue, Creep and Thermal Fatigue Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of methodology for a probabilistic material strength degradation is described. The probabilistic model, in the form of a postulated randomized multifactor equation, provides for quantification of uncertainty in the lifetime material strength of aerospace propulsion system components subjected to a number of diverse random effects. This model is embodied in the computer program entitled PROMISS, which can include up to eighteen different effects. Presently, the model includes five effects that typically reduce lifetime strength: high temperature, high-cycle mechanical fatigue, low-cycle mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue. Results, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, illustrated the sensitivity of lifetime strength to any current value of an effect. In addition, verification studies comparing predictions of high-cycle mechanical fatigue and high temperature effects with experiments are presented. Results from this limited verification study strongly supported that material degradation can be represented by randomized multifactor interaction models.

Bast, Callie C.; Boyce, Lola

1995-01-01

349

High temperature monotonic and cyclic deformation in a directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Directionally solidified (DS) MAR-M246+Hf was tested in tension and fatigue, at temperatures from 20 C to 1093 C. Tests were performed on (001) oriented specimens at strain rates of 50 % and 0.5 % per minute. In tension, the yield strength was constant up to 704 C, above which the strength dropped off rapidly. A strong dependence of strength on strain rate was seen at the higher temperatures. The deformation mode was observed to change from heterogeneous to homogeneous with increasing temperature. Low Cycle Fatigue tests were done using a fully reversed waveform and total strain control. For a given plastic strain range, lives increased with increasing temperature. For a given temperature strain rate had a strong effect on life. At 704 C, decreasing strain rates decreased life, while at the higher temperatures, decreasing strain rates increased life, for a given plastic strain range. These results could be explained through considerations of the deformation modes and stress levels. At the higher temperatures, marked coarsening caused beneficial stress reductions, but oxidation limited the life. The longitudinal grain boundaries were found to influence slip behavior. The degree of secondary slip adjacent to the boundaries was found to be related to the degree of misorientation between the grains.

Huron, Eric S.

1986-01-01

350

Modeling Long-term Creep Performance for Welded Nickel-base Superalloy Structures for Power Generation Systems  

SciTech Connect

We report here a constitutive model for predicting long-term creep strain evolution in ? strengthened Ni-base superalloys. Dislocation climb-bypassing ?, typical in intermediate ? volume fraction (~20%) alloys, is considered as the primary deformation mechanism. Dislocation shearing ? to anti-phase boundary (APB) faults and diffusional creep are also considered for high-stress and high-temperature low-stress conditions, respectively. Additional damage mechanism is taken into account for rapid increase in tertiary creep strain. The model has been applied to Alloy 282, and calibrated in a temperature range of 1375-1450?F, and stress range of 15-45ksi. The model parameters and a MATLAB code are provided. This report is prepared by Monica Soare and Chen Shen at GE Global Research. Technical discussions with Dr. Vito Cedro are greatly appreciated. This work was supported by DOE program DE-FE0005859

Shen, Chen

2015-01-01

351

Grain boundary sliding in aluminum nano-bi-crystals deformed at room temperature.  

PubMed

Room-temperature uniaxial compressions of 900-nm-diameter aluminum bi-crystals, each containing a high-angle grain boundary with a plane normal inclined at 24 to the loading direction, revealed frictional sliding along the boundary plane to be the dominant deformation mechanism. The top crystallite sheared off as a single unit in the course of compression instead of crystallographic slip and extensive dislocation activity, as would be expected. Compressive stress strain data of deforming nano bicrystals was continuous, in contrast to single crystalline nano structures that show a stochastic stress strain signature, and displayed a peak in stress at the elastic limit of ~ 176 MPa followed by gradual softening and a plateau centered around ~ 125 MPa. An energetics-based physical model, which may explain observed room-temperature grain boundary sliding, in presented, and observations are discussed within the framework of crystalline nano-plasticity and defect microstructure evolution. PMID:23873787

Aitken, Zachary H; Jang, Dongchan; Weinberger, Christopher R; Greer, Julia R

2014-01-15

352

Flexural creep behaviour of PP matrix woven composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the flexural creep behaviour of polypropylene and glass fibre commingled woven composite (Twintex) sheets has been studied. Test samples were obtained in a compression moulding apparatus at different plate temperatures. Short-term flexural creep tests were run at multiple stress levels. Varying the applied stress level and using the Boltzmann superposition principle the linearity of creep behaviour was

Antonio Greco; Claudio Musardo; Alfonso Maffezzoli

2007-01-01

353

Probabilistic material strength degradation model for Inconel 718 components subjected to high temperature, high-cycle and low-cycle mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of both the fifth and sixth year effort of a research program conducted for NASA-LeRC by The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The research included on-going development of methodology for a probabilistic material strength degradation model. The probabilistic model, in the form of a postulated randomized multifactor equation, provides for quantification of uncertainty in the lifetime material strength of aerospace propulsion system components subjected to a number of diverse random effects. This model is embodied in the computer program entitled PROMISS, which can include up to eighteen different effects. Presently, the model includes five effects that typically reduce lifetime strength: high temperature, high-cycle mechanical fatigue, low-cycle mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue. Statistical analysis was conducted on experimental Inconel 718 data obtained from the open literature. This analysis provided regression parameters for use as the model's empirical material constants, thus calibrating the model specifically for Inconel 718. Model calibration was carried out for five variables, namely, high temperature, high-cycle and low-cycle mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue. Methodology to estimate standard deviations of these material constants for input into the probabilistic material strength model was developed. Using an updated version of PROMISS, entitled PROMISS93, a sensitivity study for the combined effects of high-cycle mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue was performed. Then using the current version of PROMISS, entitled PROMISS94, a second sensitivity study including the effect of low-cycle mechanical fatigue, as well as, the three previous effects was performed. Results, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, illustrated the sensitivity of lifetime strength to any current value of an effect. In addition, verification studies comparing a combination of high-cycle mechanical fatigue and high temperature effects by model to the combination by experiment were conducted. Thus, for Inconel 718, the basic model assumption of independence between effects was evaluated. Results from this limited verification study strongly supported this assumption.

Bast, Callie C.; Boyce, Lola

1995-01-01

354

High-temperature deformation field measurement by combining transient aerodynamic heating simulation system and reliability-guided digital image correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the full-field high-temperature thermal deformation of the structural materials used in high-speed aerospace flight vehicles, a novel non-contact high-temperature deformation measurement system is established by combining transient aerodynamic heating simulation device with the reliability-guided digital image correlation (RG-DIC). The test planar sample with size varying from several mm2 to several hundreds mm2 can be heated from room temperature

Bing Pan; Dafang Wu; Yong Xia

2010-01-01

355

Influence of high temperature on cadmium-induced skeletal deformities in juvenile mosquitofish ( Gambusia affinis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of high temperature on cadmium (Cd)-induced skeletal deformities in juvenile\\u000a Mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. For this purpose, 188 juveniles (1 day old) were equally divided into the control group, which was maintained in Cd-free\\u000a water at 24C, and three treated groups exposed either to Cd (0.4mg\\/l as Cd Cl2) at 24C,

Asma Sassi; Ali Annabi; Kaouthar Kessabi; Abdelhamid Kerkeni; Khaled Sad; Imed Messaoudi

2010-01-01

356

A coupled temperature and strain rate dependent yield function for dynamic deformations of bcc metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled temperature and strain rate microstructure physically based yield function is proposed in this work. It is incorporated along with the ClausiusDuhem inequality and an appropriate free energy definition in a general thermodynamic framework for deriving a three-dimensional kinematical model for thermo-viscoplastic deformations of body centered cubic (bcc) metals. The evolution equations are expressed in terms of the material

George Z. Voyiadjis; Farid H. Abed

2006-01-01

357

The effect of deformation temperature on the microstructure evolution of Inconel 625 superalloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot compression tests of Inconel 625 superalloy were conducted using a Gleeble-1500 simulator between 900C and 1200C with different true strains and a strain rate of 0.1s?1. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction technique (EBSD) were employed to investigate the effect of deformation temperature on the microstructure evolution and nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization (DRX). It is found

Qingmiao Guo; Defu Li; Shengli Guo; Haijian Peng; Jie Hu

2011-01-01

358

A Creep Non-Linear FEM Analysis of Glulam Timber  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is focused on a creep formulation in bending for timber beams, of glue laminated (glulam) type, which is suited to be implemented in both geometrical and material non-linear Finite Element Method (FEM) models. It studies the performance of timber beams by accounting the deformation under increments of time and stress in a long-term. The proposed creep formulation uses

V. De Luca; A. Della Chiesa

2012-01-01

359

Rheology of Anhydrite during deformation in nature: a first look  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rheology of Anhydrite under conditions of natural deformation is largely unconstrained, although it has many important effects in salt tectonics and in long-tem predictions of engineering structures in salt. A review of laboratory triaxial experiments at low temperature indicate brittle, pressure dependent behavior. At temperatures above 400 C experimental deformation shows power law creep, with contributions of dislocation creep and diffusional creep. In naturally deformed Anhydrite rocks microstructures indicate recrystallization, solution - precipitation processes and pressure solution producing stylolites. Analysis of Anhydrite layers embedded in rock salt shows complex behavior. Bedding-parallel stretching leads to boudinage, with variable amounts of pinch-and-swell before rupture and precipitation of Halite in the boudin-neck. Bedding-parallel shortening of single layers embedded in salt leads to folding of the Anhydrite layers, with the fold shapes suggesting an effective viscosity contrast between 10 and 100. This is also in agreement with the absence of extension fracture in the outer arcs of the folds. Although much remains to be done in accurately constraining Anhydrite rheology in nature, and for example its dependence on pore fluid pressure and chemistry, these results provide a first order estimate of Anhydrite rheology in nature, to be used in numerical simulations. A challenging task is to find a unified flow law which describes power law creep and fracturing dependent on effective stress.

Markus Schmalholz, Stefan; Urai, Janos

2014-05-01

360

Influence of stress, temperature, and strain on calcite twins constrained by deformation experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of low-strain triaxial compression and high-strain torsion experiments were performed on marble and limestone samples to examine the influence of stress, temperature, and strain on the evolution of twin density, the percentage of grains with 1, 2, or 3 twin sets, and the twin widthall parameters that have been suggested as either paleopiezometers or paleothermometers. Cylindrical and dog-bone-shaped samples were deformed in the semibrittle regime between 20 C and 350 C, under confining pressures of 50-400 MPa, and at strain rates of 10- 4-10- 6 s- 1. The samples sustained shear stresses, ?, up to 280 MPa, failing when deformed to shear strains ? > 1. The mean width of calcite twins increased with both temperature and strain, and thus, measurement of twin width provides only a rough estimation of peak temperature, unless additional constraints on deformation are known. In Carrara marble, the twin density, NL (no of twins/mm), increased as the rock hardened with strain and was approximately related to the peak differential stress, ? (MPa), by the relation ?=19.59.8?{N}. Dislocation tangles occurred along twin boundaries, resulting in a complicated cell structure, which also evolved with stress. As previously established, the square root of dislocation density, observed after quench, also correlated with peak stress. Apparently, both twin density and dislocation cell structure are important state variables for describing the strength of these rocks.

Rybacki, E.; Evans, B.; Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Dresen, G.

2013-08-01

361

Multiaxial creep and cyclic plasticity in nickel-base superalloy C263  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physically-based constitutive equations for uniaxial creep deformation in nickel alloy C263 [Acta Mater. 50 (2002) 2917] have been generalised for multiaxial stress states using conventional von Mises type assumptions. A range of biaxial creep tests have been carried out on nickel alloy C263 in order to investigate the stress state sensitivity of creep damage evolution. The sensitivity has been quantified

A. Manonukul; F. P. E. Dunne; D. Knowles; S. Williams

2005-01-01

362

Shear Correction Factors in Creep-Damage Analysis of Beams, Plates and Shells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern design rules for thin-walled structures which operate at elevated temperatures are based on the demand that the creep and may be the damage behaviour should be taken into account. In the last four decades various models including the scalar or tensor valued hardening and damage variables are established. These models reflect the influence of the deformation or the damage induced anisotropy on the creep response. One problem in creep analysis of thin-walled structures is the selection of the structural mechanics model which has to be adequate to the choice of the constitutive equations. Considering complex loading conditions the structural mechanics model has to reflect for instance the different constitutive behaviour in tension and compression. Below the applicability of classical engineering models for beams, plates and shells to the creep-damage analysis is discussed. It will be shown that a first improvement of the classical approach can be given within the assumptions of the first order shear deformation theory. Based on the beam equations we demonstrate that the shear correction factors have to be modified within the time-step analysis.

Altenbach, Holm; Naumenko, Konstantin

363

Hot Deformation Behavior of Alloy 800H at Intermediate Temperatures: Constitutive Models and Microstructure Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hot deformation behavior of a Fe-Ni-Cr austenitic Alloy 800H was explored in the intermediate temperature range of 825-975 C and strain rate range of 0.01-10 s-1. The study indicates that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred at 875-975 C for strain rates of 0.01-0.1 s-1 and adiabatic heating generated at high strain rates accelerated the DRX process. Based on the experimental data, the Johnson-Cook, modified Johnson-Cook, and Arrhenius-type constitutive models were established to predict the flow stress during hot deformation. A comparative study was made on the accuracy and effectiveness of the above three developed models. The microstructure analysis indicated that all the deformation structures exhibited elongated grains and evidence of some degree of DRX. The multiple DRX at 975 C and 0.01 s-1 led to an increase in the intensity of {001} <100> "cube" texture component and a significant reduction in the intensity of {011} <211> "brass" component. Additionally, the average values of grain average misorientation and grain orientation spread for deformed microstructure were inversely proportional to the fraction of DRX.

Cao, Y.; Di, H. S.; Misra, R. D. K.; Zhang, Jiecen

2014-09-01

364

Hot Deformation Behavior of Alloy 800H at Intermediate Temperatures: Constitutive Models and Microstructure Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hot deformation behavior of a Fe-Ni-Cr austenitic Alloy 800H was explored in the intermediate temperature range of 825-975 C and strain rate range of 0.01-10 s-1. The study indicates that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred at 875-975 C for strain rates of 0.01-0.1 s-1 and adiabatic heating generated at high strain rates accelerated the DRX process. Based on the experimental data, the Johnson-Cook, modified Johnson-Cook, and Arrhenius-type constitutive models were established to predict the flow stress during hot deformation. A comparative study was made on the accuracy and effectiveness of the above three developed models. The microstructure analysis indicated that all the deformation structures exhibited elongated grains and evidence of some degree of DRX. The multiple DRX at 975 C and 0.01 s-1 led to an increase in the intensity of {001} <100> "cube" texture component and a significant reduction in the intensity of {011} <211> "brass" component. Additionally, the average values of grain average misorientation and grain orientation spread for deformed microstructure were inversely proportional to the fraction of DRX.

Cao, Y.; Di, H. S.; Misra, R. D. K.; Zhang, Jiecen

2014-12-01

365

Deformation and fracture of a spheroplast under low-cycle loading at various temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives the results of an experimental study of the deformation and fracture of a spheroplast under uniaxial low-cycle loading (compression and unloading) at a temperature T = 25 and 100C. Various mechanisms of damage accumulation at various temperatures and degrees of damage to the material are studied. The experimental results are compared with the well-known dependences taking into account damage accumulation for metals. It is established that the basic propositions of these theories are suitable for the low-cycle fracture of spheroplast a ductile material of complex structure.

Karpov, E. V.

2009-01-01

366

Prediction of creep of polymer concrete  

SciTech Connect

We studied the applicability of the phenomenological approach to the prediction of long-time creep of polymer concrete consisting of polyester binder with diabase filler and diabase aggregate. We discovered that the principles of temperature-time analogy, of moisture-time analogy, and of temperature-moisture-time analogy are applicable to the description of the diagrams of short-time creep and to the prediction of long-time creep of polymer concrete at different temperatures and constant moisture content of the material.

Khristova, Yu.; Aniskevich, K. [Central Lab. of Physicochemical Mechanics, Sofia (Bulgaria)

1995-11-01

367

Effect of deformation temperature on the microstructure developed in commercial purity aluminum processed by equal channel angular extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) was used to deform samples of commercial purity aluminum (AA1050) to a strain of ?8. The effect of extrusion temperature on the deformation microstructures was investigated over the range of 298523 K. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize quantitatively the microstructural parameters, including grain size, shape and boundary misorientation.

Y. Y. Wang; P. L. Sun; P. W. Kao; C. P. Chang

2004-01-01

368

Experimental Deformation of Polyphase Aggregates at Pressures and Temperatures of the Upper Mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling the solid-state flow of the upper mantle requires a thorough understanding of its rheology and therefore necessitates to perform deformation experiments on mantle rocks (or analogues) at very high pressures and temperatures. Minerals other than olivine constitute up to 40 vol% of upper mantle rocks and may have a significant effect on the rheological behavior of these rocks. Nevertheless, most experimental studies to date have focused on the deformation properties of olivine single crystals or monomineralic olivine aggregates. In this study, and as a first step before focusing on more realistic mantle-like compositions, we have performed deformation experiments on polymineralic model aggregates of forsterite and MgO at upper mantle pressures and temperatures. Commercial powders of Mg2SiO4 and MgO were mixed and ground in WC grinders and dried in a one-atmosphere furnace at 1000C. Powders with different volume proportions of the two phases were sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1300-1400C and 100 MPa for a few minutes, resulting in dense pellets 8 mm in diameter and 3-4 mm in length. Microstructural analysis by SEM reveals equilibrated microstructures with forsterite and MgO grain sizes of a few microns. Deformation experiments on samples 1.2 mm in diameter and ~1.2mm in length were performed at 3-8 GPa and 1000-1300C in a D-DIA apparatus coupled with synchrotron X-ray radiation. The technique permits in situ measurement of macroscopic strain rates as well as stress levels sustained by different subpopulations of grains of each phase. Typically, two specimens, respectively a monomineralic and a polymineralic aggregate, were deformed concurrently in order to minimize the relative uncertainties in temperature and pressure and to facilitate the comparison of their rheological properties. The samples were deformed to total strains of 15-25%. As expected, the harder phase, forsterite, sustains much higher stress levels than MgO, in agreement with numerical models for two-phase flow. Results on stress and strain partitioning in polyphase aggregates and on the effect of the presence of a weak phase on the rheology of forsterite-rich aggregates will be discussed.

Bejina, F.; Bystricky, M.; Ingrin, J.

2011-12-01

369

Creep-fatigue interaction of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-2Cb-1Ta-0.8Mo at room temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present investigation is concerned with the mutual influence of creep and fatigue in the case of Ti-6211, which represents a new weldable, stress-corrosion resistant alloy. Attention is given to the effect of creep on fatigue, the effect of fatigue on creep, and microstructural studies. It is found that prior creep in the amounts investigated, from 0.2 percent to 2.7 percent, is beneficial to low-cycle fatigue life. Hold time at peak strain is found to be beneficial to low-cycle fatigue life. Hold time at constant stress has no effect on low-cycle fatigue when specimens are cycled only once between hold times; but increasing fatigue loading for 50 or more cycles between hold times can prolong the fatigue life. There is an acceleration of creep by cyclic loading when comparison of cyclic and static creep is based on mean stress.

Chu, H. P.; Mcdonald, B. A.; Arora, O. P.

1985-01-01

370

Hot deformation behavior of 7150 aluminum alloy during compression at elevated temperature  

SciTech Connect

Hot compression tests of 7150 aluminum alloy were preformed on Gleeble-1500 system in the temperature range from 300 deg. C to 450 deg. C and at strain rate range from 0.01 s{sup -1} to 10 s{sup -1}, and the associated structural changes were studied by observations of metallographic and transmission electron microscope. The results show that the true stress-true strain curves exhibit a peak stress at a critical strain, after which the flow stresses decrease monotonically until high strains, showing a dynamic flow softening. The peak stress level decreases with increasing deformation temperature and decreasing strain rate, which can be represented by a Zener-Hollomon parameter in the hyperbolic-sine equation with the hot deformation activation energy of 229.75 kJ/mol. In the deformed structures appear the elongated grains with serrations developed in the grain boundaries, decreasing of Z value leads to more adequate proceeding of dynamic recrystallization and coarser recrystallized grains. The subgrains exhibit high-angle sub-boundaries with a certain amount of dislocations and large numbers of dynamic precipitates in subgrain interiors as increasing Z value. The dynamic recovery and recrystallization are the main reasons for the flow softening at low Z value, but the dynamic precipitates and successive dynamic particles coarsening have been assumed to be responsible for the flow softening at high Z value.

Jin Nengping [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang Hui, E-mail: zhanghui63hunu@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Han Yi; Wu Wenxiang [Suzhou Institute for Nonferrous Metal Processing Technology, Suzhou 215026 (China); Chen Jianghua [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

2009-06-15

371

Research on the particular temperature-induced surface shape of a National Ignition Facility deformable mirror.  

PubMed

We investigate the changes in the shape of a deformable mirror used at the National Ignition Facility caused by differences in temperature between the working environment and the mounting temperature of the mirror. In general, the temperature-induced profile change of the mirror is dominated by a few low-order aberrations, which mainly result in defocus. However, after these low-order distortions are corrected, there remain special, higher-order, surface distortions caused by the particular arrangement, construction, and mounting of the mirror actuators. This work analyzes these special aberrations, and their dependence on the particular actuator design, using the finite element method. Experiments are carried out to verify the computational results, and finally, design considerations to help minimize the temperature-induced high-order aberrations are suggested. PMID:23314646

Xue, Qiao; Huang, Lei; Yan, Ping; Gong, Mali; Feng, Zexin; Qiu, Yuntao; Li, Tenghao; Jin, Guofan

2013-01-10

372

Localized shear deformation and softening of bulk metallic glass: stress or temperature driven?  

PubMed Central

Metallic glasses due to their unique combination of physical and chemical properties have a great potential in various applications: materials for construction, medical, MEMs devices and so on. The deformation mechanism in metallic glasses is very much different from that in conventional crystalline materials and not yet fully understood. Here we are trying to find out what drives shear deformation in metallic glasses. The compression experiments of the bulk metallic glassy (BMG) samples coated with tin, Rose metal and indium were performed. There were no melting sites of the coating observed near individual shear bands. Melting occurred only near fracture surface, near microcracks and in the places of shear band concentrations. The results indicate that shear banding is rather a stress driven process while the temperature rise that was observed takes place due to friction forces in the viscous supercooled liquid thin layer in the shear bands. PMID:24100784

Ketov, S. V.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.

2013-01-01

373

First Cycle Heterogeneous Deformation Behavior and Cyclic Shakedown Phenomena of Nitinol Near A(sub f) Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental observations on the cyclic behavior of a NiTi alloy (Nitinol) at temperatures in the neighborhood of the A(sub f) (austenite finish) temperature are presented. The strongly heterogeneous nature of the deformation behavior of this material at temperatures within this regime during the first cycle is examined with emphasis placed on the difficulties that the existence of such phenomena pose on the formulation of realistic constitutive relations. It is further demonstrated that this heterogeneity of deformation persists on subsequent cycles with the result that the hysteretic cyclic behavior of these alloys can exhibit a point to point variation in an otherwise uniform geometry. The experimental observations on the deformation behavior of this alloy show that it is strongly dependent on temperature and prior deformation history of the sample, thus resulting in an almost intractable problem with respect to capturing an adequate constitutive description from either experiment or modeling.

Jones, H. N.

1996-01-01

374

Experimental deformation and grain growth of pure water ice aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water ice is the principal constituent of the low density moons of the outer solar system, and the flow behavior of ice is of great importance in dynamic processes on icy moons. Our interest here is on the influence that grain growth has on the flow behavior of ice. By understanding grain growth in combination with flow mechanisms it is possible to reconstruct thermal evolutions and tectonic histories of icy moons. Grain growth is expected to influence the evolution of strength of ice by altering the relative contributions to strain rate by grain-size-sensitive (GSS) creep mechanisms, such as diffusion and grain-boundary sliding, and grain-size-insensitive (GSI) creep mechanisms, such as dislocation creep. In particular, we are interested in examining the so-called field boundary hypothesis wherein grain size evolution and GSI and GSS creep mechanisms eventually lead to a dynamic balance involving a distribution of grain sizes and significant operation of both types creep mechanisms. We studied grain size evolution both during static annealing and during deformation. Static anneals ran for up to two weeks at 213 ? T ? 268 K and hydrostatic pressures 0.1 MPa and 100 MPa. Static grain growth observations allow us to calibrate values for the grain size exponent m and the activation energy Q as used in conventional grain growth laws. We simulated grain growth of ice based on the microphysical model of Kellermann Slotemaker (2006 - PhD thesis Utrecht University, the Netherlands). This model takes into account full grain size distributions. Triaxial deformation experiments were carried out for a variety of starting grain sizes, from 2 to 250 microns, of both narrow and broad size distributions. Small grain sizes promote GSS creep; large sizes promote GSI creep and a mixture of large and small will result in mixed-mechanism deformation, in a ratio that will change as the grain size distribution evolves. All deformation runs were performed at temperatures > 170 K, pressures ranging between 30 MPa and 100 MPa and strain rates between 1e-8/s and 1e-4/s. The fine-grained ice (< 2 microns) which is used for the grain growth experiments and the deformation experiments starting in the GSS-creep field was generated by a special pressure-release technique described by Stern et al. (1997 - J. Geoph. Res, 102). The fine-grained ice material can be cold-pressed resulting in dense ice aggregates with a porosity < 0.5% and randomly oriented ice crystals. Grain sizes, grain size distributions and grain topologies of the different types of experiments were measured by cryogenic SEM and image analysis techniques.

Diebold, S.; de Bresser, J. H.; Durham, W. B.; Stern, L. A.

2010-12-01

375

Recrystallization and aging effects associated with the high temperature deformation of waspaloy and inconel 718  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cylindrical samples of Waspaloy and Inconel 718 were hot compressed, using a computerized Instron machine. The test program covered strain rates from 104 s1 to 1 s1 temperatures ranging from 875 C to 1220 C and deformations up to strains of 0.7. Interrupted tests were also carried out to determine the nature of the static softening and hardening processes. Dynamic recrystallization, partial or complete, was observed at temperatures above 950 C. At 950 C and below, dynamic recovery was the process controlling the deformation. Static softening was found to take place both by recovery and by recrystallization. Yield points were detected in Waspaloy under certain conditions as well as in Inconel 718. For Waspaloy the yield drops occurred in the vicinity of 1100 C, and a deviation from the normal behavior in the stress-temperature curve was seen in the same temperature range. The mechanism responsible for the occurrence of the yield drops, which in turn is related to the deviation in the ? vsT curve, is believed to be short range ordering of the ? forming elements. For Inconel 718, elements such as Co, Cr and Fe may be causing short range ordering, but the locking mechanism may also be associated with the precipitation of carbides or other intermetallic phases on the dislocations.

Guimaraes, A. A.; Jonas, J. J.

1981-09-01

376

High Temperature Plastic Behavior of 5m% Er2O3 Doped ZrO2 Fibers and Bulk Crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microstructure and high temperature mechanical properties of 5 mol% Er203 doped Zr02 fibers were studied at temperatures between 1300 C and 1570 C by tensile creep tests, and bulk crystals by constant strain rate compression tests at 1400 C. The microstructure of the as-fabricated and plastically deformed crystals was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The hardening characteristics, structure of activated slip planes, and saturation of creep strain are discussed, The mechanical properties are compared with other zirconia alloys.

QuispeCancapa, J. J.; PintoGomez, A. R.; MartinezFernandez, J.; Sayir, A.; Farmer, Serene C. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

377

Simple Creep Test For Ceramic Fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple bend-stress-relaxation test yields information on creep-related properties of polycrystalline ceramic fibers. Determination of these properties important part of efforts to develop ceramic composite materials that retain mechanical strength and resistance to creep at high temperatures. Present test measures effects of time, temperature, and applied strain on creep-related relaxation of bend stress in ceramic fiber of almost any diameter in almost any environment, without need for contact sensors. Degree of relaxation of bend stress determined from radii of curvature.

Dicarlo, James A.; Morscher, Gregory N.

1994-01-01

378

Influence of Hold Time on Creep-Fatigue Behavior of an Advanced Austenitic Alloy  

SciTech Connect

An advanced austenitic alloy, HT-UPS (high temperature-ultrafine precipitate strengthened), is a candidate material for the structural components of fast reactors and energy-conversion systems. HT-UPS provides improved creep resistance through a composition based on 316 stainless steel (SS) with additions of Ti and Nb to form nano-scale MC precipitates in the austenitic matrix. The low cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue behavior of a HT-UPS alloy has been investigated at 650 C, 1.0% total strain, and an R ratio of -1 with hold times as long as 9000 sec at peak tensile strain. The cyclic deformation response of HT-UPS is compared to that of 316 SS. The cycles to failure are similar, despite differences in peak stress profiles and the deformed microstructures. Cracking in both alloys is transgranular (initiation and propagation) in the case of continuous cycle fatigue, while the primary cracks also propagate transgranularly during creep-fatigue cycling. Internal grain boundary damage as a result of the tensile hold is present in the form of fine cracks for hold times of 3600 sec and longer and substantially more internal cracks are visible in 316 SS than HT-UPS. The dislocation substructures observed in the deformed material are different. An equiaxed cellular structure is observed in 316 SS, whereas tangles of dislocations are present at the nanoscale MC precipitates in HT-UPS and no cellular substructure is observed.

Mark Carroll; Laura Carroll

2011-09-01

379

Defects interaction processes in deformed high purity polycrystalline molybdenum at elevated temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical spectroscopy (damping and elastic modulus as a function of temperature) and transmission electron microscopy studies have been performed in high purity polycrystalline molybdenum plastically deformed to different values of tensile and torsion strain. Mechanical spectroscopy measurements were performed from room temperature up to 1285 K. A relaxation peak in polycrystalline molybdenum related to the movement of dislocations into lower energy configurations near grain boundaries has been discovered to appear around 1170 K. The activation energy of the peak is 4.2 eV 0.5 eV. This relaxation phenomenon involves the interaction between vacancies and mobile dislocations near the grain boundaries. It should be highlighted that this relaxation process is controlled by the arrangement of vacancies and dislocations which occur at temperature below 1070 K.

Lambri, O. A.; Bonifacich, F. G.; Bozzano, P. B.; Zelada, G. I.; Plazaola, F.; Garca, J. A.

2014-10-01

380

Creep of Structural Nuclear Composites  

SciTech Connect

A research program has been established to investigate fiber reinforced ceramic composites to be used as control rod components within a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. Two candidate systems have been identified, carbon fiber reinforced carbon (Cf/C) and silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide (SiCf/SiC) composites. One of the primary degradation mechanisms anticipated for these core components is high temperature thermal and irradiation enhanced creep. As a consequence, high temperature test equipment, testing methodologies, and test samples for very high temperature (up to 1600 C) tensile strength and long duration creep studies have been established. Actual testing of both tubular and flat, "dog-bone"-shaped tensile composite specimens will begin next year. Since there is no precedence for using ceramic composites within a nuclear reactor, ASTM standard test procedures are currently being established from these high temperature mechanical tests.

Will Windes; R.W. Lloyd

2005-09-01

381

Plastic Deformation Characteristics Of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets At Elevated Temperature  

SciTech Connect

Using lightweight materials is the emerging need in order to reduce the vehicle's energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Being a lightweight material, magnesium alloys are increasingly employed in the fabrication of automotive and electronic parts. Presently, magnesium alloys used in automotive and electronic parts are mainly processed by die casting. The die casting technology allows the manufacturing of parts with complex geometry. However, the mechanical properties of these parts often do not meet the requirements concerning the mechanical properties (e.g. endurance strength and ductility). A promising alternative can be forming process. The parts manufactured by forming could have fine-grained structure without porosity and improved mechanical properties such as endurance strength and ductility. Because magnesium alloy has low formability resulted form its small slip system at room temperature it is usually formed at elevated temperature. Due to a rapid increase of usage of magnesium sheets in automotive and electronic industry it is necessary to assure database for sheet metal formability and plastic yielding properties in order to optimize its usage. Especially, plastic yielding criterion is a critical property to predict plastic deformation of sheet metal parts in optimizing process using CAE simulation. Von-Mises yield criterion generally well predicts plastic deformation of steel sheets and Hill'1979 yield criterion predicts plastic deformation of aluminum sheets. In this study, using biaxial tensile test machine yield loci of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet were obtained at elevated temperature. The yield loci ensured experimentally were compared with the theoretical predictions based on the Von-Mises, Hill, Logan-Hosford, and Barlat model.

Park, Jingee; Lee, Jongshin [Graduate School, Kyungpook National University, Deagu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, Bongsun [Department of Materials Technology, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seogou [Digital Production Processing and Forming Team, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 406-800 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngsuk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyoungpook National University, Deagu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-05-17

382

Predicting the time-temperature dependent axial failure of B/A1 composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical studies were conducted in order to understand and predict the effects of time, temperature, and stress on the axial failure modes of boron fibers and B/A1 composites. Due to the anelastic nature of boron fiber deformation, it was possible to determine simple creep functions which can be employed to accurately describe creep and fracture stress of as-produced fibers. Analysis of damping and strength data for B/6061 A1 composites indicates that fiber creep effects of creep on fiber fracture are measurably reduced by the composite fabrication process. The creep function appropriate for fibers with B/Al composites was also determined. A fracture theory is presented for predicting the time-temperature dependence of the axial tensile strength for metal matrix composites in general and B/A1 composites in particular.

Dicarlo, J. A.

1980-01-01

383

Weld metal creepfatigue life prediction by modeling the microstructure degradation due to the exposure to high temperature and load  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new analytical method to evaluate creepfatigue strength of stainless weld metals that were suffering from microstructure degradation was proposed. Based on the observation that creepfatigue crack initiated adjacent to the interfaces of ? and ?-ferrite, an FE-model that consisted of matrix, ? and ?-ferrite was developed. The volume fraction of the ? in the model corresponded to the maximum

Tai Asayama; Shinich Hasebe

2000-01-01

384

Relationship between fatigue life in the creep-fatigue region and stress-strain response  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the basis of mechanical tests and metallographic studies, strainrange partitioned lives were predicted by introducing stress-strain materials parameters into the Universal Slopes Equation. This was the result of correlating fatigue damage mechanisms and deformation mechanisms operating at elevated temperatures on the basis of observed mechanical and microstructural behavior. Correlation between high temperature fatigue and stress strain properties for nickel base superalloys and stainless steel substantiated the method. Parameters which must be evaluated for PP- and CC- life are the maximum stress achievable under entirely plastic and creep conditions respectively and corresponding inelastic strains, and the elastic modulus. For plasticity/creep interaction conditions (PC and CP) two more pairs of stress strain parameters must be ascertained.

Berkovits, A.; Nadiv, S.

1988-01-01

385

Improved creep strength and creep ductility of type 347 austenitic stainless steel through the self-healing effect of boron for creep cavitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composition of type 347 austenitic stainless steel was modified with the addition of boron and cerium. An improvement of creep strength coupled with creep ductility of the steel was observed with boron and cerium additions. The observation of enhanced precipitation of carbonitrides in boron-containing steel over that of boron-free steel may in part contribute to the increase in creep strength. Both grain boundary sliding and nucleation and growth of intergranular creep cavities were found to be suppressed in steel-containing boron. This results in an increase in creep strength and creep ductility. Auger electron spectroscopic analysis of the chemistry of creep cavity surfaces (exposed by breaking the creep-exposed steel specimen at liquid nitrogen temperature under impact loading) revealed the segregation of elemental boron on the creep cavity surface. Boron segregation, on the creep cavity surface in the absence of sulfur contamination, suppressed the cavity growth and provided the steel with a self-healing effect for creep cavitation. Cerium additions enabled boron to segregate on the cavity surface by effectively removing the traces of free sulfur in the matrix by the formation of ceriumoxysulfide (Ce2O2S).

Laha, K.; Kyono, J.; Sasaki, T.; Kishimoto, S.; Shinya, N.

2005-02-01

386

Characteristics of High-Temperature Deformation Behavior of Ti-45Al-2Cr-3Ta-0.5W Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature deformation behavior tests of as-cast Ti-45Al-2Cr-3Ta-0.5W alloy were conducted over a wide range of strain rates (0.001-1.0 s-1) and temperatures (1150-1300 C). The flow curves for the current alloy exhibited sharp peaks at low strain levels, followed by pronounced work hardening and flow localization at high strain levels. Phenomenological analysis of the strain rate and temperature dependence of peak stress data yielded an average value of the strain rate sensitivity equal to 0.25 and an apparent activation energy of ~420 kJ/mol. Processing maps were established under different deformation conditions, and the optimal condition for hot work on this material was determined to be 1250 C/0.001 s-1. The stable deformation region was also found to decrease with increasing strain. Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) was the major softening mechanism controlling the growth of grains at the grain boundary. Meanwhile, local globularization and dynamic recovery (DR) were the main softening mechanisms in the lamellar colony. When deformed at higher temperatures (~1300 C), the cyclic DRX and DR appeared to dominate the deformation. Moreover, the evolution of the ? phase during hot deformation played an important role in the dynamic softening of the alloy.

Luo, Y. Y.; Xi, Z. P.; Zeng, W. D.; Mao, X. N.; Yang, Y. L.; Niu, H. Z.

2014-10-01

387

Magnetoelastic effect during the low-temperature deformation of 316LN-IG stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The segments of tubes made of austenitic 316LN-IG stainless steel that are cut along the tube axis are subjected to tensile tests in liquid and gaseous helium at temperatures below 7 K. The tubes are intended for the conductor conduits of the toroidal magnetic system of ITER. The time evolution of the strain, the temperature, and the strain-induced magnetization of specimens in the form of the normal component of the magnetic field on their surfaces is studied as a function of the applied load. The behavior of local deformation near slip bands is complicated: the areas near slip planes undergo unloading and shrinking. A magnetoelastic effect is detected; it indicates a negative longitudinal magnetostriction for the initial ? phase and the strain-induced ? phase. The cases of absent local heating during strain jumps are explained by the magnetocaloric effect in the areas unloaded during slip.

Krivykh, A. V.; Irodova, A. V.; Keilin, V. E.

2015-01-01

388

Tensile Creep of Polycrystalline Near-Stoichiometric NiAl  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long term tensile creep studies were conducted on binary NiAl in the temperature range 700-1200 K with the objectives of characterizing and understanding the creep mechanisms. Inverse and normal primary creep curves were observed depending on stress and temperature. It was concluded that the creep of NiAl is limited by dislocation mobility. The stress exponent for creep, n, increased from 5.5 at 1200 K to 13.9 at 700 K. The true activation energy for creep, Qc, was constant and equal to about 400 kJ per mole between 20 and 50 MPa but decreased to a constant value of 250 kJ per mole between 50 and 110 MPa. The activation energy was observed to be stress dependent above 110 MPa. The tensile creep results reported in this investigation were compared with compression creep data reported in the literature. A detailed discussion of the probable dislocation creep mechanisms governing compressive and tensile creep of NiAl is presented. It is concluded that the non-conservative motion of jogs on screw dislocations influenced the nature of the primary creep curves, where the climb of these jogs involves either the next nearest neighbor or the six-jump cycle vacancy diffusion mechanism. The probable nature of the atom vacancy exchange that occur within the core of an edge dislocation undergoing climb in NiAl are schematically examined.

Raj, Sai V.

2002-01-01

389

Brittle-viscous deformation, slow slip, and tremor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical observations have illuminated a spectrum of fault slip styles from continuous aseismic sliding to fast earthquake slip. We study exhumed intercalated lenses of oceanic crust and sedimentary rocks, deformed to high shear strains. Deformation was partitioned between fractured, rigid blocks, with lengths of tens to hundreds of meters, and surrounding metapelites characterized by interconnected phyllosilicate networks. Under inferred conditions of low effective stress at temperatures > 500C, locally and transiently elevated shear strain rate in phyllosilicates deforming by dislocation creep can reach those needed for transient slow slip. Concurrently, increased matrix strain rate likely stimulates brittle failure in rigid lenses. The ubiquitous presence of quartz veins and microfractures within rigid material provides evidence for brittle deformation occurring coincident with viscous shearing flow. We suggest that geophysically observed tremor and slow slip may be a manifestation of strain partitioning, where deformation is accommodated viscously in a matrix enveloping rigid lenses.

Fagereng, ke; Hillary, Graeme W. B.; Diener, Johann F. A.

2014-06-01

390

Porosity and Textural Evolution of Bubbly Magma under High-Temperature Uniaxial Deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A densified, degassed plug is thought to fill the near surface conduit of the Soufrire Hills volcano (SHV) which facilitates pressure build up between Vulcanian eruptions. Pumice samples of a wide range of density (500-1200 kg.m-3) collected from the February 2010 eruption were deformed using a high temperature uniaxial press and analysed for porosity evolution and textural development at increasing strain. Deformation to incremental axial strains of 5-30%, at 5% intervals were investigated at 2.3 MPa axial stress at temperatures relevant to SHV (865 C). We characterised the change in sample volume, density and pore evolution by helium pycnometry, gas permeability and ultrasonic wave velocity measurements both prior to and post deformation. We show that under relatively low axial stress and at magmatic temperatures a rapid ductile total porosity reduction is accommodated almost entirely by axial strain and only minimal radial strain (<5%). The bulk pore-collapse rate is proportional to the starting porosity for a given experimental temperature. In detail, connected porosity, which dominates the porous network, accommodates the majority of the pore closure. Isolated pore volumes close and dilate as pores pinch and coalesce. Using X-Ray computed micro tomography, optical microscopy and electron backscatter micrographs we present a 2D and 3D reconstruction of the evolving pore network and phenocryst anisotropy. We quantify the evolving vesicle number density and the size distribution and model the permeability by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. We compare these results to static measurements on Montserrat dome rock to explore the hypothesis that dome-forming magma is the compacted product of bubbly conduit magma. Our experiments show that magma is capable of reaching dome rock densities with a large reduction in porosity and permeability over the eruption repose intervals of approximately 9.5 hours displayed by the 1997 eruptions. We propose a scenario where gas flux from an actively degassing region beneath a densifying plug is a controlling parameter which, when permeability in the plug reaches a critical level, facilitates the development of high pore overpressure. The interplay between gas flux rates and rates of permeability collapse is key to understanding cyclic Vulcanian activity such that if one exceeds the other then transitions from effusive to explosively eruptible magma may be induced.

Jones, T.; Wadsworth, F.; Vasseur, J.; Lavallee, Y.; Hess, K.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

2013-12-01

391

Comparison of bend stress relaxation and tensile creep of CVD SiC fibers  

SciTech Connect

Three different CVD SiC fibers were tested for bend stress relaxation (BSR) and tensile creep over a wide range of temperatures, times, and stresses. Primary creep was always observed, even for creep strains on the order of 2%. The BSR and tensile creep results were compared using simple linear viscoelastic principles. It was found that BSR results could predict the same time and temperature dependence as tensile creep; however, BSR-predicted creep strains usually overestimated the magnitude of tensile creep strain. The time, temperature, and stress dependence were determined for all the fibers for the experimental conditions of this study. Some of the primary creep behavior can be explained by load-sharing effects between the core and the CVD SiC substrate and some microstructural changes; however, the extent of primary creep cannot fully be accounted for from this work.

Morscher, G.N. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Lewinsohn, C.A.; Bakis, C.E.; Tressler, R.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Wagner, T. [Bay Village High School, OH (United States)

1995-12-01

392

New regime of homogeneous flow in the deformation map of metallic glasses: elevated temperature nanoindentation experiments and mechanistic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The character of plastic deformation in metallic glasses is investigated through instrumented nanoindentation experiments on amorphous Pd40Ni40P20 and Mg65Cu25Gd10. Using a customized experimental apparatus, nanoindentation experiments have been conducted over four decades of indentation strain rate and from ambient temperature up to the glass transition, allowing rapid evaluation of an extensive deformation map with only small volumes of experimental material.

Christopher A. Schuh; Alan C. Lund; T. G. Nieh