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1

Temperature measuring device  

SciTech Connect

Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Sohns, C.W.

1999-10-19

2

Temperature measuring device  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01

3

Temperature measurement with industrial color camera devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses color camera based temperature measurement. Usually, visual imaging and infrared image sensing are treated as two separate disciplines. We will show, that a well selected color camera device might be a cheaper, more robust and more sophisticated solution for optical temperature measurement in several cases. Herein, only implementation fragments and important restrictions for the sensing element will be discussed. Our aim is to draw the readers attention to the use of visual image sensors for measuring thermal radiation and temperature and to give reasons for the need of improved technologies for infrared camera devices. With AVL-List, our partner of industry, we successfully used the proposed sensor to perform temperature measurement for flames inside the combustion chamber of diesel engines which finally led to the presented insights.

Schmidradler, Dieter J.; Berndorfer, Thomas; van Dyck, Walter; Pretschuh, Juergen

1999-05-01

4

46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and...Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices...containment system for a design temperature colder than 55 °C...each cargo tank with a design temperature colder than 55...

2012-10-01

5

46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and...Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices...containment system for a design temperature colder than 55 °C...each cargo tank with a design temperature colder than 55...

2011-10-01

6

Inexpensive two-dimensional measuring device for cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple device for measuring thermal deformations in two-dimensional samples cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures is described. The measurement consists of adding liquid nitrogen to a transparent quartz tray, and then scanning the sample from the bottom with a flatbed scanner. As a test of the device, the thermal contraction of aluminum from room temperature to 77 K is measured.

A. Grau Carles

2005-01-01

7

Comparison of temperature measurement devices in post anesthesia patients.  

PubMed

A descriptive correlational study was used to evaluate the correlation/agreement of oral and axillary temperature measurements to patient core temperatures obtained in the OR. Data collectors recorded oral or axillary patient temperature from 752 patients on admission and discharge from the PACU. Results indicated that there was a moderate correlation between each of the current devices and core temperature, but no agreement between core temperature and either device. Recommendations were made to use just one device throughout the organization, or to use the device used on admission throughout the hospitalization. PMID:18226783

Washington, Georgita Tolbert; Matney, Joetta Lynn

2008-02-01

8

21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...direct-contact temperature measurement device...measure differences in temperature between two points on the body. (b)...

2013-04-01

9

21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...direct-contact temperature measurement device...measure differences in temperature between two points on the body. (b)...

2010-04-01

10

21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...direct-contact temperature measurement device...measure differences in temperature between two points on the body. (b)...

2009-04-01

11

46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment...1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking...device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with the design temperature specified for the...

2012-10-01

12

46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment...1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking...device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with the design temperature specified for the...

2011-10-01

13

Measuring temperature of NICU patients A comparison of three devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe provision of a thermoneutral environment is a cornerstone of neonatal care. An accurate method of temperature measurement is required in order that neonatal nurses can provide this care. Glass mercury thermometers, now rarely used in the developed world were once the gold standard. They have mainly been replaced by many different types of modern thermometers.

Helen Marie Rosenthal; Andrew Leslie

2006-01-01

14

Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing of the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS)-controlled thyristor (MCT) has uncovered a failure mechanism at elevated temperature. The failure appears to be due to breakdown of the gate oxide. Further testing is underway to verify the failure mode. Higher current level inverters were built to demonstrate 200 C operation of the N-MOSFET's and insulated-gate-bipolar transistors (IGBT's) and for life testing.

James Bromstead; Bennett Weir; R. Wayne Johnson; Ray Askew

1992-01-01

15

An at-sea evaluation of an infrared/resistance temperature device for air/sea-surface temperature measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air and sea-surface temperatures were measured and recorded by the USS Kitty Hawk's meteorological personnel during a 6-month deployment period. Using infrared/resistance temperature devices (IR/RTD) and hand-held psychrometers, air and sea-surface temperature data were compiled. In comparing these data with data collected earlier by the USS Ranger, it became apparent that the shipboard use of the IR/RTD to measure sea-surface and air temperatures was not warranted. The IR/RTD suffered mechanical and electrical failures during both the USS Kitty Hawk and USSR Ranger measurement periods. Since repair and recalibration must be done at the manufacturer's facility, the device is inappropriate for shipboard use. In addition, the design of the battery-recharging unit does not conform to shipboard requirements for electrical grounding. Borne out by both the comments of the USS Kitty Hawk oceanographer and the large number of highly suspicious readings, additional training for observers is justified. Thus, training on the proper use and care of temperature-measuring devices could be made part of the Aerographer's Mate course curriculum and shipboard performance factors.

Patterson, W. L.

1994-03-01

16

Magnetic relaxation measurement in immunoassay using high-transition-temperature superconducting quantum interference device system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to their ultrahigh sensitivity to magnetic flux, superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are able to detect biomagnetic signals. By labeling biotargets with magnetic nanoparticles, several groups have shown that SQUIDs are promising as quantitative probes of biotargets by measuring their magnetic properties. In this work, we describe the design and construction of a high-transition-temperature radio-frequency SQUID magnetometer system for

H. C. Yang; S. Y. Yang; G. L. Fang; W. H. Huang; C. H. Liu; S. H. Liao; H. E. Horng; Chin-Yih Hong

2006-01-01

17

Device for measuring oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital electronic device for measuring traces of oxygen in superfine and inert atmospheres was developed. The digital oxymeter operates on the principle of continuous electrochemical reduction of oxygen on a cathode-polarized selective oxygen electrode. The special structure of the selective electrode ensures a reading of the device independent of nature, temperature and total pressure of the gas mixture.

1984-07-01

18

On errors in thermal conductivity measurements of suspended and supported nanowires using microthermometer devices from low to high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

For micro-thermometer devices developed for thermal conductivity measurements of nanowires, it is found using finite element analysis that radiation heat transfer can cause nonlinear temperature profiles in the long supporting beams of the thermometers when the sample stage temperature is considerably higher or lower than room temperature. Although the nonlinearity alone does not introduce errors in the measured thermal conductance,

Arden L. Moore; Li Shi

2011-01-01

19

High temperature spintronic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spintronics is a rapidly developing multidisciplinary field which investigates avenues of exploiting the spin degree of freedom in charge carriers and the nucleus of atoms to design novel devices that would outperform existing ones based on complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Spin-polarized semiconductor based coherent light sources promise an ability to predict, stabilize and control orthogonal polarization states with reduced input power requirements. This doctoral thesis investigates different aspects of design, epitaxial growth, fabrication, characterization and modeling of spin based electronic and optoelectronic devices working near room temperature. We have demonstrated the modulation of magnetoresistance in an InAs/ In0.53Ga0.47As/ In0.52Al0.48As lateral spin valve with a gate electrode placed alongside the MnAs polarizer contact and outside the current transport channel. The results indicate that the change in magnetoresistance is caused, in part, by Rashba spin-orbit coupling due to the gate bias. In order to achieve higher working temperatures devices for real world applications MnAs/GaAs/MnAs based vertical spin valves have been realized. We have attributed the near room temperature operation of these devices to valence band electron tunneling of spin polarized carriers in and out of a heavily p-doped GaAs:Mn layer. Peak magnetoresistance of 40 % and 1 % have been observed at 10 K and 300 K respectively. The continuous wave, transient and high frequency dynamics of spin-polarized carriers and photons in a spin laser have been studied. Besides lowering of threshold currents, it has been theoretically estimated that these devices can show larger small-signal modulation bandwidth and 100% output polarization, independent of the injected carrier spin polarization, under appropriate biasing conditions. Measurements were done at 230 K on a InAs/GaAs quantum dot spin vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). A time-averaged output polarization of 55% is measured with an active region spin polarization of 5-6%. A peak threshold current reduction of 4.5 % and a polarization modulation index of 0.6 have been measured in these devices under continuous wave bias. The measured output characteristics, both DC and transient, match very well with those calculated from theory.

Basu, Debashish

20

Device and method for self-verifying temperature measurement and control  

DOEpatents

A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cannon, Collins P. (Kearney, MO); Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-10-29

21

Temperature differential detection device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated

Girling

1986-01-01

22

A new device for high precision in situ sediment temperature profile measurements at the seafloor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ sediment temperature profile measurements at the seafloor provide valuable information on fluid seepage, hydrate stability, and ambient temperature of samples. In addition, it can be convenient to approximate other parameters such as concentrations of porewater constituents from temperature or temperature gradient using transfer functions if their distribution is controlled by the same processes and direct quantification involves time-consuming sampling and laboratory analyses. We present a new instrument that can be used to obtain precisely positioned sediment temperature profile measurements from the seafloor during ROV dives. Consisting of a 0.4 m-long sensor rod equipped with eight temperature sensors and a standard data logger, the new T-Stick can be operated by an ROV in a fully autonomous mode. The temperature range of the instrument is -5 C to 35 C and it can withstand pressures of up to 600 bar. Compared to previously used instruments, the smaller diameter of the new T-Stick reduces the thermal inertia of the lance and results in shorter equilibration times. Virtual measurements generated by a numerical model showed that the T-Stick provides highly accurate temperature profile measurements with a root mean square error of 0.0027 K for a wide range of thermal sediment properties. Modeled temperature gradients are representative of both normal deep sea settings and cold seep environments with elevated temperature gradients of up to three orders of magnitude above normal background values, which are the primary target areas for T-Stick measurements. Deviations from the true in situ temperature profiles are caused by disturbance of the temperature field by the probe itself and may lead to underestimation of gradients and curvature in the profiles. A first field test of the T-Stick was conducted at the Hkon Mosby mud volcano at 1250 m water depth on the Barents Sea slope, where the new instrument provided useful information about the origin and extent of freshly erupted mud.

Feseker, T.; Wetzel, G.; Heesemann, B.

2012-04-01

23

Quantification of thermoreflectance temperature measurements in high-power semiconductor devices - lasers and laser bars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present results of the analysis of the thermoreflectance (TR) measurements performed on the high-power laser diodes and laser bar emitting at 808nm. TR is a modulation technique relying on periodic facet temperature modulation induced by pulsed current supply of the laser. The periodic temperature change of the laser induces variation of the refractive index and consequently

K. Pierscinski; D. Pierscinska; M. Bugajski

2009-01-01

24

Localized Heating on Silicon Field Effect Transistors: Device Fabrication and Temperature Measurements in Fluid  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate electrically addressable localized heating in fluid at the dielectric surface of silicon-on-insulator field-effect transistors via radio-frequency Joule heating of mobile ions in the Debye layer. Measurement of fluid temperatures in close vicinity to surfaces poses a challenge due to the localized nature of the temperature profile. To address this, we developed a localized thermometry technique based on the fluorescence decay rate of covalently attached fluorophores to extract the temperature within 2 nm of any oxide surface. We demonstrate precise spatial control of voltage dependent temperature profiles on the transistor surfaces. Our results introduce a new dimension to present sensing systems by enabling dual purpose silicon transistor-heaters that serve both as field effect sensors as well as temperature controllers that could perform localized bio-chemical reactions in Lab on Chip applications.

Elibol, Oguz H.; Reddy, Bobby; Nair, Pradeep R.; Dorvel, Brian; Butler, Felice; Ahsan, Zahab; Bergstrom, Donald E.; Alam, Muhammad A.; Bashir, Rashid

2010-01-01

25

Pulse flux measuring device  

DOEpatents

A device for measuring particle flux comprises first and second photodiode detectors for receiving flux from a source and first and second outputs for producing first and second signals representing the flux incident to the detectors. The device is capable of reducing the first output signal by a portion of the second output signal, thereby enhancing the accuracy of the device. Devices in accordance with the invention may measure distinct components of flux from a single source or fluxes from several sources.

Riggan, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

26

Experimental device to measure the electrical and optical properties of radiochromic films as a function of temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, radiochromic films (RCF) have been used extensively in medical physics for evaluating uniformity of radiation beams and dose distributions. These films are very sensitive to changes in temperature; therefore, one needs to know its thermal behavior to use them efficiently. Normally, the thermal assessment is done using optical methods on previously irradiated samples. Here, we report the use of a complementary dielectric method. We designed an experimental device that allows us to measure, simultaneously, the dielectric and optical properties as a function of temperature. We performed the measurements in real-time to temperature increases from 27 to 48 C of EBT and MD-55 RCF previously exposed to UV. We found for both films a decrease in the real part of the dielectric permittivity as the temperature increases, but an increment and decrease in the dielectric loss factor for the EBT and MD-55 film, respectively.

Gmez-Galvn, F.; Mercado-Uribe, H.

2009-06-01

27

Temperature differential detection device  

DOEpatents

A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

Girling, Peter M. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01

28

Temperature differential detection device  

DOEpatents

A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

Girling, P.M.

1986-04-22

29

Microwave radiometry method and device for measuring the temperature of a moving, textile material  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The temperature of a planar material (8) moving down a process path is measured by causing the material to pass through two openings (3,4) made in a waveguide (1) in such a way that the material effectively does not cut the electric field lines present on the walls of the guide (1) and also so the material (8) passes through the guide in a direction generally parallel to the electric field in the propagation mode of the waveguide and through a region of maximum field strength. The temperature of the planar material (8) is determined by measuring the thermal noise emitted by the material (8) as it passes through the slotted waveguide (1). The slots (3,4) for a rectangular waveguide operating in the TE.sub.10 mode are made along the centerline of the two broad sides of the guide.

1987-03-17

30

Portable emittance measurement device  

SciTech Connect

In Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) the portable emittance measurements device is developed. It provides emittance measurements both with ''pepper-pot'' and ''two slits'' methods. Depending on the method of measurements, either slits or pepper-pot mask with scintillator are mounted on the two activators and are installed in two standard Balzer's cross chamber with CF-100 flanges. To match the angle resolution for measured beam, the length of the stainless steel pipe between two crosses changes is adjusted. The description of the device and results of emittance measurements at the ITEP ion source test bench are presented.

Liakin, D.; Seleznev, D.; Orlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Kropachev, G.; Kulevoy, T.; Yakushin, P. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation)

2010-02-15

31

Neutral gas temperatures measured within a high-density, inductively coupled plasma abatement device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutral temperature within a cylindrical, inductively coupled plasma source has been studied for rare gas and molecular plasmas using the technique of optical emission thermometry. By adding small quantities of N2 to the gas feeds as an actinometer, the neutral temperature of the discharge can be estimated by simulation and fitting of the rotationally unresolved second positive band (C3Pi]u-B3[Pig).

Eric J. Tonnis; David B. Graves

2002-01-01

32

A device for fluorescence temperature measurement based on fast fourier transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sapphire fiber thermal probe with Cr3+ ion-doped end was grown using the laser heated pedestal method. The fluorescence thermal probe offers advantages of compact structure, high performance and the ability to sustain high temperature from the room temperature to 450 C. Based on the fast fourier transform (FFT), the fluorescence lifetime is obtained from the tangent function of the phase angle of the first non-zeroth item of FFT result. Compared with other traditional fitting methods, our method has advantages such as fast speed, high accuracy and being free from the influence of the base signal. The standard deviation of FFT method is about half of that of the Prony method and close to the one of the Marquardt method. In addition, since the FFT method is immunity to the background noise of the signal, the background noise analysis can be skipped.

Wang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Mei; Pan, Wei-Wei; Wang, Yu-Tian

2008-03-01

33

RADIATION MEASURING DEVICES  

DOEpatents

A radiation-measuring device is described having an a-c output. The apparatus has a high-energy particle source responsive to radiation flux disposed within a housing having a pair of collector plates. A potential gradient between the source and collector plates causes ions to flow to the plates. By means of electrostatic or magnetic deflection elements connected to an alternating potential, the ions are caused to flow alternately to each of the collector plates causing an a-c signal thereon.

Bouricius, G.M.B.; Rusch, G.K.

1960-03-22

34

Linewise Raman-Stokes\\/anti-Stokes temperature measurements in flames using an unintensified charge-coupled device  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-dimensional, spatially resolved (linewise), temporally averaged Stokes\\/anti-Stokes temperature measurements with 200 m spatial resolution and 6% precision uncertainty are demonstrated in an opposed-jet-diffusion flame of air vs N2-diluted H2 using the Raman-Stokes\\/anti-Stokes technique. The Stokes\\/anti-Stokes temperature profile is compared to temperature measurements obtained using all major species'Q-branches and differences between the two sets of results are discussed. In addition, single-pulse,

J. A. Wehrmeyer; S. Yeralan; K. S. Tecu

1996-01-01

35

Linewise Raman-Stokes\\/anti-Stokes temperature measurements in flames using an unintensified charge-coupled device  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-dimensional, spatially resolved (linewise), temporally averaged Stokes\\/anti-Stokes temperature measurements with 200 mum spatial resolution and 6% precision uncertainty are demonstrated in an opposed-jet-diffusion flame of air vs N2-diluted H2 using the Raman-Stokes\\/anti-Stokes technique. The Stokes\\/anti-Stokes temperature profile is compared to temperature measurements obtained using all major species' Q-branches and differences between the two sets of results are discussed. In addition,

J. A. Wehrmeyer; S. Yeralan; K. S. Tecu

1996-01-01

36

A comparison of globe, wet and dry temperature and humidity measuring devices available for heat stress assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various controlled and ambient tests were undertaken to evaluate the performance of a variety of digital heat stress monitors, psychrometers and simpler temperature\\/relative humidity data loggers that measure, or determine, such parameters as: dry-bulb, natural wet-bulb, psychrometric wet-bulb and globe temperatures. In this comparison, funded by the Deep Mining Research Consortium, it has been found that all the instruments can

S. Hardcastle; K. Butler

37

Temperature monitoring device and thermocouple assembly therefor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a temperature monitoring device for measuring the temperature at a surface of a body, composed of: at least one first thermocouple and a second thermocouple; support members supporting the thermocouples for placing the first thermocouple in contact with the body surface and for maintaining the second thermocouple at a defined spacing from the body surface; and a calculating circuit connected to the thermocouples for receiving individual signals each representative of the temperature reading produced by a respective one of the first and second thermocouples and for producing a corrected temperature signal having a value which represents the temperature of the body surface and is a function of the difference between the temperature reading produced by the first thermocouple and a selected fraction of the temperature reading provided by the second thermocouple.

Grimm, N.P.; Bauer, F.I.; Bengel, T.G.; Kothmann, R.E.; Mavretish, R.S.; Miller, P.E.; Nath, R.J.; Salton, R.B.

1991-10-29

38

Temperature monitoring device and thermocouple assembly therefor  

DOEpatents

A temperature monitoring device for measuring the temperature at a surface of a body, composed of: at least one first thermocouple and a second thermocouple; support members supporting the thermocouples for placing the first thermocouple in contact with the body surface and for maintaining the second thermocouple at a defined spacing from the body surface; and a calculating circuit connected to the thermocouples for receiving individual signals each representative of the temperature reading produced by a respective one of the first and second thermocouples and for producing a corrected temperature signal having a value which represents the temperature of the body surface and is a function of the difference between the temperature reading produced by the first thermocouple and a selected fraction of the temperature reading provided by the second thermocouple.

Grimm, Noel P. (Monroeville, PA); Bauer, Frank I. (Perry Township, Lawrence County, PA); Bengel, Thomas G. (Plum Boro, PA); Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Boro, PA); Mavretish, Robert S. (New Stanton, PA); Miller, Phillip E. (Greensburg, PA); Nath, Raymond J. (Murrysville, PA); Salton, Robert B. (Plum Boro, PA)

1991-01-01

39

High Temperature Superconducting Microwave Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thin films of the high-Tc superconductor Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O were prepared by sputter deposition. The films were deposited at room temperature and then post deposition annealed. A microwave measurement system based on a microstrip resonator was established. X-r...

R. M. Catchings

1993-01-01

40

Method and device for indicating temperature  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed is a temperature indicating method and device. The device embodies a sealed tube containing a liquid and a float. The tube has markings on the exterior indicating temperature zones or, in the alternative, temperature gradients. The method disclosed includes inverting the tube such that the indicator drops to the bottom of the tube and freezing the device at the appropriate temperature level. In use, the device is placed right side up in a container along with other items for which the highest temperature level arrived at is desired to be known. Upon warming, the liquid in the tube melts and the float drops through the liquid to the freezing level of the liquid. By removing the device from the container and comparing the float level in the tube to the markings on the exterior of the tube, the highest temperature or temperature zone that the contents of the container were subjected can be determined.

2006-08-29

41

Evaluation and improvement in the accuracy of a charge-coupled-device-based pyrometer for temperature field measurements of continuous casting billets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a radiometric high-temperature field measurement model based on a charge-coupled-device (CCD). According to the model, an intelligent CCD pyrometer with a digital signal processor as the core is developed and its non-uniformity correction algorithm for reducing the differences in accuracy between individual pixel sensors is established. By means of self-adaptive adjustment for the light-integration time, the dynamic range of the CCD is extended and its accuracy in low-temperature range is improved. The non-uniformity correction algorithm effectively reduces the accuracy differences between different pixel sensors. The performance of the system is evaluated through a blackbody furnace and an integrating sphere, the results of which show that the dynamic range of 400 K is obtained and the accuracy in low temperature range is increased by 7 times compared with the traditional method based on the fixed light-integration time. In addition, the differences of accuracy between the on-axis pixel and the most peripheral pixels are decreased from 19.1 K to 2.8 K. Therefore, this CCD pyrometer ensures that the measuring results of all pixels tend to be equal-accuracy distribution across the entire measuring ranges. This pyrometric system has been successfully applied to the temperature field measurements in continuous casting billets.

Bai, Haicheng; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Yuzhong; Hu, Zhenwei

2013-06-01

42

Pressure measurements in magnetic-fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate pressure measurements are important in magnetic fusion devices for: (1) plasma diagnostic measurements of particle balance and ion temperature; (2) discharge cleaning optimization; (3) vacuum system performance; and (4) tritium accountability. The application, required accuracy, and suitable instrumentation for these measurements are reviewed. Demonstrated uses of ionization-type and capacitance-diaphragm gauges for various pressure and gas-flow measurements in Tokamaks are

H. F. Dylla

1981-01-01

43

Pressure measurements in magnetic fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate pressure measurements are important in magnetic fusion devices for: (1) plasma diagnostic measurements of particle balance and ion temperature; (2) discharge cleaning optimization; (3) vacuum system performance; and (4) tritium accountability. This paper reviews the application, required accuracy, and suitable instrumentation for these measurements. Demonstrated uses of ionization-type and capacitance--diaphragm gauges for various pressure and gas-flow measurements in tokamaks

H. F. Dylla

1982-01-01

44

Laser induced fluorescence measurements of ion velocity and temperature of drift turbulence driven sheared plasma flow in a linear helicon plasma device  

SciTech Connect

Using laser induced fluorescence (LIF), radial profiles of azimuthal ion fluid velocity and ion temperature are measured in the controlled shear de-correlation experiment (CSDX) linear helicon plasma device. Ion velocities and temperatures are derived from the measured Doppler broadened velocity distribution functions of argon ions. The LIF system employs a portable, high power (>300 mW), narrowband ({approx}1 MHz) tunable diode laser-based system operating at 668.614 nm. Previous studies in CSDX have shown the existence of a radially sheared azimuthal flow as measured with time delay estimation methods and Mach probes. Here, we report the first LIF measurements of sheared plasma fluid flow in CSDX. Above a critical magnetic field, the ion fluid flow profile evolves from radially uniform to peaked on axis with a distinct reversed flow region at the boundary, indicating the development of a sheared azimuthal flow. Simultaneously, the ion temperature also evolves from a radially uniform profile to a profile with a gradient. Measurements in turbulent and coherent drift wave mode dominated plasmas are compared.

Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Fedorczak, N.; Manz, P.; Tynan, G. R.; Xu, M. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Lee, T. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

2012-08-15

45

TEMPERATURE SAFETY DEVICE FOR AQUATIC LABORATORY SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The temperature safety device described here will protect aquatic organisms in experiments or in rearing and holding facilities by stopping water flow when set temperatures are exceeded. The device consists of switches constructed from aquarium heaters that are activated by exces...

46

Edge turbulence measurements in toroidal fusion devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews measurements of edge plasma turbulence in toroidal magnetic fusion devices with an emphasis on recent results in tokamaks. The dominant feature of edge turbulence is a high level of broadband density fluctuations with a relative amplitude deltan\\/n ~ 5 100%, accompanied by large potential and electron temperature fluctuations. The frequency range of this turbulence is ~10 kHz

S. J. Zweben; J. A. Boedo; O. Grulke; C. Hidalgo; B. La Bombard; R. J. Maqueda; P. Scarin; J. L. Terry

2007-01-01

47

High-Temperature RF Probe Station For Device Characterization Through 500 deg C and 50 GHz.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A high-temperature measurement system capable of performing on-wafer microwave testing of semiconductor devices has been developed. This high temperature probe station can characterize active and passive devices and circuits at temperatures ranging from r...

Z. D. Schwartz A. N. Downey S. A. Alterovitz G. E. Ponchak W. D. Williams

2003-01-01

48

Ground Contact Area Measurement Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The area of contact between a moving load transfer device (such as a wheel or track) and the surface can be rapidly and accurately measured to determine its magnitude and shape for use in evaluating mobility potential or determining appropriate adjustment...

W. E. Brooks

1982-01-01

49

Research on 3-D device for infrared temperature detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a certain field, it is important to measure temperature information in variable direction at the same time. However, there are few instruments to accomplish the function now. To implement the measure in 3 dimensions, an experimental table of temperature detection by infrared is designed. It is the integration of detection, control and monitor. The infrared device in the table can detect and measure temperature in real time, and the three dimension electric motional device can adjust the detection distance by the user. The mechanical bar for displacement is controlled by a circuit with the control button. The infrared temperature sensor is fixed on the bar, so it can move along with the bar controlled by the circuit. The method of temperature detection is untouched, so it can detect small object and its tiny variable temperature, which can not be detected by the thermometer or the electronic temperature sensor. In terms of the 3-D parallel motion control, the device can implement temperature measurement in variable directions. According to the results of the temperature values, the 3-D temperature distributed curve can be described. By using of the detection device, temperature of some special objects can be detected, such as the live anatomical animal, small sensor, nondestructive object, and so on.

Chen, Shuxin; Jiang, Shaohua; Hou, Jie; Chen, Shuwang

2007-11-01

50

Devices and methods to measure H2 and CO2 concentrations in gases released from soils and low temperature fumaroles in volcanic areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen solubility and diffusion have a great relevance to change the redox state of magmas, usually expressed by oxygen fugacity. This influences many chemical and physical properties, such as oxidation state of multivalent elements, kind and abundance of minerals and gas species. These processes change the phase ratios into the volcanic system and so the magma movement capability toward the earth surface and the eruptive dynamics. In past studies several authors (Carapezza et al., 1980; Sato et al., 1982; Sato and McGee, 1985; Wakita et al., 1980) proposed the application of the fuel cells in order to measure reducing capacity of volcanic gases. Their found some clear correlations between variation peaks and volcanic activity but a few reducing capacity changes showed no correlation with it. In this study we characterize a fuel cell device designed to measure hydrogen concentration in a gas mixture. We present test results obtained in laboratory and in field trip, carried out to verify the major interferences of others reducing gas species, commonly present in volcanic emissions, in the measurement carried out with a hydrogen fuel cell sensor. Tests were performed at controlled temperature ad pressure conditions and at air saturated pressure vapour in the cell cathode. A new device to measure simultaneously hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in soil and in low temperature fumaroles in volcanic areas was proposed. The H2-detector is a hydrogen fuel cell, whereas CO2 is measured using an I.R. spectrometer. To build a continuous monitoring station of volcanic activity both sensors were put in a case together with a data logger. Our device has 0.2 mV ppm-1 sensitivity, accuracy of 5 ppm and about 10 ppm resolution whit respect to the hydrogen concentration. These instrumental characteristics were obtained applying a 500 ohm resistor to the external circuit that represents the best compromise between sensitivity, resolution, instrumental response time, and linearity of signal. We determine the CO2 concentration in the gas mixture with an I.R. spectrometer that has a measuring range of 0-100% with accuracy of 2% of the range and response time of 10 seconds. The laboratory results confirm our hypothesis of interference between H2, H2S and CO in the full concentration range of contaminant species. Therefore, according to our studies, the assignment of the fuel cell signal output variations only to H2 variation of concentration as in past studies, without physical separation of different reducing species may be misleading. Continuous measurements and periodical measurement field trip were performed at Torre Del Filosofo site on the upper part of the Etna volcano from the end of July to the middle October 2008. In field applications, H2S was removed with a Pb(COOH)2 trap whereas CO interference was neglected because H2/CO ratios in volcanic gases are typically high. Field time-series measurements of H2 and CO2 in gases emitted by low temperature fumaroles at Torre del Filosofo site showed a close positive correlation between explosion activity and the major peaks in the hydrogen concentration.

di Martino, R. M. R.; Camarda, M.; Gurrieri, S.; Valenza, M.

2009-04-01

51

Pressure measurements in magnetic-fusion devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate pressure measurements are important in magnetic fusion devices for: (1) plasma diagnostic measurements of particle balance and ion temperature; (2) discharge cleaning optimization; (3) vacuum system performance; and (4) tritium accountability. The application, required accuracy, and suitable instrumentation for these measurements are reviewed. Demonstrated uses of ionization-type and capacitance-diaphragm gauges for various pressure and gas-flow measurements in Tokamaks are presented, with specific reference to the effects of magnetic fields on gauge performance and the problems associated with gauge calibration.

Dylla, H. F.

1981-11-01

52

Pressure measurements in magnetic fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Accurate pressure measurements are important in magnetic fusion devices for: (1) plasma diagnostic measurements of particle balance and ion temperature; (2) discharge cleaning optimization; (3) vacuum system performance; and (4) tritium accountability. This paper reviews the application, required accuracy, and suitable instrumentation for these measurements. Demonstrated uses of ionization-type and capacitance--diaphragm gauges for various pressure and gas-flow measurements in tokamaks are presented, with specific reference to the effects of magnetic fields on gauge performance and the problems associated with gauge calibration.

Dylla, H.F.

1982-02-01

53

High temperature aqueous stress corrosion testing device  

DOEpatents

A description is given of a device for stressing tensile samples contained within a high temperature, high pressure aqueous environment, thereby permitting determination of stress corrosion susceptibility of materials in a simple way. The stressing device couples an external piston to an internal tensile sample via a pull rod, with stresses being applied to the sample by pressurizing the piston. The device contains a fitting/seal arrangement including Teflon and weld seals which allow sealing of the internal system pressure and the external piston pressure. The fitting/seal arrangement allows free movement of the pull rod and the piston.

Bornstein, A.N.; Indig, M.E.

1975-12-01

54

Temperature Measurements in Permafrost.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report focuses primarily on the use of thermistors and thermocouples as sensors for making temperature measurements in permafrost soils. Logging systems are generally recommended over permanently installed multi-sensor cables when the highest accurac...

T. E. Osterkamp

1984-01-01

55

Measuring the Curie temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Curie point temperatures (TC) of natural and synthetic magnetic materials are commonly determined in rock magnetism by several measurement methods that can be mutually incompatible and may lead to inconsistent results. Here the common evaluation routines for high-temperature magnetization and magnetic initial susceptibility curves are analyzed and revised based on Landau's theory of second-order phase transitions. It is confirmed that in high-field magnetization curves TC corresponds to the inflection point, below the temperature of maximum curvature or the double-tangent intersection point. At least four different physical processes contribute to the initial magnetic susceptibility near the ordering temperature. They include variation of saturation magnetization, superparamagnetic behavior, magnetization rotation, and magnetic domain wall motion. Because each of these processes may influence the apparent position of TC, initial susceptibility and high-field curves can yield deviating estimates of TC. A new procedure is proposed to efficiently determine the temperature variation of several magnetic parameters on a vibrating-sample magnetometer, by repeatedly measuring quarter-hysteresis loops during a single heating cycle. This procedure takes measurements during the inevitable waiting time necessary for thermal equilibration of the sample, whereby it is not slower than the commonly performed measurements on a Curie balance. However, it returns saturation magnetization, saturation remanence, high-field and low-field slopes, and other parameters as a function of temperature, which provide independent information about TC and other sample properties.

Fabian, K.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; McEnroe, S. A.

2013-04-01

56

Design parameter evaluation of a metal recoated Fiber Bragg Grating sensors for measurement of cryogenic temperature or stress in superconducting devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are plenty of complex physical phenomena which remain to be studied and verified experimentally for building an optimized superconducting magnet. The main problem for experimental validations is due to the unavailability of suitable sensors. This paper proposes a Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) sensor for this purpose which allows access to the local temperature\\/stress state. To measure the low temperature

R. Rajinikumar; M. Ser; K. G. Narayankhedkar; G. Krieg; M. D. Atrey

2009-01-01

57

Four-Probe Device for Accurate Measurement of Temperature Dependence of Electrical Resistivity on Small, Irregularly Shaped Single Crystals with Parallel Sides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sample holder is described that considerably facilitates the measurement of specific resistivity on small, irregularly shaped single crystals over a large range of temperature. Utilizing the van der Pauw technique, accurate values of this electrical tra...

R. W. Germann D. B. Rogers

1965-01-01

58

Method and device for measuring fluid flow  

DOEpatents

This invention is a fluid flow measuring device for determining the coolant flow at the entrance to a specific nuclear reactor fuel region. The device comprises a plurality of venturis having the upstream inlet and throat pressure of each respectively manifolded together to provide one static pressure signal for each region monitored. The device provides accurate flow measurement with low pressure losses and uniform entrance and discharge flow distribution.

Atherton, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA); Marinkovich, Phillip S. (Bethel Park, PA); Spadaro, Peter R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Stout, J. Wilson (Pittsburgh, PA)

1976-11-23

59

Accuracy of junction temperature measurement in silicon power transistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports experimental measurements of junction temperature obtained by various electrical and thermal methods. Electrical measurements were based on temperature-sensitive junction parameters including pulse sampling of CCBFand VBE, steady state hFE, and pulsed ?VCBF. Direct measurement of peak junction temperature was made using an infrared microradiometer. Junction temperature measurements were obtained as a function of device operating conditions, since

H. R. Plumlee; D. A. Peterman

1966-01-01

60

Pulsed Measurements on Heterojunction Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project has been the characterization of impact- ionization effects in advanced microwave devices by means of pulsed techniques. Breakdown of GaAs-based MESFETs and HEMTs, and of InP-based HEMTs has been studied by means of 20 - 500 ns pu...

E. Zanoni G. Meneghesso D. Buttari A. Chini M. Maretto

2000-01-01

61

SERI Photovoltaic Devices and Measurements Laboratories.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SERI Photovoltaic (PV) Devices and Measurements Laboratories have been created to satisfy two major functions: to provide measurement and characterization support to research groups involved in solar cell technologies, and to carry out basic research ...

1983-01-01

62

Core temperature measurement by microwave radiometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double-container model was used for core temperature (Tc) measurement by microwave emission radiometry (MR) of warm fluid inside a tube, placed in a container with a cooler fluid. The intensity of microwaves emitted from the warmer fluid inside the tube were measured using a MR metering device, consisting of an antenna linked to a low-noise radio frequency amplifier (bandwidth

Daniel S. Moran; Uri Eliyahu; Yuval Heled; Shabtai Rabinovitz; Jay Hoffman; Menachem Margaliot

2004-01-01

63

21 CFR 882.1560 - Skin potential measurement device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skin potential measurement device. 882.1560...Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1560 Skin potential measurement device. (a) Identification. A skin potential measurement device is a...

2013-04-01

64

Introducing Temperature Measurement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn how to read a Celsius-scale thermometer, associate weather conditions and seasons with Celsius temperature ranges, and keep a record of temperature. Students will read the Celsius temperature each day and discuss how given temperatures "feel". They record the temperature by using a string of beads and a chart.

65

Device Modeling at Cryogenic Temperatures: Effects of Incomplete Ionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a device performance modeling methodology that self-consistently resolves device operation at cryogenic temperatures (T > 30 K) in conjunction with incomplete ionization effects that take into account the change in dopant activation energies as a function of doping. Using this methodology, we developed a device simulator that predicts n-channel MOSFET (NMOSFET) device characteristics for a wide range of

Akin Akturk; Jeffrey Allnutt; Zeynep Dilli; Neil Goldsman; Martin Peckerar

2007-01-01

66

PORTABLE DEVICE FOR MEASURING SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION  

EPA Science Inventory

A portable device for measuring sediment resuspension has been developed. he device consists of a cylindrical chamber inside of which a horizontal grid oscillates vertically. he sediments whose properties are to be determined are placed at the bottom of the chamber with water ove...

67

High-temperature RF probe station for device characterization through 500C and 50 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-temperature measurement system capable of performing on-wafer microwave testing of semiconductor devices has been developed. This high-temperature probe station can characterize active and passive devices and circuits at temperatures ranging from room temperature to above 500C. The heating system uses a ceramic heater mounted on an insulating block of NASA Shuttle tile. The temperature is adjusted by a graphical

Zachary D. Schwartz; Alan N. Downey; Samuel A. Alterovitz; George E. Ponchak

2005-01-01

68

High-temperature probe station for use in microwave device characterization through 500C  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-temperature measurement system capable of performing on-wafer microwave testing of semiconductor devices has been developed. This high temperature probe station can characterize active and passive devices and circuits at temperatures ranging from room temperature to above 5OOOC. The heating system uses a ceramic heater mounted on an insulating block of NASA shuttle tile material. The temperature is adjusted by

Zachary D. Schwartz; Alan N. Downey; Samuel A. Alterovitz; George E. Ponchak

2003-01-01

69

Force Measurement Device for ARIANE 5 Payloads  

Microsoft Academic Search

ESTEC uses since 1991 a Force Measurement Device (FMD) for the measurement of dynamic mechanical forces and moments. This tool allows the determination of forces and moments applied to the test hardware at its interface to the test facilities during dynamic testing. Three forces and three moments are calculated from the measurements of eight tri-axial force links and used to

O. Brunner; R. Braeken

2004-01-01

70

[A new device for measuring occlusion pressure].  

PubMed

Mouth pressure in the first 100 ms of inspiration with the airway occluded (P0.1) is an indirect measure of central airways activity. Few adequately validated devices are available on the market for measuring this variable automatically, impeding wider use of this measurement. Our aim was to determine the validity and precision of a new automatized manometer for measuring P0.1 and compare the device to the apparatus normally used in our laboratory. The newly manufactured device consisted of a semiconductor type pressure transduce connected to an analog-to-digital converter. The usual apparatus used was constructed in our laboratory from a Honewell transducer, an analog-to-digital card (Data Translation DT2801) for an IBM-compatible PC and a standard spread sheet program. Both devices recorded a continuous signal at a sample frequency of 100 Hz. To determine linearity, accuracy, sensitivity and precision, two columns of 5 and 25 cmH2O were used. For clinical assessment, 33 patients scheduled for lung function analysis were tested. Five measurements of P0.1 were performed on each. The sensitivity of the new device was 0.1 cmH2O; precision expressed as a variation coefficient was 0%, and linearity expressed as a correlation coefficient was r = 0.999 between the two columns. The mean difference between the two devices was 0.11 (0.46) cmH2O (p < 0.0001). Analysis of concordance confirmed a reading bias for the new device in comparison with the usual one, although the difference was not clinically significant (0.08 to 0.14 cmH2O). We conclude that the new device gives good results and its availability on the market may allow more frequent clinical application of occlusion pressure measurement. PMID:8983569

Belda, J; Giner, J; Casn, P; Sanchis, J

1996-10-01

71

Electrolyte measurement device and measurement procedure  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for measuring the through-thickness resistance or conductance of a thin electrolyte is provided. The method and apparatus includes positioning a first source electrode on a first side of an electrolyte to be tested, positioning a second source electrode on a second side of the electrolyte, positioning a first sense electrode on the second side of the electrolyte, and positioning a second sense electrode on the first side of the electrolyte. current is then passed between the first and second source electrodes and the voltage between the first and second sense electrodes is measured.

Cooper, Kevin R. (Southern Pines, NC); Scribner, Louie L. (Southern Pines, NC)

2010-01-26

72

A Novel Sorbent Material Test Device at Variable Cryogenic Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The knowledge of accurate performance data of porous materials is an essential need for investigation of new candidate sorbent materials for use in cryosorption devices. The temperature range between 5 K and 20 K is foreseen to be used in order to exploit the cryosorption mechanism in cryovacuum pump systems for nuclear fusion. But direct experimental data at cryogenic temperatures are very scarce in the open literature, especially at temperature levels other than LHe or LN.Thus, a novel device was developed to measure sorption characteristics of porous materials under variable temperature cryogenic conditions (3.5 K to 100 K). The COOLSORP facility is based on a commercially available pore-analyser, upgraded by a heatable, closed He cycle, two-stage Gifford McMahon refrigerator. This facility is characterised by its wide range of accessible pressures, from ambient down to 10-4 Pa.The paper describes the facility set-up and and presents typical examples of low temperature sorption data on different gases (helium, hydrogen, deuterium, nitrogen) for activated carbon and getter materials. COOLSORP is demonstrated to be a versatile facility which cannot only be used for scientific purposes to investigate different materials, but also for quality assurance purposes.

Day, Chr.; Hauer, V. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, PO Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2004-06-28

73

Development of a Force Measurement Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a Force Measurement Device (FMD) for recording interface forces between shaker table and Ariane 4 satellites is reported. The FMD is designed to measure forces and moments in the frequency range from 0.1 to 100 Hz with an accuracy bette...

O. Wilmar

1991-01-01

74

21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device...Diagnostic Devices § 882.1540 Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement...

2010-04-01

75

21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device...Diagnostic Devices § 882.1540 Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement...

2009-04-01

76

21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device...Diagnostic Devices § 882.1540 Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement...

2013-04-01

77

21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882.1550... § 882.1550 Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification. A nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a...

2009-04-01

78

21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882.1550... § 882.1550 Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification. A nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a...

2010-04-01

79

Elevated Temperature Oxygen Index Apparatus and Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus that performs elevated temperature (300-800C) Oxygen Index (OI) measurements using radiant heating has been developed and used to perform OI measurements on a variety of high-OI composite materials. Comparisons of data with OI values obtained using a gas preheat device indicate reasonable agreement. Flame propagation down the edges of the samples dominated the burning behavior for many high

Stephen C. Bates; Peter R. Solomon

1993-01-01

80

Cryogenic Temperature Control and Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is given of some of the many control, measurement, and regulation techniques for cryogenic temperatures, applying liquid coolants (LN2, LHe) and the equipment developed for their realization, such as pressure, coolant level, and temperature contr...

H. J. Forth

1977-01-01

81

Temperature correction in conductivity measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electrical conductivity has been widely used in freshwater research but usual methods employed by limnologists for converting measurements to conductance at a given temperature have not given uniformly accurate results. The temperature coefficient used to adjust conductivity of natural waters to a given temperature varies depending on the kinds and concentrations of electrolytes, the temperature at the time of measurement, and the temperature to which measurements are being adjusted. The temperature coefficient was found to differ for various lake and stream waters, and showed seasonal changes. High precision can be obtained only by determining temperature coefficients for each water studied. Mean temperature coefficients are given for various temperature ranges that may be used where less precision is required.

Smith, Stanford H.

1962-01-01

82

Operation of SOI CMOS Devices at Liquid-Nitrogen Temperature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Liquid-nitrogen-temperature (LNT) operation of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS devices has been investigated experimentally. The maximum carrier mobilities in these devices increase by factors from 1.25 to 4.5 between room temperature and LNT. At LNT, the...

K. K. Young B. Y. Tsaur

1990-01-01

83

Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility  

SciTech Connect

Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the undulators to {+-}0.01 C. This note describes the temperature measurement system under construction.

Wolf, Zachary

2010-12-13

84

High-Sensitivity Temperature Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method of measuring small temperature differences that amount to a .01K, using an arrangement of a copper-constantan thermocouple, a microamplifier and a galvanometer, as an indirect way of measuring heat energy. (GA)

Leadstone, G. S.

1978-01-01

85

A STROBOSCOPIC DEVICE FOR MEASURING REVOLUTION RATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inexpensive device for measuring rotation rates can be made by mounting two paper discs on rotating axes. If the rate of one is known, the rate of the other can be determined by finding the ratio between the two speeds stroboscopically. One disc may be put in place of a record in a good phonograph. The rate of revolution

Benjamin Franklin Zuehl

1922-01-01

86

A simple device for measuring anaerobic power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having no funds to purchase sophisticated equipment to measure human anaerobic power, a simple cheaply made device was constructed based on the principle of the method introduced by Margaria et al (1966). This improvised apparatus consists of two contact pads each having a make and break provision of an electrical circuit with the help of leaf springs and can be

D. K. Kansal; S. K. Verma; L. S. Sidhu

1981-01-01

87

Validity of vertical jump measurement devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical jump height is thought to provide a valuable index of muscular power, which is an important factor in sports performance and for assessing the mobility and functional capacity of injured or aged individuals. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the criterion validity of four popular devices for measuring vertical jump height. A belt mat, contact mat,

Matthew Buckthorpe; John Morris; Jonathan P. Folland

2011-01-01

88

Validity of vertical jump measurement devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical jump height is thought to provide a valuable index of muscular power, which is an important factor in sports performance and for assessing the mobility and functional capacity of injured or aged individuals. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the criterion validity of four popular devices for measuring vertical jump height. A belt mat, contact mat,

Matthew Buckthorpe; John Morris; Jonathan P. Folland

2012-01-01

89

21 CFR 864.5950 - Blood volume measuring device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Hematology Devices § 864.5950 Blood volume measuring device. (a) Identification. A blood volume measuring device is...that is used to calculate the red cell mass, plasma volume, and total blood volume. (b)...

2013-04-01

90

Power stability of laser radiation measurement device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automated device for determining the power stability of cw laser beams pursuant to the requirements of the International Standard ISO 11554 has been created. Using laser radiation intensity measurements in relative units the calculation of mean power values, standard deviations, maximum and minimum readings, power stability and power drift is carried out. The measurements for medium-term (1 min) and long-term (60 min) stability are carried out.

Zhdanovskii, Vladimir A.; Snopko, Valerii N.

2002-02-01

91

Spectroscopic Measurement of Air Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical dimensional measurements have to be corrected for the refractive index of air. The refractive index is conventionally calculated from parameters of ambient air using either Edln or Ciddor equations or their modified versions. However, these equations require an accurate knowledge of ambient conditions and especially the temperature of air. For example, to reach an uncertainty of 10-7 in dimensions, the air temperature has to be known at ~100 mK level. This does not necessarily cause problems in a stable laboratory environment. However, if measurements are done outdoors or in an industrial environment, variations in temperature can be very rapid and local temperature gradients can cause significant error if not taken into account. Moreover, if the required distance is long, the temperature over the whole measurement path can be impractical or impossible to determine at sufficient temporal or spatial resolution by conventional temperature measurement techniques. The developed method based on molecular spectroscopy of oxygen allows both lateral spatial and temporal overlap of the temperature measurement with the actual distance measurement. Temperature measurement using spectroscopy is based on a line intensity ratio measurement of two oxygen absorption lines, previously applied for measurements of high temperatures in flames. The oxygen absorption band at 762 nm is a convenient choice for two-line thermometry since the line strengths are practical for short- and long-distance measurements and suitable distributed feedback lasers are commercially available. Measurements done on a 67 m path at ambient conditions demonstrate that the RMS noise of 22mK, or 7.5 10-5, near 293 K using 60 s measurement time can be achieved, which is to our knowledge the best reported resolution.

Hieta, T.; Merimaa, M.

2010-09-01

92

Wireless sensor for temperature and humidity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature and humidity sensors have a broad range of applications, from heating and ventilation of houses to controlled drying of fruits, vegetables or meat in food industry. Modern sensors are integrated devices, usually MEMS, factory-calibrated and with digital output of measured parameters. They can have power down modes for reduced energy consumption. Such an integrated device allows the implementation of a battery powered wireless sensor when coupled with a low power microcontroller and a radio subsystem. A radio sensor can work independently or together with others in a radio network. Presented paper focuses mainly on measurement and construction aspects of sensors for temperature and humidity designed and implemented by authors; network aspects (communication between two or more sensors) are not analyzed.

Drumea, Andrei; Svasta, Paul

2010-09-01

93

A Microthermal Device for Measuring the Spatial Power Spectrum of Atmospheric Optical Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Measurement Astrophysics group at UNM designed and built a novel microthermal device for characterizing atmospheric optical turbulence at astronomical observatories. This instrument is based on a Wheatstone bridge circuit and uses fine tungsten filaments as resistance temperature detectors. The device makes differential temperature measurements which are directly related to the index of refraction structure constant, Cn2, which quantifies the

Jonathan Turner; J. McGraw; P. Zimmer; T. Williams; C. Claver; V. Krabbendam; O. Wiecha; J. Andrew; M. Warner

2010-01-01

94

Simple Devices for Measuring Complex Laser Pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shortly after the development of the first lasers, researchers learned a valuable lesson: lasers were not very useful if their beam spatial quality was poor. Fortunately cameras could measure the beam quality, which then rapidly improved. Just as lasers must be smooth and stable in space, they must also be so in time. Fortunately, electronic detectors and oscilloscopes could measure the laser intensity vs. time. Until, that is, researchers began to generate pulses nanoseconds and even picoseconds long, too fast for these devices. It was not until pulses reached fs lengths that complete intensity-and-phase measurements became possible. Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) nicely solved the problem, yielding the pulse intensity and phase vs. time for arbitrary fs pulses. Additional simple techniques can measure fs pulses' complete intensity and phase vs. time and space. Indeed, fs light pulses are now arguably the best characterized type of light, and they are the basis of ultrastable metrology. But what about ns pulses? In the process of opening up new regimes of science, the measurement of much longer---and far more common---intermediate length pulses was forgotten. As a result, ns pulses from Q-switched solid-state lasers, pulsed diode lasers, and high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers are often far from ideal in time and no one knows precisely what their distortions look like. Yes, electronic detectors and oscilloscopes have become faster, but such exotic devices are expensive and fragile and only yield the intensity and not the phase. Measuring ns pulses has proved much more difficult than measuring fs and ps ones. Happily, we have recently demonstrated a novel FROG for measuring ns pulses. The main challenge was generating a ns delay range on a single shot, a problem we solved in a novel manner: by tilting the input pulse by 89.9 degrees. This novel device completes the many-decades-old task of developing simple techniques for measuring essentially all laser pulses.

Trebino, Rick

2010-10-01

95

A uniform temperature heat sink for cooling of electronic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigation of a heat sink for cooling of electronic devices is performed. The objective is to keep the operating temperature at a relatively low level of about 323333 K, using a dielectric liquid that boils at a lower temperature, while reducing the undesired temperature variation in the both streamwise and transverse directions. The experimental study is based on systematic

G. Hetsroni; A. Mosyak; Z. Segal; G. Ziskind

2002-01-01

96

High-temperature superconducting passive microwave devices, filters and antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) passive microwave devices, such as filters and antennas, are promising devices. In particular, HTS filters may be successfully marketed in the near future. Cross-coupled filters, ring filters, and coplanar waveguide filters are good options to reduce filter size. On the other hand, HTS patch antennas which can be cooled by a cryo-cooler are also promising devices as

S. Ohshima

2000-01-01

97

Shock temperature measurements in ammonia  

SciTech Connect

Our first shock temperature measurements on a cryogenic target are reported for NH/sub 3/. A new fast optical pyrometer and a cryogenic specimen holder for liquid NH/sub 3/ were developed to measure shock temperatures of 4400 and 3600 K at pressures of 61 and 48 GPa. These conditions correspond to those in the ice layers in Uranus and Neptune. The shock temperature data are in reasonable agreement with an equation of state based on an intermolecular potential derived from NH/sub 3/ Hugoniot data.

Radousky, H.B.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Ross, M.

1985-07-01

98

27 CFR 25.42 - Testing of measuring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.42 Testing of measuring devices. (a...device such as a meter or gauge glass is used to measure beer, the brewer shall periodically test the...

2013-04-01

99

An unheated permeation device for calibrating atmospheric VOC measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of an unpowered permeation device for continuous calibration of in-situ instruments measuring atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is described. Being lightweight and compact, and containing only negligible amounts of chemicals, the device is especially suited for field use such as on board aircraft. Its speciality is to maintain the permeation process in thermal equilibrium, so that the instantaneous permeation rate can be ascribed to a simple temperature measurement. This equilibrium state is maintained by a combination of three features: (i) a thin PTFE membrane as permeation medium which guarantees short stabilization times, (ii) a water bath as heat buffer, and (iii) a vacuum-panel based insulation, in which features (ii) and (iii) minimize temperature drifts to ~30 mK h-1 per Kelvin temperature difference to the environment. The respective uncertainty of the permeation rate due to thermal non-equilibrium is kept below 1%. An extensive theory part details the major permeation processes of gases through porous polymers, being Fick's diffusion, Knudsen flow, and viscous flow. Both the measured stabilization time and the measured temperature dependence of the permeation rate independently indicate that the permeation can be described by a viscous flow model, where diffusion of the gas molecules in large pores (having a diameter of >0.05 ?m) dominates.

Brito, J.; Zahn, A.

2011-10-01

100

Mass measurements based on nanomechanical devices: differential measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, there has been a strong interest in implementing nano-mechanical devices as mass sensors. Regarding this application, an important question to address is to know to what extent the observed frequency shift is exclusively due to the targeted mass loading. For this purpose, we present a device, a polysilicon double cantilever, with an innovative design that allows the direct determination of the measurement uncertainty. Two almost identical nanomechanical resonators are simultaneously operated: one serves as sensor and the other as reference. In this way, rapid and reliable measurements in air are made possible. In first experimental measurements, some masses in the order of 300 fg, locally deposited by focused ion beam, have been measured with an uncertainty of 30 fg. These results are corroborated by the determination of the deposits size based on SEM images.

Arcamone, J.; Rius, G.; Llobet, J.; Borris, X.; Prez-Murano, F.

2008-03-01

101

Room-temperature intermediate layer bonding for microfluidic devices.  

PubMed

In this work a novel room-temperature bonding technique based on chemically activated Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP) sheet as an intermediate between chemically activated substrates is presented. Surfaces of silicon and glass substrates are chemically modified with APTES bearing amine terminal groups, while FEP sheet surfaces are treated to form carboxyl groups and subsequently activated by means of EDC-NHS chemistry. The activation procedures of silicon, glass and FEP sheet are characterized by contact angle measurements and XPS. Robust bonds are created at room-temperature by simply pressing two amine-terminated substrates together with activated FEP sheet in between. Average tensile strengths of 5.9 MPa and 5.2 MPa are achieved for silicon-silicon and glass-glass bonds, respectively, and the average fluidic pressure that can be operated is 10.2 bar. Moreover, it is demonstrated that FEP-bonded microfluidic chips can handle mild organic solvents at elevated pressures without leakage problems. This versatile room-temperature intermediate layer bonding technique has a high potential for bonding, packaging, and assembly of various (bio-) chemical microfluidic systems and MEMS devices. PMID:20024026

Bart, Jacob; Tiggelaar, Roald; Yang, Menglong; Schlautmann, Stefan; Zuilhof, Han; Gardeniers, Han

2009-10-12

102

Colloidal-gold electrosensor measuring device  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a new device for use in measuring lead levels in biological and environmental samples. Using square wave coulometry and colloidal gold particles impregnated on carbon electrodes, the present invention provides a rapid, reliable, portable and inexpensive means of detecting low lead levels. The colloidal gold modified electrodes have microelectrode array characteristics and produce significantly higher stripping detection signals for lead than are produced at bulk gold electrode surfaces. The method is effective in determining levels of lead down to at least 5 {micro}g/dL in blood samples as small as 10 {micro}L. 9 figs.

Wegner, S.; Harpold, M.A.; McCaffrey, T.M.; Morris, S.E.; Wojciechowski, M.; Zhao, J.; Henkens, R.W.; Naser, N.; O`Daly, J.P.

1995-11-21

103

Thermal measurement and analysis of micro devices using thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensors and actuators become much smaller as parts of MEMS devices. Some of them run based on the thermal principle and thermal characteristics directly determine their performance. For example, micro-hotplate structures are incorporated into integrated gas sensors to heat the sensing thin film to a determinate temperature with a high sensitivity. The micro-machined accelerometer with no proof mass is based on free convection of a tiny hot air bubble in an enclosed chamber. The temperature profile of its heater is a key factor influencing the feature of the accelerometer. A thermally actuated membrane micro-pumpo can drive fluid by periodical heating of materials with different thermal expansion coefficients and consequent periodical vibration. An IR thermography with a microscopic set was applied in their thermal measurement to optimize these devices.

Gu, Y. Q.; Zhang, Ronghai; Zhu, Dezhong

2003-04-01

104

Low-temperature and Pressureless Sintering Technology for High-performance and High-temperature Interconnection of Semiconductor Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an interconnect technology based on low-temperature and pressureless sintering of a nanoscale metal paste to achieve high-performance and high-temperature packaging of semiconductor devices. The nanoscale metal paste, consisting of nanoparticles of silver mixed in an organic binder\\/solvent vehicle, can be sintered at temperatures close to 275degC. Measurements on electrical and thermal properties of the sintered die interconnect gave

Guo-Quan Lu; J. N. Calata; Guangyin Lei; Xu Chen

2007-01-01

105

Temperature measurement of contact resistance based on infrared detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For science and technology, the level of science and technology is determined by the measurement accuracy and efficiency to some extent. Contact resistance can not be ignored in precise measurement. Because the measured object is not directly contacted with infrared measurement device, there is no friction. Infrared measurement has the advantage of high sensitivity, fast response and so on. In this paper, the reasons for the temperature rising of the contact resistance and its harm and the importance of measuring the temperature of the contact resistance in precise measurement are analyzed firstly; then some theories of the infrared detection technology are introduced; finally, an infrared temperature measurement system based on SCM is designed.

En, De; Feng, Jieyu

2010-11-01

106

Junction Temperature Measurement of IGBTs Using Short Circuit Current  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a method is proposed to measure the junction temperatures of IGBT discrete devices and modules using short circuit current. Experimental results show that the short circuit current has good sensitivity, linearity and selectivity, which is suitable to be used as temperature sensitive electrical parameters (TSEP). Test circuit and hardware design are proposed for junction temperature measurement in single phase and three phase convertes. By connecting a temperature measurement unit to the converter and giving a short circuit pulse, the IGBT junction temperature can be measured.

Wang, Fei [ORNL; Xu, Zhuxian [ORNL; Ning, Puqi [ORNL

2012-01-01

107

Current status of low-temperature radiator thermophotovoltaic devices  

SciTech Connect

The current performance status of low-temperature radiator (< 1,000 C) thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices is presented. For low-temperature radiators, both power density and efficiency are equally important in designing an effective TPV system. Comparisons of 1 cm x 1 cm, 0.55 eV InGaAs and InGaAsSb voltaic devices are presented. Currently, InGaAs lattice-mismatched devices offer superior performance in comparison to InGaAsSb lattice-matched devices, due to the former`s long-term development for numerous optoelectronic applications. However, lattice-matched antimony-based quaternaries offer numerous potential advantages.

Charache, G.W.; Egley, J.L.; Danielson, L.R.; DePoy, D.M.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Campbell, B.C. [Lockheed Martin Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Hui, S.; Fraas, L.M. [JX-Crystals Inc., Issaquah, WA (United States); Wojtczuk, S.J. [SPIRE Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

1996-05-01

108

An unheated permeation device for calibrating atmospheric VOC measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of an unpowered permeation device for continuous calibration of in-situ instruments measuring atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is described. Being lightweight and compact, and containing only negligible amounts of chemicals, the device is especially suited for field use such as onboard aircraft. Its speciality is to maintain the permeation process in thermal equilibrium, i.e. the instantaneous permeation rate can be ascribed via a simple temperature measurement. This equilibrium state is maintained by a combination of three features: (i) a thin PTFE membrane as permeation medium which guarantees short stabilization times, (ii) a water bath as heat buffer, and (iii) a vacuum-panel based insulation, in which features (ii) and (iii) minimize temperature drifts. The uncertainty of the permeation rate due to thermal non-equilibrium is kept below 1 %. An extensive theory part details the major permeation processes of gases through porous polymers, being Fick's diffusion, Knudsen flow, and viscous flow. Both the measured stabilization time and the measured temperature dependence of the permeation rate independently indicate that the permeation can be described by a viscous flow model, where diffusion of the gas molecules in large pores (having a diameter of >0.05 ?m) dominates.

Brito, J.; Zahn, A.

2011-05-01

109

New, more efficient conduction cooling device for low temperature phosphorimetry  

SciTech Connect

Conduction cooling has been shown to be a viable means of improving precision and convenience in low temperature phosphorimetry. A new conduction cooling device is presented and evaluated. With this new device, phosphorimetry can now more practically be applied to routine analysis situations. Analytical figures of merit are given for several compounds as a means of comparison of conduction-cooled phosphorescence with immersion-cooled phosphorescence.

Ward, J.L.; Walden, G.L.; Bateh, R.P.; Winefordner, J.D.

1980-05-01

110

High-temperature superconducting passive microwave devices, filters and antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-temperature superconducting (HTS) passive microwave devices, such as filters and antennas, are promising devices. In particular, HTS filters may be successfully marketed in the near future. Cross-coupled filters, ring filters, and coplanar waveguide filters are good options to reduce filter size. On the other hand, HTS patch antennas which can be cooled by a cryo-cooler are also promising devices as well, since they show higher efficiency than normal antennas. This paper examines the design process and filter properties of HTS filters as well as the gains, directivity, and cooling system of HTS patch antennas.

Ohshima, S.

2000-01-01

111

Prediction and Measurement Results of Radiation Damage to CMOS Devices on Board Spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final results from the CMOS Radiation Effects Measurement (CREM) experiment, flown on Explorer 55, are being presented and discussed, based on about 15 months of observations and measurements. Conclusions are given relating to (a) long range annealing, (b) effects of operating temperature on semiconductor performance in space, (c) biased and unbiased P-MOS device degradation, (d) unbiased n-channel device performance,

E. G. Stassinopoulos; V. Danchenko; R. A. Cliff; M. Sing; G. J. BruckerandR; R. S. Ohanian

1977-01-01

112

Origin of higher temperatures in multidipolar plasma devices  

SciTech Connect

Hot-filament discharge devices with multidipolar surface magnetic fields have densities and temperatures higher than in these devices without multidipolar fields. Probe data show a much higher density of secondary electrons from the wall with multidipolar fields that is best explained by the wall secondaries being confined by the magnetic mirror effect. A relatively simple mathematical model for energy balance shows that the heating of the bulk plasma electrons by collisions with the greater number of secondaries from the wall accounts quantitatively for the increased temperature.

Knappmiller, Scott [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0392 (United States); Robertson, Scott [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0390 (United States)

2011-10-15

113

NONLINEARITY TESTING OF EQUIPMENT USED IN TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the nonlinearity testing of seven resistance instruments used to measure temperature is presented. Tested were four multi-meter type instruments which use the UI method to determine resistance and three resistance bridges that measure resistance as a ratio between a resistance thermometer and a standard resistor. The device used to measure the nonlinearity of the instruments was a

Tadej Podgornik; Valentin Batagelj; Jovan Bojkovski; Janko Drnovsek

114

ESD Models and Measurement for Semiconductor Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the development of technology, semiconductor devices, such as IC and LED, have got wide applications in electronic industry. Semiconductor devices are ESD sensitive. ESD would sometimes cause breakdown and destroy the devices. ESD can also cause indiscoverable soft breakdown that is a hidden trouble and would affect the quality, usage life, reliability of the products and even the

Zhijun Guo; Xinya Tu; Jiangen Pan; Fei Lu

2006-01-01

115

High-transition-temperature superconducting quantum interference devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of high-Tc superconductors gave great impetus to the development of thin-film superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) for operation at temperatures up to the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, 77 K. The spectral density of the white flux noise can be calculated analytically for rf SQUIDs and by computer simulation for dc SQUIDs; however, observed noise spectral densities are

D. Koelle; R. Kleiner; F. Ludwig; E. Dantsker; John Clarke

1999-01-01

116

High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this SBIR Phase 1 project is to establish the feasibility of designing a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscope in order to detect defects, and verify customizations and repairs in MCM substrates. The overall goal of this SBIR program is to market an HTS SQUID microscope dedicated to the inspection of MCM substrates in a manufacturing environment.

1994-10-01

117

Increasing Ion Temperature Using RF Power in Hanbit Mirror Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Hanbit mirror device, an RF antenna has been used to produce plasma and to heat the ion simultaneously. The plasma density has been sufficiently high but the ion temperature was not high for the RF power until last year. Since neutral-pressure must be sustained highly for easy discharge, the charge exchange collision between ion and the neutral particle is

K.-I. You; B. H. Park; W. H. Ko; D. C. Seo

2004-01-01

118

Dual high-temperature measurements using Johnson-noise thermometry  

SciTech Connect

A temperature transducer fabricated of tungsten-rhenium thermocouple elements terminated in a rhenium coil acts as a dual temperature measuring device due to both a dc output from the thermocouple elements and a thermally-generated noise emitted from the rhenium coil. In performed tests, a bare wire thermocouple in close proximity to the test transducer acted as the reference temperature measuring device. Comparisons of the JNPT and the reference at temperatures up to 1500/sup 0/C generally yielded agreement within 4% of reading. However, because of reduced insulation resistance and interference due to spurious (non-thermal) noise, the JNPT transducer exhibited increasingly inaccurate temperature measurements above 1500/sup 0/C. Hafnia- and beryllia-insulated transducers were fabricated for these tests. At all temperatures, beryllia yielded a higher insulation resistance by a factor of 10.

Billeter, T.R.; Cannon, C.P.

1981-09-01

119

Ultimate Diagnostics for the Measurement of Turbulence in Toroidal Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relentless efforts in plasma diagnostics concepts (E. Mazzucato, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1691 (1998), H. Hase, H. Hartfuss,12th HTPD conference, F-16, June 1998.) and technology (R.P. Hsia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 488 (1997).) R&D enable us to design a system capable of simultaneous 3-D imaging of the temperature and density turbulence spectrum in toroidal devices such as tokamak and stellarator. Measurement of multi-dimensional correlation between Te and ne turbulence is extremely important in understanding the current transport model. In this paper, the details of the concept design such as accessibility, machine parameters, detection system and relevant frequencies will be discussed for a various devices. Special attention will be given to obtain ? and k spectra with sufficient spatial resolution so that the results can be readily compared with remarkable visual results produced by gyro-kinetic (GK) and/or gyro-fluid (GF) simulations.

Park, H.; Mazzucato, E.; Hahm, T. S.; Lee, W. W.; Rewoldt, G.; Synakowski, E.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

1998-11-01

120

Microfluidic device with integrated temperature control unit for hydrogel actuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A microfluidic device, with a temperature control unit to study the behaviour of temperature sensitive hydrogel, has been designed, simulated and fabricated. The system consists of a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microchannel sealed on a Pyrex substrate with microfabricated titanium electrodes for heating and sensing elements. A thermal insulating layer in-between the electrodes and the substrate was found to increase the heat transfer to the fluid and decrease the lateral heat propagation. The temperature profile and the heat distribution in the system were investigated using the commercial software package CFD-ACE+. The device was electrically and thermally characterised. Such a system, biocompatible and re-usable, could be a potential candidate for biomedical applications such as DNA amplification and protein synthesis.

Pachoud, Damien; Mitchell, Arnan; Rosengarten, Gary

2005-02-01

121

Advanced devices and systems for radiation measurements  

SciTech Connect

The authors` most recent work continues their long-standing efforts to develop semiconductor detectors based on the collection of only a single type of charge carrier. Their best results are an extension of the principle of coplanar electrodes first described by Paul Luke of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 18 months ago. This technique, described in past progress reports, has the effect of deriving an output signal from detectors that depends only on the motion of carriers close to one surface. Since nearly all of these carriers are of one type (electrons) that are attracted to that electrode, the net effect is to nearly eliminate the influence of hole motion on the properties of the output signal. The result is that the much better mobility of electrons in compound semiconductors materials such as CZT can now be exploited without the concurrent penalty of poor hole collection. They have also developed new techniques in conjunction with the coplanar electrode principle that extends the technique into a new dimension. By proper processing of signals from the opposite electrode (the cathode) from the coplanar surface, they are able to derive a signal that is a good indication of the depth of interaction at which the charge carriers were initially formed. They have been the first group to demonstrate this technique, and examples of separate pulse height spectra recorded at a variety of different depths of interaction are shown in several of the figures that follow. Obtaining depth information is one step in the direction of obtaining volumetric point-of-interaction information from the detector. If one could known the coordinates of each specific interaction, then corrections could be applied to account for the inhomogeneities that currently plague many room-temperature devices.

Knoll, G.F.; Wehe, D.K.; He, Z.; Barrett, C.; Miyamoto, J.

1996-06-01

122

Methods for measurement of thermal conductivity and specific heat at moderate, low and cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical principles and schematic diagrams of automated devices for measurement of thermophysical properties of materials and components in the temperature range 100-700 K are presented. Devices developed at the Leningrad Refrigeration Industry Technological Institute are presented. A generalized schematic diagram of the thermal cell used in these devices is shown. The thermophysical devices and equipment developed at the Institute are

Platunov

1988-01-01

123

Force Measurement Device for ARIANE 5 Payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESTEC uses since 1991 a Force Measurement Device (FMD) for the measurement of dynamic mechanical forces and moments. This tool allows the determination of forces and moments applied to the test hardware at its interface to the test facilities during dynamic testing. Three forces and three moments are calculated from the measurements of eight tri-axial force links and used to either characterize the dynamic mechanical behaviour of the test item and/or to control forces and moments during vibration testing (force limited vibration control). The current FMD is limited to test items with an interface diameter of up to about 1.2 m (adapter already available) and a mass compatible with ARIANE 4 payloads. The limitations of the current system come from the maximum of eight tri-axial force links and from the analogue technique of the Signal Processing Unit (SPU) that allows only a limited number of geometric configurations for the mechanical interface. Following the success of the FMD during former test campaigns, e.g. ROSETTA STM + FM, the need for a FMD, compatible with ARIANE 5 payloads has been established. Therefore ESA decided to develop a new FMD system. The system will include a digital real time SPU with 72 force input channels, corresponding to 24 tri-axes force sensors or 72 mono axial force sensors. The SPU design will allow extending the number of force input channels to 144. The set-up of the FMD will be done via a standard PC interface. The user will enter for each force sensor the location and the measurement direction in the reference coordinate system. Based on the geometrical information and the maximum forces and moments expected the PC will calculate the optimum range settings for the charge-amplifiers and the corresponding matrix with weighting factors which will allow to perform a fast calculation of the six output forces and moments from the 72 (or 144) input forces. The six output channels with forces and moments can then be connected either to the vibration control system or data acquisition system. The paper will present the status of the new FMD development, selection criteria for sensor and signal conditioners, trade offs performed for the various design options of the SPU and considerations about the mechanical interface design.

Brunner, O.; Braeken, R.

2004-08-01

124

Application of inverse heat conduction problem on temperature measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For regenerative cooling devices, such as G-M refrigerator, pulse tube cooler or thermoacoustic cooler, the gas oscillating bring about temperature fluctuations inevitably, which is harmful in many applications requiring high stable temperatures. To find out the oscillating mechanism of the cooling temperature and improve the temperature stability of cooler, the inner temperature of the cold head has to be measured. However, it is difficult to measure the inner oscillating temperature of the cold head directly because the invasive temperature detectors may disturb the oscillating flow. Fortunately, the outer surface temperature of the cold head can be measured accurately by invasive temperature measurement techniques. In this paper, a mathematical model of inverse heat conduction problem is presented to identify the inner surface oscillating temperature of cold head according to the measured temperature of the outer surface in a GM cryocooler. Inverse heat conduction problem will be solved using control volume approach. Outer surface oscillating temperature could be used as input conditions of inverse problem and the inner surface oscillating temperature of cold head can be inversely obtained. A simple uncertainty analysis of the oscillating temperature measurement also will be provided.

Zhang, X.; Zhou, G.; Dong, B.; Li, Q.; Liu, L. Q.

2013-09-01

125

Performance measurement of phosphor screens used in optoelectronic image devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain high quality optoelectronic image devices, the phosphor screens should be evaluated before assembled in the devices. The principle and method of measurement are expounded. A measurement system is developed, which can measure luminous efficiency, luminance, non-uniformity of luminance and persistence of phosphor screen. It can also detect the flaws of screen. The system consists of vacuum chamber, electron

YunSheng Qian; YaFeng Qiu; Hui Li; BenKang Chang

2008-01-01

126

A new device for continuous ambulatory central venous pressure measurement.  

PubMed

We have developed a device for continuous direct measurement of human central venous pressure (CVP) during space flight. Normal resting CVP is typically in the range of 5-10 mmHg; in zero gravity, the expected changes are +/- 5 mmHg or less. A 1-mm Hg change in CVP can represent a substantial intravascular fluid shift. The device is small, battery powered, and designed to run for at least 24 hr. Pressure is measured in a saline solution-filled catheter inserted into a central vein. The transducer is placed in the axilla at the level of the catheter tip to offset hydrostatic gradients. A pump and an electronic system mount on the leg. This assembly provides a slow, continuous infusion of heparinized saline solution to maintain the patency of the catheter. The electronic system generates a digital display in mm Hg, an analog output, and a visible and audible alarm for excessive pressure. An air-filled syringe allows for a two-point calibration (zero and a positive pressure generated by measured compression of a known gas volume). A two-failure tolerant system minimizes electric shock hazards. Two latex diaphragms separate the saline solution from the transducer surface, and the electronic system and pump chamber are in separate enclosures. A clear polycarbonate case allows bubbles to be seen. The unit has been tested for pump function, temperature stability, drift, and accuracy. We conclude that this approach provides a unit with sufficient stability, accuracy, and temperature insensitivity for measuring ambulatory CVP for up to 28 hr. The design may be suitable for ambulatory measurement of other intravascular and intracardiac pressures. PMID:3452746

Buckey, J C; Goble, R L; Blomqvist, C G

1987-08-01

127

Compensated vibrating optical fiber pressure measuring device  

DOEpatents

A microbending optical fiber is attached under tension to a diaphragm to se a differential pressure applied across the diaphragm which it causes it to deflect. The fiber is attached to the diaphragm so that one portion of the fiber, attached to a central portion of the diaphragm, undergoes a change in tension; proportional to the differential pressure applied to the diaphragm while a second portion attached at the periphery of the diaphragm remains at a reference tension. Both portions of the fiber are caused to vibrate at their natural frequencies. Light transmitted through the fiber is attenuated by both portions of the tensioned sections of the fiber by an amount which increases with the curvature of fiber bending so that the light signal is modulated by both portions of the fiber at separate frequencies. The modulated light signal is transduced into a electrical signal. The separate modulation signals are detected to generate separate signals having frequencies corresponding to the reference and measuring vibrating sections of the continuous fiber, respectively. A signal proportional to the difference between these signals is generated which is indicative of the measured pressure differential across the diaphragm. The reference portion of the fiber is used to compensate the pressure signal for zero and span changes resulting from ambient temperature and humidity effects upon the fiber and the transducer fixture.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV); Goff, David R. (Christiansburg, VA)

1987-01-01

128

Testing limits to airflow perturbation device (APD) measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Airflow Perturbation Device (APD) is a lightweight, portable device that can be used to measure total respiratory resistance as well as inhalation and exhalation resistances. There is a need to determine limits to the accuracy of APD measurements for different conditions likely to occur: leaks around the mouthpiece, use of an oronasal mask, and the addition of resistance

Erika R. Lopresti; Arthur T. Johnson; Frank C. Koh; William H. Scott; Shaya Jamshidi; Nischom K. Silverman

2008-01-01

129

Physically Meaningful Harmonization of Tire\\/Pavement Friction Measurement Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate characterization and evaluation of tire\\/pavement friction is critical in assuring runway and highway safety. Historically, Pavement Friction Measurement Devices (PFMDs) employing different measuring mechanisms have been used to evaluate tire\\/pavement friction. They yield significantly disparate friction coefficients under the same contact conditions. Currently, an empirically developed data harmonization method based on a reference device (Dynamic Friction Tester (DFT)) is

Madhura Priyanga Nishshanke Rajapakshe

2011-01-01

130

Methods of Measurement for Semiconductor Materials, Process Control, and Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activities directed toward the development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices are described. Topics investigated include: measurements of transistor delay time; application of the infrared response techniqu...

W. M. Bullis

1972-01-01

131

Pyrometric Gas and Surface Temperature Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multiwavelength pyrometer possessing advantages over the one- and two-wavelength designs is described. Results of its application to surface temperature measurements of ceramics is presented. Also described is a probe suitable for gas temperature measur...

G. Fralick D. Ng

1999-01-01

132

Gas Turbine Combuster Exit Temperature Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new gas temperature measurement technique is presented that has the capability to eliminate radiation errors typically observed in high-temperature environments. The technique should allow high measurement accuracy and high spatial resolution and can be...

J. D. Sullivan J. E. Kendall

1991-01-01

133

Device for measuring average power of laser radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device was developed for measuring the power of continuous high-intensity radiation of wide laser beams. The receiver part consists of three metal plates spot-welded to one another, the center plate on top bridging the outer two. The plates can be made of the same or different materials and have the same or different dimensions. The simplest configuration with a tantalum plate between two nickel plates and a laser beam of given cross section impinging only on one of the three is considered as a specific variant. Heat transfer and energy balance relations in this system are analyzed, taking into account diffusion, conduction, and reflection as well as singular conditions at the two joints. A voltmeter across the outer two plates reads the potential difference, which includes the thermal emf and is proportional to the incident radiation power over a wide dynamic range. Most coefficients in the voltage-temperature-power relation can and must be evaluated empirically, whereupon this device becomes suitable for power measurement with an accuracy determined by the laser beam instability and the instrument scale error.

Gandelman, G. M.; Levinskiiy, B. N.; Shurgaya, R. R.

1984-09-01

134

121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York, New York County, NY

135

Device for spectral emissivity measurements of ceramics using a FT-IR spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic materials, in particular high temperature technical ceramics and refractories, are used in a wide range of temperature. Band and total emissivities of ceramics are needed for non-contact temperature measurements and for modeling of radiation heat transfer. If the spectral emissivities are known in a sufficient range of wavelength and temperature, the band and total emissivities for most applications can be calculated. At the University Duisburg-Essen an experimental setup for measuring of temperature-dependent spectral emissivities was modernized with a FT-IR-spectrometer. A remarkable quality improvement of the measurements could be reached. The spectral and temperature ranges of the measuring device are now 0.8 to 25 ?m and 100 to 1200C. In the paper a description of the measuring device will be given and selected examples of measuring possibilities of the spectrometer are shown. By the example of high temperature ceramics the obtained improvements of the device are presented for measured temperature-dependent spectral emissivities.

Bauer, Wolfgang; Moldenhauer, Alexander

2004-08-01

136

Wireless SAW based high-temperature measurement systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper exemplifies the development of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) temperature measurement system, showing the advantages of wireless data transmission and passive sensor operation. It includes results of research on lithium niobate, langasite and gallium-orthophosphate, three piezoelectrica used as substrate crystals for the SAW devices. Critical parameters, limits and prospects of the materials as well as technological issues concerning

R. Fachberger; G. Bruckner; R. Hauser; L. Reindl

2006-01-01

137

In Situ Tribocomponent Temperature Measurement Using a Radio Telemeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microradiotelemeter was designed and developed to measure the in situ temperature of a tribocomponent (tapered roller bearing roller). Photolithography was used to pattern a flexible circuit board for the telemeter. The overall device size was minimized by the use of surface-mount technology (SMT) components. The completed circuit board was 5 mm by 9 mm by 1.5 mm high and

David A. Nickel; Farshid Sadeghi

1997-01-01

138

Environmental measurement and recording techniques utilizing a time stress measurement device (TSMD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general design, history, and the present and future uses of the TSMD, a device for the measurement of environmental and electrical stresses, are reviewed. The measured environmental and electrical stresses include temperature, humidity, vibration, shock, power quality, and corrosion. The stresses are recorded in the built-in memory and can be retrieved at any desired interval constrained only by memory usage and battery life. A micro TSMD, currently under development, will be suitable for mounting on a printed circuit; the software will offer the capability to change recording options, such as sampling rates, thresholds, nominal values, and file usage.

McCallum, Mark; Popyack, Leonard; Collins, James

139

An device case temperature closed-loop control system during burn-in test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burn-in is used to force the failure of marginal devices before using into products. Usually devices are placed in a burn- in oven. The burn-in time mainly depends on the device junction temperature, so the junction temperature control is very important during burn-in test. Usually the oven ambient temperature is closed-loop controlled during burn-in, but the device junction temperature is

Qingfeng Li; Shaobo Chen; Weiming Wang; Luming Li

2011-01-01

140

Active devices for high temperature microcircuitry. [Silicon and gallium arsenide devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a program to develop high temperature electronics for geothermal well instrumentation, a number of solid state diode and transistor types were characterized from room temperature to 300°C. The temperature dependence and aging stability of transport and leakage properties were measured. Included in the study were silicon diodes, bipolar transistors, JFETs, MOSFETs, and GaAs MESFETs and JFETs. In

D. W. Palmer; B. L. Draper; J. D. McBrayer; K. R. White

1978-01-01

141

Chip Implementation with a Combined Wireless Temperature Sensor and Reference Devices Based on the DZTC Principle  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel CMOS wireless temperature sensor design in order to improve the sensitivity and linearity of our previous work on such devices. Based on the principle of CMOS double zero temperature coefficient (DZTC) points, a combined device is first created at the chip level with two voltage references, one current reference, and one temperature sensor. It was successfully fabricated using the 0.35 ?m CMOS process. According to the chip results in a wide temperature range from ?20 C to 120 C, two voltage references can provide temperature-stable outputs of 823 mV and 1,265 mV with maximum deviations of 0.2 mV and 8.9 mV, respectively. The result for the current reference gives a measurement of 23.5 ?A, with a maximum deviation of 1.2 ?A. The measurements also show that the wireless temperature sensor has good sensitivity of 9.55 mV/C and high linearity of 97%. The proposed temperature sensor has 4.15-times better sensitivity than the previous design. Moreover, to facilitate temperature data collection, standard wireless data transmission is chosen; therefore, an 8-bit successive-approximation-register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a 433 MHz wireless transmitter are also integrated in this chip. Sensing data from different places can be collected remotely avoiding the need for complex wire lines.

Chang, Ming-Hui; Huang, Yu-Jie; Huang, Han-Pang; Lu, Shey-Shi

2011-01-01

142

High Density And High Temperature Plasmas In Large Helical Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the realization of the fusion reactor, it is necessary to confine high density and high temperature plasma for a time, which is well known as the Lawson criterion. To improve the plasma or confinement performance, vigorous experiments have been performed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) in National Institute for Fusion Science, which is the largest superconducting heliotron device with R = 3.9 m r = 0.6 m, Bt = 3 T. Recently a promising confinement regime called Super Dense Core (SDC) mode was discovered. An extremely high density core region with more than ~ 1 10^20 m-3 is obtained with the formation of an Internal Diffusion Barrier (IDB). The density gradient at the IDB (? = 0.6) is very high and the particle confinement in the core region is ~ 0.2 s. It is expected, for the future reactor, that the IDB-SDC mode has a possibility to achieve the self-ignition condition with lower temperature than expected before. The IDB-SDC mode is also favorable from the engineering point of view since one can moderate demands for heating devices and plasma facing components. In order to achieve the IDB-SDC mode, the central fuelling with the pellet injection and the low recycling condition are essential. A repetitive pellet injector was newly developed to continuously feed the particle source to the central region. For the recycling control, the effective divertor system should be employed to control the edge plasma. Conventional approaches to increase the temperature have also been tried in LHD. For the ion heating, the perpendicular neutral beam injection effectively increased the ion temperature more than 10 keV with the formation of the internal transport barrier (ITB). In the core region, the heat conductivity is improved to the neoclassical level, while no clear ITB for electron was seen. Another interesting phenomenon called "impurity hole" was observed inside the ITB. During the high ion temperature discharge, the im- purity density in the core region becomes low and its profile becomes hollow. The impurity atoms are pumped out, in spite of the negative electric field (ion root) inside the ITB. In the lecture, the mechanism of the impurity hole will also be discussed, together with the theoretical background and numerical results.

Komori, A.

2010-07-01

143

Measurement of turbine blade temperature using pyrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the study of application of a self-made turbine blade pyrometer to measuring rotating turbine blade temperatures in a bed testing aeroengine. The study includes the temperature measuring principle and the pyrometer system; installation and adjustment of the double ball-floating type configuration optical head which goes through four different high temperatures bulkheads; and measurement of three kinds of temperature (the average blade temperature Ta, the average peak blade temperature Tap, and the maximum peak blade temperature Tmp) for all rotor blades of the turbine first stage. The experimental data analysis reveals that the first attempt of application of this pyrometer is successful. The measurement errors in the temperature range of 550-1200 C are within + or - 1 percent of calculated blade temperatures.

Cheng, H.; Du, C.

1985-09-01

144

Test Device for Under Water Tidal Flow Power Generation Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are different under water tidal flow turbines. The investigated turbine design in this paper is a vertical axis turbine with funnels on both sides to direct and control the flow of water onto the turbine. This paper introduces a prototype testing device to control and measure the power generation of the device at different opening angles for the funnel.

Ibrahim AL-BAHADLY; Paul PINFOLD

145

Reflections on the selection of an automatic plate measuring device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probable requirements on a plate measuring device, which is likely to be manufactured in the near future, are listed. Three proposed devices are briefly described and compared to each other: IRIS, STAR SCAN, and COSMOS. Design restrictions discussed include a search phase that is fully manually controllable, a fully automatic search phase, adequate software, sufficient and extensive practical experimentation with

G. F. O. Schnur

1975-01-01

146

Devices for moisture measurement in natural gas  

SciTech Connect

The Dew Point Tester incorporates a pressure-tight chamber to contain the gas or vapor test sample and valves for controlling gas flow. At one end of the chamber, a clear plastic window is installed to allow observation of the chamber's interior and mirror. The mirror is highly polished stainless steel and is attached at its center to a copper thermometer well. A chiller attached to the thermometer well controls expansion of refrigerant and the temperature of the mirror. The mirror's temperature is indicated by a thermometer whose bulb is located close to the mirror's back surface.

Kahmann, A.R.

1984-04-01

147

Novel temperature compensation technique for force-sensing piezoresistive devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel stress-insensitive piezoresistor in the shape of an annulus has been developed to be used in conjunction with a piezoresistive bridge for temperature-compensated force measurements. Under uniform stress conditions, the annular resistor shows near-zero stress sensitivity and a linear response to temperature excitation within test conditions of 24-34 C. Annular resistors were placed in close proximity to stress-sensitive elements in order to detect local temperature fluctuations. Experiments evaluating the performance of the temperature compensator while testing force sensitivity showed a thermal rejection ratio of 37.2 dB and near elimination of low-frequency noise (drift) below 0.07 Hz. Potential applications of this annular resistor include use in multi-axis force sensors for force feedback microassembly, improvements in the simplicity and robustness of high precision microgram sensitive balances, higher accuracy for silicon diaphragm-based pressure sensors and simple temperature compensation for AFM cantilevers.

Scott, Joshua; Enikov, Eniko T.

2011-11-01

148

A low-temperature sample orienting device for single crystal spectroscopy at the SNS  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature sample orientation device providing three axes of rotation has been successfully built and is in testing for use on several spectrometers at the spallation neutron source (SNS). Sample rotation about the vertical ({omega}) axis of nearly 360{sup o} and out of plane tilts ({phi} and {nu}) of from -3.4{sup o} to 4.4{sup o} and from -2.8{sup o} to 3.5{sup o}, respectively, are possible. An off-the-shelf closed cycle refrigerator (CCR) is mounted on a room temperature sealed rotary flange providing {omega} rotations of the sample. Out-of-plane tilts are made possible by piezoelectric actuated angular positioning devices mounted on the low temperature head of the CCR. Novel encoding devices based on magnetoresistive sensors have been developed to measure the tilt stage angles. This combination facilitates single crystal investigations from room temperature to 3.1 K. Commissioning experiments of the rotating CCR for both powder and single crystal samples have been performed on the ARCS spectrometer at the SNS. For the powder sample this device was used to continuously rotate the sample and thus average out any partial orientation of the powder. The powder rings observed in S(Q) are presented. For the single crystal sample, the rotation was used to probe different regions of momentum transfer (Q-space). Laue patterns obtained from a single crystal sample at two rotation angles are presented.

Bruce, Douglas R [ORNL; Gaulin, Bruce D. [McMaster University; Granroth, Garrett E [ORNL; Roberts II, Charles K [ORNL; Sherline, Todd E [ORNL; Solomon, Landon M [ORNL

2010-01-01

149

A low-temperature sample orienting device for single crystal spectroscopy at the SNS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low temperature sample orientation device providing three axes of rotation has been successfully built and is in testing for use on several spectrometers at the spallation neutron source (SNS). Sample rotation about the vertical (?) axis of nearly 360 and out of plane tilts (phi and v) of from -3.4 to 4.4 and from -2.8 to 3.5, respectively, are possible. An off-the-shelf closed cycle refrigerator (CCR) is mounted on a room temperature sealed rotary flange providing ? rotations of the sample. Out-of-plane tilts are made possible by piezoelectric actuated angular positioning devices mounted on the low temperature head of the CCR. Novel encoding devices based on magnetoresistive sensors have been developed to measure the tilt stage angles. This combination facilitates single crystal investigations from room temperature to 3.1 K. Commissioning experiments of the rotating CCR for both powder and single crystal samples have been performed on the ARCS spectrometer at the SNS. For the powder sample this device was used to continuously rotate the sample and thus average out any partial orientation of the powder. The powder rings observed in S(Q) are presented. For the single crystal sample, the rotation was used to probe different regions of momentum transfer (Q-space). Laue patterns obtained from a single crystal sample at two rotation angles are presented.

Sherline, T. E.; Solomon, L.; Roberts, C. K., Ii; Bruce, D.; Gaulin, B.; Granroth, G. E.

2010-11-01

150

Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 "Radiation Thermometry". The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.

2013-09-01

151

Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

2010-11-01

152

A Compilation of Measurement Devices Compendia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some 30 compendia of evaluation measures now exist to supplement the Buro's Mental Measurements Yearbooks. This article gives bibliographic and descriptive information about the compendia, in order that evaluators can gain access to a wide range of instruments before deciding whether to construct their own. (Author)

Redick, Ronald L.

1975-01-01

153

A LASER-BASED MEASUREMENT DEVICE FOR HIGHLY RADIOACTIVE SPECIMENS  

SciTech Connect

A laser-based measurement device was developed so that the dimensions of highly radioactive specimens could be monitored over the span of several years. The device employs two laser curtain and diode detector pairs that are mounted orthogonally to each other. Each pair has its own controller, which is used to obtain 3500 simultaneous measurements of the height and diameter of the specimens. The precision of the measurements is less than 10 {micro}m over a period of more that two years. The device was also used to measure various parallelepipeds. It was possible to determine the dimensions of these parallelepipeds and the angle between the sides. Several improvements to the device are recommended.

Strachan, Denis M.; Buchmiller, William C.; Park, Walter R.; Munley, John T.

2004-01-05

154

Mobile Parametric Measurement Device. Volume I: Operation. (Users Manual).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program was to design, construct, and validate a mobile device for measuring vehicle parameters necessary for an accurate prediction of the vehicle's handling characteristics. As a result of this program, a Mobile Parametric Measurem...

C. Thatcher

1980-01-01

155

Methods of Measurement for Semiconductor Materials, Process Control, and Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes NBS activities directed toward the development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices. Significant accomplishments during this reporting period include design of a plan to provide standard ...

W. M. Bullis

1973-01-01

156

29. HAWSER DEVICE, DEVELOPED AT WES FOR MEASURING LONGITUDINAL AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. HAWSER DEVICE, DEVELOPED AT WES FOR MEASURING LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSE STRESS OF BARGES IN CANAL LOCKS. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

157

33. BENTZEL TUBE. A CURRENT VELOCITY MEASURING DEVICE DEVELOPED AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. BENTZEL TUBE. A CURRENT VELOCITY MEASURING DEVICE DEVELOPED AT WES IN 1932 BY CARL E. BENTZEL. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

158

Bridge Temperatures Derived From Measurement of Movement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Movements were measured at expansion joints in 7 bridges of various forms of construction and were transformed into corresponding values of effective bridge temperatures. Correlation was established between these effective temperatures and the sum of the ...

W. Black D. S. Moss M. Emerson

1976-01-01

159

Optical distance measurement device and method thereof  

DOEpatents

A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target. A modulated optical beam may be used to determine the distance to the target. A first beam splitter may be used to split the optical beam and a second beam splitter may be used to recombine a reference beam with a return ranging beam. An optical mixing detector may be used in a receiver to efficiently detect distance measurement information.

Bowers, Mark W. (Patterson, CA)

2003-05-27

160

Quantum throughput: Quantifying quantum-communication devices with homodyne measurements  

SciTech Connect

Quantum communication relies on optical implementations of channels, memories, and repeaters. In the absence of perfect devices, a minimum requirement on real-world devices is that they preserve quantum correlations, meaning that they have some throughput of a quantum-mechanical nature. Previous work has verified throughput in optical devices while using minimal resources. We extend this approach to the quantitative regime. Our method is illustrated in a setting where the input consists of two coherent states while the output is measured by two homodyne measurement settings.

Killoran, N. [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Haeseler, H.; Luetkenhaus, N. [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Light, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2010-11-15

161

Temperature measurements of laser trapped rubidium  

SciTech Connect

Temperatures of rubidium atoms confined in a magneto-optical trap have been measured using time-of-flight. By varying the parameters of the trap, we find that lower temperatures are obtained with lower laser intensities, larger laser detunings, lower atomic densities, and with the 85 vs. the 87 isotope. Temperatures are below the Doppler limit (140 {mu}K for Rb) in most cases. By measuring the size of the trapped cloud as well as the temperature, we can infer the spring constant of the trap. For comparison purposes, we can measure temperatures in optical molasses by turning off the magnetic field of the trap.

Dinneen, T.P.; Wallace, C.D.; Tan, K.Y.N.; Kumarakrishnan, A.; Gould, P.L.

1993-05-01

162

Video integrated measurement system. [Diagnostic display devices  

SciTech Connect

A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.

1982-06-01

163

Optical Distance Measurement Device And Method Thereof  

DOEpatents

A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target by scanning the target. An optical beam is provided by a light source and modulated by a frequency source. The modulated optical beam is transmitted to an acousto-optical deflector capable of changing the angle of the optical beam in a predetermined manner to produce an output for scanning the target. In operation, reflected or diffused light from the target may be received by a detector and transmitted to a controller configured to calculate the distance to the target as well as the measurement uncertainty in calculating the distance to the target.

Bowers, Mark W. (Patterson, CA)

2004-06-15

164

Low-cost optoelectronic devices to measure velocity of detonation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Velocity of Detonation (VoD) is an important measured characteristic parameter of explosive materials. When new explosives are developed, their VoD must be determined. Devices used to measure VoD are always destroyed in the process, however replacing these devices represents a considerable cost in the characterisation of new explosives. This paper reports the design and performance of three low-cost implementations of a point-to-point VoD measurement system, two using optical fibre and a third using piezoelectric polymers (PolyVinyliDine Flouride, PVDF). The devices were designed for short charges used under controlled laboratory conditions and were tested using the common explosive 'Composition B'. These new devices are a fraction of the cost of currently available VoD sensors and show promise in achieving comparable accuracy. Their future development will dramatically reduce the cost of testing and aid the characterisation of new explosives.

Chan, Edwin M.; Lee, Vivian; Mickan, Samuel P.; Davies, Phil J.

2005-02-01

165

Effects of chamber pressure variation on the grid temperature in an inertial electrostatic confinement device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion devices are compact sources of neutrons, protons, electrons, and x rays. Such sources have many applications. Improving the efficiency of the device also increases the applications of this device. Hence a thorough understanding of the operation of this device is needed. In this paper, we study the effect of chamber pressure on the temperature of the

S. Krupakar Murali; G. A. Emmert; J. F. Santarius; G. L. Kulcinski

2010-01-01

166

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illuminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature.

Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

167

Terrain Vehicle Contour Measuring and Storage Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention employs a quartet of terrain probes to sense the elevation of a terrain surfaces whose profile is being measured and followed. When a gantry, upon which the terrain probes are mounted, moves in the forward direction a left front and right fr...

J. C. McEecknie

1979-01-01

168

Interferometric JFTOT Tube Deposit Measuring Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Jet fuels are tested for thermal stability by passing the fuel over a heated metal tube and measuring the amount of residue deposited as a film on the tube as a result of chemical changes to the fuel. The thickness distribution and volume of a deposited f...

R. E. Morris R. Wagner

1992-01-01

169

Performance measurement of phosphor screens used in optoelectronic image devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To obtain high quality optoelectronic image devices, the phosphor screens should be evaluated before assembled in the devices. The principle and method of measurement are expounded. A measurement system is developed, which can measure luminous efficiency, luminance, non-uniformity of luminance and persistence of phosphor screen. It can also detect the flaws of screen. The system consists of vacuum chamber, electron gun, electrostatic lens system, high voltage supply, imaging luminance meter, luminous flux tester, control units, signal processing circuit, A/D converter, D/A converter, communication unit, industrial computer and measurement software.

Qian, YunSheng; Qiu, YaFeng; Li, Hui; Chang, BenKang

2008-03-01

170

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement  

DOEpatents

A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

O' Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01

171

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement  

DOEpatents

A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

O' Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

1994-09-20

172

Radiation effects at cryogenic temperatures in Si-JEFT, GaAs MESFET, and MOSFET devices  

SciTech Connect

Front-end electronics for liquid ionization chamber calorimetry at hadron collider experiments may be exposed to substantial levels of ionizing radiation and neutron fluences in a cryogenic environment. Measurements of devices built with rad-hard technologies have shown that devices able to operate in these conditions exist. Several families of devices (Si-JFET`s, rad-hard MOSFET`s, and GaAs MESFET`s) have been irradiated and tested at a stable cryogenic temperature up to doses of 55 Mrad of ionizing radiation and up to neutron fluences of 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. Radiation effects on dc characteristics and on noise will be presented.

Citterio, M.; Rescia, S.; Radeka, V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-12-01

173

Pneumatic device for measuring soil pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1.\\u000a \\u000a In comparison with other cells based on pneumatic measuring methods [5], the cell here described has a more rigid membrane\\u000a and a thickened central portion: this reduces the distortions introduced by the cell in the stress state of the soil.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2.\\u000a \\u000a The cell construction ensures parallel displacement of the nozzle during its regulation; this reduces the possibility of

A. D. Sokolov

1973-01-01

174

Cement kiln temperature measurements using microwave radiometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional remote temperature measurements in cement kilns and other high-temperature industrial processes are often difficult or impossible because of the presence of dust that disables infrared remote temperature sensors. Microwave radiation is much less scattered by dust. Results from tests of an X-band microwave radiometer and antenna system at a cement kiln show that with calibration, this instrumentation will be

Karl D. Stephan; John A. Pearce; Lingyun Wang; Eric Ryza

2005-01-01

175

In situ high-temperature characterization of AlN-based surface acoustic wave devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on in situ electrical measurements of surface acoustic wave delay lines based on AlN/sapphire structure and iridium interdigital transducers between 20 C and 1050 C under vacuum conditions. The devices show a great potential for temperature sensing applications. Burnout is only observed after 60 h at 1050 C and is mainly attributed to the agglomeration phenomena undergone by the Ir transducers. However, despite the vacuum conditions, a significant oxidation of the AlN film is observed, pointing out the limitation of the considered structure at least at such extreme temperatures. Original structures overcoming this limitation are then proposed and discussed.

Aubert, Thierry; Bardong, Jochen; Legrani, Ouarda; Elmazria, Omar; Badreddine Assouar, M.; Bruckner, Gudrun; Talbi, Abdelkrim

2013-07-01

176

Temperature Measurement on Shocked Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

We have used a two-stage gas gun to address issues relating to the accurate determination of the temperature of a shocked metal surface at a metal/LiF interface. We have investigated the light flash generated by the dynamics at the interface, the light sources at the LiF boundary that can contaminate the emission from the metal surface, and the light emitted from defects in the LiF crystal as it is being shocked. A seven-channel spectrometer with fiber-optic transmission of light from the target was used, and a Hohlraum geometry was used to increase the effective emissivity of the target. The method that yielded the best results is described and is expected to be useful for a wide range of applications.

Poulseu, P.; Baum, D.; Fiske, P.; Holtkamp, D.

2000-08-08

177

How to measure reaction temperature in microwave-heated transformations.  

PubMed

High-speed microwave chemistry has attracted considerable attention in the past two decades with new and innovative applications in organic and peptide synthesis, polymer chemistry, material sciences, nanotechnology and biochemical processes continuously being reported in the literature. In particular the introduction of benchtop single-mode microwave reactors just over ten years ago has revolutionized the way many scientists today perform reactions in the laboratory. Unfortunately, the accurate measurement of reaction temperature in these devices is far from being trivial and requires both a basic understanding of microwave dielectric heating effects and use of appropriate temperature monitoring devices. In this tutorial review frequently occurring problems in the determination of accurate reaction temperatures in single-mode microwave reactors are discussed. PMID:23443140

Kappe, C Oliver

2013-06-21

178

Infrared temperature measurement of burning droplet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the IR optical system technic used for droplet surface temperature measurements in combustion. The experimental set up is composed of two off axis parabolic mirrors, a detector and an electronic data acquisition and processing unit. Droplets with 200 micrometers diameters and velocity about 5m\\/s are investigated. In order to study the feasibility of the droplet temperature measurement

Olivier Ravel; Nicolas Naudin; Olivier Adam; Jean F. Virepinte; Jean A. Farre; Gerard Lavergne

1997-01-01

179

A two-thermocouples probe for radiation corrections of measured temperatures in compartment fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bare-bead thermocouples are widely used for measuring temperature fields in compartment fires. It is well-known that temperature readings using such a device can be significantly affected by radiation errors, the apparent thermocouple junction temperature being thus different from the true gas temperature. However, a probe consisting of two thermocouples of unequal diameters, but made of the same material can be

S Brohez; C Delvosalle; G Marlair

2004-01-01

180

A new device for measuring esophageal variceal pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Esophageal varices are a frequent source of bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. Elevated intravariceal pressure is associated with variceal bleeding. There is no simple, easy-to-use device for noninvasive measurement of intravariceal pressure. The purposes of this study were to develop a noninvasive method for measuring intravariceal pressure, and to develop a model of esophageal varices that can be used

Elan S. Miller; Joseph K. Kim; Jasneet Gandehok; Mak Hara; Qing Dai; Aslam Malik; Aaron Miller; Larry Miller

2002-01-01

181

A novel measurement technique for microwave frequency translating devices (FTD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new measurement setup for the characterization of frequency translating devices (FTD) is presented. The proposed approach allows one-step full characterization of FTDs by measuring both the magnitudes and phases of the incident and reflected waves at all signal ports. The application of the proposed approach to the characterization of a double balanced mixer is presented

N. Boulejfen; F. M. Ghannouchi; A. B. Kouki

1998-01-01

182

ADC's Insertion Devices and Magnetic Measurement Systems Capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Advance Design Consulting USA, Inc. (ADC) will discuss ADC's major improved capabilities for building Wiggler Insertion Devices, Undulator Planar Devices, Elliptical Polarizing Undulators (EPU), In-Vacuum Undulators (IVU), Cryogenically Cooled in-vacuum Undulators (CPMU), Super Conductive Undulator, and Insertion Device Magnetic Measurement Systems. ADC has designed, built and delivered Insertion Devices and Magnetic Measurement Systems to such facilities as MAX-lab (two EPUs, a Planar, and Measurement System), ALBA and ASP (Wigglers), BNL (CPMU), SSRF (two IVUs and a Measurement System), PAL (one IVU and Measurement System), NSRRC (one 4m EPU), and SRC (Planar and EPU). ADC's magnetic field measurement system is a sophisticated and sensitive machine for the measurement of magnetic fields in undulators (Planar and EPU), wigglers and in-vacuum ID units. The magnetic fields are measured using 3 axis hall-effect probes, mounted orthogonally, to a thin wand. The wand is mounted to a carriage that rides on vacuum air bearings. The base is granite. A flip coil is provided on two vertical towers with X, Y and Theta axes. Special software is provided to assist in homing, movement, and data collection and analysis.

Deyhim, A.; Kulesza, J.

2013-03-01

183

A new Force Measurement Device for spacecraft testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Force Measurement Device (FMD) has been used during the sine-vibration testing of ESA's Rosetta spacecraft, to measure directly the forces and moments at the spacecraft/launch-vehicle interface. It proved extremely useful in ensuring that the test levels required by the launcher authorities were strictly applied, and that the tests were executed safely.

Salvignol, J.-C.; Brunner, O.

2001-02-01

184

Temperature Sensitive Particle for Velocity and Temperature Measurement.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorescence and fluorescence are often applied to measure the temperature and the concentration of oxygen. The intensity and the lifetime of phosphor depend on the temperature and the oxygen concentration, due to the quenching effect of the phosphor. The present study clarified the effects of temperature on the lifetime of phosphorescence of Porphyrins, Ru(bpy)3^2+ and the europium complex. The phosphorescence lifetime of oil solution / water solution / painted wall were measured with changing temperature and oxygen concentration. In addition, the optical property of the small particles incorporated with the europium complex was investigated in the oil/water. The lifetime was strongly affected by temperature. Then, the temperature sensitive particle (TSParticle) with metal complex was applied to measure temperature in Silicone oil (10cSt) two-dimensionally. Present study is the result of ?High speed three-dimensional direct measurement technology development for the evaluation of heat flux and flow of liquid metal? entrusted to the University of Tokyo by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan(MEXT).

Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji; Iida, Masao

2007-11-01

185

Highly temperature-dependent performance of a polyvinylidene fluoride Lamb wave device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Lamb wave device using a polyvinylidene flouride film is described. The transducer of the device consists of interdigital electrodes and a uniform counter-electrode. The performance of the device is highly temperature dependent. The attenuation of the Lamb wave on the film increases with higher frequencies. The attenuation decreases with increasing temperature, while the conversion efficiency of the transducer is nearly constant for the temperature change. The output of the device changes significantly under the influence of irradiation from a black body, and the device is very sensitive in the infrared region.

Toda, Kohji; Ikenohira, Kazuo

1980-11-01

186

Reliability of urine temperature as a measurement of basal body temperature.  

PubMed

Natural family planning is based on the recognition of physiologic signs and symptoms that identify fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Identification of the onset of the infertile period can be determined when the upward shift in basal body temperature (BBT) has occurred. A study was conducted to determine if the temperature of the first-morning voided urine adequately represents BBT. In 22 subjects, vaginal temperature, taken immediately upon awakening, was compared with first-morning voided urine temperature as measured continuously by thermocouples mounted in either of two flow-through devices attached to a toilet bowl. A significant correlation was found between the two temperatures. The convenience and hygiene of the method together with the reliability of urine temperature as an estimator of BBT could reduce the generally high rate of noncompliance of women choosing this natural method of family planning. PMID:6566818

Samples, J T; Abrams, R M

187

Nonintrusive temperature measurements on advanced turbomachinery components  

SciTech Connect

A nonintrusive, noncontacting method we developed for temperature measurements in hostile environments is well-suited for measurements on advanced turbine components. The method is not only superior to thermocouples in sufficiently difficult environments, but also is the only known method for making measurements in situations where no form of pyrometry works. We demonstrated the method, which uses laser-induced fluorescence of thermographic phosphors bonded to the component surfaces, on turbine blades and vanes in developmental turbine engines. The method is extendable to the much-higher temperatures expected inside advanced turbomachinery. Of particular note is the adaptability of the method to surface-temperature measurements on ceramics operating at high temperatures. In this temperature range, the ceramics become translucent, and surface emissivity becomes meaningless. We shall discuss the method, its advantages and limitations, recent test results on operating turbine engines, and the extension to ceramic components.

Noel, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turley, W.D.; Lewis, W. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States)

1992-12-31

188

Physical modeling of temperature dependences of SOI CMOS devices and circuits including self-heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

To simulate and examine temperature and self-heating effects in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) devices and circuits, a physical temperature-dependence model is implemented into the SOISPICE fully depleted (FD) and nonfully depleted (NFD) SOI MOSFET models. Due to the physical nature of the device models, the temperature-dependence modeling, which enables a device self-heating option as well, is straightforward and requires no new parameters.

Glenn O. Workman; Jerry G. Fossum; Srinath Krishnan; Mario M. Pelella

1998-01-01

189

SHORT COMMUNICATION: Time measurement device with four femtosecond stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the experimental results of extremely precise timing in the sense of time-of-arrival measurements in a local time scale. The timing device designed and constructed in our laboratory is based on a new concept using a surface acoustic wave filter as a time interpolator. Construction of the device is briefly described. The experiments described were focused on evaluating the timing precision and stability. Low-jitter test pulses with a repetition frequency of 763 Hz were generated synchronously to the local time base and their times of arrival were measured. The resulting precision of a single measurement was typically 900 fs RMS, and a timing stability TDEV of 4 fs was achieved for time intervals in the range from 300 s to 2 h. To our knowledge this is the best value reported to date for the stability of a timing device. The experimental results are discussed and possible improvements are proposed.

Panek, Petr; Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan

2010-10-01

190

Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices.

Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

2013-09-01

191

Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.  

PubMed

Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices. PMID:24116758

Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S; Fejer, M M; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

2013-09-23

192

Conception and preliminary evaluation of an optical fibre sensor for simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel concept of simultaneously measuring pressure and temperature using a silica optical fibre extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) pressure sensor incorporating a fibre Bragg grating (FBG), which is constructed entirely from fused-silica. The novel device is used to simultaneously provide accurate pressure and temperature readings at the point of measurement. Furthermore, the FBG temperature measurement is used to eliminate the temperature cross-sensitivity of the EFPI pressure sensor.

Bremer, K.; Lewis, E.; Moss, B.; Leen, G.; Lochmann, S.; Mueller, I.

2009-07-01

193

Conception and preliminary evaluation of an optical fibre sensor for simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel concept of simultaneously measuring pressure and temperature using a silica optical fibre extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) pressure sensor incorporating a fibre Bragg grating (FBG), which is constructed entirely from fused-silica. The novel device is used to simultaneously provide accurate pressure and temperature readings at the point of measurement. Furthermore, the FBG temperature measurement is used to eliminate the temperature cross-sensitivity of the EFPI pressure sensor.

Bremer, K.; Lewis, E.; Moss, B.; Leen, G.; Lochmann, S.; Mueller, I.

2009-10-01

194

Device for measuring radioactive contamination of a body  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A device for measuring radioactive contamination of a body includes a scintillator crystal (1) sensitive to gamma radiation emitted during disintegration of the radioactive elements (I, Cs, Co) contaminating a body to which the end of scintillator (1) is applied. A photodiode (2) converts the photons generated in scintillator (1) by the gamma radiation into electric charges. A mechanism (3, 7) converts these charges into amplified, frequency-filtered voltage pulses. Pulse counts in a plurality of bands and deconvolution effected by an electronic mechanism (8) built into the device allow measurement of the contamination of the body by each of the radioactive elements in question.

1993-06-08

195

Magnetic Resonance Flow Velocity and Temperature Mapping of a Shape Memory Polymer Foam Device  

SciTech Connect

Interventional medical devices based on thermally responsive shape memory polymer (SMP) are under development to treat stroke victims. The goals of these catheter-delivered devices include re-establishing blood flow in occluded arteries and preventing aneurysm rupture. Because these devices alter the hemodynamics and dissipate thermal energy during the therapeutic procedure, a first step in the device development process is to investigate fluid velocity and temperature changes following device deployment. A laser-heated SMP foam device was deployed in a simplified in vitro vascular model. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques were used to assess the fluid dynamics and thermal changes associated with device deployment. Spatial maps of the steady-state fluid velocity and temperature change inside and outside the laser-heated SMP foam device were acquired. Though non-physiological conditions were used in this initial study, the utility of MRI in the development of a thermally-activated SMP foam device has been demonstrated.

Small IV, W; Gjersing, E; Herberg, J L; Wilson, T S; Maitland, D J

2008-10-29

196

A Microthermal Device for Measuring the Spatial Power Spectrum of Atmospheric Optical Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Measurement Astrophysics group at UNM designed and built a novel microthermal device for characterizing atmospheric optical turbulence at astronomical observatories. This instrument is based on a Wheatstone bridge circuit and uses fine tungsten filaments as resistance temperature detectors. The device makes differential temperature measurements which are directly related to the index of refraction structure constant, Cn2, which quantifies the strength of optical turbulence. The device is designed to work in two modes. In horizontal mode temperature differentials are measured between adjacent sensors. Measurements are combined to recover the differences over all pairwise sensor baselines. These measurements result in a spatial spectrum of turbulence. Measured turbulent spectra are then fit to standard turbulence models which yield estimates of the outer scale of turbulence and the slope of the power spectra. In vertical mode the device operates with pairs of microthermal sensors distributed vertically, each pair being separated horizontally by approximately one meter. Sensor pairs are suspended at multiple heights above the ground allowing measurement of atmospheric turbulence power as a function of altitude. This device was used to monitor optical turbulence during a site testing campaign at the future LSST site on Cerro Pachn. We present preliminary results from operation in both vertical and horizontal modes from October 2008 to December 2009. The microthermal array remains in operation on Cerro Pachn, and continues to produce valuable atmospheric measurements. Our results support the conclusion that Cerro Pachn is an excellent observatory site. The vertical turbulence profile decreases monotonically with height as expected, and the surface layer does not contribute a significant amount to the overall seeing measured at the site. This work was supported by Air Force Grant No. FA9451-04-2-0355. Instrumentation and travel support was provided in part by the LSST Corporation under NSF Grant 0421087.

Turner, Jonathan; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.; Williams, T.; Claver, C.; Krabbendam, V.; Wiecha, O.; Andrew, J.; Warner, M.

2010-01-01

197

Dilemmas in Measurement of Human Body Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of human body temperature seems rather trivial until we become parents or medical professionals. If we use different thermometers, which are used at different body sites, inevitably we come across to different measurement results. Then we ask ourselves which result is the right one. The answer is far from trivial because there are a few dilemmas in measurement of

Igor Pusnik; Andraz Miklavec

2009-01-01

198

Fine Wire Thermocouple Measurements of Fluctuating Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for the measurement of the statistics of the temperature fluctuation, notably probability density function and power spectrum, in turbulent diffusion flames which employs fine wire thermocouples, compensated for the effects of thermal inertia, is assessed. Measurements made in an open turbulent methane diffusion flame are reported and compared, from the standpoint of identifying the interaction between measurement technique

A. BALLANTYNE; J. B. MOSS

1977-01-01

199

Phase principle for measuring antenna temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phase principle for measuring the temperature of a radio or radar antenna is described. The phase principle makes use of phase information exclusively and is therefore insensitive to receiver gain fluctuations. Under certain conditions the potential accuracy of the measurement is somewhat better than the potential accuracy of the corresponding measurement resulting from a balanced Dicke radiometer.

A. J. Rainal

1969-01-01

200

Calibration and correction of the device measuring magnetic gradient tensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generally, four three-axis magnetometers (TAMs) are used to measure magnetic gradient tensor. But the measurement precision of magnetic gradient tensor is tightly connected with the imperfect performance of sensors such as non-orthogonality, different scale factors and biases among sensitive axes, misalignment between different TAMs. It is necessary to calibrate and correct the measurement device to obtain precise magnetic gradient tensor. A mathematical model for calibration of the device measuring magnetic gradient tensor is established, and the calibration algorithm and its steps based on functional link artificial neural network (FLANN) and least-squares method (LSM) are proposed. The numerical simulations prove the effectiveness and good convergence of calibration algorithm, which can improve remarkably the measurement precision of magnetic gradient tensor.

Huang, Yu; Wu, Li-hua

201

Flame temperature measurements by spectral remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In investigating the usefulness of spectral emission measurements in determining line-of-sight temperature and\\/or concentration distributions in high-temperature gaseous systems, Purdue University constructed an analytical model that relates the emitted spectral intensity to the local temperature and radiating species concentration within the gas. The mathematical statement of the model leads to a series of integral equations. The technique was applied in

P. J. Hommert; R. Viskanta; A. M. Mellor

1977-01-01

202

Survey of gas-side fouling measuring devices  

SciTech Connect

A survey of measuring devices or probes, which have been used to investigate gas-side fouling, has been carried out. Five different types of measuring devices are identified and discussed including: heat flux meters, mass accumulation probes, optical devices, deposition probes, and acid condensation probes. A total of 32 different probes are described in detail and summarized in matrix or tabular form. The important considerations of combustion gas characterization and deposit analysis are also given a significant amount of attention. The results of this study show that considerable work has been done in the development of gas-side fouling probes. However, it is clear that the design, construction, and testing of a durable versatile probe - capable of monitoring on-line fouling resistances - remains a formidable task.

Marner, W.J.; Henslee, S.P.

1984-03-01

203

Piston temperature measurement with SAW sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution we introduce a new approach for a piston temperature measurement system based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators sensitive to temperature. The approach offers a new and competitive way to support the development of pistons and allows the research and improvement in combustion processes.

T. Plum; S. Tourette; M. Loschonsky; M. Robel

2011-01-01

204

Transient temperature measurement using embedded thermocouples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response time of thermocouples is generally considered to be a limiting factor when transient temperature changes need to be assessed in solids. As an example, transient temperature changes which develop during dynamic straining of materials, adiabatic shear band formation, dynamic fracture and related fields are often investigated using sophisticated noncontact measurement techniques such as infrared detectors. In these phenomena,

D. Rittel

1998-01-01

205

Twoband infrared thermographer for standoff temperature measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

OPTRA presents a new approach to remote infrared temperature measurements over mid to long standoff ranges in varying atmospheric conditions. The sensor is intended as a feedback mechanism for use with the Active Denial System to insure the target's skin temperature is within a safe range. OPTRA's sensor employs a small reflector telescope followed by a series of interference filters

Julia R. Dupuis; David Mansur; Robert Vaillancourt; David Carlson; Elizabeth Schundler; George Genetti

2006-01-01

206

Coriolis mass flow measurement at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing interest in liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the energy market, Coriolis mass flowmeters have been applied to many applications in the distribution of LNG. Since Coriolis flowmeters are normally calibrated at around room temperatures, measurements for LNG at cryogenic temperatures present a challenging condition. Firstly, a theoretical analysis for Coriolis mass flow sensors is provided considering the

Tao Wang; Yousif Hussain

2009-01-01

207

Temperature measurement in fire test furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of errors associated with temperature measurement in fire endurance test furnaces has shown that conventionally used thermocouples are subject to large time constant errors in the first 20 minutes of a standard test.

Vytenis Babrauskas; Robert Brady Williamson

1978-01-01

208

Multichannel Measuring Converter for Temperature Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Described is the multichannel measuring normalizing converter constructed on the base of magnetic second harmonic modulators and intended for preliminary voltage amplification of thermocouples controlling the unit discharge chamber temperature. The conver...

M. P. Vasil'ev V. G. Ivkin Y. M. Fedorishin

1979-01-01

209

Development of a new device to measure local heat exchange by evaporation and convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the principles of heat and mass transfer, the rate of local heat exchange by convection (C) and local heat loss by evaporation (E) can be estimated if temperature and vapor concentration profiles in the boundary layer are measured. In addition, temperature (Ts) and vapor concentration (rho s) at the surface may be predicted from the measured profiles. On this basis, a new device was developed to measure parabolic profiles by incorporating three relative humidity sensors coupled with thermistors into its probe. It has been evaluated from various tests including human experiments. The results showed that the device, with humidity sensors arranged perpendicular to the surface, could estimate C, E, Ts, and rho s in closer agreement with direct measurements when compared with the conventional gradient method. This confirmed that our method had clear advantages over the conventional gradient method under laminar air flow conditions.

Kakitsuba, N.; Katsuura, T.

1992-06-01

210

Performance measurements of multilayer insulation at variable cold temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multilayer insulation (MLI) is commonly used in most cryogenic devices such as LHe-cryostats or superconductive cables. Typically thermal performance measurements have been carried out using bath cryostats. Inherent to all this devices is a fixed cold temperature at the boiling point of the particular cryogenic liquid. A recent approach for cryogenic pressure vessels covers a broad temperature range, i.e. hydrogen storage from 20 K to ambient temperature. Thus, a new calorimeter cryostat has been designed at TU Dresden to meet these requirements. The design as a flow cryostat allows the measurement of the thermal performance with variable cold temperature between 20 K and 300 K. It can be operated in vertical as well as in horizontal orientation. The insulation material is wrapped around a nearly isothermal cylinder which is held at the desired temperature by a cooling fluid. Preferably LHe respectively helium cold gas is used. Several design features reduce undesired interference errors. It is reported about design and equipment of this cryostat plus first experiences in operation

Funke, Thomas; Haberstroh, Christoph

2012-06-01

211

Microwave radiometry for cement kiln temperature measurements.  

PubMed

The maximum temperature inside a cement kiln is a critical operating parameter, but is often difficult or impossible to measure. We present here the first data that show a correlation between cement kiln temperature measured using a microwave radiometer and product chemistry over an eight-hour period. The microwave radiometer senses radiation in the 12-13 GHz range and has been described previously [Stephan and Pearce (2002), JMPEE 37: 112-124]. PMID:17645204

Stephan, Karl D; Wang, Lingyun; Ryza, Eric

2007-01-01

212

General temperature field measurement by digital holography.  

PubMed

This paper presents a digital holographic method for measurement of periodic asymmetric temperature fields. The method is based on a modified Twyman-Green setup having double sensitivity. For measurement only one precisely synchronized and triggered digital camera is used. The periodicity and self-similarity of each cycle of the measured phenomenon combined with the precisely synchronized camera capture allow one to obtain data later used for three-dimensional (3D) measurement. The reconstruction of 3D temperature field is based on tomographic approach. PMID:23292408

Dole?ek, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Ldl, Vt; Vt, Tom; Vclavk, Jan; Kopeck, Vclav

2013-01-01

213

Method and apparatus for measuring low currents in capacitance devices  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for measuring subnanoampere currents in capacitance devices is reported. The method is based on a comparison of the voltages developed across the capacitance device with that of a reference capacitor in which the current is adjusted by means of a variable current source to produce a stable voltage difference. The current varying means of the variable current source is calibrated to provide a read out of the measured current. Current gain may be provided by using a reference capacitor which is larger than the device capacitance with a corresponding increase in current supplied through the reference capacitor. The gain is then the ratio of the reference capacitance to the device capacitance. In one illustrated embodiment, the invention makes possible a new type of ionizing radiation dose-rate monitor where dose-rate is measured by discharging a reference capacitor with a variable current source at the same rate that radiation is discharging an ionization chamber. The invention eliminates high-megohm resistors and low current ammeters used in low-current measuring instruments.

Kopp, M.K.; Manning, F.W.; Guerrant, G.C.

1986-06-04

214

A device for precision dimensional measurement of superconducting cable  

SciTech Connect

A need for continuous sampling of the dimensions of superconducting cable has lead to the development of a machine for that purpose. This device measures average thickness, width, and keystone angle for a wide variety of cable sizes while under the mechanical loading anticipated in the final coil structure. Linear dimensions can be measured to {plus minus}0.0001 in. and angle to {plus minus}0. 01{degree}. Cable can be measured with and without insulation. Loading is variable up to 25 ksi. This device has applications in epoxy free coil winding where the cable dimensions must be well understood before coil winding in order to predict the size of the finished coil package. As a diagnostic device, it has application in the cable making process to help understand causes for subtle inconsistencies in cable dimensions. A possible quality control application exists. Current cable quality control requires destructive techniques with very small samplings, usually two samples for 5000 ft of cable. We have evaluated device performance by repeated measurements of lengths of SSC cable. 7 figs.

Carson, J.A.; Barczak, E.; Bossert, R.; Fisk, E.; Mantsch, P.; Riley, R.; Schmidt, E.E.; Schmidt, E.E. Jr.

1986-05-19

215

Patient monitoring system for load measurement with spinal fixation devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractures of the spine can be stabilized by different implants. Their stiffness varies widely and only little is known about the loads acting on these devices. In order to measure the forces and moments in the implant, the internal fixator after Dick was modified. An inductively powered telemetry unit is placed inside the fixator and is hermetically sealed against body

F. Graichen; G. Bergmann; A. Rohlmann

1996-01-01

216

Evaluation of Strain Measuring Devices for Ceramic Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of tensile tests was conducted on SiC/reaction bonded silicon nitrides (RBSN) composites using different methods of strain measurement. The tests were used to find the optimum strain sensing device for use with continuous fiber reinforced ceramic...

J. Z. Gyekenyesi P. A. Bartolotta

1991-01-01

217

Periodic Integrating Device for Measurement of Rapidly Varying Count Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device for the measurement of rapidly varying counting rates is described. The input signals, which need not be of constant size or shape, are converted into pulses of constant width and constant current. The pulses are applied to an integrating capacitor where, at the end of an integral period, the voltage of integration is sampled and stored. The sample

Cassimer M. Kukla

1967-01-01

218

Device for Measurement of Electrical Properties in Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to a device used for measuring the permittivity of insulating materials over a broad range of frequencies. The electrical property of an insulator is an important piece of information that gives the designer the ability to ch...

D. F. Rivera

2007-01-01

219

Designing and Constructing an Aerodynamic Drag Coefficient Measuring Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four main factors are known to have an effect on the drag of free falling bodies. These factors are: shape, size, density of the body and density of the medium through which the body travels. This work aims to design and construct a device to measure the drag coefficient for the free falling bodies in different fluid mediums. To achieve

Fawaz Abbas Najim; Adnan A. Al-Qalamchi; Haydar Hassan Balla

220

Capacitance-voltage measurement in memory devices using ferroelectric polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of thin polymer film as storing mean for non-volatile memory devices is investigated. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement of metal-ferroelectric-metal device using ferroelectric copolymer P(VDF-TrFE) as dielectric layer shows stable 'butter-fly' curve. The two peaks in C-V measurement corresponding to the largest capacitance are coincidental at the coercive voltages that give rise to zero polarization in the polarization hysteresis measurement. By comparing data of C-V and P-E measurement, a correlation between two types of hysteresis is established in which it reveals simultaneous electrical processes occurring inside the device. These processes are caused by the response of irreversible and reversible polarization to the applied electric field that can be used to present a memory window. The memory effect of ferroelectric copolymer is further demonstrated for fabricating polymeric non-volatile memory devices using metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor structure (MFIS). By applying different sweeping voltages at the gate, bidirectional flat-band voltage shift is observed in the ferroelectric capacitor. The asymmetrical shift after negative sweeping is resulted from charge accumulation at the surface of Si substrate caused by the dipole direction in the polymer layer. The effect is reversed for positive voltage sweeping.

Nguyen, Chien A.; Lee, Pooi See

2006-12-01

221

Reliability issues in human brain temperature measurement  

PubMed Central

Introduction The influence of brain temperature on clinical outcome after severe brain trauma is currently poorly understood. When brain temperature is measured directly, different values between the inside and outside of the head can occur. It is not yet clear if these differences are 'real' or due to measurement error. Methods The aim of this study was to assess the performance and measurement uncertainty of body and brain temperature sensors currently in use in neurocritical care. Two organic fixed-point, ultra stable temperature sources were used as the temperature references. Two different types of brain sensor (brain type 1 and brain type 2) and one body type sensor were tested under rigorous laboratory conditions and at the bedside. Measurement uncertainty was calculated using internationally recognised methods. Results Average differences between the 26C reference temperature source and the clinical temperature sensors were +0.11C (brain type 1), +0.24C (brain type 2) and -0.15C (body type), respectively. For the 36C temperature reference source, average differences between the reference source and clinical thermometers were -0.02C, +0.09C and -0.03C for brain type 1, brain type 2 and body type sensor, respectively. Repeat calibrations the following day confirmed that these results were within the calculated uncertainties. The results of the immersion tests revealed that the reading of the body type sensor was sensitive to position, with differences in temperature of -0.5C to -1.4C observed on withdrawing the thermometer from the base of the isothermal environment by 4 cm and 8 cm, respectively. Taking into account all the factors tested during the calibration experiments, the measurement uncertainty of the clinical sensors against the (nominal) 26C and 36C temperature reference sources for the brain type 1, brain type 2 and body type sensors were 0.18C, 0.10C and 0.12C respectively. Conclusions The results show that brain temperature sensors are fundamentally accurate and the measurements are precise to within 0.1 to 0.2C. Subtle dissociation between brain and body temperature in excess of 0.1 to 0.2C is likely to be real. Body temperature sensors need to be secured in position to ensure that measurements are reliable.

2009-01-01

222

Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature Dependent Thermophysical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new evaluation method for a transient measurement of thermophysical properties is presented in this paper. The aim of the research was to couple a new automatic evaluation procedure to the BICOND thermophysical property measurement method to enhance the simultaneous determination of the temperature dependent thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. The thermophysical properties of two different polymers were measured and compared with the literature data and with the measurement results that were done by well-known, traditional methods. The BICOND method involves a step-down cooling, recording the temperature histories of the inner and the outer surfaces of a hollow cylindrical sample and the thermophysical properties are evaluated from the solution of the corresponding inverse heat conduction using a genetic algorithm-based method (BIGEN) developed by the authors. The BIGEN is able to find the material properties with any kind of temperature dependency, that is illustrated through the measurement results of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and polyamide (PA) samples.

Czl, Balzs; Grf, Gyula; Kiss, Lszl

2011-11-01

223

Calibration of Automated Non Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from a brief history of blood pressure measurement, the chapter provides a critical overview of the existing standards\\u000a and protocols dealing with the calibration of automated non-invasive measurement of blood pressure. Some issues about the\\u000a device specifications and the test methods, including the most used clinical protocols are pointed out. The lack of a clear\\u000a and unique set of

E. Balestrieri; S. Rapuano

224

Comparison Measurements of Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitors  

SciTech Connect

As part of the efforts initiated through the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) program to make Silicon Carbide (SiC) temperature monitors available, a capability was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. INL selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. To demonstrate this new capability, comparison measurements were completed by INL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on identical samples subjected to identical irradiation conditions. Results reported in this paper indicate that the resistance measurement approach can yield similar peak irradiation temperatures if appropriate equipment is used and appropriate procedures are followed.

J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

2010-06-01

225

Assembly for electrical conductivity measurements in the piston cylinder device  

SciTech Connect

An assembly apparatus for measurement of electrical conductivity or other properties of a sample in a piston cylinder device wherein pressure and heat are applied to the sample by the piston cylinder device. The assembly apparatus includes a body, a first electrode in the body, the first electrode operatively connected to the sample, a first electrical conductor connected to the first electrode, a washer constructed of a hard conducting material, the washer surrounding the first electrical conductor in the body, a second electrode in the body, the second electrode operatively connected to the sample, and a second electrical conductor connected to the second electrode.

Watson, Heather Christine (Dublin, CA); Roberts, Jeffrey James (Livermore, CA)

2012-06-05

226

Accurate measurement of LED lens surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiant power emitted by high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been steadily increasing over the past decade. High radiation, especially short wavelength, can increase the temperature and negatively affect the primary lens performance of high-power LEDs. In this regards, assessment of lens temperature during operation is important. Past studies have shown large errors when thermocouples are used for measuring temperature in high radiant flux environments. Therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the problem in using thermocouples to measure LED lens surface temperature and to find a solution to improving the measurement accuracy. A laboratory study was conducted to better understand the issue. Results showed that most of the error is due to absorption of visible radiant energy by the thermocouple. In this study, the measurements made using an infrared (IR) thermal imaging system were used as the reference temperature because the IR imaging system is unaffected by radiant flux in the visible range. After studying the thermocouple wire metallurgy and its radiation absorption properties, a suitable material was identified to shield the thermocouple from visible radiation. Additionally, a silicone elastomer was used to maintain the thermal interface between the lens surface and the thermocouple junction bead. With these precautions, the lens temperature measurements made using the J-type thermocouple and the IR imaging system matched very well.

Perera, Indika U.; Narendran, Nadarajah; Liu, Yi-wei

2013-09-01

227

In situ pressure measurement within deformable rectangular polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present a simple procedure to incorporate commercially available external pressure transducers into existing microfluidic devices, to monitor pressure-drop in real-time, with minimal design modifications to pre-existing channel designs. We focus on the detailed fabrication steps and assembly to make the process straightforward and robust. The work presented here will benefit those interested in adding pressure drop measurements in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microchannels without having to modify existing channel designs or requiring additional fabrication steps. By using three different devices with varying aspect ratio channels (wh0, width/depth), we demonstrate that our approach can easily be adapted into existing channel designs inexpensively. Furthermore, our approach can achieve steady state measurements within a matter of minutes (depending on the fluid) and can easily be used to investigate dynamic pressure drops. In order to validate the accuracy of the measured pressure drops within the three different aspect ratio devices, we compared measured pressure drops of de-ionized water and a 50?wt. % glycerol aqueous solution to four different theoretical expressions. Due to the deformability of PDMS, measured pressure drops were smaller than those predicted by the rigid channel theories (plate and rectangular). Modification of the rigid channel theories with a deformability parameter ? provided better fits to the measured data. The elastic rectangular expression developed in this paper does not have a geometric restriction and is better suited for microchannels with a wider range of aspect ratios.

Cheung, Perry; Toda-Peters, Kazumi; Shen, Amy Q.

2012-01-01

228

A Microthermal Device for Measuring the Spatial Power Spectrum of Atmospheric Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Measurement Astrophysics group at UNM designed and built a novel microthermal device for the purpose of characterizing atmospheric turbulence at astronomical observatories. This instrument is based on the Wheatstone bridge and uses fine wire tungsten filaments as resistance temperature detectors. The device is designed to work in two data taking modes: with a horizontal array of microthermal sensors, or with a vertical array of sensors. In horizontal mode differential measurements are made between adjacent sensors, then these measurements are combined to recover the differences between all non-adjacent sensor pairs. The result of these measurements is microthermal data over many independent baselines which comprise a spatial spectrum of turbulence. The measured turbulent spectra are then fit to standard turbulence models which yield estimates of the outer scale of turbulence and the slope of the power spectra. Measurements in horizontal mode are made with 14 sensors over baselines of up to 30 meters. In addition probes can be repositioned to provide additional baselines. In vertical mode the device operates as microthermals traditionally have in the past: differential measurements are made between a pair of resistance temperature detectors. Sensor pairs are suspended at different heights above the ground allowing measurement of atmospheric turbulence as a function of altitude. Measurements in vertical mode are made with 14 sensor pairs which can be elevated up to 30 meters above ground. Data were taken with the device in a variety of test configurations, and the device is being used in a site testing campaign at Cerro Pachon. We will present the design, prototyping, and testing of this instrument as well as preliminary results from our campaign on Cerro Pachon.

Turner, Jonathan; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.; Williams, T.; Claver, C.; Krabbendam, V.; Wiecha, O.; Andrew, J.; Warner, M.

2009-01-01

229

Time Delay Neural Network Applied for Compensation of Temperature Sensors Nonlinear Dynamics on Hysteresis Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists many kinds of technologies and sensors for measuring temperature, however, two of the most common types of sensors are thermocouples and thermistors. These sensors have dynamical response to a temperature change in the surroundings, and also have nonlinearities in the mapping between temperature and electrical signal at their output. When dealing with the characterization of thermal hysteretic devices,

F. Simas; L. Alberto; L. de Almeida

2007-01-01

230

A device for measuring spin selectivity in electron transfer.  

PubMed

A new type of device is presented that allows direct measurement of spin selectivity in charge transfer processes occurring in adsorbed molecules. The new device provides direct information about the nature of the charge being transferred (electrons or holes) and on spin selectivity, if it exists. Here the device is applied for establishing the spin-dependent electron transfer through double-stranded DNA and its variation with the length of the oligomer. The DNA is self-assembled on a silver substrate and is measured under ambient conditions. The device is based on monitoring the electric potential between a ferromagnetic Ni layer and a silver layer, on top of which the DNA is self-assembled. When a dye molecule, attached to the DNA, is photoexcited, a charge transfer between the dye and the silver substrate takes place, resulting in a change in the electric potential between the Ni and the silver. If the charge transfer is spin selective, the electric potential measured depends on the direction of magnetization of the Ni. PMID:24077104

Senthil Kumar, Karuppannan; Kantor-Uriel, Nirit; Mathew, Shinto Pulinthanathu; Guliamov, Rahamim; Naaman, Ron

2013-10-01

231

Recent Advances in Gallium Phosphide Junction Devices for High-Temperature Electronic Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in gallium phosphide technology are reviewed as they relate to high-temperature (T > 300C) device applications. The electronic properties and materials aspects of GaP are summarized and compared to silicon and gallium arsenide. Minority-carrier unction devices are discussed as one area where this technology could have wide application. In this light, the high-temperature operation of two junction devices,

Thomas E. Zipperian; Roger J. Chaffin; L. Ralph Dawson

1982-01-01

232

An Algorithm for Express Temperature Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long time of measurement is a common disadvan? tage of most contemporary medical thermometers including digital thermometers based on conductive ther? mal exchange with the object of measurement. Specificity of a living organism as an object of temperature monitor? ing makes it difficult to solve this problem [1]. Let us con? sider modern approaches to solution of this problem. The

I. A. Dolgova; B. V. Chuvikin

2009-01-01

233

Temperature-controlled autocollimator with ultrahigh angular measuring precision  

SciTech Connect

A temperature-controlled autocollimator with ultrahigh angular measuring precision is proposed in this article, which is different from our previous publication [J. Yuan and X. W. Long, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1362 (2003)]. The autocollimator consists of a zoom lens illuminating a charge-coupled device (CCD). This design provides a compact size and increased stability without compromising precision. Moreover, this design makes it possible to detect a target mirror with either plane reflectors or spherical reflectors. Devices for shock absorption and heat insulation were implemented to diminish external interferences. A special temperature-control system for the autocollimator is designed to control the temperature of the autocollimator. The temperature of the autocollimator fluctuates less than {+-}0.01 deg. C. The CCD camera's noise is a fatal obstacle that prevents us from achieving an ultrahigh angular measuring precision. In this article, the influence of the CCD camera's noise on the measuring resolution is analyzed theoretically in detail. Based on the analysis, some special noise-suppressing methods to eliminate the influence of the CCD camera's noise are proposed. Both the influence of the CCD camera's noise and the noise-suppressing methods have not been discussed in our previous publication [J. Yuan and X. W. Long, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1362 (2003)]. By using the methods mentioned above, the measuring precision of the autocollimator has been greatly improved and the requirements on the external condition have been greatly reduced. The method is proved to be reliable by a prototype experiment. Two-axis angular displacement can be measured simultaneously and a measuring precision of 0.005 arcsec has been achieved, which is currently the highest measuring precision in the world.

Yuan Jie; Long Xingwu; Yang Kaiyong [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2005-12-15

234

Noncontact temperature measurement of a falling drop  

SciTech Connect

The 105-m drop tube at the Marshall Space Flight Center has been used in a number of experiments to determine the effects of containerless, microgravity processing on the undercooling and solidification behavior of metals and alloys. These experiments have been limited, however, because direct temperature measurement of the falling drops has not been available. Undercooling and nucleation temperatures are calculated from thermophysical properties based on droplet cooling models. In most cases these properties are not well known, particularly in the undercooled state. This results in a large amount of uncertainty in the determination of nucleation temperatures. If temperature measurement can be accomplished, then the thermal history of the drops could be well documented. This would lead to a better understanding of the thermophysicial and thermal radiative properties of undercooled melts. An effort to measure the temperature of a falling drop is under way at Vanderbilt and Marshall Space Flight Center. The technique uses two-color pyrometry and high-speed data acquisition. The approach is presented along with some preliminary data from drop tube experiments. The results from droplet cooling models are compared with noncontact temperature measurements.

Hofmeister, W.J.; Bayuzick, R.J.; Robinson, M.B.

1989-01-01

235

Assessment of body temperature measurement options.  

PubMed

Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature. PMID:24037397

Sund-Levander, Mrtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

2013-09-12

236

Wireless measurement of temperature using surface acoustic waves sensors.  

PubMed

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices can be used as wireless sensor elements, called SAW transponders, for measuring physical quantities such as temperature that do not need any power supply and may be accessed wirelessly. A complete wireless sensor system consists of one or more such SAW transponders and a local radar transceiver. The SAW transponder receives an RF burst in the VHF/UHF band transmitted by the radar transceiver. The reader unit performs a radar measurement of the impulse response of the SAW transponder via a high-frequency electromagnetic radio link. A temperature variation changes the SAW velocity and thereby the response pattern of the SAW device. By analyzing the time delay between backscattered pulses with different time delays we get a rough estimation of the temperature of the SAW transponder. By using this information the ambiguity of +/-2pi in the phase differences between the pulses can be eliminated, which provides an overall and unambiguous temperature resolution of +/-0.2 degrees C. PMID:15600090

Reindl, Leonhard M; Shrena, Ismail M

2004-11-01

237

Development of a new temperature measuring system for gasliquid flow in spraying field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on previous work, a new temperature measuring system for gasliquid flow, composed of shielded and unshielded thermocouples, on-line laser detection device for liquid droplets, vacuum pump and wavelet analysis data processor, is developed in this work. The necessity of vacuum pump and the criterion of mesh size selection are also described. Through an application of measuring temperature in saturator,

Yixing Li; Yuzhang Wang; Shilie Weng; Yonghong Wang

2007-01-01

238

Influences of Temperature Field on the Surface Wave Propagation Behaviors in SAW Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical and numerical analyses are carried out for surface wave propagation in the layered PVDF piezoelectric structure under uniform and graded temperature field. Effects of thermo-electro-elastic properties, thermal stress and the temperature gradient on the surface wave propagation behaviors in SAW devices are discussed. Increase of temperature in the uniform temperature field or at the upper surface of the piezoelectric

X. S. Cao; F. Jin; W. G. Liu

2010-01-01

239

Electrothermal actuation of metal-insulator transition in SmNiO3 thin film devices above room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that a metal-insulator phase transition can be electrothermally actuated in the correlated complex oxide SmNiO3 (SNO) above room temperature from current-voltage measurements on thin film two-terminal devices. We simulate the internal temperature of SmNiO3 as a function of applied dc power by a Joule heating mechanism with substrate/electrode dissipation and find good agreement with experiment and device scaling. The results are relevant towards integrating correlated oxide phase transition functionality into semiconductor electronic/optoelectronic platforms.

Ha, Sieu D.; Viswanath, B.; Ramanathan, Shriram

2012-06-01

240

Laser weld penetration estimation using temperature measurements  

SciTech Connect

Penetration depth is an important factor critical to the quality of a laser weld. This paper examines the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the bottom surface of the work-piece to estimate weld penetration. A three-dimensional analytical model relating penetration depth, weld bead width and welding speed to temperature distribution at the bottom surface of the workpiece is developed. Temperatures on the bottom surface of the workpiece are measured using infrared thermocouples located behind the laser beam. Experimental results from bead-on-plate welds on low carbon steel plates of varying thickness at different levels of laser power and speeds validate the model and show that the temperature on the bottom surface is a sensitive indicator of penetration depth. The proposed model is computationally efficient and is suitable for on-line process monitoring application.

Lankalapalli, K.N.; Tu, J.F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Industrial Engineering; Leong, K.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gartner, M. [Ford Motor Co., Livonia, MI (United States)

1997-10-01

241

Calibrating X-ray Imaging Devices for Accurate Intensity Measurement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project presented is to develop methods to accurately calibrate X-ray imaging devices. The approach was to develop X-ray source systems suitable for this endeavor and to develop methods to calibrate solid state detectors to measure source intensity. NSTec X-ray sources used for the absolute calibration of cameras are described, as well as the method of calibrating the source by calibrating the detectors. The work resulted in calibration measurements for several types of X-ray cameras. X-ray camera calibration measured efficiency and efficiency variation over the CCD. Camera types calibrated include: CCD, CID, back thinned (back illuminated), front illuminated.

Haugh, M. J.

2011-07-28

242

Measurement of wire electrode temperature in WEDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire temperature is an important parameter in the wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) process because overheating of the\\u000a wire can cause the wire to break. It is difficult, however, to measure the wire temperature directly under the condition that\\u000a the wire is emerged in water and surrounded by the workpiece. Only mathematical analyses by now have been reported to determine\\u000a such

Fuzhu Han; Gang Cheng; Zhijing Feng; Isago Soichiro

2009-01-01

243

Transport Measurements of Multi-terminal MoS2 Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report progress on the fabrication and measurement of multi-terminal devices based on few-layer MoS2. By using different contact metal recipes, we describe efforts to significantly decrease contact resistance and gain access to the intrinsic transport properties of MoS2. We measured four-terminal resistance of monolayer, bilayer, and trilayer MoS2 with Ohmic contacts to obtain the intrinsic field-effect mobility of these materials on SiO2 substrates at temperatures down to 4 K. We also probed Hall transport of MoS2 and extracted the temperature dependence of its Hall mobility.

Yang, Y.; Churchill, H. O. H.; Baugher, B. W. H.; Jarillo-Herrero, P.

2013-03-01

244

Novel devices for measuring interactions in quantum point contacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conductance measurements of quantum point contacts (QPCs) reveal an anomalous plateau in the conductance at roughly 0.7 x 2e2h just before a fully transmitting 1D channel is available. Past experiments have built a consensus that this so-called "0.7 structure" is related to electron spin and electron-electron interaction, but the detailed description remains controversial. We have performed measurements on two new kinds of devices which give new insight into the interactions of electrons in these clean quasi-1D systems. One new device allows us to measure the compressibility of the electrons in a QPC for different conduction modes. Comparison with density functional calculations give new information about the relative importance of interactions (including exchange) as the density in the QPC is depleted. The other device allows us to measure the local density of states (dos) in the QPC as we tunnel directly into the constriction. Deviations from the 1D dos would help to develop a more complete picture of the transport through a QPC.

Moore, Lindsay Shannon

245

Research about the high precision temperature measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High precision temperature control system is one of most important support conditions for tunable birefringent filter.As the first step,we researched some high precision temperature measurement methods for it. Firstly, circuits with a 24 bit ADC as the sensor's reader were carefully designed; Secondly, an ARM porcessor is used as the centrol processing unit, it provides sufficient reading and procesing ability; Thirdly, three kinds of sensors, PT100, Dale 01T1002-5 thermistor, Wheatstone bridge(constructed by pure copper and manganin) as the senor of the temperature were tested respectively. The resolution of the measurement with these three kinds of sensors are all better than 0.001 that's enough for 0.01 stability temperature control. Comparatively, Dale 01T1002-5 thermistor could get the most accurate temperature of the key point, Wheatstone bridge could get the most accurate mean temperature of the whole layer, both of them will be used in our futrue temperature controll system.

Lin, J.; Yu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zeng, Z.; Deng, Y.

2012-12-01

246

The insertion device magnetic measurement facility: Prototype and operational procedures  

SciTech Connect

This report is a description of the current status of the magnetic measurement facility and is a basic instructional manual for the operation of the facility and its components. Please refer to the appendices for more detailed information about specific components and procedures. The purpose of the magnetic measurement facility is to take accurate measurements of the magnetic field in the gay of the IDs in order to determine the effect of the ID on the stored particle beam and the emitted radiation. The facility will also play an important role when evaluating new ideas, novel devices, and inhouse prototypes as part of the ongoing research and development program at the APS. The measurements will be performed with both moving search coils and moving Hall probes. The IDs will be evaluated by computer modeling of the emitted radiation for any given (measured) magnetic field map. The quality of the magnetic field will be described in terms of integrated multipoles for the effect on Storage Ring performance and in terms of the derived trajectories for the emitted radiation. Before being installed on the Storage Ring, every device will be measured and characterized to assure that it is compatible with Storage Ring requirements and radiation specifications. The accuracy that the APS needs to achieve for magnetic measurements will be based on these specifications.

Burkel, L.; Dejus, R.; Maines, J.; O'Brien, J.; Vasserman, I. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Systems Div.); Pfleuger, J. (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor)

1993-03-01

247

Fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurement with a handheld device.  

PubMed

A sensing system for fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement is presented, which is characterized by a compact setup and a cost potential to be made available for the patient at home. The sensing is based on the work function measurement of a phthalocyanine-type sensing material, which is shown to be sufficiently sensitive for NO(2) in the ppb range. The transducer used to measure the work function is a field effect transistor with a suspended gate electrode. Selectivity is given with respect to other breath components including typically metabolic by-products. The measurement system includes breath treatments in a simple setup, which essentially are dehumidification and a quantitative conversion of NO to NO(2) with a conversion rate of approx. 95%, using a disposable oxidation catalyst. The accomplishment of the correct exhalation maneuver and feeding of the suited portion of exhaled air to the sensor is provided by breath sampling means. The sensor is not gas consuming. This allows us to fill the measurement chamber once, instead of establishing a gas flow for the measurement. This feature simplifies the device architecture. In this paper, we report on sensor characteristics, system architecture and measurement with artificial breath-gas as well as with human breath with the device. PMID:21646688

Magori, Erhard; Hiltawsky, Karsten; Fleischer, Maximilian; Simon, Elfriede; Pohle, Roland; von Sicard, Oliver; Tawil, Angelika

2011-06-06

248

Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

1994-10-04

249

Measurement of temperature using speckle shearing interferometry.  

PubMed

A laser speckle shearing interferometric technique is used for measuring the temperature profile inside a gaseous flame. The experimental results are compared with the values obtained by a thermocouple and also by speckle photography. Good agreement is seen among the temperatures measured by speckle shearing interferometry, speckle photography, and the thermocouple. Speckle shearing interferometry is easier to implement than speckle photography. This is because in speckle shearing interferometry the accurate positions of the fringes can be known without point-by-point analysis and correction for the halo effect. PMID:20885553

Shakher, C; Nirala, A K

1994-04-10

250

ALMA front end amplitude calibration device design and measured performances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes the main aspects of the design and qualification test results of the ALMA Amplitude Calibration Device Robotic Arm (ACD). The design aspects of the ACD, including a detailed description of the components selected to achieve the expected performances are presented in the first part of the paper. Also the system performances results measured in the first prototype units are summarized at the last part of the paper.

Casalta, Joan Manel; Molins, Albert; Bassas, Mart; Canchado, Manuel; Creus, Eva; Toms, Albert

2008-07-01

251

A wireless device for measuring hand-applied forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a wireless, electromyography (EMG)-based, force-measuring system developed to quantify hand-applied loads without interfering with grasping function. A portable surface EMG device detects and converts to voltage output biopotentials generated by muscle contractions in the forearm and upper arm during hand-gripping and traction activities. After amplifying and bandpass filtering, our radio frequency (RF)-based design operating at ?916 MHz

William Tam; Robert H. Allen; Y. S. G. Hoe; S. Huang; I.-J. Khoo; K. E. Outland; E. D. Gurewitsch

2004-01-01

252

Electromagnetic device for measuring the integrity of long bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Monitoring the skeletal status is important for determining the effectiveness of treatment for osteoporosis. Computerized tomography, photon absorptiometry and DEXA are often used for monitoring the changes in bone mass and bone density. However, these techniques involve some radiation exposure to the patient. We have developed a non-invasive electro-magnetic device which can measure the cross-sectional geometry

S. Saha

2002-01-01

253

Laser radar mesospheric temperature measurements: Preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonant scattering with a laser radar was used to measure the Doppler width of the atmospheric sodium line. By reducing the bandwidth of the laser pulse used for measuring sodium density to about 0.1 pm. the temperature at mesospheric heights can be determined by measuring the width of the sodium D sub 2 line. To accomplish this, the laser wavelength and bandwidth must be sufficiently stable to integrate the return signals over several laser shots. Preliminary measurements were made by introducing an additional Fabry-Perot etalon, of high optical quality, in the laser cavity, to reduce the bandwidth. The small wavelength scan was accomplished by heating the etalon. Returns from 90 Km reproduce the shape of the D sub 2 line, indicating a temperature of about 240 K.

Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Clemesha, B. R.; Simonich, D. M.

1978-04-01

254

Optical measurement of temperature dissipation rates (TDR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a laboratory experiment in which the turbulent properties of fluid flow were measured using optical methods. As a source of turbulence we used a thermally isolated tank (0.3x0.3x0.3 m) which is capable of generating turbulent convective flow with a Rayleigh number of 10^9. The temperature dissipation rate (TDR) was measured optically by examining scattered light

Darek J. Bogucki; Robert Ecke; Andrzej Domaradzki; R. C. Truman

1999-01-01

255

Adaptive Blood Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Measurement Devices for Visually Impaired Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes devices that people with visual impairments and diabetes can use to monitor blood glucose levels and measure insulin. A table lists devices, their manufacturers (including address and telephone number), and comments about the devices. (DB)|

Petzinger, R. A.

1993-01-01

256

Measurement device for noise factor of microchannel plate.  

PubMed

A new method for noise power factor determination of microchannel plates (MCPs) is described in this paper. The new measuring condition and specific measuring instrument are reported. The system consists of a vacuum chamber, an electron gun, a high-voltage supply, an imaging luminance meter, control units, a signal processing circuit, an A/D converter, a D/A converter, a communication unit, an industrial computer, and measurement software. This measuring method fills a void in measuring technology for the noise factor of MCPs, and it can make a scientific assessment of MCP noise characteristics and provide theoretical direction and technology support for the research and development of high-performance low light level (LLL) devices. PMID:22410890

Lei, Liu; Zhijian, Huang; Tao, Pan; Yunsheng, Qian

2012-03-01

257

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator were conducted in this reporting period. In the systematic test, two (2) factors were considered as the experimental parameters, including air injection rate and water injection rate. Each experimental factor had two (2) levels, respectively. A special water-feeding device was designed and installed to the gasifier simulator. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results of the systematic tests. The ANOVA shows that the air injection rate did have the significant impact to the temperature measurement in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA also shows that the water injection rate did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA analysis also proves that the thermocouple assembly we proposed was immune to the moisture environment, the temperature measurement remained accurate in moisture environment. Within this reporting period, the vibration application for cleaning purpose was explored. Both ultrasonic and sub-sonic vibrations were considered. A feasibility test was conducted to prove that the thermocouple vibration did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. This feasibility test was a 2{sup 2} factorial design. Two factors including temperature levels and motor speeds were set to two levels respectively. The sub-sonic vibration tests were applied to the thermocouple to remove the concrete cover layer (used to simulate the solid condensate in gasifiers) on the thermocouple tip. It was found that both frequency and amplitude had significant impacts on removal performance of the concrete cover layer.

Seong W. Lee

2004-04-01

258

A new method and device for motion accuracy measurement of NC machine tools. Part 2: device error identification and trajectory measurement of general planar motions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes in two parts a new method and device for measuring motion accuracy of NC machine tools. In the first part, the measurement principle and the characteristics of the prototype device have been presented and discussed. In the second part, an efficient and practical approach to identifying the errors of the proposed device after assembly is developed and

Hua Qiu; Yanbin Li; Yan Li

2001-01-01

259

Electro-Mechanical Properties of Metal-Insulator-Metal Device Fabricated on Polymer Substrate Using Low-Temperature Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-performance metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices on flexible polymer substrates were successfully fabricated without any defects such as cracks, delamination and blistering. This work examines the mechanical and electrical properties of MIM devices constructed using anodic Ta2O5 films. Using newly developed methods including stepped heating process and low-temperature post-annealing below 180C, we obtained high-performances MIM devices on polymer substrates. Here, we propose the use of stacked bottom electrode and water barrier layer in order to enhance the ductility of the Ta electrode and to prevent blistering problems, respectively. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and transmission electronic microscope (TEM) observations were performed for the structural investigation of the MIM devices on polymer substrates. Electrical measurements were also carried out for as-deposited and thermally treated MIM devices including Al/Ta/Ta2O5/Cr or Ti structures. They exhibit a low leakage current (below 10-7 A/cm2 at 2 MV) and reasonable breakdown voltage (5-7 MV/cm) with a uniformity of 92%. Finally, under low-temperature post-annealing conditions, The Current-Voltage (I-V) behaviors and conduction mechanisms of MIM devices on polymer substrates are discussed based on the results of electrical measurements, structural investigations and conduction band modeling.

Park, Sung Kyu; Han, Jeong In; Kim, Won Keun; Hong, Sung Jei; Kwak, Min Gi; Lee, Myung Jae; Chung, Kwan Soo

2002-02-01

260

Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma  

SciTech Connect

The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma.

Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Den Hartog, D. J. [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)

2010-12-15

261

Device for Measuring P- and S-Wave Velocities in Rock Samples under Crystal Conditions  

SciTech Connect

An ultrasonic instrument capable of measuring seismic velocities (Vp and Vs) under crustal temperatures (20-300 deg. C) and pressures (0-300 MPa) is built. The results obtained with the device will be used to understand recent seismic reflection (FIRE) data from the Outokumpu area in Finland. Collectively, the data will be integrated to construct a new geological model of the Outokumpu formation.

Lassila, I.; Elbra, T.; Seppaenen, H.; Haapalainen, J.; Karppinen, T.; Pesonen, L. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, PO Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Lehtiniemi, R. [Nokia Research Center, PO Box 407, FIN-00045, Helsinki (Finland); Haeggstroem, E. [Department of Physical Sciences, PO Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Kukkonen, I. [Geological Survey of Finland, PO Box 96, FIN-02151 Espoo (Finland)

2007-03-21

262

Ultra low-noise preamplifier for low-frequency noise measurements in electron devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and realization of an ultra-low-noise, high-input-impedance amplifier for low-frequency noise measurements in electronic devices is presented. Special care is devoted to the solution of typical problems encountered in the design of low-noise low-frequency equipment, such as power supply noise and temperature fluctuations. The ultra-low-noise preamplifier has a bandwidth of over seven decades with a low-frequency roll-off of 4

Bruno Neri; Bruno Pellegrini; Roberto Saletti

1991-01-01

263

DNA origami impedance measurement at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency response of triangular DNA origami is obtained at room temperature. The sample shows a high impedance at low frequencies, e.g., at zero frequency 20 G?, which decreases almost linearly with the logarithm of the frequency reaching a low and flat value at 100 kHz where the impedance turns from capacitive to resistive, concluding that DNA can be used for transmission of signals at frequencies larger than 100 kHz. It is also found that characteristics of DNA cannot be completely disentangled from the characteristics of the substrate on which it is deposited, making the design of molecular circuits more challenging than the design of circuits with present lumped devices; this is a natural feature at the nanoscale.

Bobadilla, Alfredo D.; Bellido, Edson P.; Rangel, Norma L.; Zhong, Hong; Norton, Michael L.; Sinitskii, Alexander; Seminario, Jorge M.

2009-05-01

264

40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 60.1815 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

2013-07-01

265

40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

2013-07-01

266

40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate... § 62.15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate...a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet...

2013-07-01

267

SiC device development for high temperature sensor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress made in the processing and characterization of 3C-SiC for high temperature sensor applications is reviewed. Piezoresistance properties of silicon carbide and the temperature coefficient of resistivity of n-type beta-SiC are presented. In addition, photoelectrical etching and dopant selective etch-stops in SiC and high temperature Ohmic contacts for n-type beta-SiC sensors are discussed.

Shor, J. S.; Goldstein, David; Kurtz, A. D.; Osgood, R. M.

1992-09-01

268

High voltage design structure for high temperature superconducting device  

DOEpatents

In accordance with the present invention, modular corona shields are employed in a HTS device to reduce the electric field surrounding the HTS device. In a exemplary embodiment a fault current limiter module in the insulation region of a cryogenic cooling system has at least one fault current limiter set which employs a first corona shield disposed along the top portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. A second corona shield is disposed along the bottom portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. An insulation barrier is disposed within the insulation region along at least one side of the fault current limiter set. The first corona shield and the second corona shield act together to reduce the electric field surrounding the fault limiter set when voltage is applied to the fault limiter set.

Tekletsadik, Kasegn D. (Rexford, NY)

2008-05-20

269

Temperature measurement on and inside lamps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of thermography within the lamp manufacturing industry can improve the quality of many types of lamps ranging from normal incandescent lamps to highly specialized lamps for sports arenas, airports or small lamps for cars. There is a strong demand for more light for the same energy input. Specialized lamps for all possible purposes are developed. But it also forces the lamp manufacturers to utilize the available materials to their extremes. The exact control of the temperatures inside or on the lamp shell has therefore become increasingly necessary as temperatures in lamps can be rather extreme. In plasma lamps for example, the plasma can have a temperature of 6000 C, the bulb around 700 C and the electrodes inside the bulb can have temperatures in excess of 2000 C. Thermographic methods have shown their applicability for a large number of measurement cases. Some of these methods and measurement cases are described. As these applications put very special demands on the measurement equipment, these demands are explained in more detail.

Wallin, Bo

1994-03-01

270

High-temperature furnace for quantitative x-ray intensity measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of a high-temperature diffractometer furnance for quantitative x-ray intensity measurements to above 2000C is described. The details include descriptions of a new sample holder, the hot-zone geometry and assembly, the radiation shielding, direct temperature measurement and a continuously adjustable specimen rocking device. Emphasis has been placed upon flexibility and reliable high-temperature operation. Although the system is operated with

C R Houska; E J Keplin

1964-01-01

271

76 FR 81363 - Temperature-Indicating Devices; Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...foods packaged in hermetically sealed containers to allow for use of other temperature-indicating devices, in addition to mercury-in-glass thermometers, during processing. The final rule was published with one error. This document corrects that...

2011-12-28

272

Modelling the measured local time evolution of strongly nonlinear heat pulses in the Large Helical Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some magnetically confined plasmas, an applied pulse of rapid edge cooling can trigger either a positive or negative excursion in the core electron temperature from its steady state value. We present a new model which captures the time evolution of the transient, non-diffusive local dynamics in the core plasma. We show quantitative agreement between this model and recent spatially localized measurements (Inagaki et al 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 075002) of the local time-evolving temperature pulse in cold pulse propagation experiments in the Large Helical Device.

Dendy, R. O.; Chapman, S. C.; Inagaki, S.

2013-11-01

273

Thermoluminescence measurement technique using millisecond temperature pulses.  

PubMed

A measurement technique, pulsed thermoluminescence, is described which uses short thermal pulses to excite trapped carriers leading to radiative recombination. The pulses are obtained using microstructures with approximately 500 micros thermal time constants. The technique has many of the advantages of pulsed optically stimulated luminescence without the need for optical sources and filters to isolate the luminescent signal. Charge carrier traps in alpha-Al(2)O(3):C particles on microheaters were filled using 205 nm light. Temperature pulses of 10 and 50 ms were applied to the heaters and compared with a standard thermoluminescence curve taken at a ramp rate of 5 K s(-1). This produced curves of intensity verses temperature similar to standard thermoluminescence except shifted to higher temperatures. The luminescence of single particles was read multiple times with negligible loss of population. The lower limit of the duration of useful pulses appears to be limited by particle size and thermal contact between the particle and heater. PMID:20522565

Manfred, Michael E; Gabriel, Nicholas T; Yukihara, Eduardo G; Talghader, Joseph J

2010-06-01

274

New simulation and measurement results on gateable DEPFET devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the signal to noise level, devices for optical and x-ray astronomy use techniques to suppress background events. Well known examples are e.g. shutters or frame-store Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs). Based on the DEpleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) principle a so-called Gatebale DEPFET detector can be built. Those devices combine the DEPFET principle with a fast built-in electronic shutter usable for optical and x-ray applications. The DEPFET itself is the basic cell of an active pixel sensor build on a fully depleted bulk. It combines internal amplification, readout on demand, analog storage of the signal charge and a low readout noise with full sensitivity over the whole bulk thickness. A Gatebale DEPFET has all these benefits and obviates the need for an external shutter. Two concepts of Gatebale DEPFET layouts providing a built-in shutter will be introduced. Furthermore proof of principle measurements for both concepts are presented. Using recently produced prototypes a shielding of the collection anode up to 1 10-4 was achieved. Predicted by simulations, an optimized geometry should result in values of 1 10-5 and better. With the switching electronic currently in use a timing evaluation of the shutter opening and closing resulted in rise and fall times of 100ns.

Bhr, Alexander; Aschauer, Stefan; Hermenau, Katrin; Herrmann, Sven; Lechner, Peter H.; Lutz, Gerhard; Majewski, Petra; Miessner, Danilo; Porro, Matteo; Richter, Rainer H.; Schaller, Gerhard; Sandow, Christian; Schnecke, Martina; Schopper, Florian; Stefanescu, Alexander; Strder, Lothar; Treis, Johannes

2012-07-01

275

FFLS: an accurate linear device for measuring synergistic finger contractions.  

PubMed

After decades of theoretical study in physiology and neurology communities, the paradigm of muscle synergies is now being explored in rehabilitation robotics as a strategy to control mechanical artifacts with many degrees-of-freedom (DoF) in a simple yet effective and human-like way. In particular, muscle synergies during grasping and in graded-force tasks are of great interest for the control of dexterous hand prostheses. To this end, we have designed and tested a novel device to accurately and simultaneously measure fingertip forces. The device, called FFLS (Finger-Force Linear Sensor), measures the forces applied by the human fingertips in both directions (flexion and extension of index, middle, ring and little finger plus thumb rotation and abduction/adduction). It is suited for several different hand sizes, enforces high accuracy in the measurement and its signal is guaranteed to be linear in a high range of forces (100N in both directions for each finger). It outputs six analog voltages (10V), suited for processing with a DAQ card. PMID:23365946

Kiva, Risto; Hilsenbeck, Barbara; Castellini, Claudio

2012-01-01

276

High-temperature superconducting thin-film-based electronic devices  

SciTech Connect

This the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project involved optimization of processing of Y123 and Tl-2212 thin films deposited on novel substrates for advanced electronic devices. The Y123 films are the basis for development of Josephson Junctions to be utilized in magnetic sensors. Microwave cavities based on the Tl-2212 films are the basis for subsequent applications as communication antennas and transmitters in satellites.

Wu, X.D; Finokoglu, A.; Hawley, M.; Jia, Q.; Mitchell, T.; Mueller, F.; Reagor, D.; Tesmer, J.

1996-09-01

277

Use of a LVDT displacement transducer in measurements at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity and linearity of linear variable differential transformers as displacement transducers is discussed. The results of measurements on the variation of sensitivity with low temperatures are presented for a commercially available device; the Schlumberger Industries SM3, used in conjunction with its OD3 conditioning electronics. The sources contributing to the temperature dependence are discussed and suggestions concerning how this may

P. C. McDonald; C. Iosifescu

1998-01-01

278

Temperature Measurement of Isentropically Accelerated Flyer Plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two frequently-used methods to accelerate flyer plates to extreme velocity (>10 km\\/s) are magnetic acceleration and impact of the flyer with a high velocity, layered impactor. In either case the temperature of the flyer is not definitely known, either because of diffusion of the magnetic field into the flyer or the quasi-isentropic nature of the impactor's acceleration. We have measured

Thomas Bergstresser; Steven Becker

2002-01-01

279

Experimental measurement and mathematical calculation evaporator temperatures of closed loop thermosyphon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The closed loop thermoshypon is device operate with working fluid phase change principle. It is a simple and reliable device providing heat transfer. This device utilizes the thermodynamic pressure difference and gravitation to circulate working fluid and has extremely high effective thermal conductivity. Usually is used to cooling of electronic components. The paper describes a design and construction of this device. As a working fluid was used fluorinert FC-72. Next the paper deal with dependences measurement of evaporator temperatures on waste heat of the electronic component and their verification by means of a mathematic calculation based on physical phenomena of boiling, condensation and heat transfer.

Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan; Janda?ka, Jozef

2013-10-01

280

Description of a portable wireless device for high-frequency body temperature acquisition and analysis.  

PubMed

We describe a device for dual channel body temperature monitoring. The device can operate as a real time monitor or as a data logger, and has Bluetooth capabilities to enable for wireless data download to the computer used for data analysis. The proposed device is capable of sampling temperature at a rate of 1 sample per minute with a resolution of 0.01 C . The internal memory allows for stand-alone data logging of up to 10 days. The device has a battery life of 50 hours in continuous real-time mode. In addition to describing the proposed device in detail, we report the results of a statistical analysis conducted to assess its accuracy and reproducibility. PMID:22408473

Cuesta-Frau, David; Varela, Manuel; Aboy, Mateo; Mir-Martnez, Pau

2009-09-28

281

30 CFR 75.320 - Air quality detectors and measurement devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Air quality detectors and measurement devices. 75.320...Ventilation § 75.320 Air quality detectors and measurement devices. (a) Tests...a qualified person with MSHA approved detectors that are maintained in...

2013-07-01

282

77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to be discussed by the WG for current and proposed device technologies used in testing commercial measuring devices are: metrology laboratory standards and test procedures; uncertainties; measurement traceability; tolerances and other technical...

2012-03-26

283

Conductance and series resistance measurements of polyaniline/p-Si and polypyrrole/InP junction devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyaniline/p-Si/Al and polypyrrole/p-InP rectifying devices were fabricated. Electrochemical polymerization method has been used for obtaining the polymer films. Some electrical characteristics, such as current-voltage and conductance-voltage/frequency measurements were analyzed. From the I-V characteristics of the devices ideality factor and barrier height values were found as n=2.12, ?=0.79eV and n=1.68, ?=0.59eV for polyaniline/p-Si/Al and polypyrrole/p-InP devices respectively. Series resistance Rs calculations were performed as a function of temperature for polyaniline/p-Si/Al device. The values of Rs decreased with temperature for this device. The voltage and temperature dependence of Rs were attributed to the particular distribution density of interface states and interfacial insulator or polymer layer. The conductance-voltage and conductance-frequency characteristics of polypyrrole/p-InP device were investigated at room temperature. It has been seen that the effect of the series resistance is negligible for polypyrrole/p-InP device.

Aydo?an, ?.; Sa?lam, M.

2012-09-01

284

Simple uniaxial pressure device for ac-susceptibility measurements suitable for closed cycle refrigerator system.  

PubMed

A simple design of the uniaxial pressure device for the measurement of ac-susceptibility at low temperatures using closed cycle refrigerator system is presented for the first time. This device consists of disc micrometer, spring holder attachment, uniaxial pressure cell, and the ac-susceptibility coil wound on stycast bobbin. It can work under pressure till 0.5 GPa and at the temperature range of 30-300 K. The performance of the system at ambient pressure is tested and calibrated with standard paramagnetic salts [Gd(2)O(3), Er(2)O(3), and Fe(NH(4)SO(4))(2)6H(2)O], Fe(3)O(4), Gd metal, Dy metal, superconductor (YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7)), manganite (La(1.85)Ba(0.15)MnO(3)), and spin glass material (Pr(0.8)Sr(0.2)MnO(3)). The performance of the uniaxial pressure device is demonstrated by investigating the uniaxial pressure dependence of La(1.85)Ba(0.15)MnO(3) single crystal with P||c axis. The Curie temperature (T(c)) decreases as a function of pressure with P||c axis (dT(c)dP(||c axis)=-11.65 KGPa) up to 46 MPa. The design is simple, is user friendly, and does not require pressure calibration. Measurement can even be made on thin and small size oriented crystals. The failure of the coil is remote under uniaxial pressure. The present setup can be used as a multipurpose uniaxial pressure device for the measurement of Hall effect and thermoelectric power with a small modification in the pressure cell. PMID:17614625

Arumugam, S; Manivannan, N; Murugeswari, A

2007-06-01

285

Simple uniaxial pressure device for ac-susceptibility measurements suitable for closed cycle refrigerator system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple design of the uniaxial pressure device for the measurement of ac-susceptibility at low temperatures using closed cycle refrigerator system is presented for the first time. This device consists of disc micrometer, spring holder attachment, uniaxial pressure cell, and the ac-susceptibility coil wound on stycast bobbin. It can work under pressure till 0.5 GPa and at the temperature range of 30-300 K. The performance of the system at ambient pressure is tested and calibrated with standard paramagnetic salts [Gd2O3, Er2O3, and Fe(NH4SO4)26H2O], Fe3O4, Gd metal, Dy metal, superconductor (YBa2Cu3O7), manganite (La1.85Ba0.15MnO3), and spin glass material (Pr0.8Sr0.2MnO3). The performance of the uniaxial pressure device is demonstrated by investigating the uniaxial pressure dependence of La1.85Ba0.15MnO3 single crystal with P?c axis. The Curie temperature (Tc) decreases as a function of pressure with P?c axis (dTc/dP?c axis=-11.65 K/GPa) up to 46 MPa. The design is simple, is user friendly, and does not require pressure calibration. Measurement can even be made on thin and small size oriented crystals. The failure of the coil is remote under uniaxial pressure. The present setup can be used as a multipurpose uniaxial pressure device for the measurement of Hall effect and thermoelectric power with a small modification in the pressure cell.

Arumugam, S.; Manivannan, N.; Murugeswari, A.

2007-06-01

286

Low Temperature Bonding with Oxides for Electronic Device Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have found that silicon wafers can be bonded together at temperatures as low as 450 deg C, using a layer of boron glass between the wafers. With further development, this discovery could be used to advantage for silicon on insulator work, for sensor fa...

L. A. Field R. S. Muller

1988-01-01

287

Sea Surface Temperatures (SST): Significance and Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceans cover 71 percent of Earth's surface and control the global climate. Quoted global mean temperature values and trends, largely based on land thermometers, differ substantially -" mainly because of uncertainties about SST. The ongoing controversy about the relative importance of natural climate changes and Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) revolves mainly around disparities between temperature trends of the atmosphere and surface (in the tropics and SH, i.e. mostly SST). Accurate measurement of SST is difficult. Geographic coverage is poor and there are many different techniques, each with its own problems and uncertainties: Water temperatures from buckets and ship-engine inlets; fixed and floating buoys; air temperatures from shipboard and island stations; and remote sensing from satellites using IR and microwaves. As is evident, each technique refers to a different level below the air-water interface. Drifter buoys (at around 50 cm) measure temperatures in the euphotic layers that are generally warmer than the bulk mixed layer sampled by ships (typically around 10 m). The IR emission arises from a 10-micron-thick skin that interacts dynamically with the underlying "mixed layer." The microwave data depend also on emissivity and therefore on surface roughness and sea state. SST data derived from corals provide some support for instrumental data but are not conclusive. The majority of corals show a warming trend since 1979; others show cooling or are ambiguous. There are different ways of interpreting this result. Physical optics dictates that the downwelling IR radiation from atmospheric greenhouse gases is absorbed in the first instance within the skin. Only direct measurements can establish how much of this energy is shared with the bulk mixed layer (to which the usual SST values refer.). SST controls evaporation and therefore global precipitation. SST influences tropical cyclones and sea-level rise; but there is lively debate on those issues. Changes in SST are also responsible for changes in deep- ocean temperatures and ocean heat storage. But recent claims that an increase in heat storage is a "smoking gun" for AGW are without merit.

Singer, S. F.

2006-05-01

288

Measurement of electrostatic potential fluctuation using heavy ion beam probe in large helical device  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) for large helical device (LHD) has been improved to measure the potential fluctuation in high-temperature plasmas. The spatial resolution is improved to about 10 mm by controlling the focus of a probe beam. The HIBP is applied to measure the potential fluctuation in plasmas where the rotational transform is controlled by electron cyclotron current drive. The fluctuations whose frequencies change with the time constant of a few hundreds of milliseconds and that with a constant frequency are observed. The characteristics of the latter fluctuation are similar to those of the geodesic acoustic mode oscillation. The spatial profiles of the fluctuations are also obtained.

Ido, Takeshi; Shimizu, Akihiro; Nishiura, Masaki; Nakano, Haruhisa; Ohshima, Shinsuke; Kato, Shinji; Hamada, Yasuji; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Kubo, Shin; Shimozuma, Takashi; Igami, Hiroe; Takahashi, Hiromi; Toi, Kazuo; Watanabe, Fumitake [National Institute for Fusion Science, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

2008-10-15

289

An ultrasonic device for source to skin surface distance measurement in patient setup  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop an ultrasound-based source to skin surface distance (SSD) measurement technique and device for patient setup and test its feasibility and accuracy. Methods and materials: The ultrasonic SSD measurement device (USD) prototype consists of two main parts: a probe plate with an ultrasonic transducer in the center and a control unit that displays the SSD in millimeters. The probe plate can be slid into the block tray accessory slot of any treatment machine at the time of the SSD measurement. The probe plate contains an ultrasonic transducer as both the source and the detector for measuring the distance between the transducer and the target surfaces on the basis of an echo-detecting technique. The device was calibrated by a mechanical ruler with an accuracy of 0.01 mm and corrected by an offset of 601.7 mm, which is the distance from the radiation source to the ultrasonic transducer surface for the Siemens Primus linear accelerator (Linac). The ultrasound device provided digital readout with an accuracy of {+-}0.1 mm for a flat surface after calibration. The SSD measurement experiments were done with the USD, an optical distance indicator (ODI), and an AKTINA 53-104 Mechanical Front Pointer (FP) on a Siemens Primus Linac with a full-sized female phantom. Ten measurements were carried out at each gantry angle of 0 deg , 52 deg , 85 deg , 90 deg , and 227 deg for anatomic locations of head, thorax, breast, and pelvis, to obtain the average values and standard deviations. Results: The comparison study with the ODI and FP showed that the USD had an accuracy of less than {+-}1.0 mm and that USD measurements had the minimum standard deviations among the three methods; therefore, USD gave more consistent and accurate readouts for SSD measurement. When considering the FP as a reference, the USD yields smaller deviations than the ODI for all measured locations (less than {+-}2 mm). The variation of USD digital readout with a room temperature change of {+-}2 deg C is {+-}0.1 mm, which is sufficiently accurate for SSD measurement. Conclusions: The USD method has the following advantages. First, it decreases patient setup time by avoiding problems related to the blocking of the device by the patient or by the immobilization device. Second, it is more accurate than the other two methods currently used, as the test data show. Last, the digital readout eliminates the possibility of human reading error associated with the visual scales.

Feng Yuanming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)]. E-mail: yfeng002@umaryland.edu; Allison, Ron [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Hu Xinhua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Mota, Helvecio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Jenkins, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Wolfe, Melodee L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Sibata, Claudio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)

2005-04-01

290

High-temperature anodized WO3 nanoplatelet films for photosensitive devices.  

PubMed

Anodization at elevated temperatures in nitric acid has been used for the production of highly porous and thick tungsten trioxide nanostructured films for photosensitive device applications. The anodization process resulted in platelet crystals with thicknesses of 20-60 nm and lengths of 100-1000 nm. Maximum thicknesses of approximately 2.4 microm were obtained after 4 h of anodization at 20 V. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the as-prepared anodized samples contain predominantly hydrated tungstite phases depending on voltage, while films annealed at 400 degrees C for 4 h are predominantly orthorhombic WO3 phase. Photocurrent measurements revealed that the current density of the 2.4 microm nanostructured anodized film was 6 times larger than the nonanodized films. Dye-sensitized solar cells developed using these films produced 0.33 V and 0.65 mA/cm2 in open- and short-circuit conditions. PMID:19627158

Sadek, Abu Z; Zheng, Haidong; Breedon, Michael; Bansal, Vipul; Bhargava, Suresh K; Latham, Kay; Zhu, Jianmin; Yu, Leshu; Hu, Zheng; Spizzirri, Paul G; Wlodarski, Wojtek; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

2009-08-18

291

Gyrokinetic turbulent transport simulation of a high ion temperature plasma in large helical device experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion temperature gradient turbulent transport in the large helical device (LHD) is investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations in comparison with the experimental density fluctuation measurements of ion-scale turbulence. The local gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations are carried out incorporating full geometrical effects of the LHD configuration, and reproduce the turbulent transport levels comparable to the experimental results. Reasonable agreements are also found in the poloidal wavenumber spectra of the density fluctuations obtained from the simulation and the experiment. Numerical analysis of the spectra of the turbulent potential fluctuations on the two-dimensional wavenumber space perpendicular to the magnetic field clarifies the spectral transfer into a high radial wavenumber region which correlates with the regulation of the turbulent transport due to the zonal flows. The resultant transport levels at different flux surfaces are expressed in terms of a simple linear relation between the transport coefficient and the ratio of the squared turbulent potential fluctuation to the averaged zonal flow amplitude.

Nunami, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Tanaka, K.

2012-04-01

292

New instrumentation for temperature measurement. Phase 1: Program solicitation, small business innovation research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature sensitive liquid crystals designed to meet the need for a measuring device to accurately measure temperature and temperature distribution in the presence of electric, magnetic, and sonic fields, especially with high space and thermal resolution are discussed. A technique was developed to make highly reproducible, stable configurations of liquid crystal encapsulates. Temperature stable sensors have been produced which can be calibrated to the National Bureau of Standards. The thermal properties of the liquid crystal can be matched to the properties of the surrounding medium. Since a two dimensional representation of the temperature distribution is possible, the use of this instrumentation has significant implications for bioengineering.

Fergason, J. L.

1980-08-01

293

Comparison of nickel silicide and aluminium ohmic contact metallizations for low-temperature quantum transport measurements  

PubMed Central

We examine nickel silicide as a viable ohmic contact metallization for low-temperature, low-magnetic-field transport measurements of atomic-scale devices in silicon. In particular, we compare a nickel silicide metallization with aluminium, a common ohmic contact for silicon devices. Nickel silicide can be formed at the low temperatures (<400C) required for maintaining atomic precision placement in donor-based devices, and it avoids the complications found with aluminium contacts which become superconducting at cryogenic measurement temperatures. Importantly, we show that the use of nickel silicide as an ohmic contact at low temperatures does not affect the thermal equilibration of carriers nor contribute to hysteresis in a magnetic field.

2011-01-01

294

Comparison of nickel silicide and aluminium ohmic contact metallizations for low-temperature quantum transport measurements.  

PubMed

We examine nickel silicide as a viable ohmic contact metallization for low-temperature, low-magnetic-field transport measurements of atomic-scale devices in silicon. In particular, we compare a nickel silicide metallization with aluminium, a common ohmic contact for silicon devices. Nickel silicide can be formed at the low temperatures (<400C) required for maintaining atomic precision placement in donor-based devices, and it avoids the complications found with aluminium contacts which become superconducting at cryogenic measurement temperatures. Importantly, we show that the use of nickel silicide as an ohmic contact at low temperatures does not affect the thermal equilibration of carriers nor contribute to hysteresis in a magnetic field. PMID:21968083

Polley, Craig M; Clarke, Warrick R; Simmons, Michelle Y

2011-10-03

295

Device for low temperature carbonization of carbonaceous substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes that were generally applicable, such as decomposition into oils and insoluble residues in stills and low-temperature-carbonization kilns, could not be used with residues containing asphalts. With oil removal from asphalt-containing materials, very sticky masses were formed that stuck to the base and greatly hindered the conveyance of the material and the heat transmission through the walls of the

M. Pier; A. Pross; K. Goetze; H. Deimling

1935-01-01

296

Device for determination of elasticity and nonelasticity characteristics of materials in vacuum at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes a device for study of the elasticity characteristics and coefficient of internal friction of materials in vacuum at low temperatures up to 10 K. As an illustration, temperature dependences of the Young's modulus and logarithmic decrement of vibrations of steel 01Kh12G9N3 with anomaly of the Young's modulus are presented.

A. F. Voitenko; Yu. F. Balandin; S. R. Shimanskii

1990-01-01

297

Portable measurement, analysis device can calculate GLE/SRE  

SciTech Connect

In today`s natural gas market environment it is particularly important for buyers to receive exact flow measurement data. However, it is difficult to receive accurate measurement data because of pulsation problems within the pipe line system. Pulsation, which can be caused by compressors, flow control valves, regulators and some pipe configurations, can alter gas flow measurement. To receive exact measurements, many gas buyers require a pulsation clause, guaranteeing that suppliers maintain a pulsation level in their lines within specifications. To this end, customers often insist that suppliers provide a square root error (SRE) measurement that indicates the amount of pulsation a pipe line experiences and that it is within specified limits. Measuring GLE and SRE errors can be a time consuming, troublesome task. The PGI GLE/SRE tester is a portable measurement and analysis device designed to solve this problem. It can quickly and accurately calculate GLE and SRE and other errors, and stores real-time flow data on disk. This data portability enables engineers to study and analyze the data at a later time. Developed for Precision General by Integrated Scientific Resources, the GLE/SRE tester accurately measures those primary-element and secondary-element errors identified by The Pipeline and Compressor Research Council (PCRC) of the Southern Gas Association (SGA), and the Southwest Research Institute (SWI). The unit includes a Twinhead 486DX/33 laptop computer, a Keithley MetraByte DAS-1200 and DAStation expansion chassis for notebook computers, two Rosemount 3051C differential pressure transmitters, A Validyne P305D differential pressure transducer, and PipePeer software. The laptop compatible has a 33 MHz clock, 200 MBytes of hard drive storage and an LCD display.

Hary, D. [Integrated Scientific Resources, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Miller, M.R. [Precision General, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-05-01

298

Radiation effects at cryogenic temperatures in Si-JFET, GaAs MESFET and MOSFET devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Front-end electronics for liquid ionization chamber calorimetry at hadron collider experiments may be exposed to substantial levels of ionizing radiation and neutron fluences in a cryogenic environment. Measurements of devices built with rad-hard technologies have shown that devices able to operate in these conditions exist. Several families of devices (Si-JFETs, rad-hard MOSFETs, GaAs MESFETs) have been irradiated and tested at

Mauro Citterio; Sergio Rescia; Veljko Radeka

1994-01-01

299

Radiation effects at cryogenic temperatures in Si-JFET, GaAs MESFET, and MOSFET devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Front-end electronics for liquid ionization chamber calorimetry at hadron collider experiments may be exposed to substantial levels of ionizing radiation and neutron fluences in a cryogenic environment. Measurements of devices built with rad-hard technologies have shown that devices able to operate in these conditions exist. Several families of devices (Si-JFETs, rad-hard MOSFETs, and GaAs MESFETs) have been irradiated and tested

M. Citterio; S. Rescia; V. Radeka

1995-01-01

300

Transient temperature measurements and modeling of IGBT's under short circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the estimation of possible device destruction inside power converters in order to predict failures by means of simulation. The study of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) thermal destruction under short circuits is investigated. An easy experimental method is presented to estimate the temperature decay in the device from the saturation current response at low gate-to-source voltage during

Anis Ammous; Bruno Allard; Herve Morel

1998-01-01

301

High-Temperature Superconductor Thin Films and Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-T_{rm c} YBaCuO thin films have been successfully fabricated by off-axis RF magnetron sputtering from a single 5 cm YBa _2Cu_3O _{6.9} target without post-deposition heat treatment required. The critical temperatures are typically 83-89 K for the films on MgO substrates and 85 -89 K or SrTiO_3 substrates. The films on MgO substrates display critical current densities as high as

David Kun Chin

1990-01-01

302

Multilayer compressive seal for sealing in high temperature devices  

DOEpatents

A mica based compressive seal has been developed exhibiting superior thermal cycle stability when compared to other compressive seals known in the art. The seal is composed of compliant glass or metal interlayers and a sealing (gasket) member layer composed of mica that is infiltrated with a glass forming material, which effectively reduces leaks within the seal. The compressive seal shows approximately a 100-fold reduction in leak rates compared with previously developed hybrid seals after from 10 to about 40 thermal cycles under a compressive stress of from 50 psi to 100 psi at temperatures in the range from 600.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C.

Chou, Yeong-Shyung (Richland, WA); Stevenson, Jeffry W. (Richland, WA)

2007-08-21

303

Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.

1992-09-01

304

Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/ C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

Smith, D. D.

1985-06-25

305

Monitoring the junction temperature of an IGBT through direct measurement using a fiber Bragg grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new technique to monitor the junction temperature of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) through direct measurement using an optical fiber sensor mounted on the chip structure. Some features of the sensor such as electromagnetic immunity, small size and fast response time allow the identification of temperature changes generated by the energy loss during device operation. In addition to the online monitoring of the junction temperature, results show the thermal characteristics of the IGBT, which can be used to develop an accurate model to simulate the heat generated during the device conduction and switching processes.

Bazzo, Joo P.; Lukasievicz, Tiago; Vogt, Marcio; de Oliveira, Valmir; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.; Cardozo da Silva, Jean Carlos

2011-05-01

306

Temperature dependence of current polarization in Ni80Fe20 by spin wave Doppler measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature dependence of current polarization in ferromagnetic metals will be important for operation of spin-torque switched memories and domain wall devices in a wide temperature range. Here, we use the spin wave Doppler technique[1] to measure the temperature dependence of both the magnetization drift velocity v(T) and the current polarization P(T) in Ni80Fe20. We obtain these values from current-dependent

Meng Zhu; Cindi Dennis; Robert McMichael

2010-01-01

307

An overview of high-temperature electronic device technologies and potential applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature electronics applications are found in combustion systems, well logging, and industrial processes, air stagnation points in supersonic aircraft, vehicle brakes, nuclear reactors, and dense electronic packages. We summarize physical effects and materials issues important for reliable operation of semiconductor device technologies at high temperatures (>125C). We review the high-temperature potential of Si, GaAs, other III-V compounds, and SiC. For

P. L. Dreike; D. M. Fleetwood; D. B. King; D. C. Sprauer; T. E. Zipperian

1994-01-01

308

Novel dynamic fatigue-testing device: design and measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of dynamics on a propagating fatigue crack has not been studied experimentally yet mainly due to quasi-static loading from traditional fatigue-testing machines. To overcome this serious drawback, a novel base-excited fatigue-testing device was designed and built to allow measurement of the dynamic responses of a single-edge-notch beam (SENB) under a growing fatigue crack. In this paper, the details of the novel test rig including initial development, modification and instrumentation are given. The experimental time histories obtained for harmonic and chaotic excitations have shown that the fatigue rig is capable of generating a wide range of loading patterns. Moreover, the experimental crack growth curves and features of the fracture surface have confirmed that the rig is capable of inducing proper fatigue cracks.

Foong, Chee-Hoe; Wiercigroch, Marian; Deans, William F.

2006-08-01

309

Error analysis on laser measurement device of airborne LIDAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The error sources of airborne laser measurement device which mainly include laser beam misalignment with respect to scanning mirror, clock error, scanner error and scanner torsion are discussed, and their effects to airborne LIDAR(Light Detection and Ranging)position accuracy are analyzed. Specially, laser beam misalignment's influences to LIDAR scanning line distortion and positioning accuracy are analyzed in detail quantitatively and qualitatively for oscillating scanner. The analysis demonstrates that laser beam misalignment influences the scanning line distortion and positioning accuracy more and more with the increasing height and scanning angle and can't be eliminated by common calibration methods but by the calibration method in factory for it is related to other error sources.

Wu, Jianwei; Ma, Hongchao; Li, Qi; Wang, Zongyue; Yu, Xin

2007-11-01

310

Instantaneous Temperature Measurements using Constant-Voltage Anemometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up to now, cold wires have been operated by constant-current anemometers, with a classic thermal inertia correction based on the mean value of the cold wire time constant [Lemay, Bena"issa & Antonia, Exp. Thermal & Fluid Sci, 2003, 27,133-143] or with a new correction method making use of the instantaneous value of the cold wire thermal lag [Berson, Poignand, Blanc-Benon & Comte-Bellot, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2010, 81, 015102]. The latter correction method is applied to the constant-voltage anemometer and temperature measurements are presented for the first time with such a device. Two constant-voltage anemometers are used for the instantaneous measurement of temperature fluctuations in unsteady flows. The first one is a new prototype elaborated by Tao Systems Inc. and adapted to fine wires with a resistance between 30 and 100 ohms. It operates a cold wire whose resistance varies with the temperature of the surrounding fluid. The second anemometer is a commercial system by the same company. It operates a hot wire, from which the instantaneous effect of the thermal inertia of the cold wire is determined. Results are presented for two flows: (i) a heated turbulent jet and (ii) an acoustic standing wave inside a resonator where flow reversal occurs.

Comte-Bellot, Genevieve; Berson, Arganthael; Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Jondeau, Emmanuel

2011-11-01

311

Temperature Measurements and Beta Limits in SSPX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551. Recent SSPX operations have produced plasma discharges sustained for 2msec with I_P~= 600kA, B_pol~= 0.25 T, and n~=2e20m-3. Shots with good wall conditioning show clear evidence of impurity burn-through and increased magnetic decay time to ~=1msec indicating higher temperatures. These higher Te discharges are terminated by a rapid event evidenced by an increase in magnetic field decay-rate and H-alpha emission, and may result from high a ? instability (also observed in CTX^1). Additionally, the possibility of encountering a ?--limit during the driven phase will be explored. Direct measurements with a Thomson scattering diagnostic will allow these phenomena to be studied. Initially, a single spatial measurement will give Te in the core, and ultimately, ten spatial channels will provide temperature and pressure profiles. 1. Wysocki et al Phys. Rev. Lett. V61, No.21, p2457 (1988). This work was performed under the auspices of the USDOE by UCLLNL under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

McLean, H. S.; Hill, D. N.; Hooper, E. B.; Holcomb, C. T.; Stallard, B. W.; Wood, R. D.; Woodruff, S.; Morse, E. C.; Ahmed, A.; Domier, C. W.; Roh, Y.; Wurden, G.; Wang, Z.

2000-10-01

312

Gas thermometer for precision measurement of thermodynamic temperatures below 300/sup 0/K  

SciTech Connect

The authors discuss an apparatus for measuring thermodynamic temperatures of 3-300/sup 0/K by means of a constant-density gas thermometer. The main measuring device in the gas thermometer is a special mercury interference manometer. The flow cryostat for the range 2-300/sup 0/K is shown and the heat carriers are liquid or gaseous helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen. The thermodynamic temperatures measured by this thermometer have been transferred to several standard resistance thermometers made of platinum and rhodium-iron alloy. The gas thermometer examined here enables the measurement of temperatures on the thermodynamic scale with an error of not more than 1 mK.

Polunin, S.P.; Astrov, D.N.; Belyanskii, L.B.; Dedikov, Yu.A.; Zakharov, A.A.

1987-08-01

313

Method and device for measuring emissions of gaseous substances to the atmosphere using scattered sunlight spectroscopy  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods for measuring emissions of gaseous substances to the atmosphere using scattered sunlight spectroscopy and an optical measuring device are disclosed in which the device includes a telescopic member defining a field-of-view of the optical measuring device and a scanner for controlling variation of the direction of the field of view to scan a predetermined layer of the atmosphere, the method comprising scanning the field-of-view to scan the predetermined layer of the atmosphere in the form of at least a part of a cone having its apex positioned at the optical measuring device and having a cone angle .beta.. Optical measuring devices themselves are disclosed.

2011-10-11

314

Temperature buffer test design, instrumentation and measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Temperature Buffer Test, TBT, is a heated full-scale field experiment carried out jointly by ANDRA and SKB at the SKB sp Hard Rock Laboratory in Southeast Sweden. An existing 8 m deep, 1.8 m diameter KBS-3-type deposition hole located at -420 m level has been selected for the test. The objectives are to improve the general understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical, THM, behavior of buffer materials submitted to severe thermal conditions with temperatures well over 100 Cduring water uptake of partly saturated bentonite-based buffer materials,and to check, in due time, their properties after water saturation. The test includes two carbon steel heating canisters each 3 m high and 0.6 m diameter, surrounded by 0.6 m of buffer material. There is a 0.2 m thick sand shield between the upper heater and the surrounding bentonite, while the lower heater is surrounded by bentonite only. On top of the stack of bentonite blocks is a confining plug anchored to the rock. In the slot between buffer and rock wall is a sand filter equipped with pipes to control the water pressure at the boundary, which is seldom done with an EBS in situ experiment. Both heater mid-height planes are densely instrumented in order to follow, with direct or indirect methods, buffer THM evolution. Temperature, relative humidity, stress and pore pressure have been monitored since the test start in March 2003. Total water inflow is also monitored. Firstly, the present paper describes the test design, the instrumentation, the plug anchoring system and the system for water boundary pressure control. Second, having described the test, the paper shows different measurements that illustrate evolution of temperature, saturation, suction and swelling pressure in the upper and the lower buffer.

Sandn, Torbjrn; Goudarzi, Reza; de Combarieu, Michel; kesson, Mattias; Hkmark, Harald

315

Effects of chamber pressure variation on the grid temperature in an inertial electrostatic confinement device  

SciTech Connect

Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion devices are compact sources of neutrons, protons, electrons, and x rays. Such sources have many applications. Improving the efficiency of the device also increases the applications of this device. Hence a thorough understanding of the operation of this device is needed. In this paper, we study the effect of chamber pressure on the temperature of the cathode. Experimentally, the grid temperature decreases as the chamber pressure increases; numerical simulations suggest that this is caused by the reduction of the hot ion current to the cathode as the pressure increases for constant power supply current. Such an understanding further supports the conclusion that the asymmetric heating of the cathode can be decreased by homogenizing the ion flow around the cathode.

Murali, S. Krupakar [Lawrenceville Plasma Physics, 128 Lincoln Blvd., Middlesex, New Jersey 08846 (United States); Emmert, G. A.; Santarius, J. F.; Kulcinski, G. L. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2010-10-15

316

Estimation of the effect of the principal design parameters of stagnation temperature transducers on measurement delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is made of the effect of the design of the stagnation chamber, sensitive element, and intake and outlet devices of transverse-flow resistive temperature transducers in aviation gas turbines on the measurement delay. A formula is obtained which makes it possible to determine the effect of the design parameters of the temperature transducers on the measurement delay for a known dependence of the hydraulic drag of the transducer on the structural design and dimensions of the stagnation chamber, sensitive element, and intake and outlet devices. The validity of the method is verified by comparing the results with wind tunnel test data.

Sabirzianov, A. M.; Latypov, R. Kh.; Musin, M. R.

317

Measurement of flame temperature distribution in engines by using a two-color high speed shutter TV camera system  

SciTech Connect

A two-color high speed shutter TV camera system has been developed as a new sensing device for measuring the flame temperature in engines. The TV camera system can measure the radiant intensities of high temperature substances accurately and rapidly. And, the two-dimensional temperature distribution can be easily calculated from the radiant intensities by using an image processor. This system is applicable to measurement of flame temperature in diesel and gasoline engines. The relation between the progress of combustion phenomena and the measured temperature distribution is clearly explained. It is confirmed that the system is effective for measurement of the flame temperature distribution in engines.

Kawamura, K.; Saito, A.; Yaegashi, T.; Iwashita, Y.

1989-01-01

318

Novel device structure for low-temperature polysilicon TFTs with controlled grain growth in channel regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we demonstrate a novel device structure of low-temperature polysilicon thin-film transistors (LTPS TFTs) for AMLCD applications with using excimer-laser crystallization (ELC). The device structure consists of a thin channel and a thick source\\/drain. This structure has its merit in the process of ELC and is capable of improving TFTs' electrical characteristics. During excimer laser irradiation, this kind

LiJing Cheng; YinLung Lu; ChingWei Lin; TingKuo Chang; HuangChung Cheng

2000-01-01

319

Development of nickel aluminide microchannel array devices for high-temperature applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The miniaturization of Microtechnology-based Energy, Chemical and Biological Systems (MECS) is made possible by the use of high aspect ratio microchannel arrays to increase the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the flow conduits within the devices, resulting in an improvement in the heat and mass transfer performance of the devices. However, advantages of the MECS concept cannot be applied to high-temperature applications

Kannachai Kanlayasiri

2003-01-01

320

Experimental results on kinematic calibration of parallel manipulators using a partial pose measurement device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents kinematic calibration of parallel manipulators with partial pose measurements, using a device that measures a rotation of the end-effect or along with its position. The device contains a linear variable differential transformer, a biaxial inclinometer, and a rotary sensor. The device is designed in a modular fashion, and links of different lengths can be used. Two additional

Abdul Rauf; Aslam Pervez; Jeha Ryu

2006-01-01

321

Intracranial temperature and pressure measurement: In vitro temperature sensing characteristics of the dual sensing element.  

PubMed

A pressure sensor has been used to measure temperature concurrently. We have designed, and characterized the measurement of temperature from the same sensor to allow simultaneous monitoring of intracranial temperature and pressure. The temperature measurement has a sensitivity of 85.08 mV/C across the measurement range 20-45 C. The time constant of the temperature sensor is 150 ms. We have evaluated the accuracy of the temperature measurement and the long term drift of 13 sensors over 28 days. The mean difference of the temperature measurements from the reference measurements was less than 0.2 C. PMID:24109763

Clark, Therese; Malpas, Simon; Heppner, Peter; McCormick, Daniel; Budgett, David

2013-07-01

322

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the clean thermocouple were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the clean thermocouple, five (5) factors were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition and high/low frequency device (electric motor). The fractional factorial design method was used in the experiment design with sixteen (16) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the un-balanced motor vibration frequency did not have the significant impact on the temperature changes in the gasifier simulator. For the fine dust particles testing, the amount of fine dust particles has significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The effects of the air and water on the temperature measurements show the same results as reported in the previous report. The ammonia concentration was included as an experimental parameter for the reducing environment in this reporting period. The ammonia concentration does not seem to be a significant factor on the temperature changes. The linear regression analysis was applied to the temperature reading with five (5) factors. The accuracy of the linear regression is relatively low, which is less than 10% accuracy. Nonlinear regression was also conducted to the temperature reading with the same factors. Since the experiments were designed in two (2) levels, the nonlinear regression is not very effective with the dataset (16 readings). An extra central point test was conducted. With the data of the center point testing, the accuracy of the nonlinear regression is much better than the linear regression.

Seong W. Lee

2004-10-01

323

Optical sensor for temperature measurement using bimetallic concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report an optical fiber sensor for measuring temperature based on bimetallic concept. The sensor is designed by following the basic principle of Fabry-Perot interferometer and theoretical detail of the sensor has been outlined here with a numerical study. An important feature of the proposed sensor is that the fabrication will be done on a commercial multimode optical fiber. The Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based fabrication process could be performed directly on a multimode optical fiber end face which will eliminate the need for adhesive in packaging. The sensor could be fabricated as sensor arrays for micro level applications. The potential application of the proposed optical sensor includes biomedical applications, nano research, microfluidics, and other MEMS devices.

Rahman, Anisur; Panchal, Kapil; Kumar, Sunil

2011-07-01

324

Measurements of the Exerted Pressure by Pelvic Circumferential Compression Devices  

PubMed Central

Background: Data on the efficacy and safety of non-invasive Pelvic Circumferential Compression Devices (PCCDs) is limited. Tissue damage may occur if a continuous pressure on the skin exceeding 9.3 kPa is sustained for more than two or three hours. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the pressure build-up at the interface, by measuring the PCCD-induced pressure when applying pulling forces to three different PCCDs (Pelvic Binder , SAM-Sling and T-POD ) in a simplified model. Methods: The resulting exerted pressures were measured at four anatomical locations (right, left, posterior and anterior) in a model using a pressure measurement system consisting of pressure cuffs. Results: The exerted pressure varied substantially between the locations as well as between the PCCDs. Maximum pressures ranged from 18.9-23.3 kPa and from 19.2-27.5 kPa at the right location and left location, respectively. Pressures at the posterior location stayed below 18 kPa. At the anterior location pressures varied markedly between the different PCCDs. Conclusion: The circumferential compression by the different PCCDs showed high pressures measured at the four locations using a simplified model. Difference in design and functional characteristics of the PCCDs resulted in different pressure build-up at the four locations. When following the manufacturers instructions, the exerted pressure of all three PCCDs tested exceeded the tissue damaging level (9.3 kPa). In case of prolonged use in a clinical situation this might put patients at risk for developing tissue damage.

Knops, Simon P; van Riel, Marcel P.J.M; Goossens, Richard H.M; van Lieshout, Esther M.M; Patka, Peter; Schipper, Inger B

2010-01-01

325

A New Ultrasound-Guided Esophageal Variceal PressureMeasuring Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To develop a noninvasive method and device to determine intravariceal pressure and variceal wall tension by measuring the variables of the Laplace equation and test this device in a model of esophageal varices.METHODS:Two variceal pressure measurement devices were constructed. The first device consists of an Olympus 20 MHz ultrasound transducer placed next to a latex balloon catheter attached to a

Larry S. Miller; Qing Dai; Antonia Thomas; Chan Y. Chung; June Park; Stephanie Irizarry; Tung Nguyen; Vinod Thangada; Elan S. Miller; Joseph K. Kim

2004-01-01

326

[Physical meaning of temperature measured by spectral line intensity method].  

PubMed

The difference between electron temperature and excitation temperature is analyzed in the aspect of statistics thermodynamics. It is presented clearly that the temperature acquired by spectral line intensity method is not free electron temperature, but internal electronic excitation temperature of heavy particle. Under thermal equilibrium condition, the excitation temperature is equal to the electron temperature, while under non-thermal equilibrium condition, the excitation temperature is not equal to the electron temperature. In the study of arc jet plume in vacuum chamber, spectral line intensity method was employed to measure the apparent excitation temperature of arc jet plume, and Langmuir probe was employed to measure the electron temperature of arcjet plume. The big difference between the excitation temperature and the electron temperature proved that the temperature acquired by spectral line intensity method is not free electron temperature. PMID:18260380

Zhao, Wen-Hua; Tang, Huang-Zai; Shen, Yan; Shi, Yong; Hou, Ling-Yun

2007-11-01

327

Measurement of cancellous bone strain during mechanical tests using a new extensometer device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device for measuring mid-substance strain in bone during uniaxial compression was developed with special attention to subsequent FE modelling. It is based on dual instrumented cantilever arms that measure the difference in tip-to-tip deflection. The so-called extensometer device was compared to two standard methods of measuring strain based on platen measurements. The extensometer device output was highly linear with

Steven Boyd; Nigel Shrive; Greg Wohl; Ralph Mller; Ron Zernicke

2001-01-01

328

Reexamination of thermal transport measurements of a low-thermal conductance nanowire with a suspended micro-device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasingly used technique for measuring the thermal conductance of a nanowire is based on a suspended micro-device with built-in resistance thermometers. In the past, the technique has been limited to samples with thermal conductance larger than 1 10-9 W/K because of temperature fluctuations in the sample environment and the presence of background heat transfer through residual gas molecules and radiation between the two thermometers. In addition, parasitic heat loss from the long supporting beams and asymmetry in the fabricated device results in two additional errors, which have been ignored in previous use of this method. To address these issues, we present a comprehensive measurement approach, where the device asymmetry is determined by conducting thermal measurements with two opposite heat flow directions along the nanowire, the background heat transfer is eliminated by measuring the differential heat transfer signal between the nanowire device and a reference device without a nanowire sample, and the parasitic heat loss from the supporting beams is obtained by measuring the average temperature rise of one of the beams. This technique is demonstrated on a nanofiber sample with a thermal conductance of 3.7 10-10 W/K, against a background conductance of 8.2 10-10 W/K at 320 K temperature. The results reveal the need to reduce the background thermal conductance in order to employ the micro-device to measure a nanowire sample with the thermal conductance less than 1 10-10 W/K.

Weathers, Annie; Bi, Kedong; Pettes, Michael T.; Shi, Li

2013-08-01

329

Low Temperature Epitaxial Growth of Antimony Doped Silicon for Broadband Astronomical Charge-Coupled Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future NASA missions will require exceptionally large focal plane arrays to explore the large-scale structure of the universe. High-purity, p-channel silicon CCDs provide a unique combination of high resolution, extended response in the near infrared, and improved radiation tolerance necessary for these missions. We have demonstrated low temperature growth of antimony-doped silicon on the back surface of high purity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs), enabling imaging at full depletion with high resolution, high quantum efficiency, and broadband response. Using molecular beam epitaxy, we were able to grow silicon layers less than 5 nm thick with an integrated dopant concentration greater than 10^14 cm-2. Our low-temperature process kept the device temperature below 450 C at all times, enabling growth on fully-processed CCDs. We will discuss the effects of surface preparation, temperature, Sb dose, and thickness on the leakage current and quantum efficiency of these detectors.

Hoenk, Michael; Holland, Steve

2005-03-01

330

Specific-heat measurement of single metallic, carbon, and ceramic fibers at very high temperature  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this work is to present a method for measuring the specific heat of single metallic, carbon, and ceramic fibers at very high temperature. The difficulty of the measurement is due to the microscale of the fiber ({approx_equal}10 {mu}m) and the important range of temperature (700-2700 K). An experimental device, a modelization of the thermal behavior, and an analytic model have been developed. A discussion on the measurement accuracy yields a global uncertainty lower than 10%. The characterization of a tungsten filament with thermal properties identical to those of the bulk allows the validation of the device and the thermal estimation method. Finally, measurements on carbon and ceramic fibers have been done at very high temperature.

Pradere, C.; Goyheneche, J.M.; Batsale, J.C.; Dilhaire, S.; Pailler, R. [TREFLE, UMR 8508, Esplanade des Arts et Metiers, 33405 Talence (France) and LCTS, UMR 5801, 3 allee de La Boetie, 33600 Pessac (France); LCTS, UMR 5801, 3 allee de La Boetie, 33600 Pessac (France); TREFLE, UMR 8508, Esplanade des Arts et Metiers, 33405 Talence (France); CPMOH, UMR 5798, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France); LCTS, UMR 5801, 3 allee de La Boetie, 33600 Pessac (France)

2005-06-15

331

Conductance Fluctuation and Superconducting-to-Normal State Switching Measurements of Superconducting Graphene Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on gate voltage dependent conductance fluctuations (CF) in superconducting graphene devices and compare measurements in the superconducting versus normal state at temperatures down to 20 mK. The CF arise from the averaged interference of charge carrier wave functions caused by scattering in the graphene. An enhancement in the magnitude of the average CF is expected when in the superconducting state due to Andreev reflections. We fabricate devices by contacting graphene with two parallel superconducting leads that are spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. The leads are a Pd/Al or Ti/Al bilayer with the thin Pd or Ti layer providing high transparency contact to graphene. Additionally, we report on our ongoing superconducting-to-normal state switching measurements in graphene Josephson junctions. The distribution of the stochastic switching current gives insight into the dynamics of the junction such as the phase particle escape mechanisms and dissipation processes. The use of graphene as the weak link allows novel control of the critical current, and thus the dynamics of the junction. By gathering switching data, we can study the modified Josephson washboard potential in these devices (J. G. Lambert, et al., IEEE Trans. in Appl. Supercond. 21, 734 (2011)).

Lambert, Joseph; Carabello, Steven; Ramos, Roberto

2013-03-01

332

Effects of relativistic frequency downshift on measurements of electron cyclotron emission in Large Helical Device plasma  

SciTech Connect

The effects of relativistic down shift frequency on the determination of the electron temperature profile from electron cyclotron emission (ECE) in a large helical device(LHD) have been studied by a numerical calculation. since the value of toroidal magnetic field has maximum at the magnetic axis along the sight line in the LHD, the emissivity at the magnetic axis decreases due to the relativistic effect. We found an apparent drop in electron temperature around the magnetic axis due to the relativistic effect. The parametric dependences of the relativistic effect on electron temperature measurement have been studied. When the electron temperature is higher and/or optical thickness is thinner, the gap from the nonrelativistic electron cyclotron frequency is wider. In the case of T{sub e}(0)=5 keV and n{sub e}=1x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, the frequency gap is about 0.5 GHz. Calculation shows that the electron temperature at the central region ({rho}<0.1) apparently decreases less than one-half even at 5 keV, in the case of n{sub e}=1x10{sup 19} m{sup -3} due to the its unique magnetic configuration. Therefore, it is necessary for precise measurement of the electron temperature profile to take into account the relativistic downshift frequency in LHD plasma. To verify the relativistic effect on electron temperature measurement from ECE in the LHD experimentally, the parameter region is evaluated numerically. It is possible to verify the relativistic effect in LHD experimentally.

Sato, M.; Isayama, A.; Inagaki, S.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Iwama, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 801-1, Mukoyama, Naka, Naka, Ibaraki, 311-0193 (Japan); National Institute Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Daido Institute of Technology, 10-3, Takiharu, Minami, Nagoya, 457-8530 (Japan)

2004-10-01

333

Low-frequency electromagnetic field measurements near FACTS devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flexible AC Transmission system (FACTS) devices are installed in substations in order to enhance the operation of the electric power transmission and distribution system. As the thyristors within the FACTS device switch on and off, they inject high frequency voltages and currents into the power system. There has been limited information to date regarding the magnetic flux density (B) and

Donald G. Kasten; Brian S. Cramer

2005-01-01

334

Novel device structure for low-temperature polysilicon TFTs with controlled grain growth in channel regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we demonstrate a novel device structure of low-temperature polysilicon thin-film transistors (LTPS TFTs) for AMLCD applications with using excimer-laser crystallization (ELC). The device structure consists of a thin channel and a thick source/drain. This structure has its merit in the process of ELC and is capable of improving TFTs' electrical characteristics. During excimer laser irradiation, this kind of recessed structure is able to built up localized lateral thermal gradients in the regions near the steps and entice crystallization from the chiller thick source/drain regions toward the hotter thin channels. Because of the development of crystallization process, the average field-effect mobility of the devices can be increased to about 350 cm2/V.s, and the on/off current ratios exceed eight orders. In addition to improvement of device performance, the process window of ELC is broadened with the recessed structure.

Cheng, LiJing; Lu, YinLung; Lin, ChingWei; Chang, TingKuo; Cheng, HuangChung

2000-06-01

335

Imaging photorefractive optical vibration measurement method and device  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for characterizing a vibrating image of an object of interest. The method includes providing a sensing media having a detection resolution within a limited bandwidth and providing an object of interest having a vibrating medium. Two or more wavefronts are provided, with at least one of the wavefronts being modulated by interacting the one wavefront with the vibrating medium of the object of interest. The another wavefront is modulated such that the difference frequency between the one wavefront and the another wavefront is within a response range of the sensing media. The modulated one wavefront and another wavefront are combined in association with the sensing media to interfere and produce simultaneous vibration measurements that are distributed over the object so as to provide an image of the vibrating medium. The image has an output intensity that is substantially linear with small physical variations within the vibrating medium. Furthermore, the method includes detecting the image. In one implementation, the apparatus comprises a vibration spectrum analyzer having an emitter, a modulator, sensing media and a detector configured so as to realize such method. According to another implementation, the apparatus comprises a vibration imaging device.

Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hale, Thomas C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01

336

Direct measurements of DNA-laden flows in microfluidic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of flows containing macromolecules such as DNA is critical for the optimal design of microfluidic systems for biochemical analyses. The effects on ?-DNA transport in microscale flows are significant because the flow behavior may be influenced by molecular interactions, both viscous and elastic forces dominate inertial forces at this length scale, and the macromolecular length scale L approaches the device length scale D. Planar micro-contraction geometries (gradual and 2:1 abrupt) are used as test structures because they are canonical microfluidic components and a viscoelastic benchmark. The DNA solution is subjected to regions of elongation along the channel centerline and shear at the walls and L/D 0.12 and 0.22 for the 2:1 abrupt and gradual contraction, respectively. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV), pressure measurements, and flow visualization are used to characterize the flows of water and semi-dilute DNA solutions over the range 0.5 < De < 180 and 0.0001 < Re < 0.9. Recirculation regions observed upstream of the contraction for semi-dilute DNA flows indicate strong elastic flow behavior. Conformational studies of DNA flows in these geometries relate molecular conformation to the velocity fields across a similar parameter range.

Gulati, Shelly

2005-11-01

337

Measurement of temperature in active high-power AlGaN\\/GaN HFETs using Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the noninvasive measurement of temperature, i.e., self-heating effects, in active AlGaN\\/GaN HFETs grown on sapphire and SiC substrates. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to produce temperature maps with ≈1 ?m spatial resolution and a temperature accuracy of better than 10C. Significant temperature rises up to 180C were measured in the device gate-drain opening. Results from a three-dimensional (3-D)

M. Kuball; J. M. Hayes; M. J. Uren; I. Martin; J. C. H. Birbeck; R. S. Balmer; B. T. Hughes

2002-01-01

338

Stream temperature dynamics: Measurements and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate prediction of water temperatures in streams has become of renewed interest recently because of the threat of global climate change. The dynamic water temperature regime in streams can be simulated by a one-dimensional unsteady advection-dispersion model. An energy balance accounts for the effects of air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity. cloud cover and wind speed on the net

Bashar A. Sinokrot; Heinz G. Stefan

1993-01-01

339

Low-temperature sintering of nanoscale silver paste for semiconductor device interconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research has developed a lead-free semiconductor device interconnect technology by studying the processing-microstructure-property relationships of low-temperature sintering of nanoscale silver pastes. The nanoscale silver pastes have been formulated by adding organic components (dispersant, binder and thinner) into nano-silver particles. The selected organic components have the nano-particle polymeric stabilization, paste processing quality adjustment, and non-densifying diffusion retarding functions and thus help the pastes sinter to 80% bulk density at temperatures no more than 300C. It has been found that the low-temperature sintered silver has better electrical, thermal and overall thermomechanical properties compared with the existing semiconductor device interconnecting materials such as solder alloys and conductive epoxies. After solving the organic burnout problems associated with the covered sintering, a lead-free semiconductor device interconnect technology has been designed to be compatible with the existing surface-mounting techniques with potentially low-cost. It has been found that the low-temperature sintered silver joints have high electrical, thermal, and mechanical performance. The reliability of the silver joints has also been studied by the 50-250C thermal cycling experiment. Finally, the bonging strength drop of the silver joints has been suggested to be ductile fracture in the silver joints as micro-voids nucleated at microscale grain boundaries during the temperature cycling. The low-temperature silver sintering technology has enabled some benchmark packaging concepts and substantial advantages in future applications.

Bai, Guofeng

340

Thermoelectric devices and diamond films for temperature control of high density electronic circuits  

SciTech Connect

The increased speeds of integrated circuits is accompanied by increased power levels and the need to package the IC chips very close together. Combined, these spell very high power densities and severe thermal problems at the package level. Conventional packaging materials have difficulty dealing with these thermal management problems. However, it is possible to combine both active and passive cooling by using thin film bismuth-telluride thermoelectric coolers (microcoolers) and diamond substrates for the temperature control of these high density electronic circuits. The highest power components would be mounted directly onto thin film thermoelectric elements, which would maintain the temperature of these components from a few degrees to tens of degrees below that of the diamond substrate. This allows these components to operate within their required temperature range, effectively manage temperature spikes and junction temperatures, and increase clockspeed. To optimize the design of the thermoelectric cooler and operate at maximum efficiency, diamond films acting as thermal lenses would also be used to spread the heat from the small power device to the larger coolers. In those instances where the devices are all operating above ambient temperature, high thermal conductivity diamond films alone are sufficient to cool these devices, by effectively conducting the heat throughout the board. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Vandersande, J.W.; Ewell, R.; Fleurial, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, M/S 277-212, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Lyon, H.B. [Marlow Industries Inc., 10451 Vista Park Road, Dallas, Texas 75238 (United States)

1994-08-10

341

Silver-indium joints produced at low temperature for high temperature devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-step fluxless bonding process adopted to produce high temperature silver-indium joints (80 wt% silver and 20 wt% indium) at relatively low process temperature of 206C has been developed. After annealing the joint continuously for 26 h at 145C, its melting temperature increases to 765-780C, as confirmed by a de-bonding test. The technique thus developed provides a viable alternative to

Ricky W. Chuang; Chin C. Lee

2002-01-01

342

Development of a Real-Time Temperature and Voltage Monitoring System for Semiconductor Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and development of a real-time temperature and voltage monitoring system. It is developed for the purpose of monitoring and controlling semiconductor component devices which are very heat sensitive in industry-based applications. This prototype not only involves the development of the software for monitoring purposes but also includes the development of a special electronic hardware designed

Nazlia Omar; Rozli Zulkifli

2009-01-01

343

Method for estimating future markets for high-temperature superconducting power devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a spreadsheet model for estimating the impact of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power devices on the national electric grid. The distribution of losses in the national grid is carefully traced and those losses that HTS can eliminate are identified. The energy savings achievable by the many sizes of HTS generators, transformers, cables, and motors are then computed and

Thomas P. Sheahen; Benjamin W. McConnell; Joseph W. Mulholland

2002-01-01

344

Testing and evaluation of thermal cameras for absolute temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of temperature measurement is the most important criterion for the evaluation of thermal cameras used in applications requiring absolute temperature measurement. All the main international metrological organizations currently propose a parameter called uncertainty as a measure of measurement accuracy. We propose a set of parameters for the characterization of thermal measurement cameras. It is shown that if these

Krzysztof Chrzanowski; Joachim Fischer; Robert Matyszkiel

2000-01-01

345

PROCESSING, PRODUCTS, AND FOOD SAFETY Effect of Testing Temperature on Internal Egg Quality Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to deter- mine the effect of egg testing temperature on quality mea- surements of shell eggs. The quality measurements com- pared included 3 Haugh unit (HU) devices (electronic Haugh, tripod Haugh, and Haugh meter), egg weight, albumen height, albumen width, albumen index, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, percentage of thin albu- men, and

K. M. Keener; K. C. McAvoy; J. B. Foegeding; P. A. Curtis; K. E. Anderson; J. A. Osborne

346

Ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity measurements using visible spectroscopy on TdeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

A visible spectroscopic imaging system has been developed on Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) that provides profile measurements of the ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity. Multiple poloidal and tangential chords were coupled to the entrance slit of a spectrometer equipped with a back-illuminated charge coupled device camera at its exit slit. The camera records spatially and spectrally resolved emission profiles

I. Condrea; E. Haddad; B. C. Gregory; D. Lafrance; J. L. Lachambre; G. Pacher; F. Meo; H. H. Mai

1999-01-01

347

An Apparatus for Measuring the High-Temperature Thermal Conductivity of Semiconductors and Their Melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An installation for investigating the thermal conductivity of semiconductors and their melts over a wide temperature range (3001100 K) is described. In contrast to the devices used earlier for this purpose, the thermal conductivity was measured in a hermetically sealed autoclave filled after evacuation with spectroscopically pure argon to prevent the oxidation, evaporation, and decomposition of the substance under study.

Ya. B. Magomedov; G. G. Gadzhiev

2004-01-01

348

Assessment of an Aural Infrared Sensor for Body Temperature Measurement in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly marketed device measures body temperature using an ear probe that detects infrared radiation from the tympanic membrane. It is simple to use and gives a reading in 1-2 seconds. Its accuracy was evaluated in a group of children, aged 1 month through 10 years, by comparing it with either rectal (n = 65), or oral (n = 48)

Frances A. Rhoads; John Grandner

1990-01-01

349

A Fiber-Bragg-Grating-Based Sensor for Simultaneous AC Current and Temperature Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a sensor that is capable of measuring both ac current and temperature using a single fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is described. The device consists of a magnetically biased magnetostrictive alloy bonded to an FBG. The magnetic field generated by the current in a specially designed coil produces internal strains in the magnetostrictive alloy which can be detected

Deborah Reilly; Andrew J. Willshire; Grzegorz Fusiek; Pawel Niewczas; James R. McDonald

2006-01-01

350

A fibre Bragg grating based sensor for simultaneous AC current and temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a sensor capable of measuring both AC current and temperature using a single fibre Bragg grating (FBG). The device consists of a magnetically biased magnetostrictive alloy bonded to an FBG. The magnetic field generated by the current in a specially designed coil produces internal strains in the magnetostrictive alloy which can be detected by the

Deborah Reilly; Andrew J. Willshire; Grzegorz Fusiek; Pawel Niewczas; James R. McDonald

2004-01-01

351

Ultrasonic database development for the acoustic inspection device: the velocity-attenuation measurement system (VAMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inspection of sealed containers is a critical task for personnel charged with enforcing government policies, maintaining public safety, and ensuring national security. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a portable, handheld acoustic inspection device (AID) that provides non-invasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities. The AID technology has been deployed worldwide and user"s are providing feedback and requesting additional capabilities and functionality. Recently, PNNL has developed a laboratory-based system for automated, ultrasonic characterization of fluids to support database development for the AID. Using pulse-echo ultrasound, ultrasonic pulses are launched into a container or bulk-solid commodity. The return echoes from these pulses are analyzed in terms of time-of-flight and frequency content (as a function of temperature) to extract physical property measurements (acoustic velocity and attenuation) of the material under test. These measured values are then compared to a tailored database of materials and fluids property data acquired using the Velocity-Attenuation Measurement System (VAMS). This bench-top platform acquires key ultrasonic property measurements as a function of temperature and frequency. This paper describes the technical basis for operation of the VAMS, recent enhancements to the measurement algorithms for both the VAMS and AID technologies, and new measurement data from laboratory testing and performance demonstration activities. Applications for homeland security and counterterrorism, law enforcement, drug-interdiction and fuel transportation compliance activities will be discussed.

Diaz, Aaron A.; Burghard, Brion J.; Valencia, Juan D.; Samuel, Todd J.

2004-07-01

352

Infrared transtympanic temperature measurement and otitis media with effusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body temperature is an important clinical measurement. It can be estimated by sublingual, rectal, axillary or skin measurement. Pulmonary artery temperature measurement is the gold standard in the research setting, but is obviously inapplicable for routine clinical use. Infrared estimation of core temperature at the tympanic membrane has been proposed as an effective and accurate method. We investigate whether the

P. J. Robb; R. Shahab

2001-01-01

353

Notes on a Thermal Probe for Measuring the Temperature of Ice Layers (Remarque sur une Sonde Thermique pour Mesurer la Temperature des Couches de Glace).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When a thermal probe is thrust down into ice, it disturbs the ambient temperature. In order to measure the original temperature only 1 hour after such heating, a special device is suggested: the thermometer is placed in the point of a bar below the head o...

K. Philberth

1972-01-01

354

Comparison of guarded and unguarded linear polarization CCD devices with weight loss measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of linear polarization devices may be used to measure the corrosion current density (CCD) to assess the degree of active corrosion in concrete structures. The devices, with and without a guard electrode, provide significantly different CCD values for the same conditions. The 5-year study reported herein presents a comparison of the two devices over a range of CCD

Youping Liu; Richard E. Weyers

2003-01-01

355

Characterization of >100 GHz devices using photoconductive pump and probe measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The characterization of >100 GHz devices were demonstrated using the photoconductive pump and probe measurement without accompanying deembedding process. The devices include transmission line, open\\/short termination and filters. The close agreement of the measurement to the FDTD simulation verifies the reliability and the usefulness of the measurement at the millimeter wave region over 100 GHz

Jaehoon Lee; Heeseok Lee; Woopoung Kim; Jongjoo Lee; Joungho Kim

1998-01-01

356

Establishing Mobility Measures to Assess the Effectiveness of Night Vision Devices: Results of a Pilot Study.  

PubMed

In preparation for an evaluation of night vision devices, an exploratory study was conducted to gain initial experience with the sensitivity of chosen mobility measures under night conditions. The measures included cane contacts and object recognition distances. Results provide preliminary evidence that these two measures may be sensitive to the effects of a night vision device. PMID:16582982

Zebehazy, Kim T; Zimmerman, George J; Bowers, Alex R; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

2005-10-01

357

Establishing Mobility Measures to Assess the Effectiveness of Night Vision Devices: Results of a Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

In preparation for an evaluation of night vision devices, an exploratory study was conducted to gain initial experience with the sensitivity of chosen mobility measures under night conditions. The measures included cane contacts and object recognition distances. Results provide preliminary evidence that these two measures may be sensitive to the effects of a night vision device.

Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zimmerman, George J.; Bowers, Alex R.; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

2005-01-01

358

Development and evaluation of measurement devices used to support testing of radioactive material transportation packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive material package designers use structural testing to verify and demonstrate package performance. A major part of evaluating structural response is the collection of instrumentation measurement data. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has an ongoing program to develop and evaluate measurement devices to support testing of radioactive material packages. Measurement devices developed in support of this activity include evaluation channels, ruggedly

W. L. Uncapher; D. J. Ammerman; D. R. Stenberg; D. R. Bronowski; M. Arviso

1992-01-01

359

Improving High-Temperature Measurements in Nuclear Reactors with Mo\\/Nb Thermocouples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many irradiation experiments performed in research reactors are used to assess the effects of nuclear radiations on material\\u000a or fuel sample properties, and are therefore a crucial stage in most qualification and innovation studies regarding nuclear\\u000a technologies. However, monitoring these experiments requires accurate and reliable instrumentation. Among all measurement\\u000a systems implemented in irradiation devices, temperatureand more particularly high-temperature (above 1000C)is

J.-F. Villard; S. Fourrez; D. Fourmentel; A. Legrand

2008-01-01

360

Remarks on thermoelastic effects at low temperatures and quantum limits in displacement measurements  

SciTech Connect

The noise level of thermoelastic fluctuations of a mirror at low temperature was derived and introduced by M. Cerdonio et al.[Phys. Rev. D 63, 082003 (2001)]. The importance of the paper has become remarkable according to the increasing attention to the low-temperature high-precision measurement device. Here we would like to introduce the analytical form of their equation of thermoelastic noise in the integral form in order to reduce the computational labor.

Somiya, Kentaro; Kokeyama, Keiko; Nawrodt, Ronny [Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

2010-12-15

361

Precise Pulse Repetition Frequency Measuring Device and Signal Sorter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent describes an electronic signal processing device comprised of timing and coincident gating means for utilization between one or more conventional radar receivers and a conventional visual display, multi-gun pulse analyzer to enable an electroni...

R. C. Olsen F. O. Stahlhut

1976-01-01

362

The structure measurement of micro-electro-mechanical system devices by the optical feedback tomography technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a potential way to obtain the images of the surface and internal structure of micro-electro-mechanical system devices by optical feedback tomography technology. By using different materials and various structures of micro devices as the samples, this approach is proved to be able to measure the geometric structure of the micro device, including the internal structure, which makes it possible to detect whether the micro-device tested meets its fabrication requirements.

Xu, Chunxin; Tan, Yidong; Zhang, Shulian; Zhao, Shijie

2013-06-01

363

Development of smart tongue devices for measurement of liquid properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the design and characterization of shear horizontal surface acoustic wave devices for the analysis of liquid samples. Devices were fabricated on both 36 rotated Y-cut X-propagating LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 substrates. The design consists of a dual delay-line configuration where one delay line is metallized and shielded, while the other is left electrically active. Experiments to

Marina Cole; Gurmukh Sehra; Julian W. Gardner; Vijay K. Varadan

2004-01-01

364

Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows  

SciTech Connect

The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique.

Lemure, N.; Olvera, J.R.; Ruggles, A.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Coll. of Engineering

1995-12-01

365

Refractory thermowell for continuous high temperature measurement of molten metal  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for the continuous high temperature measurement of materials in vessels lined with rammed or cast refractory materials. A refractory housing member is integral with the refractory lining of the vessel and contains a plurality of high temperature sensing means, such as thermocouples. A face of the housing is flush with the refractory lining and contacts the high temperature material contained in the vessel. Continuous temperature measurement is achieved by a means which is coupled to the thermocouples for indicating the temperature.

Thiesen, T.J.

1991-01-22

366

Refractory thermowell for continuous high temperature measurement of molten metal  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for the continuous high temperature measurement of materials in vessels lined with rammed or cast refractory materials. A refractory housing member is integral with the refractory lining of the vessel and contains a plurality of high temperature sensing means, such as thermocouples. A face of the housing is flush with the refractory lining and contacts the high temperature material contained in the vessel. Continuous temperature measurement is achieved by a means which is coupled to the thermocouples for indicating the temperature.

Thiesen, Todd J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01

367

Measurement and improvement of characteristics using optical fiber temperature sensors at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

By monitoring the temperature inside cryogenic equipment such as superconducting magnet, we can detect the indication of failures and prevent the equipment suffered from damage. It is possible to measure the multipoint temperature by one optical fiber sensor. This sensor is suitable to measure the temperature at cryogenic temperatures because of low heat invasion and high voltage insulation. In this

H. Yamada; Y. Tanaka; M. Ogata; K. Mizuno; K. Nagashima; S. Okumura; Y. Terada

2011-01-01

368

Stream temperature dynamics: Measurements and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model based on a finite difference solution of the unsteady heat advection-dispersion equation is formulated to predict water temperatures in streams at time increments of 1 hour. An energy balance accounts for the effects of air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, cloud cover, and wind speed on the net rate of heat exchange through the water surface, and

Bashar A. Sinokrot; Heinz G. Stefan

1993-01-01

369

Metallic Contaminant Detection using a High-Temperature Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices Gradiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop magnetic metallic contaminant detectors using high-temperature superconducting quantum interference devices (HTS-SQUIDs) for industrial products. Finding ultra-small metallic contaminants is an important issue for manufacturers producing commercial products such as lithium ion batteries. If such contaminants cause damages, the manufacturer of the product suffers a big financial loss due to having to recall the faulty products. Previously, we described a system for finding such ultra-small particles in food. In this study, we describe further developments of the system, for the reduction of the effect of the remnant field of the products, and we test the parallel magnetization of the products to generate the remnant field only at both ends of the products. In addition, we use an SQUID gradiometer in place of the magnetometer to reduce the edge effect by measuring the magnetic field gradient. We test the performances of the system and find that tiny iron particles as small as 50 50 ?m2 on the electrode of a lithium ion battery could be clearly detected. This detection level is difficult to achieve when using other methods.

Saburo, Tanaka; Tomohiro, Akai; Makoto, Takemoto; Yoshimi, Hatsukade; Takeyoshi, Ohtani; Yoshio, Ikeda; Shuichi, Suzuki

2010-08-01

370

ECH Plasma Experiments on an Internal Coil Device with a High Temperature Superconductor Coil  

SciTech Connect

Self-organization related with relaxation phenomenon is playing an important role in various aspects of magnetic confined plasmas. Recently a relaxation theory including the plasma flow has been developed by Mahajan-Yoshida, and a new relaxation state has been identified. The two-fluid relaxation condition is given by {beta} + (V/V{sub A}){sup 2} = const. To study a self-organized structure with strong plasma flow, we have introduced an internal coil device. By inducing a radial electric field with appropriate methods, we could drive a toroidal plasma flow, and confine a high beta plasma in a core region. The internal coil device Mini-RT with a high temperature superconductor(HTS) coil(Rc=0.15m, Ic=50kA) has been constructed. The vacuum chamber is 1 m in diameter and {approx}0.7 m in height. The magnetic field strength near the internal coil is around 0.1 T, and a radio-frequency wave of 2.45 GHz is applied for the plasma production. We have started ECH plasma experiments with the coil supported mechanically. The electron density, which has a peak near the internal coil, is of order 10{sup 16} m{sup -3}, reaching the cut-off density of the microwave. While, the electron temperature is of order 10 eV with a broad profile. Estimated energy confinement time is of order 10{sup -(5-6)} sec. The levitation experiment of the HTS coil has been carried out. The position of the HTS coil is measured with laser sensors, and is feedback-controlled with the levitation coil current. We have succeeded to levitating the HTS coil during one hour with an accuracy of less than 20 {omega}m. A preliminary experiment for the plasma production at the floating condition of the HTS coil has been initiated. It is affirmed that the levitation system works well and plasma with separatrix configuration is produced.

Ogawa, Yuichi [University of Tokyo (Japan); Morikawa, Junji [University of Tokyo (Japan); Ohkuni, Kotaro [University of Tokyo (Japan); Yamakoshi, Shigeo [University of Tokyo (Japan); Goto, Takuya [University of Tokyo (Japan); Mito, Toshiyuki [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Yanagi, Nagato [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Iwakuma, Masataka [Kyushu University (Japan)

2005-01-15

371

Pattern, gain and temperature measurements of reflector antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an overview of results for far field pattern, antenna gain, and antenna temperature measurements of reflector antennas in several frequency bands. The pattern and gain measurements were taken in the compact range at the Ohio State University. In a series of related measurements an 8 ft diameter Cassegrain reflector was used for antenna temperature measurements under clear

R. C. Rudduck; T.-H. Lee; K. M. Lambert

1990-01-01

372

Minimum resolvable temperature difference measurements on undersampled imagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD) is the primary measurement of performance for infrared imaging systems. Where Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is a measurement of resolution and three-dimensional noise (or noise equivalent temperature difference) is a measurement of sensitivity, MRTD combines both measurements into a test of observer visual acuity through the imager. MRTD has been incorrectly applied to undersampled thermal

Ronald G. Driggers; Van A. Hodgkin; Richard H. Vollmerhausen; Patrick O'Shea

2003-01-01

373

Lifetime Based Temperature and Velocity Measurement using High-Speed Camera and Temperature Sensitive Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simultaneous measurement technique of velocity and temperature distribution in a fluid flow was developed. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was combined with a lifetime based scalar measurement technique. A measurement method based on the luminescent lifetime is appropriate for detecting the transient temperature field. Developed method needs a high speed camera, a laser (one excitation wave length) and temperature sensitive

Satoshi Someya; Mitsunori Uchida; Kaoru Tominaga; Keiko Ishii; Yanrong Li; Koji Okamoto

2009-01-01

374

Temperature sensitivity of capillary-driven flow: application to age monitoring devices.  

PubMed

The effects of time-dependent temperature fluctuations on surface-tension driven fluid flow inside a capillary are modeled using classical hydrodynamics. To begin, Newton's second law is evoked to derive a nondimensional equation of motion that describes the time-evolution of the fluid front position and velocity as a function of system geometry, fluid properties, and fluid temperature. This model is used to examine how temperature excursions affect the instantaneous and long-term position and velocity of the fluid front inside the capillary. Next, the effects of orientation on the movement of high viscosity fluids through a capillary are examined. From these findings, a procedure is developed for designing non-powered time-temperature integration devices for recording the cumulative temperature exposure history of an environment. PMID:22300654

Thomas, J A; Boyle, M P; Hunter, L W; Tiffany, J E

2012-01-20

375

Device for electronically controlling the intake air temperature of an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A device for electronically controlling the intake air temperature of an internal combustion engine, featuring a temperature sensor in the clean air space of the filter, the signal from the sensor controlling an electromagnetically driven oscillator pump whose vacuum output adjusts the flapper of an air flow proportioning valve by means of a pneumatic actuator, until the correct ratio of cold and preheated raw air is admitted into the intake system for the establishment of an optimal combustion air temperature. An automatic lowering of this temperature under full-load operation is achieved by utilizing the negative pressure in the air intake manifold as a control means to shift the oscillating armature of the oscillator pump away from its maximum output position. In an air intake system for fuel injected engines, a similar result is achieved by means of an air flow sensor whose output signal is superimposed on the control signal from the temperature sensor.

Bach, W.; Blumhardt, R.; Fusser, R.; Ruckert, K.

1981-04-07

376

Measuring the atmosphere : temperature, pressure and ozone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does altitude affect temperature and pressure? This page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, provides students with information for an interactive laboratory activity on the effects of altitude on temperature and pressure and the location of ozone in the atmosphere. The activity enables students to collect three sets of data on temperature, pressure, and ozone concentration as a gas-filled balloon equipped with data collection equipment rises through the atmosphere. Students determine how often and at what altitude to collect data. Questions about each graphed data set are provided. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

377

A Low-Cost Thermistor Device for Measurements of Metabolic Heat in Yeast Cells in Suspension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides illustrated directions for the construction and use of a low-cost thermistor device. Attached to a servo-type millivolt chart recorder, the device will record minute temperature changes and will simulate data obtained from an oxygen polarograph. Includes results of experiments with baker's yeast. (Author/CS)|

Keeling, Richard P.

1980-01-01

378

Use of fluorine-doped silicon oxide for temperature compensation of radio frequency surface acoustic wave devices.  

PubMed

This paper investigates acoustic properties, including the temperature coefficient of elasticity (TCE), of fluorine-doped silicon oxide (SiOF) films and proposes the application of the films to the temperature compensation of RF SAW devices. From Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), SiOF films were expected to possess good TCE properties. We fabricated a series of SAW devices using the SiOF-overlay/Cu-grating/LiNbO(3)-substrate structure, and evaluated their performance. The experiments showed that the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) increases with the fluorine content r, as we expected from the FT-IR measurement. This means that the Si-O-Si atomic structure measurable by the FT-IR governs the TCE behavior of SiO(2)-based films even when the dopant is added. In comparison with pure SiO(2) with the film thickness h of 0.3 wavelengths (?), TCF was improved by 7.7 ppm/C without deterioration of the effective electromechanical coupling factor K2 when r = 3.8 atomic % and h = 0.28?. Fluorine inclusion did not obviously influence the resonators' Q factors when r < 8.8 atomic %. PMID:22297905

Matsuda, Satoru; Hara, Motoaki; Miura, Michio; Matsuda, Takashi; Ueda, Masanori; Satoh, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

2012-01-01

379

Formation of ZnTe:Cu/Ti Contacts at High Temperature for CdS/CdTe Devices. Preprint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We study the performance of CdS/CdTe thin-film devices contacted with ZnTe:Cu/Ti of various thickness at a higher-than-optimum temperature of (approx)360 C. At this temperature, optimum device performance requires the same thickness of ZnTe:Cu as for simi...

A. Duda M. R. Young S. Asher S. Johnston T. Moriarty T. A. Gessert

2006-01-01

380

Measurements of superconducting phase gradients by a nanowire quantum interference device templated by DNA molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously employed wet-chemistry approaches to DNA metallization from granular wires that become highly resistive at low temperatures. We have developed a process to make superconducting nanowires templated by DNA molecules that are homogeneous, are less than 10 nm in diameter, make seamless contacts the leads, and become superconducting at low temperatures. Our method involves isolating single DNA strands stretched across a narrow but deep trench and sputter-coating MoGe on the DNA scaffold. We have used these nanowires as the basis for a quantum interference device in which two wires are connected in parallel by superconducting films. We have discovered resistance oscillations for the two-wire device as a function of phase gradients in the leads caused by magnetic screening currents or applied currents, and we have developed a theory to explain our observations based on an extension of the Langer-Ambegaokar-McCumber-Halperin theory of thermally activated phase slips. In addition, we also measure the effect of vortex motions on these oscillations and confirm the field dependence of the Campbell penetration depth.

Hopkins, David Scott

381

Temperature, Concentration and Velocity Measurements in a Jet and Flame.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The applicability of laser diagnostic techniques to flow field measurements is explored. Data obtained on a turbulent jet are compared with more conventional measurements. Specie concentration and temperature measurements were obtained from the ratio of v...

S. Lederman J. Bornstein A. Celentano J. Glaser

1974-01-01

382

Integration of High Dose Boron Implants--Modification of Device Parametrics through Implant Temperature Control  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, we have extended a previously reported 250 nm logic p-S/D implant (7 keV B 4.5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}) process matching exercise [5] to include wafer temperature, and demonstrate that matching can be obtained by increasing the temperature of the wafer during implant. We found that the high dose rate delivered by the single wafer implanter caused the formation of a clear amorphous layer, which upon subsequent annealing altered the diffusion, activation, and clustering properties of the boron. Furthermore, increasing the temperature of the wafer during the implant was sufficient to suppress amorphization, allowing profiles and device parameters to become matched. Figure 5 shows a representative set of curves indicating the cluster phenomena observed for the lower temperature, high flux single wafer implanter, and the influence of wafer temperature on the profiles. The results indicate the strong primary effect of dose rate in determining final electrical properties of devices, and successful implementation of damage engineering using wafer temperature control.

Schmeide, Matthias [Infineon Technologies Dresden GmbH, Koenigsbruecker Str. 180, D-01099 Dresden (Germany); Ameen, M. S.; Kondratenko, Serguei; Krimbacher, Bernhard; Reece, Ronald N. [Axcelis Technologies, Inc., 108 Cherry Hill Dr., Beverly, MA, 01915 (United States)

2011-01-07

383

Production Engineering Measures for Temperature Compensated Microcircuit Crystal Oscillator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three engineering samples of the MCTCXO were assembled using C-SOS MOS devices from the fourth manufacturing lot. Overall oscillator loop gain was found to be marginal at high temperature and it was determined that a change in the oscillator feedback rati...

D. L. Thomann H. D. Hinnah

1974-01-01

384

Global trends of measured surface air temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze surface air temperature data from available meteorological stations with principal focus on the period 1880-1985. The temperature changes at mid- and high latitude stations separated by less than 1000 km are shown to be highly correlated; at low latitudes the correlation falls off more rapidly with distance for nearby stations. We combine the station data in a way which is designed to provide accurate long-term variations. Error estimates are based in part on studies of how accurately the actual station distributions are able to reproduce temperature change in a global data set produced by a three-dimensional general circulation model with realistic variability. We find that meaningful global temperature change can be obtained for the past century, despite the fact that the meteorological stations are confined mainly to continental and island locations. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres; the northern hemisphere result is similar to that found by several other investigators. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. The warm period in recent years differs qualitatively from the earlier warm period centered about 1940; the earlier warming was focused at high northern latitudes, while the recent warming is more global. We present selected graphs and maps of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones. A computer tape of the derived regional and global temperature changes is available from the authors.

Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

1987-11-01

385

A microprocessor controlled measuring stage - Part of a measuring device for track chamber pictures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are using an Intel 8080 microprocessor to control the movement of a mechanical measuring stage. It is a component of a computer-controlled half-automatic measuring device called HEVAS. The tasks of the microprocessor are: controlling the velocity of the measuring stage, steering of the stage according to the input by a track ball, positioning of the stage, circular movement. The program needs 2 Kbyte of PROM and about 250 byte of RAM. It consists of a foreground (velocity control) task and a background task (the others). Calculations are done with a mixed 8 and 16-bit arithmetic. The program has been written mainly in PL/M but time-critical parts are in assembler language.

Vogt, H.; Kusmierz, W.; Mencke, H.; Schwendicke, U.; Schiller, H.; Wille, M.

1982-05-01

386

Measurement in a marine environment using low cost sensors of temperature and dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous records of physical parameters of the marine environment are difficult as well as expensive to obtain. This paper\\u000a describes preliminary results of an investigative program with the purpose of developing low cost time integrating measurement\\u000a and averaging devices for water temperature and dissolved oxygen.\\u000a \\u000a Measurements were made in an estuarine area of the Chesapeake Bay over two week periods.

Fredric A. Godshall; Robert L. Cory; Dale E. Phinney

1974-01-01

387

[A device for measuring the output power of UHF therapy apparatuses with condenser and inductive applicators].  

PubMed

The paper considers a new device for measuring the output power of UHF therapy apparatuses with condenser and inductive applicators. The special feature of the device is that independent element calibration in the wanted frequency range may be used; other measuring instruments do not possess this property. PMID:11515260

Lopan', V R; Khamadulin, E F

388

Fiber Optics Device for Solar Spectroscopy - First Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1996 we introduced the fiber optics device designed for 2D solar spectroscopy (Kucera et al. 1997). Now we present the first results obtained within last year. First experiences with wavelength calibration, light transmission through the fibers, noise reduction, software for reduction of observations and preliminary results of reduced scientific data are presented.

Kucera, A.; Rybk, J.; Whl, H.; Hanslmeier, A.

1999-09-01

389

Asrdi Oxygen Technology Survey. Volume 4: Low Temperature Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is presented on temperature measurement between the triple point and critical point of liquid oxygen. The criterion selected is that all transducers which may reasonably be employed in the liquid oxygen (LO2) temperature range are considered. ...

L. L. Sparks

1974-01-01

390

Temperature measurements on a HSLA-100 steel confinement vessel  

SciTech Connect

Temperature measurements have been made on HSLA-100 steel confinement vessel number 6-2-3-1. These measurements are intended to give a view of the vessel temperature response under conditions similar to operational conditions, starting from worst case. The vessel`s temperature must be above the minimum operating temperature when used to contain an explosive event to ensure that the vessel material has the desired crack arrest properties. Several series of temperature measurements have been conducted over 24 and 48 hour periods during February 1998. These tests were intended to demonstrate that after running the heaters in the environmental shelter for some time, (1) the vessel warms up to temperatures well above the minimum operating temperature, (2) that through-thickness temperature gradients are negligible, and (3) that the temperature differences from one part of the vessel to another are small.

Lohsen, R.A.

1998-05-07

391

Low-temperature sintering of nanoscale silver paste for semiconductor device interconnection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research has developed a lead-free semiconductor device interconnect technology by studying the processing-microstructure-property relationships of low-temperature sintering of nanoscale silver pastes. The nanoscale silver pastes have been formulated by adding organic components (dispersant, binder and thinner) into nano-silver particles. The selected organic components have the nano-particle polymeric stabilization, paste processing quality adjustment, and non-densifying diffusion retarding functions and thus

Guofeng Bai

2005-01-01

392

EVALUATION OF GOLD ABA BRAZE FOR JOINING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROCHEMICAL DEVICE COMPONENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation behavior of a commercially available ceramic-to-metal braze alloy, Gold ABA, was investigated to evaluate its potential use in joining solid-state electrochemical device components. High temperature air exposure studies were performed on as-received braze alloy foils, on braze couples prepared with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and 430 stainless steel substrates, and on brazed YSZ\\/430 joints. The results of our investigations

K. Scott Weil; Joseph P. Rice

2005-01-01

393

High temperature LGS SAW devices with Pt\\/WO3 and Pd sensing films  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the fabrication of high temperature LGS SAW devices to be used as gas sensors. SAW resonators and delay lines have been designed, fabricated, and tested up to 750C. An additional 7dB loss in the transmission coefficient, |S21|, of the two port 167 MHz SAW resonators tested has been observed for operation at 750C with respect to

J. A. Thiele; M. Pereira da Cunha

2003-01-01

394

Temperature safety profile of laparoscopic devices: Harmonic ACE (ACE), Ligasure V (LV), and plasma trisector (PT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundReports of iatrogenic thermal injuries during laparoscopic surgery using new generation vessel-sealing devices, as well as\\u000a anecdotal reports of hand burn injuries during hand-assisted surgeries, have evoked questions about the temperature safety\\u000a profile and the cooling properties of these instruments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsThis study involved video recording of temperatures generated by different instruments (Harmonic ACE [ACE], Ligasure V [LV],\\u000a and plasma trisector

F. J. Kim; M. F. Chammas Jr; E. Gewehr; M. Morihisa; F. Caldas; E. Hayacibara; M. Baptistussi; F. Meyer; A. C. Martins

2008-01-01

395

Noninvasive measurement system for human respiratory condition and body temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special chromel (C) and alumel wire (A) thermopile has been developed which can measure the human respiratory condition and body temperature without directly contacting a sensor to the human body. The measurement system enables high speed, real time, noninvasive, and simultaneous measurement of respiratory rates and body temperature with the same sensor. The special CA thermopile, with each sensing

Eiji Toba; Sadamu Sekiguchi; Toyonori Nishimatsu

1995-01-01

396

Problems in the measurement of human body temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of the measuring time is the main prob? lem of measurement of human body temperature. The measuring time of modern digital sensors available from leading foreign manufacturers is tens of seconds, even if the dimensions and weight of the sensors (metal capsule with thermistor) are reduced. This is due to specificity of human body as an object of temperature

E. K. Shakhov; A. A. Melnikov; I. A. Dolgova

2008-01-01

397

Radiometric sky temperature measurements at 35 and 89 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of radiometric sky temperature measurements at 35 and 89 GHz is presented in the paper. The system used to make the measurements is described as well as the method used for calibration. The temperatures were measured as a function of elevation twice a day over a period of about six months. Examples of the results obtained are presented,

A. D. Sayers

1986-01-01

398

Simulator Developed to Drastically Reduce Time of Multijunction PV Device Efficiency Measurements (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development  

SciTech Connect

NREL's new simulator helps speed up research in the race to improve photovoltaic efficiency. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) needed a quick and accurate method to predict energy generated from multijunction photovoltaic (PV) test devices. This method had to take into account the nonlinear behavior of multijunction PV. NREL achieved this by developing the One-Sun Multi-Source Simulator (OSMSS), which reduces the time for this type of reference spectrum efficiency measurement from hours or days to minutes. The OSMSS is an automated, spectrally adjustable light source that builds a unique simulator spectrum that causes a multijunction PV device to behave as it would under a reference spectrum. This new simulator consists of four light sources separated into nine wavelength bands between 350 and 2,000 nm. The irradiance in each band is adjustable from zero to about 1.5 suns. All bands are recombined via optical fibers and integrating optics to produce a nearly 10 cm x 10 cm uniform spot. The operator simply links the OSMSS to the quantum efficiency data for the test device, and the OSMSS does the rest. The OSMSS can also determine the power as a function of the spectral irradiance (beyond the reference spectra), total irradiance, and temperature. Major components of the system were built to NREL specification by LabSphere, Inc. NREL developed a new, fully automated tool that rapidly builds a spectrum under which all junctions of a multijunction PV device behave as they would under a reference spectrum. Such a spectrum is essential to properly characterize multijunction devices. The OSMSS reduces the time for building spectra for current vs. voltage measurements from hours or days to minutes. This makes it possible to quickly characterize a multijunction device under many different conditions. The OSMSS will be an important tool to help predict the yearly energy output of a multijunction PV device in a particular environment when provided with a range of spectra and temperatures for that location.

Not Available

2011-11-01

399

Pressure and Temperature Measurements with SAW Sensors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two different SAW-sensors are presented: a pressure-sensor for weak pressure and a SAW-temperature sensor. The pressure sensor is built with a thin diaphragm of quartz-crystal on which two surface elastic waves are propagating in the same direction but at...

D. Hauden S. Rousseau G. Jaillet R. Coquerel

1982-01-01

400

Human body temperature - Its measurement and regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terminology used in thermal physiology is examined, and principles of heat transfer are discussed, taking into account heat quantity, heat flux, temperature, pressure, quantities used in physiology, a number of common definitions, the equivalence between different forms of energy, the release of potential energy in living tissues, heat transfer without change of state, and heat transfer with change of

Y. Houdas; E. F. J. Ring

1982-01-01

401

DNA origami impedance measurement at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency response of triangular DNA origami is obtained at room temperature. The sample shows a high impedance at low frequencies, e.g., at zero frequency 20 G?, which decreases almost linearly with the logarithm of the frequency reaching a low and flat value at 100 kHz where the impedance turns from capacitive to resistive, concluding that DNA can be used

Alfredo D. Bobadilla; Edson P. Bellido; Norma L. Rangel; Hong Zhong; Michael L. Norton; Alexander Sinitskii; Jorge M. Seminario

2009-01-01

402

DNA origami impedance measurement at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency response of triangular DNA origami is obtained at room temperature. The sample shows a high impedance at low frequencies, e.g., at zero frequency 20 GOmega, which decreases almost linearly with the logarithm of the frequency reaching a low and flat value at 100 kHz where the impedance turns from capacitive to resistive, concluding that DNA can be used

Alfredo D. Bobadilla; Edson P. Bellido; Norma L. Rangel; Hong Zhong; Michael L. Norton; Alexander Sinitskii; Jorge M. Seminario

2009-01-01

403

Performance evaluation of algorithms for SAW-based temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever harsh environmental conditions such as high temperatures, accelerations, radiation, etc., prohibit usage of standard temperature sensors, surface acoustic wave-based temperature sensors are the first choice for highly reliable wireless temperature measurement. Interrogation of these sensors is often based on frequency modulated or frequency stepped continuous wave-based radars (FMCW\\/FSCW). We investigate known algorithms regarding their achievable temperature accuracy and their

Stefan Schuster; Stefan Scheiblhofer; Leonhard Reindl; Andreas Stelzer

2006-01-01

404

Characterization of ITO\\/ZnPc\\/CHR\\/In p-n junction-photovoltaic device using JV, CV and photoaction measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical and photovoltaic properties of a newly designed two-layered photocell having the configuration ITO\\/ZnPc\\/CHR\\/In p-n junction were investigated. The rectification effect observed in the device is due to an energy barrier formed between the CHR and ZnPc layer. The depletion layer characteristics of the device were investigated by measuring the temperature variation of capacitance. These measurements indicate that a

G. D. Sharma; Dhiraj Saxena; M. S. Roy

1999-01-01

405

Thermal radiative properties and temperature measurement from turbine coatings  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have displayed the spectral radiative properties of ceramic thermal barrier coatings which are finding applications in high performance turbine engines. As a function of temperature, a region in the long wavelength infrared spectrum exhibits properties which will minimize the classical errors associated with temperature measurement by radiometric detection. Hollow sapphire waveguides transmit the portion of the long wavelength infrared spectrum which is optimum for radiometric temperature measurement from these materials, while the physical properties of the sapphire can withstand the combustion conditions within the engine. A prototype long wavelength infrared radiation thermometer was constructed to obtain surface temperature measurements from coated turbine blades subjected to high temperature combustion conditions.

Markham, J.R.; Kinsella, K. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)

1998-03-01

406

An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System  

PubMed Central

Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, respectively. A hysteresis test from 373K to 873K was also presented. Finally, robustness of the sensor system towards laser diode temperature drift, AFMZI temperature drift and PZT non-linearity was demonstrated.

Kim, Jeonggon Harrison

2008-01-01

407

Ion flow measurements during the rotating kink behavior of the central column in the HIST device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma flow is essentially driven in self-organization and magnetic reconnection process of compact spherical torus (ST) and spheromak in the helicity-driven systems. For example, when reversing the external toroidal field of ST, the direction not only of the plasma current but also of the toroidal ion flow is self-reversed during the formation of the flipped ST relaxed states. Mach probe measurement shows that the velocity of the ion flow reversed after the flip increases to about 20 km/s. We have been newly developing an ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS) system using a compact 16 or 64 channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) in order to measure the spatial profile of ion temperature and rotation velocity in the HIST device. The IDS system consists of a light collection system including optical fibers, 1 m-spectrometer and the PMT detector. The optical fibers covered with glass tubes are inserted into the plasma. The glass tubes can be rotated in the poloidal and the toroidal directions. The new IDS system will be applied to observations of ion temperature and plasma rotation in the flipped ST formation and in the MHD control of kinking behaviors of the central column by using the rotating magnetic field (RMF). Preliminary IDS results will be compared to those from Mach probe measurements in space.

Yamada, S.; Yoshikawa, T.; Hashimoto, S.; Nishioka, T.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

2007-11-01

408

Measurement error in estimates of sprint velocity from a laser displacement measurement device.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the measurement error associated with estimates of velocity from a laser-based device during different phases of a maximal athletic sprint. Laser-based displacement data were obtained from 10 sprinters completing a total of 89 sprints and were fitted with a fifth-order polynomial function which was differentiated to obtain instantaneous velocity data. These velocity estimates were compared against criterion high-speed video velocities at either 1, 5, 10, 30 or 50 m using a Bland-Altman analysis to assess bias and random error. Bias was highest at 1 m (+ 0.41 m/s) and tended to decrease as the measurement distance increased, with values less than + 0.10 m/s at 30 and 50 m. Random error was more consistent between distances, and reached a minimum value (0.11 m/s) at 10 m. Laser devices offer a potentially useful time-efficient tool for assessing between-subject or between-session performance from the mid-acceleration and maximum velocity phases (i. e., at 10 m and beyond), although only differences exceeding 0.22-0.30 m/s should be considered genuine. However, laser data should not be used during the first 5 m of a sprint, and are likely of limited use for assessing within-subject variation in performance during a single session. PMID:22450882

Bezodis, N E; Salo, A I T; Trewartha, G

2012-03-26

409

Temperature-compensated strain measurement using fiber Bragg grating sensors embedded in composite laminates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For accurate strain measurement by fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, it is necessary to compensate the influence of temperature change. In this study two devices using FBG sensors have been developed for temperature-compensated strain measurement. They are named 'hybrid sensor' and 'laminate sensor', respectively. The former consists of two different materials connected in series: carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced plastic. Each material contains an FBG sensor with a different Bragg wavelength, and both ends of the device are glued to a structure. Using the difference of their Young's moduli and coefficients of thermal expansion, both strain and temperature can be measured. The latter sensor is a laminate of two 90 plies of CFRP and an epoxy plate, and an FBG sensor is embedded in the epoxy plate. When the temperature changes, the cross section of the optical fiber is deformed by the thermal residual stress. The deformation of the fiber causes the birefringence and widens the reflection spectrum. Since the temperature can be calculated from the spectrum width, which changes in proportion to the temperature, the accuracy of the strain measurement is improved. The usefulness of these sensors was experimentally confirmed.

Tanaka, Nobuhira; Okabe, Yoji; Takeda, Nobuo

2003-12-01

410

Real-time etch-depth measurements of MEMS devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in situ, real-time process control tool was developed for MEMS deep reactive-ion etch (DRIE) fabrication. DRIE processes are used to manufacture high-aspect-ratio silicon structures up to several hundred microns thick, which would be difficult or impossible to produce by other methods. DRIE MEMS technologies promise to deliver new devices with increased performance and functionality at lower cost. A major

Sylvie Bosch-Charpenay; Jiazhan Xu; John Haigis; Peter A. Rosenthal; Peter R. Solomon; James M. Bustillo

2002-01-01

411

Development and evaluation of an automated streaming potential measurement device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The streaming potential and other colloidal properties of aqueous suspensions of bleached kraft fibers were evaluated by a new laboratory instrument, the Streaming Potential Jar (SPJ). This device provides precise streaming potential data under moderately high electrical conductivity levels of 0.510 mS cm?1. Features of the SPJ include automated operation, rapid acquisition and processing of data, continuous stirring, and applied

Fei Wang; Martin A. Hubbe

2001-01-01

412

Improvised explosive device (IED) counter-measures in Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given: Land mines have been used in warfare since the 13l century. Their greatest weakness has always been to coordinate the timing of the explosion with an enemy's movement. improvised explosive devices (IED's) are mines that are constructed in the field using available munitions. In the 16th century these were detonated using a clock-timer or concealed trip-wire.

J. Ziegler

2009-01-01

413

Prediction of oesophageal temperatures from core temperatures measured at other sites in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient changes in core temperature were induced in seven subjects by immersion in a hot, then a cold, bath and by light intermittent exercise. Measurements of core temperature were made at four sites: the external auditory canal, the oesophagus, the rectum and the gastrointestinal tract. A mathematical model was derived to enable prediction of oesophageal temperature from measurements made at

T M Gibson; P J Redman; A J Belyavin

1981-01-01

414

Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01

415

Nonequilibrium shock layer temperature profiles from arc jet radiation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock layer temperature profiles are obtained through analysis of radiation from shock layers produced by a blunt body inserted in arc jet flow. Spectral measurements have been made in a nitrogen flow of 54.4 gm/s at an enthalpy of 8.72 MJ/kg. Vibrational temperatures for N2+ are obtained by matching spectral regions from arc jet spectra with spectra generated using the NEQAIR code. Temperature profiles obtained from the radiation layers show a vibrational temperature higher than the rotational temperature near the front of the shock and both temperatures decrease as the flow approaches the body. The spectral measurements are made and analysis completed for four distances, from the surface of the blunt body. The corresponding shock layer thickness is approximately 3.6 cm. Although the shock layer appears to be in thermal nonequilibrium, the measured rotational temperature approaches the single temperature results of viscous shock layer calculations at this test condition.

Blackwell, Harvel E.; Yuen, Eric; Scott, Carl D.; Arepalli, Sivaram

1989-06-01

416

Temperature buffer test design, instrumentation and measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Temperature Buffer Test, TBT, is a heated full-scale field experiment carried out jointly by ANDRA and SKB at the SKB sp Hard Rock Laboratory in Southeast Sweden. An existing 8m deep, 1.8m diameter KBS-3-type deposition hole located at ?420m level has been selected for the test.The objectives are to improve the general understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical, THM, behavior of buffer

Torbjrn Sandn; Reza Goudarzi; Michel de Combarieu; Mattias kesson; Harald Hkmark

2007-01-01

417

Spintronics: Towards room temperature ferromagnetic devices via manganese and rare earth doped gallium nitride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spintronics is a multidisciplinary field aimed at the active manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. The goal being the understanding of the interaction between the particle spin and its solid-state environment, and the making of useful devices based on the acquired knowledge. If Moore's law is to continue, then we need to find alternatives to conventional microelectronics. Where conventional electronic devices rely on manipulating charge to produce desired functions, spintronic devices would manipulate both the charge flow and electron spin within that flow. This would add an extra degree of freedom to microelectronics and usher in the era of truly nanoelectronic devices. Research aimed at a whole new generation of electronic devices is underway by introducing electron spin as a new or additional physical variable, and semiconductor devices that exploit this new freedom will operate faster and more efficiently than conventional microelectronic devices and offer new functionality that promises to revolutionize the electronics industry. Long recognized as the material of choice for next-generation solid-state lighting, gallium nitride (GaN) also has proven uses in the field of high power, high frequency field-effect transistors (FETs). But its promise as a material system for spintronic applications may be its ultimate legacy. In this dissertation, the growth of gallium-manganese-nitride (GaMnN) compound semiconductor alloy was investigated through the use of an in-house built metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor. Building on previous investigations of ferromagnetic mechanisms in GaMnN, where ferromagnetism was shown to be carrier mediated, a above room temperature ferromagnetic GaMnN i-p-n diode structure was conceived. This device proved to be the first of its kind in the world, where ferromagnetic properties are controlled via proximity of the mediating holes, upon voltage bias of adjacent structure layers. Simultaneously, post-growth diffusion of ferromagnetic, rare earth species into GaN template thin films also was investigated. Structural, electrical, optical and magnetic characterization of diffused films grown on sapphire was performed. Optimization of the conditions leading to the first successful diffusion of neodymium into GaN thin films, and the magnetic and optical studies that followed are detailed. A mechanism governing and conditions promoting ferromagnetism in rare earth (RE) doped GaN is proposed. The magnetic relationship between two similar and dissimilar rare earth elements, in a single GaN crystal are investigated. Finally, spin valve and magnetic tunnel junction devices based on the magnetic properties of RE-GaN thin films are investigated.

Luen, Melvyn Oliver

418

Narrow-bandgap photovoltaic devices operating at room temperature and above with high open-circuit voltage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Narrow-bandgap (<0.25 eV) photovoltaic (PV) devices are demonstrated at room temperature and above. These PV devices are based on interband cascade (IC) structures and can achieve a high open-circuit voltage (~0.65 V at 300 K) that significantly exceeds the single bandgap limited value. This work demonstrates the capabilities and advantages of ICPV devices designed to effectively convert long wavelength (>5 ?m) infrared photons from relatively low-temperature radiation sources (<1000 K) into electricity. Detailed characteristics of these PV devices are presented and discussed.

Lotfi, Hossein; Hinkey, Robert T.; Li, Lu; Yang, Rui Q.; Klem, John F.; Johnson, Matthew B.

2013-05-01

419

Refining temperature measures in thermal/optical carbon analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal/optical methods have been widely used for quantifying total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in ambient and source particulate samples. Thermally defined carbon fractions have been used for source identification. Temperature precision in thermal carbon analysis is critical to the allocation of carbon fractions. The sample temperature is determined by a thermocouple, which is usually located in the oven near the sample. Sample and thermocouple temperature may differ owing to different thermal properties between the sample filter punch and the thermocouple, or inhomogeneities in the heating zone. Quick-drying temperature-indicating liquids (Tempil Inc., South Plainfield, NJ) of different liquefying points are used as temperature calibration standards. These consist of chemicals that change their appearance at specific temperatures and can be optically monitored to determine the sample temperature. Temperature measures were evaluated for three different models of carbon analyzers. Sample temperatures were found to differ from sensor temperatures by 10 to 50C. Temperature biases of 14 to 22C during thermal analysis were found to change carbon fraction measurements. The temperature indicators allow calibration curves to be constructed that relate the sample temperature to the temperature measured by a thermocouple.

Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Chen, L.-W. A.; Paredes-Miranda, G.; Chang, M.-C. O.; Trimble, D.; Fung, K. K.; Zhang, H.; Zhen Yu, J.

2005-11-01

420

An Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensor for Calorimetry and Differential Temperature Measurement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the application of an integrated-circuit (IC) chip which provides an easy-to-use, inexpensive, rugged, computer-interfaceable temperature sensor for calorimetry and differential temperature measurement. Discusses its design and advantages. (JRH)|

Muyskens, Mark A.

1997-01-01

421

An Efficient Technique for Determining Apparent Temperature Distributions from Antenna Temperature Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method by which the apparent microwave temperature characteristic of a flat scene is estinated from dual polarized measurements is derived and interpreted. Approximate linear relationships between antenna and apparent temperatures are established by wei...

A. K. Fung J. P. Claassen

1973-01-01

422

A two-axis goniometer for low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance measurements on single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the construction of a two-axis goniometer intended for low-temperature, single-crystal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. With the use of home-made and commercially available parts, our simple probe-head design achieves good sensitivity, while maintaining a high angular precision and the ability to orient samples also when cooled to liquid helium temperatures. The probe with the goniometer is adapted to be inserted into a commercial 4He-flow cryostat, which fits into a wide-bore superconducting solenoid magnet. Selected examples of NMR measurements illustrate the operation of the device.

Shiroka, T.; Casola, F.; Mesot, J.; Bachmann, W.; Ott, H.-R.

2012-09-01

423

Microfluidic devices for measuring gene network dynamics in single cells  

PubMed Central

The dynamics governing gene regulation have an important role in determining the phenotype of a cell or organism. From processing extracellular signals to generating internal rhythms, gene networks are central to many time-dependent cellular processes. Recent technological advances now make it possible to track the dynamics of gene networks in single cells under various environmental conditions using microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices, and researchers are using these new techniques to analyse cellular dynamics and discover regulatory mechanisms. These technologies are expected to yield novel insights and allow the construction of mathematical models that more accurately describe the complex dynamics of gene regulation.

Bennett, Matthew R.; Hasty, Jeff

2010-01-01

424

Infrared temperature measurements on solar trough absorber tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature distribution on solar trough absorber tubes determines thermal losses and hotspots can lead to material stress and limit absorber tube lifetime. The concentrated solar radiation, however, makes it difficult to determine the temperature on solar absorbers. Temperature sensors that require contact to the measurement object are not appropriate and even pyrometry fails, when external light sources interfere. Only

Markus Pfnder; Eckhard Lpfert; Paul Pistor

2007-01-01

425

Surface temperatures of insulated glazing units: Infrared thermography laboratory measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are presented for the distribution of surface temperatures on the warm-side surface of seven different insulated glazing units. Surface temperatures are measured using infrared thermography and an external referencing technique. This technique allows detailed mapping of surface temperatures that is non-intrusive. The glazings were placed between warm and cold environmental chambers that were operated at conditions corresponding to standard

Brent T. Griffith; D. Tuerler; Dariush Arasteh

1995-01-01

426

Microwave radiometric system for biomedical 'true temperature' and emissivity measurements.  

PubMed

A novel type of radiometer is described, which solves the problem of emissivity-(mismatch)-independent noise temperature measurements by simultaneous registration of an object's apparent temperature and its reflectivity with just one microwave receiver and real-time calculation of the object's emissivity and its actual temperature. PMID:6558132

Ldeke, K M; Khler, J

1983-09-01

427

A simple laser-based device for simultaneous microbial culture and absorbance measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a device specifically designed to study microbial growth with several applications related to environmental microbiology and other areas of research as astrobiology. The Automated Measuring and Cultivation device (AMC-d) enables semi-continuous absorbance measurements directly during cultivation. It can measure simultaneously up to 16 samples. Growth curves using low and fast growing microorganism were plotted, including Escherichia coli and Haloferax volcanii, a halophilic archaeon.

Abrevaya, X. C.; Cortn, E.; Areso, O.; Mauas, P. J. D.

2013-07-01

428

A measurement system of atmospheric refractive index structure parameter based on solar power device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A measurement system of Cn2 based on solar power device was developed and the performance of the system was given. The continuous measurement for 24 hours on the experimental spot was taken and the curves of Cn2 at different heights on one spot were acquired. The results of the experiments show that the system of Cn2 based on solar power device is effective and practical for the continuous measurement in the open air - especially in no electricity and unattended circumstances.

Zhao, Junwei; Qiang, Xiwen; Zhang, Zhigang; Feng, Shuanglian; Hu, Yuehong

2012-10-01

429

Advanced Distillation Curve Measurement with a Model Predictive Temperature Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous work, several significant improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids were introduced. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) temperature and volume measurement(s) of low uncertainty, and most important, (2) a composition-explicit data channel in addition to the usual temperaturevolume relationship. This latter modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows

B. L. Smith; T. J. Bruno

2006-01-01

430

Laser welding assembling of an implantable bio-medical device: investigation of temperature field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser welding is a commonly used process to assemble medical devices. The heat produced during the laser welding process may have an adverse effect on the mechanical integrity of the case assembly and the functionality of heat sensitive electronic components. In order to maintain the mechanical integrity of the case assembly and to protect the subcomponents, it is important to control the temperature in the assembling process, the investigation of the temperature distribution in the assembly during laser welding is thus necessary. In this paper, we report an experimental method and a numerical simulation for the investigation of the temperature field in the process of laser welding the eyelet to the case subassembly of the Functional Electrical Battery Powered Microstimulator (FEBPM). A pulsed 1064nm Nd:YAG laser is used as an example in this paper.

Lin, Yaomin; Jiang, Guangqiang; Calderon, Joseph L.

2011-02-01

431

Imaging of Active Microwave Devices at Cryogenic Temperatures using Scanning Near-Field Microwave Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to image electric fields in operating microwave devices is interesting both from the fundamental point of view and for diagnostic purposes. To that end we have constructed a scanning near-field microwave microscope which uses an open-ended coaxial probe and operates at cryogenic temperatures.(For related publications see: C. P. Vlahacos, R. C. Black, S. M. Anlage, A. Amar and F. C. Wellstood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69), 3274 (1996) and S. M. Anlage, C. P. Vlahacos, Sudeep Dutta and F. C. Wellstood, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 7, 3686 (1997). Using this system we have imaged electric fields generated by both normal metal and superconducting microstrip resonators at temperatures ranging from 77 K to 300 K. We will present images and discuss our results including observations of clear standing wave patterns at the fundamental resonant frequency and an increased quality factor of the resonators at low temperatures.

Thanawalla, Ashfaq S.; Dutta, S. K.; Vlahacos, C. P.; Steinhauer, D. E.; Feenstra, B. J.; Anlage, Steven M.; Wellstood, F. C.

1998-03-01

432

Development and Optimization of a Device for Diferencial Pressure Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The measurements of reduced values of differential pressure, are studied. Several situations are described where the diferencial pressure accurate measurement is necessary in routine works in the Thermohydraulic Laboratory, as well as, the major pressure ...

G. A. Santarine

1980-01-01

433

Research on temperature measurement by X-ray transmission intensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between temperature and X-ray transmission intensity was researched and analyzed by inspecting material density change, which is caused by thermal expansion. A digital radiographic system was employed to obtain the images. On this basis, we deduced the temperature formula based on the average gray level of the captured images. The measured temperatures were obtained from the experiments and the errors were analyzed. We concluded that when X-rays pass through an object, the X-ray strength and the gray level of the image under high temperatures are greater than those under lower temperatures and the image gray level error has great impact on the accuracy of the measured temperature. The presented approach allowed the non-contact temperature measurement of material.

Chen, Shuyue; Cheng, Rong

2013-02-01

434

Mechanical property measurements at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques are described for the measurement of fracture toughness, tensile properties (yield and ultimate strength, elongation to failure, and reduction of area), and fatigue crack growth rate, at tempeatures down to 4 K. for fracture toughness, the critical J-contour integral for Mode I Fracture is used, along with the J-resistance curve, which allows material characterization by crack propagation. Samples are

D. T. Read; R. L. Tobler

1982-01-01

435

A new method and device for motion accuracy measurement of NC machine tools. Part 1: principle and equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes in two parts a new method and device for measuring motion accuracy of numerical control (NC) machine tools. In the first part, the measurement principle and the characteristics of the prototype device are proposed. The device consists of a double-bar linkage with two rotary encoders. The working range of the device is disc-shaped with a radius of

Hua Qiu; Yan Li; Yanbin Li

2001-01-01

436

Design of an Embedded Device for Surface Roughness Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of concrete surface roughness is a crucial parameter for external reinforcement applications. Current surface roughness measurement technology is geared toward measuring minute surface roughness values like imperfections on metal polished surfaces. Concrete surface roughness, being much higher than those, is not suitable for those methods. The paper explains the design requirements and design details of an embedded system designed

Tarik Ozkul

2006-01-01

437

Measurement of workpiece temperature during welding for welding robot control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MIG/MAG welding robot seam tracking system based on a symetrically noncontact temperature measurement is presented. Using literature in formation on temperature distribution during welding, a model for the prediction of the behavior of a pyrometer twin is constructed. The temperature difference between the measuring points constitutes the signal for a position control of the twin holding welding torch. As temperature measurement is made impossible by radiation originating from the welding arc, this is done during intermittent welding in time intervals in which the welding arc is switched off.

Illegrams, P. F. A.

438

Proximity effect thermometer for local temperature measurements on mesoscopic samples.  

SciTech Connect

Using the strong temperature-dependent resistance of a normal metal wire in proximity to a superconductor, we have been able to measure the local temperature of electrons heated by flowing a direct-current (dc) in a metallic wire to within a few tens of millikelvin at low temperatures. By placing two such thermometers at different parts of a sample, we have been able to measure the temperature difference induced by a dc flowing in the samples. This technique may provide a flexible means of making quantitative thermal and thermoelectric measurements on mesoscopic metallic samples.

Aumentado, J.; Eom, J.; Chandrasekhar, V.; Baldo, P. M.; Rehn, L. E.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ; Univ. of Chicago

1999-11-29

439

A high temperature apparatus for measurement of the Seebeck coefficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus with various features to minimize typical sources of error is designed and built. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement error are described and principles to overcome these are proposed. With these guiding principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus with a uniaxial 4-point contact geometry is designed to operate from room temperature to over 1200 K. This instrument design is simple to operate, and suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

Iwanaga, Shiho; Toberer, Eric S.; Lalonde, Aaron; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

2011-06-01

440

The measurement of single particle temperature in plasma sprays  

SciTech Connect

A measurement technique for simultaneously obtaining the size, velocity, temperature, and relative number density of particles entrained in high temperature flow fields is described. In determining the particle temperature from a two-color pyrometery technique, assumptions about the relative spectral emissivity of the particle are required. For situations in which the particle surface undergoes chemical reactions the assumption of grey body behavior is shown to introduce large Temperature measurement uncertainties. Results from isolated, laser heated, single particle measurements and in-flight data from the plasma spraying of WC-Co are presented. 10 refs., 5 figs.

Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Bolsaitis, P.P.; Elliott, J.F. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1990-01-01

441

Open circuit voltage temperature coefficients vs. concentration: Theory, indoor measurements, and outdoor measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current-voltage characteristics of multijunction III-V solar cells from several different vendors were measured at different light concentrations and temperatures. Measurements were taken indoors using flash lamp solar simulators and outdoors under natural sunlight. The change in open-circuit voltage with temperature was measured. Modeled results, indoor measurements, and outdoor measurements are compared.

Bagienski, Will; Kinsey, Geoffrey S.; Liu, Mingguo; Nayak, Adi; Garboushian, Vahan

2012-10-01

442

7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section...of Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple...portion of its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65 percent and...

2013-01-01

443

Temperature Limits and Measurements for Rating of DC Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing industrial practice for determining the temperature rise of d-c machines is based on measurements with thermometers, placed on exposed or accessible surfaces of the machine. Tests using resistance measurements with improvements in technique have disclosed the existence of considerably higher internal temperatures than those indicated by thermometers, especially for short-time rated machines. Experience has indicated, nevertheless, that such machines

F. A. Compton

1943-01-01

444

High accuracy measuring method of absolute temperatures using thermistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

High accuracy measuring techniques presuppose a high standard of quality of all components of a system. Here, the author shows how thermistors are well-suited as resistance sensors for high precision temperature measurements. Multislope analog to digital converters with very high resolution in connection with compensation methods result in the exact determination of absolute temperatures

V. Hans

1992-01-01

445

SYNOPTIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS OF A GLACIER LAKE AND ITS ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature measurements of a small (area = 20.0 hectares), high (altitude = 1,620 m) lake located at the terminus of South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and its ice and rock environment were made with infrared radiometers (8-14\\/i range) during various mtorologie regimes. By making simultaneous measurements of lake surface temperatures with four sensors it was found that the \\

William J. CAMPBELL

446

An array for measuring detailed soil temperature profiles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil temperature dynamics can provide insights into soil variables which are much more difficult or impossible to measure. We designed an array to measure temperature at precise depth increments. Data was collected to determine if the construction materials influence surface and near-surface tempera...

447

On a Readout Technique for Monochromatic Infrared Gas Temperature Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was desired to measure the temperature of a high velocity, high temperature, low density moving gas without disturbing the flow. The natural infrared energy loss of the gas led to an Infrared Monochromatic Radiation (IMRA) pyrometer as a measuring inst...

D. H. Murray

1966-01-01

448

MODELS FOR INDIRECT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS OF MELT IN LD CONVERTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with refinement of steel in LD converter, where are the processes, which run near high temperature and in very aggressive environment. For these reasons a continual measurement of some values is not possible during the converter process by direct measuring (sensors). One of their values is the temperature of melt, which is very important for tapping of

Marek LACIAK; Karol KOSTR

449

Measurement of flame temperature distribution by IR emission computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noncontact and nondestructive measurements for determining flame temperature distribution are under investigation. This paper proposes a new method we have called infrared emission computed tomography to measure the temperature distribution in arbitrary transaxial layers of the flame by calculating the infrared radiation intensity emitted from a flame as the projection data. The authors developed an experimental system using an infrared

Hiroki Uchiyama; Masato Nakajima; Hiyoshi Kouhokuku

1985-01-01

450

Long symmetric high-pressure cell for magnetic measurements in superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a high-pressure cell for magnetic measurements in a magnetic property measurement system superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The cell has been developed for studies of weakly magnetic materials and has the operating pressure limit of 1 GPa. Its design is focused on reducing the background signal by making the pressure cell symmetric with respect to the sample in order to provide an integrable SQUID response. The use of an externally loaded cylinder has resulted in the increased strength of the cell and in the provision of a larger sample volume. The optimization of the cell's length has made it possible to use the approximation of an infinitely long cylinder in the whole range of accessible pressures and to apply the Lam equation for calculating the change in the diameter of the cell as a function of applied pressure. This enabled us to remove a superconductive manometer from the cell and use the diameter-pressure calibration instead. This has further increased the sensitivity of the measurements at low temperatures which is particularly relevant to studies of weakly magnetic materials. The performance of the cell is illustrated by the results of high-pressure measurements on the molecular antiferromagnet [N(C2H5)4][FeCl4].

Kamenev, K. V.; Tancharakorn, S.; Robertson, N.; Harrison, A.

2006-07-01

451

Two-dimensional phase contrast imaging for local turbulence measurements in large helical device (invited)  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional phase contrast imaging (2D) installed on the large helical device (LHD) is a unique diagnostic for local turbulence measurements. A 10.6 {mu}m infrared CO{sub 2} laser and 6x8 channel HgCdTe 2D detector are used. The length of the scattering volume is larger than plasma size. However, the asymmetry of turbulence structure with respect to the magnetic field and magnetic shear make local turbulence measurements possible. From a 2D image of the integrated fluctuations, the spatial cross-correlation function was estimated using time domain correlation analysis, then, the integrated 2D k-spectrum is obtained using maximum entropy method. The 2D k-spectrum is converted from Cartesian coordinates to cylindrical coordinates. Finally, the angle in cylindrical coordinate is converted to flux surface labels. The fluctuation profile over almost the entire plasma diameter can be obtained at a single moment. The measurable k-region can be varied by adjusting the detection optics. Presently, k=0.1-1.0 mm{sup -1} can be measured which is expected region of ion temperature gradient modes and trapped electron mode in LHD. The spatial resolution is 10%-50% of the minor radius.

Tanaka, K.; Michael, C. A.; Kawahata, K.; Akiyama, T.; Tokuzawa, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Vyacheslavov, L. N.; Sanin, A. L. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Okajima, S. [School of Engineering, Chubu University, Kasugai 487-8501 (Japan)

2008-10-15

452

FCC (Federal Communications Commission) Methods of Measurement of Radio Noise Emissions from Computing Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This standard sets forth uniform methods of measurement of radio noise emitted from computing devices defined in section 15.4 of FCC Rules. The technical standards for computing devices are set forth in Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC Rules (47 CFR Part 15J)....

1983-01-01

453

Automatic micro flow rate measurement using a modified computer mouse device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic system for measuring micro flow rate of liquid is presented. A computer mouse device was modified as an optical encoder for this purpose. All the sensing and electrical signal are processed by the mouse device. A very simple structure has been realized using the PS\\/2 mouse interface to get electric power and transfer the data to computer directly.

Zhen YANG; Ryutaro MAEDA

2000-01-01

454

Handheld modern computer brings new features to portable X-ray fluorescence coating thickness measurement device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray fluorescence is routinely used to measure coating thickness on table top setup. The use of a handheld modern computer (PC compatible) gives the possibility to build a portable device with new features. The computer is used to control device's components and to do processor consuming calculation. The user interface is push button to allow the utilization by nonspecialized operator.

Carapelle, Alain; Defise, Jean-Marc; Strivay, David; Garnir, Henri-Pierre

2011-06-01

455

An in-shoe device to measure plantar pressure during daily human activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we report the development of a novel device, integrated into a shoe, to monitor plantar pressure under real-life conditions by reducing the spatial and temporal resolution. The device consists of a shoe insole with seven pressure-sensitive conductive rubber sensors and a wireless data transmission unit incorporated into a smaller measurement unit. One advantage of this approach is

M. Saito; K. Nakajima; C. Takano; Y. Ohta; C. Sugimoto; R. Ezoe; K. Sasaki; H. Hosaka; T. Ifukube; S. Ino; K. Yamashita

2011-01-01

456

Hand-held metal detectors and medical devices: measurements and testing for electromagnetic compatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examines the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of several priority medical devices, such as implanted cardiac pacemakers and implanted nerve stimulators, with the emissions from 28 different hand-held metal detectors (HHMDs). The HHMD emissions were measured and mapped to assess the waveforms, magnitude, and distribution of emission field strengths. Testing with the sample medical devices was performed using a saline

Donald Witters; V. Buzduga; S. Seidman; W. Kainz; J. Casamento; P. Ruggera

2005-01-01

457

Extremely strong room-temperature transient photocurrent-detected magnetic resonance in organic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extremely strong room-temperature photocurrent- (PC- or IPC-) detected magnetic resonance (PCDMR) that elucidates transport and trapping phenomena in organic devices, in particular solar cells, is described. When monitoring the transient PCDMR in indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl)-hexoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV)/Al devices, where the MEH-PPV film was baked overnight at 100 C in O2, it is observed that |?IPC/IPC| peaks at values ?1, where ?IPC is the change in IPC induced by magnetic resonance conditions. Importantly, ?IPC and IPC are of different origin. The mechanism most likely responsible for this effect is the spin-dependent formation of spinless bipolarons adjacent to negatively charged deep traps, apparently induced in particular by oxygen centers, to form trions.

Chen, Ying; Liu, Rui; Cai, Min; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph

2012-12-01

458

Spatially resolved wall temperature measurements during flow boiling in microchannels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal variations of channel wall temperature during flow boiling microchannel flows using infrared thermography are presented and analyzed. In particular, the top channel wall temperature in a branching microchannel silicon heat sink is measured non-intrusively. Using this technique, time-averaged temperature measurements, with a spatial resolution of 10?m, are presented over an 18mm18mm area of the heat sink. Also

Daniel Krebs; Vinod Narayanan; James Liburdy; Deborah Pence

2010-01-01

459

High-precision measurement of absolute temperatures using thermistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-precision temperature measuring technique presupposes a high standard of quality of all components of the measuring system. Most important is the temperature sensor. Thermistors have been proved good for long-term stability in a limited temperature range from - 20 to + 50 C. The non-linear characteristic of the thermistor can be mathematically described. Multislope analogue-digital converters with very high resolution

Volker H. Hans

460

A fiber optic sensor for simultaneous temperature and saccharinity measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new fiber optic sensor for simultaneous measurement of temperature and saccharinity with multiplexed polymer-coated fiber Bragg gratings is proposed and demonstrated. It has been found that the polyimide-coated fibre Bragg gratings respond to variations of both temperature and saccharinity while the acrylate-coated fiber Bragg grating is only sensitive to the environmental temperature. The experimental results showed that temperature and

Ping Lu; Qiying Chen

2007-01-01

461

Radiation thermometry applied to temperature measurement in the cutting process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature measurement of cutting tools used in machining processes has great technological importance, and it is interesting in a large number of industrial applications because wear is directly related to this variable. The influence of emissivity on the temperature measurement using radiation thermometers and the dependence of the measured temperature on the emissivity as a function of the surface roughness and the oxidation state is studied in this paper. Emissivity is measured using the direct radiometric method for uncoated P10 tungsten carbide inserts. Theoretical temperature shifts produced by changes in emissivity are estimated for several types of radiation thermometers, and these shifts are compared to the experimental temperature measurements carried out in the orthogonal turning process of cylindrical samples of 42CrMo4 steel with different machinability grades.

Pujana, J.; del Campo, L.; Prez-Sez, R. B.; Tello, M. J.; Gallego, I.; Arrazola, P. J.

2007-11-01

462

Method for local temperature measurement in a nanoreactor for in situ high-resolution electron microscopy.  

PubMed

In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of solids under reactive gas conditions can be facilitated by microelectromechanical system devices called nanoreactors. These nanoreactors are windowed cells containing nanoliter volumes of gas at ambient pressures and elevated temperatures. However, due to the high spatial confinement of the reaction environment, traditional methods for measuring process parameters, such as the local temperature, are difficult to apply. To address this issue, we devise an electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) method that probes the local temperature of the reaction volume under inspection by the electron beam. The local gas density, as measured using quantitative EELS, is combined with the inherent relation between gas density and temperature, as described by the ideal gas law, to obtain the local temperature. Using this method we determined the temperature gradient in a nanoreactor in situ, while the average, global temperature was monitored by a traditional measurement of the electrical resistivity of the heater. The local gas temperatures had a maximum of 56C deviation from the global heater values under the applied conditions. The local temperatures, obtained with the proposed method, are in good agreement with predictions from an analytical model. PMID:23831940

Vendelbo, S B; Kooyman, P J; Creemer, J F; Morana, B; Mele, L; Dona, P; Nelissen, B J; Helveg, S

2013-04-28

463

Measurement of low temperatures in strong magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

ies rather widely, depending on the application of the instruments. Roughly a 176 error is allowed for instruments used in service, a 176 error is allowed for standard thermometers, and a 176 error is allowed for thermometers of the reference class or thermometers used for precision measurements in the manufacture of cryogenic machines and devices. Meanwhile, it has turned out

D. N. Astrov; G. S. Abilov; B. I. Al'shin

1977-01-01

464

10 GHz-Range Surface Acoustic Wave Low Loss Filter Measured at Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 10 GHz-range surface acoustic wave (SAW) is of great importance in the field of physical acoustics and application of SAW devices, for example, in mobile and wireless communications. The temperature dependency of the propagation attenuation at 10 GHz-range is measured using the three-transducer system with an electrode width of less than 0.1 m, which is fabricated using an electron

Kazuhiko Yamanouchi; Hideyuki Nakagawa; Jamil Ahmad Qureshi; Hiroyuki Odagawa

1999-01-01

465

An automated ultrasonic device to measure elastic constants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A not overly expensive and fast to assemble arrangement for measuring ult