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Sample records for temperature measurement device

  1. High temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  2. Temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Bible, Don W.; Sohns, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  3. High-temperature-measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-27

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2000/sup 0/C) is described. The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensonally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  4. Noncontact temperature pattern measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D. (Inventor); Allen, J. L. (Inventor); Lee, M. C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a noncontact imagine pyrometer system for obtaining the true temperature image of a given substance in a contactless fashion without making assumptions about localized emissivity of the substance or the uniformity of the temperature distribution. Such a contactless temperature imaging system has particular application in the study and production of many materials where the physical contact required to make a conventional temperature measurement drastically effects or contaminates the physical process being observed. Two examples where accurate temperature profiles are of critical interest are: (1) the solid-liquid phase change interface in the production of electronic materials and (2) metastable materials in the undercooling region. The apparent novelty resides in the recognition that an active pyrometer system may be advantageously adapted to perform contactless temperature imaging so that an accurate temperature profile can be obtained.

  5. Noncontact temperature pattern measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Allen, James L. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Laser pyrometer techniques are utilized to accurately image a true temperature distribution on a given target without touching the target and without knowing the localized emissivity of the target. The pyrometer utilizes a very high definition laser beam and photodetector, both having a very narrow focus. The pyrometer is mounted in a mechanism designed to permit the pyrometer to be aimed and focused at precise localized points on the target surface. The pyrometer is swept over the surface area to be imaged, temperature measurements being taken at each point of focus.

  6. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  11. Microwave temperature measurement in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Wong, David; Yesiloz, Gurkan; Boybay, Muhammed S; Ren, Carolyn L

    2016-06-21

    In spite of various existing thermometry methods for microfluidic applications, it remains challenging to measure the temperature of individual droplets in segmented flow since fast moving droplets do not allow sufficient exposure time demanded by both fluorescence based techniques and resistance temperature detectors. In this contribution, we present a microwave thermometry method that is non-intrusive and requires minimal external equipment. This technique relies on the correlation of fluid temperature with the resonance frequency of a microwave sensor that operates at a GHz frequency range. It is a remote yet direct sensing technique, eliminating the need for mixing fluorescent dyes with the working fluid. We demonstrated that the sensor operates reliably over multiple tests and is capable of both heating and sensing. It measures temperature to within ±1.2 °C accuracy and can detect the temperature of individual droplets. PMID:27199210

  12. Miniature ingestible telemeter devices to measure deep-body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A telemetry device comprised of a pill-size ingestible transmitter developed to obtain deep body temperature measurements of a human is described. The device has particular utility in the medical field where deep body temperatures provide an indication of general health.

  13. Thermal modeling and temperature measurements in optoelectronic waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, M.; Boudreau, Marcel G.; Masut, Remo A.

    1998-12-01

    Optoelectronic devices are particularly sensitive to temperature changes induced by light absorption and current flow. In order to study the thermal issues arising in the Mach-Zehnder optical modulator manufactured by Nortel, a non-linear finite-element thermal model of the device was constructed, which computes the internal temperature as a function of the applied voltage and optical power in the waveguide. An experimental technique was also developed, in which liquid crystals are used to measure the temperature on the device surface. The model predictions and the experimental results were found to agree well over wide ranges of optical power and voltage. The model and the technique have produced evidence of a thermal cross-talk between an integrated laser and the modulator: the peak internal temperature inside the modulator is higher in integrated devices than in the stand-alone configuration for identical voltage and optical power. Because of the desire to integrate multiple devices on a common substrate and the continuous increase of the optical powers in optical fiber systems, thermal issues will only become more important in future systems.

  14. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Nelms, R. Mark; Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray

    1994-01-01

    Silicon based power devices can be used at 200 C. The device measurements made during this program show a predictable shift in device parameters with increasing temperature. No catastrophic or abrupt changes occurred in the parameters over the temperature range. As expected, the most dramatic change was the increase in leakage currents with increasing temperature. At 200 C the leakage current was in the milliAmp range but was still several orders of magnitude lower than the on-state current capabilities of the devices under test. This increase must be considered in the design of circuits using power transistors at elevated temperature. Three circuit topologies have been prototyped using MOSFET's and IGBT's. The circuits were designed using zero current or zero voltage switching techniques to eliminate or minimize hard switching of the power transistors. These circuits have functioned properly over the temperature range. One thousand hour life data have been collected for two power supplies with no failures and no significant change in operating efficiency. While additional reliability testing should be conducted, the feasibility of designing soft switched circuits for operation at 200 C has been successfully demonstrated.

  15. Thermal measurement. Nanoscale temperature mapping in operating microelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Mecklenburg, Matthew; Hubbard, William A; White, E R; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, B C

    2015-02-01

    Modern microelectronic devices have nanoscale features that dissipate power nonuniformly, but fundamental physical limits frustrate efforts to detect the resulting temperature gradients. Contact thermometers disturb the temperature of a small system, while radiation thermometers struggle to beat the diffraction limit. Exploiting the same physics as Fahrenheit's glass-bulb thermometer, we mapped the thermal expansion of Joule-heated, 80-nanometer-thick aluminum wires by precisely measuring changes in density. With a scanning transmission electron microscope and electron energy loss spectroscopy, we quantified the local density via the energy of aluminum's bulk plasmon. Rescaling density to temperature yields maps with a statistical precision of 3 kelvin/hertz(-1/2), an accuracy of 10%, and nanometer-scale resolution. Many common metals and semiconductors have sufficiently sharp plasmon resonances to serve as their own thermometers. PMID:25657242

  16. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Semiconductor power devices are typically rated for operation below 150 C. Little data is known for power semiconductors over 150 C. In most cases, the device is derated to zero operating power at 175 C. At the high temperature end of the temperature range, the intrinsic carrier concentration increases to equal the doping concentration level and the silicon behaves as an intrinsic semiconductor. The increase in intrinsic carrier concentration results in a shift of the Fermi level toward mid-bandgap at elevated temperatures. This produces a shift in devices characteristics as a function of temperature. By increasing the doping concentration higher operating temperatures can be achieved. This technique was used to fabricate low power analog and digital devices in silicon with junction operating temperatures in excess of 300 C. Additional temperature effects include increased p-n junction leakage with increasing temperature, resulting in increased resistivity. The temperature dependency of physical properties results in variations in device characteristics. These must be quantified and understood in order to develop extended temperature range operation.

  17. Measurements of temperature and density in magnetic confinement fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udintsev, Victor S.

    2010-11-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion can fulfil the demand of mankind to have an inexhaustible source of energy that does not cause any serious environmental pollution. The aim of fusion research is to build a continuously operating reactor in which the energy released by the fusion reactions is sufficiently high to keep the plasma hot and to produce more fusion reactions. The knowledge of the plasma temperature and density, together with the energy confinement time, is therefore very important for the effective control of the self-sustained fusion reactor. Various methods and diagnostics for measurements of the plasma temperature and density in present experimental fusion devices, as well as requirements for the future fusion reactors, will be discussed. A special attention will be given to the temperature and density diagnostics in ITER tokamak, which is presently under construction by several international partners at Cadarache in France. Development of these diagnostics is a major challenge because of severe environment, strict engineering requirements, safety issues and the need for high reliability in the measurements.

  18. Improvement of the operation rate of medical temperature measuring devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotra, O.; Boyko, O.; Zyska, T.

    2014-08-01

    A method of reducing measuring time of temperature measurements of biological objects based on preheating the resistance temperature detector (RTD) up to the temperature close to the temperature to be measured, is proposed. It has been found that at the same measuring time, the preheating allows to decrease the measurement error by a factor of 5 to 45 over the temperature range of 35-41°С. The measurement time is reduced by 1.6-4 times over this range, keeping the same value of the measurement error.

  19. Device for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-08-03

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  20. 21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered direct-contact temperature measurement....1570 Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device. (a) Identification. A powered direct-contact temperature measurement device is a device which contains a power source and is used to...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  2. 21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered direct-contact temperature measurement....1570 Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device. (a) Identification. A powered direct-contact temperature measurement device is a device which contains a power source and is used to...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  5. 21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered direct-contact temperature measurement....1570 Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device. (a) Identification. A powered direct-contact temperature measurement device is a device which contains a power source and is used to...

  6. 21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered direct-contact temperature measurement....1570 Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device. (a) Identification. A powered direct-contact temperature measurement device is a device which contains a power source and is used to...

  7. 21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered direct-contact temperature measurement....1570 Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device. (a) Identification. A powered direct-contact temperature measurement device is a device which contains a power source and is used to...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  10. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Cosby, Melvin; Johnson, R. Wayne; Nelms, R. Mark; Askew, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Characterization results of a MOS controlled thyristor (MCTA60P60) are presented. This device is rated for 60A and for an anode to cathode voltage of -600 V. As discussed in the last report, the MCT failed during 500 V leakage tests at 200 C. In contrast to the BJT (bipolar junction transistor), MOSFET, and IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) devices tested, the breakdown voltage of the MCT decreases significantly with increasing temperature.

  11. Fiber - Optic Devices as Temperature Sensors for Temperature Measurements in AC Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rablau, Corneliu; Lafrance, Joseph; Sala, Anca

    2007-10-01

    We report on the investigation of several fiber-optic devices as potential sensors for temperature measurements in AC magnetic fields. Common temperature sensors, such as thermocouples, thermistors or diodes, will create random and/or systematic errors when placed in a magnetic field. A DC magnetic field is susceptible to create a systematic offset to the measurement, while in an AC magnetic field of variable frequency random errors which cannot be corrected for can also be introduced. Fiber-Bragg-gratings and thin film filters have an inherent temperature dependence. Detrimental for their primary applications, the same dependence allows one to use such devices as temperature sensors. In an AC magnetic field, they present the advantage of being immune to electromagnetic interference. Moreover, for fiber-Bragg-gratings, the shape factor and small mass of the bare-fiber device make it convenient for temperature measurements on small samples. We studied several thin-film filters and fiber-Bragg-gratings and compared their temperature measurement capabilities in AC magnetic fields of 0 to 150 Gauss, 0 to 20 KHz to the results provided by off-the-shelf thermocouples and thermistor-based temperature measurement systems.

  12. Miniature bioelectric device accurately measures and telemeters temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.

    1966-01-01

    Miniature micropower solid-state circuit measures and telemeters the body temperature of laboratory animals over periods up to two years. The circuit employs a thermistor as a temperature sensing element and an fm transmitter. It is constructed from conventional discrete components or integrated circuits.

  13. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray; Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett

    1991-01-01

    The results of the NPN bipolar transistor (BJT) (2N6023) breakdown voltage measurements were analyzed. Switching measurements were made on the NPN BJT, the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) (TA9796) and the N-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) (RFH75N05E). Efforts were also made to build a H-bridge inverter. Also discussed are the plans that have been made to do life testing on the devices, to build an inductive switching test circuit and to build a dc/dc switched mode converter.

  14. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Testing of the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS)-controlled thyristor (MCT) has uncovered a failure mechanism at elevated temperature. The failure appears to be due to breakdown of the gate oxide. Further testing is underway to verify the failure mode. Higher current level inverters were built to demonstrate 200 C operation of the N-MOSFET's and insulated-gate-bipolar transistors (IGBT's) and for life testing. One MOSFET failed early in testing. The origin of this failure is being studied. No IGBT's have failed. A prototype 28-to-42 V converter was built and is being tested at room temperature. The control loop is being finalized. Temperature stable, high value (10 micro-F) capacitors appear to be the limiting factor in the design at this time. In this application, the efficiency will be lower for the IGBT version due to the large V sub(cesat) (3.5-4 V) compared to the input voltage of 28 V. The MOSFET version should have higher efficiency; however, the MOSFET does not appear to be as robust at 200 C. Both versions are built for comparison.

  15. Sublimation measurements and analysis of high temperature thermoelectric materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, V.; Noon, L.

    1983-01-01

    High temperature thermoelectric device sublimation effects are compared for rare earth sulfides, selenides, and state-of-the-art Si-Ge alloys. Although rare earth calcogenides can potentially exhibit superior sublimation characteristics, the state-of-the-art Si-Ge alloy with silicon nitride sublimation-inhibitive coating has been tested to 1000 C. Attention is given to the ceramic electrolyte cells, forming within electrical and thermal insulation, which affect leakage conductance measurements in Si-Ge thermoelectric generators.

  16. Device and method for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2002-10-29

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  17. Temperature measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003400.htm Temperature measurement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The measurement of body temperature can help detect illness. It can also monitor ...

  18. Impact of temperature on single event upset measurement by heavy ions in SRAM devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianqi, Liu; Chao, Geng; Zhangang, Zhang; Fazhan, Zhao; Song, Gu; Teng, Tong; Kai, Xi; Gang, Liu; Zhengsheng, Han; Mingdong, Hou; Jie, Liu

    2014-08-01

    The temperature dependence of single event upset (SEU) measurement both in commercial bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) has been investigated by experiment in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). For commercial bulk SRAM, the SEU cross section measured by 12C ions is very sensitive to the temperature. The temperature test of SEU in SOI SRAM was conducted by 209Bi and 12C ions, respectively, and the SEU cross sections display a remarkable growth with the elevated temperature for 12C ions but keep constant for 209Bi ions. The impact of temperature on SEU measurement was analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. It is revealed that the SEU cross section is significantly affected by the temperature around the threshold linear energy transfer of SEU occurrence. As the SEU occurrence approaches saturation, the SEU cross section gradually exhibits less temperature dependency. Based on this result, the experimental data measured in HIRFL was analyzed, and then a reasonable method of predicting the on-orbit SEU rate was proposed.

  19. Variable-temperature device for precision Casimir-force-gradient measurement.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Garza, R; Mohideen, U

    2013-02-01

    We present the design and use of an instrument that is based on a microcantilever to perform precision force gradient measurements. We demonstrate its performance through measurements of the Casimir pressure at various temperatures. The instrument can operate in high vacuum environments and temperatures between 5 K and 300 K. It uses an all-fiber optical interferometer to detect the resonant-frequency shift of a customized microcantilever due to the presence of a force gradient. To measure this shift we use both, a technique of frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy and the direct recording of the thermomechanical resonant frequency. PMID:23464254

  20. A robust and well shielded thermal conductivity device for low temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Toews, W H; Hill, R W

    2014-04-01

    We present a compact mechanically robust thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for measurements at low temperatures (<1 K) and high magnetic fields on small high-purity single crystal samples. A high-conductivity copper box is used to enclose the sample and all the components. The box provides protection for the thermometers, heater, and most importantly the sample increasing the portability of the mount. In addition to physical protection, the copper box is also effective at shielding radio frequency electromagnetic interference and thermal radiation, which is essential for low temperature measurements. A printed circuit board in conjunction with a braided ribbon cable is used to organize the delicate wiring and provide mechanical robustness. PMID:24784624

  1. Temperature differential detection device

    DOEpatents

    Girling, Peter M.

    1986-01-01

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

  2. Temperature differential detection device

    DOEpatents

    Girling, P.M.

    1986-04-22

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

  3. Portable emittance measurement device

    SciTech Connect

    Liakin, D.; Seleznev, D.; Orlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Kropachev, G.; Kulevoy, T.; Yakushin, P.

    2010-02-15

    In Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) the portable emittance measurements device is developed. It provides emittance measurements both with ''pepper-pot'' and ''two slits'' methods. Depending on the method of measurements, either slits or pepper-pot mask with scintillator are mounted on the two activators and are installed in two standard Balzer's cross chamber with CF-100 flanges. To match the angle resolution for measured beam, the length of the stainless steel pipe between two crosses changes is adjusted. The description of the device and results of emittance measurements at the ITEP ion source test bench are presented.

  4. Human performance measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J.; Scow, J.

    1970-01-01

    Complex coordinator, consisting of operator control console, recorder, subject display panel, and limb controls, measures human performance by testing perceptual and motor skills. Device measures psychophysiological functions in drug and environmental studies, and is applicable to early detection of psychophysiological body changes.

  5. Solid state device for two-wire downhole temperature measurement as a function of current. Final performance technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Roger; Anderson, David

    2002-01-15

    Several metals systems were reviewed for their potential to act as resistive temperature devices. Platinum metal was selected as the metal of choice. Platinum was plated onto 5 mil copper wire, and then subsequently coated with Accusol's proprietary ceramic coating. The copper was etched out in an attempt to make a pure platinum, high resistive, resistive-temperature device. The platinum plating on the wire cracked during processing, resulting in a discontinuous layer of platinum, and the element could not be formed in this way.

  6. Temperature measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. Wait for 5 minutes before reading. Plastic strip thermometers change color to show the temperature. This method is the least accurate. Place the strip on the forehead and read it after 1 ...

  7. Temperature Measurement Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center has designed a simple but medically important device--one which holds temperature probes, called thermistors, to a person's skin without affecting the characteristics of the skin segment being measured. The device improves the accuracy of skin surface temperature measurements, valuable data in health evaluation. The need for such a device was recognized in the course of life science experiments at Ames. In earlier methods, the sensing head of the temperature probe was affixed to the patient's skin by tape or elastic bands. This created a heat variance which altered skin temperature readings. The Ames-developed thermistor holder is a plastic ring with tab extensions, shown in the upper photo on the chest, arm and leg of the patient undergoing examination. The ring holds the sensing head of the temperature probe and provides firm, constant pressure between the skin and the probe. The tabs help stabilize the ring and provide attachment points for the fastening tape or bands, which do not directly touch the sensor. With this new tool, it is possible to determine more accurately the physiological effects of strenuous exercise, particularly on the treadmill. The holder is commercially available from Yellow Springs Instrument Company, Inc., Yellow Springs, Ohio, which is producing the device under a NASA patent license.

  8. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six-component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This rotating balance was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher-frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  9. Temperature dependence of polymer photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Yuko

    One of many steps to develop a sustainable society is to reduce the use of fossil fuels by replacing them with renewable energy sources, such as solar energy. This dissertation concerns one of the most contemporary methods to harvest solar radiation and covert it to electricity, using thin polymer films. The photovoltaic devices in this study consisted of a thin layer of p-phenylenevinylene (PPV) based semiconducting polymer sandwiched between two metals (semi-transparent ITO and evaporated metal electrode). Two modified device structures were studied, an interfacial heterojunction device, which includes an additional layer of inorganic n-type semiconductor (Ti-oxides) and a bulk heterojunction device, which is formed by blending electron-attracting materials. Both modifications resulted in higher device performances under ambient conditions due to an increased number of dissociation sites. From studies of inorganic solar cells, it is well known that temperature has a large effect on device performance. However, there are only a few studies on organic Solar cells, concerning the temperature dependence. This thesis focuses on understanding the temperature dependent behaviors of polymer photovoltaic devices. Temperature dependence study allows us to examine how the device parameters such as short circuit current (Isc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) are affected by the material properties and the device architectures. The current-voltage relationships were measured in a temperature controlled OXFORD cryostat operating between 150K and 404K. From the dark current-voltage measurements, the field-independent hole mobility (mu0) was extracted, using a space charge limited current analysis. From the photocurrent-voltage measurements, the temperature dependence on Isc, Voc, and fill factor were studied. The temperature characteristics of Isc (T) were compared to that of mu0(T), and two different dependencies were obtained for different device architectures. The temperature

  10. Capacitance measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, W.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    A capacitance measuring circuit is provided in which an unknown capacitance is measured by comparing the charge stored in the unknown capacitor with that stored in a known capacitance. Equal and opposite voltages are repetitively simultaneously switched onto the capacitors through an electronic switch driven by a pulse generator to charge the capacitors during the ''on'' portion of the cycle. The stored charge is compared by summing discharge currents flowing through matched resistors at the input of a current sensor during the ''off'' portion of the switching cycle. The net current measured is thus proportional to the difference in value of the two capacitances. The circuit is capable of providing much needed accuracy and stability to a great variety of capacitance-based measurement devices at a relatively low cost.

  11. High temperature electronic gain device

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, J. Byron; Depp, Steven W.; Hamilton, Douglas J.; Kerwin, William J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube.

  12. Device for calorimetric measurement

    DOEpatents

    King, William P; Lee, Jungchul

    2015-01-13

    In one aspect, provided herein is a single crystal silicon microcalorimeter, for example useful for high temperature operation and long-term stability of calorimetric measurements. Microcalorimeters described herein include microcalorimeter embodiments having a suspended structure and comprising single crystal silicon. Also provided herein are methods for making calorimetric measurements, for example, on small quantities of materials or for determining the energy content of combustible material having an unknown composition.

  13. RADIATION MEASURING DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Bouricius, G.M.B.; Rusch, G.K.

    1960-03-22

    A radiation-measuring device is described having an a-c output. The apparatus has a high-energy particle source responsive to radiation flux disposed within a housing having a pair of collector plates. A potential gradient between the source and collector plates causes ions to flow to the plates. By means of electrostatic or magnetic deflection elements connected to an alternating potential, the ions are caused to flow alternately to each of the collector plates causing an a-c signal thereon.

  14. A Comparison between Conductive and Infrared Devices for Measuring Mean Skin Temperature at Rest, during Exercise in the Heat, and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Aaron J. E.; Stewart, Ian B.; Disher, Alice E.; Costello, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Skin temperature assessment has historically been undertaken with conductive devices affixed to the skin. With the development of technology, infrared devices are increasingly utilised in the measurement of skin temperature. Therefore, our purpose was to evaluate the agreement between four skin temperature devices at rest, during exercise in the heat, and recovery. Methods Mean skin temperature (T-sk) was assessed in thirty healthy males during 30 min rest (24.0 ± 1.2°C, 56 ± 8%), 30 min cycle in the heat (38.0 ± 0.5°C, 41 ± 2%), and 45 min recovery (24.0 ± 1.3°C, 56 ± 9%). T-sk was assessed at four sites using two conductive devices (thermistors, iButtons) and two infrared devices (infrared thermometer, infrared camera). Results Bland–Altman plots demonstrated mean bias ± limits of agreement between the thermistors and iButtons as follows (rest, exercise, recovery): -0.01 ± 0.04, 0.26 ± 0.85, -0.37 ± 0.98°C; thermistors and infrared thermometer: 0.34 ± 0.44, -0.44 ± 1.23, -1.04 ± 1.75°C; thermistors and infrared camera (rest, recovery): 0.83 ± 0.77, 1.88 ± 1.87°C. Pairwise comparisons of T-sk found significant differences (p < 0.05) between thermistors and both infrared devices during resting conditions, and significant differences between the thermistors and all other devices tested during exercise in the heat and recovery. Conclusions These results indicate poor agreement between conductive and infrared devices at rest, during exercise in the heat, and subsequent recovery. Infrared devices may not be suitable for monitoring T-sk in the presence of, or following, metabolic and environmental induced heat stress. PMID:25659140

  15. Electronic measurement correction devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mahns, R.R.

    1984-04-01

    The electronics semi-conductor revolution has touched every industry and home in the nation. The gas industry is no exception. Sophisticated gas measurement instrumentation has been with us for several decades now, but only in the last 10 years or so has it really begun to boom. First marketed were the flow computers dedicated to orifice meter measurement; but with steadily decreasing manufacturing costs, electronic instrumentation is now moving into the area of base volume, pressure and temperature correction previously handled almost solely by mechanical integrating instruments. This paper takes a brief look at some of the features of the newcomers on the market and how they stack up against the old standby mechanical base volume/pressure/temperature correctors.

  16. Temperature monitoring device and thermocouple assembly therefor

    DOEpatents

    Grimm, Noel P.; Bauer, Frank I.; Bengel, Thomas G.; Kothmann, Richard E.; Mavretish, Robert S.; Miller, Phillip E.; Nath, Raymond J.; Salton, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature monitoring device for measuring the temperature at a surface of a body, composed of: at least one first thermocouple and a second thermocouple; support members supporting the thermocouples for placing the first thermocouple in contact with the body surface and for maintaining the second thermocouple at a defined spacing from the body surface; and a calculating circuit connected to the thermocouples for receiving individual signals each representative of the temperature reading produced by a respective one of the first and second thermocouples and for producing a corrected temperature signal having a value which represents the temperature of the body surface and is a function of the difference between the temperature reading produced by the first thermocouple and a selected fraction of the temperature reading provided by the second thermocouple.

  17. Optical device for straightness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vekteris, Vladas; Jurevicius, Mindaugas; Turla, Vytautas

    2015-11-01

    The present paper describes the research of the optical device for two-dimensional straightness measurement of technological machines. Mathematical study of an optical device, operating on the phase principle and measuring transversal displacements of machine parts in two directions ( X and Y) during their linear longitudinal motion in a machine (alongside the Z axis), is presented. How to estimate the range of travel along the Z axis is analytically shown. At this range, the measurer gives correct measurements of transverse displacement. The necessary distance from the objective focus to the image plane was defined mathematically. The sample results of measuring the displacement of the table of a technological machine by using the optical device are presented in the paper. This optical device for non-contact straightness measurement can be used for measurement straightness in turning, milling, drilling, grinding machines and other technological machines, also in geodesy and cartography, and for moving accuracy testing of mechatronic devices, robotics and others.

  18. A novel portable device to measure the temperature of both the inner and the outer tubes of a parabolic receiver in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermoso, J. L. Navarro; Espinosa-Rueda, Guillermo; Martinez, Noelia; Heras, Carlos; Osta, Marta

    2016-05-01

    The performance of parabolic trough (PT) receiver tubes (RT) has a direct impact on Solar Thermal Energy (STE) plant production. As a result, one major need of operation and maintenance (O&M) in STE plants is to monitor the state of the receiver tube as a key element in the solar field. However the lack of specific devices so far has limited the proper evaluation of operating receiver tubés thermal performance. As a consequence non-accurate approximations have been accepted until now using infrared thermal images of the glass outer tube. In order to fulfill this need, Abengoa has developed a unique portable device for evaluating the thermal performance and vacuum state of parabolic trough receiver tubes placed in the field. The novel device described in this paper, simultaneously provides the temperature of both the inner steel tube and the outer glass tube enabling a check on manufacturers specifications. The on-field evaluation of any receiver tube at any operating temperature has become possible thanks to this new measuring device. The features and usability of this new measurement system as a workable portable device in operating solar fields provide a very useful tool for all companies in the sector contributing to technology progress. The originality of the device, patent pending P201431969, is not limited to the CSP sector, also having scientific significance in the general measuring instruments field. This paper presents the work carried out to develop and validate the device, also detailing its functioning properties and including the excellent results obtained in the laboratory to determine its accuracy and standard deviation. This information was validated with data collected by O&M teams using this instrument in a commercial CSP plant. The relevance of the device has been evidenced by evaluating a wide sample of RT and the results are discussed in this paper. Finally, all the on field collected data is used to demonstrate the high impact that using

  19. Measurements of ion temperature and flow of pulsed plasmas produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device using an ion Doppler spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    It is important to know surface damage characteristics of plasma-facing component materials during transient heat and particle loads such as type I ELMs. A magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device has been used as transient heat and particle source in ELM simulation experiments. Characteristics of pulsed plasmas produced by the MCPG device play an important role for the plasma material interaction. In this study, ion temperature and flow velocity of pulsed He plasmas were measured by an ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS). The IDS system consists of a light collection system including optical fibers, 1m-spectrometer and a 16 channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector. The IDS system measures the width and Doppler shift of HeII (468.58 nm) emission line with the time resolution of 1 μs. The Doppler broadened and shifted spectra were measured with 45 and 135 degree angles with respect to the plasmoid traveling direction. The observed emission line profile was represented by sum of two Gaussian components to determine the temperature and flow velocity. The minor component at around the wavelength of zero-velocity was produced by the stationary plasma. As the results, the ion velocity and temperature were 68 km/s and 19 eV, respectively. Thus, the He ion flow energy is 97 eV. The observed flow velocity agrees with that measured by a time of flight technique.

  20. Vestibular Function Measurement Devices

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Richard D.; Zapala, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Vestibular function laboratories utilize a multitude of diagnostic instruments to evaluate a dizzy patient. Caloric irrigators, oculomotor stimuli, and rotational chairs produce a stimulus whose accuracy is required for the patient response to be accurate. Careful attention to everything from cleanliness of equipment to threshold adjustments determine on a daily basis if patient data are going to be correct and useful. Instrumentation specifications that change with time such as speed and temperature must periodically be checked using calibrated instruments. PMID:27516710

  1. Mirror Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract led to a commercially available instrument used to measure the shape profile of mirror surfaces in scientific instruments. Bauer Associates, Inc.'s Bauer Model 200 Profilometer is based upon a different measurement concept. The local curvature of the mirror's surface is measured at many points, and the collection of data is computer processed to yield the desired shape profile. (Earlier profilometers are based on the principle of interferometry.) The system is accurate and immune to problems like vibration and turbulence. Two profilometers are currently marketed, and a third will soon be commercialized.

  2. Evaluation and improvement in the accuracy of a charge-coupled-device-based pyrometer for temperature field measurements of continuous casting billets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Haicheng; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Yuzhong; Hu, Zhenwei

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a radiometric high-temperature field measurement model based on a charge-coupled-device (CCD). According to the model, an intelligent CCD pyrometer with a digital signal processor as the core is developed and its non-uniformity correction algorithm for reducing the differences in accuracy between individual pixel sensors is established. By means of self-adaptive adjustment for the light-integration time, the dynamic range of the CCD is extended and its accuracy in low-temperature range is improved. The non-uniformity correction algorithm effectively reduces the accuracy differences between different pixel sensors. The performance of the system is evaluated through a blackbody furnace and an integrating sphere, the results of which show that the dynamic range of 400 K is obtained and the accuracy in low temperature range is increased by 7 times compared with the traditional method based on the fixed light-integration time. In addition, the differences of accuracy between the on-axis pixel and the most peripheral pixels are decreased from 19.1 K to 2.8 K. Therefore, this CCD pyrometer ensures that the measuring results of all pixels tend to be equal-accuracy distribution across the entire measuring ranges. This pyrometric system has been successfully applied to the temperature field measurements in continuous casting billets.

  3. Device measures static friction of magnetic tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, P. T.

    1967-01-01

    Device measures the coefficient of static friction of magnetic tape over a range of temperatures and relative humidities. It uses a strain gage to measure the force of friction between a reference surface and the tape drawn at a constant velocity of approximately 0.0001 inch per second relative to the reference surface.

  4. Optoelectronic device for hematocrit measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluta, M.; Milewska, D.; Mazikowski, A.

    2015-09-01

    An optoelectronic system for measurements of hematocrit level (HCT) in the whole human blood is presented. Proposed system integrates a dedicated optoelectronic sensor, a microcontroller and a small LCD display in a low cost, battery-powered, handheld device. Chosen method for determining blood hematocrit level is based on optical properties of whole blood in visible and NIR wavelength range. Measurements with the use of proposed system require blood samples (small drop in the range of microliters) which is placed in the micro cuvette. Then, absorption of the sample is measured at wavelengths of 570 nm and 880 nm. Prototype of the device was build and tested. Test results confirmed proper operation of the device with correct metrological parameters in application to HCT level measurements. Such a portable device can be used as a tool of bedside diagnosis, which becomes interesting alternative to full laboratory tests.

  5. Nanoscale temperature mapping in operating microelectronic devices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mecklenburg, Matthew; Hubbard, William A.; White, E. R.; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B.; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, B. C.

    2015-02-05

    We report that modern microelectronic devices have nanoscale features that dissipate power nonuniformly, but fundamental physical limits frustrate efforts to detect the resulting temperature gradients. Contact thermometers disturb the temperature of a small system, while radiation thermometers struggle to beat the diffraction limit. Exploiting the same physics as Fahrenheit’s glass-bulb thermometer, we mapped the thermal expansion of Joule-heated, 80-nanometer-thick aluminum wires by precisely measuring changes in density. With a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), we quantified the local density via the energy of aluminum’s bulk plasmon. Rescaling density to temperature yields maps with amore » statistical precision of 3 kelvin/hertz₋1/2, an accuracy of 10%, and nanometer-scale resolution. Lastly, many common metals and semiconductors have sufficiently sharp plasmon resonances to serve as their own thermometers.« less

  6. Nanoscale temperature mapping in operating microelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mecklenburg, Matthew; Hubbard, William A.; White, E. R.; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B.; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, B. C.

    2015-02-05

    We report that modern microelectronic devices have nanoscale features that dissipate power nonuniformly, but fundamental physical limits frustrate efforts to detect the resulting temperature gradients. Contact thermometers disturb the temperature of a small system, while radiation thermometers struggle to beat the diffraction limit. Exploiting the same physics as Fahrenheit’s glass-bulb thermometer, we mapped the thermal expansion of Joule-heated, 80-nanometer-thick aluminum wires by precisely measuring changes in density. With a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), we quantified the local density via the energy of aluminum’s bulk plasmon. Rescaling density to temperature yields maps with a statistical precision of 3 kelvin/hertz₋1/2, an accuracy of 10%, and nanometer-scale resolution. Lastly, many common metals and semiconductors have sufficiently sharp plasmon resonances to serve as their own thermometers.

  7. TIME-INTERVAL MEASURING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1958-04-15

    An electronic device for measuring the time interval between two control pulses is presented. The device incorporates part of a previous approach for time measurement, in that pulses from a constant-frequency oscillator are counted during the interval between the control pulses. To reduce the possible error in counting caused by the operation of the counter gating circuit at various points in the pulse cycle, the described device provides means for successively delaying the pulses for a fraction of the pulse period so that a final delay of one period is obtained and means for counting the pulses before and after each stage of delay during the time interval whereby a plurality of totals is obtained which may be averaged and multplied by the pulse period to obtain an accurate time- Interval measurement.

  8. Temperature-controlled fluidic device A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehsteiner, F. H.

    1970-01-01

    Symmetrical fluidic device directly converts electrical signals to mechanical signals in the form of a fluid-flow parameter. This device eliminates or reduces effects of all undesirable parameters on the departure angle, leaving it a function of the controlled wall and jet temperatures.

  9. Development of a Low-Temperature Insert for Precise Magnetization Measurement below T = 2 K with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Makiyama, Shun; Sakamoto, Yasutaka; Hasuo, Tadahiko; Inagaki, Yuji; Fujiwara, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Hiroyuki S.; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Kawae, Tatsuya

    2013-10-01

    We have developed a 9-mm-diameter 3He insert for precise magnetization measurements below T = 2 K that is attachable to a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The insert is made from a thin-walled stainless steel pipe with an inner diameter of 6.2 mm, which determines the maximum sample size. 3He gas is condensed in the pipe, which is liquefied by 4He gas at T ˜1.8 K generated by the magnetometer via the heat exchanger of a Cu vacuum jacket with an outer diameter of 8.6 mm soldered to the stainless steel pipe. The temperature of the insert is decreased to T ˜0.5 K by evacuating liquid 3He using a rotary pump and then to T = 0.36 K with a sorption pump. From the diamagnetization signal of a superconducting Al chip with a mass below 0.1 mg, the magnetization resolution with the insert is confirmed to be less than 10-7 emu. To examine the performance of the insert, we measured the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization for Pr0.6La0.4Ag2In down to T = 0.4 K.

  10. Measuring Temperature Reading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    There are two requirements for taking a measurement of something. The first is a tool for taking a measurement. The second is scale for making sense of the numbers of the measurement. For example, a ruler is often used to measure short lengths. It is the tool for measurement. On the ruler are one or more number scales with equally spaced numbers. These numbers can be compared with numbers from any other ruler that is accurately set to the same scale. Measuring length is far simpler than measuring temperature. While there is evidence of tools for measuring length at various times in human history, tools and scales for measuring temperature do not appear until more recent human history. Early thermometers, called thermoscopes, first appear in the 1500's. They were crude instruments that were not at all accurate. Most did not even have a number scale associated with them. This made them useless for most practical purposes. Gabriel Fahrenheit created the first accurate thermometer in 1714, and the Fahrenheit temperature scale followed it in 1724. The thermometer s accuracy was based on its use of mercury, a silver colored substance that remains liquid over a wide range of temperatures but expands or contracts in a standard, predictable way with changes in temperature. To set the scale, Fahrenheit created the coldest temperature that he could. He mixed equal parts of ice, water, and salt, and then used this as the zero point, 0 degrees, of his scale. He intended to make 30 degrees the freezing point of water and 90 degrees the temperature of the human body, but he had to later revise these temperatures to be 32 degrees and 96 degrees. In the final version of the scale, the temperature of the human body became 98.6 degrees. 19th century thermoscope

  11. Finger-Circumference-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Suy

    1995-01-01

    Easy-to-use device quickly measures circumference of finger (including thumb) on human hand. Includes polytetrafluoroethylene band 1/8 in. wide, bent into loop and attached to tab that slides on scale graduated in millimeters. Sliding tab preloaded with constant-force tension spring, which pulls tab toward closure of loop. Designed to facilitate measurements at various points along fingers to obtain data for studies of volumetric changes of fingers in microgravity. Also used in normal Earth gravity studies of growth and in assessment of diseases like arthritis.

  12. Noncontact Temperature Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Noncontact temperature measurement has been identified as one of the eight advanced technology development (ATD) areas to support the effort of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division in developing six Space Station flight experiment facilities. This two-day workshop was an opportunity for all six disciplines to present their requirements on noncontact temperature measurement and to discuss state-of-the-art developments. Multi-color pyrometry, laser pyrometry and radiometric imaging techniques are addressed.

  13. High temperature aqueous stress corrosion testing device

    DOEpatents

    Bornstein, A.N.; Indig, M.E.

    1975-12-01

    A description is given of a device for stressing tensile samples contained within a high temperature, high pressure aqueous environment, thereby permitting determination of stress corrosion susceptibility of materials in a simple way. The stressing device couples an external piston to an internal tensile sample via a pull rod, with stresses being applied to the sample by pressurizing the piston. The device contains a fitting/seal arrangement including Teflon and weld seals which allow sealing of the internal system pressure and the external piston pressure. The fitting/seal arrangement allows free movement of the pull rod and the piston.

  14. The Kelvin and Temperature Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mangum, B. W.; Furukawa, G. T.; Kreider, K. G.; Meyer, C. W.; Ripple, D. C.; Strouse, G. F.; Tew, W. L.; Moldover, M. R.; Johnson, B. Carol; Yoon, H. W.; Gibson, C. E.; Saunders, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is defined from 0.65 K upwards to the highest temperature measurable by spectral radiation thermometry, the radiation thermometry being based on the Planck radiation law. When it was developed, the ITS-90 represented thermodynamic temperatures as closely as possible. Part I of this paper describes the realization of contact thermometry up to 1234.93 K, the temperature range in which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of calibration of thermometers at 15 fixed points and vapor pressure/temperature relations which are phase equilibrium states of pure substances. The realization is accomplished by using fixed-point devices, containing samples of the highest available purity, and suitable temperature-controlled environments. All components are constructed to achieve the defining equilibrium states of the samples for the calibration of thermometers. The high quality of the temperature realization and measurements is well documented. Various research efforts are described, including research to improve the uncertainty in thermodynamic temperatures by measuring the velocity of sound in gas up to 800 K, research in applying noise thermometry techniques, and research on thermocouples. Thermometer calibration services and high-purity samples and devices suitable for “on-site” thermometer calibration that are available to the thermometry community are described. Part II of the paper describes the realization of temperature above 1234.93 K for which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of the calibration of spectroradiometers using reference blackbody sources that are at the temperature of the equilibrium liquid-solid phase transition of pure silver, gold, or copper. The realization of temperature from absolute spectral or total radiometry over the temperature range from about 60 K to 3000 K is also described. The dissemination of the temperature scale using radiation thermometry from NIST to the customer is achieved by

  15. Nonvisual Adaptive Devices for Measuring Insulin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, M. E.; Hamilton, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents information on nonvisual adaptive devices for measuring insulin and offers some suggestions for rehabilitation professionals who instruct and supervise clients with diabetes and visual impairment in the use of these devices. (Author)

  16. Development of a low-temperature insert for the measurement of remanent magnetization direction using superconducting quantum interference device rock magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Tarduno, John A.

    2011-04-01

    Data on the directional changes of a full magnetization vector during cycling to cryogenic temperatures can provide important insights into the low-temperature magnetic properties of natural and synthetic materials. These data also provide an empirical basis for the application of low-temperature treatments in paleomagnetism, for example, the removal of viscous magnetization in magnetite-bearing rocks. However, existing instruments only allow continuous measurement of magnetization along a single axis, hampering experimental and theoretical advances in rock magnetism and the implementation of low-temperature techniques into regular paleomagnetic practices. Here we describe development of a novel low-temperature insert designed in collaboration with William S. Goree Inc., which allows measurement of directional behavior of a full magnetization vector during zero-field low-temperature cycling. Pilot experiments on well-controlled polycrystalline samples of pseudo-single-domain (PSD) and multidomain magnetite as well as on a natural sample containing PSD magnetite indicate that the orientation of a saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) imparted at room temperature remains constant during low-temperature cycling to 20 K. This observation lends additional support to low-temperature cycling as a cleaning technique in paleomagnetism. The SIRM imparted in an individual crystal of magnetite showed systematic, albeit small changes upon both cooling and warming through the Verwey temperature, which may reflect switching between the easy magnetization directions. However, the switching effect may be significantly attenuated by crystallographic twinning in magnetite below the transition. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential of the directional low-temperature magnetometry for the advancement of our understanding of the properties of natural and synthetic materials.

  17. Indirect Blood Pressure Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hum, L.; Cole, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Design and performance of a blood pressure recording device for pediatric use are reported. A strain gage transducer with a copper-beryllium strip as force sensing element is used to monitor skin movements and to convert them into electrical signals proportional to those displacements. Experimental tests with this device in recording of force developed above the left femoral artery of a dog accurately produced a blood pressure curve.

  18. Vacuum photoelectronic devices for measuring pulsed radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovskii, A. G.; Veretennikov, A. I.; Kozlov, O. V.

    The design of these devices is discussed, and data are presented on their characteristics. These vacuum photoelectronic devices comprise photocells, photomultipliers, and electrooptical transducers designed for measuring pulsed radiation of nanosecond and subnanosecond duration. The fluctuation characteristics of the devices are examined, and their use in detectors of pulsed luminous and ionizing radiation is considered.

  19. Flow rate measuring devices for gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfig, K. W.

    1985-07-01

    Flowrate measuring devices are described: volume meter with fixed or mobile walls; turbine meter; throttling procedure; ultrasonic and Doppler methods; vortex method; rotary flowmeter; and swinging body flow measuring procedure. Flowrate can also be measured from the force exerted on bodies immersed in a fluid or based on thermodynamical principles. The characteristics and operating envelope of each device/method are given.

  20. A Portable, High Resolution, Surface Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Burns, Bradley M.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution, portable, surface measurement device has been demonstrated to provide micron-resolution topographical plots. This device was specifically developed to allow in-situ measurements of defects on the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows, but is versatile enough to be used on a wide variety of surfaces. This paper discusses the choice of an optical sensor and then the decisions required to convert a lab bench optical measurement device into an ergonomic portable system. The necessary trade-offs between performance and portability are presented along with a description of the device developed to measure Orbiter window defects.

  1. Method and device for measuring fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Atherton, Richard; Marinkovich, Phillip S.; Spadaro, Peter R.; Stout, J. Wilson

    1976-11-23

    This invention is a fluid flow measuring device for determining the coolant flow at the entrance to a specific nuclear reactor fuel region. The device comprises a plurality of venturis having the upstream inlet and throat pressure of each respectively manifolded together to provide one static pressure signal for each region monitored. The device provides accurate flow measurement with low pressure losses and uniform entrance and discharge flow distribution.

  2. Characteristics of III-V Semiconductor Devices at High Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Young, Paul G.; Taub, Susan R.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the development of III-V based pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (PHEMT's) designed to operate over the temperature range 77 to 473 K (-196 to 200 C). These devices have a pseudomorphic undoped InGaAs channel that is sandwiched between an AlGaAs spacer and a buffer layer; gate widths of 200, 400, 1600, and 3200 micrometers; and a gate length of 2 micrometers. Measurements were performed at both room temperature and 473 K (200 C) and show that the drain current decreases by 30 percent and the gate current increases to about 9 microns A (at a reverse bias of -1.5 V) at the higher temperature. These devices have a maximum DC power dissipation of about 4.5 W and a breakdown voltage of about 16 V.

  3. [Temperature measuring and heating controlling in transurethral prostate thermotherapy system].

    PubMed

    Luo, L; Wang, Q; Chen, Y; Yu, X

    1997-07-01

    This paper introduces the system construction of Transurethral Prostate Thermotherapy Device. The temperature measuring device, I/O interface circuit and the programming principle of PID controlling system is illustrated also. PMID:11189255

  4. High temperature solder device for flat cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature solder device for flat cables includes a microwelder, an anvil which acts as a heat sink and supports a flexible flat ribbon cable that is to be connected to a multiple pin connector. The microwelder is made from a modified commercially available resistance welding machine such as the Split Tip Electrode microwelder by Weltek, which consists of two separate electrode halves with a removable dielectric spacer in between. The microwelder is not used to weld the items together, but to provide a controlled compressive force on, and energy pulse to, a solder preform placed between a pin of the connector and a conductor of the flexible flat ribbon cable. When the microwelder is operated, an electric pulse will flow down one electrode, through the solder preform and back up the other electrode. This pulse of electrical energy will cause the solder preform to heat up and melt, joining the pin and conductor.

  5. Device and method for detecting sulfur dioxide at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    West, David L.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2011-11-01

    The present invention relates to a method for selectively detecting and/or measuring gaseous SO.sub.2 at a temperature of at least 500.degree. C., the method involving: (i) providing a SO.sub.2-detecting device including an oxygen ion-conducting substrate having on its surface at least three electrodes comprising a first, second, and third electrode; (ii) driving a starting current of specified magnitude and temporal variation between the first and second electrodes; (iii) contacting the SO.sub.2-detecting device with the SO.sub.2-containing sample while maintaining the magnitude and any temporal variation of the starting current, wherein said SO.sub.2-containing sample causes a change in the electrical conductance of said device; and (iv) detecting the change in electrical conductance of the device based on measuring an electrical property related to or indicative of the conductance of the device between the first and third electrodes, or between the second and third electrodes, and detecting SO.sub.2 in the SO.sub.2-containing sample based on the measured change in electrical conductance.

  6. DIMENSION MEASURING OPTICAL SIGHTING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Kerr, G.E.

    1959-08-01

    A sighting device to check the uniformity of thickness of a lining applied to a container is presented. The sighting devlce comprises two tubular members having their ends in threaded connection with one another and a lens lying within the outer end of one of the tubular members. A ground glass inscribed with two concentric circles is located at the outer end of the other tubular section so that the image of the circular junctures, with and without the lining at the closed end of the container, can be focused on the proper circle inscribed in the ground glass so as to determine whether the lining has uniformity and whether there are thin spots.

  7. Nanoscopic voltage distribution of operating cascade laser devices in cryogenic temperature.

    PubMed

    Dhar, R S; Ban, D

    2016-06-01

    A nanoscopic exploratory measurement technique to measure voltage distribution across an operating semiconductor device in cryogenic temperature has been developed and established. The cross-section surface of the terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) has been measured that resolves the voltage distribution at nanometer scales. The electric field dissemination across the active region of the device has been attained under the device's lasing conditions at cryogenic temperature of 77 K. PMID:27197086

  8. Simple device measures solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Simple inexpensive thermometer, insolated from surroundings by transparent glass or plastic encasement, measures intensities of solar radiation, or radiation from other sources such as furnaces or ovens. Unit can be further modified to accomplish readings from remote locations.

  9. Inter-device reliability of DSI measurement.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Philipp; Feichter, Felicitas; Aichstill, Birgitta; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2012-12-01

    The Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a measure that quantifies the overall vocal quality. The aim of the study is to evaluate the reliability of DSI measurements. The DSIs of 30 subjects were therefore measured using LingWAVES (WEVOSYS) and DiVAS (XION). To evaluate the inter-device reliability of DSI measurement, the devices' results were compared for each subject. The DSI values of both devices showed great differences. The calculated DSI differences of 95% of the subjects were within the limits of +2.39 and -2.82, which makes a clinical interpretation of severity of voice disorder using different devices questionable. The technical and procedural aspects of measurement divergences are discussed, and the need to define hardware and software standards is shown. PMID:22702894

  10. Thermal Measurement Techniques in Analytical Microfluidic Devices.

    PubMed

    Davaji, Benyamin; Lee, Chung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Thermal measurement techniques have been used for many applications such as thermal characterization of materials and chemical reaction detection. Micromachining techniques allow reduction of the thermal mass of fabricated structures and introduce the possibility to perform high sensitivity thermal measurements in the micro-scale and nano-scale devices. Combining thermal measurement techniques with microfluidic devices allows performing different analytical measurements with low sample consumption and reduced measurement time by integrating the miniaturized system on a single chip. The procedures of thermal measurement techniques for particle detection, material characterization, and chemical detection are introduced in this paper. PMID:26066563

  11. Measuring Soil Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil temperature is a critical factor in the germination and early growth of many crops including corn, cotton, small grains, and vegetable crops. Soil temperature strongly influences the rate of critical biological reactions in the soil such as the rates of nitrification and microbial respiration. ...

  12. PORTABLE DEVICE FOR MEASURING SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A portable device for measuring sediment resuspension has been developed. he device consists of a cylindrical chamber inside of which a horizontal grid oscillates vertically. he sediments whose properties are to be determined are placed at the bottom of the chamber with water ove...

  13. Device measures fluid drag on test vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, R.; Judd, J. H.; Leiss, A.

    1965-01-01

    Electromechanical drag balance device measures the aerodynamic drag force acting on a vehicle as it moves through the atmosphere and telemeters the data to a remote receiving station. This device is also used for testing the hydrodynamic drag characteristics of underwater vehicles.

  14. Line spectrum and ion temperature measurements from tungsten ions at low ionization stages in large helical device based on vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in wavelength range of 500–2200 Å

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, T. Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Huang, X. L.; Zhang, H. M.

    2014-11-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet spectra of emissions released from tungsten ions at lower ionization stages were measured in the Large Helical Device (LHD) in the wavelength range of 500–2200 Å using a 3 m normal incidence spectrometer. Tungsten ions were distributed in the LHD plasma by injecting a pellet consisting of a small piece of tungsten metal and polyethylene tube. Many lines having different wavelengths from intrinsic impurity ions were observed just after the tungsten pellet injection. Doppler broadening of a tungsten candidate line was successfully measured and the ion temperature was obtained.

  15. Device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen in gases

    DOEpatents

    Isaacs, Hugh S.; Romano, Anthony J.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a CO equilibrium in a device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen impurities in a fluid stream. To this end, the CO equilibrium is produced in an electrochemical measuring cell by the interaction of a carbon element in the cell with the chemically combined and uncombined oxygen in the fluid stream at an elevated temperature.

  16. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corneal radius measuring device. 886.1450 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1450 Corneal radius measuring device. (a) Identification. A corneal radius measuring device is an AC-powered device intended to...

  17. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corneal radius measuring device. 886.1450 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1450 Corneal radius measuring device. (a) Identification. A corneal radius measuring device is an AC-powered device intended to...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corneal radius measuring device. 886.1450 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1450 Corneal radius measuring device. (a) Identification. A corneal radius measuring device is an AC-powered device intended to...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corneal radius measuring device. 886.1450 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1450 Corneal radius measuring device. (a) Identification. A corneal radius measuring device is an AC-powered device intended to...

  20. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  1. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-12-31

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with super-heated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200{degrees}C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220{degrees}C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: (1) At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. (2) There is no significant temperature effect. (3) Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. (4) Pores smaller than 15 {Angstrom} do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  2. Electrolyte measurement device and measurement procedure

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Kevin R.; Scribner, Louie L.

    2010-01-26

    A method and apparatus for measuring the through-thickness resistance or conductance of a thin electrolyte is provided. The method and apparatus includes positioning a first source electrode on a first side of an electrolyte to be tested, positioning a second source electrode on a second side of the electrolyte, positioning a first sense electrode on the second side of the electrolyte, and positioning a second sense electrode on the first side of the electrolyte. current is then passed between the first and second source electrodes and the voltage between the first and second sense electrodes is measured.

  3. Going Places No Infrared Temperature Devices Have Gone Before

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Exergen's IRt/c is a self-powered sensor that matches a thermocouple within specified temperature ranges and provides a predictable and repeatable signal outside of this specified range. Possessing an extremely fast time constant, the infrared technology allows users to measure product temperature without touching the product. The IRt/c uses a device called a thermopile to measure temperature and generate current. Traditionally, these devices are not available in a size that would be compatible with the Exergen IRt/c, based on NASA s quarterinch specifications. After going through five circuit designs to find a thermopile that would suit the IRt/c design and match the signal needed for output, Exergen maintains that it developed a model that totaled just 20 percent of the volume of the previous smallest detector in the world. Following completion of the project with Glenn, Exergen continued development of the IRt/c for other customers, spinning off a new product line called the micro IRt/c. This latest development has broadened applications for industries that previously could not use infrared thermometers due to size constraints. The first commercial use of the micro IRt/c involved an original equipment manufacturer that makes laminating machinery consisting of heated rollers in very tight spots. Accurate temperature measurement for this application requires close proximity to the heated rollers. With the micro IRt/c s 50-millisecond time constant, the manufacturer is able to gain closer access to the intended temperature targets for exact readings, thereby increasing productivity and staying ahead of competition.In a separate application, the infrared temperature sensor is being utilized for avalanche warnings in Switzerland. The IRt/c is mounted about 5 meters above the ground to measure the snow cover throughout the mountainous regions of the country.

  4. Temperature correction in conductivity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1962-01-01

    Electrical conductivity has been widely used in freshwater research but usual methods employed by limnologists for converting measurements to conductance at a given temperature have not given uniformly accurate results. The temperature coefficient used to adjust conductivity of natural waters to a given temperature varies depending on the kinds and concentrations of electrolytes, the temperature at the time of measurement, and the temperature to which measurements are being adjusted. The temperature coefficient was found to differ for various lake and stream waters, and showed seasonal changes. High precision can be obtained only by determining temperature coefficients for each water studied. Mean temperature coefficients are given for various temperature ranges that may be used where less precision is required.

  5. Measuring Temperature: The Thermometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamoun, Mirvette

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses the historical development of the thermometer with the view of helping children understand the role that mathematics plays in society. A model thermometer that is divided into three sections, each displaying one of the three temperature scales used today (Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin) is highlighted as a project to allow…

  6. Wireless device for monitoring the temperature - moisture regime in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, Ján; Štofanik, Vladimír; Vretenár, Viliam; Kubičár, Ľudovít

    2014-05-01

    This contribution presents the wireless device for monitoring the temperature - moisture regime in situ. For the monitoring so called moisture sensor is used. Principle of moisture sensor is based on measuring the thermal conductivity. Moisture sensor has cylindrical shape with about 20 mm diameter and 20 mm length. It is made of porous material identical to the monitored object. The thermal conductivity is measured by hot-ball method. Hot-ball method is patented invention of the Institute of Physic SAS. It utilizes a small ball, diameter up to 2 mm, in which sensing elements are incorporated. The ball produces heat spreading into surrounding material, in our case into body of the moisture sensor. Temperature of the ball is measured simultaneously. Then change of the temperature, in steady state, is inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity. Such moisture sensor is inserted into monitored wall. Thermophysical properties of porous material are function of moisture. Moisture sensors are calibrated for dry and water saturated state. Whole the system is primarily intended to do long-term monitoring. Design of a new electronic device was needed for this innovative method. It covers all needed operations for measurement. For example energizing hot-ball sensor, measuring its response, storing the measured data and wireless data transmission. The unit is able to set parameters of measurement via wireless access as well. This contribution also includes the description of construction and another features of the wireless measurement system dedicated for this task. Possibilities and functionality of the system is demonstrated by actual monitoring of the tower of St. Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava. Correlations with surrounding meteorological conditions are presented. Some of them can be also measured by our system, right in the monitoring place.

  7. Transient (lightning) protection for electronic measurement devices

    SciTech Connect

    Black, L.L.

    1995-12-01

    Electronic measurement devices have become a major part of the oil and gas business today. All of these devices operate on an electrical voltage. Any voltage introduced into the system that is beyond the predetermined tolerance will cause degradation of performance or in some cases failure of the device. The extent of the damage depends upon the dielectric strength of the circuit in question and upon the available energy. As electronic measurement devices are further developed to incorporate more solid state circuitry and operate at lower voltage levels the more susceptible they become to transients. Along with transient protection, the user must also be concerned with intrinsic safety requirements of the device to be protected. The devices and techniques used to protect the equipment from transients do not, in all cases, guarantee the user certification for use in hazardous environments. As a note of reference, some of the techniques listed in this paper as examples would not be allowed in hazardous areas without the addition of other devices to further isolate or clamp the available energy to a safe level. In other words, as the industry moves forward to improve the overall accuracy of the measurement system and adds data availability via communication networks, the transient protection scheme must become more sophisticated.

  8. Validity and Reliability of Devices That Assess Body Temperature During Indoor Exercise in the Heat

    PubMed Central

    Ganio, Matthew S; Brown, Christopher M; Casa, Douglas J; Becker, Shannon M; Yeargin, Susan W; McDermott, Brendon P; Boots, Lindsay M; Boyd, Paul W; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    Context: When assessing exercise hyperthermia outdoors, the validity of certain commonly used body temperature measuring devices has been questioned. A controlled laboratory environment is generally less influenced by environmental factors (eg, ambient temperature, solar radiation, wind) than an outdoor setting. The validity of these temperature measuring devices in a controlled environment may be more acceptable. Objective: To assess the validity and reliability of commonly used temperature devices compared with rectal temperature in individuals exercising in a controlled, high environmental temperature indoor setting and then resting in a cool environment. Design: Time series study. Setting: Laboratory environmental chamber (temperature  =  36.4 ± 1.2°C [97.5 ± 2.16°F], relative humidity  =  52%) and cool laboratory (temperature  =  approximately 23.3°C [74.0°F], relative humidity  =  40%). Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen males and 10 females. Intervention(s): Rectal, gastrointestinal, forehead, oral, aural, temporal, and axillary temperatures were measured with commonly used temperature devices. Temperature was measured before and 20 minutes after entering the environmental chamber, every 30 minutes during a 90-minute treadmill walk in the heat, and every 20 minutes during a 60-minute rest in mild conditions. Device validity and reliability were assessed with various statistical measures to compare the measurements using each device with rectal temperature. A device was considered invalid if the mean bias (average difference between rectal and device temperatures) was more than ±0.27°C (±0.50°F). Main Outcome Measure(s): Measured temperature from each device (mean and across time). Results: The following devices provided invalid estimates of rectal temperature: forehead sticker (0.29°C [0.52°F]), oral temperature using an inexpensive device (−1.13°C [−2.03°F]), temporal temperature measured according to the instruction

  9. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  10. 21 CFR 886.4280 - Intraocular pressure measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular pressure measuring device. 886.4280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4280 Intraocular pressure measuring device. (a) Identification. An intraocular pressure measuring device is a manual or AC-powered...

  11. 21 CFR 886.4280 - Intraocular pressure measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraocular pressure measuring device. 886.4280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4280 Intraocular pressure measuring device. (a) Identification. An intraocular pressure measuring device is a manual or AC-powered...

  12. 21 CFR 886.4280 - Intraocular pressure measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraocular pressure measuring device. 886.4280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4280 Intraocular pressure measuring device. (a) Identification. An intraocular pressure measuring device is a manual or AC-powered...

  13. 21 CFR 886.4280 - Intraocular pressure measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraocular pressure measuring device. 886.4280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4280 Intraocular pressure measuring device. (a) Identification. An intraocular pressure measuring device is a manual or AC-powered...

  14. 21 CFR 882.1560 - Skin potential measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skin potential measurement device. 882.1560... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1560 Skin potential measurement device. (a) Identification. A skin potential measurement device is a general diagnostic...

  15. 21 CFR 882.1560 - Skin potential measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skin potential measurement device. 882.1560... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1560 Skin potential measurement device. (a) Identification. A skin potential measurement device is a general diagnostic...

  16. 21 CFR 864.6400 - Hematocrit measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6400 Hematocrit measuring device. (a) Identification. A hematocrit measuring device is a system consisting of instruments, tubes... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hematocrit measuring device. 864.6400 Section...

  17. 21 CFR 864.6400 - Hematocrit measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6400 Hematocrit measuring device. (a) Identification. A hematocrit measuring device is a system consisting of instruments, tubes... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hematocrit measuring device. 864.6400 Section...

  18. High-Sensitivity Temperature Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadstone, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a method of measuring small temperature differences that amount to a .01K, using an arrangement of a copper-constantan thermocouple, a microamplifier and a galvanometer, as an indirect way of measuring heat energy. (GA)

  19. Acoustical Measurement Of Furnace Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, Shakkottai; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Simple probes withstand severe conditions, yet give spatially-resolved temperature readings. Prototype acoustical system developed to measure temperatures from ambient to 1,800 degree F in such structures as large industrial lime kilns and recovery-boiler furnaces. Pulses of sound reflected from obstructions in sensing tube. Speed of sound and temperature in each segment deduced from travel times of pulses.

  20. An Innovative Flow-Measuring Device: Thermocouple Boundary Layer Rake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    An innovative flow-measuring device, a thermocouple boundary layer rake, was developed. The sensor detects the flow by using a thin-film thermocouple (TC) array to measure the temperature difference across a heater strip. The heater and TC arrays are microfabricated on a constant-thickness quartz strut with low heat conductivity. The device can measure the velocity profile well into the boundary layer, about 65 gm from the surface, which is almost four times closer to the surface than has been possible with the previously used total pressure tube.

  1. Electromagnetic pulse-induced current measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Om P.; Chen, Jin Y.

    1991-08-01

    To develop safety guidelines for exposure to high fields associated with an electromagnetic pulse (EMP), it is necessary to devise techniques that would measure the peak current induced in the human body. The main focus of this project was to design, fabricate, and test a portable, self-contained stand-on device that would measure and hold the peak current and the integrated change Q. The design specifications of the EMP-Induced Current Measurement Device are as follows: rise time of the current pulse, 5 ns; peak current, 20-600 A; charge Q, 0-20 microcoulombs. The device uses a stand-on parallel-plate bilayer sensor and fast high-frequency circuit that are well-shielded against spurious responses to high incident fields. Since the polarity of the incident peak electric field of the EMP may be either positive or negative, the induced peak current can also be positive or negative. Therefore, the device is designed to respond to either of these polarities and measure and hold both the peak current and the integrated charge which are simultaneously displayed on two separate 3-1/2 digit displays. The prototype device has been preliminarily tested with the EMP's generated at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (ALECS facility) at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico.

  2. Photocurrent measurements of pentacene-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masurkar, Amrita; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2015-09-01

    Photocurrent spectroscopy (PCS) and photocurrent microscopy (PCM) are powerful tools that can probe the underlying mechanisms of charge generation and transport in organic semiconductor devices. There has been significant progress in the use of these techniques, which has yielded a number of insights into the underlying materials and operation of the devices. Despite the potential for PCS and PCM to become standard tools, however, a consensus has not been reached on (1) its uses and (2) the underlying mechanisms which produce the photoresponse. This is particularly true for measurements of pentacene devices, as the energy dynamics of pentacene are complex. Accordingly, here we report the current body of PCS and PCM of pentacene devices, offer interpretations of the data, and discuss which questions remain unanswered. We have divided the reviewed work into four categories based on the goals of the study and the technique used: photocurrent spectroscopy, scanning photocurrent microscopy, mobility, and trap density-of-states.

  3. Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Entanglement Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nawareg, Mohamed; Muhammad, Sadiq; Amselem, Elias; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement is one of the most puzzling features of quantum theory and of great importance for the new field of quantum information. The determination whether a given state is entangled or not is one of the most challenging open problems of the field. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of measurement-device-independent (MDI) entanglement detection using witness method for general two qubits photon polarization systems. In the MDI settings, there is no requirement to assume perfect implementations or neither to trust the measurement devices. This experimental demonstration can be generalized for the investigation of properties of quantum systems and for the realization of cryptography and communication protocols. PMID:25649664

  4. Experimental measurement-device-independent entanglement detection.

    PubMed

    Nawareg, Mohamed; Muhammad, Sadiq; Amselem, Elias; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement is one of the most puzzling features of quantum theory and of great importance for the new field of quantum information. The determination whether a given state is entangled or not is one of the most challenging open problems of the field. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of measurement-device-independent (MDI) entanglement detection using witness method for general two qubits photon polarization systems. In the MDI settings, there is no requirement to assume perfect implementations or neither to trust the measurement devices. This experimental demonstration can be generalized for the investigation of properties of quantum systems and for the realization of cryptography and communication protocols. PMID:25649664

  5. Wide temperature range electronic device with lead attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A electronic device including lead attachment structure which permits operation of the devices over a wide temperature range is reported. The device comprises a core conductor having a thin coating of metal thereon whereby only a limited amount of coating material is available to form an alloy which bonds the core conductor to the device electrode, the electrode composition thus being affected only in the region adjacent to the lead.

  6. Noncontact true temperature measurement, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.; Allen, James L.

    1988-01-01

    A laser pyrometer was developed for acquiring the true temperature of a levitated sample. The reflectivity is measured by first expanding the laser beam to cover the entire cross-sectional surface of the diffuse target. The reflectivity calibration of this system is determined from the surface emissivity of a target with a blackbody cavity. The emissivity of the real target can then be calculated. The overall system constant is obtained by passively measuring the radiance of the blackbody cavity (emissivity = 1.0) at a known, arbitrary temperature. Since the photosensor used is highly linear over the entire operating temperature range, the true temperature of the target can then be computed. The latest results available from this on-going research indicate that true temperatures thus obtained are in very good quantitative agreement with thermocouple measured temperatures.

  7. Presentation of a new BRDF measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrot, Gerard; Bodilis, Madeleine; Briottet, Xavier; Cosnefroy, Helene

    1998-12-01

    The bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) plays a major role to evaluate or analyze signals reflected by Earth in the solar spectrum. A BRDF measurement device that covers a large spectral and directional domain was recently developed by ONERA/DOTA. It was designed to allow both laboratory and outside measurements. Its main characteristics are a spectral domain: 0.42-0.95 micrometers ; a geometrical domain: 0-60 degrees for zenith angle, 0-180 degrees for azimuth; a maximum target size for nadir measurements: 22 cm. For a given zenith angle of the source, the BRDF device needs about seven minutes to take measurements for a viewing zenith angle varying from 0-60 degrees and relative azimuth angle varying from 0-180 degrees. The performances, imperfections and properties of each component of the measurement chain are studied. A part of the work was devoted to characterize precisely the source, and particularly the spatial variability of the irradiance at the target level, the temporal stability and the spectral profile of the lamp. Some of these imperfections are modeled and taken into account in corrections of BRDF measurements. Concerning the sensor, a calibration in wavelength was done. Measurements of bi- directional reflectance of which is well known. A software was developed to convert all the raw data acquired automatically into BRDF values. To illustrate measurements taken by this device, some results are also presented here. They are taken over sand and short grass, for different wavelengths and geometrical conditions.

  8. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  9. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing

    2012-03-30

    How to remove detector side channel attacks has been a notoriously hard problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a simple solution to this problem--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD). It not only removes all detector side channels, but also doubles the secure distance with conventional lasers. Our proposal can be implemented with standard optical components with low detection efficiency and highly lossy channels. In contrast to the previous solution of full device independent QKD, the realization of our idea does not require detectors of near unity detection efficiency in combination with a qubit amplifier (based on teleportation) or a quantum nondemolition measurement of the number of photons in a pulse. Furthermore, its key generation rate is many orders of magnitude higher than that based on full device independent QKD. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over say 200 km will remain secure even with seriously flawed detectors. PMID:22540686

  10. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1450 Corneal radius measuring device... small, hand held, single tube penscope or eye gauge magnifier. (b) Classification. Class I...

  11. Magnetic measurements on insertion devices at NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G.; Galayda, J.; Solomon, L.; Kitamura, M.

    1989-07-01

    Magnetic measurements on three insertion devices for use in the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray ring are described. Hall probes were used for field mapping, and rotating long coils were used to determine integrated multipole coefficients. Results are presented for an iron pole-REC hybrid indulator, a vanadium permendur pole-REC hybrid wiggler, and a 5 T superconducting wiggler.

  12. Measuring ionizing radiation with a mobile device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsburg, Matthias; Fehrenbach, Thomas; Puente León, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    In cases of nuclear disasters it is desirable to know one's personal exposure to radioactivity and the related health risk. Usually, Geiger-Mueller tubes are used to assess the situation. Equipping everyone with such a device in a short period of time is very expensive. We propose a method to detect ionizing radiation using the integrated camera of a mobile consumer device, e.g., a cell phone. In emergency cases, millions of existing mobile devices could then be used to monitor the exposure of its owners. In combination with internet access and GPS, measured data can be collected by a central server to get an overview of the situation. During a measurement, the CMOS sensor of a mobile device is shielded from surrounding light by an attachment in front of the lens or an internal shutter. The high-energy radiation produces free electrons on the sensor chip resulting in an image signal. By image analysis by means of the mobile device, signal components due to incident ionizing radiation are separated from the sensor noise. With radioactive sources present significant increases in detected pixels can be seen. Furthermore, the cell phone application can make a preliminary estimate on the collected dose of an individual and the associated health risks.

  13. Wireless sensor for temperature and humidity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Svasta, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Temperature and humidity sensors have a broad range of applications, from heating and ventilation of houses to controlled drying of fruits, vegetables or meat in food industry. Modern sensors are integrated devices, usually MEMS, factory-calibrated and with digital output of measured parameters. They can have power down modes for reduced energy consumption. Such an integrated device allows the implementation of a battery powered wireless sensor when coupled with a low power microcontroller and a radio subsystem. A radio sensor can work independently or together with others in a radio network. Presented paper focuses mainly on measurement and construction aspects of sensors for temperature and humidity designed and implemented by authors; network aspects (communication between two or more sensors) are not analyzed.

  14. A noncontact temperature measurement method in polymerase chain reaction reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochivko, D. G.; Varlamov, D. A.; Fedorov, A. A.; Kurochkin, V. E.

    2016-04-01

    A new noncontact method for measuring temperatures of liquids, which is based on the fluorescent probes, is proposed. The method is intended for measuring temperatures of reaction media in reactors of devices for polymerase chain reactions in real time and can be used for determining dynamic temperature parameters.

  15. Emissivities of ceramics for temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Wolfgang; Moldenhauer, Alexander

    2004-04-01

    Ceramics are used as construction materials for buildings and thermal technical plants. Depending on the fields of its application between ambient temperature and more than 1000 °C there are different ceramic materials in use. For the temperature measurements with pyrometers and infrared cameras band emissivities are needed as settings. Pyrometers and infrared cameras have different spectral work ranges. Therefore, for different devices different emissivities are needed for one and the same material. Selectivity of the spectral emissivities like with ceramic materials can lead thereby to larger differences between the emissivities of a material, and furthermore to temperature dependence of the band emissivities of a material. Examples of different temperature-dependent spectral, band, and total emissivities are shown. These emissivities for different work ranges of pyrometers and infrared cameras were computed based on measured spectral emissivities. The investigation leads to a selection of suitable band emissivities for radiation thermometry of ceramics.

  16. Measuring temperature rise during orthopaedic surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah; Lee, Adam K; Widmaier, James C

    2016-09-01

    A reliable means for measuring temperatures generated during surgical procedures is needed to recommend best practices for inserting fixation devices and minimizing the risk of osteonecrosis. Twenty four screw tests for three surgical procedures were conducted using the four thermocouples in the bone and one thermocouple in the screw. The maximum temperature rise recorded from the thermocouple in the screw (92.7±8.9°C, 158.7±20.9°C, 204.4±35.2°C) was consistently higher than the average temperature rise recorded in the bone (31.8±9.3°C, 44.9±12.4°C, 77.3±12.7°C). The same overall trend between the temperatures that resulted from three screw insertion procedures was recorded with significant statistical analyses using either the thermocouple in the screw or the average of several in-bone thermocouples. Placing a single thermocouple in the bone was determined to have limitations in accurately comparing temperatures from different external fixation screw insertion procedures. Using the preferred measurement techniques, a standard screw with a predrilled hole was found to have the lowest maximum temperatures for the shortest duration compared to the other two insertion procedures. Future studies evaluating bone temperature increase need to use reliable temperature measurements for recommending best practices to surgeons. PMID:27246667

  17. Development of a force measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmar, Otto

    1991-10-01

    The development of a Force Measurement Device (FMD) for recording interface forces between shaker table and Ariane 4 satellites is reported. The FMD is designed to measure forces and moments in the frequency range from 0.1 to 100 Hz with an accuracy better than 3 percent in basic modes up to 20 Hz, and 7 percent for higher modes. The ring shaped FMD concept contains 8 piezoelectronic force links and an analog electronic signal processing unit for reduction of the measured signals to 3 total forces and 3 moments. These are output to the test site signal analysis system. The required accuracy of the output and the structural safety of the device were verified by static tests.

  18. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOEpatents

    Poulsen, Peter

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  19. Shock temperature measurements in ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H.B.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Ross, M.

    1985-07-01

    Our first shock temperature measurements on a cryogenic target are reported for NH/sub 3/. A new fast optical pyrometer and a cryogenic specimen holder for liquid NH/sub 3/ were developed to measure shock temperatures of 4400 and 3600 K at pressures of 61 and 48 GPa. These conditions correspond to those in the ice layers in Uranus and Neptune. The shock temperature data are in reasonable agreement with an equation of state based on an intermolecular potential derived from NH/sub 3/ Hugoniot data.

  20. Containerless high temperature property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Anderson, Collin D.

    1991-01-01

    Containerless processing in the low gravity environment of space provides the opportunity to increase the temperature at which well controlled processing of and property measurements on materials is possible. This project was directed towards advancing containerless processing and property measurement techniques for application to materials research at high temperatures in space. Containerless high temperature material property studies include measurements of the vapor pressure, melting temperature, optical properties, and spectral emissivities of solid boron. The reaction of boron with nitrogen was also studied by laser polarimetric measurement of boron nitride film growth. The optical properties and spectral emissivities were measured for solid and liquid silicon, niobium, and zirconium; liquid aluminum and titanium; and liquid Ti-Al alloys of 5 to 60 atomic pct. titanium. Alternative means for noncontact temperature measurement in the absence of material emissivity data were evaluated. Also, the application of laser induced fluorescence for component activity measurements in electromagnetic levitated liquids was studied, along with the feasibility of a hybrid aerodynamic electromagnetic levitation technique.

  1. Precision of Four Acoustic Bone Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher; Rianon, Nahid; Feiveson, Alan; Shackelford, Linda; LeBlanc, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Though many studies have quantified the precision of various acoustic bone measurement devices, it is difficult to directly compare the results among the studies, because they used disparate subject pools, did not specify the estimation methodology, or did not use consistent definitions for various precision characteristics. In this study, we used a repeated measures design protocol to directly determine the precision characteristics of four acoustic bone measurement devices: the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), the UBA-575+, the SoundScan 2000 (S2000), and the Sahara Ultrasound Bone Analyzer. Ten men and ten women were scanned on all four devices by two different operators at five discrete time points: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Month 3 and Month 6. The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and standardized coefficient of variation were computed for the following precision characteristics: interoperator effect, operator-subject interaction, short-term error variance, and long-term drift. The MRTA had high interoperator errors for its ulnar and tibial stiffness measures and a large long-term drift in its tibial stiffness measurement. The UBA-575+ exhibited large short-term error variances and long-term drift for all three of its measurements. The S2000's tibial speed of sound measurement showed a high short-term error variance and a significant operator-subject interaction but very good values (less than 1%) for the other precision characteristics. The Sahara seemed to have the best overall performance, but was hampered by a large %CV for short-term error variance in its broadband ultrasound attenuation measure.

  2. Precision of Four Acoustic Bone Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher; Feiveson, Alan H.; Shackelford, Linda; Rianon, Nahida; LeBlanc, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Though many studies have quantified the precision of various acoustic bone measurement devices, it is difficult to directly compare the results among the studies, because they used disparate subject pools, did not specify the estimation methodology, or did not use consistent definitions for various precision characteristics. In this study, we used a repeated measures design protocol to directly determine the precision characteristics of four acoustic bone measurement devices: the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), the UBA-575+, the SoundScan 2000 (S2000), and the Sahara Ultrasound Done Analyzer. Ten men and ten women were scanned on all four devices by two different operators at five discrete time points: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Month 3 and Month 6. The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and standardized coefficient of variation were computed for the following precision characteristics: interoperator effect, operator-subject interaction, short-term error variance, and long-term drift, The MRTA had high interoperator errors for its ulnar and tibial stiffness measures and a large long-term drift in its tibial stiffness measurement. The UBA-575+ exhibited large short-term error variances and long-term drift for all three of its measurements. The S2000's tibial speed of sound measurement showed a high short-term error variance and a significant operator-subject interaction but very good values ( < 1%) for the other precision characteristics. The Sahara seemed to have the best overall performance, but was hampered by a large %CV for short-term error variance in its broadband ultrasound attenuation measure.

  3. Real-time precision measuring device of tree diameter growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingming; Chen, Aijun; Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Nan; Yao, Jingyuan

    2016-01-01

    DBH(diameter at breast height) is an important factor to reflect of the quality of plant growth, also an important parameter indispensable in forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink, the accurate measurement of DBH or not is directly related to the research of forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink. In this paper, the principle and the mathematical model of DBH measurement device were introduced, the fixture measuring device and the hardware circuit for this tree diameter were designed, the measurement software programs were compiled, and the precision measuring device of tree diameter growth was developed. Some experiments with Australia fir were conducted. Based on experiment data, the correlations among the DBH variation of Australian fir, the environment temperature, air humility and PAR(photosynthetically active radiation) were obtained. The effects of environmental parameters (environment temperature, air humility and PAR) on tree diameter were analyzed. Experimental results show that there is a positive correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and environment temperature, a negative correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and air humility , so is PAR.

  4. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882... conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification. A nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which measures nerve conduction time by applying a stimulus, usually to a...

  5. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882... conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification. A nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which measures nerve conduction time by applying a stimulus, usually to a...

  6. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882... conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification. A nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which measures nerve conduction time by applying a stimulus, usually to a...

  7. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882... conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification. A nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which measures nerve conduction time by applying a stimulus, usually to a...

  8. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882... conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification. A nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which measures nerve conduction time by applying a stimulus, usually to a...

  9. Optimization of a fluidic temperature control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabsky, J. M.; Rask, D. R.; Starr, J. B.

    1970-01-01

    Refinements are described to an existing fluidic temperature control system developed under a prior study which modulated temperature at the inlet to the liquid-cooled garment by using existing liquid supply and return lines to transmit signals to a fluidic controller located in the spacecraft. This earlier system produced a limited range of garment inlet temperatures, requiring some bypassing of flow around the suit to make the astronaut comfortable at rest conditions. Refinements were based on a flow visualization study of the key element in the fluidic controller: the fluidic mixing valve. The valve's mixing-ratio range was achieved by making five key changes: (1) geometrical changes to the valve; (2) attenuation of noise generated in proportional amplifier cascades; (3) elimination of vortices at the exit of the fluidic mixing valve; (4) reduction of internal heat transfer; and (5) flow balancing through venting. As a result, the refined system is capable of modulating garment inlet temperature from 45 F to 70 F with a single manual control valve in series with the garment. This control valve signals without changing or bypassing flow through the garment.

  10. Magnetic measurements on insertion devices at NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G.; Galayda, J.; Kitamura, M.; Solomon, L.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic measurements on three insertion devices for use in the NSLS x-ray ring are described. Hall probes were used for field mapping, and rotating long coils were used to determine integrated multipole coefficients. Results are presented for an iron pole-REC hybrid undulator, a vanadium permendur pole-REC wiggler and a 5 Tesla superconducting wiggler. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Skin friction measuring device for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Bellman, D. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A skin friction measuring device for measuring the resistance of an aerodynamic surface to an airstream is described. It was adapted to be mounted on an aircraft and is characterized by a friction plate adapted to be disposed in a flush relationship with the external surface of the aircraft and be displaced in response to skin friction drag. As an airstream is caused to flow over the surface, a potentiometer connected to the plate for providing an electrical output indicates the magnitude of the drag.

  12. Method for measuring surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Gary A.; Baker, Sheila N.; McCleskey, T. Mark

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  13. Accelerated life testing and temperature dependence of device characteristics in GaAs CHFET devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallegos, M.; Leon, R.; Vu, D. T.; Okuno, J.; Johnson, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerated life testing of GaAs complementary heterojunction field effect transistors (CHFET) was carried out. Temperature dependence of single and synchronous rectifier CHFET device characteristics were also obtained.

  14. Amorphous metallizations for high-temperature semiconductor device applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, J. D.; Perepezko, J. H.; Nordman, J. E.; Kang-Jin, G.

    1981-01-01

    The initial results of work on a class of semiconductor metallizations which appear to hold promise as primary metallizations and diffusion barriers for high temperature device applications are presented. These metallizations consist of sputter-deposited films of high T sub g amorphous-metal alloys which (primarily because of the absence of grain boundaries) exhibit exceptionally good corrosion-resistance and low diffusion coefficients. Amorphous films of the alloys Ni-Nb, Ni-Mo, W-Si, and Mo-Si were deposited on Si, GaAs, GaP, and various insulating substrates. The films adhere extremely well to the substrates and remain amorphous during thermal cycling to at least 500 C. Rutherford backscattering and Auger electron spectroscopy measurements indicate atomic diffussivities in the 10 to the -19th power sq cm/S range at 450 C.

  15. An unheated permeation device for calibrating atmospheric VOC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, J.; Zahn, A.

    2011-10-01

    The development of an unpowered permeation device for continuous calibration of in-situ instruments measuring atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is described. Being lightweight and compact, and containing only negligible amounts of chemicals, the device is especially suited for field use such as on board aircraft. Its speciality is to maintain the permeation process in thermal equilibrium, so that the instantaneous permeation rate can be ascribed to a simple temperature measurement. This equilibrium state is maintained by a combination of three features: (i) a thin PTFE membrane as permeation medium which guarantees short stabilization times, (ii) a water bath as heat buffer, and (iii) a vacuum-panel based insulation, in which features (ii) and (iii) minimize temperature drifts to ~30 mK h-1 per Kelvin temperature difference to the environment. The respective uncertainty of the permeation rate due to thermal non-equilibrium is kept below 1%. An extensive theory part details the major permeation processes of gases through porous polymers, being Fick's diffusion, Knudsen flow, and viscous flow. Both the measured stabilization time and the measured temperature dependence of the permeation rate independently indicate that the permeation can be described by a viscous flow model, where diffusion of the gas molecules in large pores (having a diameter of >0.05 μm) dominates.

  16. Thin film materials and devices for resistive temperature sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basantani, Hitesh A.

    Thin films of vanadium oxide (VOx) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) are the two dominant material systems used in resistive infrared radiation detectors (microbolometers) for sensing long wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths in the 8--14 microm range. Typical thin films of VO x (x < 2) currently used in the bolometer industry have a magnitude of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) between 2%/K -- 3%/K. In contrast, thin films of hydrogenated germanium (SiGe:H) have |TCR| between 3%/K to 4%/K. Devices made from either of these materials have resulted in similar device performance with NETD ≈ 25 mK. The performance of the microbolometers is limited by the electronic noise, especially 1/f noise. Therefore, regardless of the choice of bolometer sensing material and read out circuitry, manufacturers are constantly striving to reduce 1/f noise while simultaneously increasing TCR to give better signal to noise ratios in their bolometers and ultimately, better image quality with more thermal information to the end user. In this work, thin films of VOx and hydrogenated germanium (Ge:H), having TCR values > 4 %/K are investigated as potential candidates for higher sensitivity next generation of microbolometers. Thin films of VO x were deposited by Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition (BTIBD) (˜85 nm thick). Electrical characterization of lateral resistor structures showed resistivity ranging from 104 O--cm to 2.1 x 104 O--cm, TCR varying from --4%/K to --5%/K, normalized Hooge parameter (alphaH/n) of 5 x 10 -21 to 5 x 10-18 cm3. Thin films of Ge:H were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) by incorporating an increasing amount of crystal fraction in the growing thin films. Thin films of Ge:H having a mixed phase, amorphous + nanocrystalline, having a |TCR| > 6 %/K were deposited with resistivity < 2,300 O--cm and a normalized Hooge's parameter 'alphaH/n' < 2 x 10-20 cm3. Higher TCR materials are desired, however, such materials have

  17. Colloidal-gold electrosensor measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Wegner, Steven; Harpold, Michael A.; McCaffrey, Terence M.; Morris, Susan E.; Wojciechowski, Marek; Zhao, Junguo; Henkens, Robert W.; Naser, Najih; O'Daly, John P.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a new device for use in measuring lead levels in biological and environmental samples. Using square wave coulometry and colloidal gold particles impregnated on carbon electrodes, the present invention provides a rapid, reliable, portable and inexpensive means of detecting low lead levels. The colloidal gold modified electrodes have microelectrode array characteristics and produce significantly higher stripping detection signals for lead than are produced at bulk gold electrode surfaces. The method is effective in determining levels of lead down to at least 5 .mu.g/dL in blood samples as small as 10 .mu.L.

  18. Colloidal-gold electrosensor measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Wegner, S.; Harpold, M.A.; McCaffrey, T.M.; Morris, S.E.; Wojciechowski, M.; Zhao, J.; Henkens, R.W.; Naser, N.; O`Daly, J.P.

    1995-11-21

    The present invention provides a new device for use in measuring lead levels in biological and environmental samples. Using square wave coulometry and colloidal gold particles impregnated on carbon electrodes, the present invention provides a rapid, reliable, portable and inexpensive means of detecting low lead levels. The colloidal gold modified electrodes have microelectrode array characteristics and produce significantly higher stripping detection signals for lead than are produced at bulk gold electrode surfaces. The method is effective in determining levels of lead down to at least 5 {micro}g/dL in blood samples as small as 10 {micro}L. 9 figs.

  19. Development of an ultrasonic airflow measurement device for ducted air.

    PubMed

    Raine, Andrew B; Aslam, Nauman; Underwood, Christopher P; Danaher, Sean

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an in-duct ultrasonic airflow measurement device has been designed, developed and tested. The airflow measurement results for a small range of airflow velocities and temperatures show that the accuracy was better than 3.5% root mean square (RMS) when it was tested within a round or square duct compared to the in-line Venturi tube airflow meter used for reference. This proof of concept device has provided evidence that with further development it could be a low-cost alternative to pressure differential devices such as the orifice plate airflow meter for monitoring energy efficiency performance and reliability of ventilation systems. The design uses a number of techniques and design choices to provide solutions to lower the implementation cost of the device compared to traditional airflow meters. The design choices that were found to work well are the single sided transducer arrangement for a "V" shaped reflective path and the use of square wave transmitter pulses ending with the necessary 180° phase changed pulse train to suppress transducer ringing. The device is also designed so that it does not have to rely on high-speed analogue to digital converters (ADC) and intensive digital signal processing, so could be implemented using voltage comparators and low-cost microcontrollers. PMID:25954952

  20. Development of an Ultrasonic Airflow Measurement Device for Ducted Air

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Andrew B.; Aslam, Nauman; Underwood, Christopher P.; Danaher, Sean

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an in-duct ultrasonic airflow measurement device has been designed, developed and tested. The airflow measurement results for a small range of airflow velocities and temperatures show that the accuracy was better than 3.5% root mean square (RMS) when it was tested within a round or square duct compared to the in-line Venturi tube airflow meter used for reference. This proof of concept device has provided evidence that with further development it could be a low-cost alternative to pressure differential devices such as the orifice plate airflow meter for monitoring energy efficiency performance and reliability of ventilation systems. The design uses a number of techniques and design choices to provide solutions to lower the implementation cost of the device compared to traditional airflow meters. The design choices that were found to work well are the single sided transducer arrangement for a “V” shaped reflective path and the use of square wave transmitter pulses ending with the necessary 180° phase changed pulse train to suppress transducer ringing. The device is also designed so that it does not have to rely on high-speed analogue to digital converters (ADC) and intensive digital signal processing, so could be implemented using voltage comparators and low-cost microcontrollers. PMID:25954952

  1. Current status of low-temperature radiator thermophotovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Charache, G.W.; Egley, J.L.; Danielson, L.R.; DePoy, D.M.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Campbell, B.C.; Hui, S.; Fraas, L.M.; Wojtczuk, S.J.

    1996-05-01

    The current performance status of low-temperature radiator (< 1,000 C) thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices is presented. For low-temperature radiators, both power density and efficiency are equally important in designing an effective TPV system. Comparisons of 1 cm x 1 cm, 0.55 eV InGaAs and InGaAsSb voltaic devices are presented. Currently, InGaAs lattice-mismatched devices offer superior performance in comparison to InGaAsSb lattice-matched devices, due to the former`s long-term development for numerous optoelectronic applications. However, lattice-matched antimony-based quaternaries offer numerous potential advantages.

  2. Measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2014-12-18

    In theory, quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information-theoretic security based on the laws of physics. Owing to the imperfections of real-life implementations, however, there is a big gap between the theory and practice of QKD, which has been recently exploited by several quantum hacking activities. To fill this gap, a novel approach, called measurement-device-independent QKD (mdiQKD), has been proposed. In addition, it can remove all side-channels from the measurement unit, arguably the most vulnerable part in QKD systems, thus offering a clear avenue toward secure QKD realisations. In this study, we review the latest developments in the framework of mdiQKD,more » together with its assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses.« less

  3. Measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2014-12-18

    In theory, quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information-theoretic security based on the laws of physics. Owing to the imperfections of real-life implementations, however, there is a big gap between the theory and practice of QKD, which has been recently exploited by several quantum hacking activities. To fill this gap, a novel approach, called measurement-device-independent QKD (mdiQKD), has been proposed. In addition, it can remove all side-channels from the measurement unit, arguably the most vulnerable part in QKD systems, thus offering a clear avenue toward secure QKD realisations. In this study, we review the latest developments in the framework of mdiQKD, together with its assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses.

  4. Verilog-A Device Models for Cryogenic Temperature Operation of Bulk Silicon CMOS Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akturk, Akin; Potbhare, Siddharth; Goldsman, Neil; Holloway, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Verilog-A based cryogenic bulk CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) compact models are built for state-of-the-art silicon CMOS processes. These models accurately predict device operation at cryogenic temperatures down to 4 K. The models are compatible with commercial circuit simulators. The models extend the standard BSIM4 [Berkeley Short-channel IGFET (insulated-gate field-effect transistor ) Model] type compact models by re-parameterizing existing equations, as well as adding new equations that capture the physics of device operation at cryogenic temperatures. These models will allow circuit designers to create optimized, reliable, and robust circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  5. An unheated permeation device for calibrating atmospheric VOC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, J.; Zahn, A.

    2011-05-01

    The development of an unpowered permeation device for continuous calibration of in-situ instruments measuring atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is described. Being lightweight and compact, and containing only negligible amounts of chemicals, the device is especially suited for field use such as onboard aircraft. Its speciality is to maintain the permeation process in thermal equilibrium, i.e. the instantaneous permeation rate can be ascribed via a simple temperature measurement. This equilibrium state is maintained by a combination of three features: (i) a thin PTFE membrane as permeation medium which guarantees short stabilization times, (ii) a water bath as heat buffer, and (iii) a vacuum-panel based insulation, in which features (ii) and (iii) minimize temperature drifts. The uncertainty of the permeation rate due to thermal non-equilibrium is kept below 1 %. An extensive theory part details the major permeation processes of gases through porous polymers, being Fick's diffusion, Knudsen flow, and viscous flow. Both the measured stabilization time and the measured temperature dependence of the permeation rate independently indicate that the permeation can be described by a viscous flow model, where diffusion of the gas molecules in large pores (having a diameter of >0.05 μm) dominates.

  6. High-Temperature RF Probe Station For Device Characterization Through 500 deg C and 50 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Zachary D.; Downey, Alan N.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Ponchak, George E.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A high-temperature measurement system capable of performing on-wafer microwave testing of semiconductor devices has been developed. This high temperature probe station can characterize active and passive devices and circuits at temperatures ranging from room temperature to above 500 C. The heating system uses a ceramic heater mounted on an insulating block of NASA shuttle tile material. The temperature is adjusted by a graphical computer interface and is controlled by the software-based feedback loop. The system is used with a Hewlett-Packard 8510C Network Analyzer to measure scattering parameters over a frequency range of 1 to 50 GHz. The microwave probes, cables, and inspection microscope are all shielded to protect from heat damage. The high temperature probe station has been successfully used to characterize gold transmission lines on silicon carbide at temperatures up to 540 C.

  7. Statistical analysis of accelerated temperature aging of semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. A.; Milles, M. F.

    1981-05-01

    A number of semiconductor devices taken from a distribution were operated at several elevated temperatures to induce failure in all devices within a reasonable time. Assuming general characteristics of the device failure probability density function (pdf) and its temperature dependence, the expected cumulative failure function (cff) for devices in normal operation were estimated based on statistical inference, taking the average probability of a random device (from the same distribution but operated at a normal temperature) failing as a function of time. A review of the mathematical formalism employed in semiconductor reliability discussions is included. Three failure pdf's at particular usefulness to this analysis--exponential, normal, and lognormal - are discussed. The cff, at times orders of magnitude loss then, at times comparable to the desired system useful, life (*10 to the 4th power to 10 to the 5th power hr) is considered. A review of accelerated temperature aging is presented, and the assumption concerning the general characteristics of the failure pdf, which are fundamental to this analysis, are emphasized.

  8. Short-time spectroscopic measurement of the temperature of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, H.

    1984-02-01

    The short-time temperature rise dependent deformation caused by shocks on solids were measured with radiation pyrometric and spectroscopic methods. The methods can only be applied on solids emitting a measurable radiation and are based on spectral radiation and the temperature of the solid. The Planck-Kirchhoff radiation laws and the measuring method are presented. The measuring equipment consists of an image reproducing optical device and a photodetector with spectral or interference filters for wavelength selection.

  9. 21 CFR 864.5950 - Blood volume measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood volume measuring device. 864.5950 Section... § 864.5950 Blood volume measuring device. (a) Identification. A blood volume measuring device is a..., and total blood volume. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  10. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  11. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  12. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  13. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  14. 21 CFR 882.1560 - Skin potential measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skin potential measurement device. 882.1560 Section 882.1560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... measurement device. (a) Identification. A skin potential measurement device is a general diagnostic...

  15. 21 CFR 882.1560 - Skin potential measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skin potential measurement device. 882.1560 Section 882.1560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... measurement device. (a) Identification. A skin potential measurement device is a general diagnostic...

  16. 32 CFR 634.27 - Speed-measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Speed-measuring devices. 634.27 Section 634.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.27 Speed-measuring devices. Speed-measuring devices will...

  17. 32 CFR 634.27 - Speed-measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Speed-measuring devices. 634.27 Section 634.27... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.27 Speed-measuring devices. Speed-measuring devices will be used in traffic control studies and enforcement programs....

  18. Development of silicon carbide semiconductor devices for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Powell, J. Anthony; Petit, Jeremy B.

    1991-01-01

    The semiconducting properties of electronic grade silicon carbide crystals, such as wide energy bandgap, make it particularly attractive for high temperature applications. Applications for high temperature electronic devices include instrumentation for engines under development, engine control and condition monitoring systems, and power conditioning and control systems for space platforms and satellites. Discrete prototype SiC devices were fabricated and tested at elevated temperatures. Grown p-n junction diodes demonstrated very good rectification characteristics at 870 K. A depletion-mode metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor was also successfully fabricated and tested at 770 K. While optimization of SiC fabrication processes remain, it is believed that SiC is an enabling high temperature electronic technology.

  19. Ultrasonic device for measuring periodontal attachment levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, J. E.; Hinders, M. K.

    2002-07-01

    Periodontal disease is manifested clinically by a degradation of the ligament that attaches the tooth to the bone. The most widely used diagnostic tool for assessment of periodontal diseases, measurement of periodontal attachment loss with a manual probe, may overestimate attachment loss by as much as 2 mm in untreated sites, while underestimating attachment loss by an even greater margin following treatment. Manual probing is also invasive, which causes patient discomfort. This work describes the development and testing of an ultrasonographic periodontal probe designed to replace manual probing. It uses a thin stream of water to project an ultrasonic beam into the periodontal pocket, and then measures echoes off features within the pocket. To do so, the ultrasonic beam must be narrowed from 2 (the diameter of the transducer) to 0.5 mm (the approximate width of the periodontal pocket at the gingival margin). The proper choice of transducer frequency, the proper method for controlling water flow from the probe, and a model for interpreting these echoes are also addressed. Initial results indicate that the device measures echoes from the hard tissue of the tooth surface, and that the periodontal attachment level can be inferred from these echoes.

  20. Cooling device featuring thermoelectric and diamond materials for temperature control of heat-dissipating devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersande, Ian W. (Inventor); Ewell, Richard (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Lyon, Hylan B. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A cooling device for lowering the temperature of a heat-dissipating device. The cooling device includes a heat-conducting substrate (composed, e.g., of diamond or another high thermal conductivity material) disposed in thermal contact with the heat-dissipating device. During operation, heat flows from the heat-dissipating device into the heat-conducting substrate, where it is spread out over a relatively large area. A thermoelectric cooling material (e.g., a Bi.sub.2 Te.sub.3 -based film or other thermoelectric material) is placed in thermal contact with the heat-conducting substrate. Application of electrical power to the thermoelectric material drives the thermoelectric material to pump heat into a second heat-conducting substrate which, in turn, is attached to a heat sink.

  1. 21 CFR 882.1560 - Skin potential measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skin potential measurement device. 882.1560 Section 882.1560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1560 Skin...

  2. 21 CFR 864.6400 - Hematocrit measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hematocrit measuring device. 864.6400 Section 864.6400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6400 Hematocrit...

  3. 21 CFR 864.6400 - Hematocrit measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hematocrit measuring device. 864.6400 Section 864.6400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6400 Hematocrit...

  4. 21 CFR 864.6400 - Hematocrit measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hematocrit measuring device. 864.6400 Section 864.6400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6400 Hematocrit...

  5. High temperature skin friction measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  6. Ultimate Diagnostics for the Measurement of Turbulence in Toroidal Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.; Mazzucato, E.; Hahm, T. S.; Lee, W. W.; Rewoldt, G.; Synakowski, E.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

    1998-11-01

    Relentless efforts in plasma diagnostics concepts (E. Mazzucato, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1691 (1998), H. Hase, H. Hartfuss,12th HTPD conference, F-16, June 1998.) and technology (R.P. Hsia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 488 (1997).) R&D enable us to design a system capable of simultaneous 3-D imaging of the temperature and density turbulence spectrum in toroidal devices such as tokamak and stellarator. Measurement of multi-dimensional correlation between Te and ne turbulence is extremely important in understanding the current transport model. In this paper, the details of the concept design such as accessibility, machine parameters, detection system and relevant frequencies will be discussed for a various devices. Special attention will be given to obtain ω and k spectra with sufficient spatial resolution so that the results can be readily compared with remarkable visual results produced by gyro-kinetic (GK) and/or gyro-fluid (GF) simulations.

  7. Organic Materials for Time-Temperature Integrator Devices.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Massimiliano; Melucci, Manuela

    2015-08-12

    Time-temperature integrators (TTIs) are devices capable of recording the thermal history of a system. They have an enormous impact in the food and pharmaceutical industries. TTIs exploit several irreversible thermally activated transitions such as recrystallization, dewetting, smoothening, chemical decomposition, and polymorphic transitions, usually considered drawbacks for many technological applications. The aim of this article is to sensitize research groups working in organic synthesis and surface science toward TTI devices, enlarging the prospects of many new materials. We reviewed the principal applications highlighting the need and criticisms of TTIs, which offer a new opportunity for the development of many materials. PMID:26156082

  8. Advanced devices and systems for radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.; Wehe, D.K.; He, Z.; Barrett, C.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-06-01

    The authors` most recent work continues their long-standing efforts to develop semiconductor detectors based on the collection of only a single type of charge carrier. Their best results are an extension of the principle of coplanar electrodes first described by Paul Luke of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 18 months ago. This technique, described in past progress reports, has the effect of deriving an output signal from detectors that depends only on the motion of carriers close to one surface. Since nearly all of these carriers are of one type (electrons) that are attracted to that electrode, the net effect is to nearly eliminate the influence of hole motion on the properties of the output signal. The result is that the much better mobility of electrons in compound semiconductors materials such as CZT can now be exploited without the concurrent penalty of poor hole collection. They have also developed new techniques in conjunction with the coplanar electrode principle that extends the technique into a new dimension. By proper processing of signals from the opposite electrode (the cathode) from the coplanar surface, they are able to derive a signal that is a good indication of the depth of interaction at which the charge carriers were initially formed. They have been the first group to demonstrate this technique, and examples of separate pulse height spectra recorded at a variety of different depths of interaction are shown in several of the figures that follow. Obtaining depth information is one step in the direction of obtaining volumetric point-of-interaction information from the detector. If one could known the coordinates of each specific interaction, then corrections could be applied to account for the inhomogeneities that currently plague many room-temperature devices.

  9. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  10. Measurement-device-independent quantum coin tossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liangyuan; Yin, Zhenqiang; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Chen, Hua; Guo, Guangcan; Han, Zhengfu

    2015-12-01

    Quantum coin tossing (QCT) is an important primitive of quantum cryptography and has received continuous interest. However, in practical QCT, Bob's detectors can be subjected to detector-side channel attacks launched by dishonest Alice, which will possibly make the protocol completely insecure. Here, we report a simple strategy of a detector-blinding attack based on a recent experiment. To remove all the detector side channels, we present a solution of measurement-device-independent QCT (MDI-QCT). This method is similar to the idea of MDI quantum key distribution (QKD). MDI-QCT is loss tolerant with single-photon sources and has the same bias as the original loss-tolerant QCT under a coherent attack. Moreover, it provides the potential advantage of doubling the secure distance for some special cases. Finally, MDI-QCT can also be modified to fit the weak coherent-state sources. Thus, based on the rapid development of practical MDI-QKD, our proposal can be implemented easily.

  11. Force Measurement Device for ARIANE 5 Payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, O.; Braeken, R.

    2004-08-01

    ESTEC uses since 1991 a Force Measurement Device (FMD) for the measurement of dynamic mechanical forces and moments. This tool allows the determination of forces and moments applied to the test hardware at its interface to the test facilities during dynamic testing. Three forces and three moments are calculated from the measurements of eight tri-axial force links and used to either characterize the dynamic mechanical behaviour of the test item and/or to control forces and moments during vibration testing (force limited vibration control). The current FMD is limited to test items with an interface diameter of up to about 1.2 m (adapter already available) and a mass compatible with ARIANE 4 payloads. The limitations of the current system come from the maximum of eight tri-axial force links and from the analogue technique of the Signal Processing Unit (SPU) that allows only a limited number of geometric configurations for the mechanical interface. Following the success of the FMD during former test campaigns, e.g. ROSETTA STM + FM, the need for a FMD, compatible with ARIANE 5 payloads has been established. Therefore ESA decided to develop a new FMD system. The system will include a digital real time SPU with 72 force input channels, corresponding to 24 tri-axes force sensors or 72 mono axial force sensors. The SPU design will allow extending the number of force input channels to 144. The set-up of the FMD will be done via a standard PC interface. The user will enter for each force sensor the location and the measurement direction in the reference coordinate system. Based on the geometrical information and the maximum forces and moments expected the PC will calculate the optimum range settings for the charge-amplifiers and the corresponding matrix with weighting factors which will allow to perform a fast calculation of the six output forces and moments from the 72 (or 144) input forces. The six output channels with forces and moments can then be connected either to the

  12. Optimal color temperature adjustment for mobile devices under varying illuminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungah; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    With the wide use of mobile devices, display color reproduction has become extremely important. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optimal color temperature for mobile displays under varying illuminants. The effect of the color temperature and the illuminance of ambient lighting on user preferences were observed. For a visual examination, a total of 19 nuanced whites were examined under 20 illuminants. A total of 19 display stimuli with different color temperatures (2,500 K ~ 19,600 K) were presented on an iPad3 (New iPad). The ambient illuminants ranged in color temperature from 2,500 K to 19,800 K and from 0 lx to 3,000 lx in illuminance. Supporting previous studies of color reproduction, there was found to be a positive correlation between the color temperature of illuminants and that of optimal whites. However, the relationship was not linear. Based on assessments by 56 subjects, a regression equation was derived to predict the optimal color temperature adjustment under varying illuminants, as follows: [Display Tcp = 5138.93 log(Illuminant Tcp) - 11956.59, p<.001, R2=0.94]. Moreover, the influence of an illuminant was positively correlated with the illuminance level, confirming the findings of previous studies. It is expected that the findings of this study can be used as the theoretical basis when designing a color strategy for mobile display devices.

  13. Infrared Emissivity Measurements of Building and Civil Engineering Materials: A New Device for Measuring Emissivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Marchetti, Mario; Ibos, Laurent; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves

    2014-10-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings and civil engineering structures is useful for two specific approaches. First, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures by infrared thermography requires emissivity values in the spectral bandwidth of the camera used for measurements, in order to obtain accurate surface temperatures; for instance, emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors (such as micro-bolometer arrays). Second, setting up accurate thermal balances by numerical modeling requires the total emissivity value for a large wavelength domain; this is, for instance, the case for computing the road surface temperature to predict ice occurrence. Furthermore, periodical surveys of emissivity variations due to aging or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations such as thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. A device using an indirect measurement method was previously developed in our lab; the method uses measurement of the reflectivity from a modulated IR source and requires calibration with a highly reflective surface. However, that device uses a low-frequency, thermal modulation well adapted to laboratory measurements but unfit for fast and in situ measurements. Therefore, a new, portable system which retains the principle of an indirect measurement but uses a faster-frequency, mechanical modulation more appropriate to outdoor measurements was developed. Both devices allow measurements in the broad m to m) and narrow m to m) bands. Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. The final objective of this work is to build a database of emissivity of these materials. A comparison of laboratory and on-site measurements of emissivity values obtained in both spectral bands will be

  14. Application of inverse heat conduction problem on temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhou, G.; Dong, B.; Li, Q.; Liu, L. Q.

    2013-09-01

    For regenerative cooling devices, such as G-M refrigerator, pulse tube cooler or thermoacoustic cooler, the gas oscillating bring about temperature fluctuations inevitably, which is harmful in many applications requiring high stable temperatures. To find out the oscillating mechanism of the cooling temperature and improve the temperature stability of cooler, the inner temperature of the cold head has to be measured. However, it is difficult to measure the inner oscillating temperature of the cold head directly because the invasive temperature detectors may disturb the oscillating flow. Fortunately, the outer surface temperature of the cold head can be measured accurately by invasive temperature measurement techniques. In this paper, a mathematical model of inverse heat conduction problem is presented to identify the inner surface oscillating temperature of cold head according to the measured temperature of the outer surface in a GM cryocooler. Inverse heat conduction problem will be solved using control volume approach. Outer surface oscillating temperature could be used as input conditions of inverse problem and the inner surface oscillating temperature of cold head can be inversely obtained. A simple uncertainty analysis of the oscillating temperature measurement also will be provided.

  15. On-chip temperature-compensated Love mode surface acoustic wave device for gravimetric sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Flewitt, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    Love mode surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors have been recognized as one of the most sensitive devices for gravimetric sensors in liquid environments such as bio sensors. Device operation is based upon measuring changes in the transmitted (S21) frequency and phase of the first-order Love wave resonance associated with the device upon on attachment of mass. However, temperature variations also cause a change in the first order S21 parameters. In this work, shallow grooved reflectors and a "dotted" single phase unidirectional interdigitated transducer (D-SPUDT) have been added to the basic SAW structure, which promote unidirectional Love wave propagation from the device's input interdigitated transducers. Not only does this enhance the first-order S21 signal but also it allows propagation of a third-order Love wave. The attenuation coefficient of the third-order wave is sufficiently great that, whilst there is a clear reflected S11 signal, the third-order wave does not propagate into the gravimetric sensing area of the device. As a result, whilst the third-order S11 signal is affected by temperature changes, it is unaffected by mass attachment in the sensing area. It is shown that this signal can be used to remove temperature effects from the first-order S21 signal in real time. This allows gravimetric sensing to take place in an environment without the need for any other temperature measurement or temperature control; this is a particular requirement of gravimetric biosensors.

  16. Electrical Devices and Circuits for Low Temperature Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, R. L.; Hammond, A.; Dickman, J. E.; Gerber, S.; Overton, E.; Elbuluk, M.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental temperature in many NASA missions, such as deep space probes and outer planetary exploration, is significantly below the range for which conventional commercial-off-the-shelf electronics is designed. Presently, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of such deep space missions carry a large number of radioisotope or other heating units in order to maintain the surrounding temperature of the on-board electronics at approximately 20 C. Electronic devices and circuits capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures will not only tolerate the harsh environment of deep space but also will reduce system size and weight by eliminating or reducing the heating units and their associate structures; thereby reducing system development cost as well as launch costs. In addition, power electronic circuits designed for operation at low temperatures are expected to result in more efficient systems than those at room temperature. This improvement results from better behavior in the electrical and thermal properties of some semiconductor and dielectric materials at low temperatures. An on-going research and development program on low temperature electronics at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on the development of efficient electrical systems and circuits capable of surviving and exploiting the advantages of low temperature environments. An overview of the program will be presented in this paper. A description of the low temperature test facilities along with selected data obtained from in-house component testing will also be discussed. On-going research activities that are being performed in collaboration with various organizations will also be presented.

  17. Compensated vibrating optical fiber pressure measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Goff, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A microbending optical fiber is attached under tension to a diaphragm to se a differential pressure applied across the diaphragm which it causes it to deflect. The fiber is attached to the diaphragm so that one portion of the fiber, attached to a central portion of the diaphragm, undergoes a change in tension; proportional to the differential pressure applied to the diaphragm while a second portion attached at the periphery of the diaphragm remains at a reference tension. Both portions of the fiber are caused to vibrate at their natural frequencies. Light transmitted through the fiber is attenuated by both portions of the tensioned sections of the fiber by an amount which increases with the curvature of fiber bending so that the light signal is modulated by both portions of the fiber at separate frequencies. The modulated light signal is transduced into a electrical signal. The separate modulation signals are detected to generate separate signals having frequencies corresponding to the reference and measuring vibrating sections of the continuous fiber, respectively. A signal proportional to the difference between these signals is generated which is indicative of the measured pressure differential across the diaphragm. The reference portion of the fiber is used to compensate the pressure signal for zero and span changes resulting from ambient temperature and humidity effects upon the fiber and the transducer fixture.

  18. Measurement of relative permittivity of LTCC ceramic at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qiulin; Kang, Hao; Qin, Li; Xiong, Jijun; Zhou, Zhaoying; Zhang, Wendong; Luo, Tao; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Devices based on LTCC (low-temperature co-fired ceramic) technology are more widely applied in high temperature environments, and the temperature-dependent properties of the LTCC material play an important role in measurements of the characteristics of these devices at high temperature. In this paper, the temperature-dependence of the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic is studied from room temperature to 500 °C. An expression for relative permittivity is obtained, which relates the relative permittivity to the resonant frequency, inductance, parasitic capacitance and electrode capacitance of the LTCC sample. Of these properties, the electrode capacitance is the most strongly temperature-dependent. The LTCC sample resonant frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance were measured (from room temperature to 500 °C) with a high temperature measurement system comprising a muffle furnace and network analyzer. We found that the resonant frequency reduced and the inductance and parasitic capacitance increased slightly as the temperature increases. The relative permittivity can be calculated from experimental frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance measurements. Calculating results show that the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic ceramic increases to 8.21 from room temperature to 500 °C.

  19. Temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Roger D.

    1978-01-01

    A temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device includes a magnet and a ferromagnetic member defining therebetween a flow path for liquid metal, the ferromagnetic member being formed of a material having a curie temperature at which a change in the flow rate of the liquid metal is desired. According to the preferred embodiment the magnet is a cylindrical rod magnet axially disposed within a cylindrical member formed of a curie material and having iron pole pieces at the ends. A cylindrical iron shunt and a thin wall stainless steel barrier are disposed in the annulus between magnet and curie material. Below the curie temperature flow between steel barrier and curie material is impeded and above the curie temperature flow impedance is reduced.

  20. Evaluation of Advanced COTS Passive Devices for Extreme Temperature Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Dones, Keishla R.

    2009-01-01

    Electronic sensors and circuits are often exposed to extreme temperatures in many of NASA deep space and planetary surface exploration missions. Electronics capable of operation in harsh environments would be beneficial as they simplify overall system design, relax thermal management constraints, and meet operational requirements. For example, cryogenic operation of electronic parts will improve reliability, increase energy density, and extend the operational lifetimes of space-based electronic systems. Similarly, electronic parts that are able to withstand and operate efficiently in high temperature environments will negate the need for thermal control elements and their associated structures, thereby reducing system size and weight, enhancing its reliability, improving its efficiency, and reducing cost. Passive devices play a critical role in the design of almost all electronic circuitry. To address the needs of systems for extreme temperature operation, some of the advanced and most recently introduced commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) passive devices, which included resistors and capacitors, were examined for operation under a wide temperature regime. The types of resistors investigated included high temperature precision film, general purpose metal oxide, and wirewound.

  1. Assessment of SOI Devices and Circuits at Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik; Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    Electronics designed for use in future NASA space exploration missions are expected to encounter extreme temperatures and wide thermal swings. Such missions include planetary surface exploration, bases, rovers, landers, orbiters, and satellites. Electronics designed for such applications must, therefore, be able to withstand exposure to extreme temperatures and to perform properly for the duration of mission. The Low Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electrical devices, circuits, and systems suitable for applications in deep space exploration missions and aerospace environment. Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology has been under active consideration in the electronics industry for many years due to the advantages that it can provide in integrated circuit (IC) chips and computer processors. Faster switching, less power, radiationtolerance, reduced leakage, and high temp-erature capability are some of the benefits that are offered by using SOI-based devices. A few SOI circuits are available commercially. However, there is a noticeable interest in SOI technology for different applications. Very little data, however, exist on the performance of such circuits under cryogenic temperatures. In this work, the performance of SOI integrated circuits, evaluated under low temperature and thermal cycling, are reported. In particular, three examples of SOI circuits that have been tested for operation at low at temperatures are given. These circuits are SOI operational amplifiers, timers and power MOSFET drivers. The investigations were carried out to establish a baseline on the functionality and to determine suitability of these circuits for use in space exploration missions at cryogenic temperatures. The findings are useful to mission planners and circuit designers so that proper selection of electronic parts can be made, and risk assessment can be established for such circuits for use in space missions.

  2. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882.1540 Section 882.1540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement...

  3. 27 CFR 25.42 - Testing of measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.42 Testing of measuring devices... beer, the brewer shall periodically test the measuring device and adjust or repair it, if necessary... test; and (4) Corrective action taken, if necessary. (b) Requirements for beer meters. The...

  4. 27 CFR 25.42 - Testing of measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.42 Testing of measuring devices... beer, the brewer shall periodically test the measuring device and adjust or repair it, if necessary... test; and (4) Corrective action taken, if necessary. (b) Requirements for beer meters. The...

  5. 27 CFR 25.42 - Testing of measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.42 Testing of measuring devices... beer, the brewer shall periodically test the measuring device and adjust or repair it, if necessary... test; and (4) Corrective action taken, if necessary. (b) Requirements for beer meters. The...

  6. 27 CFR 25.42 - Testing of measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.42 Testing of measuring devices... beer, the brewer shall periodically test the measuring device and adjust or repair it, if necessary... test; and (4) Corrective action taken, if necessary. (b) Requirements for beer meters. The...

  7. 27 CFR 25.42 - Testing of measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.42 Testing of measuring devices... beer, the brewer shall periodically test the measuring device and adjust or repair it, if necessary... test; and (4) Corrective action taken, if necessary. (b) Requirements for beer meters. The...

  8. 121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  9. Infrared negative luminescent devices and higher operating temperature detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Geoff R.; Gordon, Neil T.; Hall, David J.; Little, J. Chris; Masterton, G.; Hails, J. E.; Giess, J.; Haworth, L.; Emeny, Martin T.; Ashley, Tim

    2004-02-01

    Infrared LEDs and negative luminescent devices, where less light is emitted than in equilibrium, have been attracting an increasing amount of interest recently. They have a variety of applications, including as a ‘source" of IR radiation for gas sensing; radiation shielding for and non-uniformity correction of high sensitivity starring infrared detectors; and dynamic infrared scene projection. Similarly, IR detectors are used in arrays for thermal imaging and, discretely, in applications such as gas sensing. Multi-layer heterostructure epitaxy enables the growth of both types of device using designs in which the electronic processes can be precisely controlled and techniques such as carrier exclusion and extraction can be implemented. This enables detectors to be made which offer good performance at higher than normal operating temperatures, and efficient negative luminescent devices to be made which simulate a range of effective temperatures whilst operating uncooled. In both cases, however, additional performance benefits can be achieved by integrating optical concentrators around the diodes to reduce the volume of semiconductor material, and so minimise the thermally activated generation-recombination processes which compete with radiative mechanisms. The integrated concentrators are in the form of Winston cones, which can be formed using an iterative dry etch process involving methane/hydrogen and oxygen. We will present results on negative luminescence in the mid and long IR wavebands, from devices made from indium antimonide and mercury cadmium telluride, where the aim is sizes greater than 1cm x 1cm. We will also discuss progress on, and the potential for, operating temperature and/or sensitivity improvement of detectors, where very higher performance imaging is anticipated from systems which require no mechanical cooling.

  10. Infrared negative luminescent devices and higher operating temperature detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, G. R.; Gordon, N. T.; Hall, D. J.; Ashby, M. K.; Little, J. C.; Masterton, G.; Hails, J. E.; Giess, J.; Haworth, L.; Emeny, M. T.; Ashley, T.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared LEDs and negative luminescent devices, where less light is emitted than in equilibrium, have been attracting an increasing amount of interest recently. They have a variety of applications, including as a ‘source’ of IR radiation for gas sensing; radiation shielding for, and non-uniformity correction of, high sensitivity staring infrared detectors; and dynamic infrared scene projection. Similarly, infrared (IR) detectors are used in arrays for thermal imaging and, discretely, in applications such as gas sensing. Multi-layer heterostructure epitaxy enables the growth of both types of device using designs in which the electronic processes can be precisely controlled and techniques such as carrier exclusion and extraction can be implemented. This enables detectors to be made which offer good performance at higher than normal operating temperatures, and efficient negative luminescent devices to be made which simulate a range of effective temperatures whilst operating uncooled. In both cases, however, additional performance benefits can be achieved by integrating optical concentrators around the diodes to reduce the volume of semiconductor material, and so minimise the thermally activated generation-recombination processes which compete with radiative mechanisms. The integrated concentrators are in the form of Winston cones, which can be formed using an iterative dry etch process involving methane/hydrogen and oxygen. We present results on negative luminescence in the mid- and long-IR wavebands, from devices made from indium antimonide and mercury cadmium telluride, where the aim is sizes greater than 1 cm×1 cm. We also discuss progress on, and the potential for, operating temperature and/or sensitivity improvement of detectors, where very high-performance imaging is anticipated from systems which require no mechanical cooling.

  11. Infrared Negative Luminescent Devices and Higher Operating Temperature Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Tim

    2003-03-01

    Infrared LEDs and negative luminescent devices, where less light is emitted than in equilibrium, have been attracting an increasing amount of interest recently. They have a variety of applications, including as a source' of IR radiation for gas sensing; radiation shielding for and non-uniformity correction of high sensitivity starring infrared detectors; and dynamic infrared scene projection. Similarly, IR detectors are used in arrays for thermal imaging and, discretely, in applications such as gas sensing. Multi-layer heterostructure epitaxy enables the growth of both types of device using designs in which the electronic processes can be precisely controlled and techniques such as carrier exclusion and extraction can be implemented. This enables detectors to be made which offer good performance at higher than normal operating temperatures, and efficient negative luminescent devices to be made which simulate a range of effective temperatures whilst operating uncooled. In both cases, however, additional performance benefits can be achieved by integrating optical concentrators around the diodes to reduce the volume of semiconductor material, and so minimise the thermally activated generation-recombination processes which compete with radiative mechanisms. The integrated concentrators are in the form of Winston cones, which can be formed using an iterative dry etch process involving methane/hydrogen and oxygen. We will present results on negative luminescence in the mid and long IR wavebands, from devices made from indium antimonide and mercury cadmium telluride, where the aim is sizes greater than 1cm x 1cm. We will also discuss progress on, and the potential for, operating temperature and/or sensitivity improvement of detectors, where very high performance imaging is anticipated from systems which require no mechanical cooling.

  12. Simple microcalorimeter for measuring microgram samples at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doettinger-Zech, S. G.; Uhl, M.; Sisson, D. L.; Kapitulnik, A.

    2001-05-01

    An innovative microcalorimeter has been developed for measuring specific heat of very small microgram samples in the temperature range from 1.5 to 50 K and in magnetic fields up to 11 T. The device is built from a commercial sapphire temperature chip (Cernox), which is modified by means of standard microfabrication techniques and which is used as a sample holder, temperature sensor, and sample heater. Compared to existing microcalorimeters the simple design of our instrument allows a fabrication of the device in a few process steps by using facilities present in a standard laboratory clean room. As an illustrative example for the performance of our device, the specific heat of an underdoped (La1-xSrx)2CuO4 and CaRuO3 single crystal has been measured by means of the relaxation time method as well as the ac method.

  13. Temperature and Strain Coefficient of Velocity for Langasite SAW Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave sensors on Langasite substrates are being investigated for aerospace applications. Characterization of the Langasite material properties must be performed before sensors can be installed in research vehicles. The coefficients of velocity for both strain and temperature have been determined. These values have also been used to perform temperature compensation of the strain measurements.

  14. Electron cyclotron beam measurement system in the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Kamio, S. Takahashi, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Osakabe, M.; Mutoh, T.

    2014-11-15

    In order to evaluate the electron cyclotron (EC) heating power inside the Large Helical Device vacuum vessel and to investigate the physics of the interaction between the EC beam and the plasma, a direct measurement system for the EC beam transmitted through the plasma column was developed. The system consists of an EC beam target plate, which is made of isotropic graphite and faces against the EC beam through the plasma, and an IR camera for measuring the target plate temperature increase by the transmitted EC beam. This system is applicable to the high magnetic field (up to 2.75 T) and plasma density (up to 0.8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}). This system successfully evaluated the transmitted EC beam profile and the refraction.

  15. Temperature mapping of operating nanoscale devices by scanning probe thermometry

    PubMed Central

    Menges, Fabian; Mensch, Philipp; Schmid, Heinz; Riel, Heike; Stemmer, Andreas; Gotsmann, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Imaging temperature fields at the nanoscale is a central challenge in various areas of science and technology. Nanoscopic hotspots, such as those observed in integrated circuits or plasmonic nanostructures, can be used to modify the local properties of matter, govern physical processes, activate chemical reactions and trigger biological mechanisms in living organisms. The development of high-resolution thermometry techniques is essential for understanding local thermal non-equilibrium processes during the operation of numerous nanoscale devices. Here we present a technique to map temperature fields using a scanning thermal microscope. Our method permits the elimination of tip–sample contact-related artefacts, a major hurdle that so far has limited the use of scanning probe microscopy for nanoscale thermometry. We map local Peltier effects at the metal–semiconductor contacts to an indium arsenide nanowire and self-heating of a metal interconnect with 7 mK and sub-10 nm spatial temperature resolution. PMID:26936427

  16. Temperature mapping of operating nanoscale devices by scanning probe thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menges, Fabian; Mensch, Philipp; Schmid, Heinz; Riel, Heike; Stemmer, Andreas; Gotsmann, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Imaging temperature fields at the nanoscale is a central challenge in various areas of science and technology. Nanoscopic hotspots, such as those observed in integrated circuits or plasmonic nanostructures, can be used to modify the local properties of matter, govern physical processes, activate chemical reactions and trigger biological mechanisms in living organisms. The development of high-resolution thermometry techniques is essential for understanding local thermal non-equilibrium processes during the operation of numerous nanoscale devices. Here we present a technique to map temperature fields using a scanning thermal microscope. Our method permits the elimination of tip-sample contact-related artefacts, a major hurdle that so far has limited the use of scanning probe microscopy for nanoscale thermometry. We map local Peltier effects at the metal-semiconductor contacts to an indium arsenide nanowire and self-heating of a metal interconnect with 7 mK and sub-10 nm spatial temperature resolution.

  17. Temperature mapping of operating nanoscale devices by scanning probe thermometry.

    PubMed

    Menges, Fabian; Mensch, Philipp; Schmid, Heinz; Riel, Heike; Stemmer, Andreas; Gotsmann, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Imaging temperature fields at the nanoscale is a central challenge in various areas of science and technology. Nanoscopic hotspots, such as those observed in integrated circuits or plasmonic nanostructures, can be used to modify the local properties of matter, govern physical processes, activate chemical reactions and trigger biological mechanisms in living organisms. The development of high-resolution thermometry techniques is essential for understanding local thermal non-equilibrium processes during the operation of numerous nanoscale devices. Here we present a technique to map temperature fields using a scanning thermal microscope. Our method permits the elimination of tip-sample contact-related artefacts, a major hurdle that so far has limited the use of scanning probe microscopy for nanoscale thermometry. We map local Peltier effects at the metal-semiconductor contacts to an indium arsenide nanowire and self-heating of a metal interconnect with 7 mK and sub-10 nm spatial temperature resolution. PMID:26936427

  18. Device and method for measuring thermal conductivity of thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani R. (Inventor); Subramanian, Chelakara (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Alderfer, David W. (Inventor); Sealey, Bradley S. (Inventor); Burkett, Jr., Cecil G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device and method are provided for measuring the thermal conductivity of rigid or flexible, homogeneous or heterogeneous, thin films between 50 .mu.m and 150 .mu.m thick with relative standard deviations of less than five percent. The specimen is sandwiched between like material, highly conductive upper and lower slabs. Each slab is instrumented with six thermocouples embedded within the slab and flush with their corresponding surfaces. A heat source heats the lower slab and a heat sink cools the upper slab. The heat sink also provides sufficient contact pressure onto the specimen. Testing is performed within a vacuum environment (bell-jar) between 10.sup.-3 to 10.sup.-6 Torr. An anti-radiant shield on the interior surface of the bell-jar is used to avoid radiation heat losses. Insulation is placed adjacent to the heat source and adjacent to the heat sink to prevent conduction losses. A temperature controlled water circulator circulates water from a constant temperature bath through the heat sink. Fourier's one-dimensional law of heat conduction is the governing equation. Data, including temperatures, are measured with a multi-channel data acquisition system. On-line computer processing is used for thermal conductivity calculations.

  19. Development of a wireless blood pressure measuring device with smart mobile device.

    PubMed

    İlhan, İlhan; Yıldız, İbrahim; Kayrak, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    Today, smart mobile devices (telephones and tablets) are very commonly used due to their powerful hardware and useful features. According to an eMarketer report, in 2014 there were 1.76 billion smartphone users (excluding users of tablets) in the world; it is predicted that this number will rise by 15.9% to 2.04 billion in 2015. It is thought that these devices can be used successfully in biomedical applications. A wireless blood pressure measuring device used together with a smart mobile device was developed in this study. By means of an interface developed for smart mobile devices with Android and iOS operating systems, a smart mobile device was used both as an indicator and as a control device. The cuff communicating with this device through Bluetooth was designed to measure blood pressure via the arm. A digital filter was used on the cuff instead of the traditional analog signal processing and filtering circuit. The newly developed blood pressure measuring device was tested on 18 patients and 20 healthy individuals of different ages under a physician's supervision. When the test results were compared with the measurements made using a sphygmomanometer, it was shown that an average 93.52% accuracy in sick individuals and 94.53% accuracy in healthy individuals could be achieved with the new device. PMID:26626086

  20. Catalytic considerations in temperature measurement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.; Crossman, G. R.; Chitnis, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    Literature discussing catalytic activity in platinum group temperature sensors is surveyed. Methods for the determination and/or elimination of catalytic activity are reported. A particular application of the literature is discussed in which it is possible to infer that a shielded platinum total temperature probe does not experience significant catalytic activity in the wake of a supersonic hydrogen burner, while a bare iridium plus rhodium, iridium thermocouple does. It is concluded that catalytic data corrections are restricted and that it is preferable to coat the temperature sensor with a noncatalytic coating. Furthermore, the desirability of transparent coatings is discussed.

  1. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  2. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  3. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  4. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  5. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  6. Suspension Device for Use with Low Temperature Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegel, Donald C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A suspension device for use with a low temperature refrigeration system, such as an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator is provided. A support ring is provided with three spring-loaded tension assemblies equally spaced about the periphery of the support ring. The tension assemblies each have a pulley, about which is entrained a band of material. Connected to this band is a ring that laterally supports a cylindrical salt pill. Undesired variations in the amount of slack in the band as the salt pill cools are compensated for by the spring loading of the tension assemblies.

  7. Improved system measures output energy of pyrotechnic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortly, E. M.

    1966-01-01

    System for measuring the output energy of pyrotechnic devices discharges the reaction products into a test chamber. It measures the radiant heat output from a pinhole aperture as well as internal pressure changes on a common time base.

  8. THERMAL COUPLE FOR MEASURING TEMPERATURE IN A REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kanne, W.

    1959-11-24

    A thermocouple device for measuring the temperature of a flowing fluid in a conduit within which is positioned a metallic rod is presented. A thermocouple junction is secured to the rod centrally, and thermal insulating support disks having a diameter greater than the rod are secured to the end portions of the rod and adapted to fit transversely in the conduit.

  9. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.

    2013-09-11

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  10. Surface Temperature Measurement Using Hematite Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods that are capable of measuring temperature via spectrophotometry principles are discussed herein. These systems and methods are based on the temperature dependence of the reflection spectrum of hematite. Light reflected from these sensors can be measured to determine a temperature, based on changes in the reflection spectrum discussed herein.

  11. MEMS Device Being Developed for Active Cooling and Temperature Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2001-01-01

    High-capacity cooling options remain limited for many small-scale applications such as microelectronic components, miniature sensors, and microsystems. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) is currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center to meet this need. It uses a thermodynamic cycle to provide cooling or heating directly to a thermally loaded surface. The device can be used strictly in the cooling mode, or it can be switched between cooling and heating modes in milliseconds for precise temperature control. Fabrication and assembly are accomplished by wet etching and wafer bonding techniques routinely used in the semiconductor processing industry. Benefits of the MEMS cooler include scalability to fractions of a millimeter, modularity for increased capacity and staging to low temperatures, simple interfaces and limited failure modes, and minimal induced vibration.

  12. Temperature measurement inside metallic cables using distributed temperature system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Vasinek, Vladimir; Mach, Veleslav; Hruby, David; Kajnar, Tomas; Perecar, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, metallic cables are produced so as to avoid the maximum allowable temperature of the cable by the normal operation and the maximum allowable temperature for short-circuit the exceeding the maximum allowable internal temperature. The temperature increase is an unwanted phenomena causing losses in the cable and its abrasion. Longterm overload can lead to damaging of the cable or to the risk of fire in extreme cases. In our work, we present the temperature distribution measurement inside the metallic cables using distributed temperature system. Within the cooperation with manufacturer of the metallic cables, optical fibers were implemented into these cables. The cables are double coated and the fibers are allocated between these coatings and also in the centre of the cable. Thus we are able to measure the temperature inside the cable and also on the surface temperature along the whole cable length with spatial resolution 1 m during the cable heating. This measurement method can be also used for short-circuit prediction and detection, because this phenomena is always accompanied with temperature increase. Distributed temperature systems are already successfully implemented in temperature measurements in industry environment, such as construction, sewer systems, caliducts etc. The main advantage of these systems is electromagnetic resistance, low application price and the possibility of monitoring several kilometers long distances.

  13. Micro-PIT/V --- Simultaneous temperature and velocity fields in microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottebaum, Tait

    2008-11-01

    The use of encapsulated thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC) for the simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity fields in microfluidic devices has been demonstrated. Implementation of TLC thermometry at the micro-scale is significantly different than at the macro-scale due to the constraints on imaging and illumination configurations and the proximity of the measurements to interfaces and surfaces from which light will scatter. Unlike in micro-PIV, wavelength filtering (such as with fluorescent particles) cannot be used to remove undesired reflections, because the temperature information is carried by the particle color. Therefore, circular polarization filtering is used, exploiting the circular dichroism of TLC. Micro-PIT/V will enable new investigations into the physics of microfluidic devices involving temperature gradients, such as thermocapillary actuated devices and many ``lab-on-a-chip'' applications involving temperature sensitive chemical and biological processes. In addition, the design of operational devices can be improved by applying micro-PIT/V to the characterization of prototypes.

  14. Optical vibration measurement of mechatronics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanabe, Shigeo

    1993-09-01

    An optical vibration measuring system which enables to detect both linear and angular displacement of 25 nm and 5 prad was developed. The system is mainly composed of a He-Ne laser, a displacement detecting photo-diode and lenses, and has linear and angular displacement magnification mechanism using two different principles of optical lever. The system was applied to measure vibrational characteristics of magnetic head slider of hard disk drives and to measure stator teeth driving velocities of ultrasonic motor.

  15. An all optical method for lab-on-a-chip temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goering, Adam; Adams, Dan; Squier, Jeff; Durfee, Charles; Williams, Kim

    2009-10-01

    We demonstrate the use of Spatially and Spectrally Resolved Interferometry (SSRI) to measure minute temperature changes in picoliter volumes. The SSRI technique allows the measurement of refractive index changes as a function of temperature, frequency, and one spatial dimension within a microfluidic device. Integration of optical fibers and inexpensive light sources facilitate the progress of this method toward ``lab on a chip'' applications. Additionally, careful construction of microfluidic devices, in combination with SSRI will enable in-situ control of thermal gradients across the channel. Broad applications of this technology could include the measurements of reaction enthalpies, development of accurate temperature measurements in microfluidic devices, and precise characterization of temperature gradients.

  16. Temperature Correction in Probe Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsev, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    This work is devoted to experimental investigations of a decaying plasma using Langmuir probes. The gas pressure, the discharge current, and the moment of afterglow were selected to obtain probe characteristics in collisionless, intermediate, and drifting regimes of motion of charged particles. The manner in which the shape of the volt- ampere characteristics changes on passage from the collisionless motion to diffusion motion has been shown. A detailed analysis has been made of the source of errors arising when orbital-motion formulas or the logarithmic-operation method are applied to processing of the probe curves. It has been shown that neglect of collisions of charged particles in the probe layer leads to an ion-density value overstated more than three times, an electron-temperature value overstated two times, and an ion temperature overstated three to nine times. A model of interaction of charged particles in the probe layer has been proposed for correction of the procedure of determining temperature. Such an approach makes it possible to determine the space-charge layer in the probe, and also the value of the self-consistent field. The use of the developed procedures gives good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  17. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  18. Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

    2014-03-04

    A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

  19. Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation of Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, Kyle L.; Pop, Eric; King, William P.

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports a technique for independent observation of nanometer-scale Joule heating and thermoelectric effects, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is governed by both Joule and thermoelectric effects. When the device is driven by an electrical current that is both periodic and bipolar, the temperature rise due to the Joule effect is at a different harmonic than the temperature rise due to the Peltier effect. An AFM tip scanning over the device can simultaneously measure all of the relevant harmonic responses, such that the Joule effect and the Peltier effect can be independently measured. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by measuring Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices. By comparing the observed temperature responses of these working devices, we measure the device thermopower, which is in the range of 30 ± 3 to 250 ± 10 μV K{sup −1}. This technique could facilitate improved measurements of thermoelectric phenomena and properties at the nanometer-scale.

  20. A device to investigate the delamination strength in laminates at room and cryogenic temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingyi; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, You-He

    2014-12-01

    We construct an instrument to study the behavior of delamination strength in laminates which can be defined as the critical transverse stress at which an actual delamination occurs. The device allows the anvil measurements at room temperature or the liquid nitrogen temperature. For the electro-magnetic laminated materials (e.g., a superconducting YaBa2Cu3O(7-x) coated conductor which has a typical laminated structure), the delamination strength was measured while the properties of transport current were also recorded. Moreover, the influences of external magnetic field on the delamination strength were presented. PMID:25554334

  1. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S. Michael; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illuminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature.

  2. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1986-04-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illiminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature. 3 figs.

  3. Optical distance measurement device and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark W.

    2003-05-27

    A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target. A modulated optical beam may be used to determine the distance to the target. A first beam splitter may be used to split the optical beam and a second beam splitter may be used to recombine a reference beam with a return ranging beam. An optical mixing detector may be used in a receiver to efficiently detect distance measurement information.

  4. International Workshop on Magnetic Measurements of Insertion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The International Workshop on Magnetic Measurements of Insertion Devices was held at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, on September 28--29, 1993. The workshop brought together scientists and engineers from Europe, Japan, and the United States to discuss the following topics: Special techniques for magnetic measurements of insertion devices, magnetic tolerances of the insertion devices for third generation synchrotron radiation sources, methods for and accuracy of the multipole moments measurements, magnetic sensors, among other topics. The workshop included thirteen presentations that are collected in this volume.

  5. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Prather, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

  6. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1994-09-20

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

  7. Evaluation of Measuring Devices Packaged With Prescription Oral Liquid Medications

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The US Food and Drug Administration industry guidelines for manufacturers of oral, over-the-counter, liquid medications recommend that these products be packaged with dosage-delivery devices. This study describes the prevalence of these devices and instructions packaged with prescription, oral, liquid medications. METHODS: This was a descriptive study of prescription oral-liquid medications dispensed during a 6-month period at a community pharmacy. Product information was obtained from the National Library of Medicine's DailyMed database and from the products themselves. Endpoints included provision of a measuring device, the type of device, the maximum dose measurable and intervals on the provided device, and inclusion of instructions to the pharmacist. RESULTS: A total of 382 liquid prescription medications were included in the study. Forty-nine of the 382 products (12.8%) were packaged with a measuring device. The most commonly provided device was a calibrated dropper (n = 18; 36.7%), followed by an oral syringe with a bottle adaptor (n = 9, 18.4%). Specific instructions on proper use of the provided measuring device were included with 20 products (40.8%). Among the products that did not provide a measuring device, only 70 of the 333 package inserts (21%) included instructions to the pharmacist regarding counseling the patient on proper administration. CONCLUSIONS: Packaging of prescription oral-liquid medications is inconsistent and leaves room for vast variability in patient or parent administration practices. In the future, patterns of actual dispensing practices among pharmacies and pharmacists would help determine the true incidence of dispensing of measuring devices. PMID:26997931

  8. Proton irradiation of a swept charge device at cryogenic temperature and the subsequent annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gow, J. P. D.; Smith, P. H.; Pool, P.; Hall, D. J.; Holland, A. D.; Murray, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that a room temperature proton irradiation may not be sufficient to provide an accurate estimation of the impact of the space radiation environment on detector performance. This is a result of the relationship between defect mobility and temperature, causing the performance to vary subject to the temperature history of the device from the point at which it was irradiated. Results measured using Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) irradiated at room temperature therefore tend to differ from those taken when the device was irradiated at a cryogenic temperature, more appropriate considering the operating conditions in space, impacting the prediction of in-flight performance. This paper describes the cryogenic irradiation, and subsequent annealing of an e2v technologies Swept Charge Device (SCD) CCD236 irradiated at -35.4°C with a 10 MeV equivalent proton fluence of 5.0 × 108 protons · cm-2. The CCD236 is a large area (4.4 cm2) X-ray detector that will be flown on-board the Chandrayaan-2 and Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope spacecraft, in the Chandrayaan-2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer and the Soft X-ray Detector respectively. The SCD is readout continually in order to benefit from intrinsic dither mode clocking, leading to suppression of the surface component of the dark current and allowing the detector to be operated at warmer temperatures than a conventional CCD. The SCD is therefore an excellent choice to test and demonstrate the variation in the impact of irradiation at cryogenic temperatures in comparison to a more typical room temperature irradiation.

  9. Video integrated measurement system. [Diagnostic display devices

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.

    1982-06-01

    A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

  10. Optical Distance Measurement Device And Method Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark W.

    2004-06-15

    A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target by scanning the target. An optical beam is provided by a light source and modulated by a frequency source. The modulated optical beam is transmitted to an acousto-optical deflector capable of changing the angle of the optical beam in a predetermined manner to produce an output for scanning the target. In operation, reflected or diffused light from the target may be received by a detector and transmitted to a controller configured to calculate the distance to the target as well as the measurement uncertainty in calculating the distance to the target.

  11. Accurate temperature measurements with a degrading thermocouple

    SciTech Connect

    Skripnik, Y.A.; Khimicheva, A.I.

    1995-04-01

    Ways are considered of enhancing the accuracy of thermoelectric measurement of temperature. The high accuracy method proposed for monitoring the temperature of an aggressive medium can determine the temperature, irrespective of the instantaneous values of the Seebeck and Peltier coefficients, i.e., irrespective of the uncontrolled thermocouple sensitivity, which varies during use.

  12. Minimizing noise-temperature measurement errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelzried, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of noise-temperature measurement errors of low-noise amplifiers was performed. Results of this analysis can be used to optimize measurement schemes for minimum errors. For the cases evaluated, the effective noise temperature (Te) of a Ka-band maser can be measured most accurately by switching between an ambient and a 2-K cooled load without an isolation attenuator. A measurement accuracy of 0.3 K was obtained for this example.

  13. Non-intrusive temperature measurement using microscale visualization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamarthy, Pramod; Garimella, Suresh V.; Wereley, Steven T.

    2009-07-01

    μPIV is a widely accepted tool for making accurate measurements in microscale flows. The particles that are used to seed the flow, due to their small size, undergo Brownian motion which adds a random noise component to the measurements. Brownian motion introduces an undesirable error in the velocity measurements, but also contains valuable temperature information. A PIV algorithm which detects both the location and broadening of the correlation peak can measure velocity as well as temperature simultaneously using the same set of images. The approach presented in this work eliminates the use of the calibration constant used in the literature (Hohreiter et al. in Meas Sci Technol 13(7):1072-1078, 2002), making the method system-independent, and reducing the uncertainty involved in the technique. The temperature in a stationary fluid was experimentally measured using this technique and compared to that obtained using the particle tracking thermometry method and a novel method, low image density PIV. The method of cross-correlation PIV was modified to measure the temperature of a moving fluid. A standard epi-fluorescence μPIV system was used for all the measurements. The experiments were conducted using spherical fluorescent polystyrene-latex particles suspended in water. Temperatures ranging from 20 to 80°C were measured. This method allows simultaneous non-intrusive temperature and velocity measurements in integrated cooling systems and lab-on-a-chip devices.

  14. Temperature measurement systems in wearable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, S.; Gołebiowski, J.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the concept of temperature measurement system, adapted to wearable electronics applications. Temperature is one of the most commonly monitored factor in smart textiles, especially in sportswear, medical and rescue products. Depending on the application, measured temperature could be used as an initial value of alert, heating, lifesaving or analysis system. The concept of the temperature measurement multi-point system, which consists of flexible screen-printed resistive sensors, placed on the T-shirt connected with the central unit and the power supply is elaborated in the paper.

  15. 33. BENTZEL TUBE. A CURRENT VELOCITY MEASURING DEVICE DEVELOPED AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. BENTZEL TUBE. A CURRENT VELOCITY MEASURING DEVICE DEVELOPED AT WES IN 1932 BY CARL E. BENTZEL. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  16. 29. HAWSER DEVICE, DEVELOPED AT WES FOR MEASURING LONGITUDINAL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. HAWSER DEVICE, DEVELOPED AT WES FOR MEASURING LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSE STRESS OF BARGES IN CANAL LOCKS. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  17. A Temperature-Monitoring Vaginal Ring for Measuring Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Peter; Desjardins, Delphine; Kumar, Sandeep; Fetherston, Susan M.; Le-Grand, Roger; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Helgadóttir, Berglind; Bjarnason, Ásgeir; Narasimhan, Manjula; Malcolm, R. Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background Product adherence is a pivotal issue in the development of effective vaginal microbicides to reduce sexual transmission of HIV. To date, the six Phase III studies of vaginal gel products have relied primarily on self-reporting of adherence. Accurate and reliable methods for monitoring user adherence to microbicide-releasing vaginal rings have yet to be established. Methods A silicone elastomer vaginal ring prototype containing an embedded, miniature temperature logger has been developed and tested in vitro and in cynomolgus macaques for its potential to continuously monitor environmental temperature and accurately determine episodes of ring insertion and removal. Results In vitro studies demonstrated that DST nano-T temperature loggers encapsulated in medical grade silicone elastomer were able to accurately and continuously measure environmental temperature. The devices responded quickly to temperature changes despite being embedded in different thickness of silicone elastomer. Prototype vaginal rings measured higher temperatures compared with a subcutaneously implanted device, showed high sensitivity to diurnal fluctuations in vaginal temperature, and accurately detected periods of ring removal when tested in macaques. Conclusions Vaginal rings containing embedded temperature loggers may be useful in the assessment of product adherence in late-stage clinical trials. PMID:25965956

  18. Ultrasonic temperature measurements with fiber optic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Siwen; Wu, Nan; Zhou, Jingcheng; Ma, Tong; Liu, Yuqian; Cao, Chengyu; Wang, Xingwei

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasonic temperature measurements have been developed and widely applied in non-contact temperature tests in many industries. However, using optical fibers to build ultrasound generators are novel. This paper reports this new fiber optic ultrasonic system based on the generator of gold nanoparticles/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites. The optical acoustic system was designed to test the change of temperature on the aluminum plate and the temperature of the torch in the air. This paper explores the relationship between the ultrasonic transmission and the change of temperature. From the experimental results, the trend of ultrasonic speed was different in the aluminum plate and air with the change of temperature. Since the system can measure the average temperature of the transmission path, it will have significant influence on simulating the temperature distribution.

  19. High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkun, Isil

    A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor [1]. Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non

  20. Apparatus for measuring semiconductor device resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzen, W. J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A test structure is described for enabling the accurate measurement of the resistance characteristics of a semiconductor material and includes one or more pairs of electrical terminals disposed on the surface of the material to enable measurements of the resistance encountered by currents passed between the terminals. A pair of terminals includes a first terminal extending in a closed path, such as a circle, around a second terminal, so that all currents flowing between the terminals flow along a region of known width and length. Two or more pairs of concentric terminals can be utilized, wherein the ratio of radii of each pair of terminals is the same as the ratio for all other pairs of terminals, to facilitate the calculation of the contact resistance between each terminal and the semiconductor surface, as well as the calculation of the resistance of the semiconductor material apart from the effect of the terminal to semiconductor contact resistances.

  1. Laser Spectroscopic Measurement Of Temperature And Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Robert L.; Laufer, Gabriel

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses research on use of laser-induced fluorescence in oxygen and Raman scattering in air for simultaneous measurement of temperature and density of air. Major application of laser spectroscopic techniques, measurement of fluctuations of temperature and density in hypersonic flows in wind tunnels.

  2. Simple, accurate temperature-measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Fadin, L. W.

    1970-01-01

    Compact instrument, composed of integrated circuits and a temperature-sensitive platinum resistor, measures temperature over a wide dynamic range. Ultimate accuracy is limited by nonlinearity of the platinum resistor. With proper calibration and current regulation to within 0.01 percent, a measurement accuracy of 0.05 percent can be achieved.

  3. Linearization of Pt resistance temperature measurement circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-xiang

    2001-09-01

    A correction method for non-linear Pt resistance temperature measurement based on the principle of A/D conversion is introduced. The design principle of Pt resistance linear temperature measurement is analyzed and a new method for interfacing A/D converter with single chip computer 89c52 is provided together with the experimental data.

  4. Survey and Experimental Testing of Nongravimetric Mass Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakey, W. E.; Lorenz, R.

    1977-01-01

    Documentation presented describes the design, testing, and evaluation of an accelerated gravimetric balance, a low mass air bearing oscillator of the spring-mass type, and a centrifugal device for liquid mass measurement. A direct mass readout method was developed to replace the oscillation period readout method which required manual calculations to determine mass. A protoype 25 gram capacity micro mass measurement device was developed and tested.

  5. Experimental device for measuring the momentum of disperse granular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Watling, H.E.; Griffiths, S.K.

    1982-02-10

    An experimental device for measuring the time averaged momentum associated with a steady stream of a disperse granular material has been developed. The mathematical basis for the device is presented including a discussion of using the momentum measurement to compute the local mass or energy fluxes. The analysis considers both nonuniform particle mass and nonuniform velocities for the various constituents of an aggregate material. The results of calibration experiments conducted with a prototype transducer are shown with theoretical predictions of these results.

  6. Liquid crystal quantitative temperature measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Wu, Zongshan

    2001-10-01

    Quantitative temperature measurement using wide band thermochromic liquid crystals is an “area” thermal measurement technique. This technique utilizes the feature that liquid crystal changes its reflex light color with variation of temperature and applies an image capturing and processing system to calibrate the characteristic curve of liquid crystal’s color-temperature. Afterwards, the technique uses this curve to measure the distribution of temperature on experimental model. In this paper, firstly, each part of quantitative temperature measurement system using liquid crystal is illustrated and discussed. Then the technique is employed in a long duration hypersonic wind tunnel, and the quantitative result of the heat transfer coefficient along laminar plate is obtained. Additionally, some qualitative results are also given. In the end, comparing the experimental results with reference enthalpy theoretical results, a conclusion of thermal measurement accuracy is drawn.

  7. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of...

  11. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of...

  12. Temperature Sensitive Particle for Velocity and Temperature Measurement.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji; Iida, Masao

    2007-11-01

    Phosphorescence and fluorescence are often applied to measure the temperature and the concentration of oxygen. The intensity and the lifetime of phosphor depend on the temperature and the oxygen concentration, due to the quenching effect of the phosphor. The present study clarified the effects of temperature on the lifetime of phosphorescence of Porphyrins, Ru(bpy)3^2+ and the europium complex. The phosphorescence lifetime of oil solution / water solution / painted wall were measured with changing temperature and oxygen concentration. In addition, the optical property of the small particles incorporated with the europium complex was investigated in the oil/water. The lifetime was strongly affected by temperature. Then, the temperature sensitive particle (TSParticle) with metal complex was applied to measure temperature in Silicone oil (10cSt) two-dimensionally. Present study is the result of ?High speed three-dimensional direct measurement technology development for the evaluation of heat flux and flow of liquid metal? entrusted to the University of Tokyo by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan(MEXT).

  13. Uncertainty of temperature measurement with thermal cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Matyszkiel, Robert; Fischer, Joachim; Barela, Jaroslaw

    2001-06-01

    All main international metrological organizations are proposing a parameter called uncertainty as a measure of the accuracy of measurements. A mathematical model that enables the calculations of uncertainty of temperature measurement with thermal cameras is presented. The standard uncertainty or the expanded uncertainty of temperature measurement of the tested object can be calculated when the bounds within which the real object effective emissivity (epsilon) r, the real effective background temperature Tba(r), and the real effective atmospheric transmittance (tau) a(r) are located and can be estimated; and when the intrinsic uncertainty of the thermal camera and the relative spectral sensitivity of the thermal camera are known.

  14. Ultraflexible, large-area, physiological temperature sensors for multipoint measurements

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Yusuke; Terakawa, Yuki; Reeder, Jonathan; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Ware, Taylor; Yang, Kejia; Mabuchi, Kunihiko; Murakawa, Tomohiro; Sekino, Masaki; Voit, Walter; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2015-01-01

    We report a fabrication method for flexible and printable thermal sensors based on composites of semicrystalline acrylate polymers and graphite with a high sensitivity of 20 mK and a high-speed response time of less than 100 ms. These devices exhibit large resistance changes near body temperature under physiological conditions with high repeatability (1,800 times). Device performance is largely unaffected by bending to radii below 700 µm, which allows for conformal application to the surface of living tissue. The sensing temperature can be tuned between 25 °C and 50 °C, which covers all relevant physiological temperatures. Furthermore, we demonstrate flexible active-matrix thermal sensors which can resolve spatial temperature gradients over a large area. With this flexible ultrasensitive temperature sensor we succeeded in the in vivo measurement of cyclic temperatures changes of 0.1 °C in a rat lung during breathing, without interference from constant tissue motion. This result conclusively shows that the lung of a warm-blooded animal maintains surprising temperature stability despite the large difference between core temperature and inhaled air temperature. PMID:26554008

  15. Increased operational temperature of Cr2O3-based spintronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Michael; Echtenkamp, Will; Komesu, Takashi; Cao, Shi; Wang, Jian; Dowben, Peter; Binek, Christian

    Spintronic devices have been considered a promising path to revolutionizing the current data storage and memory technologies. This work is an effort to utilize voltage-controlled boundary magnetization of the magnetoelectric chromia (Cr2O3) to be implemented into a spintronic device. The electric switchable boundary magnetization of chromia can be used to voltage-control the magnetic states of an adjacent ferromagnetic layer. For this technique to be utilized in a spintronic device, the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature of chromia must be enhanced above the bulk value of TN = 307K. Previously, based on first principle calculations, boron doped chromia thin films were fabricated via pulsed laser deposition showing boundary magnetization at elevated temperatures. Measurements of the boundary magnetization were also corroborated by spin polarized inverse photoemission spectroscopy. Exchange bias of B-doped chromia was also investigated using magneto-optical Kerr effect, showing an increased blocking temperature from 307K. Further boundary magnetization measurements and spin polarized inverse photoemission measurements indicate the surface magnetization to an in-plane orientation from the standard perpendicular orientation. This project was supported by the SRC through CNFD, an SRC-NRI Center under Task ID (2398.001) and by C-SPIN, part of STARnet, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA (No. SRC 2381.001).

  16. Design, Qualification and Integration Testing of the High-Temperature Resistance Temperature Device for Stirling Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Jack; Hill, Dennis H.; Elisii, Remo; White, Jonathan R.; Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), developed from 2006 to 2013 under the joint sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to provide a high-efficiency power system for future deep space missions, employed Sunpower Incorporated's Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) with operating temperature up to 840 C. High-temperature operation was made possible by advanced heater head materials developed to increase reliability and thermal-to-mechanical conversion efficiency. During a mission, it is desirable to monitor the Stirling hot-end temperature as a measure of convertor health status and assist in making appropriate operating parameter adjustments to maintain the desired hot-end temperature as the radioisotope fuel decays. To facilitate these operations, a Resistance Temperature Device (RTD) that is capable of high-temperature, continuous long-life service was designed, developed and qualified for use in the ASRG. A thermal bridge was also implemented to reduce the RTD temperature exposure while still allowing an accurate projection of the ASC hot-end temperature. NASA integrated two flight-design RTDs on the ASCs and assembled into the high-fidelity Engineering Unit, the ASRG EU2, at Glenn Research Center (GRC) for extended operation and system characterization. This paper presents the design implementation and qualification of the RTD, and its performance characteristics and calibration in the ASRG EU2 testing.

  17. Measuring global temperatures: Their analysis and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielke, Roger A., Sr.

    2011-07-01

    This book documents how global surface temperature anomalies (GSTAs) and multidecadal trends are obtained. While ocean heat content change is a more robust metric with which to diagnose global warming, GSTAs have become a primary icon in the climate change debate. The book begins with a brief overview chapter of the Earth's radiative energy budget followed by two chapters on measurement approaches to monitoring temperature, including an interesting discussion of temperature scales. Chapters 4-6 concern measuring land and ocean temperatures. Chapters 7 and 8 discuss global networks and how point measurements are converted to obtain global averages. Chapter 9 focuses on changes in time of temperatures, including maximum and minimum values. This is followed by a short chapter on temperature profiles through the atmosphere and a final chapter of recommendations for future observations of this metric.

  18. [Therapeutic errors and dose measuring devices].

    PubMed

    García-Tornel, S; Torrent, M L; Sentís, J; Estella, G; Estruch, M A

    1982-06-01

    In order to investigate the possibilities of therapeutical error in syrups administration, authors have measured the capacity of 158 home spoons (x +/- SD). They classified spoons in four groups: group I (table spoons), 49 units (11.65 +/- 2.10 cc); group II (tea spoons), 41 units (4.70+/-1.04 cc); group III (coffee spoons), 41 units (2.60 +/- 0.59 cc), and group IV (miscellaneous), 27 units. They have compared the first three groups with theoreticals values of 15, 5 and 2.5 cc, respectively, ensuring, in the first group, significant statistical differences. In this way, they analyzed information that paediatricians receive from "vademecums", which they usually consult and have studied two points: If syrup has a meter or not, and if it indicates drug concentration or not. Only a 18% of the syrups have a meter and about 88% of the drugs indicate their concentration (mg/cc). They conclude that to prevent errors of dosage, the pharmacological industry must include meters in their products. If they haven't the safest thing is to use syringes. PMID:7125401

  19. Nonintrusive temperature measurements on advanced turbomachinery components

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Turley, W.D.; Lewis, W.

    1992-12-31

    A nonintrusive, noncontacting method we developed for temperature measurements in hostile environments is well-suited for measurements on advanced turbine components. The method is not only superior to thermocouples in sufficiently difficult environments, but also is the only known method for making measurements in situations where no form of pyrometry works. We demonstrated the method, which uses laser-induced fluorescence of thermographic phosphors bonded to the component surfaces, on turbine blades and vanes in developmental turbine engines. The method is extendable to the much-higher temperatures expected inside advanced turbomachinery. Of particular note is the adaptability of the method to surface-temperature measurements on ceramics operating at high temperatures. In this temperature range, the ceramics become translucent, and surface emissivity becomes meaningless. We shall discuss the method, its advantages and limitations, recent test results on operating turbine engines, and the extension to ceramic components.

  20. Nulling Infrared Radiometer for Measuring Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2003-01-01

    A nulling, self-calibrating infrared radiometer is being developed for use in noncontact measurement of temperature in any of a variety of industrial and scientific applications. This instrument is expected to be especially well-suited to measurement of ambient or near-ambient temperature and, even more specifically, for measuring the surface temperature of a natural body of water. Although this radiometer would utilize the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) portion of the spectrum (wavelengths of 8 to 12 m), its basic principle of operation could also be applied to other spectral bands (corresponding to other temperature ranges) in which the atmosphere is transparent and in which design requirements for sensitivity and temperature-measurement accuracy could be satisfied.

  1. Prediction and measurement results of radiation damage to CMOS devices on board spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Danchenko, V.; Cliff, R. A.; Sing, M.; Brucker, G. J.; Ohanian, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Final results from the CMOS Radiation Effects Measurement (CREM) experiment flown on Explorer 55 are presented and discussed, based on about 15 months of observations and measurements. Conclusions are given relating to long-range annealing, effects of operating temperature on semiconductor performance in space, biased and unbiased P-MOS device degradation, unbiased n-channel device performance, changes in device transconductance, and the difference in ionization efficiency between Co-60 gamma rays and 1-Mev Van de Graaff electrons. The performance of devices in a heavily shielded electronic subsystem box within the spacecraft is evaluated and compared. Environment models and computational methods and their impact on device-degradation estimates are being reviewed to determine whether they permit cost-effective design of spacecraft.

  2. A Tactile Stimulation Device for EEG Measurements in Clinical Use.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Christoph; Breitwieser, Christian; Muller-Putz, Gernot R

    2014-06-01

    A tactile stimulation device for EEG measurements in clinical environments is proposed. The main purpose of the tactile stimulation device is to provide tactile stimulation to different parts of the body. To stimulate all four major types of mechanoreceptors, different stimulation patterns with frequencies in the range of 5-250 Hz have to be generated. The device provides two independent channels, delivers enough power to drive different types of electromagnetic transducers, is small and portable, and no expensive components are required to construct this device. The generated stimulation patterns are very stable, and deterministic control of the device is possible. To meet electrical safety requirements, the device was designed to be fully galvanically isolated. Leakage currents of the entire EEG measurement system including the tactile stimulation device were measured by the European Testing and Certifying Body for Medical Products Graz (Notified Body 0636). All measured currents were far below the maximum allowable currents defined in the safety standard EN 60601-1:2006 for medical electrical equipment. The successful operation of the tactile stimulation device was tested during an EEG experiment. The left and right wrist of one healthy subject were randomly stimulated with seven different frequencies. Steady-state somatosensory evoked potential (SSSEPs) could successfully be evoked and significant tuning curves at electrode positions contralateral to the stimulated wrist could be found. The device is ready to be used in clinical environment in a variety of applications to investigate the somatosensory system, in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), or to provide tactile feedback. PMID:23864261

  3. Efficient measurement-device-independent detection of multipartite entanglement structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Witnessing entanglement is crucial in quantum information processing. With properly preparing ancillary states, it has been shown previously that genuine entanglement can be witnessed without trusting measurement devices. In this work we generalize the scenario and show that generic multipartite entanglement structures, including entanglement of subsystems and entanglement depth, can be witnessed via measurement-device-independent means. As the original measurement-device-independent entanglement witness scheme exploits only one out of four Bell measurement outcomes for each party, a direct generalization to multipartite quantum states will inevitably cause inefficiency in entanglement detection after taking account of statistical fluctuations. To resolve this problem, we also present a way to utilize all the measurement outcomes. The scheme is efficient for multipartite entanglement detection and can be realized with state-of-the-art technologies.

  4. In situ high-temperature characterization of AlN-based surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, Thierry; Bardong, Jochen; Legrani, Ouarda; Elmazria, Omar; Badreddine Assouar, M.; Bruckner, Gudrun; Talbi, Abdelkrim

    2013-07-01

    We report on in situ electrical measurements of surface acoustic wave delay lines based on AlN/sapphire structure and iridium interdigital transducers between 20 °C and 1050 °C under vacuum conditions. The devices show a great potential for temperature sensing applications. Burnout is only observed after 60 h at 1050 °C and is mainly attributed to the agglomeration phenomena undergone by the Ir transducers. However, despite the vacuum conditions, a significant oxidation of the AlN film is observed, pointing out the limitation of the considered structure at least at such extreme temperatures. Original structures overcoming this limitation are then proposed and discussed.

  5. [Temperature Measurement with Bluetooth under Android Platform].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Shen, Hao; Luo, Changze

    2015-03-01

    To realize the real-time transmission of temperature data and display using the platform of intelligent mobile phone and bluetooth. Application of Arduino Uno R3 in temperature data acquisition of digital temperature sensor DS18B20 acquisition, through the HC-05 bluetooth transmits the data to the intelligent smart phone Android system, realizes transmission of temperature data. Using Java language to write applications program under Android development environment, can achieve real-time temperature data display, storage and drawing temperature fluctuations drawn graphics. Temperature sensor is experimentally tested to meet the body temperature measurement precision and accuracy. This paper can provide a reference for other smart phone mobile medical product development. PMID:26524781

  6. Thermistor holder for skin-temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Williams, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    Sensing head of thermistor probe is supported in center area of plastic ring which has tabs so that it can be anchored in place by rubber bands or adhesive tapes. Device attaches probes to human subjects practically, reliably, and without affecting characteristics of skin segment being measured.

  7. Novel High Temperature Materials for In-Situ Sensing Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Florian Solzbacher; Anil Virkar; Loren Rieth; Srinivasan Kannan; Xiaoxin Chen; Hannwelm Steinebach

    2009-12-31

    The overriding goal of this project was to develop gas sensor materials and systems compatible with operation at temperatures from 500 to 700 C. Gas sensors operating at these temperatures would be compatible with placement in fossil-energy exhaust streams close to the combustion chamber, and therefore have advantages for process regulation, and feedback for emissions controls. The three thrusts of our work included investigating thin film gas sensor materials based on metal oxide materials and electroceramic materials, and also development of microhotplate devices to support the gas sensing films. The metal oxide materials NiO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated for their sensitivity to H{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}, respectively, at high temperatures (T > 500 C), where the sensing properties of these materials have received little attention. New ground was broken in achieving excellent gas sensor responses (>10) for temperatures up to 600 C for NiO and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials. The gas sensitivity of these materials was decreasing as temperatures increased above 500 C, which indicates that achieving strong sensitivities with these materials at very high temperatures (T {ge} 650 C) will be a further challenge. The sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and reliability of these materials were investigated across a wide range of deposition conditions, temperatures, film thickness, as using surface active promoter materials. We also proposed to study the electroceramic materials BaZr{sub (1-x)}Y{sub x}O{sub (3-x/2)} and BaCe{sub (2-x)}Ca{sub x}S{sub (4-x/2)} for their ability to detect H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}S, respectively. This report focuses on the properties and gas sensing characteristics of BaZr{sub (1-x)}Y{sub x}O{sub (3-x/2)} (Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}), as significant difficulties were encounter in generating BaCe{sub (2-x)}Ca{sub x}S{sub (4-x/2)} sensors. Significant new results were achieved for Y-doped BaZrO{sub 3}, including

  8. Atmospheric temperature measurements, using Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzman, J. A.; Coney, T. A.

    1974-01-01

    The Raman-shifted return of a lidar system had been used to make atmospheric temperature measurements. The measurements were made along a horizontal path at temperatures ranging from -30 to 30 C and at ranges of about 100 meters. The temperature data were acquired by recording the intensity ratio of two portions of the rotational Raman spectrum, which were simultaneously sampled from a preset range. These tests verified that the theoretical predictions formulated in the design of the system were adequate. Measurements were made to an accuracy of + or - 4 C with 1-minute temporal resolution.

  9. Solar absorber material reflectivity measurements at temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bonometti, J.A.; Hawk, C.W.

    1999-07-01

    Assessment of absorber shell material properties at high operating temperatures is essential to the full understanding of the solar energy absorption process in a solar thermal rocket. A review of these properties, their application and a new experimental methodology to measure them at high temperatures is presented. The direct application for the research is absorber cavity development for a Solar Thermal Upper Stage (STUS). High temperature measurements, greater than 1,000 Kelvin, are difficult to obtain for incident radiation upon a solid surface that forms an absorber cavity in a solar thermal engine. The basic material properties determine the amount of solar energy that is absorbed, transmitted or reflected and are dependent upon the material's temperature. This investigation developed a new approach to evaluate the material properties (i.e., reflectivity, absorptive) of the absorber wall and experimentally determined them for rhenium and niobium sample coupons. The secular reflectivity was measured both at room temperature and at temperatures near 1,000 Kelvin over a range of angles from 0 to 90 degrees. The same experimental measurements were used to calculate the total reflectivity of the sample by integrating the recorded intensities over a hemisphere. The test methodology used the incident solar energy as the heating source while directly measuring the reflected light (an integrated value over all visible wavelengths). Temperature dependence on total reflectivity was found to follow an inverse power function of the material's temperature.

  10. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, %5CDynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors%22. The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  11. Behavior of platinum/tantalum as interdigital transducers for SAW devices in high-temperature environments.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Thierry; Elmazria, Omar; Assouar, Badreddine; Bouvot, Laurent; Hehn, Michel; Weber, Sylvain; Oudich, Mourad; Genève, Damien

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the use of tantalum as adhesion layer for platinum electrodes used in high-temperature SAW devices based on langasite substrates (LGS). Tantalum exhibits a great adhesive strength and a very low mobility through the Pt film, ensuring a device lifetime at 900°C of about one hour in an air atmosphere and at least 20 h under vacuum. The latter is limited by morphological modifications of platinum, starting with the apparition of crystallites on the surface, followed by important terracing and breaking of the film continuity. Secondary neutral mass spectroscopy (SNMS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and comparison with iridium-based electrodes allowed us to show that this deterioration is likely intrinsic to platinum film, consisting of agglomeration phenomena. Finally, based on these results, we present a solution that could significantly enhance the lifetime of Pt-based IDTs placed in high-temperature conditions. PMID:21429851

  12. Rotation angle system of bidirectional reflectance distribution function measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Houping; Feng, Guojin; Zheng, Chundi; Li, Ping; Wang, Yu

    2015-10-01

    This article described the rotation angle system of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurement device. A high-precision multidimensional angle platform device is built. The rotation angle system uses two scanning rotational mechanical arms and a two-dimensional coaxial turntable mechanical structure, each rotational axis are driven by high-power motor and completed closed-loop control with high-precision encoder. Rotation of the motors can be automatically measured in accordance with point by the control software. The detecting arm can be rotated to measure any point in hemisphere space, the rotary range of light arm is +/- 90 °, the rotary range of sample stage is 360 ° and the angular resolution is 0.01°. The rotation angle system meets the absolute positioning hemisphere space requirements of BRDF device. The experimental result shows that the rotation angle system met the high-precision positioning requirements for the BRDF absolute measurement.

  13. Measurement kernel design for compressive imaging under device constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilling, Richard; Muise, Robert

    2013-05-01

    We look at the design of projective measurements for compressive imaging based upon image priors and device constraints. If one assumes that image patches from natural imagery can be modeled as a low rank manifold, we develop an optimality criterion for a measurement matrix based upon separating the canonical elements of the manifold prior. We then describe a stochastic search algorithm for finding the optimal measurements under device constraints based upon a subspace mismatch algorithm. The algorithm is then tested on a prototype compressive imaging device designed to collect an 8x4 array of projective measurements simultaneously. This work is based upon work supported by DARPA and the SPAWAR System Center Pacific under Contract No. N66001-11-C-4092. The views expressed are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.

  14. Microactuator device for integrated measurement of epithelium mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Mukundan, Vikram; Nelson, W. James; Pruitt, Beth L.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical forces are among important factors that drive cellular function and organization. We present a microfabricated device with on-chip actuation for mechanical testing of single cells. An integrated immersible electrostatic actuator system is demonstrated that applies calibrated forces to cells. We conduct stretching experiments by directly applying forces to epithelial cells adhered to device surfaces functionalized with collagen. We measure mechanical properties including stiffness, hysteresis and visco-elasticity of adherent cells. PMID:22927158

  15. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices. 24.36 Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

  16. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices. 24.36 Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

  17. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices. 24.36 Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

  18. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices. 24.36 Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

  19. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices. 24.36 Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

  20. High-temperature capacitive strain measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E. J.; Egger, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Capacitive strain gage and signal conditioning system measures stress-induced strain and cancels thermal expansion strain at temperatures to 1,500 F (815 C). Gage does not significantly restrain or reinforce specimen.

  1. Temperature dependence of the properties of DBR mirrors used in surface normal optoelectronic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, J. J.; Crawford, D. L.; Bowers, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    The variation in the center wavelength of distributed Bragg reflectors used in optoelectronic devices, such as surface emitting lasers and Fabry-Perot modulators, is measured as the temperature of the mirrors changes over the range 25 C to 105 C. An analytic expression for the shift in center wavelength with temperature is presented. The mirrors measured are made of InP/InGaAsP, GaAs/AlAs, and Si/SiN(x). The linear shifts in center wavelength are 0.110 +/- 0.003 nm/C, 0.087 +/- 0.003 nm/C, and 0.067 +/- 0.007 nm/C for the InP/InGaAsP, GaAs/AlAs, and Si/SiN mirrors, respectively. Based on these data, the change in penetration depth with temperature is calculated.

  2. Human body temperature - Its measurement and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Houdas, Y.; Ring, E.F.J.

    1982-01-01

    The terminology used in thermal physiology is examined, and principles of heat transfer are discussed, taking into account heat quantity, heat flux, temperature, pressure, quantities used in physiology, a number of common definitions, the equivalence between different forms of energy, the release of potential energy in living tissues, heat transfer without change of state, and heat transfer with change of state. Temperature and humidity measurement are considered along with man and his environment, the temperature distribution in the systems and tracts of the human body, physiological changes affecting the temperature distribution, problems of temperature regulation, questions of heat loss and conservation, acclimatization to heat and cold, and disorders of thermoregulation. Attention is given to possible thermal imaging applications, causes of temperature irregularities in the head and neck, common causes of increased temperatures of upper limbs, and thermography in disease. 193 references.

  3. Realization of the Energy Saving of the Environmental Examination Device Temperature Control System in Consideration of Temperature Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onogaki, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Shuichi

    The temperature control of the environmental examination device has loss of the energy consumption to cool it while warming it. This paper proposed a tempareture control system method with energy saving for the enviromental examination device without using cooling in consideration of temperature characteristics.

  4. A fluidic device for measuring constituent masses of a flowing binary gas mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.

    1973-01-01

    A continuous reading mass flow device was developed to measure the component flow of a binary gas mixture. The basic components of the device are a fluidic humidity sensor and a specially designed flow calorimeter. These components provide readings of gas mixture ratio, mixture heat capacity, heat dissipated by the calorimeter and the gas temperature rise across the calorimeter. These parameter values, applied in the general definitions of specific heat capacity and the heat capacity of a gas mixture, produce calculated component flow rates of the mixture being metered. A test program was conducted to evaluate both the steady state and dynamic performance of the device.

  5. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Optimum working temperature of power devices based on Bi-2223 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oomen, M. P.; ten Haken, B.; Leghissa, M.; Rieger, J.

    2000-10-01

    Transformers, motors and magnets based on Bi-2223 tapes have an optimum working temperature where the sum of investment and exploitation costs has a minimum. The investment cost is lower at temperatures below 77 K due to the higher critical current of the superconductor. The exploitation cost is mainly determined by the ac loss, which is dominated by the magnetization loss. The magnetization loss of a Bi-2223 tape at 48 Hz is measured for various temperatures between 65 and 77 K. The temperature dependence of the magnetization loss is fully explained by the change in critical current and agrees with the critical-state model. At high magnetic-field amplitudes the magnetization loss normalized with the critical current is independent of the temperature. Nevertheless, at lower temperatures the exploitation cost is higher due to the higher cooling penalty factor. A relation for the optimum temperature is developed, based on realistic expressions for the cooling penalty factor and the critical current as a function of the temperature. The influence of the other relevant parameters is summarized into a single dimensionless number. It is concluded that the optimum temperature of a power device based on Bi-2223 tapes is in the range 65-75 K.

  6. Chip Implementation with a Combined Wireless Temperature Sensor and Reference Devices Based on the DZTC Principle

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Hui; Huang, Yu-Jie; Huang, Han-Pang; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel CMOS wireless temperature sensor design in order to improve the sensitivity and linearity of our previous work on such devices. Based on the principle of CMOS double zero temperature coefficient (DZTC) points, a combined device is first created at the chip level with two voltage references, one current reference, and one temperature sensor. It was successfully fabricated using the 0.35 μm CMOS process. According to the chip results in a wide temperature range from −20 °C to 120 °C, two voltage references can provide temperature-stable outputs of 823 mV and 1,265 mV with maximum deviations of 0.2 mV and 8.9 mV, respectively. The result for the current reference gives a measurement of 23.5 μA, with a maximum deviation of 1.2 μA. The measurements also show that the wireless temperature sensor has good sensitivity of 9.55 mV/°C and high linearity of 97%. The proposed temperature sensor has 4.15-times better sensitivity than the previous design. Moreover, to facilitate temperature data collection, standard wireless data transmission is chosen; therefore, an 8-bit successive-approximation-register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a 433 MHz wireless transmitter are also integrated in this chip. Sensing data from different places can be collected remotely avoiding the need for complex wire lines. PMID:22346644

  7. Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature Dependent Thermophysical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czél, Balázs; Gróf, Gyula; Kiss, László

    2011-11-01

    A new evaluation method for a transient measurement of thermophysical properties is presented in this paper. The aim of the research was to couple a new automatic evaluation procedure to the BICOND thermophysical property measurement method to enhance the simultaneous determination of the temperature dependent thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. The thermophysical properties of two different polymers were measured and compared with the literature data and with the measurement results that were done by well-known, traditional methods. The BICOND method involves a step-down cooling, recording the temperature histories of the inner and the outer surfaces of a hollow cylindrical sample and the thermophysical properties are evaluated from the solution of the corresponding inverse heat conduction using a genetic algorithm-based method (BIGEN) developed by the authors. The BIGEN is able to find the material properties with any kind of temperature dependency, that is illustrated through the measurement results of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and polyamide (PA) samples.

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Time measurement device with four femtosecond stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panek, Petr; Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan

    2010-10-01

    We present the experimental results of extremely precise timing in the sense of time-of-arrival measurements in a local time scale. The timing device designed and constructed in our laboratory is based on a new concept using a surface acoustic wave filter as a time interpolator. Construction of the device is briefly described. The experiments described were focused on evaluating the timing precision and stability. Low-jitter test pulses with a repetition frequency of 763 Hz were generated synchronously to the local time base and their times of arrival were measured. The resulting precision of a single measurement was typically 900 fs RMS, and a timing stability TDEV of 4 fs was achieved for time intervals in the range from 300 s to 2 h. To our knowledge this is the best value reported to date for the stability of a timing device. The experimental results are discussed and possible improvements are proposed.

  9. Methods of Measurement for Semiconductor Materials, Process Control, and Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is reported. Significant accomplishments include: (1) Completion of an initial identification of the more important problems in process control for integrated circuit fabrication and assembly; (2) preparations for making silicon bulk resistivity wafer standards available to the industry; and (3) establishment of the relationship between carrier mobility and impurity density in silicon. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; characterization of generation-recombination-trapping centers, including gold, in silicon; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; study of scanning electron microscopy for wafer inspection and test; measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices; determination of S-parameters and delay time in junction devices; and characterization of noise and conversion loss of microwave detector diodes.

  10. Measurement-device-independent entanglement-based quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Zhenqiang; Li, Zuohan; Lian, Shibin; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan

    2016-05-01

    We present a quantum key distribution protocol in a model in which the legitimate users gather statistics as in the measurement-device-independent entanglement witness to certify the sources and the measurement devices. We show that the task of measurement-device-independent quantum communication can be accomplished based on monogamy of entanglement, and it is fairly loss tolerate including source and detector flaws. We derive a tight bound for collective attacks on the Holevo information between the authorized parties and the eavesdropper. Then with this bound, the final secret key rate with the source flaws can be obtained. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over 144 km can be made secure using only standard threshold detectors.

  11. Capacitance-voltage characteristics and device simulation of bias temperature stressed a-Si:H TFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Z.; Wie, C. R.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, the degradation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film transistors under a self-heating stress (SHS) condition is investigated by analyzing the capacitance-voltage characteristics of gate-to-drain capacitance ( Cgd) and gate-to-source capacitance ( Cgs). The very different characteristics of Cgd- V g and Cgs- V g show different stress-induced density of states (DOS) property at the drain side and source side of channel. In a long channel device, the Cgd and Cgs characteristics could be explained by the deep states profile which corresponds to the non-uniform threshold voltage profile induced by the bias temperature stress only. The capacitance-voltage and current-voltage curves, simulated using the ATLAS 2D simulator based on the non-uniform defect states profile, agreed well with the measured data. In a short channel device, the simulation fitting of the Cgd and Cgs data required a non-uniform defect states profile, which is substantially modified from the long channel profile. This was interpreted in terms of a significant contribution of the non-uniform temperature distribution, caused by stress-induced self-heating effect in the short channel device, to the defect states density profile in the channel. A decreased density of conduction band tail states at the source end, corresponding to the increased deep Gaussian states, enabled a good simulation fit in the short channel device.

  12. Large Conductance Switching in a Single-Molecule Device through Room Temperature Spin-Dependent Transport.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Albert C; Aravena, Daniel; Cerdá, Jorge I; Acís-Castillo, Zulema; Li, Haipeng; Real, José Antonio; Sanz, Fausto; Hihath, Josh; Ruiz, Eliseo; Díez-Pérez, Ismael

    2016-01-13

    Controlling the spin of electrons in nanoscale electronic devices is one of the most promising topics aiming at developing devices with rapid and high density information storage capabilities. The interface magnetism or spinterface resulting from the interaction between a magnetic molecule and a metal surface, or vice versa, has become a key ingredient in creating nanoscale molecular devices with novel functionalities. Here, we present a single-molecule wire that displays large (>10000%) conductance switching by controlling the spin-dependent transport under ambient conditions (room temperature in a liquid cell). The molecular wire is built by trapping individual spin crossover Fe(II) complexes between one Au electrode and one ferromagnetic Ni electrode in an organic liquid medium. Large changes in the single-molecule conductance (>100-fold) are measured when the electrons flow from the Au electrode to either an α-up or a β-down spin-polarized Ni electrode. Our calculations show that the current flowing through such an interface appears to be strongly spin-polarized, thus resulting in the observed switching of the single-molecule wire conductance. The observation of such a high spin-dependent conductance switching in a single-molecule wire opens up a new door for the design and control of spin-polarized transport in nanoscale molecular devices at room temperature. PMID:26675052

  13. MISSE 1 and 2 Tray Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.

    2006-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE 1 & 2) was deployed August 10,2001 and retrieved July 30,2005. This experiment is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC. NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, NASA-JSC, the Materials Laboratory at the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Boeing Phantom Works. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate performance, stability, and long term survivability of materials and components planned for use by NASA and DOD on future LEO, synchronous orbit, and interplanetary space missions. Temperature is an important parameter in the evaluation of space environmental effects on materials. The MISSE 1 & 2 had autonomous temperature data loggers to measure the temperature of each of the four experiment trays. The MISSE tray-temperature data loggers have one external thermistor data channel, and a 12 bit digital converter. The MISSE experiment trays were exposed to the ISS space environment for nearly four times the nominal design lifetime for this experiment. Nevertheless, all of the data loggers provided useful temperature measurements of MISSE. The temperature measurement system has been discussed in a previous paper. This paper presents temperature measurements of MISSE payload experiment carriers (PECs) 1 and 2 experiment trays.

  14. Azimuthal radiometric temperature measurements of wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of azimuthal view angle on the radiometric temperature of wheat canopies at various stages of development are investigated. Measurements of plant height, total leaf area index, green leaf area index and Feeks growth stage together with infrared radiometric temperature measurements at 12 azimuth intervals with respect to solar azimuth and at different solar zenith angles were obtained for four wheat canopies at various heights. Results reveal a difference on the order of 2 C between the temperatures measured at azimuths of 0 and 180 deg under calm wind conditions, which is attributed to the time-dependent transfer of heat between canopy component surfaces. The azimuthal dependence must thus be taken into account in the determination of radiometric temperatures.

  15. Comparison Measurements of Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

    2010-06-01

    As part of the efforts initiated through the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) program to make Silicon Carbide (SiC) temperature monitors available, a capability was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. INL selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. To demonstrate this new capability, comparison measurements were completed by INL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on identical samples subjected to identical irradiation conditions. Results reported in this paper indicate that the resistance measurement approach can yield similar peak irradiation temperatures if appropriate equipment is used and appropriate procedures are followed.

  16. Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices.

  17. Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Liu-Jun; Liang, Hao; Shentu, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Yin, Hua-Lei; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Ma, Xiongfeng; Pelc, Jason S; Fejer, M M; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-09-27

    Quantum key distribution is proven to offer unconditional security in communication between two remote users with ideal source and detection. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we faithfully demonstrate the measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defend attacks on a nonideal source. By assuming a trusted source scenario, our practical system, which generates more than a 25 kbit secure key over a 50 km fiber link, serves as a stepping stone in the quest for unconditionally secure communications with realistic devices. PMID:24116758

  18. Use of piezoelectric multicomponent force measuring devices in fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, A.; Stefan, K.

    1979-01-01

    The characterisitics of piezoelectric multicomponent transducers are discussed, giving attention to the advantages of quartz over other materials. The main advantage of piezoelectric devices in aerodynamic studies is their ability to indicate rapid changes in the values of physical parameters. Problems in the accuracy of measurments by piezoelectric devices can be overcome by suitable design approaches. A practical example is given of how such can be utilized to measure rapid fluctuations of fluid forces exerted on a circular cylinder mounted in a water channel.

  19. Ways to measure body temperature in the field.

    PubMed

    Langer, Franz; Fietz, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    Body temperature (Tb) represents one of the key parameters in ecophysiological studies with focus on energy saving strategies. In this study we therefore comparatively evaluated the usefulness of two types of temperature-sensitive passive transponders (LifeChips and IPTT-300) and one data logger (iButton, DS1922L) mounted onto a collar to measure Tb in the field. First we tested the accuracy of all three devices in a water bath with water temperature ranging from 0 to 40°C. Second, we evaluated the usefulness of the LifeChips and the modified iButtons for measuring Tb of small heterothermic mammals under field conditions. For this work we subcutaneously implanted 14 male edible dormice (Glis glis) with transponders, and equipped another 14 males with data loggers to simultaneously record Tb and oxygen consumption with a portable oxygen analyzer (Oxbox). In one individual we recorded Tb with both devices and analyzed recorded Tb patterns. LifeChips are able to measure temperature within the smallest range from 25 to 40°C with an accuracy of 0.07±0.12°C. IPTT-300 transponders measured temperature between 10 and 40°C, but accuracy decreased considerably at values below 30°C, with maximal deviations of nearly 7°C. An individual calibration of each transponder is therefore needed, before using it at low Tbs. The accuracy of the data logger was comparatively good (0.12±0.25°C) and stable over the whole temperature range tested (0-40°C). In all three devices, the repeatability of measurements was high. LifeChip transponders as well as modified iButtons measured Tb reliably under field conditions. Simultaneous Tb-recordings in one edible dormouse with an implanted LifeChip and a collar-mounted iButton revealed that values of both measurements were closely correlated. Taken together, we conclude that implanted temperature-sensitive transponders represent an appropriate and largely non-invasive method to measure Tb also under field conditions. PMID:24802148

  20. Evaluation of advanced cooling therapy's esophageal cooling device for core temperature control.

    PubMed

    Naiman, Melissa; Shanley, Patrick; Garrett, Frank; Kulstad, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Managing core temperature is critical to patient outcomes in a wide range of clinical scenarios. Previous devices designed to perform temperature management required a trade-off between invasiveness and temperature modulation efficiency. The Esophageal Cooling Device, made by Advanced Cooling Therapy (Chicago, IL), was developed to optimize warming and cooling efficiency through an easy and low risk procedure that leverages heat transfer through convection and conduction. Clinical data from cardiac arrest, fever, and critical burn patients indicate that the Esophageal Cooling Device performs very well both in terms of temperature modulation (cooling rates of approximately 1.3°C/hour, warming of up to 0.5°C/hour) and maintaining temperature stability (variation around goal temperature ± 0.3°C). Physicians have reported that device performance is comparable to the performance of intravascular temperature management techniques and superior to the performance of surface devices, while avoiding the downsides associated with both. PMID:27043177

  1. Containerless measurements on liquids at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The application of containerless techniques for measurements of the thermophysical properties of high temperature liquids is reviewed. Recent results obtained in the materials research laboratories at Intersonics are also presented. Work to measure high temperature liquid properties is motivated by both the need for reliable property data for modeling of industrial processes involving molten materials and generation of data form basic modeling of materials behavior. The motivation for this work and examples of variations in thermophysical property values from the literature are presented. The variations may be attributed to changes in the specimen properties caused by chemical changes in the specimen and/or to measurement errors. The two methods used to achieve containerless conditions were aeroacoustic levitation and electromagnetic levitation. Their qualities are presented. The accompanying slides show the layout of levitation equipment and present examples of levitated metallic and ceramic specimens. Containerless techniques provide a high degree of control over specimen chemistry, nucleation and allow precise control of liquid composition to be achieved. Effects of minor additions can thus be measured in a systematic way. Operation in reduced gravity enables enhanced control of liquid motion which can allow measurement of liquid transport properties. Examples of nucleation control, the thermodynamics of oxide contamination removal, and control of the chromium content of liquid aluminum oxide by high temperature containerless processes are presented. The feasibility of measuring temperature, emissivity, liquidus temperature, enthalpy, surface tension, density, viscosity, and thermal diffusivity are discussed in the final section of the paper.

  2. Low emissivity high-temperature tantalum thin film coatings for silicon devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rinnerbauer, Veronika; Senkevich, Jay J.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin; Celanovic, Ivan; Harl, Robert R.; Rogers, Bridget R.

    2013-01-01

    The authors study the use of thin ( ~230 nm ) tantalum (Ta) layers on silicon (Si) as a low emissivity (high reflectivity) coating for high-temperature Si devices. Such coatings are critical to reduce parasitic radiation loss, which is one of the dominant loss mechanisms at high temperatures (above 700 °C ). The key factors to achieve such a coating are low emissivity in the near infrared and superior thermal stability at high operating temperatures. The authors investigated the emissivity of Ta coatings deposited on Si with respect to deposition parameters, and annealing conditions, and temperature. The authors found that after annealing at temperatures ≥900 °C the emissivity in the near infrared ( 1–3 μm ) was reduced by a factor of 2 as compared to bare Si. In addition, the authors measured thermal emission at temperatures from 700 to 1000 °C , which is stable up to a heater temperature equal to the annealing temperature. Furthermore, Auger electron spectroscopy profiles of the coatings before and after annealing were taken to evaluate thermal stability. A thin (about 70 nm) Ta₂O₅ layer was found to act as an efficient diffusion barrier between the Si substrate and the Ta layer to prevent Si diffusion.

  3. Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selinsky, T.; Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

    2002-01-01

    A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (approx. = 71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in. (approx. = 1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (approx. = 6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger. This work was done by Randy

  4. Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

    2002-01-01

    A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (=71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in.(=1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (=6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Flow Velocity and Temperature Mapping of a Shape Memory Polymer Foam Device

    SciTech Connect

    Small IV, W; Gjersing, E; Herberg, J L; Wilson, T S; Maitland, D J

    2008-10-29

    Interventional medical devices based on thermally responsive shape memory polymer (SMP) are under development to treat stroke victims. The goals of these catheter-delivered devices include re-establishing blood flow in occluded arteries and preventing aneurysm rupture. Because these devices alter the hemodynamics and dissipate thermal energy during the therapeutic procedure, a first step in the device development process is to investigate fluid velocity and temperature changes following device deployment. A laser-heated SMP foam device was deployed in a simplified in vitro vascular model. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques were used to assess the fluid dynamics and thermal changes associated with device deployment. Spatial maps of the steady-state fluid velocity and temperature change inside and outside the laser-heated SMP foam device were acquired. Though non-physiological conditions were used in this initial study, the utility of MRI in the development of a thermally-activated SMP foam device has been demonstrated.

  6. Assessment of body temperature measurement options.

    PubMed

    Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

    Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature. PMID:24037397

  7. 10 CFR 31.5 - Certain detecting, measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. 2 31.5 Section 31.5 Energy..., measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere... composition, or for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. (b)(1) The general license in paragraph (a)...

  8. 10 CFR 31.5 - Certain detecting, measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. 2 31.5 Section 31.5 Energy..., measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere... composition, or for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. (b)(1) The general license in paragraph (a)...

  9. 10 CFR 31.5 - Certain detecting, measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. 2 31.5 Section 31.5 Energy..., measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere... composition, or for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. (b)(1) The general license in paragraph (a)...

  10. 10 CFR 31.5 - Certain detecting, measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. 2 31.5 Section 31.5 Energy..., measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere... composition, or for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. (b)(1) The general license in paragraph (a)...

  11. 10 CFR 31.5 - Certain detecting, measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. 2 31.5 Section 31.5 Energy..., measuring, gauging, or controlling devices and certain devices for producing light or an ionized atmosphere... composition, or for producing light or an ionized atmosphere. (b)(1) The general license in paragraph (a)...

  12. A survey of gas-side fouling measuring devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marner, W. J.; Henslee, S. P.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of measuring devices or probes, which were used to investigate gas side fouling, was carried out. Five different types of measuring devices are identified and discussed including: heat flux meters, mass accumulation probes, optical devices, deposition probes, and acid condensation probes. A total of 32 different probes are described in detail and summarized in matrix or tabular form. The important considerations of combustion gas characterization and deposit analysis are also given a significant amount of attention. The results show that considerable work was done in the development of gas side fouling probes. However, it is clear that the design, construction, and testing of a durable, versatile probe - capable of monitoring on-line fouling resistances - remains a formidable task.

  13. Survey of gas-side fouling measuring devices

    SciTech Connect

    Marner, W.J.; Henslee, S.P.

    1984-03-01

    A survey of measuring devices or probes, which have been used to investigate gas-side fouling, has been carried out. Five different types of measuring devices are identified and discussed including: heat flux meters, mass accumulation probes, optical devices, deposition probes, and acid condensation probes. A total of 32 different probes are described in detail and summarized in matrix or tabular form. The important considerations of combustion gas characterization and deposit analysis are also given a significant amount of attention. The results of this study show that considerable work has been done in the development of gas-side fouling probes. However, it is clear that the design, construction, and testing of a durable versatile probe - capable of monitoring on-line fouling resistances - remains a formidable task.

  14. A Microwave Radiometer for Internal Body Temperature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeler, Robert Patterson

    This thesis presents the analysis and design of a microwave radiometer for internal body temperature measurements. There is currently no available method for non-invasive temperature measurement inside the human body. However, knowledge of both relative and absolute temperature variations over time is important to a number of medical applications. The research presented in this thesis details a proof-of-concept near-field microwave radiometer demonstrating relative thermometry of a multi-layer phantom. There are a number of technical challenges addressed in this thesis for radiometric determination of sub-degree temperature variations in the human body. A theoretical approach is developed for determining sensing depth from known complex layered tissues, which is defined as a figure of merit, and is shown to be dependent on frequency, electrical properties of the tissues, and the near-field probe. In order to obtain depth resolution, multiple frequency operation can be used, so multi-frequency probes are designed and demonstrated in this work. The choice of frequencies is determined not only by the tissue material properties, but also by the ever increasing radio interference in the environment. In this work, quiet bands allocated to radio astronomy are investigated. The radiometer and probe need to be compact to be wearable, and several advancements are made towards a fully wearable device: multi-frequency low-profile probes are designed and fabricated on a flexible substrate and the process of on-chip integration is demonstrated by a GaAs MMIC cold noise source for radiometer calibration. The implemented proof-of-concept device consists of two radiometers at 1.4 GHz and 2.7 GHz, designed with commercial inexpensive devices that can enable sufficient sensitivity. The device is tested on a phantom with two water layers whose temperatures are varied in a controlled manner, and focused on the human body temperature range. Measured results are discussed qualitatively

  15. Boron Arsenide and Boron Phosphide for High Temperature and Luminescent Devices. [semiconductor devices - crystal growth/crystal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal growth of boron arsenide and boron phosphide in the form of bulk crystals and epitaxial layers on suitable substrates is discussed. The physical, chemical, and electrical properties of the crystals and epitaxial layers are examined. Bulk crystals of boron arsenide were prepared by the chemical transport technique, and their carrier concentration and Hall mobility were measured. The growth of boron arsenide crystals from high temperature solutions was attempted without success. Bulk crystals of boron phosphide were also prepared by chemical transport and solution growth techniques. Techniques required for the fabrication of boron phosphide devices such as junction shaping, diffusion, and contact formation were investigated. Alloying techniques were developed for the formation of low-resistance ohmic contacts to boron phosphide. Four types of boron phosphide devices were fabricated: (1) metal-insulator-boron phosphide structures, (2) Schottky barriers; (3) boron phosphide-silicon carbide heterojunctions; and (4) p-n homojunctions. Easily visible red electroluminescence was observed from both epitaxial and solution grown p-n junctions.

  16. Compact and high-efficiency device for Raman scattering measurement using optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    We describe the design and development of a high-efficiency optical measurement device for operation within the small bore of a high-power magnet at low temperature. For the high-efficiency measurement of light emitted from this small region, we designed a compact confocal optics with lens focusing and tilting systems, and used a piezodriven translation stage that allows micron-scale focus control of the sample position. We designed a measurement device that uses 10 m-long optical fibers in order to avoid the influence of mechanical vibration and magnetic field leakage of high-power magnets, and we also describe a technique for minimizing the fluorescence signal of optical fibers. The operation of the device was confirmed by Raman scattering measurements of monolayer graphene on quartz glass with a high signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:25430102

  17. Laser weld penetration estimation using temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lankalapalli, K.N.; Tu, J.F.; Leong, K.H.; Gartner, M.

    1997-10-01

    Penetration depth is an important factor critical to the quality of a laser weld. This paper examines the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the bottom surface of the work-piece to estimate weld penetration. A three-dimensional analytical model relating penetration depth, weld bead width and welding speed to temperature distribution at the bottom surface of the workpiece is developed. Temperatures on the bottom surface of the workpiece are measured using infrared thermocouples located behind the laser beam. Experimental results from bead-on-plate welds on low carbon steel plates of varying thickness at different levels of laser power and speeds validate the model and show that the temperature on the bottom surface is a sensitive indicator of penetration depth. The proposed model is computationally efficient and is suitable for on-line process monitoring application.

  18. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  19. High-accuracy direct ZT and intrinsic properties measurement of thermoelectric couple devices.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, D; Chen, G

    2014-04-01

    Advances in thermoelectric materials in recent years have led to significant improvements in thermoelectric device performance and thus, give rise to many new potential applications. In order to optimize a thermoelectric device for specific applications and to accurately predict its performance ideally the material's figure of merit ZT as well as the individual intrinsic properties (Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity) should be known with high accuracy. For that matter, we developed two experimental methods in which the first directly obtains the ZT and the second directly measures the individual intrinsic leg properties of the same p/n-type thermoelectric couple device. This has the advantage that all material properties are measured in the same sample direction after the thermoelectric legs have been mounted in the final device. Therefore, possible effects from crystal anisotropy and from the device fabrication process are accounted for. The Seebeck coefficients, electrical resistivities, and thermal conductivities are measured with differential methods to minimize measurement uncertainties to below 3%. The thermoelectric couple ZT is directly measured with a differential Harman method which is in excellent agreement with the calculated ZT from the individual leg properties. The errors in both the directly measured and calculated thermoelectric couple ZT are below 5% which is significantly lower than typical uncertainties using commercial methods. Thus, the developed technique is ideal for characterizing assembled couple devices and individual thermoelectric materials and enables accurate device optimization and performance predictions. We demonstrate the methods by measuring a p/n-type thermoelectric couple device assembled from commercial bulk thermoelectric Bi2Te3 elements in the temperature range of 30 °C-150 °C and discuss the performance of the couple thermoelectric generator in terms of its efficiency and materials

  20. Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Shah, Vimal; Costley, R. Daniel; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2001-01-01

    A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

  1. IN SITU FIELD PORTABLE FINE PARTICLE MEASURING DEVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the design, development, and testing of an in situ fine particle measuring device--the Fine Particle Stack Spectrometer System (FPSSS). It is a laser-fed optical system with detection by near-forward light scattering. Sample volume is established by a high-re...

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring low currents in capacitance devices

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, M.K.; Manning, F.W.; Guerrant, G.C.

    1986-06-04

    A method and apparatus for measuring subnanoampere currents in capacitance devices is reported. The method is based on a comparison of the voltages developed across the capacitance device with that of a reference capacitor in which the current is adjusted by means of a variable current source to produce a stable voltage difference. The current varying means of the variable current source is calibrated to provide a read out of the measured current. Current gain may be provided by using a reference capacitor which is larger than the device capacitance with a corresponding increase in current supplied through the reference capacitor. The gain is then the ratio of the reference capacitance to the device capacitance. In one illustrated embodiment, the invention makes possible a new type of ionizing radiation dose-rate monitor where dose-rate is measured by discharging a reference capacitor with a variable current source at the same rate that radiation is discharging an ionization chamber. The invention eliminates high-megohm resistors and low current ammeters used in low-current measuring instruments.

  3. Device and method for the measurement of gas permeability through membranes

    DOEpatents

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.; Ackerman, John; Borgialli, Ron; Hamann, Jerry; Muknahalliptna, Suresh

    2006-08-08

    A device for the measuring membrane permeability in electrical/electrochemical/photo-electrochemical fields is provided. The device is a permeation cell and a tube mounted within the cell. An electrode is mounted at one end of the tube. A membrane is mounted within the cell wherein a corona is discharged from the electrode in a general direction toward the membrane thereby generating heated hydrogen atoms adjacent the membrane. A method for measuring the effects of temperature and pressure on membrane permeability and selectivity is also provided.

  4. Method measuring oxygen tension and transport within subcutaneous devices

    PubMed Central

    Weidling, John; Sameni, Sara; Lakey, Jonathan R. T.; Botvinick, Elliot

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Cellular therapies hold promise to replace the implantation of whole organs in the treatment of disease. For most cell types, in vivo viability depends on oxygen delivery to avoid the toxic effects of hypoxia. A promising approach is the in situ vascularization of implantable devices which can mediate hypoxia and improve both the lifetime and utility of implanted cells and tissues. Although mathematical models and bulk measurements of oxygenation in surrounding tissue have been used to estimate oxygenation within devices, such estimates are insufficient in determining if supplied oxygen is sufficient for the entire thickness of the implanted cells and tissues. We have developed a technique in which oxygen-sensitive microparticles (OSMs) are incorporated into the volume of subcutaneously implantable devices. Oxygen partial pressure within these devices can be measured directly in vivo by an optical probe placed on the skin surface. As validation, OSMs have been incorporated into alginate beads, commonly used as immunoisolation devices to encapsulate pancreatic islet cells. Alginate beads were implanted into the subcutaneous space of Sprague–Dawley rats. Oxygen transport through beads was characterized from dynamic OSM signals in response to changes in inhaled oxygen. Changes in oxygen dynamics over days demonstrate the utility of our technology. PMID:25162910

  5. Measurements of fluid viscosity using a miniature ball drop device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jay X.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes measurement of fluid viscosity using a small ball drop device. It requires as little as 100 μl of fluid. Each measurement can be performed in seconds. The experiment is designed to yield reliable viscosity values by operating at properly chosen tilt angles and with calibration using well-characterized Newtonian fluids such as mixtures of glycerol and water. It also yields dynamical viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids at moderate shear rates. The device is easy to assemble and it allows for the measurement of viscosity even when the fluid samples are too small to measure using most commercial viscometers or rheometers. Therefore, the technique is particularly useful in characterizing biological fluids such as solutions of proteins, DNA, and polymers frequently used in biomaterial applications.

  6. Thin film thermocouples for high temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreider, Kenneth G.

    1989-05-01

    Thin film thermocouples have unique capabilities for measuring surface temperatures at high temperatures (above 800 K) under harsh conditions. Their low mass, approximately 2 x 10(-5) g/mm permits very rapid response and very little disturbance of heat transfer to the surface being measured. This has led to applications inside gas turbine engines and diesel engines measuring the surface temperature of first stage turbine blades and vanes and ceramic liners in diesel cylinders. The most successful high temperature (up to 1300 K) thin film thermocouples are sputter deposited from platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium targets although results using base metal alloys, gold, and platinel will also be presented. The fabrication techniques used to form the thermocouples, approaches used to solve the high temperature insulation and adherence problems, current applications, and test results using the thin film thermocouples are reviewed. In addition a discussion will be presented on the current problems and future trends related to applications of thin film thermocouples at higher temperatures up to 1900 K.

  7. Temperature measurement of sputtered metal dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Fayet, P.; Wolf, J.P.; Woeste, L.

    1986-05-15

    The temperatures of sputtered alkali-metal dimers have been measured using one- and two-photon ionization spectroscopy. They are estimated to be 1470 +- 300 K, 1025 +- 200 K, and 1000 +- 200 K for Cs/sub 2/, K/sub 2/, and Na/sub 2/, respectively. The vibrational and rotational temperatures are found to be very similar. No dependence of the dimer excitation is found, neither on target temperature nor on the primary-ion energy. The results are compared with some currently used models to explain cluster formation in sputtering experiments.

  8. Development of a new device to measure local heat exchange by evaporation and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakitsuba, N.; Katsuura, T.

    1992-06-01

    According to the principles of heat and mass transfer, the rate of local heat exchange by convection (C) and local heat loss by evaporation (E) can be estimated if temperature and vapor concentration profiles in the boundary layer are measured. In addition, temperature (Ts) and vapor concentration (rho s) at the surface may be predicted from the measured profiles. On this basis, a new device was developed to measure parabolic profiles by incorporating three relative humidity sensors coupled with thermistors into its probe. It has been evaluated from various tests including human experiments. The results showed that the device, with humidity sensors arranged perpendicular to the surface, could estimate C, E, Ts, and rho s in closer agreement with direct measurements when compared with the conventional gradient method. This confirmed that our method had clear advantages over the conventional gradient method under laminar air flow conditions.

  9. Measuring devices for precision manufacturing and quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, J.; Jacoby, H. D.; Preuss, H. J.

    1980-12-01

    Various miniaturized and low cost transducers were developed for different applications in metrology, precision manufacturing and fabrication control. They comprise: (1) photoelectric linear transducer with micron step pression; (2) incremental and coded transducers; (3) concave mirror x-y transducer; (4) correlation systems for linear and speed measurements; (5) high resolution angle transducers; and (6) correlation optical sensor for distance measurement. Operation principles are explained and several applications are illustrated. Some of the devices are already available.

  10. Design fabrication and installation of a yaw measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of work performed in the development and testing of a yaw measuring device are summarized. A review of the yaw measurement method; and the techniques and hardware needed for its implementation are presented. A description and summary of the tests performed at the U.S. Bureau of Mines Bruceton facility are included. Conclusions are summarized and recommendations for a unit capable of operation in a mine environment are presented.

  11. Constant frequency pulsed phase-locked loop measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Kushnick, Peter W. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A measuring apparatus is presented that uses a fixed frequency oscillator to measure small changes in the phase velocity ultrasonic sound when a sample is exposed to environmental changes such as changes in pressure, temperature, etc. The invention automatically balances electrical phase shifts against the acoustical phase shifts in order to obtain an accurate measurement of electrical phase shifts.

  12. Two-temperature method for measuring emissivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1992-01-01

    Spectral emissivity can be uniquely determined from radiance measurements if the object can be observed at two different temperatures. The advantage of this approach is that the spectral emissivity is determined without a priori assumptions about spectral shape. Because the different temperatures are obtained by observing the scene at two times in the diurnal cycle (optimally after midday and midnight), the method assumes that emissivity is temporally invariant. This is valid for rocks and dry soils, not well established for vegetation, and not true when changes in soil moisture occur between the measurements. Accurate image registration and satisfactory signal:noise are critical factors that limit extensive use of this method. ?? 1992.

  13. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, John T.; Simpson, Marc L.; McElhaney, Stephanie A.

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

  14. A Method of Measuring Piston Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Mangniello, Eugene J

    1940-01-01

    A method that makes use of thermocouples has been developed to measure the temperature of engine pistons operating at high speeds. The thermocouples installed on the moving piston are connected with a potentiometer outside the engine by means of pneumatically operated plungers, which make contact with the piston thermocouples for about 10 crankshaft degrees at the bottom of the piston stroke. The equipment is operated satisfactory at engine speeds of 2,400 r.p.m. and shows promise of successful operation at higher engine speeds. Measurements of piston temperatures in a liquid-cooled compression-ignition engine and in an air-cooled spark-ignition are presented.

  15. Non-contact temperature measurement requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, D. B.; Witherow, W. K.

    1989-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is involved with levitation experiments for Spacelab, Space Station, and drop tube/tower operations. These experiments have temperature measurement requirements, that of course must be non-contact in nature. The experiment modules involved are the Acoustic Levitator Furnace (ALF), and the Modular Electromagnetic Levitator (MEL). User requirements of the ALF and drop tube are presented. The center also has temperature measurement needs that are not microgravity experiment oriented, but rather are related to the propulsion system for the STS. This requirement will also be discussed.

  16. Assembly for electrical conductivity measurements in the piston cylinder device

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Heather Christine; Roberts, Jeffrey James

    2012-06-05

    An assembly apparatus for measurement of electrical conductivity or other properties of a sample in a piston cylinder device wherein pressure and heat are applied to the sample by the piston cylinder device. The assembly apparatus includes a body, a first electrode in the body, the first electrode operatively connected to the sample, a first electrical conductor connected to the first electrode, a washer constructed of a hard conducting material, the washer surrounding the first electrical conductor in the body, a second electrode in the body, the second electrode operatively connected to the sample, and a second electrical conductor connected to the second electrode.

  17. The optimization of measurement device independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Jiao, Rong-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Measurement device independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is a promising method for realistic quantum communication which could remove all the side-channel attacks from the imperfections of the devices. Here in this study, we theoretically analyzed the performance of the MDI-QKD system. The asymptotic case rate with the increment of the transmission distance at different polarization misalignment, background count rate and intensity is calculated respectively. The result may provide important parameters for practical application of quantum communications.

  18. Measuring Titan's mesospheric temperatures by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteado, P.; Griffith, C.; Greathouse, T.; Roe, H.; Yelle, R.

    2005-08-01

    Titan's temperature profile is an indicator of the atmospheric energy transport, by radiation, convection and conduction. From the surface up to ˜250 km altitude, the temperature profile was measured by the Voyager 1 radio occultations and infrared spectra. In the troposphere, heating by the surface and low atmosphere by solar radiation absorption and cooling by emission to space are the dominant processes that establish the temperature profile, which decreases from ˜94 K at the surface, to ˜70 K at 200 km. Between 200 and 350 km, the atmosphere radiative absorption and emission balance, and the temperature is approximately constante. At 250-500 km altitudes, observations of stellar occultations reveal oscillations between 170 and 150 K. Atmospheric models predict the existence of a mesosphere, in the region 350-550 km, with the temperature decreasing from ethane and other hydrocarbons' emissions. In this work we analyze emission lines of methane's ν 4 band (8.1 μ m, 1230 cm-1) with high resolution spectra. The line profiles of different intensities allow us to determine the vertical temperature profile for the region 100-600 km, which was not possible with previously available data. We present the first infrared observation that can measure independently the temperatures for the regions 100-200 km, 200-400 km, and 400-600 km. These measurements show the existence of a mesosphere, with a temperature drop of at least 15 K from 380+50-100 km altitude. Paulo Penteado is sponsored by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program and the Brazilian Government through CAPES.

  19. Ion temperature fluctuation measurements using a retarding field analyzer.

    PubMed

    Nedzelskiy, I S; Silva, C; Duarte, P; Fernandes, H

    2011-04-01

    The retarding field analyzer (RFA) is a widely used diagnostic tool for the ion temperature measurement in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) of the thermonuclear plasma devices. However, the temporal resolution in the standard RFA application is restricted to the ms timescale. In this paper, a dc operation of the RFA is considered, which allows for the measurement of the plasma ion temperature fluctuations. The method is based on the relation for the RFA current-voltage (I-V) characteristic resulted from a common RFA model of shifted Maxwellian distribution of the analyzed ions, and the measurements of two points on the exponentially decaying region of the I-V characteristic with two differently dc biased RFA electrodes. The method has been tested and compared with conventional RFA measurements of the ion temperature in the tokamak ISTTOK SOL plasma. An ion temperature of T(i) = 17 eV is obtained near the limiter position. The agreement between the results of the two methods is within ∼25%. The amplitude of the ion temperature fluctuations is found to be around 5 eV at this location. The method has been validated by taking into account the effect of fluctuations in the plasma potential and the noise contamination, proving the reliability of the results obtained. Finally, constrains to the method application are discussed that include a negligible electron emission from the RFA grids and the restriction to operate in the exponentially decaying region of the I-V characteristic. PMID:21529006

  20. NaOH-based high temperature heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. M.; Rice, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A material called Thermkeep, developed as a low-cost method for the storage of thermal energy for solar electric power generating systems is discussed. The storage device consists of an insulated cylinder containing Thermkeep in which coiled tubular heat exchangers are immersed. A one-tenth scale model of the design contains 25 heat-exchanger tubes and 1500 kg of Thermkeep. Its instrumentation includes thermocouples to measure internal Thermkeep temperatures, vessel surface, heated shroud surface, and pressure gauges to indicate heat-exchanger pressure drops. The test-circuit design is presented and experimental results are discussed.

  1. Ion temperature measurements in the Maryland Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Gauvreau, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    Initial spectroscopic data from MS showed evidence of ion heating as deduced from the line widths of different ion species. Detailed measurements of OIV spectral emission line profiles in space and time revealed that heating takes place at early time, before spheromak formation and is occurring within the current discharge. The measured ion temperature is several times the electron temperature and cannot be explained by classical (Spitzer) resistivity. Classically, ions are expected to have lower temperatures than the electrons and therefore, lower temperatures than observed. High ion temperatures have been observed in different RFP`s and Spheromaks but are usually associated with relaxation to the Taylor state and occur in the sustainment phase. During formation, the current delivered to start the discharge is not axisymmetric and as a consequence, X-points appear in the magnetic flux. A two dimensional analysis predicts that magnetic reconnection occurring at an X-point can give rise to high ion heating rates. A simple 0-dimensional calculation showed that within the first 20 {mu}s, a conversion of mass flow kinetic energy into ion temperature could take place due to viscosity.

  2. Preliminary design of a new device to measure muscle function.

    PubMed

    Lind, Jeffrey; Durfee, William

    2015-08-01

    A description and early results are presented for a novel device to estimate the torque-angle and torque-angular velocity properties of the quadriceps muscle group using electrical stimulation. The device straps to the shin and is moved by the operator while pulses of stimulation are applied to the motor point of the quadriceps. During stimulation, the operator raises and lowers the leg to the desired angle, and also can oscillate the leg to generate a rich velocity profile. The resulting muscle force is measured by a load cell contained in the device. In a preliminary study using 11 healthy subjects, normalized torque-angle and torque-velocity data for the quadriceps were consistent with literature results that used maximum voluntary contraction methods. PMID:26737540

  3. Material parameter measurements at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominek, A.; Park, A.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Alternate fixtures of techniques for the measurement of the constitutive material parameters at elevated temperatures are presented. The technique utilizes scattered field data from material coated cylinders between parallel plates or material coated hemispheres over a finite size groundplane. The data acquisition is centered around the HP 8510B Network Analyzer. The parameters are then found from a numerical search algorithm using the Newton-Ralphson technique with the measured and calculated fields from these canonical scatters. Numerical and experimental results are shown.

  4. Resource-Efficient Measurement-Device-Independent Entanglement Witness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, E.; Martin, A.; Rosset, D.; Lim, C. C. W.; Thew, R. T.; Zbinden, H.

    2016-05-01

    Imperfections in experimental measurement schemes can lead to falsely identifying, or over estimating, entanglement in a quantum system. A recent solution to this is to define schemes that are robust to measurement imperfections—measurement-device-independent entanglement witness (MDI-EW). This approach can be adapted to witness all entangled qubit states for a wide range of physical systems and does not depend on detection efficiencies or classical communication between devices. Here we extend the theory to remove the necessity of prior knowledge about the two-qubit states to be witnessed. Moreover, we tested this model via a novel experimental implementation for MDI-EW that significantly reduces the experimental complexity. By applying it to a bipartite Werner state, we demonstrate the robustness of this approach against noise by witnessing entanglement down to an entangled state fraction close to 0.4.

  5. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Significant accomplishments include development of a procedure to correct for the substantial differences of transistor delay time as measured with different instruments or with the same instrument at different frequencies; association of infrared response spectra of poor quality germanium gamma ray detectors with spectra of detectors fabricated from portions of a good crystal that had been degraded in known ways; and confirmation of the excellent quality and cosmetic appearance of ultrasonic bonds made with aluminum ribbon wire. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; study of gold-doped silicon, development of the infrared response technique; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; and measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices, delay time and related carrier transport properties in junction devices, and noise properties of microwave diodes.

  6. Resource-Efficient Measurement-Device-Independent Entanglement Witness.

    PubMed

    Verbanis, E; Martin, A; Rosset, D; Lim, C C W; Thew, R T; Zbinden, H

    2016-05-13

    Imperfections in experimental measurement schemes can lead to falsely identifying, or over estimating, entanglement in a quantum system. A recent solution to this is to define schemes that are robust to measurement imperfections-measurement-device-independent entanglement witness (MDI-EW). This approach can be adapted to witness all entangled qubit states for a wide range of physical systems and does not depend on detection efficiencies or classical communication between devices. Here we extend the theory to remove the necessity of prior knowledge about the two-qubit states to be witnessed. Moreover, we tested this model via a novel experimental implementation for MDI-EW that significantly reduces the experimental complexity. By applying it to a bipartite Werner state, we demonstrate the robustness of this approach against noise by witnessing entanglement down to an entangled state fraction close to 0.4. PMID:27232009

  7. Advanced Measurement Devices for the Microgravity Electromagnetic Levitation Facility EML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brillo, Jurgen; Fritze, Holger; Lohofer, Georg; Schulz, Michal; Stenzel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on two advanced measurement devices for the microgravity electromagnetic levitation facility (EML), which is currently under construction for the use onboard the "International Space Station (ISS)": the "Sample Coupling Electronics (SCE)" and the "Oxygen Sensing and Control Unit (OSC)". The SCE measures by a contactless, inductive method the electrical resistivity and the diameter of a spherical levitated metallic droplet by evaluating the voltage and electrical current applied to the levitation coil. The necessity of the OSC comes from the insight that properties like surface tension or, eventually, viscosity cannot seriously be determined by the oscillating drop method in the EML facility without knowing the conditions of the surrounding atmosphere. In the following both measurement devices are explained and laboratory test results are presented.

  8. Resource-Efficient Measurement-Device-Independent Entanglement Witness

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Verbanis, E.; Martin, A.; Rosset, D.; Lim, C. C. W.; Thew, R. T.; Zbinden, H.

    2016-05-09

    Imperfections in experimental measurement schemes can lead to falsely identifying, or over estimating, entanglement in a quantum system. A recent solution to this is to define schemes that are robust to measurement imperfections—measurement-device-independent entanglement witness (MDI-EW). This approach can be adapted to witness all entangled qubit states for a wide range of physical systems and does not depend on detection efficiencies or classical communication between devices. In this paper, we extend the theory to remove the necessity of prior knowledge about the two-qubit states to be witnessed. Moreover, we tested this model via a novel experimental implementation for MDI-EW thatmore » significantly reduces the experimental complexity. Finally, by applying it to a bipartite Werner state, we demonstrate the robustness of this approach against noise by witnessing entanglement down to an entangled state fraction close to 0.4.« less

  9. Effective ultraviolet irradiance measurements from artificial tanning devices in Greece.

    PubMed

    Petri, Aspasia; Karabetsos, Efthymios

    2015-12-01

    Artificial tanning remains very popular worldwide, despite the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunbeds as 'carcinogenic to humans'. Greek Atomic Energy Commission has initiated a surveillance action of the artificial tanning devices in Greece in order to record the effective irradiance levels from the sunbeds and to inform and synchronise the domestic artificial tanning business sector with the requirements of the European Standard EN 60335-2-27:2010. In this direction, in situ measurements of UV emissions from sunbeds in solaria businesses all over Greece were performed from October 2013 until July 2014, with a radiometer and a portable single-monochromator spectrophotometer. Analysis of the measurements' results revealed that effective irradiance in ∼60 % of the measured sunbeds exceeded the 0.3 W m(-2) limit value set by EN 60335-2-27:2010 and only 20 % of the devices could be categorised as UV type 3. PMID:25468991

  10. Improving the accuracy of smart devices to measure noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Benjamin; Kardous, Chucri; Neitzel, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Occupational noise exposure is one of the most frequent hazards present in the workplace; up to 22 million workers have potentially hazardous noise exposures in the U.S. As a result, noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common occupational injuries in the U.S. Workers in manufacturing, construction, and the military are at the highest risk for hearing loss. Despite the large number of people exposed to high levels of noise at work, many occupations have not been adequately evaluated for noise exposure. The objective of this experiment was to investigate whether or not iOS smartphones and other smart devices (Apple iPhones and iPods) could be used as reliable instruments to measure noise exposures. For this experiment three different types of microphones were tested with a single model of iPod and three generations of iPhones: the internal microphones on the device, a low-end lapel microphone, and a high-end lapel microphone marketed as being compliant with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard for a Class 2-microphone. All possible combinations of microphones and noise measurement applications were tested in a controlled environment using several different levels of pink noise ranging from 60-100 dBA. Results were compared to simultaneous measurements made using a Type 1 sound level measurement system. Analysis of variance and Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) test were used to determine if the results differed by microphone or noise measurement application. Levels measured with external microphones combined with certain noise measurement applications did not differ significantly from levels measured with the Type 1 sound measurement system. Results showed that it may be possible to use iOS smartphones and smart devices, with specific combinations of measurement applications and calibrated external microphones, to collect reliable, occupational noise exposure data under certain conditions and within the limitations of the

  11. Dynamic gas temperature measurement system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, D. L.; Robinson, W. W.; Watkins, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    A gas temperature measurement system with compensated frequency response of 1 kHz and capability to operate in the exhaust of a gas turbine engine combustor was developed. A review of available technologies which could attain this objective was done. The most promising method was identified as a two wire thermocouple, with a compensation method based on the responses of the two different diameter thermocouples to the fluctuating gas temperature field. In a detailed design of the probe, transient conduction effects were identified as significant. A compensation scheme was derived to include the effects of gas convection and wire conduction. The two wire thermocouple concept was tested in a laboratory burner exhaust to temperatures of about 3000 F and in a gas turbine engine to combustor exhaust temperatures of about 2400 F. Uncompensated and compensated waveforms and compensation spectra are presented.

  12. Biomechanical Measurement of Rabbit Cornea by a Modified Scheimpflug Device.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Gu, Jianjun; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Bin; Wang, Zheng; Zheng, Danying

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the probability and variation in biomechanical measurements of rabbit cornea by a modified Scheimpflug device. Methods. A modified Scheimpflug device was developed by imaging anterior segment of the model imitating the intact eye at various posterior pressures. The eight isolated rabbit corneas were mounted on the Barron artificial chamber and images of the anterior segment were taken at posterior pressures of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 mmHg by the device. The repeatability and reliability of the parameters including CCT, ACD, ACV, and CV were evaluated at each posterior pressure. All the variations of the parameters at the different posterior pressures were calculated. Results. All parameters showed good intraobserver reliability (Cronbach's alpha; intraclass correlation coefficient, α, ICC > 0.96) and repeatability in the modified Scheimpflug device. With the increase of posterior pressures, the ratio of CCT decreased linearly and the bulk modulus gradually reduced to a platform. The increase of ACD was almost linear with the posterior pressures elevated. Conclusions. The modified Scheimpflug device was a valuable tool to investigate the biomechanics of the cornea. The posterior pressure 15-75 mmHg range produced small viscoelastic deformations and nearly linear pressure-deformation response in the rabbit cornea. PMID:27446608

  13. Biomechanical Measurement of Rabbit Cornea by a Modified Scheimpflug Device

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Gu, Jianjun; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the probability and variation in biomechanical measurements of rabbit cornea by a modified Scheimpflug device. Methods. A modified Scheimpflug device was developed by imaging anterior segment of the model imitating the intact eye at various posterior pressures. The eight isolated rabbit corneas were mounted on the Barron artificial chamber and images of the anterior segment were taken at posterior pressures of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 mmHg by the device. The repeatability and reliability of the parameters including CCT, ACD, ACV, and CV were evaluated at each posterior pressure. All the variations of the parameters at the different posterior pressures were calculated. Results. All parameters showed good intraobserver reliability (Cronbach's alpha; intraclass correlation coefficient, α, ICC > 0.96) and repeatability in the modified Scheimpflug device. With the increase of posterior pressures, the ratio of CCT decreased linearly and the bulk modulus gradually reduced to a platform. The increase of ACD was almost linear with the posterior pressures elevated. Conclusions. The modified Scheimpflug device was a valuable tool to investigate the biomechanics of the cornea. The posterior pressure 15–75 mmHg range produced small viscoelastic deformations and nearly linear pressure-deformation response in the rabbit cornea. PMID:27446608

  14. Measuring electron temperature in the extended corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Gardner, L. D.; Kohl, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A technique for measuring electron temperature in the extended corona from the line profile of the electron scattered component of coronal H I Ly alpha produced by Thomson scattering of chromospheric Ly alpha emission is discussed. Because of the high thermal velocity of electrons at coronal temperatures (approximately 6800 km/s at T(sub e) = 1,500,000 K) the effect of nonthermal velocities and solar wind flows on the electron velocity distribution are negligible. However, the low electron mass which is responsible for the high thermal velocity also results in a very wide profile (approximately equal to 50 A). This wide profile, together with an intensity that is three orders of magnitude weaker than the resonantly scattered component of Ly alpha makes the direct measurement of T(sub e) a challenging observational problem. An evaluation of this technique based on simulated measurements is presented and the subsequent instrumental requirements necessary to make a meaningful determination of the electron temperature are discussed. Estimates of uncertainties in the measured electron temperature are related to critical instrument parameters such as grating stray light suppression.

  15. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide-measuring devices: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Maniscalco, Mauro; Vitale, Carolina; Vatrella, Alessandro; Molino, Antonio; Bianco, Andrea; Mazzarella, Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been employed in the diagnosis of specific types of airway inflammation, guiding treatment monitoring by predicting and assessing response to anti-inflammatory therapy and monitoring for compliance and detecting relapse. Various techniques are currently used to analyze exhaled NO concentrations under a range of conditions for both health and disease. These include chemiluminescence and electrochemical sensor devices. The cost effectiveness and ability to achieve adequate flexibility in sensitivity and selectivity of NO measurement for these methods are evaluated alongside the potential for use of laser-based technology. This review explores the technologies involved in the measurement of exhaled NO. PMID:27382340

  16. Correlation spectrum analyzer for direct measurement of device current noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco

    2002-07-01

    This article analyzes the realization and the performance of a correlation spectrum analyzer specifically conceived to directly measure the current noise produced by electronic devices with maximum sensitivity. The text describes in detail and gives the design rules of the instrument input amplifiers taking into consideration noise, dynamic range, stability, and bandwidth, together with the effects that a device under test (DUT) having complex impedance introduce. This article shows that the proposed scheme may allow current noise measurements with a sensitivity improved by few orders of magnitude with respect to a standard spectrum analyzer and to a correlation analyzer in voltage scheme whenever the DUT has an impedance larger than few 10 kOmega. Such a sensitivity makes the proposed instrument ideal for the characterization of advanced devices, such as ultrashort channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, mesoscopic junctions, or spin dependent electron transfer devices where it may be necessary to detect noise levels as low as fA/RADICAL:[[RADICAND:[Hz

  17. Integrated seal for high-temperature electrochemical device

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Michael C; Jacobson, Craig P

    2013-07-16

    The present invention provides electrochemical device structures having integrated seals, and methods of fabricating them. According to various embodiments the structures include a thin, supported electrolyte film with the electrolyte sealed to the support. The perimeter of the support is self-sealed during fabrication. The perimeter can then be independently sealed to a manifold or other device, e.g., via an external seal. According to various embodiments, the external seal does not contact the electrolyte, thereby eliminating the restrictions on the sealing method and materials imposed by sealing against the electrolyte.

  18. Experimental measurement-device-independent verification of quantum steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, Sacha; Hall, Michael J. W.; Bennet, Adam J.; Saunders, Dylan J.; Pryde, Geoff J.

    2015-01-01

    Bell non-locality between distant quantum systems—that is, joint correlations which violate a Bell inequality—can be verified without trusting the measurement devices used, nor those performing the measurements. This leads to unconditionally secure protocols for quantum information tasks such as cryptographic key distribution. However, complete verification of Bell non-locality requires high detection efficiencies, and is not robust to typical transmission losses over long distances. In contrast, quantum or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, a weaker form of quantum correlation, can be verified for arbitrarily low detection efficiencies and high losses. The cost is that current steering-verification protocols require complete trust in one of the measurement devices and its operator, allowing only one-sided secure key distribution. Here we present measurement-device-independent steering protocols that remove this need for trust, even when Bell non-locality is not present. We experimentally demonstrate this principle for singlet states and states that do not violate a Bell inequality.

  19. Novel imaging system for measuring microscale curvatures at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Haruna; Kumpel, Amy E.; Lathrop, Richard E.; Slanina, John B.; Nieva, Patricia; Zavracky, Paul; Miaoulis, Ioannis N.; Wong, Peter Y.

    2000-01-01

    An innovative system was designed to optically measure the curvature of microelectromechanical system at high temperatures. The system takes advantage of the limited numerical aperture of the imaging system to detect the curvature of cantilever beams. Images of the beam are used to determine beam curvature at high temperatures of up to 850 °C by analyzing the apparent change in beam length as seen by the camera during an experimental trial. The system is designed to operate at very high temperatures, which is difficult in conventional microscale curvature measurement techniques such as scanning electron microscopy or stylus profilometry due to excess heating of peripheral equipment. The system can measure curvatures as small as 300 m-1, which corresponds to tip deflections of 1.5 μm for a 100 μm beam. The resolution of the system is limited by the image resolution of the charge-coupled device camera, and increases at large curvatures. The maximum curvature that can be measured by the system is limited by the increase in system resolution, and is estimated to be 4500 m-1, corresponding to 22 μm deflection for a 100 μm beam. The apparatus was demonstrated to measure the thermally induced curvature of multilayered thin-film cantilever beams. The beams bend at high temperatures due to mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients between the layers. One innovative application of such curvature measurement is the determination of thermophysical properties of thin films at elevated temperatures. This article presents the experimental setup and operational theory of apparatus, as well as curvature measurements obtained by the system. The thermal expansion coefficient of polycrystalline silicon, determined from the curvature measurements, are also discussed.

  20. Infrared thermography for true temperature measurement of the main board in personal computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Behnia, Masud; Morrison, Graham

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents a way to measure the true temperature of the electronic devices without disturbing their normal operating conditions, which involved with estimating target emissivity, background temperature correctly and choosing infrared transparent material and its transmission estimation. The temperature distributions of the main board in personal computer were measured by the method presented here with infrared thermography in several different running conditions. The measurement errors and their possible remedies are also discussed.

  1. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Falk, K.; McCoy, C. A.; Fryer, C. L.; Greeff, C. W.; Hungerford, A. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Sheppard, D. G.; Williams, J. R.; Boehly, T. R.; et al

    2014-09-12

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO2) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1–15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s correspondingmore » to shock pressures of 0.3–2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. As a result, simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements.« less

  2. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam.

    PubMed

    Falk, K; McCoy, C A; Fryer, C L; Greeff, C W; Hungerford, A L; Montgomery, D S; Schmidt, D W; Sheppard, D G; Williams, J R; Boehly, T R; Benage, J F

    2014-09-01

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO_{2}) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1-15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding to shock pressures of 0.3-2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. Simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements. PMID:25314547

  3. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, K.; McCoy, C. A.; Fryer, C. L.; Greeff, C. W.; Hungerford, A. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Sheppard, D. G.; Williams, J. R.; Boehly, T. R.; Benage, J. F.

    2014-09-12

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO2) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1–15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding to shock pressures of 0.3–2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. As a result, simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements.

  4. Variable-Temperature Critical-Current Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    L. F. Goodrich; T. C. Stauffer

    2009-05-19

    This is the final report of a three year contract that covered 09/19/2005 to 07/14/2008. We requested and received a no cost time extension for the third year, 07/15/2007 to 07/14/2008, to allow DoE to send us funds if they became available during that year. It turned out that we did not receive any funding for the third year. The following paper covers our variable-temperature critical-current measurements. We made transport critical-current (Ic) measurements on commercial multifilamentary Nb3Sn strands at temperatures (T) from 4 to 17 K and magnetic fields (H) from 0 to 14 T. One of the unique features of our measurements is that we can cover a wide range of critical currents from less than 0.1 A to over 700 A.

  5. High Accuracy Temperature Measurements Using RTDs with Current Loop Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald M.

    1997-01-01

    To measure temperatures with a greater degree of accuracy than is possible with thermocouples, RTDs (Resistive Temperature Detectors) are typically used. Calibration standards use specialized high precision RTD probes with accuracies approaching 0.001 F. These are extremely delicate devices, and far too costly to be used in test facility instrumentation. Less costly sensors which are designed for aeronautical wind tunnel testing are available and can be readily adapted to probes, rakes, and test rigs. With proper signal conditioning of the sensor, temperature accuracies of 0.1 F is obtainable. For reasons that will be explored in this paper, the Anderson current loop is the preferred method used for signal conditioning. This scheme has been used in NASA Lewis Research Center's 9 x 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel, and is detailed.

  6. PIV as a temperature measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2015-11-01

    In particle image velocimetry (PIV), a camera records time-lapse snapshot images of the positions of particles embedded in a fluid, which faithfully trace the flow path. Cross correlating sequential particle image pairs results in 2D maps of the particle displacement and velocity fields. Here, the same PIV method is extended to temperature measurements in viscoelastic material. The motivation originates in a need for tissue temperature measurements in hyperthermia therapies such as laser ablation eye surgery and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) tumor ablation. Micron sized particles are embedded in an optically clear tissue mimicking phantom, illuminated with a laser sheet, and imaged with a CCD camera. When the phantom is subjected to heating from a focused ultrasound beam, the particles remain stationary, but not their spatial distribution in the recorded images. The images manifest particle displacements commensurate with alterations in the temperature distribution from heating. The underlying principle behind the thermometric capability of PIV is discussed. Temperature changes can be detected with high sensitivity, and the method works best with spatially localized temperature distributions.

  7. The insertion device magnetic measurement facility: Prototype and operational procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Burkel, L.; Dejus, R.; Maines, J.; O`Brien, J.; Vasserman, I.; Pfleuger, J.

    1993-03-01

    This report is a description of the current status of the magnetic measurement facility and is a basic instructional manual for the operation of the facility and its components. Please refer to the appendices for more detailed information about specific components and procedures. The purpose of the magnetic measurement facility is to take accurate measurements of the magnetic field in the gay of the IDs in order to determine the effect of the ID on the stored particle beam and the emitted radiation. The facility will also play an important role when evaluating new ideas, novel devices, and inhouse prototypes as part of the ongoing research and development program at the APS. The measurements will be performed with both moving search coils and moving Hall probes. The IDs will be evaluated by computer modeling of the emitted radiation for any given (measured) magnetic field map. The quality of the magnetic field will be described in terms of integrated multipoles for the effect on Storage Ring performance and in terms of the derived trajectories for the emitted radiation. Before being installed on the Storage Ring, every device will be measured and characterized to assure that it is compatible with Storage Ring requirements and radiation specifications. The accuracy that the APS needs to achieve for magnetic measurements will be based on these specifications.

  8. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurement with a handheld device.

    PubMed

    Magori, Erhard; Hiltawsky, Karsten; Fleischer, Maximilian; Simon, Elfriede; Pohle, Roland; von Sicard, Oliver; Tawil, Angelika

    2011-06-01

    A sensing system for fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement is presented, which is characterized by a compact setup and a cost potential to be made available for the patient at home. The sensing is based on the work function measurement of a phthalocyanine-type sensing material, which is shown to be sufficiently sensitive for NO(2) in the ppb range. The transducer used to measure the work function is a field effect transistor with a suspended gate electrode. Selectivity is given with respect to other breath components including typically metabolic by-products. The measurement system includes breath treatments in a simple setup, which essentially are dehumidification and a quantitative conversion of NO to NO(2) with a conversion rate of approx. 95%, using a disposable oxidation catalyst. The accomplishment of the correct exhalation maneuver and feeding of the suited portion of exhaled air to the sensor is provided by breath sampling means. The sensor is not gas consuming. This allows us to fill the measurement chamber once, instead of establishing a gas flow for the measurement. This feature simplifies the device architecture. In this paper, we report on sensor characteristics, system architecture and measurement with artificial breath-gas as well as with human breath with the device. PMID:21646688

  9. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  10. Correcting horsepower measurements to a standard temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Stanwood W

    1925-01-01

    This report discusses the relation between the temperature of the air at the entrance to the carburetor and the power developed by the engine. Its scope is limited to a consideration of the range of temperatures likely to result from changes of season, locality, or altitude, since its primary aim is the finding of a satisfactory basis for correcting power measurements to a standard temperature. The tests upon which this report is based were made upon aviation engines in the Altitude Laboratory of the Bureau of Standards. From the results of over 1,600 tests it is concluded that if calculations be based on the assumption that the indicated horsepower of an engine varies inversely as the square root of the absolute temperature of the carburetor air the values obtained will check closely experimental measurements. The extent to which this relationship would be expected from theoretical considerations is discussed and some suggestions are given relative to the use of this relationship in correcting horsepower measurements. (author)

  11. Measuring Thermal Conductivity at LH2 Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvidge, Shawn; Watwood, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) produced reference materials for materials testing. One such reference material was intended for use with a guarded hot plate apparatus designed to meet the requirements of ASTM C177-97, "Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus." This apparatus can be used to test materials in various gaseous environments from atmospheric pressure to a vacuum. It allows the thermal transmission properties of insulating materials to be measured from just above ambient temperature down to temperatures below liquid hydrogen. However, NIST did not generate data below 77 K temperature for the reference material in question. This paper describes a test method used at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to optimize thermal conductivity measurements during the development of thermal protection systems. The test method extends the usability range of this reference material by generating data at temperatures lower than 77 K. Information provided by this test is discussed, as are the capabilities of the MSFC Hydrogen Test Facility, where advanced methods for materials testing are routinely developed and optimized in support of aerospace applications.

  12. SiC device development for high temperature sensor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shor, J. S.; Goldstein, David; Kurtz, A. D.; Osgood, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in the processing and characterization of 3C-SiC for high temperature sensor applications is reviewed. Piezoresistance properties of silicon carbide and the temperature coefficient of resistivity of n-type beta-SiC are presented. In addition, photoelectrical etching and dopant selective etch-stops in SiC and high temperature Ohmic contacts for n-type beta-SiC sensors are discussed.

  13. SiC device development for high temperature sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shor, J. S.; Goldstein, David; Kurtz, A. D.; Osgood, R. M.

    1992-09-01

    Progress made in the processing and characterization of 3C-SiC for high temperature sensor applications is reviewed. Piezoresistance properties of silicon carbide and the temperature coefficient of resistivity of n-type beta-SiC are presented. In addition, photoelectrical etching and dopant selective etch-stops in SiC and high temperature Ohmic contacts for n-type beta-SiC sensors are discussed.

  14. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2004-04-01

    The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator were conducted in this reporting period. In the systematic test, two (2) factors were considered as the experimental parameters, including air injection rate and water injection rate. Each experimental factor had two (2) levels, respectively. A special water-feeding device was designed and installed to the gasifier simulator. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results of the systematic tests. The ANOVA shows that the air injection rate did have the significant impact to the temperature measurement in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA also shows that the water injection rate did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA analysis also proves that the thermocouple assembly we proposed was immune to the moisture environment, the temperature measurement remained accurate in moisture environment. Within this reporting period, the vibration application for cleaning purpose was explored. Both ultrasonic and sub-sonic vibrations were considered. A feasibility test was conducted to prove that the thermocouple vibration did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. This feasibility test was a 2{sup 2} factorial design. Two factors including temperature levels and motor speeds were set to two levels respectively. The sub-sonic vibration tests were applied to the thermocouple to remove the concrete cover layer (used to simulate the solid condensate in gasifiers) on the thermocouple tip. It was found that both frequency and amplitude had significant impacts on removal performance of the concrete cover layer.

  15. Surface photovoltage measurements and finite element modeling of SAW devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, Christine

    2012-03-01

    Over the course of a Summer 2011 internship with the MEMS department of Sandia National Laboratories, work was completed on two major projects. The first and main project of the summer involved taking surface photovoltage measurements for silicon samples, and using these measurements to determine surface recombination velocities and minority carrier diffusion lengths of the materials. The SPV method was used to fill gaps in the knowledge of material parameters that had not been determined successfully by other characterization methods. The second project involved creating a 2D finite element model of a surface acoustic wave device. A basic form of the model with the expected impedance response curve was completed, and the model is ready to be further developed for analysis of MEMS photonic resonator devices.

  16. Epidermal photonic devices for quantitative imaging of temperature and thermal transport characteristics of the skin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Zhang, Yihui; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jia, Lin; Jang, Kyung-In; Webb, R Chad; Fu, Haoran; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Guoyan; Shi, Luke; Shah, Deesha; Huang, Xian; Xu, Baoxing; Yu, Cunjiang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of temperature and thermal transport properties of the skin can yield important information of relevance to both clinical medicine and basic research in skin physiology. Here we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like, or 'epidermal', photonic device that combines colorimetric temperature indicators with wireless stretchable electronics for thermal measurements when softly laminated on the skin surface. The sensors exploit thermochromic liquid crystals patterned into large-scale, pixelated arrays on thin elastomeric substrates; the electronics provide means for controlled, local heating by radio frequency signals. Algorithms for extracting patterns of colour recorded from these devices with a digital camera and computational tools for relating the results to underlying thermal processes near the skin surface lend quantitative value to the resulting data. Application examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with milli-Kelvin precision (±50 mK) and sub-millimetre spatial resolution. Demonstrations in reactive hyperaemia assessments of blood flow and hydration analysis establish relevance to cardiovascular health and skin care, respectively. PMID:25234839

  17. Epidermal photonic devices for quantitative imaging of temperature and thermal transport characteristics of the skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Zhang, Yihui; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jia, Lin; Jang, Kyung-In; Chad Webb, R.; Fu, Haoran; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Guoyan; Shi, Luke; Shah, Deesha; Huang, Xian; Xu, Baoxing; Yu, Cunjiang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-09-01

    Characterization of temperature and thermal transport properties of the skin can yield important information of relevance to both clinical medicine and basic research in skin physiology. Here we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like, or ‘epidermal’, photonic device that combines colorimetric temperature indicators with wireless stretchable electronics for thermal measurements when softly laminated on the skin surface. The sensors exploit thermochromic liquid crystals patterned into large-scale, pixelated arrays on thin elastomeric substrates; the electronics provide means for controlled, local heating by radio frequency signals. Algorithms for extracting patterns of colour recorded from these devices with a digital camera and computational tools for relating the results to underlying thermal processes near the skin surface lend quantitative value to the resulting data. Application examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with milli-Kelvin precision (±50 mK) and sub-millimetre spatial resolution. Demonstrations in reactive hyperaemia assessments of blood flow and hydration analysis establish relevance to cardiovascular health and skin care, respectively.

  18. Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2010-12-15

    The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma.

  19. [Detonation temperature measurement of epoxypropane using instantaneous spectrum method].

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Li, Ping; Xiao, Hai-Bo; Hu, Dong; Yuan, Chang-Ying

    2008-03-01

    After solving the problems of synchronization of the measuring system and the avoidance of false trigger signal, the instantaneous emission spectrum of epoxypropane with an exposure time of 2 micros and a resolution of 0.2 nm was acquired from a side window of a shock tube at the very moment when the epoxypropane transformed from deflagration to detonation. The measuring system consists of an advanced intensified charge-coupled-device spectroscopic detector, a digital delay generator DG535, an explosion shock tube and optical fibers. The DDT process was monitored by pressure transducers. After correcting the intensity of the spectrum obtained, the background curve of the heat radiation intensity of the detonation was given immediately. The detonation temperature of 2 416 K for epoxypropane was derived from fitting the curve with Planck blackbody formula by least squares principle. The detonation temperature of epoxypropane can provide an experimental datum for analyzing the microscopic mechanism of DDT process. PMID:18536396

  20. Measuring velocity and temperature profile sectional pipeline behind confuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siažik, Ján; Malcho, Milan; Lenhard, Richard; Novomestský, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    The article deals with the measuring of temperature and velocity profile in area behind confuser in real made scale model of bypass. For proper operation of the equipment it is necessary to know the actual flow in the pipe. Bypasses have wide application and can be also associated with devices for heat recovery, heat exchangers different designs in which may be used in certain circumstances. In the present case, the heat that would otherwise has not been used is used for heating of insulators, and heating the air in the spray-dryer. The measuring principle was verify how the above-mentioned temperature and velocity profile decomposition above confuser on real made scale model.

  1. Vernier scales and other early devices for precise measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2011-04-01

    Vernier scales have been extensively used since the 17th century. They replaced the Nonius scale, a unpopular device due to difficulty in its fabrication and use, and they coexisted alongside other types of scales that increased measurement precision and accuracy in complementary ways. I suggest that the success of Vernier and diagonal scales is due not only to simplicity of fabrication, but also to their exploitation of visual hyperacuities.

  2. Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements at Ultra-low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Xia, J. S.; Sullivan, N. S.; Zapf, V. S.; Paduan-Filho, A.

    2010-02-01

    We report the design and operation of a device for ac magnetic susceptibility measurements that can operate down to 1 mK. The device, a modification of the standard mutual inductance bridge, is designed with detailed consideration of the thermalization and optimization of each element. First, in order to reduce local heating, the primary coil is made with superconducting wire. Second, a low-temperature transformer which is thermally anchored to the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator, is used to match the output of the secondary coil to a high-sensitivity bridge detector. The careful thermal anchoring of the secondary coil and the matching transformer is required to reduce the overall noise temperature and maximize sensitivity. The sample is immersed in liquid 3He to minimize the Kapitza thermal resistance. The magnetic susceptibility of several magnetic compounds, such as the well-known spin gap compound NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 and other powdered samples, have been successfully measured to temperatures well below 10 mK.

  3. Accuracy analysis of the space shuttle solid rocket motor profile measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estler, W. Tyler

    1989-01-01

    The Profile Measuring Device (PMD) was developed at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center following the loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger. It is a rotating gauge used to measure the absolute diameters of mating features of redesigned Solid Rocket Motor field joints. Diameter tolerance of these features are typically + or - 0.005 inches and it is required that the PMD absolute measurement uncertainty be within this tolerance. In this analysis, the absolute accuracy of these measurements were found to be + or - 0.00375 inches, worst case, with a potential accuracy of + or - 0.0021 inches achievable by improved temperature control.

  4. Thermoluminescence measurement technique using millisecond temperature pulses.

    PubMed

    Manfred, Michael E; Gabriel, Nicholas T; Yukihara, Eduardo G; Talghader, Joseph J

    2010-06-01

    A measurement technique, pulsed thermoluminescence, is described which uses short thermal pulses to excite trapped carriers leading to radiative recombination. The pulses are obtained using microstructures with approximately 500 micros thermal time constants. The technique has many of the advantages of pulsed optically stimulated luminescence without the need for optical sources and filters to isolate the luminescent signal. Charge carrier traps in alpha-Al(2)O(3):C particles on microheaters were filled using 205 nm light. Temperature pulses of 10 and 50 ms were applied to the heaters and compared with a standard thermoluminescence curve taken at a ramp rate of 5 K s(-1). This produced curves of intensity verses temperature similar to standard thermoluminescence except shifted to higher temperatures. The luminescence of single particles was read multiple times with negligible loss of population. The lower limit of the duration of useful pulses appears to be limited by particle size and thermal contact between the particle and heater. PMID:20522565

  5. Microwave radiometer for subsurface temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. A.; Bechis, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    A UHF radiometer, operating at a frequency of 800 MHz, was modified to provide an integral, three frequency voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) circuit in the radio frequency (RF) head. The VSWR circuit provides readings of power transmission at the antenna-material interface with an accuracy of plus or minus 5 percent. The power transmission readings are numerically equal to the emissivity of the material under observation. Knowledge of material emissivity is useful in the interpretation of subsurface apparent temperatures obtained on phantom models of biological tissue. The emissivities of phantom models consisting of lean beefsteak were found to lie in the range 0.623 to 0.779, depending on moisture content. Radiometric measurements performed on instrumented phantoms showed that the radiometer was capable of sensing small temperature changes occurring at depths of at least 19 to 30 mm. This is consistent with previously generated data which showed that the radiometer could sense temperatures at a depth of 38 mm.

  6. Recommendations for blood pressure measuring devices for office/clinic use in low resource settings.

    PubMed

    Parati, Gianfranco; Mendis, Shanthi; Abegunde, Dele; Asmar, Ronald; Mieke, Stephan; Murray, Alan; Shengelia, Bakuti; Steenvoorden, Gijs; Van Montfrans, Gert; O'Brien, Eoin

    2005-02-01

    This paper, which summarizes the conclusions of a WHO Expert meeting, is aimed at proposing indications to develop technical specifications for an accurate and affordable blood pressure measuring device for office/clinic use in low resource settings. Blood pressure measuring devices to be used in low resource settings should be accurate, affordable, and easily available worldwide. Given the serious inherent inaccuracy of the auscultatory technique, validated and affordable electronic devices, that have the option to select manual readings, seem to be a suitable solution for low resource settings. The agreement on the technical specifications for automated blood pressure measuring devices for office/clinic use in low resource settings included the following features: high accuracy, adoption of electronic transducers and solar batteries for power supply, standard rates of cuff inflation and deflation, adequate cuff size, digital display powered by solar batteries, facilities for adequate calibration, environmental requirements, no need of memory function, resistance to shock and temperature changes, and low cost. Availability of a device with these features should be accompanied by adequate training of health care personnel, who should guarantee implementation of the procedures recommended in recent European and American Guidelines for accurate blood pressure measurement. PMID:15687867

  7. Measuring Rocket Engine Temperatures with Hydrogen Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wehrmeyer, Joseph A.; Osborne, Robin J.; Trinh, Huu P.; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Optically accessible, high pressure, hot fire test articles are available at NASA Marshall for use in development of advanced rocket engine propellant injectors. Single laser-pulse ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy has been used in the past in these devices for analysis of high pressure H2- and CH4-fueled combustion, but relies on an independent pressure measurement in order to provide temperature information. A variation of UV Raman (High Resolution Hydrogen Raman Spectroscopy) is under development and will allow temperature measurement without the need for an independent pressure measurement, useful for flows where local pressure may not be accurately known. The technique involves the use of a spectrometer with good spectral resolution, requiring a small entrance slit for the spectrometer. The H2 Raman spectrum, when created by a narrow linewidth laser source and obtained from a good spectral resolution spectrograph, has a spectral shape related to temperature. By best-fit matching an experimental spectrum to theoretical spectra at various temperatures, a temperature measurement is obtained. The spectral model accounts for collisional narrowing, collisional broadening, Doppler broadening, and collisional line shifting of each Raman line making up the H2 Stokes vibrational Q-branch spectrum. At pressures from atmospheric up to those associated with advanced preburner components (5500 psia), collisional broadening though present does not cause significant overlap of the Raman lines, allowing high resolution H2 Raman to be used for temperature measurements in plumes and in high pressure test articles. Experimental demonstrations of the technique are performed for rich H2-air flames at atmospheric pressure and for high pressure, 300 K H2-He mixtures. Spectrometer imaging quality is identified as being critical for successful implementation of technique.

  8. High voltage design structure for high temperature superconducting device

    DOEpatents

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D.

    2008-05-20

    In accordance with the present invention, modular corona shields are employed in a HTS device to reduce the electric field surrounding the HTS device. In a exemplary embodiment a fault current limiter module in the insulation region of a cryogenic cooling system has at least one fault current limiter set which employs a first corona shield disposed along the top portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. A second corona shield is disposed along the bottom portion of the fault current limiter set and is electrically coupled to the fault current limiter set. An insulation barrier is disposed within the insulation region along at least one side of the fault current limiter set. The first corona shield and the second corona shield act together to reduce the electric field surrounding the fault limiter set when voltage is applied to the fault limiter set.

  9. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Activities directed toward the development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices are described. Topics investigated include: measurements of transistor delay time; application of the infrared response technique to the study of radiation-damaged, lithium-drifted silicon detectors; and identification of a condition that minimizes wire flexure and reduces the failure rate of wire bonds in transistors and integrated circuits under slow thermal cycling conditions. Supplementary data concerning staff, standards committee activities, technical services, and publications are included as appendixes.

  10. Device for measuring oxygen activity in liquid sodium

    DOEpatents

    Roy, P.; Young, R.S.

    1973-12-01

    A composite ceramic electrolyte in a configuration (such as a closed end tube or a plate) suitable to separate liquid sodium from a reference electrode with a high impedance voltmeter connected to measure EMF between the sodium and the reference electrode as a measure of oxygen activity in the sodium is described. The composite electrolyte consists of zirconiacalcia with a bonded layer of thoria-yttria. The device is used with a gaseous reference electrode on the zirconia-calcia side and liquid sodium on the thoria-yttria side of the electrolyte. (Official Gazette)

  11. Measurements on insulating materials at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Davis, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a four-year effort to study the high voltage dielectric behavior of various materials at cryogenic temperatures are described. Dissipation factors at 60 Hz were measured for polymer tapes and epoxy samples at 4.2 K, atmospheric pressure. Multi-layer polymer samples in coaxial geometries at temperatures from 7 K to 10 K and helium pressures up to 1.5 megapascals were also studied. The measurements were performed at stresses up to 40 MV/m. Since partial discharges were major source of losses at the higher stresses and their presence was possibly detrimental to the integrity of the insulation, instrumentation was developed and implemented to study these discharges under conditions found in proposed ac superconducting power-transmission lines.

  12. Improved Refractometer for Measuring Temperatures of Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqwi, Amir A.

    2004-01-01

    The Dual Rainbow refractometer is an enhanced version of the Rainbow refractometer, which is added to, and extends the capabilities of, a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A PDPA utilizes pairs of laser beams to measure individual components of velocity and sizes of drops in a spray. The Rainbow-refractometer addition measures the temperatures of individual drops. The designs of prior versions of the Rainbow refractometer have required substantial modifications of PDPA transmitting optics, plus dedicated lasers as sources of illumination separate from, and in addition to, those needed for PDPA measurements. The enhancement embodied in the Dual Rainbow refractometer eliminates the need for a dedicated laser and confers other advantages as described below. A dedicated laser is no longer needed because the Dual Rainbow refractometer utilizes one of the pairs of laser beams already present in a PDPA. Hence, the design of the Dual Rainbow refractometer simplifies the task of upgrading PDPA hardware to enable measurement of temperature. Furthermore, in a PDPA/Dual Rainbow refractometer system, a single argon-ion laser with three main wavelengths can be used to measure the temperatures, sizes, and all three components of velocity (in contradistinction to only two components of velocity in a prior PDPA/Rainbow refractometer system). In order to enable the Dual Rainbow refractometer to utilize a pair of PDPA laser beams, it was necessary to (1) find a location for the refractometer receiver, such that the combined rainbow patterns of two laser beams amount to a pattern identical to that of a single beam, (2) adjust the polarization of the two beams to obtain the strongest rainbow pattern, and (3) find a location for the PDPA receiver to obtain a linear relationship between the measured phase shift and drop size.

  13. Electron temperature measurement in an ultracold plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrousheh, K.; Bohlouli, P. Z.; Fedorov, M.; Mugford, A.; Martin, J. D. D.

    2004-05-01

    There has been growing interest in recent years in studying ultracold plasmas. These cold plasmas are produced by photoionizing a sample of cold atoms in a MOT. Of interest is the evolution of electron temperature in these plasmas. Strong correlation due to low initial temperature, as well as lack of correlation due to rapid heating are two possible scenarios. We will present a unique experimental method for measuring electron temperature in a cold plasma, as well as our calculation of the feasibility of the proposed method. In this process, which we call stimulated photoattachment, we stimulate the transition of free electrons from the continuum to bound states of nearby atoms by a laser beam. The negative ions produced can be observed with a microchannel plate detector. For electrons with well-defined energy this is a resonant process. The width of the resonance indicates the electron temperature. This technique has advantage of high temporal resolution of the evolution of electron temperature after the plasma is formed.

  14. Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave

    SciTech Connect

    Pradere, C. Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Palomo, E.; Batsale, J.-C.; Pernot, G.; Dilhaire, S.

    2014-06-15

    GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient κ, close to 10{sup −3} K{sup −1} versus 10{sup −5} K{sup −1} for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

  15. TEMPERATURE-MONITORING AND SAFETY-CONTROL DEVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two channel (sensitive) temperature monitor is described, and a parts list and wiring diagram are given. This equipment can be used as a safety shut-off or alarm system, or both. The sensitivity is 0.3C.

  16. Coherence imaging for ion temperature and flow measurements in a low-temperature helicon plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, R.; Zhai, Y.; Corr, C.; Howard, J.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a coherence imaging system designed for spectroscopic Doppler measurements of ion light in a low-temperature (T e   <  10 eV) helicon-produced argon plasma. Observation of the very small Doppler broadening of the Ar II 488 nm emission line requires very high spectral resolution, or equivalently, very large interferometric optical path delay (comparable with the coherence length of the emission line). For these polarization interferometers, this can only be achieved using large thicknesses (100 mm) of birefringent crystal. This poses special design challenges including the application of field-widening techniques and the development of passive thermal stabilization of the optical phase offset. We discuss the measurement principles and the optical design of these systems and present measurements of the line-integrated emissivity, and ion flow and ion temperatures along with tomographic reconstructions of the local values, for a cylindrical low temperature helicon discharge in a linear magnetized device with downstream magnetic mirror. Key results reveal a hollow edge-peaked temperature profile (central temperature  ∼0.1 eV) and sheared rigid-body rotational flows and axial flows which are comparable with the ion thermal speed. The emission line brightness, ion temperature and azimuthal ion flows are all found to increase with increased mirror magnetic field strength.

  17. A temperature microsensor for measuring laser-induced heating in gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Pacardo, Dennis B; Neupane, Bhanu; Wang, Gufeng; Gu, Zhen; Walker, Glenn M; Ligler, Frances S

    2015-01-01

    Measuring temperature is an extensively explored field of analysis, but measuring a temperature change in a nanoparticle is a new challenge. Here, a microsensor is configured to measure temperature changes in gold nanorods in solution upon laser irradiation. The device consists of a silicon wafer coated with silicon nitride in which a microfabricated resistance temperature detector was embedded and attached to a digital multimeter. A polydimethylsiloxane mold served as a microcontainer for the sample attached on top of the silicon membrane. This enables laser irradiation of the gold nanorods and subsequent measurement of temperature changes. The results showed a temperature increase of 8 to 10 °C and good correlation with theoretical calculations and bulk sample direct temperature measurements. These results demonstrate the suitability of this simple temperature microsensor for determining laser-induced heating profiles of metallic nanomaterials; such measurements will be essential for optimizing therapeutic and catalytic applications. PMID:25303932

  18. Graphene, a material for high temperature devices – intrinsic carrier density, carrier drift velocity, and lattice energy

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yan; Cheng, Zengguang; Wang, Li; Jin, Kuijuan; Wang, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    Heat has always been a killing matter for traditional semiconductor machines. The underlining physical reason is that the intrinsic carrier density of a device made from a traditional semiconductor material increases very fast with a rising temperature. Once reaching a temperature, the density surpasses the chemical doping or gating effect, any p-n junction or transistor made from the semiconductor will fail to function. Here, we measure the intrinsic Fermi level (|EF| = 2.93 kBT) or intrinsic carrier density (nin = 3.87 × 106 cm−2K−2·T2), carrier drift velocity, and G mode phonon energy of graphene devices and their temperature dependencies up to 2400 K. Our results show intrinsic carrier density of graphene is an order of magnitude less sensitive to temperature than those of Si or Ge, and reveal the great potentials of graphene as a material for high temperature devices. We also observe a linear decline of saturation drift velocity with increasing temperature, and identify the temperature coefficients of the intrinsic G mode phonon energy. Above knowledge is vital in understanding the physical phenomena of graphene under high power or high temperature. PMID:25044003

  19. Ultrasonic measurement device for the characterization of microbiological and biochemical processes in liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvira, L.; Durán, C.; Sierra, C.; Resa, P.; Montero de Espinosa, F.

    2007-07-01

    A measuring device for the characterization of liquid media based on the propagation of ultrasonic waves is presented. It is a four-channel system especially designed for monitoring microbiological and biochemical processes. The liquid samples are placed in commercial glass bottles which can be sterilized. The bottles have inlet and outlet tubes, which can be used for adding substances or extracting samples during the measuring process without interruption. Magnetic stirring can be used to keep the liquid agitated for homogenization purposes. Thermal control elements assure the temperature stability during the measurement. The liquid characterization is based on the detection of amplitude and time-of-flight changes in the sample under study. The main features, operation and performance of this ultrasonic device are analysed in this work, and some measurements and preliminary results are shown.

  20. Electro-Mechanical Properties of Metal-Insulator-Metal Device Fabricated on Polymer Substrate Using Low-Temperature Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung Kyu; Han, Jeong In; Kim, Won Keun; Hong, Sung Jei; Kwak, Min Gi; Lee, Myung Jae; Chung, Kwan Soo

    2002-02-01

    High-performance metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices on flexible polymer substrates were successfully fabricated without any defects such as cracks, delamination and blistering. This work examines the mechanical and electrical properties of MIM devices constructed using anodic Ta2O5 films. Using newly developed methods including stepped heating process and low-temperature post-annealing below 180°C, we obtained high-performances MIM devices on polymer substrates. Here, we propose the use of stacked bottom electrode and water barrier layer in order to enhance the ductility of the Ta electrode and to prevent blistering problems, respectively. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and transmission electronic microscope (TEM) observations were performed for the structural investigation of the MIM devices on polymer substrates. Electrical measurements were also carried out for as-deposited and thermally treated MIM devices including Al/Ta/Ta2O5/Cr or Ti structures. They exhibit a low leakage current (below 10-7 A/cm2 at 2 MV) and reasonable breakdown voltage (5-7 MV/cm) with a uniformity of 92%. Finally, under low-temperature post-annealing conditions, The Current-Voltage (I-V) behaviors and conduction mechanisms of MIM devices on polymer substrates are discussed based on the results of electrical measurements, structural investigations and conduction band modeling.

  1. A simple measuring device for laboratory indentation tests on cartilage.

    PubMed

    Koeller, Wolfgang; Kunow, Julius; Ostermeyer, Oliver; Stomberg, Peter; Boos, Carsten; Russlies, Martin

    2008-04-01

    Mechanical testing of articular cartilage and repair tissue enables judgment of their capacity in withstanding mechanical loading. In the past, different methods have been developed requiring a complex technical setup and extensive data analysis. Therefore, the aim of the present project was to build up a simple measuring apparatus for laboratory indentation tests. The device consists of an incremental optical displacement transducer with a sleeve bearing guided plunger and a spherical tip made of polished steel (radius: 0.75 or 1.5 mm), a sensitive load cell and a stiff frame. The indentation force results from the plunger's gravity plus the force of the spring inside the displacement transducer and levels at 0.170 N or 0.765 N. The displacement transducer is fixed to the frame via the load cell that enables one to detect the initial contact of the tip with the tissue. The load cell has a standard uncertainty of 2 mN and the displacement transducer of 1 microm. From indentation-creep tests, a "0.25-s elastic modulus" is calculated. Measurements on thin rubber sheets were carried out to determine the quality of the measuring device. Compression tests on cylinders made of these rubber sheets yielded control data, and a good agreement with the "0.25-s elastic modulus" was found. Indentation tests on cartilage at different sites of sheep femoral condyles yielded a very good repeatability of the measurement results (+/-7.5%). PMID:18979621

  2. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of...

  7. Apparatus for gas sorption measurement with integrated gas composition measurement device and gas mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Micklash. II, Kenneth James; Dutton, Justin James; Kaye, Steven

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus for testing of multiple material samples includes a gas delivery control system operatively connectable to the multiple material samples and configured to provide gas to the multiple material samples. Both a gas composition measurement device and pressure measurement devices are included in the apparatus. The apparatus includes multiple selectively openable and closable valves and a series of conduits configured to selectively connect the multiple material samples individually to the gas composition device and the pressure measurement devices by operation of the valves. A mixing system is selectively connectable to the series of conduits and is operable to cause forced mixing of the gas within the series of conduits to achieve a predetermined uniformity of gas composition within the series of conduits and passages.

  8. A flux extraction device to measure the magnetic moment of large samples; application to bulk superconductors.

    PubMed

    Egan, R; Philippe, M; Wera, L; Fagnard, J F; Vanderheyden, B; Dennis, A; Shi, Y; Cardwell, D A; Vanderbemden, P

    2015-02-01

    We report the design and construction of a flux extraction device to measure the DC magnetic moment of large samples (i.e., several cm(3)) at cryogenic temperature. The signal is constructed by integrating the electromotive force generated by two coils wound in series-opposition that move around the sample. We show that an octupole expansion of the magnetic vector potential can be used conveniently to treat near-field effects for this geometrical configuration. The resulting expansion is tested for the case of a large, permanently magnetized, type-II superconducting sample. The dimensions of the sensing coils are determined in such a way that the measurement is influenced by the dipole magnetic moment of the sample and not by moments of higher order, within user-determined upper bounds. The device, which is able to measure magnetic moments in excess of 1 A m(2) (1000 emu), is validated by (i) a direct calibration experiment using a small coil driven by a known current and (ii) by comparison with the results of numerical calculations obtained previously using a flux measurement technique. The sensitivity of the device is demonstrated by the measurement of flux-creep relaxation of the magnetization in a large bulk superconductor sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). PMID:25725888

  9. A flux extraction device to measure the magnetic moment of large samples; application to bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, R.; Philippe, M.; Wera, L.; Fagnard, J. F.; Vanderheyden, B.; Dennis, A.; Shi, Y.; Cardwell, D. A.; Vanderbemden, P.

    2015-02-01

    We report the design and construction of a flux extraction device to measure the DC magnetic moment of large samples (i.e., several cm3) at cryogenic temperature. The signal is constructed by integrating the electromotive force generated by two coils wound in series-opposition that move around the sample. We show that an octupole expansion of the magnetic vector potential can be used conveniently to treat near-field effects for this geometrical configuration. The resulting expansion is tested for the case of a large, permanently magnetized, type-II superconducting sample. The dimensions of the sensing coils are determined in such a way that the measurement is influenced by the dipole magnetic moment of the sample and not by moments of higher order, within user-determined upper bounds. The device, which is able to measure magnetic moments in excess of 1 A m2 (1000 emu), is validated by (i) a direct calibration experiment using a small coil driven by a known current and (ii) by comparison with the results of numerical calculations obtained previously using a flux measurement technique. The sensitivity of the device is demonstrated by the measurement of flux-creep relaxation of the magnetization in a large bulk superconductor sample at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K).

  10. The display of portable infrared measuring temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yitao; Gu, Guohua; Sui, Xiubao

    2014-11-01

    In recent years based on security, quality supervision, inspection and medical for the urgent need of infrared temperature measurement and infrared display technology, coupled with embedded system to achieve rapid development, which is widely used in the electronic products and the field of intelligent instruments and industrial control, this paper has designed a kind of more comprehensive, more efficient and more intuitive infrared thermometer. Unlike previous handheld infrared thermometer, we regard an embedded Linux system as the system, with its open source code, support most mainstream hardware platforms, unified peripheral interface and can be customized, to build an embedded infrared system that has provided strong system support; the pseudocolor techniques and Qt interface display technology make the image more colorful and the picture function more diverse; With ARM microprocessor as the display and temperature measuring platform, it costs reduction and reduce volume and power consumption; the FrameBuffer interface technology and multithreading technology realize the smooth real-time display. And ultimately the display size of real-time infrared image is 640 * 480 at a speed of 25 frames / sec. What is more, display is equipped with the menu option so that thermometer can be required to complete the operation through the button. The temperature display system aims at small volume, easy to use and flexible. I believe this thermometer will have a good application prospect.

  11. Adaptive Blood Glucose Monitoring and Insulin Measurement Devices for Visually Impaired Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzinger, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes devices that people with visual impairments and diabetes can use to monitor blood glucose levels and measure insulin. A table lists devices, their manufacturers (including address and telephone number), and comments about the devices. (DB)

  12. Modeling and Evaluation of Canted Coil Springs as High Temperature Seal Preloading Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Jay J.; Mullen, Robert L.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    Future reusable launch vehicles will require advanced structural seals. This includes propulsion seals along edges and hinge lines in hypersonic engines, and control surface seals for movable flaps and elevons on proposed reentry vehicles. Seals must remain in sealing engagement with opposing surfaces, for multiple missions, even though the seal gap may be opening and closing due to thermal and structural loads. To meet this requirement either the seals themselves must be resilient or there must be a resilient structural element behind the seals. Case Western Reserve University is working with NASA s Glenn Research Center to develop more resilient high temperature seal components and preloading devices. Results are presented for a finite element analysis of a canted coil spring that is being considered as a high temperature seal preloading device. This type of spring is a leading candidate due to its ability to provide nearly constant force over a large deflection. The finite element analyses were verified by comparing them to experimental results of canted coil springs of three different stiffnesses, measured at Glenn Research Center. Once validated the parameterized model was combined with a scripting algorithm to assess the effects of key spring design variables (wire diameter, coils per inch, cant amplitude, eccentricity, and spring width) on spring stiffness and maximum Von Mises stress to aid in subsequent design.

  13. Infrared radiometric technique in temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazer, S.; Madding, R.

    1988-01-01

    One class of commercially available imaging infrared radiometers using cooled detectors is sensitive to radiation over the 3 to 12 micron wavelength band. Spectral filters can tailor instrument sensitivity to specific regions where the target exhibits optimum radiance. The broadband spectral response coupled with real time two-dimensional imaging and emittance/background temperature corrections make the instruments useful for remote measurement of surface temperatures from -20 C to +1500 C. Commonly used radiometric techniques and assumptions are discussed, and performance specifications for a typical modern commercial instrument are presented. The potential usefulness of an imaging infrared radiometer in space laboratories is highlighted through examples of research, nondestructive evaluation, safety, and routine maintenance applications. Future improvements in instrument design and application of the radiometric technique are discussed.

  14. Device accurately measures and records low gas-flow rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branum, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Free-floating piston in a vertical column accurately measures and records low gas-flow rates. The system may be calibrated, using an adjustable flow-rate gas supply, a low pressure gage, and a sequence recorder. From the calibration rates, a nomograph may be made for easy reduction. Temperature correction may be added for further accuracy.

  15. Newborns' temperature submitted to radiant heat and to the Top Maternal device at birth

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Rosemeire Sartori; Mariani, Corintio; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Dias, Vanessa Macedo; da Silva, Maria Izabel Mota

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the axillar temperatures of newborns that are put immediately after birth in skin-to-skin contact under the Top Maternal device, as compared to those in a radiant heat crib. Methods: comparatives observational study of the case-control type about temperature of 60 babies born at the Obstetric Center and Normal Delivery Center of a public hospital of the municipality of Sao Paulo, being them: 29 receiving assistance in heated crib and 31 in skin-to skin contact, shielded by a cotton tissue placed on mother's thorax, called Top Maternal. Results: the temperature of the babies of the skin-to-skin contact group presented higher values in a larger share of the time measures verified, as compared to those that were placed in radiant heat crib, independently from the place of birth. Differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: the study contributes to generate new knowledge, supporting the idea of keeping babies with their mothers immediately after birth protected with the Maternal Top, without harming their wellbeing, as it keeps the axillar temperature in recommendable levels. PMID:27508912

  16. Flow measurements in a centrifugal diffusor test device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitting, T.

    1985-06-01

    This work sought to verify concepts used in the design of a large scale, low speed, radial cascade wind tunnel which was to be used to investigate flow phenomena in and the performance of vaned radial diffusors. A major contributor to centrifugal compressor efficiency is the performance of the vaned diffusor which closely follows the impeller of the compressor. The purpose of this diffusor is to efficiently convert most of the kinetic energy of the transonic flow entering the vane into pressure. The need for an experimental facility which could simulate adequately, at low cost and in a controlled way, the environment of the centrifugal compressor motivated the development of the Centrifugal Diffusor Test Device (CDTD). It was expected that the generation of a three dimensional flow would provide improved empirical data on annular cascade performance. This measurement program surveyed the axial and circumferential uniformity of the flow at the inlet of a transonic wedge-type blading mounted in the device. Evaluation of the results showed the flow uniformity to be unsatisfactory. Leakage and other small perturbations in the flow field in the swirl generator are believed to be amplified by the basic flow configuration of the device.

  17. PARduino: A Simple Device Measuring and Logging Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Findley, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) is one of the primary controls of forest carbon and water relations. In complex terrain, PAR has high spatial-variability. Given the high cost of commercial datalogging equipment, spatially-distributed measurements of PAR have been typically modeled using geographic coordinates and terrain indices. Here, we present a design for a low cost, field-deployable device for measuring and logging PAR built around an Arduino microcontroller (we named it PARduino). PARduino provides for widely distributed sensor arrays and tests the feasibility of using hobbyist-grade electronics for collecting scientific data. PARduino components include a LiCor quantum sensor, EME Systems signal converter/amplifier, and Sparkfun's Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller. Additional components include a real time clock, a microSD flash memory card, and a custom printed circuit board (PCB). We selected the components with an eye towards ease of assembly. Everything can be connected to the PCB using through-hole soldering techniques. Since the device will be deployed in remote research plots that lack easy access to line power, battery life was also a consideration in the design. Extended deployment is possible because PARduino's software keeps it in a low-power sleep mode until ready to make a measurement. PARduino will be open-source hardware for use and improvement by others.

  18. Trial of a slant visual range measuring device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streicher, Jurgen; Muenkel, C.; Borchardt, H.

    1993-10-01

    Each year fog at airports renders some landing operations either difficult or impossible. In such instances, visibility is the most important information for the pilot of a landing aircraft. Visibility may be constant, decreasing, or increasing with respect to the altitude; however, it is not possible to distinguish this with existing airport sensors. This paper describes a new technique for measuring slant visual range that makes use of a slant scanning device, an eye-safe laser radar. This device has been tested by the German Meteorological Service in Quickborn, Germany, over a period of one year. A comparison with commercial visibility sensors shows that it is possible to measure visibilities with the slant-looking laser radar in the range from 50 m up to 2000 m and to even distinguish inhomogenities like ground fog. Statistics of the Quickborn measurements show that the atmosphere in that region is not homogeneous in 38 percent of fog situations, which would at the present lead to a redistribution of the air traffic. The first installation of this instrument at the Hamburg airport is described.

  19. Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent multipartite quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yadong; Zhou, Jian; Gong, Xinbao; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; He, Guangqiang

    2016-02-01

    A continuous-variable measurement-device-independent multiparty quantum communication protocol is investigated in this paper. Utilizing the distributed continuous-variable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, this protocol can implement both quantum cryptographic conference and quantum secret sharing. We analyze the security of the protocol against both the entangling cloner attack and the coherent attack. The entangling cloner attack is a practical individual attack, and the coherent attack is the optimal attack Eve can implement. Simulation results show that the coherent attack can greatly reduce the secret key rate. Different kinds of entangled attacks are compared and we finally discuss the optimal coherent attacks.

  20. Method and device for measuring single-shot transient signals

    DOEpatents

    Yin, Yan

    2004-05-18

    Methods, apparatus, and systems, including computer program products, implementing and using techniques for measuring multi-channel single-shot transient signals. A signal acquisition unit receives one or more single-shot pulses from a multi-channel source. An optical-fiber recirculating loop reproduces the one or more received single-shot optical pulses to form a first multi-channel pulse train for circulation in the recirculating loop, and a second multi-channel pulse train for display on a display device. The optical-fiber recirculating loop also optically amplifies the first circulating pulse train to compensate for signal losses and performs optical multi-channel noise filtration.

  1. Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullis, W. M. (Editor)

    1971-01-01

    The development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is discussed. The following subjects are also presented: (1) demonstration of the high sensitivity of the infrared response technique by the identification of gold in a germanium diode, (2) verification that transient thermal response is significantly more sensitive to the presence of voids in die attachment than steady-state thermal resistance, and (3) development of equipment for determining susceptibility of transistors to hot spot formation by the current-gain technique.

  2. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster angle radiometer would exploit the spectral emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation.

  3. A superconducting quantum interference device based read-out of a subattonewton force sensor operating at millikelvin temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Usenko, O.; Vinante, A.; Wijts, G.; Oosterkamp, T. H.

    2011-03-28

    We present a scheme to measure the displacement of a nanomechanical resonator at cryogenic temperature. The technique is based on the use of a superconducting quantum interference device to detect the magnetic flux change induced by a magnetized particle attached on the end of the resonator. Unlike conventional interferometric techniques, our detection scheme does not involve direct power dissipation in the resonator, and therefore, is particularly suitable for ultralow temperature applications. We demonstrate its potential by cooling an ultrasoft silicon cantilever to a noise temperature of 25 mK, corresponding to a subattonewton thermal force noise of 0.5 aN/{radical}(Hz).

  4. Temperature-dependent single carrier device model for polymeric light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupton, J. M.; Samuel, I. D. W.

    1999-12-01

    We present an investigation of the temperature dependence of the current-voltage characteristics of a single carrier poly[2-methoxy, 5-(2´-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) polymer light-emitting diode (LED) with indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminium electrodes. We find that although injection effects are the dominant current limiting mechanisms, bulk transport effects also play a significant role due to the low charge carrier mobility. Tunnelling theory cannot account for the observations made and we find that the tunnelling barrier predicted by a simple Fowler-Nordheim analysis increases by more than a factor of two from 0.2 to 0.45 eV as the LED is cooled from room temperature to 13 K. We use a device model combining the interfacial currents of thermionic emission, tunnelling and interface recombination, with drift currents to describe successfully the measured current-voltage characteristics over a temperature range from 300 K to 100 K using the barrier height to injection and the field-dependent mobility as fitting parameters. Good quality fits are obtained over a wide range of temperatures. The field-dependent mobility parameters are found to have a temperature dependence characteristic of hopping in disordered solids with an activation energy of 0.75 eV for the zero field mobility. The barrier to injection for holes from the ITO anode is found to be lowered from 0.56 eV at 300 K to 0.41 eV at 100 K, which can in part be accounted for by the reduction of the band gap of MEH-PPV with decreasing temperature. The temperature dependence of the parameters is greater than values reported elsewhere, suggesting that approximating the thermally-activated, microscopic injection processes by a thermionic emission term overestimates the activation energy for charge carrier injection. We looked at the effect of photo-oxidation on device characteristics as a further test of the model and found that these modified characteristics are well described by a

  5. Characterization of structural defects in GST based nano-PCM devices through resistance drift measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinar, Ibrahim; Cogulu, Egecan; Gokce, Aisha; Stipe, Barry; Katine, Jordan; Aktas, Gulen; Ozatay, Ozhan

    2015-03-01

    Phase change memory (PCM) is a promising nonvolatile data storage technology with its high signal to noise ratio and superior scalability. Resistance drift in amorphous phase of the phase change material poses a crucial reliability problem, especially in multiple-bit-per cell PCM devices. The resistance of the amorphous phase uncontrollably increases with time after a reset operation which alters the read/write conditions of the device. Structural relaxation (SR) through a defect annihilation process is considered to be the underlying physical mechanism for resistance drift. Here, we report on our measurements of the resistance drift in a phase change memory device with a single layer Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) material not only in the amorphous state but also in the intermediate resistance state in devices with square top contact geometry which enables us to assess the reliability of multiple-bit per cell PCM memory devices. Through an analysis of electrical measurements as a function of time and temperature for increasing annealing times, we estimate a rate of change in trap density for both amorphous and mixed phases of the GST material after a switching operation. Our study allows engineering the phase change materials and optimizing programing conditions for future PCM applications. TUBITAK under Contract Number 113F385, Bogazici University Research Fund, 12B03M1, and European Union FP7 Marie Curie International Re-integration Grant PCM-256281.

  6. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  7. Remote measurement of ground temperature and emissivity

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J.R.

    1994-06-01

    TAISIR, Temperature and Imaging System InfraRed, is a nominally satellite based platform for remote sensing of the earth. One of its design features is to acquire atmospheric data simultaneous with ground data, resulting in minimal dependence on external atmospheric models for data correction. Extensive modeling of the rms error of determining a ground temperature and emissivity for a gray body has been performed as a function of integration time, spectroscopic resolution of the system, ground emissivity, atmospheric variables, and atmospheric data accuracy. We find that increased resolution improves measurement accuracy by emphasizing those regions where the atmospheric transmission is highest and atmospheric emission/absorption lowest. We find rms temperature errors {le}1K and rms emissivity errors <0.01 are obtainable for reasonable seeing and with sufficient information about the atmosphere. A new method is developed for modeling the dependence of the band-averaged transmission and emission. Monte Carlo simulations of satellite data taken using a multi-angle technique are used to derive signal-to-noise requirements. The applicability of those results to the TAISIR system requirements are discussed.

  8. Device for measuring hole elongation in a bolted joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichorek, Gregory R. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A device to determine the operable failure mode of mechanically fastened lightweight composite joints by measuring the hole elongation of a bolted joint is disclosed. The double-lap joint test apparatus comprises a stud, a test specimen having a hole, two load transfer plates, and linear displacement measuring instruments. The test specimen is sandwiched between the two load transfer plates and clamped together with the stud. Spacer washers are placed between the test specimen and each load transfer plate to provide a known, controllable area for the determination of clamping forces around the hole of the specimen attributable to bolt torque. The spacer washers also provide a gap for the mounting of reference angles on each side of the test specimen. Under tensile loading, elongation of the hole of the test specimen causes the stud to move away from the reference angles. This displacement is measured by the voltage output of two linear displacement measuring instruments that are attached to the stud and remain in contact with the reference angles throughout the tensile loading. The present invention obviates previous problems in obtaining specimen deformation measurements by monitoring the reference angles to the test specimen and the linear displacement measuring instruments to the stud.

  9. Multilayer compressive seal for sealing in high temperature devices

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2007-08-21

    A mica based compressive seal has been developed exhibiting superior thermal cycle stability when compared to other compressive seals known in the art. The seal is composed of compliant glass or metal interlayers and a sealing (gasket) member layer composed of mica that is infiltrated with a glass forming material, which effectively reduces leaks within the seal. The compressive seal shows approximately a 100-fold reduction in leak rates compared with previously developed hybrid seals after from 10 to about 40 thermal cycles under a compressive stress of from 50 psi to 100 psi at temperatures in the range from 600.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C.

  10. Measuring the configurational temperature of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Matthias

    2009-03-01

    Twenty years ago Edwards and Oakeshott suggested developing a statistical mechanics of static granular media based on the idea that the logarithm of the number of mechanically stable states of a specific sample constitutes the relevant entropy [1]. From this entropy then, a configurational temperature, named compactivity, could be derived. However, in the absence of an appropriate thermometer to measure compactivity, the question if it is indeed a relevant state variable remained untested. Only recently it was shown that the steady state volume fluctuations of a periodically driven sample can be used to measure the compactivity of a granular sample including its dependence on volume fraction and surface friction of the particles [2]. This opens up the possibility of studying questions like the existence of a zeroth law of granular thermodynamics or the relationship between compactivity and other forms of granular temperature. [1] Edwards and Oakeshott, Physica A 157, 1080 (1989). [2] M. Schr"oter, D. Goldman, and H. L. Swinney Phys. Rev. E 71, 030301(R) (2005)

  11. Design of a device for sky light polarization measurements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujie; Hu, Xiaoping; Lian, Junxiang; Zhang, Lilian; Xian, Zhiwen; Ma, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Sky polarization patterns can be used both as indicators of atmospheric turbidity and as a sun compass for navigation. The objective of this study is to improve the precision of sky light polarization measurements by optimal design of the device used. The central part of the system is composed of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera; a fish-eye lens and a linear polarizer. Algorithms for estimating parameters of the polarized light based on three images are derived and the optimal alignments of the polarizer are analyzed. The least-squares estimation is introduced for sky light polarization pattern measurement. The polarization patterns of sky light are obtained using the designed system and they follow almost the same patterns of the single-scattering Rayleigh model. Deviations of polarization angles between observation and the theory are analyzed. The largest deviations occur near the sun and anti-sun directions. Ninety percent of the deviations are less than 5° and 40% percent of them are less than 1°. The deviations decrease evidently as the degree of polarization increases. It also shows that the polarization pattern of the cloudy sky is almost identical as in the blue sky. PMID:25196003

  12. Design of a Device for Sky Light Polarization Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yujie; Hu, Xiaoping; Lian, Junxiang; Zhang, Lilian; Xian, Zhiwen; Ma, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Sky polarization patterns can be used both as indicators of atmospheric turbidity and as a sun compass for navigation. The objective of this study is to improve the precision of sky light polarization measurements by optimal design of the device used. The central part of the system is composed of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera; a fish-eye lens and a linear polarizer. Algorithms for estimating parameters of the polarized light based on three images are derived and the optimal alignments of the polarizer are analyzed. The least-squares estimation is introduced for sky light polarization pattern measurement. The polarization patterns of sky light are obtained using the designed system and they follow almost the same patterns of the single-scattering Rayleigh model. Deviations of polarization angles between observation and the theory are analyzed. The largest deviations occur near the sun and anti-sun directions. Ninety percent of the deviations are less than 5° and 40% percent of them are less than 1°. The deviations decrease evidently as the degree of polarization increases. It also shows that the polarization pattern of the cloudy sky is almost identical as in the blue sky. PMID:25196003

  13. High-rate measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Ottaviani, Carlo; Spedalieri, Gaetana; Weedbrook, Christian; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Lloyd, Seth; Gehring, Tobias; Jacobsen, Christian S.; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2015-06-01

    Quantum cryptography achieves a formidable task—the remote distribution of secret keys by exploiting the fundamental laws of physics. Quantum cryptography is now headed towards solving the practical problem of constructing scalable and secure quantum networks. A significant step in this direction has been the introduction of measurement-device independence, where the secret key between two parties is established by the measurement of an untrusted relay. Unfortunately, although qubit-implemented protocols can reach long distances, their key rates are typically very low, unsuitable for the demands of a metropolitan network. Here we show, theoretically and experimentally, that a solution can come from the use of continuous-variable systems. We design a coherent-state network protocol able to achieve remarkably high key rates at metropolitan distances, in fact three orders of magnitude higher than those currently achieved. Our protocol could be employed to build high-rate quantum networks where devices securely connect to nearby access points or proxy servers.

  14. Temperature buffer test design, instrumentation and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandén, Torbjörn; Goudarzi, Reza; de Combarieu, Michel; Åkesson, Mattias; Hökmark, Harald

    The Temperature Buffer Test, TBT, is a heated full-scale field experiment carried out jointly by ANDRA and SKB at the SKB Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Southeast Sweden. An existing 8 m deep, 1.8 m diameter KBS-3-type deposition hole located at -420 m level has been selected for the test. The objectives are to improve the general understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical, THM, behavior of buffer materials submitted to severe thermal conditions with temperatures well over 100 °C during water uptake of partly saturated bentonite-based buffer materials, and to check, in due time, their properties after water saturation. The test includes two carbon steel heating canisters each 3 m high and 0.6 m diameter, surrounded by 0.6 m of buffer material. There is a 0.2 m thick sand shield between the upper heater and the surrounding bentonite, while the lower heater is surrounded by bentonite only. On top of the stack of bentonite blocks is a confining plug anchored to the rock. In the slot between buffer and rock wall is a sand filter equipped with pipes to control the water pressure at the boundary, which is seldom done with an EBS in situ experiment. Both heater mid-height planes are densely instrumented in order to follow, with direct or indirect methods, buffer THM evolution. Temperature, relative humidity, stress and pore pressure have been monitored since the test start in March 2003. Total water inflow is also monitored. Firstly, the present paper describes the test design, the instrumentation, the plug anchoring system and the system for water boundary pressure control. Second, having described the test, the paper shows different measurements that illustrate evolution of temperature, saturation, suction and swelling pressure in the upper and the lower buffer.

  15. Cloud and surface classification using SCIAMACHY polarization measurement devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotz, W. A.; Vountas, M.; Dinter, T.; Burrows, J. P.

    2008-05-01

    A simple scheme has been developed to discriminate surface, sun glint and cloud properties in satellite based spectrometer data utilizing visible and near infrared information. It has been designed for the use with data measured by SCIAMACHY's (SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) Polarization Measurement Devices but the applicability is not strictly limited to this instrument. The scheme is governed by a set of constraints and thresholds developed by using satellite imagery and meteorological data. Classification targets are ice, water and generic clouds, sun glint and surface parameters, such as water, snow/ice, desert and vegetation. The validation is done using MERIS (MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) and meteorological data from METAR (MÉTéorologique Aviation Régulière - a network for the provision of meteorological data for aviation). Qualitative and quantitative validation using MERIS satellite imagery shows good agreement. The comparison with METAR data exhibits very good agreement.

  16. Modeling of SiC Lateral Resonant Devices Over a Broad Temperature Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAnna, Russell G.; Roy, Shuvo; Zorman, Christian A.; Mehregany, Mehran

    1999-01-01

    Finite-element analysis (FEA) modal results of 3C-SiC lateral resonant devices anchored to a Si substrate are presented as resonant frequency versus temperature. The suspended elements are etched from a 2 micron, 3C-SiC film grown at 1600 K on a 500 micron-thick, Si substrate. The analysis includes, temperature-dependent properties, shape change due to volume expansion with temperature, and thermal stress caused by differential thermal expansion of different materials. Two designs are considered: type I has anchor locations close to the geometric centroid and a small shuttle; type 11 has a large shuttle with anchors far from the centroid, The resonant frequency decreases approximately 3.5% over a 1000 K temperature increase for the type-I device, and behaves according to theory. The resonant frequency of the type-11 device decreases by 2% over the first 400 K, then rises slightly over the remaining 600 K. This device deviates from theory because of the high thermal stress induced in the beams. The thermal stress is caused by the differential thermal expansion of the suspended element relative to the substrate. The results show that the device geometry must be properly chosen if the resonant frequency of that device will be used to calculate the temperature coefficient of Young's modulus. These results apply only to resonators of one material on a substrate of a different material.

  17. High-temperature anodized WO3 nanoplatelet films for photosensitive devices.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Abu Z; Zheng, Haidong; Breedon, Michael; Bansal, Vipul; Bhargava, Suresh K; Latham, Kay; Zhu, Jianmin; Yu, Leshu; Hu, Zheng; Spizzirri, Paul G; Wlodarski, Wojtek; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2009-08-18

    Anodization at elevated temperatures in nitric acid has been used for the production of highly porous and thick tungsten trioxide nanostructured films for photosensitive device applications. The anodization process resulted in platelet crystals with thicknesses of 20-60 nm and lengths of 100-1000 nm. Maximum thicknesses of approximately 2.4 microm were obtained after 4 h of anodization at 20 V. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the as-prepared anodized samples contain predominantly hydrated tungstite phases depending on voltage, while films annealed at 400 degrees C for 4 h are predominantly orthorhombic WO3 phase. Photocurrent measurements revealed that the current density of the 2.4 microm nanostructured anodized film was 6 times larger than the nonanodized films. Dye-sensitized solar cells developed using these films produced 0.33 V and 0.65 mA/cm2 in open- and short-circuit conditions. PMID:19627158

  18. Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

  19. New instrumentation for temperature measurement. Phase 1: Program solicitation, small business innovation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergason, J. L.

    1980-08-01

    Temperature sensitive liquid crystals designed to meet the need for a measuring device to accurately measure temperature and temperature distribution in the presence of electric, magnetic, and sonic fields, especially with high space and thermal resolution are discussed. A technique was developed to make highly reproducible, stable configurations of liquid crystal encapsulates. Temperature stable sensors have been produced which can be calibrated to the National Bureau of Standards. The thermal properties of the liquid crystal can be matched to the properties of the surrounding medium. Since a two dimensional representation of the temperature distribution is possible, the use of this instrumentation has significant implications for bioengineering.

  20. The measure method of internal screw thread and the measure device design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dachao; Chen, Jianguo

    2008-12-01

    In accordance with the principle of Three-Line, this paper analyzed the correlation of every main parameter of internal screw thread, and then designed a device to measure the main parameters of internal screw thread. Basis on the measured value and corresponding formula calculation, we can get the internal thread parameters, such as the pitch diameter, thread angle and screw-pitch of common screw thread, terraced screw thread, zigzag screw thread and some else. The practical application has proved that this operation of this device is convenience, and the measured dates have a high accuracy. Meanwhile, the application of this device's patent of invention is accepted by the Patent Office. (The filing number: 200710044081.5)

  1. Simple uniaxial pressure device for ac-susceptibility measurements suitable for closed cycle refrigerator system.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, S; Manivannan, N; Murugeswari, A

    2007-06-01

    A simple design of the uniaxial pressure device for the measurement of ac-susceptibility at low temperatures using closed cycle refrigerator system is presented for the first time. This device consists of disc micrometer, spring holder attachment, uniaxial pressure cell, and the ac-susceptibility coil wound on stycast bobbin. It can work under pressure till 0.5 GPa and at the temperature range of 30-300 K. The performance of the system at ambient pressure is tested and calibrated with standard paramagnetic salts [Gd(2)O(3), Er(2)O(3), and Fe(NH(4)SO(4))(2)6H(2)O], Fe(3)O(4), Gd metal, Dy metal, superconductor (YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7)), manganite (La(1.85)Ba(0.15)MnO(3)), and spin glass material (Pr(0.8)Sr(0.2)MnO(3)). The performance of the uniaxial pressure device is demonstrated by investigating the uniaxial pressure dependence of La(1.85)Ba(0.15)MnO(3) single crystal with P||c axis. The Curie temperature (T(c)) decreases as a function of pressure with P||c axis (dT(c)dP(||c axis)=-11.65 KGPa) up to 46 MPa. The design is simple, is user friendly, and does not require pressure calibration. Measurement can even be made on thin and small size oriented crystals. The failure of the coil is remote under uniaxial pressure. The present setup can be used as a multipurpose uniaxial pressure device for the measurement of Hall effect and thermoelectric power with a small modification in the pressure cell. PMID:17614625

  2. Temperature dependent EUV spectra of Gd, Tb and Dy ions observed in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, C.; Koike, F.; Murakami, I.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.

    2015-07-01

    We have observed a number of different types of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from highly charged gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb) and dysprosium (Dy) ions in optically thin plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science. Temporal changes in EUV spectra in the 6-9 nm region subsequent to the injections of solid pellets were measured by a grazing incidence spectrometer. The spectra rapidly change from discrete features into unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) following a drop in the electron temperature after the heating power is reduced. In particular, extremely narrowed UTA features, which comprise spectral lines of Ag-like, Pd-like and neighboring ion stages, are observed when the peak electron temperature is less than 0.45 keV due to the formation of hollow plasmas. Some discrete spectral lines of Cu-like and Ag-like ions have been identified in the high and low temperature plasmas, respectively, some of which are experimentally identified for the first time.

  3. Progresses in cMUT device fabrication using low temperature processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahette, E.; Michaud, J. F.; Certon, D.; Gross, D.; Alquier, D.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present an original fabrication process of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) using a low temperature method for high frequency medical imaging applications. The process, which is limited to 400 °C, is based on surface micromachining. The material choices are adapted in order to respect the thermal specifications allowing monolithic integration. Thus, we have found alternative methods to replace the usual high temperature steps in cMUT elaboration. In this way, a nickel silicide layer, presenting good physical and electrical characteristics, is used as a bottom electrode. The membrane, silicon nitride, is deposited using a 200 °C PECVD process. Then, a metallic layer is chosen as a sacrificial layer, in order to achieve the cavity. For that, nickel has been chosen due to its low roughness and its high etching selectivity during the excavation. After their fabrication, the transducers have been tested to verify their functionality and, thus, to validate this low temperature process. Device physical properties have been determined by electrical and optical measurement in air. We evaluated resonance frequency, collapse voltage and electromechanical coupling coefficient in accordance with the simulation. Eventually, low charging effects and low initial deflections can predict good long-term use and ageing of the cMUTs.

  4. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2003-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster-angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster-angle radiometer would exploit the spectral-emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation. The relevant emissivity and polarization characteristics are the following: . The Brewster angle is the angle at which light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence on a purely dielectric material is not reflected. The pseudo-Brewster angle, defined for a lossy dielectric (somewhat electrically conductive) material, is the angle for which the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is minimized. For pure water, the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is only 2.2 x 10(exp -4) at its pseudo- Brewster angle of 51deg. The reflectivity remains near zero, several degrees off from the 51deg optimum, allowing this angle of incidence requirement to be easily achieved. . The wavelength range of interest for measuring water temperatures is 8 to 12 microns. The emissivity of water for parallel- polarized light at the pseudo-Brewster angle is greater than 0.999 in this wavelength range. The radiometer would be sensitive in the wavelength range of 8 to 12 microns, would be equipped with a polarizer to discriminate against infrared light polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and would be aimed toward a body of water at the pseudo- Brewster angle (see figure). Because the infrared radiation entering the radiometer would be polarized parallel to the plane of incidence and because very little downwelling parallel-polarized radiation would be reflected into the radiometer on account of the pseudo-Brewster arrangement, the

  5. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  6. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  7. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  8. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  9. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  10. Comparison of nickel silicide and aluminium ohmic contact metallizations for low-temperature quantum transport measurements

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We examine nickel silicide as a viable ohmic contact metallization for low-temperature, low-magnetic-field transport measurements of atomic-scale devices in silicon. In particular, we compare a nickel silicide metallization with aluminium, a common ohmic contact for silicon devices. Nickel silicide can be formed at the low temperatures (<400°C) required for maintaining atomic precision placement in donor-based devices, and it avoids the complications found with aluminium contacts which become superconducting at cryogenic measurement temperatures. Importantly, we show that the use of nickel silicide as an ohmic contact at low temperatures does not affect the thermal equilibration of carriers nor contribute to hysteresis in a magnetic field. PMID:21968083

  11. Device-independent quantum key distribution based on measurement inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Ramij; Parker, Matthew G.; Mironowicz, Piotr; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2015-12-01

    We provide an analysis of a family of device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that has the following features. (a) The bits used for the secret key do not come from the results of the measurements on an entangled state but from the choices of settings. (b) Instead of a single security parameter (a violation of some Bell inequality) a set of them is used to estimate the level of trust in the secrecy of the key. The main advantage of these protocols is a smaller vulnerability to imperfect random number generators made possible by feature (a). We prove the security and the robustness of such protocols. We show that using our method it is possible to construct a QKD protocol which retains its security even if the source of randomness used by communicating parties is strongly biased. As a proof of principle, an explicit example of a protocol based on the Hardy's paradox is presented. Moreover, in the noiseless case, the protocol is secure in a natural way against any type of memory attack, and thus allows one to reuse the device in subsequent rounds. We also analyze the robustness of the protocol using semidefinite programming methods. Finally, we present a postprocessing method, and observe a paradoxical property that rejecting some random part of the private data can increase the key rate of the protocol.

  12. Crack Offset Measurement With the Projected Laser Target Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The device and associated analysis methodology summarized in this report were developed for the purpose of estimating the size of discontinuities in the surface of the foam that covers the Space Shuttle External Tank. These surface offsets are thought to be due to subsurface cracks in the foam insulation. The mathematical analysis and procedure described here provide a method to quantity the dimensions of the crack offset in a direction perpendicular to the surface, making use of the projected laser target device (PLTD) tool and a laser line projector. The keys to the construction and use of the PLTD are the following geometrical design requirements: Laser dots are on a square grid: length on a side. Laser beams are perpendicular to projected surface. Beams are parallel out to the distance being projected. The PLTD can be used to (1) calibrate fixed cameras of unknown magnification and orientation (far-field solution); (2) provide equivalent calibration to multiple cameras, previously achieved only by the use of known target points, for example, in 3.D foreign-object debris tracking on a fixed launch platform; (3) compute scaling for conventional 2.D images, and depth of field for 3.D images (near-field solution); and (4) in conjunction with a laser line projector, achieve accurate measurements of surface discontinuity (cracks) in a direction perpendicular to the surface.

  13. Device for accurately measuring mass flow of gases

    DOEpatents

    Hylton, James O.; Remenyik, Carl J.

    1994-01-01

    A device for measuring mass flow of gases which utilizes a substantially buoyant pressure vessel suspended within a fluid/liquid in an enclosure. The pressure vessel is connected to a weighing device for continuously determining weight change of the vessel as a function of the amount of gas within the pressure vessel. In the preferred embodiment, this pressure vessel is formed from inner and outer right circular cylindrical hulls, with a volume between the hulls being vented to the atmosphere external the enclosure. The fluid/liquid, normally in the form of water typically with an added detergent, is contained within an enclosure with the fluid/liquid being at a level such that the pressure vessel is suspended beneath this level but above a bottom of the enclosure. The buoyant pressure vessel can be interconnected with selected valves to an auxiliary pressure vessel so that initial flow can be established to or from the auxiliary pressure vessel prior to flow to or from the buoyant pressure vessel.

  14. Device for accurately measuring mass flow of gases

    DOEpatents

    Hylton, J.O.; Remenyik, C.J.

    1994-08-09

    A device for measuring mass flow of gases which utilizes a substantially buoyant pressure vessel suspended within a fluid/liquid in an enclosure is disclosed. The pressure vessel is connected to a weighing device for continuously determining weight change of the vessel as a function of the amount of gas within the pressure vessel. In the preferred embodiment, this pressure vessel is formed from inner and outer right circular cylindrical hulls, with a volume between the hulls being vented to the atmosphere external the enclosure. The fluid/liquid, normally in the form of water typically with an added detergent, is contained within an enclosure with the fluid/liquid being at a level such that the pressure vessel is suspended beneath this level but above a bottom of the enclosure. The buoyant pressure vessel can be interconnected with selected valves to an auxiliary pressure vessel so that initial flow can be established to or from the auxiliary pressure vessel prior to flow to or from the buoyant pressure vessel. 5 figs.

  15. An ultrasonic device for source to skin surface distance measurement in patient setup

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Yuanming . E-mail: yfeng002@umaryland.edu; Allison, Ron; Hu Xinhua; Mota, Helvecio; Jenkins, Todd; Wolfe, Melodee L.; Sibata, Claudio

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To develop an ultrasound-based source to skin surface distance (SSD) measurement technique and device for patient setup and test its feasibility and accuracy. Methods and materials: The ultrasonic SSD measurement device (USD) prototype consists of two main parts: a probe plate with an ultrasonic transducer in the center and a control unit that displays the SSD in millimeters. The probe plate can be slid into the block tray accessory slot of any treatment machine at the time of the SSD measurement. The probe plate contains an ultrasonic transducer as both the source and the detector for measuring the distance between the transducer and the target surfaces on the basis of an echo-detecting technique. The device was calibrated by a mechanical ruler with an accuracy of 0.01 mm and corrected by an offset of 601.7 mm, which is the distance from the radiation source to the ultrasonic transducer surface for the Siemens Primus linear accelerator (Linac). The ultrasound device provided digital readout with an accuracy of {+-}0.1 mm for a flat surface after calibration. The SSD measurement experiments were done with the USD, an optical distance indicator (ODI), and an AKTINA 53-104 Mechanical Front Pointer (FP) on a Siemens Primus Linac with a full-sized female phantom. Ten measurements were carried out at each gantry angle of 0 deg , 52 deg , 85 deg , 90 deg , and 227 deg for anatomic locations of head, thorax, breast, and pelvis, to obtain the average values and standard deviations. Results: The comparison study with the ODI and FP showed that the USD had an accuracy of less than {+-}1.0 mm and that USD measurements had the minimum standard deviations among the three methods; therefore, USD gave more consistent and accurate readouts for SSD measurement. When considering the FP as a reference, the USD yields smaller deviations than the ODI for all measured locations (less than {+-}2 mm). The variation of USD digital readout with a room temperature change of {+-}2

  16. The Measurement of Temperature; Part i: Temperature Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the inter-relationships between some important temperature scales such as the Celsius scale, the Kelvin Thermodynamic scale, and the International Practical Temperature Scale (IPTS). Included is a description of the 1968 IPTS with emphasis on innovations introduced in the range below 273.15 k. (CC)

  17. Sensory perception threshold measurement: an evaluation of semiobjective testing devices.

    PubMed

    Halar, E M; Hammond, M C; LaCava, E C; Camann, C; Ward, J

    1987-08-01

    Five semiobjective devices for testing sensory perception thresholds were concomitantly used on 36 normal subjects to determine normal threshold values, intersubject variability, and their correlation with age. The five devices include the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (touch); three-point esthesiometer (two-point discrimination); Pfizer thermal tester (temperature); biothesiometer (vibration); and Optacon tactile tester (vibration). Each subject was tested at 12 upper extremity (UE) and ten lower extremity (LE) sites. The threshold was determined by the two-alternative forced choice method. Results showed that the mean threshold for each sensory perception modality in the UE sites was significantly lower than in the LE sites. The means of distally located sites for two-point discrimination and vibration thresholds were significantly lower than the means of the proximal sites in the UE. In the LE, touch perception threshold was significantly higher distally than proximally. Distally located nerves (median and ulnar) showed lower mean threshold values than proximally located nerves for two-point discrimination. There were also similar findings for the other sensory modalities in the UE and LE. The mean threshold of dermatomes showed significant variation across the trials for two-point discrimination and vibration sensation. Distally located dermatomes showed lower threshold values than those located proximally. The means of most sites tested for each sensory modality (except vibration tested by the Optacon) showed correlation with age. There was no difference in threshold values between men and women for any sensory modality. The mean values of standard deviation were provided for each peripheral sensory nerve and dermatome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3619613

  18. Low-temperature-grown InGaAs quantum wells for optical device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juodawlkis, Paul William

    1999-11-01

    The large optical absorption and carrier-induced nonlinearities of semiconductor materials are useful for optical signal processing applications. For absorptive devices operating at ultrafast data rates (>100 Gb/s) or high optical intensities, it is necessary to reduce the intrinsic photo-excited carrier removal time. One method of achieving this reduction is to increase the nonradiative recombination rate through the controlled introduction of defects. In this thesis, we explore the use of low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) to introduce nonradiative recombination centers into InGaAs-based quantum-wells (QWs). The objectives of the thesis are: (i)to improve the understanding of the optoelectronic properties of low-temperature-grown (LTG) InGaAs/InAlAs QWs, and (ii)to assess the feasibility of using these materials for optical device applications in the 1.5-μm wavelength region. Time-resolved differential transmission measurements reveal that the nonlinear absorption recovery time in InGaAs/InAlAs QWs can be reduced from >100 ps to 0.6 ps through the combination of low-temperature growth (~250°C) and beryllium (Be) doping. The bandedge absorption slope and the nonlinear absorption cross- section are only diminished by factors of 2 to 3 relative to QWs grown at standard temperature (~500°C). The Be doping dependence of the recovery time and the residual electron density in the LTG-QWs can be mainly attributed to impurity-related compensation. Be doping also maintains the ultrafast recovery following thermal anneal. The recovery response results from fast electron- trapping followed by slow (>100 ps) trapped- electron/free-hole recombination. Detailed simulations of the nonlinear absorption saturation and recovery processes agree quantitatively with measured data and substantiate the importance of the photo-excitation wavelength on the observed recovery response. The absorption saturation model includes the competition between band-filling and band

  19. Nonintrusive Measurement Of Temperature Of LED Junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidecker, Henning; Powers, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Temperature inferred from spectrum of emitted light. Method of determining temperature of junction based on two relevant characteristics of LED. Gap between valence and conduction electron-energy bands in LED material decreases with increasing temperature, causing wavelength of emitted photon to increase with temperature. Other, as temperature increases, non-radiative processes dissipate more of input electrical energy as heat and less as photons in band-gap wavelenth region; optical and quantum efficiencies decrease with increasing temperature. In principal, either characteristic alone used to determine temperature. However, desirable to use both to obtain indication of uncertainty.

  20. Novel dynamic fatigue-testing device: design and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foong, Chee-Hoe; Wiercigroch, Marian; Deans, William F.

    2006-08-01

    The influence of dynamics on a propagating fatigue crack has not been studied experimentally yet mainly due to quasi-static loading from traditional fatigue-testing machines. To overcome this serious drawback, a novel base-excited fatigue-testing device was designed and built to allow measurement of the dynamic responses of a single-edge-notch beam (SENB) under a growing fatigue crack. In this paper, the details of the novel test rig including initial development, modification and instrumentation are given. The experimental time histories obtained for harmonic and chaotic excitations have shown that the fatigue rig is capable of generating a wide range of loading patterns. Moreover, the experimental crack growth curves and features of the fracture surface have confirmed that the rig is capable of inducing proper fatigue cracks.

  1. Long-distance measurement-device-independent multiparty quantum communication.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Teng-Yun; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2015-03-01

    The Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement, originally introduced to uncover the extreme violation of local realism against quantum mechanics, is an important resource for multiparty quantum communication tasks. But the low intensity and fragility of the GHZ entanglement source in current conditions have made the practical applications of these multiparty tasks an experimental challenge. Here we propose a feasible scheme for practically distributing the postselected GHZ entanglement over a distance of more than 100 km for experimentally accessible parameter regimes. Combining the decoy-state and measurement-device-independent protocols for quantum key distribution, we anticipate that our proposal suggests an important avenue for practical multiparty quantum communication. PMID:25793788

  2. Measurement of Temperature Rise of Quartz Plate during Synchrotron Radiation Irradiation Using Infrared Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Akira; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Yamanashi, Hiromasa; Hoko, Hiromasa; Nishiyama, Iwao; Ogawa, Tarou; Okazaki, Shinji

    2002-01-01

    The temperature rise of an attenuator under synchrotron radiation irradiation was measured with an infrared (IR) camera containing an InSb detection device. Since the measured value changes with the emissivity of the measured sample, in measurement by thermography, calibration is required. In order to determine the actual temperature rise, calibration of the IR camera was performed using a hot plate as a heat source under the same geometrical arrangement as the double quartz plates with a sapphire window. The calibrated temperature rise is three times higher than the temperature rise observed with the IR camera. The calibrated temperature rise is in agreement with temperature rise predicted by simulation. As a result, it is predicted that the temperature rise of the attenuator is 119°C at a beam current of 500 mA.

  3. Gas thermometer for precision measurement of thermodynamic temperatures below 300/sup 0/K

    SciTech Connect

    Polunin, S.P.; Astrov, D.N.; Belyanskii, L.B.; Dedikov, Yu.A.; Zakharov, A.A.

    1987-08-01

    The authors discuss an apparatus for measuring thermodynamic temperatures of 3-300/sup 0/K by means of a constant-density gas thermometer. The main measuring device in the gas thermometer is a special mercury interference manometer. The flow cryostat for the range 2-300/sup 0/K is shown and the heat carriers are liquid or gaseous helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen. The thermodynamic temperatures measured by this thermometer have been transferred to several standard resistance thermometers made of platinum and rhodium-iron alloy. The gas thermometer examined here enables the measurement of temperatures on the thermodynamic scale with an error of not more than 1 mK.

  4. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2004-10-01

    The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the clean thermocouple were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the clean thermocouple, five (5) factors were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition and high/low frequency device (electric motor). The fractional factorial design method was used in the experiment design with sixteen (16) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the un-balanced motor vibration frequency did not have the significant impact on the temperature changes in the gasifier simulator. For the fine dust particles testing, the amount of fine dust particles has significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The effects of the air and water on the temperature measurements show the same results as reported in the previous report. The ammonia concentration was included as an experimental parameter for the reducing environment in this reporting period. The ammonia concentration does not seem to be a significant factor on the temperature changes. The linear regression analysis was applied to the temperature reading with five (5) factors. The accuracy of the linear regression is relatively low, which is less than 10% accuracy. Nonlinear regression was also conducted to the temperature reading with the same factors. Since the experiments were designed in two (2) levels, the nonlinear regression is not very effective with the dataset (16 readings). An extra central point test was conducted. With the data of the center point testing, the accuracy of the nonlinear regression is much better than the linear regression.

  5. Temperature dependence measurements of the supercurrent-phase relationship in niobium nanobridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troeman, A. G. P.; van der Ploeg, S. H. W.; Il'Ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.; Golubov, A. A.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Hilgenkamp, H.

    2008-01-01

    The current-phase relationship has been measured as a function of temperature for niobium nanobridges with different widths. A deformation from Josephson-like sinusoidal characteristics at high temperatures to sawtooth shaped curves at intermediate and multivalued relationships at low temperatures was observed. Based on this, possible hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics of niobium nanobridge superconducting quantum interference devices can be attributed to phase slippage.

  6. Characterization of devices, circuits, and high-temperature superconductor transmission lines by electro-optic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a capability for testing transmission lines, devices, and circuits using the optically-based technique of electro-optics sampling was the goal of this project. Electro-optic network analysis of a high-speed device was demonstrated. The project involved research on all of the facets necessary in order to realize this result, including the discovery of the optimum electronic pulse source, development of an adequate test fixture, improvement of the electro-optic probe tip, and identification of a device which responded at high frequency but did not oscillate in the test fixture. In addition, during the process of investigating patterned high-critical-temperature superconductors, several non-contacting techniques for the determination of the transport properties of high T(sub c) films were developed and implemented. These are a transient, optical pump-probe, time-resolved reflectivity experiment, an impulsive-stimulated Raman scattering experiment, and a terahertz-beam coherent-spectroscopy experiment. The latter technique has enabled us to measure both the complex refractive index of an MgO substrate used for high-T(sub c) films and the complex conductivity of a YBa2Cu3O(7-x) sample. This information was acquired across an extremely wide frequency range: from the microwave to the submillimeter-wave regime. The experiments on the YBCO were conducted without patterning of, or contact to, the thin film. Thus, the need for the more difficult transmission-line experiments was eliminated. Progress in all of these areas was made and is documented in a number of papers. These papers may be found in the section listing the abstracts of the publications that were issued during the course of the research.

  7. 21 CFR 864.5950 - Blood volume measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 864.5950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices... manual, semiautomated, or automated system that is used to calculate the red cell mass, plasma...

  8. 21 CFR 864.5950 - Blood volume measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 864.5950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices... manual, semiautomated, or automated system that is used to calculate the red cell mass, plasma...

  9. 21 CFR 864.5950 - Blood volume measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 864.5950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices... manual, semiautomated, or automated system that is used to calculate the red cell mass, plasma...

  10. 21 CFR 864.5950 - Blood volume measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 864.5950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices... manual, semiautomated, or automated system that is used to calculate the red cell mass, plasma...

  11. Method for passively compensating for temperature coefficient of gain in silicon photomultipliers and similar devices

    DOEpatents

    McKisson, John E.; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    A method for designing a completely passive bias compensation circuit to stabilize the gain of multiple pixel avalanche photo detector devices. The method includes determining circuitry design and component values to achieve a desired precision of gain stability. The method can be used with any temperature sensitive device with a nominally linear coefficient of voltage dependent parameter that must be stabilized. The circuitry design includes a negative temperature coefficient resistor in thermal contact with the photomultiplier device to provide a varying resistance and a second fixed resistor to form a voltage divider that can be chosen to set the desired slope and intercept for the characteristic with a specific voltage source value. The addition of a third resistor to the divider network provides a solution set for a set of SiPM devices that requires only a single stabilized voltage source value.

  12. Simulated limnological effects of the Shasta Lake temperature control device

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, J.; Hanna, R.B.; Saito, L.; Lieberman, D.; Horn, M.

    2001-01-01

    Population ecologists have devoted disproportionate attention to the estimation and study of birth and death rates and far less effort to rates of movement. Movement and fidelity to wintering areas have important ecological and evolutionary implications for avian populations. Previous inferences about movement among and fidelity to wintering areas have been restricted by limitations of data and methodology. We use multiple observation data from a large-scale capture-resighting study of Canada Geese in the Atlantic flyway to estimate probabilities of returning to previous wintering locations and moving to new locations. Mark-resight data from 28,849 Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) banded woth individually coded neck bands in the mid-Atlantic (New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey), Chesapeake (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia), and Carolinas (North and South Carolina) were used to estimate movement and site-fidelity. Two three-sample mark-resight models were developed and programmed using SURVIV to estimate the probability of moving among or remaining within these three wintering regions. The model (MV2) that incorporated tradition' or memory of previous wintering regions fit the data better than the model (MV1) that assumes that a first-order Markov chain described movement among regions. Considerable levels of movement occured among regions of the Atlantic flyway. The annual probability of remaining in the same region for two successive winters, used as a measure of site fidelity, was 0.710 plus or minus 0.016 (estimated mean plus or minus SE, 0.889 plus or minus 0.006, and 0.562 plus or minus 0.025, for the mid-Atlantic, Chesapeake, and Carolinas, respectively. The estimated probability of moving between years corresponded to changes in winter harshness. In warm years, geese moved north and in cold years, they moved south. Geese had a high probability of moving to and remaining in the Chesapeake. Annual changes in the movement probabilities did not correspond to annual

  13. Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Devices and Mixed-Signal Circuits for Extreme Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik

    2008-01-01

    Electronic systems in planetary exploration missions and in aerospace applications are expected to encounter extreme temperatures and wide thermal swings in their operational environments. Electronics designed for such applications must, therefore, be able to withstand exposure to extreme temperatures and to perform properly for the duration of the missions. Electronic parts based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology are known, based on device structure, to provide faster switching, consume less power, and offer better radiation-tolerance compared to their silicon counterparts. They also exhibit reduced current leakage and are often tailored for high temperature operation. However, little is known about their performance at low temperature. The performance of several SOI devices and mixed-signal circuits was determined under extreme temperatures, cold-restart, and thermal cycling. The investigations were carried out to establish a baseline on the functionality and to determine suitability of these devices for use in space exploration missions under extreme temperatures. The experimental results obtained on selected SOI devices are presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. Measurement Corner: Volume, Temperature and Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teates, Thomas G.

    1977-01-01

    Boyle's Law and basic relationships between volume and pressure of a gas at constant temperature are presented. Suggests two laboratory activities for demonstrating the effect of temperature on the volume of a gas or liquid. (CS)

  15. Crowdsourcing urban air temperature measurements using smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    Crowdsourced data from cell phone battery temperature sensors could be used to contribute to improved real-time, high-resolution air temperature estimates in urban areas, a new study shows. Temperature observations in cities are in some cases currently limited to a few weather stations, but there are millions of smartphone users in many cities. The batteries in cell phones have temperature sensors to avoid damage to the phone.

  16. Spin-transfer switching of orthogonal spin-valve devices at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, L. Gopman, D. B.; Rehm, L.; Backes, D.; Wolf, G.; Kent, A. D.; Ohki, T.; Kirichenko, A. F.; Vernik, I. V.; Mukhanov, O. A.

    2014-05-07

    We present the quasi-static and dynamic switching characteristics of orthogonal spin-transfer devices incorporating an out-of-plane magnetized polarizing layer and an in-plane magnetized spin valve device at cryogenic temperatures. Switching at 12 K between parallel and anti-parallel spin-valve states is investigated for slowly varied current as well as for current pulses with durations as short as 200 ps. We demonstrate 100% switching probability with current pulses 0.6 ns in duration. We also present a switching probability diagram that summarizes device switching operation under a variety of pulse durations, amplitudes, and polarities.

  17. [Mobile Health: IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuffless Blood Pressure Measuring Devices].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Wu, Wenli; Bao, Shudi

    2015-07-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details will be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users will be addressed. PMID:26665952

  18. Cloud and surface classification using SCIAMACHY polarization measurement devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotz, W. A.; Vountas, M.; Dinter, T.; Burrows, J. P.

    2009-02-01

    A simple scheme has been developed to discriminate surface, sun glint and cloud properties in satellite based spectrometer data utilizing visible and near infrared information. It has been designed for the use with data measured by SCIAMACHY's (SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) Polarization Measurement Devices (PMD) but the applicability is not strictly limited to this instrument. The scheme is governed by a set of constraints and thresholds developed by using satellite imagery and meteorological data. Classification targets are ice, water and generic clouds, sun glint and surface parameters, such as water, land, snow/ice, desert and vegetation. The validation has been done using MERIS (MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) and meteorological data from METAR (MÉTéorologique Aviation Régulière - a network for the provision of meteorological data for aviation). Qualitative validation using MERIS satellite imagery shows good agreement. However, the quantitative agreement is hampered by the heterogeneity of MERIS classifications within each SCIAMACHY PMD ground pixel. The comparison with METAR data shows good agreement. The comparison for sun glint classifications and MERIS results exhibits excellent agreement.

  19. Spectral-based inferential measurement of grey-body's temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Feng; Liu, Liying; Zhu, Lingxi; Huan, Kewei; Li, Ye; Shi, Xiaoguang

    2015-11-01

    Aiming at the problems of temperature measurement and the defects of radiance thermometry theory, one method of spectral-based inferential measurement is proposed, which adopts the Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM) functional model as the temperature measurement model. Then, the radiance thermometry theory and inferential measurement technology are discussed comparatively. Temperatures of some targets, such and tungsten lamp and solar surface, are measured by spectral-based inferential measurement.

  20. High-temperature archeointensity measurements from Mesopotamia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallet, Yves; Le Goff, Maxime

    2006-01-01

    We present new archeointensity results obtained from 127 potsherds and baked brick fragments dated from the last four millennia BC which were collected from different Syrian archeological excavations. High temperature magnetization measurements were carried out using a laboratory-built triaxial vibrating sample magnetometer (Triaxe), and ancient field intensity determinations were derived from the experimental procedure described by Le Goff and Gallet [Le Goff and Gallet. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 229 (2004) 31-43]. As some of the studied samples were previously analyzed using the classical Thellier and Thellier [Thellier and Thellier . Ann. Geophys. 15 (1959) 285-376] method revised by Coe [Coe. J. Geophys. Res. 72 (1967) 3247-3262], a comparison of the results is made from the two methods. The differences both at the fragment and site levels are mostly within ± 5%, which strengthens the validity of the experimental procedure developed for the Triaxe. The new data help to better constrain the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Mesopotamia during archeological times, with the probable occurrence of an archeomagnetic jerk around 2800-2600 BC.