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Sample records for temperature measurement device

  1. High temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  2. Temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Bible, Don W.; Sohns, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  3. High-temperature-measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-27

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2000/sup 0/C) is described. The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensonally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  4. Noncontact temperature pattern measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D. (Inventor); Allen, J. L. (Inventor); Lee, M. C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a noncontact imagine pyrometer system for obtaining the true temperature image of a given substance in a contactless fashion without making assumptions about localized emissivity of the substance or the uniformity of the temperature distribution. Such a contactless temperature imaging system has particular application in the study and production of many materials where the physical contact required to make a conventional temperature measurement drastically effects or contaminates the physical process being observed. Two examples where accurate temperature profiles are of critical interest are: (1) the solid-liquid phase change interface in the production of electronic materials and (2) metastable materials in the undercooling region. The apparent novelty resides in the recognition that an active pyrometer system may be advantageously adapted to perform contactless temperature imaging so that an accurate temperature profile can be obtained.

  5. Noncontact temperature pattern measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Allen, James L. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Laser pyrometer techniques are utilized to accurately image a true temperature distribution on a given target without touching the target and without knowing the localized emissivity of the target. The pyrometer utilizes a very high definition laser beam and photodetector, both having a very narrow focus. The pyrometer is mounted in a mechanism designed to permit the pyrometer to be aimed and focused at precise localized points on the target surface. The pyrometer is swept over the surface area to be imaged, temperature measurements being taken at each point of focus.

  6. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  11. Microwave temperature measurement in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Wong, David; Yesiloz, Gurkan; Boybay, Muhammed S; Ren, Carolyn L

    2016-06-21

    In spite of various existing thermometry methods for microfluidic applications, it remains challenging to measure the temperature of individual droplets in segmented flow since fast moving droplets do not allow sufficient exposure time demanded by both fluorescence based techniques and resistance temperature detectors. In this contribution, we present a microwave thermometry method that is non-intrusive and requires minimal external equipment. This technique relies on the correlation of fluid temperature with the resonance frequency of a microwave sensor that operates at a GHz frequency range. It is a remote yet direct sensing technique, eliminating the need for mixing fluorescent dyes with the working fluid. We demonstrated that the sensor operates reliably over multiple tests and is capable of both heating and sensing. It measures temperature to within ±1.2 °C accuracy and can detect the temperature of individual droplets. PMID:27199210

  12. Miniature ingestible telemeter devices to measure deep-body temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, J. M.; Fryer, T. B. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A telemetry device comprised of a pill-size ingestible transmitter developed to obtain deep body temperature measurements of a human is described. The device has particular utility in the medical field where deep body temperatures provide an indication of general health.

  13. Thermal modeling and temperature measurements in optoelectronic waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, M.; Boudreau, Marcel G.; Masut, Remo A.

    1998-12-01

    Optoelectronic devices are particularly sensitive to temperature changes induced by light absorption and current flow. In order to study the thermal issues arising in the Mach-Zehnder optical modulator manufactured by Nortel, a non-linear finite-element thermal model of the device was constructed, which computes the internal temperature as a function of the applied voltage and optical power in the waveguide. An experimental technique was also developed, in which liquid crystals are used to measure the temperature on the device surface. The model predictions and the experimental results were found to agree well over wide ranges of optical power and voltage. The model and the technique have produced evidence of a thermal cross-talk between an integrated laser and the modulator: the peak internal temperature inside the modulator is higher in integrated devices than in the stand-alone configuration for identical voltage and optical power. Because of the desire to integrate multiple devices on a common substrate and the continuous increase of the optical powers in optical fiber systems, thermal issues will only become more important in future systems.

  14. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Nelms, R. Mark; Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray

    1994-01-01

    Silicon based power devices can be used at 200 C. The device measurements made during this program show a predictable shift in device parameters with increasing temperature. No catastrophic or abrupt changes occurred in the parameters over the temperature range. As expected, the most dramatic change was the increase in leakage currents with increasing temperature. At 200 C the leakage current was in the milliAmp range but was still several orders of magnitude lower than the on-state current capabilities of the devices under test. This increase must be considered in the design of circuits using power transistors at elevated temperature. Three circuit topologies have been prototyped using MOSFET's and IGBT's. The circuits were designed using zero current or zero voltage switching techniques to eliminate or minimize hard switching of the power transistors. These circuits have functioned properly over the temperature range. One thousand hour life data have been collected for two power supplies with no failures and no significant change in operating efficiency. While additional reliability testing should be conducted, the feasibility of designing soft switched circuits for operation at 200 C has been successfully demonstrated.

  15. Thermal measurement. Nanoscale temperature mapping in operating microelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Mecklenburg, Matthew; Hubbard, William A; White, E R; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, B C

    2015-02-01

    Modern microelectronic devices have nanoscale features that dissipate power nonuniformly, but fundamental physical limits frustrate efforts to detect the resulting temperature gradients. Contact thermometers disturb the temperature of a small system, while radiation thermometers struggle to beat the diffraction limit. Exploiting the same physics as Fahrenheit's glass-bulb thermometer, we mapped the thermal expansion of Joule-heated, 80-nanometer-thick aluminum wires by precisely measuring changes in density. With a scanning transmission electron microscope and electron energy loss spectroscopy, we quantified the local density via the energy of aluminum's bulk plasmon. Rescaling density to temperature yields maps with a statistical precision of 3 kelvin/hertz(-1/2), an accuracy of 10%, and nanometer-scale resolution. Many common metals and semiconductors have sufficiently sharp plasmon resonances to serve as their own thermometers. PMID:25657242

  16. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Semiconductor power devices are typically rated for operation below 150 C. Little data is known for power semiconductors over 150 C. In most cases, the device is derated to zero operating power at 175 C. At the high temperature end of the temperature range, the intrinsic carrier concentration increases to equal the doping concentration level and the silicon behaves as an intrinsic semiconductor. The increase in intrinsic carrier concentration results in a shift of the Fermi level toward mid-bandgap at elevated temperatures. This produces a shift in devices characteristics as a function of temperature. By increasing the doping concentration higher operating temperatures can be achieved. This technique was used to fabricate low power analog and digital devices in silicon with junction operating temperatures in excess of 300 C. Additional temperature effects include increased p-n junction leakage with increasing temperature, resulting in increased resistivity. The temperature dependency of physical properties results in variations in device characteristics. These must be quantified and understood in order to develop extended temperature range operation.

  17. Measurements of temperature and density in magnetic confinement fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udintsev, Victor S.

    2010-11-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion can fulfil the demand of mankind to have an inexhaustible source of energy that does not cause any serious environmental pollution. The aim of fusion research is to build a continuously operating reactor in which the energy released by the fusion reactions is sufficiently high to keep the plasma hot and to produce more fusion reactions. The knowledge of the plasma temperature and density, together with the energy confinement time, is therefore very important for the effective control of the self-sustained fusion reactor. Various methods and diagnostics for measurements of the plasma temperature and density in present experimental fusion devices, as well as requirements for the future fusion reactors, will be discussed. A special attention will be given to the temperature and density diagnostics in ITER tokamak, which is presently under construction by several international partners at Cadarache in France. Development of these diagnostics is a major challenge because of severe environment, strict engineering requirements, safety issues and the need for high reliability in the measurements.

  18. Improvement of the operation rate of medical temperature measuring devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotra, O.; Boyko, O.; Zyska, T.

    2014-08-01

    A method of reducing measuring time of temperature measurements of biological objects based on preheating the resistance temperature detector (RTD) up to the temperature close to the temperature to be measured, is proposed. It has been found that at the same measuring time, the preheating allows to decrease the measurement error by a factor of 5 to 45 over the temperature range of 35-41°С. The measurement time is reduced by 1.6-4 times over this range, keeping the same value of the measurement error.

  19. Device for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-08-03

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  20. 21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered direct-contact temperature measurement....1570 Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device. (a) Identification. A powered direct-contact temperature measurement device is a device which contains a power source and is used to...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  3. 21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered direct-contact temperature measurement....1570 Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device. (a) Identification. A powered direct-contact temperature measurement device is a device which contains a power source and is used to...

  4. 21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered direct-contact temperature measurement....1570 Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device. (a) Identification. A powered direct-contact temperature measurement device is a device which contains a power source and is used to...

  5. 21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered direct-contact temperature measurement....1570 Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device. (a) Identification. A powered direct-contact temperature measurement device is a device which contains a power source and is used to...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  8. 21 CFR 882.1570 - Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered direct-contact temperature measurement....1570 Powered direct-contact temperature measurement device. (a) Identification. A powered direct-contact temperature measurement device is a device which contains a power source and is used to...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  10. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Cosby, Melvin; Johnson, R. Wayne; Nelms, R. Mark; Askew, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Characterization results of a MOS controlled thyristor (MCTA60P60) are presented. This device is rated for 60A and for an anode to cathode voltage of -600 V. As discussed in the last report, the MCT failed during 500 V leakage tests at 200 C. In contrast to the BJT (bipolar junction transistor), MOSFET, and IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) devices tested, the breakdown voltage of the MCT decreases significantly with increasing temperature.

  11. Fiber - Optic Devices as Temperature Sensors for Temperature Measurements in AC Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rablau, Corneliu; Lafrance, Joseph; Sala, Anca

    2007-10-01

    We report on the investigation of several fiber-optic devices as potential sensors for temperature measurements in AC magnetic fields. Common temperature sensors, such as thermocouples, thermistors or diodes, will create random and/or systematic errors when placed in a magnetic field. A DC magnetic field is susceptible to create a systematic offset to the measurement, while in an AC magnetic field of variable frequency random errors which cannot be corrected for can also be introduced. Fiber-Bragg-gratings and thin film filters have an inherent temperature dependence. Detrimental for their primary applications, the same dependence allows one to use such devices as temperature sensors. In an AC magnetic field, they present the advantage of being immune to electromagnetic interference. Moreover, for fiber-Bragg-gratings, the shape factor and small mass of the bare-fiber device make it convenient for temperature measurements on small samples. We studied several thin-film filters and fiber-Bragg-gratings and compared their temperature measurement capabilities in AC magnetic fields of 0 to 150 Gauss, 0 to 20 KHz to the results provided by off-the-shelf thermocouples and thermistor-based temperature measurement systems.

  12. Miniature bioelectric device accurately measures and telemeters temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.

    1966-01-01

    Miniature micropower solid-state circuit measures and telemeters the body temperature of laboratory animals over periods up to two years. The circuit employs a thermistor as a temperature sensing element and an fm transmitter. It is constructed from conventional discrete components or integrated circuits.

  13. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray; Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett

    1991-01-01

    The results of the NPN bipolar transistor (BJT) (2N6023) breakdown voltage measurements were analyzed. Switching measurements were made on the NPN BJT, the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) (TA9796) and the N-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) (RFH75N05E). Efforts were also made to build a H-bridge inverter. Also discussed are the plans that have been made to do life testing on the devices, to build an inductive switching test circuit and to build a dc/dc switched mode converter.

  14. Silicon device performance measurements to support temperature range enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromstead, James; Weir, Bennett; Johnson, R. Wayne; Askew, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Testing of the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS)-controlled thyristor (MCT) has uncovered a failure mechanism at elevated temperature. The failure appears to be due to breakdown of the gate oxide. Further testing is underway to verify the failure mode. Higher current level inverters were built to demonstrate 200 C operation of the N-MOSFET's and insulated-gate-bipolar transistors (IGBT's) and for life testing. One MOSFET failed early in testing. The origin of this failure is being studied. No IGBT's have failed. A prototype 28-to-42 V converter was built and is being tested at room temperature. The control loop is being finalized. Temperature stable, high value (10 micro-F) capacitors appear to be the limiting factor in the design at this time. In this application, the efficiency will be lower for the IGBT version due to the large V sub(cesat) (3.5-4 V) compared to the input voltage of 28 V. The MOSFET version should have higher efficiency; however, the MOSFET does not appear to be as robust at 200 C. Both versions are built for comparison.

  15. Sublimation measurements and analysis of high temperature thermoelectric materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, V.; Noon, L.

    1983-01-01

    High temperature thermoelectric device sublimation effects are compared for rare earth sulfides, selenides, and state-of-the-art Si-Ge alloys. Although rare earth calcogenides can potentially exhibit superior sublimation characteristics, the state-of-the-art Si-Ge alloy with silicon nitride sublimation-inhibitive coating has been tested to 1000 C. Attention is given to the ceramic electrolyte cells, forming within electrical and thermal insulation, which affect leakage conductance measurements in Si-Ge thermoelectric generators.

  16. Device and method for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2002-10-29

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  17. Temperature measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003400.htm Temperature measurement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The measurement of body temperature can help detect illness. It can also monitor ...

  18. Impact of temperature on single event upset measurement by heavy ions in SRAM devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianqi, Liu; Chao, Geng; Zhangang, Zhang; Fazhan, Zhao; Song, Gu; Teng, Tong; Kai, Xi; Gang, Liu; Zhengsheng, Han; Mingdong, Hou; Jie, Liu

    2014-08-01

    The temperature dependence of single event upset (SEU) measurement both in commercial bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) has been investigated by experiment in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). For commercial bulk SRAM, the SEU cross section measured by 12C ions is very sensitive to the temperature. The temperature test of SEU in SOI SRAM was conducted by 209Bi and 12C ions, respectively, and the SEU cross sections display a remarkable growth with the elevated temperature for 12C ions but keep constant for 209Bi ions. The impact of temperature on SEU measurement was analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. It is revealed that the SEU cross section is significantly affected by the temperature around the threshold linear energy transfer of SEU occurrence. As the SEU occurrence approaches saturation, the SEU cross section gradually exhibits less temperature dependency. Based on this result, the experimental data measured in HIRFL was analyzed, and then a reasonable method of predicting the on-orbit SEU rate was proposed.

  19. Variable-temperature device for precision Casimir-force-gradient measurement.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Garza, R; Mohideen, U

    2013-02-01

    We present the design and use of an instrument that is based on a microcantilever to perform precision force gradient measurements. We demonstrate its performance through measurements of the Casimir pressure at various temperatures. The instrument can operate in high vacuum environments and temperatures between 5 K and 300 K. It uses an all-fiber optical interferometer to detect the resonant-frequency shift of a customized microcantilever due to the presence of a force gradient. To measure this shift we use both, a technique of frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy and the direct recording of the thermomechanical resonant frequency. PMID:23464254

  20. A robust and well shielded thermal conductivity device for low temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Toews, W H; Hill, R W

    2014-04-01

    We present a compact mechanically robust thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for measurements at low temperatures (<1 K) and high magnetic fields on small high-purity single crystal samples. A high-conductivity copper box is used to enclose the sample and all the components. The box provides protection for the thermometers, heater, and most importantly the sample increasing the portability of the mount. In addition to physical protection, the copper box is also effective at shielding radio frequency electromagnetic interference and thermal radiation, which is essential for low temperature measurements. A printed circuit board in conjunction with a braided ribbon cable is used to organize the delicate wiring and provide mechanical robustness. PMID:24784624

  1. Temperature differential detection device

    DOEpatents

    Girling, P.M.

    1986-04-22

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

  2. Temperature differential detection device

    DOEpatents

    Girling, Peter M.

    1986-01-01

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

  3. Portable emittance measurement device

    SciTech Connect

    Liakin, D.; Seleznev, D.; Orlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Kropachev, G.; Kulevoy, T.; Yakushin, P.

    2010-02-15

    In Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) the portable emittance measurements device is developed. It provides emittance measurements both with ''pepper-pot'' and ''two slits'' methods. Depending on the method of measurements, either slits or pepper-pot mask with scintillator are mounted on the two activators and are installed in two standard Balzer's cross chamber with CF-100 flanges. To match the angle resolution for measured beam, the length of the stainless steel pipe between two crosses changes is adjusted. The description of the device and results of emittance measurements at the ITEP ion source test bench are presented.

  4. Human performance measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J.; Scow, J.

    1970-01-01

    Complex coordinator, consisting of operator control console, recorder, subject display panel, and limb controls, measures human performance by testing perceptual and motor skills. Device measures psychophysiological functions in drug and environmental studies, and is applicable to early detection of psychophysiological body changes.

  5. Solid state device for two-wire downhole temperature measurement as a function of current. Final performance technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Roger; Anderson, David

    2002-01-15

    Several metals systems were reviewed for their potential to act as resistive temperature devices. Platinum metal was selected as the metal of choice. Platinum was plated onto 5 mil copper wire, and then subsequently coated with Accusol's proprietary ceramic coating. The copper was etched out in an attempt to make a pure platinum, high resistive, resistive-temperature device. The platinum plating on the wire cracked during processing, resulting in a discontinuous layer of platinum, and the element could not be formed in this way.

  6. Temperature measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. Wait for 5 minutes before reading. Plastic strip thermometers change color to show the temperature. This method is the least accurate. Place the strip on the forehead and read it after 1 ...

  7. Temperature Measurement Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center has designed a simple but medically important device--one which holds temperature probes, called thermistors, to a person's skin without affecting the characteristics of the skin segment being measured. The device improves the accuracy of skin surface temperature measurements, valuable data in health evaluation. The need for such a device was recognized in the course of life science experiments at Ames. In earlier methods, the sensing head of the temperature probe was affixed to the patient's skin by tape or elastic bands. This created a heat variance which altered skin temperature readings. The Ames-developed thermistor holder is a plastic ring with tab extensions, shown in the upper photo on the chest, arm and leg of the patient undergoing examination. The ring holds the sensing head of the temperature probe and provides firm, constant pressure between the skin and the probe. The tabs help stabilize the ring and provide attachment points for the fastening tape or bands, which do not directly touch the sensor. With this new tool, it is possible to determine more accurately the physiological effects of strenuous exercise, particularly on the treadmill. The holder is commercially available from Yellow Springs Instrument Company, Inc., Yellow Springs, Ohio, which is producing the device under a NASA patent license.

  8. Inducer Hydrodynamic Load Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen E.; Zoladz, Thomas F.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has demonstrated two measurement devices for sensing and resolving the hydrodynamic loads on fluid machinery. The first - a derivative of the six-component wind tunnel balance - senses the forces and moments on the rotating device through a weakened shaft section instrumented with a series of strain gauges. This rotating balance was designed to directly measure the steady and unsteady hydrodynamic loads on an inducer, thereby defining both the amplitude and frequency content associated with operating in various cavitation modes. The second device - a high frequency response pressure transducer surface mounted on a rotating component - was merely an extension of existing technology for application in water. MSFC has recently completed experimental evaluations of both the rotating balance and surface-mount transducers in a water test loop. The measurement bandwidth of the rotating balance was severely limited by the relative flexibility of the device itself, resulting in an unexpectedly low structural bending mode and invalidating the higher-frequency response data. Despite these limitations, measurements confirmed that the integrated loads on the four-bladed inducer respond to both cavitation intensity and cavitation phenomena. Likewise, the surface-mount pressure transducers were subjected to a range of temperatures and flow conditions in a non-rotating environment to record bias shifts and transfer functions between the transducers and a reference device. The pressure transducer static performance was within manufacturer's specifications and dynamic response accurately followed that of the reference.

  9. Temperature dependence of polymer photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Yuko

    One of many steps to develop a sustainable society is to reduce the use of fossil fuels by replacing them with renewable energy sources, such as solar energy. This dissertation concerns one of the most contemporary methods to harvest solar radiation and covert it to electricity, using thin polymer films. The photovoltaic devices in this study consisted of a thin layer of p-phenylenevinylene (PPV) based semiconducting polymer sandwiched between two metals (semi-transparent ITO and evaporated metal electrode). Two modified device structures were studied, an interfacial heterojunction device, which includes an additional layer of inorganic n-type semiconductor (Ti-oxides) and a bulk heterojunction device, which is formed by blending electron-attracting materials. Both modifications resulted in higher device performances under ambient conditions due to an increased number of dissociation sites. From studies of inorganic solar cells, it is well known that temperature has a large effect on device performance. However, there are only a few studies on organic Solar cells, concerning the temperature dependence. This thesis focuses on understanding the temperature dependent behaviors of polymer photovoltaic devices. Temperature dependence study allows us to examine how the device parameters such as short circuit current (Isc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) are affected by the material properties and the device architectures. The current-voltage relationships were measured in a temperature controlled OXFORD cryostat operating between 150K and 404K. From the dark current-voltage measurements, the field-independent hole mobility (mu0) was extracted, using a space charge limited current analysis. From the photocurrent-voltage measurements, the temperature dependence on Isc, Voc, and fill factor were studied. The temperature characteristics of Isc (T) were compared to that of mu0(T), and two different dependencies were obtained for different device architectures. The temperature

  10. Capacitance measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, W.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    A capacitance measuring circuit is provided in which an unknown capacitance is measured by comparing the charge stored in the unknown capacitor with that stored in a known capacitance. Equal and opposite voltages are repetitively simultaneously switched onto the capacitors through an electronic switch driven by a pulse generator to charge the capacitors during the ''on'' portion of the cycle. The stored charge is compared by summing discharge currents flowing through matched resistors at the input of a current sensor during the ''off'' portion of the switching cycle. The net current measured is thus proportional to the difference in value of the two capacitances. The circuit is capable of providing much needed accuracy and stability to a great variety of capacitance-based measurement devices at a relatively low cost.

  11. High temperature electronic gain device

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, J. Byron; Depp, Steven W.; Hamilton, Douglas J.; Kerwin, William J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube.

  12. Device for calorimetric measurement

    DOEpatents

    King, William P; Lee, Jungchul

    2015-01-13

    In one aspect, provided herein is a single crystal silicon microcalorimeter, for example useful for high temperature operation and long-term stability of calorimetric measurements. Microcalorimeters described herein include microcalorimeter embodiments having a suspended structure and comprising single crystal silicon. Also provided herein are methods for making calorimetric measurements, for example, on small quantities of materials or for determining the energy content of combustible material having an unknown composition.

  13. RADIATION MEASURING DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Bouricius, G.M.B.; Rusch, G.K.

    1960-03-22

    A radiation-measuring device is described having an a-c output. The apparatus has a high-energy particle source responsive to radiation flux disposed within a housing having a pair of collector plates. A potential gradient between the source and collector plates causes ions to flow to the plates. By means of electrostatic or magnetic deflection elements connected to an alternating potential, the ions are caused to flow alternately to each of the collector plates causing an a-c signal thereon.

  14. A Comparison between Conductive and Infrared Devices for Measuring Mean Skin Temperature at Rest, during Exercise in the Heat, and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Aaron J. E.; Stewart, Ian B.; Disher, Alice E.; Costello, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Skin temperature assessment has historically been undertaken with conductive devices affixed to the skin. With the development of technology, infrared devices are increasingly utilised in the measurement of skin temperature. Therefore, our purpose was to evaluate the agreement between four skin temperature devices at rest, during exercise in the heat, and recovery. Methods Mean skin temperature (T-sk) was assessed in thirty healthy males during 30 min rest (24.0 ± 1.2°C, 56 ± 8%), 30 min cycle in the heat (38.0 ± 0.5°C, 41 ± 2%), and 45 min recovery (24.0 ± 1.3°C, 56 ± 9%). T-sk was assessed at four sites using two conductive devices (thermistors, iButtons) and two infrared devices (infrared thermometer, infrared camera). Results Bland–Altman plots demonstrated mean bias ± limits of agreement between the thermistors and iButtons as follows (rest, exercise, recovery): -0.01 ± 0.04, 0.26 ± 0.85, -0.37 ± 0.98°C; thermistors and infrared thermometer: 0.34 ± 0.44, -0.44 ± 1.23, -1.04 ± 1.75°C; thermistors and infrared camera (rest, recovery): 0.83 ± 0.77, 1.88 ± 1.87°C. Pairwise comparisons of T-sk found significant differences (p < 0.05) between thermistors and both infrared devices during resting conditions, and significant differences between the thermistors and all other devices tested during exercise in the heat and recovery. Conclusions These results indicate poor agreement between conductive and infrared devices at rest, during exercise in the heat, and subsequent recovery. Infrared devices may not be suitable for monitoring T-sk in the presence of, or following, metabolic and environmental induced heat stress. PMID:25659140

  15. Electronic measurement correction devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mahns, R.R.

    1984-04-01

    The electronics semi-conductor revolution has touched every industry and home in the nation. The gas industry is no exception. Sophisticated gas measurement instrumentation has been with us for several decades now, but only in the last 10 years or so has it really begun to boom. First marketed were the flow computers dedicated to orifice meter measurement; but with steadily decreasing manufacturing costs, electronic instrumentation is now moving into the area of base volume, pressure and temperature correction previously handled almost solely by mechanical integrating instruments. This paper takes a brief look at some of the features of the newcomers on the market and how they stack up against the old standby mechanical base volume/pressure/temperature correctors.

  16. Temperature monitoring device and thermocouple assembly therefor

    DOEpatents

    Grimm, Noel P.; Bauer, Frank I.; Bengel, Thomas G.; Kothmann, Richard E.; Mavretish, Robert S.; Miller, Phillip E.; Nath, Raymond J.; Salton, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature monitoring device for measuring the temperature at a surface of a body, composed of: at least one first thermocouple and a second thermocouple; support members supporting the thermocouples for placing the first thermocouple in contact with the body surface and for maintaining the second thermocouple at a defined spacing from the body surface; and a calculating circuit connected to the thermocouples for receiving individual signals each representative of the temperature reading produced by a respective one of the first and second thermocouples and for producing a corrected temperature signal having a value which represents the temperature of the body surface and is a function of the difference between the temperature reading produced by the first thermocouple and a selected fraction of the temperature reading provided by the second thermocouple.

  17. Optical device for straightness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vekteris, Vladas; Jurevicius, Mindaugas; Turla, Vytautas

    2015-11-01

    The present paper describes the research of the optical device for two-dimensional straightness measurement of technological machines. Mathematical study of an optical device, operating on the phase principle and measuring transversal displacements of machine parts in two directions ( X and Y) during their linear longitudinal motion in a machine (alongside the Z axis), is presented. How to estimate the range of travel along the Z axis is analytically shown. At this range, the measurer gives correct measurements of transverse displacement. The necessary distance from the objective focus to the image plane was defined mathematically. The sample results of measuring the displacement of the table of a technological machine by using the optical device are presented in the paper. This optical device for non-contact straightness measurement can be used for measurement straightness in turning, milling, drilling, grinding machines and other technological machines, also in geodesy and cartography, and for moving accuracy testing of mechatronic devices, robotics and others.

  18. A novel portable device to measure the temperature of both the inner and the outer tubes of a parabolic receiver in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermoso, J. L. Navarro; Espinosa-Rueda, Guillermo; Martinez, Noelia; Heras, Carlos; Osta, Marta

    2016-05-01

    The performance of parabolic trough (PT) receiver tubes (RT) has a direct impact on Solar Thermal Energy (STE) plant production. As a result, one major need of operation and maintenance (O&M) in STE plants is to monitor the state of the receiver tube as a key element in the solar field. However the lack of specific devices so far has limited the proper evaluation of operating receiver tubés thermal performance. As a consequence non-accurate approximations have been accepted until now using infrared thermal images of the glass outer tube. In order to fulfill this need, Abengoa has developed a unique portable device for evaluating the thermal performance and vacuum state of parabolic trough receiver tubes placed in the field. The novel device described in this paper, simultaneously provides the temperature of both the inner steel tube and the outer glass tube enabling a check on manufacturers specifications. The on-field evaluation of any receiver tube at any operating temperature has become possible thanks to this new measuring device. The features and usability of this new measurement system as a workable portable device in operating solar fields provide a very useful tool for all companies in the sector contributing to technology progress. The originality of the device, patent pending P201431969, is not limited to the CSP sector, also having scientific significance in the general measuring instruments field. This paper presents the work carried out to develop and validate the device, also detailing its functioning properties and including the excellent results obtained in the laboratory to determine its accuracy and standard deviation. This information was validated with data collected by O&M teams using this instrument in a commercial CSP plant. The relevance of the device has been evidenced by evaluating a wide sample of RT and the results are discussed in this paper. Finally, all the on field collected data is used to demonstrate the high impact that using

  19. Measurements of ion temperature and flow of pulsed plasmas produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device using an ion Doppler spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    It is important to know surface damage characteristics of plasma-facing component materials during transient heat and particle loads such as type I ELMs. A magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device has been used as transient heat and particle source in ELM simulation experiments. Characteristics of pulsed plasmas produced by the MCPG device play an important role for the plasma material interaction. In this study, ion temperature and flow velocity of pulsed He plasmas were measured by an ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS). The IDS system consists of a light collection system including optical fibers, 1m-spectrometer and a 16 channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector. The IDS system measures the width and Doppler shift of HeII (468.58 nm) emission line with the time resolution of 1 μs. The Doppler broadened and shifted spectra were measured with 45 and 135 degree angles with respect to the plasmoid traveling direction. The observed emission line profile was represented by sum of two Gaussian components to determine the temperature and flow velocity. The minor component at around the wavelength of zero-velocity was produced by the stationary plasma. As the results, the ion velocity and temperature were 68 km/s and 19 eV, respectively. Thus, the He ion flow energy is 97 eV. The observed flow velocity agrees with that measured by a time of flight technique.

  20. Vestibular Function Measurement Devices

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Richard D.; Zapala, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Vestibular function laboratories utilize a multitude of diagnostic instruments to evaluate a dizzy patient. Caloric irrigators, oculomotor stimuli, and rotational chairs produce a stimulus whose accuracy is required for the patient response to be accurate. Careful attention to everything from cleanliness of equipment to threshold adjustments determine on a daily basis if patient data are going to be correct and useful. Instrumentation specifications that change with time such as speed and temperature must periodically be checked using calibrated instruments. PMID:27516710

  1. Mirror Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract led to a commercially available instrument used to measure the shape profile of mirror surfaces in scientific instruments. Bauer Associates, Inc.'s Bauer Model 200 Profilometer is based upon a different measurement concept. The local curvature of the mirror's surface is measured at many points, and the collection of data is computer processed to yield the desired shape profile. (Earlier profilometers are based on the principle of interferometry.) The system is accurate and immune to problems like vibration and turbulence. Two profilometers are currently marketed, and a third will soon be commercialized.

  2. Evaluation and improvement in the accuracy of a charge-coupled-device-based pyrometer for temperature field measurements of continuous casting billets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Haicheng; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Yuzhong; Hu, Zhenwei

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a radiometric high-temperature field measurement model based on a charge-coupled-device (CCD). According to the model, an intelligent CCD pyrometer with a digital signal processor as the core is developed and its non-uniformity correction algorithm for reducing the differences in accuracy between individual pixel sensors is established. By means of self-adaptive adjustment for the light-integration time, the dynamic range of the CCD is extended and its accuracy in low-temperature range is improved. The non-uniformity correction algorithm effectively reduces the accuracy differences between different pixel sensors. The performance of the system is evaluated through a blackbody furnace and an integrating sphere, the results of which show that the dynamic range of 400 K is obtained and the accuracy in low temperature range is increased by 7 times compared with the traditional method based on the fixed light-integration time. In addition, the differences of accuracy between the on-axis pixel and the most peripheral pixels are decreased from 19.1 K to 2.8 K. Therefore, this CCD pyrometer ensures that the measuring results of all pixels tend to be equal-accuracy distribution across the entire measuring ranges. This pyrometric system has been successfully applied to the temperature field measurements in continuous casting billets.

  3. Device measures static friction of magnetic tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, P. T.

    1967-01-01

    Device measures the coefficient of static friction of magnetic tape over a range of temperatures and relative humidities. It uses a strain gage to measure the force of friction between a reference surface and the tape drawn at a constant velocity of approximately 0.0001 inch per second relative to the reference surface.

  4. Optoelectronic device for hematocrit measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluta, M.; Milewska, D.; Mazikowski, A.

    2015-09-01

    An optoelectronic system for measurements of hematocrit level (HCT) in the whole human blood is presented. Proposed system integrates a dedicated optoelectronic sensor, a microcontroller and a small LCD display in a low cost, battery-powered, handheld device. Chosen method for determining blood hematocrit level is based on optical properties of whole blood in visible and NIR wavelength range. Measurements with the use of proposed system require blood samples (small drop in the range of microliters) which is placed in the micro cuvette. Then, absorption of the sample is measured at wavelengths of 570 nm and 880 nm. Prototype of the device was build and tested. Test results confirmed proper operation of the device with correct metrological parameters in application to HCT level measurements. Such a portable device can be used as a tool of bedside diagnosis, which becomes interesting alternative to full laboratory tests.

  5. Nanoscale temperature mapping in operating microelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mecklenburg, Matthew; Hubbard, William A.; White, E. R.; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B.; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, B. C.

    2015-02-05

    We report that modern microelectronic devices have nanoscale features that dissipate power nonuniformly, but fundamental physical limits frustrate efforts to detect the resulting temperature gradients. Contact thermometers disturb the temperature of a small system, while radiation thermometers struggle to beat the diffraction limit. Exploiting the same physics as Fahrenheit’s glass-bulb thermometer, we mapped the thermal expansion of Joule-heated, 80-nanometer-thick aluminum wires by precisely measuring changes in density. With a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), we quantified the local density via the energy of aluminum’s bulk plasmon. Rescaling density to temperature yields maps with a statistical precision of 3 kelvin/hertz₋1/2, an accuracy of 10%, and nanometer-scale resolution. Lastly, many common metals and semiconductors have sufficiently sharp plasmon resonances to serve as their own thermometers.

  6. Nanoscale temperature mapping in operating microelectronic devices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mecklenburg, Matthew; Hubbard, William A.; White, E. R.; Dhall, Rohan; Cronin, Stephen B.; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, B. C.

    2015-02-05

    We report that modern microelectronic devices have nanoscale features that dissipate power nonuniformly, but fundamental physical limits frustrate efforts to detect the resulting temperature gradients. Contact thermometers disturb the temperature of a small system, while radiation thermometers struggle to beat the diffraction limit. Exploiting the same physics as Fahrenheit’s glass-bulb thermometer, we mapped the thermal expansion of Joule-heated, 80-nanometer-thick aluminum wires by precisely measuring changes in density. With a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), we quantified the local density via the energy of aluminum’s bulk plasmon. Rescaling density to temperature yields maps with amore » statistical precision of 3 kelvin/hertz₋1/2, an accuracy of 10%, and nanometer-scale resolution. Lastly, many common metals and semiconductors have sufficiently sharp plasmon resonances to serve as their own thermometers.« less

  7. TIME-INTERVAL MEASURING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1958-04-15

    An electronic device for measuring the time interval between two control pulses is presented. The device incorporates part of a previous approach for time measurement, in that pulses from a constant-frequency oscillator are counted during the interval between the control pulses. To reduce the possible error in counting caused by the operation of the counter gating circuit at various points in the pulse cycle, the described device provides means for successively delaying the pulses for a fraction of the pulse period so that a final delay of one period is obtained and means for counting the pulses before and after each stage of delay during the time interval whereby a plurality of totals is obtained which may be averaged and multplied by the pulse period to obtain an accurate time- Interval measurement.

  8. Temperature-controlled fluidic device A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehsteiner, F. H.

    1970-01-01

    Symmetrical fluidic device directly converts electrical signals to mechanical signals in the form of a fluid-flow parameter. This device eliminates or reduces effects of all undesirable parameters on the departure angle, leaving it a function of the controlled wall and jet temperatures.

  9. Development of a Low-Temperature Insert for Precise Magnetization Measurement below T = 2 K with a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Makiyama, Shun; Sakamoto, Yasutaka; Hasuo, Tadahiko; Inagaki, Yuji; Fujiwara, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Hiroyuki S.; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Kawae, Tatsuya

    2013-10-01

    We have developed a 9-mm-diameter 3He insert for precise magnetization measurements below T = 2 K that is attachable to a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The insert is made from a thin-walled stainless steel pipe with an inner diameter of 6.2 mm, which determines the maximum sample size. 3He gas is condensed in the pipe, which is liquefied by 4He gas at T ˜1.8 K generated by the magnetometer via the heat exchanger of a Cu vacuum jacket with an outer diameter of 8.6 mm soldered to the stainless steel pipe. The temperature of the insert is decreased to T ˜0.5 K by evacuating liquid 3He using a rotary pump and then to T = 0.36 K with a sorption pump. From the diamagnetization signal of a superconducting Al chip with a mass below 0.1 mg, the magnetization resolution with the insert is confirmed to be less than 10-7 emu. To examine the performance of the insert, we measured the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization for Pr0.6La0.4Ag2In down to T = 0.4 K.

  10. Measuring Temperature Reading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    There are two requirements for taking a measurement of something. The first is a tool for taking a measurement. The second is scale for making sense of the numbers of the measurement. For example, a ruler is often used to measure short lengths. It is the tool for measurement. On the ruler are one or more number scales with equally spaced numbers. These numbers can be compared with numbers from any other ruler that is accurately set to the same scale. Measuring length is far simpler than measuring temperature. While there is evidence of tools for measuring length at various times in human history, tools and scales for measuring temperature do not appear until more recent human history. Early thermometers, called thermoscopes, first appear in the 1500's. They were crude instruments that were not at all accurate. Most did not even have a number scale associated with them. This made them useless for most practical purposes. Gabriel Fahrenheit created the first accurate thermometer in 1714, and the Fahrenheit temperature scale followed it in 1724. The thermometer s accuracy was based on its use of mercury, a silver colored substance that remains liquid over a wide range of temperatures but expands or contracts in a standard, predictable way with changes in temperature. To set the scale, Fahrenheit created the coldest temperature that he could. He mixed equal parts of ice, water, and salt, and then used this as the zero point, 0 degrees, of his scale. He intended to make 30 degrees the freezing point of water and 90 degrees the temperature of the human body, but he had to later revise these temperatures to be 32 degrees and 96 degrees. In the final version of the scale, the temperature of the human body became 98.6 degrees. 19th century thermoscope

  11. Finger-Circumference-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Suy

    1995-01-01

    Easy-to-use device quickly measures circumference of finger (including thumb) on human hand. Includes polytetrafluoroethylene band 1/8 in. wide, bent into loop and attached to tab that slides on scale graduated in millimeters. Sliding tab preloaded with constant-force tension spring, which pulls tab toward closure of loop. Designed to facilitate measurements at various points along fingers to obtain data for studies of volumetric changes of fingers in microgravity. Also used in normal Earth gravity studies of growth and in assessment of diseases like arthritis.

  12. Noncontact Temperature Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Noncontact temperature measurement has been identified as one of the eight advanced technology development (ATD) areas to support the effort of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division in developing six Space Station flight experiment facilities. This two-day workshop was an opportunity for all six disciplines to present their requirements on noncontact temperature measurement and to discuss state-of-the-art developments. Multi-color pyrometry, laser pyrometry and radiometric imaging techniques are addressed.

  13. High temperature aqueous stress corrosion testing device

    DOEpatents

    Bornstein, A.N.; Indig, M.E.

    1975-12-01

    A description is given of a device for stressing tensile samples contained within a high temperature, high pressure aqueous environment, thereby permitting determination of stress corrosion susceptibility of materials in a simple way. The stressing device couples an external piston to an internal tensile sample via a pull rod, with stresses being applied to the sample by pressurizing the piston. The device contains a fitting/seal arrangement including Teflon and weld seals which allow sealing of the internal system pressure and the external piston pressure. The fitting/seal arrangement allows free movement of the pull rod and the piston.

  14. The Kelvin and Temperature Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mangum, B. W.; Furukawa, G. T.; Kreider, K. G.; Meyer, C. W.; Ripple, D. C.; Strouse, G. F.; Tew, W. L.; Moldover, M. R.; Johnson, B. Carol; Yoon, H. W.; Gibson, C. E.; Saunders, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is defined from 0.65 K upwards to the highest temperature measurable by spectral radiation thermometry, the radiation thermometry being based on the Planck radiation law. When it was developed, the ITS-90 represented thermodynamic temperatures as closely as possible. Part I of this paper describes the realization of contact thermometry up to 1234.93 K, the temperature range in which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of calibration of thermometers at 15 fixed points and vapor pressure/temperature relations which are phase equilibrium states of pure substances. The realization is accomplished by using fixed-point devices, containing samples of the highest available purity, and suitable temperature-controlled environments. All components are constructed to achieve the defining equilibrium states of the samples for the calibration of thermometers. The high quality of the temperature realization and measurements is well documented. Various research efforts are described, including research to improve the uncertainty in thermodynamic temperatures by measuring the velocity of sound in gas up to 800 K, research in applying noise thermometry techniques, and research on thermocouples. Thermometer calibration services and high-purity samples and devices suitable for “on-site” thermometer calibration that are available to the thermometry community are described. Part II of the paper describes the realization of temperature above 1234.93 K for which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of the calibration of spectroradiometers using reference blackbody sources that are at the temperature of the equilibrium liquid-solid phase transition of pure silver, gold, or copper. The realization of temperature from absolute spectral or total radiometry over the temperature range from about 60 K to 3000 K is also described. The dissemination of the temperature scale using radiation thermometry from NIST to the customer is achieved by

  15. Nonvisual Adaptive Devices for Measuring Insulin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, M. E.; Hamilton, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents information on nonvisual adaptive devices for measuring insulin and offers some suggestions for rehabilitation professionals who instruct and supervise clients with diabetes and visual impairment in the use of these devices. (Author)

  16. Development of a low-temperature insert for the measurement of remanent magnetization direction using superconducting quantum interference device rock magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Tarduno, John A.

    2011-04-01

    Data on the directional changes of a full magnetization vector during cycling to cryogenic temperatures can provide important insights into the low-temperature magnetic properties of natural and synthetic materials. These data also provide an empirical basis for the application of low-temperature treatments in paleomagnetism, for example, the removal of viscous magnetization in magnetite-bearing rocks. However, existing instruments only allow continuous measurement of magnetization along a single axis, hampering experimental and theoretical advances in rock magnetism and the implementation of low-temperature techniques into regular paleomagnetic practices. Here we describe development of a novel low-temperature insert designed in collaboration with William S. Goree Inc., which allows measurement of directional behavior of a full magnetization vector during zero-field low-temperature cycling. Pilot experiments on well-controlled polycrystalline samples of pseudo-single-domain (PSD) and multidomain magnetite as well as on a natural sample containing PSD magnetite indicate that the orientation of a saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) imparted at room temperature remains constant during low-temperature cycling to 20 K. This observation lends additional support to low-temperature cycling as a cleaning technique in paleomagnetism. The SIRM imparted in an individual crystal of magnetite showed systematic, albeit small changes upon both cooling and warming through the Verwey temperature, which may reflect switching between the easy magnetization directions. However, the switching effect may be significantly attenuated by crystallographic twinning in magnetite below the transition. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential of the directional low-temperature magnetometry for the advancement of our understanding of the properties of natural and synthetic materials.

  17. Indirect Blood Pressure Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hum, L.; Cole, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Design and performance of a blood pressure recording device for pediatric use are reported. A strain gage transducer with a copper-beryllium strip as force sensing element is used to monitor skin movements and to convert them into electrical signals proportional to those displacements. Experimental tests with this device in recording of force developed above the left femoral artery of a dog accurately produced a blood pressure curve.

  18. Vacuum photoelectronic devices for measuring pulsed radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovskii, A. G.; Veretennikov, A. I.; Kozlov, O. V.

    The design of these devices is discussed, and data are presented on their characteristics. These vacuum photoelectronic devices comprise photocells, photomultipliers, and electrooptical transducers designed for measuring pulsed radiation of nanosecond and subnanosecond duration. The fluctuation characteristics of the devices are examined, and their use in detectors of pulsed luminous and ionizing radiation is considered.

  19. Flow rate measuring devices for gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfig, K. W.

    1985-07-01

    Flowrate measuring devices are described: volume meter with fixed or mobile walls; turbine meter; throttling procedure; ultrasonic and Doppler methods; vortex method; rotary flowmeter; and swinging body flow measuring procedure. Flowrate can also be measured from the force exerted on bodies immersed in a fluid or based on thermodynamical principles. The characteristics and operating envelope of each device/method are given.

  20. A Portable, High Resolution, Surface Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Burns, Bradley M.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution, portable, surface measurement device has been demonstrated to provide micron-resolution topographical plots. This device was specifically developed to allow in-situ measurements of defects on the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows, but is versatile enough to be used on a wide variety of surfaces. This paper discusses the choice of an optical sensor and then the decisions required to convert a lab bench optical measurement device into an ergonomic portable system. The necessary trade-offs between performance and portability are presented along with a description of the device developed to measure Orbiter window defects.

  1. Method and device for measuring fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Atherton, Richard; Marinkovich, Phillip S.; Spadaro, Peter R.; Stout, J. Wilson

    1976-11-23

    This invention is a fluid flow measuring device for determining the coolant flow at the entrance to a specific nuclear reactor fuel region. The device comprises a plurality of venturis having the upstream inlet and throat pressure of each respectively manifolded together to provide one static pressure signal for each region monitored. The device provides accurate flow measurement with low pressure losses and uniform entrance and discharge flow distribution.

  2. [Temperature measuring and heating controlling in transurethral prostate thermotherapy system].

    PubMed

    Luo, L; Wang, Q; Chen, Y; Yu, X

    1997-07-01

    This paper introduces the system construction of Transurethral Prostate Thermotherapy Device. The temperature measuring device, I/O interface circuit and the programming principle of PID controlling system is illustrated also. PMID:11189255

  3. Characteristics of III-V Semiconductor Devices at High Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Young, Paul G.; Taub, Susan R.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the development of III-V based pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (PHEMT's) designed to operate over the temperature range 77 to 473 K (-196 to 200 C). These devices have a pseudomorphic undoped InGaAs channel that is sandwiched between an AlGaAs spacer and a buffer layer; gate widths of 200, 400, 1600, and 3200 micrometers; and a gate length of 2 micrometers. Measurements were performed at both room temperature and 473 K (200 C) and show that the drain current decreases by 30 percent and the gate current increases to about 9 microns A (at a reverse bias of -1.5 V) at the higher temperature. These devices have a maximum DC power dissipation of about 4.5 W and a breakdown voltage of about 16 V.

  4. High temperature solder device for flat cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature solder device for flat cables includes a microwelder, an anvil which acts as a heat sink and supports a flexible flat ribbon cable that is to be connected to a multiple pin connector. The microwelder is made from a modified commercially available resistance welding machine such as the Split Tip Electrode microwelder by Weltek, which consists of two separate electrode halves with a removable dielectric spacer in between. The microwelder is not used to weld the items together, but to provide a controlled compressive force on, and energy pulse to, a solder preform placed between a pin of the connector and a conductor of the flexible flat ribbon cable. When the microwelder is operated, an electric pulse will flow down one electrode, through the solder preform and back up the other electrode. This pulse of electrical energy will cause the solder preform to heat up and melt, joining the pin and conductor.

  5. Device and method for detecting sulfur dioxide at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    West, David L.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2011-11-01

    The present invention relates to a method for selectively detecting and/or measuring gaseous SO.sub.2 at a temperature of at least 500.degree. C., the method involving: (i) providing a SO.sub.2-detecting device including an oxygen ion-conducting substrate having on its surface at least three electrodes comprising a first, second, and third electrode; (ii) driving a starting current of specified magnitude and temporal variation between the first and second electrodes; (iii) contacting the SO.sub.2-detecting device with the SO.sub.2-containing sample while maintaining the magnitude and any temporal variation of the starting current, wherein said SO.sub.2-containing sample causes a change in the electrical conductance of said device; and (iv) detecting the change in electrical conductance of the device based on measuring an electrical property related to or indicative of the conductance of the device between the first and third electrodes, or between the second and third electrodes, and detecting SO.sub.2 in the SO.sub.2-containing sample based on the measured change in electrical conductance.

  6. Nanoscopic voltage distribution of operating cascade laser devices in cryogenic temperature.

    PubMed

    Dhar, R S; Ban, D

    2016-06-01

    A nanoscopic exploratory measurement technique to measure voltage distribution across an operating semiconductor device in cryogenic temperature has been developed and established. The cross-section surface of the terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) has been measured that resolves the voltage distribution at nanometer scales. The electric field dissemination across the active region of the device has been attained under the device's lasing conditions at cryogenic temperature of 77 K. PMID:27197086

  7. DIMENSION MEASURING OPTICAL SIGHTING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Kerr, G.E.

    1959-08-01

    A sighting device to check the uniformity of thickness of a lining applied to a container is presented. The sighting devlce comprises two tubular members having their ends in threaded connection with one another and a lens lying within the outer end of one of the tubular members. A ground glass inscribed with two concentric circles is located at the outer end of the other tubular section so that the image of the circular junctures, with and without the lining at the closed end of the container, can be focused on the proper circle inscribed in the ground glass so as to determine whether the lining has uniformity and whether there are thin spots.

  8. Simple device measures solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Simple inexpensive thermometer, insolated from surroundings by transparent glass or plastic encasement, measures intensities of solar radiation, or radiation from other sources such as furnaces or ovens. Unit can be further modified to accomplish readings from remote locations.

  9. Thermal Measurement Techniques in Analytical Microfluidic Devices.

    PubMed

    Davaji, Benyamin; Lee, Chung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Thermal measurement techniques have been used for many applications such as thermal characterization of materials and chemical reaction detection. Micromachining techniques allow reduction of the thermal mass of fabricated structures and introduce the possibility to perform high sensitivity thermal measurements in the micro-scale and nano-scale devices. Combining thermal measurement techniques with microfluidic devices allows performing different analytical measurements with low sample consumption and reduced measurement time by integrating the miniaturized system on a single chip. The procedures of thermal measurement techniques for particle detection, material characterization, and chemical detection are introduced in this paper. PMID:26066563

  10. Inter-device reliability of DSI measurement.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Philipp; Feichter, Felicitas; Aichstill, Birgitta; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2012-12-01

    The Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a measure that quantifies the overall vocal quality. The aim of the study is to evaluate the reliability of DSI measurements. The DSIs of 30 subjects were therefore measured using LingWAVES (WEVOSYS) and DiVAS (XION). To evaluate the inter-device reliability of DSI measurement, the devices' results were compared for each subject. The DSI values of both devices showed great differences. The calculated DSI differences of 95% of the subjects were within the limits of +2.39 and -2.82, which makes a clinical interpretation of severity of voice disorder using different devices questionable. The technical and procedural aspects of measurement divergences are discussed, and the need to define hardware and software standards is shown. PMID:22702894

  11. Measuring Soil Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil temperature is a critical factor in the germination and early growth of many crops including corn, cotton, small grains, and vegetable crops. Soil temperature strongly influences the rate of critical biological reactions in the soil such as the rates of nitrification and microbial respiration. ...

  12. Device measures fluid drag on test vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, R.; Judd, J. H.; Leiss, A.

    1965-01-01

    Electromechanical drag balance device measures the aerodynamic drag force acting on a vehicle as it moves through the atmosphere and telemeters the data to a remote receiving station. This device is also used for testing the hydrodynamic drag characteristics of underwater vehicles.

  13. PORTABLE DEVICE FOR MEASURING SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A portable device for measuring sediment resuspension has been developed. he device consists of a cylindrical chamber inside of which a horizontal grid oscillates vertically. he sediments whose properties are to be determined are placed at the bottom of the chamber with water ove...

  14. Line spectrum and ion temperature measurements from tungsten ions at low ionization stages in large helical device based on vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in wavelength range of 500–2200 Å

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, T. Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Huang, X. L.; Zhang, H. M.

    2014-11-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet spectra of emissions released from tungsten ions at lower ionization stages were measured in the Large Helical Device (LHD) in the wavelength range of 500–2200 Å using a 3 m normal incidence spectrometer. Tungsten ions were distributed in the LHD plasma by injecting a pellet consisting of a small piece of tungsten metal and polyethylene tube. Many lines having different wavelengths from intrinsic impurity ions were observed just after the tungsten pellet injection. Doppler broadening of a tungsten candidate line was successfully measured and the ion temperature was obtained.

  15. Device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen in gases

    DOEpatents

    Isaacs, Hugh S.; Romano, Anthony J.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a CO equilibrium in a device for measuring the total concentration of oxygen impurities in a fluid stream. To this end, the CO equilibrium is produced in an electrochemical measuring cell by the interaction of a carbon element in the cell with the chemically combined and uncombined oxygen in the fluid stream at an elevated temperature.

  16. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corneal radius measuring device. 886.1450 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1450 Corneal radius measuring device. (a) Identification. A corneal radius measuring device is an AC-powered device intended to...

  17. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Corneal radius measuring device. 886.1450 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1450 Corneal radius measuring device. (a) Identification. A corneal radius measuring device is an AC-powered device intended to...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corneal radius measuring device. 886.1450 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1450 Corneal radius measuring device. (a) Identification. A corneal radius measuring device is an AC-powered device intended to...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corneal radius measuring device. 886.1450 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1450 Corneal radius measuring device. (a) Identification. A corneal radius measuring device is an AC-powered device intended to...

  20. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  1. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-12-31

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with super-heated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200{degrees}C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220{degrees}C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: (1) At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. (2) There is no significant temperature effect. (3) Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. (4) Pores smaller than 15 {Angstrom} do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  2. Electrolyte measurement device and measurement procedure

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Kevin R.; Scribner, Louie L.

    2010-01-26

    A method and apparatus for measuring the through-thickness resistance or conductance of a thin electrolyte is provided. The method and apparatus includes positioning a first source electrode on a first side of an electrolyte to be tested, positioning a second source electrode on a second side of the electrolyte, positioning a first sense electrode on the second side of the electrolyte, and positioning a second sense electrode on the first side of the electrolyte. current is then passed between the first and second source electrodes and the voltage between the first and second sense electrodes is measured.

  3. Going Places No Infrared Temperature Devices Have Gone Before

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Exergen's IRt/c is a self-powered sensor that matches a thermocouple within specified temperature ranges and provides a predictable and repeatable signal outside of this specified range. Possessing an extremely fast time constant, the infrared technology allows users to measure product temperature without touching the product. The IRt/c uses a device called a thermopile to measure temperature and generate current. Traditionally, these devices are not available in a size that would be compatible with the Exergen IRt/c, based on NASA s quarterinch specifications. After going through five circuit designs to find a thermopile that would suit the IRt/c design and match the signal needed for output, Exergen maintains that it developed a model that totaled just 20 percent of the volume of the previous smallest detector in the world. Following completion of the project with Glenn, Exergen continued development of the IRt/c for other customers, spinning off a new product line called the micro IRt/c. This latest development has broadened applications for industries that previously could not use infrared thermometers due to size constraints. The first commercial use of the micro IRt/c involved an original equipment manufacturer that makes laminating machinery consisting of heated rollers in very tight spots. Accurate temperature measurement for this application requires close proximity to the heated rollers. With the micro IRt/c s 50-millisecond time constant, the manufacturer is able to gain closer access to the intended temperature targets for exact readings, thereby increasing productivity and staying ahead of competition.In a separate application, the infrared temperature sensor is being utilized for avalanche warnings in Switzerland. The IRt/c is mounted about 5 meters above the ground to measure the snow cover throughout the mountainous regions of the country.

  4. Temperature correction in conductivity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1962-01-01

    Electrical conductivity has been widely used in freshwater research but usual methods employed by limnologists for converting measurements to conductance at a given temperature have not given uniformly accurate results. The temperature coefficient used to adjust conductivity of natural waters to a given temperature varies depending on the kinds and concentrations of electrolytes, the temperature at the time of measurement, and the temperature to which measurements are being adjusted. The temperature coefficient was found to differ for various lake and stream waters, and showed seasonal changes. High precision can be obtained only by determining temperature coefficients for each water studied. Mean temperature coefficients are given for various temperature ranges that may be used where less precision is required.

  5. Measuring Temperature: The Thermometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamoun, Mirvette

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses the historical development of the thermometer with the view of helping children understand the role that mathematics plays in society. A model thermometer that is divided into three sections, each displaying one of the three temperature scales used today (Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin) is highlighted as a project to allow…

  6. Wireless device for monitoring the temperature - moisture regime in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, Ján; Štofanik, Vladimír; Vretenár, Viliam; Kubičár, Ľudovít

    2014-05-01

    This contribution presents the wireless device for monitoring the temperature - moisture regime in situ. For the monitoring so called moisture sensor is used. Principle of moisture sensor is based on measuring the thermal conductivity. Moisture sensor has cylindrical shape with about 20 mm diameter and 20 mm length. It is made of porous material identical to the monitored object. The thermal conductivity is measured by hot-ball method. Hot-ball method is patented invention of the Institute of Physic SAS. It utilizes a small ball, diameter up to 2 mm, in which sensing elements are incorporated. The ball produces heat spreading into surrounding material, in our case into body of the moisture sensor. Temperature of the ball is measured simultaneously. Then change of the temperature, in steady state, is inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity. Such moisture sensor is inserted into monitored wall. Thermophysical properties of porous material are function of moisture. Moisture sensors are calibrated for dry and water saturated state. Whole the system is primarily intended to do long-term monitoring. Design of a new electronic device was needed for this innovative method. It covers all needed operations for measurement. For example energizing hot-ball sensor, measuring its response, storing the measured data and wireless data transmission. The unit is able to set parameters of measurement via wireless access as well. This contribution also includes the description of construction and another features of the wireless measurement system dedicated for this task. Possibilities and functionality of the system is demonstrated by actual monitoring of the tower of St. Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava. Correlations with surrounding meteorological conditions are presented. Some of them can be also measured by our system, right in the monitoring place.

  7. Transient (lightning) protection for electronic measurement devices

    SciTech Connect

    Black, L.L.

    1995-12-01

    Electronic measurement devices have become a major part of the oil and gas business today. All of these devices operate on an electrical voltage. Any voltage introduced into the system that is beyond the predetermined tolerance will cause degradation of performance or in some cases failure of the device. The extent of the damage depends upon the dielectric strength of the circuit in question and upon the available energy. As electronic measurement devices are further developed to incorporate more solid state circuitry and operate at lower voltage levels the more susceptible they become to transients. Along with transient protection, the user must also be concerned with intrinsic safety requirements of the device to be protected. The devices and techniques used to protect the equipment from transients do not, in all cases, guarantee the user certification for use in hazardous environments. As a note of reference, some of the techniques listed in this paper as examples would not be allowed in hazardous areas without the addition of other devices to further isolate or clamp the available energy to a safe level. In other words, as the industry moves forward to improve the overall accuracy of the measurement system and adds data availability via communication networks, the transient protection scheme must become more sophisticated.

  8. Validity and Reliability of Devices That Assess Body Temperature During Indoor Exercise in the Heat

    PubMed Central

    Ganio, Matthew S; Brown, Christopher M; Casa, Douglas J; Becker, Shannon M; Yeargin, Susan W; McDermott, Brendon P; Boots, Lindsay M; Boyd, Paul W; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    Context: When assessing exercise hyperthermia outdoors, the validity of certain commonly used body temperature measuring devices has been questioned. A controlled laboratory environment is generally less influenced by environmental factors (eg, ambient temperature, solar radiation, wind) than an outdoor setting. The validity of these temperature measuring devices in a controlled environment may be more acceptable. Objective: To assess the validity and reliability of commonly used temperature devices compared with rectal temperature in individuals exercising in a controlled, high environmental temperature indoor setting and then resting in a cool environment. Design: Time series study. Setting: Laboratory environmental chamber (temperature  =  36.4 ± 1.2°C [97.5 ± 2.16°F], relative humidity  =  52%) and cool laboratory (temperature  =  approximately 23.3°C [74.0°F], relative humidity  =  40%). Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen males and 10 females. Intervention(s): Rectal, gastrointestinal, forehead, oral, aural, temporal, and axillary temperatures were measured with commonly used temperature devices. Temperature was measured before and 20 minutes after entering the environmental chamber, every 30 minutes during a 90-minute treadmill walk in the heat, and every 20 minutes during a 60-minute rest in mild conditions. Device validity and reliability were assessed with various statistical measures to compare the measurements using each device with rectal temperature. A device was considered invalid if the mean bias (average difference between rectal and device temperatures) was more than ±0.27°C (±0.50°F). Main Outcome Measure(s): Measured temperature from each device (mean and across time). Results: The following devices provided invalid estimates of rectal temperature: forehead sticker (0.29°C [0.52°F]), oral temperature using an inexpensive device (−1.13°C [−2.03°F]), temporal temperature measured according to the instruction

  9. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  10. 21 CFR 882.1560 - Skin potential measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skin potential measurement device. 882.1560... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1560 Skin potential measurement device. (a) Identification. A skin potential measurement device is a general diagnostic...

  11. 21 CFR 882.1560 - Skin potential measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skin potential measurement device. 882.1560... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1560 Skin potential measurement device. (a) Identification. A skin potential measurement device is a general diagnostic...

  12. 21 CFR 864.6400 - Hematocrit measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6400 Hematocrit measuring device. (a) Identification. A hematocrit measuring device is a system consisting of instruments, tubes... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hematocrit measuring device. 864.6400 Section...

  13. 21 CFR 864.6400 - Hematocrit measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6400 Hematocrit measuring device. (a) Identification. A hematocrit measuring device is a system consisting of instruments, tubes... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hematocrit measuring device. 864.6400 Section...

  14. 21 CFR 886.4280 - Intraocular pressure measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular pressure measuring device. 886.4280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4280 Intraocular pressure measuring device. (a) Identification. An intraocular pressure measuring device is a manual or AC-powered...

  15. 21 CFR 886.4280 - Intraocular pressure measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intraocular pressure measuring device. 886.4280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4280 Intraocular pressure measuring device. (a) Identification. An intraocular pressure measuring device is a manual or AC-powered...

  16. 21 CFR 886.4280 - Intraocular pressure measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intraocular pressure measuring device. 886.4280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4280 Intraocular pressure measuring device. (a) Identification. An intraocular pressure measuring device is a manual or AC-powered...

  17. 21 CFR 886.4280 - Intraocular pressure measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intraocular pressure measuring device. 886.4280... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4280 Intraocular pressure measuring device. (a) Identification. An intraocular pressure measuring device is a manual or AC-powered...

  18. High-Sensitivity Temperature Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadstone, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a method of measuring small temperature differences that amount to a .01K, using an arrangement of a copper-constantan thermocouple, a microamplifier and a galvanometer, as an indirect way of measuring heat energy. (GA)

  19. Acoustical Measurement Of Furnace Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, Shakkottai; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Simple probes withstand severe conditions, yet give spatially-resolved temperature readings. Prototype acoustical system developed to measure temperatures from ambient to 1,800 degree F in such structures as large industrial lime kilns and recovery-boiler furnaces. Pulses of sound reflected from obstructions in sensing tube. Speed of sound and temperature in each segment deduced from travel times of pulses.

  20. An Innovative Flow-Measuring Device: Thermocouple Boundary Layer Rake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    An innovative flow-measuring device, a thermocouple boundary layer rake, was developed. The sensor detects the flow by using a thin-film thermocouple (TC) array to measure the temperature difference across a heater strip. The heater and TC arrays are microfabricated on a constant-thickness quartz strut with low heat conductivity. The device can measure the velocity profile well into the boundary layer, about 65 gm from the surface, which is almost four times closer to the surface than has been possible with the previously used total pressure tube.

  1. Electromagnetic pulse-induced current measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Om P.; Chen, Jin Y.

    1991-08-01

    To develop safety guidelines for exposure to high fields associated with an electromagnetic pulse (EMP), it is necessary to devise techniques that would measure the peak current induced in the human body. The main focus of this project was to design, fabricate, and test a portable, self-contained stand-on device that would measure and hold the peak current and the integrated change Q. The design specifications of the EMP-Induced Current Measurement Device are as follows: rise time of the current pulse, 5 ns; peak current, 20-600 A; charge Q, 0-20 microcoulombs. The device uses a stand-on parallel-plate bilayer sensor and fast high-frequency circuit that are well-shielded against spurious responses to high incident fields. Since the polarity of the incident peak electric field of the EMP may be either positive or negative, the induced peak current can also be positive or negative. Therefore, the device is designed to respond to either of these polarities and measure and hold both the peak current and the integrated charge which are simultaneously displayed on two separate 3-1/2 digit displays. The prototype device has been preliminarily tested with the EMP's generated at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (ALECS facility) at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico.

  2. Photocurrent measurements of pentacene-based devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masurkar, Amrita; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2015-09-01

    Photocurrent spectroscopy (PCS) and photocurrent microscopy (PCM) are powerful tools that can probe the underlying mechanisms of charge generation and transport in organic semiconductor devices. There has been significant progress in the use of these techniques, which has yielded a number of insights into the underlying materials and operation of the devices. Despite the potential for PCS and PCM to become standard tools, however, a consensus has not been reached on (1) its uses and (2) the underlying mechanisms which produce the photoresponse. This is particularly true for measurements of pentacene devices, as the energy dynamics of pentacene are complex. Accordingly, here we report the current body of PCS and PCM of pentacene devices, offer interpretations of the data, and discuss which questions remain unanswered. We have divided the reviewed work into four categories based on the goals of the study and the technique used: photocurrent spectroscopy, scanning photocurrent microscopy, mobility, and trap density-of-states.

  3. Experimental measurement-device-independent entanglement detection.

    PubMed

    Nawareg, Mohamed; Muhammad, Sadiq; Amselem, Elias; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement is one of the most puzzling features of quantum theory and of great importance for the new field of quantum information. The determination whether a given state is entangled or not is one of the most challenging open problems of the field. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of measurement-device-independent (MDI) entanglement detection using witness method for general two qubits photon polarization systems. In the MDI settings, there is no requirement to assume perfect implementations or neither to trust the measurement devices. This experimental demonstration can be generalized for the investigation of properties of quantum systems and for the realization of cryptography and communication protocols. PMID:25649664

  4. Experimental Measurement-Device-Independent Entanglement Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nawareg, Mohamed; Muhammad, Sadiq; Amselem, Elias; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement is one of the most puzzling features of quantum theory and of great importance for the new field of quantum information. The determination whether a given state is entangled or not is one of the most challenging open problems of the field. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of measurement-device-independent (MDI) entanglement detection using witness method for general two qubits photon polarization systems. In the MDI settings, there is no requirement to assume perfect implementations or neither to trust the measurement devices. This experimental demonstration can be generalized for the investigation of properties of quantum systems and for the realization of cryptography and communication protocols. PMID:25649664

  5. Wide temperature range electronic device with lead attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A electronic device including lead attachment structure which permits operation of the devices over a wide temperature range is reported. The device comprises a core conductor having a thin coating of metal thereon whereby only a limited amount of coating material is available to form an alloy which bonds the core conductor to the device electrode, the electrode composition thus being affected only in the region adjacent to the lead.

  6. Noncontact true temperature measurement, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.; Allen, James L.

    1988-01-01

    A laser pyrometer was developed for acquiring the true temperature of a levitated sample. The reflectivity is measured by first expanding the laser beam to cover the entire cross-sectional surface of the diffuse target. The reflectivity calibration of this system is determined from the surface emissivity of a target with a blackbody cavity. The emissivity of the real target can then be calculated. The overall system constant is obtained by passively measuring the radiance of the blackbody cavity (emissivity = 1.0) at a known, arbitrary temperature. Since the photosensor used is highly linear over the entire operating temperature range, the true temperature of the target can then be computed. The latest results available from this on-going research indicate that true temperatures thus obtained are in very good quantitative agreement with thermocouple measured temperatures.

  7. Presentation of a new BRDF measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrot, Gerard; Bodilis, Madeleine; Briottet, Xavier; Cosnefroy, Helene

    1998-12-01

    The bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) plays a major role to evaluate or analyze signals reflected by Earth in the solar spectrum. A BRDF measurement device that covers a large spectral and directional domain was recently developed by ONERA/DOTA. It was designed to allow both laboratory and outside measurements. Its main characteristics are a spectral domain: 0.42-0.95 micrometers ; a geometrical domain: 0-60 degrees for zenith angle, 0-180 degrees for azimuth; a maximum target size for nadir measurements: 22 cm. For a given zenith angle of the source, the BRDF device needs about seven minutes to take measurements for a viewing zenith angle varying from 0-60 degrees and relative azimuth angle varying from 0-180 degrees. The performances, imperfections and properties of each component of the measurement chain are studied. A part of the work was devoted to characterize precisely the source, and particularly the spatial variability of the irradiance at the target level, the temporal stability and the spectral profile of the lamp. Some of these imperfections are modeled and taken into account in corrections of BRDF measurements. Concerning the sensor, a calibration in wavelength was done. Measurements of bi- directional reflectance of which is well known. A software was developed to convert all the raw data acquired automatically into BRDF values. To illustrate measurements taken by this device, some results are also presented here. They are taken over sand and short grass, for different wavelengths and geometrical conditions.

  8. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  9. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing

    2012-03-30

    How to remove detector side channel attacks has been a notoriously hard problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a simple solution to this problem--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (QKD). It not only removes all detector side channels, but also doubles the secure distance with conventional lasers. Our proposal can be implemented with standard optical components with low detection efficiency and highly lossy channels. In contrast to the previous solution of full device independent QKD, the realization of our idea does not require detectors of near unity detection efficiency in combination with a qubit amplifier (based on teleportation) or a quantum nondemolition measurement of the number of photons in a pulse. Furthermore, its key generation rate is many orders of magnitude higher than that based on full device independent QKD. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over say 200 km will remain secure even with seriously flawed detectors. PMID:22540686

  10. 21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1450 Corneal radius measuring device... small, hand held, single tube penscope or eye gauge magnifier. (b) Classification. Class I...

  11. Magnetic measurements on insertion devices at NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G.; Galayda, J.; Solomon, L.; Kitamura, M.

    1989-07-01

    Magnetic measurements on three insertion devices for use in the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray ring are described. Hall probes were used for field mapping, and rotating long coils were used to determine integrated multipole coefficients. Results are presented for an iron pole-REC hybrid indulator, a vanadium permendur pole-REC hybrid wiggler, and a 5 T superconducting wiggler.

  12. Measuring ionizing radiation with a mobile device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsburg, Matthias; Fehrenbach, Thomas; Puente León, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    In cases of nuclear disasters it is desirable to know one's personal exposure to radioactivity and the related health risk. Usually, Geiger-Mueller tubes are used to assess the situation. Equipping everyone with such a device in a short period of time is very expensive. We propose a method to detect ionizing radiation using the integrated camera of a mobile consumer device, e.g., a cell phone. In emergency cases, millions of existing mobile devices could then be used to monitor the exposure of its owners. In combination with internet access and GPS, measured data can be collected by a central server to get an overview of the situation. During a measurement, the CMOS sensor of a mobile device is shielded from surrounding light by an attachment in front of the lens or an internal shutter. The high-energy radiation produces free electrons on the sensor chip resulting in an image signal. By image analysis by means of the mobile device, signal components due to incident ionizing radiation are separated from the sensor noise. With radioactive sources present significant increases in detected pixels can be seen. Furthermore, the cell phone application can make a preliminary estimate on the collected dose of an individual and the associated health risks.

  13. Wireless sensor for temperature and humidity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Svasta, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Temperature and humidity sensors have a broad range of applications, from heating and ventilation of houses to controlled drying of fruits, vegetables or meat in food industry. Modern sensors are integrated devices, usually MEMS, factory-calibrated and with digital output of measured parameters. They can have power down modes for reduced energy consumption. Such an integrated device allows the implementation of a battery powered wireless sensor when coupled with a low power microcontroller and a radio subsystem. A radio sensor can work independently or together with others in a radio network. Presented paper focuses mainly on measurement and construction aspects of sensors for temperature and humidity designed and implemented by authors; network aspects (communication between two or more sensors) are not analyzed.

  14. A noncontact temperature measurement method in polymerase chain reaction reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochivko, D. G.; Varlamov, D. A.; Fedorov, A. A.; Kurochkin, V. E.

    2016-04-01

    A new noncontact method for measuring temperatures of liquids, which is based on the fluorescent probes, is proposed. The method is intended for measuring temperatures of reaction media in reactors of devices for polymerase chain reactions in real time and can be used for determining dynamic temperature parameters.

  15. Emissivities of ceramics for temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Wolfgang; Moldenhauer, Alexander

    2004-04-01

    Ceramics are used as construction materials for buildings and thermal technical plants. Depending on the fields of its application between ambient temperature and more than 1000 °C there are different ceramic materials in use. For the temperature measurements with pyrometers and infrared cameras band emissivities are needed as settings. Pyrometers and infrared cameras have different spectral work ranges. Therefore, for different devices different emissivities are needed for one and the same material. Selectivity of the spectral emissivities like with ceramic materials can lead thereby to larger differences between the emissivities of a material, and furthermore to temperature dependence of the band emissivities of a material. Examples of different temperature-dependent spectral, band, and total emissivities are shown. These emissivities for different work ranges of pyrometers and infrared cameras were computed based on measured spectral emissivities. The investigation leads to a selection of suitable band emissivities for radiation thermometry of ceramics.

  16. Measuring temperature rise during orthopaedic surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Manoogian, Sarah; Lee, Adam K; Widmaier, James C

    2016-09-01

    A reliable means for measuring temperatures generated during surgical procedures is needed to recommend best practices for inserting fixation devices and minimizing the risk of osteonecrosis. Twenty four screw tests for three surgical procedures were conducted using the four thermocouples in the bone and one thermocouple in the screw. The maximum temperature rise recorded from the thermocouple in the screw (92.7±8.9°C, 158.7±20.9°C, 204.4±35.2°C) was consistently higher than the average temperature rise recorded in the bone (31.8±9.3°C, 44.9±12.4°C, 77.3±12.7°C). The same overall trend between the temperatures that resulted from three screw insertion procedures was recorded with significant statistical analyses using either the thermocouple in the screw or the average of several in-bone thermocouples. Placing a single thermocouple in the bone was determined to have limitations in accurately comparing temperatures from different external fixation screw insertion procedures. Using the preferred measurement techniques, a standard screw with a predrilled hole was found to have the lowest maximum temperatures for the shortest duration compared to the other two insertion procedures. Future studies evaluating bone temperature increase need to use reliable temperature measurements for recommending best practices to surgeons. PMID:27246667

  17. Development of a force measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmar, Otto

    1991-10-01

    The development of a Force Measurement Device (FMD) for recording interface forces between shaker table and Ariane 4 satellites is reported. The FMD is designed to measure forces and moments in the frequency range from 0.1 to 100 Hz with an accuracy better than 3 percent in basic modes up to 20 Hz, and 7 percent for higher modes. The ring shaped FMD concept contains 8 piezoelectronic force links and an analog electronic signal processing unit for reduction of the measured signals to 3 total forces and 3 moments. These are output to the test site signal analysis system. The required accuracy of the output and the structural safety of the device were verified by static tests.

  18. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOEpatents

    Poulsen, Peter

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  19. Shock temperature measurements in ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H.B.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Ross, M.

    1985-07-01

    Our first shock temperature measurements on a cryogenic target are reported for NH/sub 3/. A new fast optical pyrometer and a cryogenic specimen holder for liquid NH/sub 3/ were developed to measure shock temperatures of 4400 and 3600 K at pressures of 61 and 48 GPa. These conditions correspond to those in the ice layers in Uranus and Neptune. The shock temperature data are in reasonable agreement with an equation of state based on an intermolecular potential derived from NH/sub 3/ Hugoniot data.

  20. Containerless high temperature property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Anderson, Collin D.

    1991-01-01

    Containerless processing in the low gravity environment of space provides the opportunity to increase the temperature at which well controlled processing of and property measurements on materials is possible. This project was directed towards advancing containerless processing and property measurement techniques for application to materials research at high temperatures in space. Containerless high temperature material property studies include measurements of the vapor pressure, melting temperature, optical properties, and spectral emissivities of solid boron. The reaction of boron with nitrogen was also studied by laser polarimetric measurement of boron nitride film growth. The optical properties and spectral emissivities were measured for solid and liquid silicon, niobium, and zirconium; liquid aluminum and titanium; and liquid Ti-Al alloys of 5 to 60 atomic pct. titanium. Alternative means for noncontact temperature measurement in the absence of material emissivity data were evaluated. Also, the application of laser induced fluorescence for component activity measurements in electromagnetic levitated liquids was studied, along with the feasibility of a hybrid aerodynamic electromagnetic levitation technique.

  1. Precision of Four Acoustic Bone Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher; Rianon, Nahid; Feiveson, Alan; Shackelford, Linda; LeBlanc, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Though many studies have quantified the precision of various acoustic bone measurement devices, it is difficult to directly compare the results among the studies, because they used disparate subject pools, did not specify the estimation methodology, or did not use consistent definitions for various precision characteristics. In this study, we used a repeated measures design protocol to directly determine the precision characteristics of four acoustic bone measurement devices: the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), the UBA-575+, the SoundScan 2000 (S2000), and the Sahara Ultrasound Bone Analyzer. Ten men and ten women were scanned on all four devices by two different operators at five discrete time points: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Month 3 and Month 6. The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and standardized coefficient of variation were computed for the following precision characteristics: interoperator effect, operator-subject interaction, short-term error variance, and long-term drift. The MRTA had high interoperator errors for its ulnar and tibial stiffness measures and a large long-term drift in its tibial stiffness measurement. The UBA-575+ exhibited large short-term error variances and long-term drift for all three of its measurements. The S2000's tibial speed of sound measurement showed a high short-term error variance and a significant operator-subject interaction but very good values (less than 1%) for the other precision characteristics. The Sahara seemed to have the best overall performance, but was hampered by a large %CV for short-term error variance in its broadband ultrasound attenuation measure.

  2. Precision of Four Acoustic Bone Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher; Feiveson, Alan H.; Shackelford, Linda; Rianon, Nahida; LeBlanc, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Though many studies have quantified the precision of various acoustic bone measurement devices, it is difficult to directly compare the results among the studies, because they used disparate subject pools, did not specify the estimation methodology, or did not use consistent definitions for various precision characteristics. In this study, we used a repeated measures design protocol to directly determine the precision characteristics of four acoustic bone measurement devices: the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), the UBA-575+, the SoundScan 2000 (S2000), and the Sahara Ultrasound Done Analyzer. Ten men and ten women were scanned on all four devices by two different operators at five discrete time points: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Month 3 and Month 6. The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and standardized coefficient of variation were computed for the following precision characteristics: interoperator effect, operator-subject interaction, short-term error variance, and long-term drift, The MRTA had high interoperator errors for its ulnar and tibial stiffness measures and a large long-term drift in its tibial stiffness measurement. The UBA-575+ exhibited large short-term error variances and long-term drift for all three of its measurements. The S2000's tibial speed of sound measurement showed a high short-term error variance and a significant operator-subject interaction but very good values ( < 1%) for the other precision characteristics. The Sahara seemed to have the best overall performance, but was hampered by a large %CV for short-term error variance in its broadband ultrasound attenuation measure.

  3. Real-time precision measuring device of tree diameter growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingming; Chen, Aijun; Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Nan; Yao, Jingyuan

    2016-01-01

    DBH(diameter at breast height) is an important factor to reflect of the quality of plant growth, also an important parameter indispensable in forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink, the accurate measurement of DBH or not is directly related to the research of forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink. In this paper, the principle and the mathematical model of DBH measurement device were introduced, the fixture measuring device and the hardware circuit for this tree diameter were designed, the measurement software programs were compiled, and the precision measuring device of tree diameter growth was developed. Some experiments with Australia fir were conducted. Based on experiment data, the correlations among the DBH variation of Australian fir, the environment temperature, air humility and PAR(photosynthetically active radiation) were obtained. The effects of environmental parameters (environment temperature, air humility and PAR) on tree diameter were analyzed. Experimental results show that there is a positive correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and environment temperature, a negative correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and air humility , so is PAR.

  4. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882... conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification. A nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which measures nerve conduction time by applying a stimulus, usually to a...

  5. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882... conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification. A nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which measures nerve conduction time by applying a stimulus, usually to a...

  6. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882... conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification. A nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which measures nerve conduction time by applying a stimulus, usually to a...

  7. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882... conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification. A nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which measures nerve conduction time by applying a stimulus, usually to a...

  8. 21 CFR 882.1550 - Nerve conduction velocity measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nerve conduction velocity measurement device. 882... conduction velocity measurement device. (a) Identification. A nerve conduction velocity measurement device is a device which measures nerve conduction time by applying a stimulus, usually to a...

  9. Magnetic measurements on insertion devices at NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, G.; Galayda, J.; Kitamura, M.; Solomon, L.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic measurements on three insertion devices for use in the NSLS x-ray ring are described. Hall probes were used for field mapping, and rotating long coils were used to determine integrated multipole coefficients. Results are presented for an iron pole-REC hybrid undulator, a vanadium permendur pole-REC wiggler and a 5 Tesla superconducting wiggler. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Optimization of a fluidic temperature control device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabsky, J. M.; Rask, D. R.; Starr, J. B.

    1970-01-01

    Refinements are described to an existing fluidic temperature control system developed under a prior study which modulated temperature at the inlet to the liquid-cooled garment by using existing liquid supply and return lines to transmit signals to a fluidic controller located in the spacecraft. This earlier system produced a limited range of garment inlet temperatures, requiring some bypassing of flow around the suit to make the astronaut comfortable at rest conditions. Refinements were based on a flow visualization study of the key element in the fluidic controller: the fluidic mixing valve. The valve's mixing-ratio range was achieved by making five key changes: (1) geometrical changes to the valve; (2) attenuation of noise generated in proportional amplifier cascades; (3) elimination of vortices at the exit of the fluidic mixing valve; (4) reduction of internal heat transfer; and (5) flow balancing through venting. As a result, the refined system is capable of modulating garment inlet temperature from 45 F to 70 F with a single manual control valve in series with the garment. This control valve signals without changing or bypassing flow through the garment.

  11. Skin friction measuring device for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Bellman, D. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A skin friction measuring device for measuring the resistance of an aerodynamic surface to an airstream is described. It was adapted to be mounted on an aircraft and is characterized by a friction plate adapted to be disposed in a flush relationship with the external surface of the aircraft and be displaced in response to skin friction drag. As an airstream is caused to flow over the surface, a potentiometer connected to the plate for providing an electrical output indicates the magnitude of the drag.

  12. Method for measuring surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Gary A.; Baker, Sheila N.; McCleskey, T. Mark

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  13. Accelerated life testing and temperature dependence of device characteristics in GaAs CHFET devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallegos, M.; Leon, R.; Vu, D. T.; Okuno, J.; Johnson, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerated life testing of GaAs complementary heterojunction field effect transistors (CHFET) was carried out. Temperature dependence of single and synchronous rectifier CHFET device characteristics were also obtained.

  14. Amorphous metallizations for high-temperature semiconductor device applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, J. D.; Perepezko, J. H.; Nordman, J. E.; Kang-Jin, G.

    1981-01-01

    The initial results of work on a class of semiconductor metallizations which appear to hold promise as primary metallizations and diffusion barriers for high temperature device applications are presented. These metallizations consist of sputter-deposited films of high T sub g amorphous-metal alloys which (primarily because of the absence of grain boundaries) exhibit exceptionally good corrosion-resistance and low diffusion coefficients. Amorphous films of the alloys Ni-Nb, Ni-Mo, W-Si, and Mo-Si were deposited on Si, GaAs, GaP, and various insulating substrates. The films adhere extremely well to the substrates and remain amorphous during thermal cycling to at least 500 C. Rutherford backscattering and Auger electron spectroscopy measurements indicate atomic diffussivities in the 10 to the -19th power sq cm/S range at 450 C.

  15. An unheated permeation device for calibrating atmospheric VOC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, J.; Zahn, A.

    2011-10-01

    The development of an unpowered permeation device for continuous calibration of in-situ instruments measuring atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is described. Being lightweight and compact, and containing only negligible amounts of chemicals, the device is especially suited for field use such as on board aircraft. Its speciality is to maintain the permeation process in thermal equilibrium, so that the instantaneous permeation rate can be ascribed to a simple temperature measurement. This equilibrium state is maintained by a combination of three features: (i) a thin PTFE membrane as permeation medium which guarantees short stabilization times, (ii) a water bath as heat buffer, and (iii) a vacuum-panel based insulation, in which features (ii) and (iii) minimize temperature drifts to ~30 mK h-1 per Kelvin temperature difference to the environment. The respective uncertainty of the permeation rate due to thermal non-equilibrium is kept below 1%. An extensive theory part details the major permeation processes of gases through porous polymers, being Fick's diffusion, Knudsen flow, and viscous flow. Both the measured stabilization time and the measured temperature dependence of the permeation rate independently indicate that the permeation can be described by a viscous flow model, where diffusion of the gas molecules in large pores (having a diameter of >0.05 μm) dominates.

  16. Thin film materials and devices for resistive temperature sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basantani, Hitesh A.

    Thin films of vanadium oxide (VOx) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) are the two dominant material systems used in resistive infrared radiation detectors (microbolometers) for sensing long wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths in the 8--14 microm range. Typical thin films of VO x (x < 2) currently used in the bolometer industry have a magnitude of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) between 2%/K -- 3%/K. In contrast, thin films of hydrogenated germanium (SiGe:H) have |TCR| between 3%/K to 4%/K. Devices made from either of these materials have resulted in similar device performance with NETD ≈ 25 mK. The performance of the microbolometers is limited by the electronic noise, especially 1/f noise. Therefore, regardless of the choice of bolometer sensing material and read out circuitry, manufacturers are constantly striving to reduce 1/f noise while simultaneously increasing TCR to give better signal to noise ratios in their bolometers and ultimately, better image quality with more thermal information to the end user. In this work, thin films of VOx and hydrogenated germanium (Ge:H), having TCR values > 4 %/K are investigated as potential candidates for higher sensitivity next generation of microbolometers. Thin films of VO x were deposited by Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition (BTIBD) (˜85 nm thick). Electrical characterization of lateral resistor structures showed resistivity ranging from 104 O--cm to 2.1 x 104 O--cm, TCR varying from --4%/K to --5%/K, normalized Hooge parameter (alphaH/n) of 5 x 10 -21 to 5 x 10-18 cm3. Thin films of Ge:H were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) by incorporating an increasing amount of crystal fraction in the growing thin films. Thin films of Ge:H having a mixed phase, amorphous + nanocrystalline, having a |TCR| > 6 %/K were deposited with resistivity < 2,300 O--cm and a normalized Hooge's parameter 'alphaH/n' < 2 x 10-20 cm3. Higher TCR materials are desired, however, such materials have

  17. Colloidal-gold electrosensor measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Wegner, S.; Harpold, M.A.; McCaffrey, T.M.; Morris, S.E.; Wojciechowski, M.; Zhao, J.; Henkens, R.W.; Naser, N.; O`Daly, J.P.

    1995-11-21

    The present invention provides a new device for use in measuring lead levels in biological and environmental samples. Using square wave coulometry and colloidal gold particles impregnated on carbon electrodes, the present invention provides a rapid, reliable, portable and inexpensive means of detecting low lead levels. The colloidal gold modified electrodes have microelectrode array characteristics and produce significantly higher stripping detection signals for lead than are produced at bulk gold electrode surfaces. The method is effective in determining levels of lead down to at least 5 {micro}g/dL in blood samples as small as 10 {micro}L. 9 figs.

  18. Colloidal-gold electrosensor measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Wegner, Steven; Harpold, Michael A.; McCaffrey, Terence M.; Morris, Susan E.; Wojciechowski, Marek; Zhao, Junguo; Henkens, Robert W.; Naser, Najih; O'Daly, John P.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a new device for use in measuring lead levels in biological and environmental samples. Using square wave coulometry and colloidal gold particles impregnated on carbon electrodes, the present invention provides a rapid, reliable, portable and inexpensive means of detecting low lead levels. The colloidal gold modified electrodes have microelectrode array characteristics and produce significantly higher stripping detection signals for lead than are produced at bulk gold electrode surfaces. The method is effective in determining levels of lead down to at least 5 .mu.g/dL in blood samples as small as 10 .mu.L.

  19. Development of an ultrasonic airflow measurement device for ducted air.

    PubMed

    Raine, Andrew B; Aslam, Nauman; Underwood, Christopher P; Danaher, Sean

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an in-duct ultrasonic airflow measurement device has been designed, developed and tested. The airflow measurement results for a small range of airflow velocities and temperatures show that the accuracy was better than 3.5% root mean square (RMS) when it was tested within a round or square duct compared to the in-line Venturi tube airflow meter used for reference. This proof of concept device has provided evidence that with further development it could be a low-cost alternative to pressure differential devices such as the orifice plate airflow meter for monitoring energy efficiency performance and reliability of ventilation systems. The design uses a number of techniques and design choices to provide solutions to lower the implementation cost of the device compared to traditional airflow meters. The design choices that were found to work well are the single sided transducer arrangement for a "V" shaped reflective path and the use of square wave transmitter pulses ending with the necessary 180° phase changed pulse train to suppress transducer ringing. The device is also designed so that it does not have to rely on high-speed analogue to digital converters (ADC) and intensive digital signal processing, so could be implemented using voltage comparators and low-cost microcontrollers. PMID:25954952

  20. Development of an Ultrasonic Airflow Measurement Device for Ducted Air

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Andrew B.; Aslam, Nauman; Underwood, Christopher P.; Danaher, Sean

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an in-duct ultrasonic airflow measurement device has been designed, developed and tested. The airflow measurement results for a small range of airflow velocities and temperatures show that the accuracy was better than 3.5% root mean square (RMS) when it was tested within a round or square duct compared to the in-line Venturi tube airflow meter used for reference. This proof of concept device has provided evidence that with further development it could be a low-cost alternative to pressure differential devices such as the orifice plate airflow meter for monitoring energy efficiency performance and reliability of ventilation systems. The design uses a number of techniques and design choices to provide solutions to lower the implementation cost of the device compared to traditional airflow meters. The design choices that were found to work well are the single sided transducer arrangement for a “V” shaped reflective path and the use of square wave transmitter pulses ending with the necessary 180° phase changed pulse train to suppress transducer ringing. The device is also designed so that it does not have to rely on high-speed analogue to digital converters (ADC) and intensive digital signal processing, so could be implemented using voltage comparators and low-cost microcontrollers. PMID:25954952

  1. Current status of low-temperature radiator thermophotovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Charache, G.W.; Egley, J.L.; Danielson, L.R.; DePoy, D.M.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Campbell, B.C.; Hui, S.; Fraas, L.M.; Wojtczuk, S.J.

    1996-05-01

    The current performance status of low-temperature radiator (< 1,000 C) thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices is presented. For low-temperature radiators, both power density and efficiency are equally important in designing an effective TPV system. Comparisons of 1 cm x 1 cm, 0.55 eV InGaAs and InGaAsSb voltaic devices are presented. Currently, InGaAs lattice-mismatched devices offer superior performance in comparison to InGaAsSb lattice-matched devices, due to the former`s long-term development for numerous optoelectronic applications. However, lattice-matched antimony-based quaternaries offer numerous potential advantages.

  2. Measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2014-12-18

    In theory, quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information-theoretic security based on the laws of physics. Owing to the imperfections of real-life implementations, however, there is a big gap between the theory and practice of QKD, which has been recently exploited by several quantum hacking activities. To fill this gap, a novel approach, called measurement-device-independent QKD (mdiQKD), has been proposed. In addition, it can remove all side-channels from the measurement unit, arguably the most vulnerable part in QKD systems, thus offering a clear avenue toward secure QKD realisations. In this study, we review the latest developments in the framework of mdiQKD,more » together with its assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses.« less

  3. Measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Feihu; Curty, Marcos; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2014-12-18

    In theory, quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information-theoretic security based on the laws of physics. Owing to the imperfections of real-life implementations, however, there is a big gap between the theory and practice of QKD, which has been recently exploited by several quantum hacking activities. To fill this gap, a novel approach, called measurement-device-independent QKD (mdiQKD), has been proposed. In addition, it can remove all side-channels from the measurement unit, arguably the most vulnerable part in QKD systems, thus offering a clear avenue toward secure QKD realisations. In this study, we review the latest developments in the framework of mdiQKD, together with its assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses.

  4. Verilog-A Device Models for Cryogenic Temperature Operation of Bulk Silicon CMOS Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akturk, Akin; Potbhare, Siddharth; Goldsman, Neil; Holloway, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Verilog-A based cryogenic bulk CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) compact models are built for state-of-the-art silicon CMOS processes. These models accurately predict device operation at cryogenic temperatures down to 4 K. The models are compatible with commercial circuit simulators. The models extend the standard BSIM4 [Berkeley Short-channel IGFET (insulated-gate field-effect transistor ) Model] type compact models by re-parameterizing existing equations, as well as adding new equations that capture the physics of device operation at cryogenic temperatures. These models will allow circuit designers to create optimized, reliable, and robust circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  5. An unheated permeation device for calibrating atmospheric VOC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, J.; Zahn, A.

    2011-05-01

    The development of an unpowered permeation device for continuous calibration of in-situ instruments measuring atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is described. Being lightweight and compact, and containing only negligible amounts of chemicals, the device is especially suited for field use such as onboard aircraft. Its speciality is to maintain the permeation process in thermal equilibrium, i.e. the instantaneous permeation rate can be ascribed via a simple temperature measurement. This equilibrium state is maintained by a combination of three features: (i) a thin PTFE membrane as permeation medium which guarantees short stabilization times, (ii) a water bath as heat buffer, and (iii) a vacuum-panel based insulation, in which features (ii) and (iii) minimize temperature drifts. The uncertainty of the permeation rate due to thermal non-equilibrium is kept below 1 %. An extensive theory part details the major permeation processes of gases through porous polymers, being Fick's diffusion, Knudsen flow, and viscous flow. Both the measured stabilization time and the measured temperature dependence of the permeation rate independently indicate that the permeation can be described by a viscous flow model, where diffusion of the gas molecules in large pores (having a diameter of >0.05 μm) dominates.

  6. High-Temperature RF Probe Station For Device Characterization Through 500 deg C and 50 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Zachary D.; Downey, Alan N.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Ponchak, George E.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A high-temperature measurement system capable of performing on-wafer microwave testing of semiconductor devices has been developed. This high temperature probe station can characterize active and passive devices and circuits at temperatures ranging from room temperature to above 500 C. The heating system uses a ceramic heater mounted on an insulating block of NASA shuttle tile material. The temperature is adjusted by a graphical computer interface and is controlled by the software-based feedback loop. The system is used with a Hewlett-Packard 8510C Network Analyzer to measure scattering parameters over a frequency range of 1 to 50 GHz. The microwave probes, cables, and inspection microscope are all shielded to protect from heat damage. The high temperature probe station has been successfully used to characterize gold transmission lines on silicon carbide at temperatures up to 540 C.

  7. Statistical analysis of accelerated temperature aging of semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. A.; Milles, M. F.

    1981-05-01

    A number of semiconductor devices taken from a distribution were operated at several elevated temperatures to induce failure in all devices within a reasonable time. Assuming general characteristics of the device failure probability density function (pdf) and its temperature dependence, the expected cumulative failure function (cff) for devices in normal operation were estimated based on statistical inference, taking the average probability of a random device (from the same distribution but operated at a normal temperature) failing as a function of time. A review of the mathematical formalism employed in semiconductor reliability discussions is included. Three failure pdf's at particular usefulness to this analysis--exponential, normal, and lognormal - are discussed. The cff, at times orders of magnitude loss then, at times comparable to the desired system useful, life (*10 to the 4th power to 10 to the 5th power hr) is considered. A review of accelerated temperature aging is presented, and the assumption concerning the general characteristics of the failure pdf, which are fundamental to this analysis, are emphasized.

  8. Short-time spectroscopic measurement of the temperature of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, H.

    1984-02-01

    The short-time temperature rise dependent deformation caused by shocks on solids were measured with radiation pyrometric and spectroscopic methods. The methods can only be applied on solids emitting a measurable radiation and are based on spectral radiation and the temperature of the solid. The Planck-Kirchhoff radiation laws and the measuring method are presented. The measuring equipment consists of an image reproducing optical device and a photodetector with spectral or interference filters for wavelength selection.

  9. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  10. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  11. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  12. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement device... electrical resistance of the skin and the tissue path between two electrodes applied to the skin....

  13. 21 CFR 882.1560 - Skin potential measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skin potential measurement device. 882.1560 Section 882.1560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... measurement device. (a) Identification. A skin potential measurement device is a general diagnostic...

  14. 21 CFR 882.1560 - Skin potential measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skin potential measurement device. 882.1560 Section 882.1560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... measurement device. (a) Identification. A skin potential measurement device is a general diagnostic...

  15. 32 CFR 634.27 - Speed-measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Speed-measuring devices. 634.27 Section 634.27 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.27 Speed-measuring devices. Speed-measuring devices will...

  16. 21 CFR 864.5950 - Blood volume measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood volume measuring device. 864.5950 Section... § 864.5950 Blood volume measuring device. (a) Identification. A blood volume measuring device is a..., and total blood volume. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  17. 32 CFR 634.27 - Speed-measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Speed-measuring devices. 634.27 Section 634.27... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.27 Speed-measuring devices. Speed-measuring devices will be used in traffic control studies and enforcement programs....

  18. Development of silicon carbide semiconductor devices for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Powell, J. Anthony; Petit, Jeremy B.

    1991-01-01

    The semiconducting properties of electronic grade silicon carbide crystals, such as wide energy bandgap, make it particularly attractive for high temperature applications. Applications for high temperature electronic devices include instrumentation for engines under development, engine control and condition monitoring systems, and power conditioning and control systems for space platforms and satellites. Discrete prototype SiC devices were fabricated and tested at elevated temperatures. Grown p-n junction diodes demonstrated very good rectification characteristics at 870 K. A depletion-mode metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor was also successfully fabricated and tested at 770 K. While optimization of SiC fabrication processes remain, it is believed that SiC is an enabling high temperature electronic technology.

  19. Ultrasonic device for measuring periodontal attachment levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, J. E.; Hinders, M. K.

    2002-07-01

    Periodontal disease is manifested clinically by a degradation of the ligament that attaches the tooth to the bone. The most widely used diagnostic tool for assessment of periodontal diseases, measurement of periodontal attachment loss with a manual probe, may overestimate attachment loss by as much as 2 mm in untreated sites, while underestimating attachment loss by an even greater margin following treatment. Manual probing is also invasive, which causes patient discomfort. This work describes the development and testing of an ultrasonographic periodontal probe designed to replace manual probing. It uses a thin stream of water to project an ultrasonic beam into the periodontal pocket, and then measures echoes off features within the pocket. To do so, the ultrasonic beam must be narrowed from 2 (the diameter of the transducer) to 0.5 mm (the approximate width of the periodontal pocket at the gingival margin). The proper choice of transducer frequency, the proper method for controlling water flow from the probe, and a model for interpreting these echoes are also addressed. Initial results indicate that the device measures echoes from the hard tissue of the tooth surface, and that the periodontal attachment level can be inferred from these echoes.

  20. Cooling device featuring thermoelectric and diamond materials for temperature control of heat-dissipating devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersande, Ian W. (Inventor); Ewell, Richard (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Lyon, Hylan B. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A cooling device for lowering the temperature of a heat-dissipating device. The cooling device includes a heat-conducting substrate (composed, e.g., of diamond or another high thermal conductivity material) disposed in thermal contact with the heat-dissipating device. During operation, heat flows from the heat-dissipating device into the heat-conducting substrate, where it is spread out over a relatively large area. A thermoelectric cooling material (e.g., a Bi.sub.2 Te.sub.3 -based film or other thermoelectric material) is placed in thermal contact with the heat-conducting substrate. Application of electrical power to the thermoelectric material drives the thermoelectric material to pump heat into a second heat-conducting substrate which, in turn, is attached to a heat sink.

  1. 21 CFR 882.1560 - Skin potential measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skin potential measurement device. 882.1560 Section 882.1560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1560 Skin...

  2. 21 CFR 864.6400 - Hematocrit measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hematocrit measuring device. 864.6400 Section 864.6400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6400 Hematocrit...

  3. 21 CFR 864.6400 - Hematocrit measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hematocrit measuring device. 864.6400 Section 864.6400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6400 Hematocrit...

  4. 21 CFR 864.6400 - Hematocrit measuring device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hematocrit measuring device. 864.6400 Section 864.6400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6400 Hematocrit...

  5. High temperature skin friction measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  6. Ultimate Diagnostics for the Measurement of Turbulence in Toroidal Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.; Mazzucato, E.; Hahm, T. S.; Lee, W. W.; Rewoldt, G.; Synakowski, E.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

    1998-11-01

    Relentless efforts in plasma diagnostics concepts (E. Mazzucato, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1691 (1998), H. Hase, H. Hartfuss,12th HTPD conference, F-16, June 1998.) and technology (R.P. Hsia et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 488 (1997).) R&D enable us to design a system capable of simultaneous 3-D imaging of the temperature and density turbulence spectrum in toroidal devices such as tokamak and stellarator. Measurement of multi-dimensional correlation between Te and ne turbulence is extremely important in understanding the current transport model. In this paper, the details of the concept design such as accessibility, machine parameters, detection system and relevant frequencies will be discussed for a various devices. Special attention will be given to obtain ω and k spectra with sufficient spatial resolution so that the results can be readily compared with remarkable visual results produced by gyro-kinetic (GK) and/or gyro-fluid (GF) simulations.

  7. Organic Materials for Time-Temperature Integrator Devices.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Massimiliano; Melucci, Manuela

    2015-08-12

    Time-temperature integrators (TTIs) are devices capable of recording the thermal history of a system. They have an enormous impact in the food and pharmaceutical industries. TTIs exploit several irreversible thermally activated transitions such as recrystallization, dewetting, smoothening, chemical decomposition, and polymorphic transitions, usually considered drawbacks for many technological applications. The aim of this article is to sensitize research groups working in organic synthesis and surface science toward TTI devices, enlarging the prospects of many new materials. We reviewed the principal applications highlighting the need and criticisms of TTIs, which offer a new opportunity for the development of many materials. PMID:26156082

  8. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  9. Advanced devices and systems for radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.; Wehe, D.K.; He, Z.; Barrett, C.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-06-01

    The authors` most recent work continues their long-standing efforts to develop semiconductor detectors based on the collection of only a single type of charge carrier. Their best results are an extension of the principle of coplanar electrodes first described by Paul Luke of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 18 months ago. This technique, described in past progress reports, has the effect of deriving an output signal from detectors that depends only on the motion of carriers close to one surface. Since nearly all of these carriers are of one type (electrons) that are attracted to that electrode, the net effect is to nearly eliminate the influence of hole motion on the properties of the output signal. The result is that the much better mobility of electrons in compound semiconductors materials such as CZT can now be exploited without the concurrent penalty of poor hole collection. They have also developed new techniques in conjunction with the coplanar electrode principle that extends the technique into a new dimension. By proper processing of signals from the opposite electrode (the cathode) from the coplanar surface, they are able to derive a signal that is a good indication of the depth of interaction at which the charge carriers were initially formed. They have been the first group to demonstrate this technique, and examples of separate pulse height spectra recorded at a variety of different depths of interaction are shown in several of the figures that follow. Obtaining depth information is one step in the direction of obtaining volumetric point-of-interaction information from the detector. If one could known the coordinates of each specific interaction, then corrections could be applied to account for the inhomogeneities that currently plague many room-temperature devices.

  10. Measurement-device-independent quantum coin tossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liangyuan; Yin, Zhenqiang; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Chen, Hua; Guo, Guangcan; Han, Zhengfu

    2015-12-01

    Quantum coin tossing (QCT) is an important primitive of quantum cryptography and has received continuous interest. However, in practical QCT, Bob's detectors can be subjected to detector-side channel attacks launched by dishonest Alice, which will possibly make the protocol completely insecure. Here, we report a simple strategy of a detector-blinding attack based on a recent experiment. To remove all the detector side channels, we present a solution of measurement-device-independent QCT (MDI-QCT). This method is similar to the idea of MDI quantum key distribution (QKD). MDI-QCT is loss tolerant with single-photon sources and has the same bias as the original loss-tolerant QCT under a coherent attack. Moreover, it provides the potential advantage of doubling the secure distance for some special cases. Finally, MDI-QCT can also be modified to fit the weak coherent-state sources. Thus, based on the rapid development of practical MDI-QKD, our proposal can be implemented easily.

  11. Force Measurement Device for ARIANE 5 Payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, O.; Braeken, R.

    2004-08-01

    ESTEC uses since 1991 a Force Measurement Device (FMD) for the measurement of dynamic mechanical forces and moments. This tool allows the determination of forces and moments applied to the test hardware at its interface to the test facilities during dynamic testing. Three forces and three moments are calculated from the measurements of eight tri-axial force links and used to either characterize the dynamic mechanical behaviour of the test item and/or to control forces and moments during vibration testing (force limited vibration control). The current FMD is limited to test items with an interface diameter of up to about 1.2 m (adapter already available) and a mass compatible with ARIANE 4 payloads. The limitations of the current system come from the maximum of eight tri-axial force links and from the analogue technique of the Signal Processing Unit (SPU) that allows only a limited number of geometric configurations for the mechanical interface. Following the success of the FMD during former test campaigns, e.g. ROSETTA STM + FM, the need for a FMD, compatible with ARIANE 5 payloads has been established. Therefore ESA decided to develop a new FMD system. The system will include a digital real time SPU with 72 force input channels, corresponding to 24 tri-axes force sensors or 72 mono axial force sensors. The SPU design will allow extending the number of force input channels to 144. The set-up of the FMD will be done via a standard PC interface. The user will enter for each force sensor the location and the measurement direction in the reference coordinate system. Based on the geometrical information and the maximum forces and moments expected the PC will calculate the optimum range settings for the charge-amplifiers and the corresponding matrix with weighting factors which will allow to perform a fast calculation of the six output forces and moments from the 72 (or 144) input forces. The six output channels with forces and moments can then be connected either to the

  12. Optimal color temperature adjustment for mobile devices under varying illuminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungah; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    With the wide use of mobile devices, display color reproduction has become extremely important. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optimal color temperature for mobile displays under varying illuminants. The effect of the color temperature and the illuminance of ambient lighting on user preferences were observed. For a visual examination, a total of 19 nuanced whites were examined under 20 illuminants. A total of 19 display stimuli with different color temperatures (2,500 K ~ 19,600 K) were presented on an iPad3 (New iPad). The ambient illuminants ranged in color temperature from 2,500 K to 19,800 K and from 0 lx to 3,000 lx in illuminance. Supporting previous studies of color reproduction, there was found to be a positive correlation between the color temperature of illuminants and that of optimal whites. However, the relationship was not linear. Based on assessments by 56 subjects, a regression equation was derived to predict the optimal color temperature adjustment under varying illuminants, as follows: [Display Tcp = 5138.93 log(Illuminant Tcp) - 11956.59, p<.001, R2=0.94]. Moreover, the influence of an illuminant was positively correlated with the illuminance level, confirming the findings of previous studies. It is expected that the findings of this study can be used as the theoretical basis when designing a color strategy for mobile display devices.

  13. Infrared Emissivity Measurements of Building and Civil Engineering Materials: A New Device for Measuring Emissivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Marchetti, Mario; Ibos, Laurent; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves

    2014-10-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings and civil engineering structures is useful for two specific approaches. First, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures by infrared thermography requires emissivity values in the spectral bandwidth of the camera used for measurements, in order to obtain accurate surface temperatures; for instance, emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors (such as micro-bolometer arrays). Second, setting up accurate thermal balances by numerical modeling requires the total emissivity value for a large wavelength domain; this is, for instance, the case for computing the road surface temperature to predict ice occurrence. Furthermore, periodical surveys of emissivity variations due to aging or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations such as thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. A device using an indirect measurement method was previously developed in our lab; the method uses measurement of the reflectivity from a modulated IR source and requires calibration with a highly reflective surface. However, that device uses a low-frequency, thermal modulation well adapted to laboratory measurements but unfit for fast and in situ measurements. Therefore, a new, portable system which retains the principle of an indirect measurement but uses a faster-frequency, mechanical modulation more appropriate to outdoor measurements was developed. Both devices allow measurements in the broad m to m) and narrow m to m) bands. Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. The final objective of this work is to build a database of emissivity of these materials. A comparison of laboratory and on-site measurements of emissivity values obtained in both spectral bands will be

  14. Application of inverse heat conduction problem on temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhou, G.; Dong, B.; Li, Q.; Liu, L. Q.

    2013-09-01

    For regenerative cooling devices, such as G-M refrigerator, pulse tube cooler or thermoacoustic cooler, the gas oscillating bring about temperature fluctuations inevitably, which is harmful in many applications requiring high stable temperatures. To find out the oscillating mechanism of the cooling temperature and improve the temperature stability of cooler, the inner temperature of the cold head has to be measured. However, it is difficult to measure the inner oscillating temperature of the cold head directly because the invasive temperature detectors may disturb the oscillating flow. Fortunately, the outer surface temperature of the cold head can be measured accurately by invasive temperature measurement techniques. In this paper, a mathematical model of inverse heat conduction problem is presented to identify the inner surface oscillating temperature of cold head according to the measured temperature of the outer surface in a GM cryocooler. Inverse heat conduction problem will be solved using control volume approach. Outer surface oscillating temperature could be used as input conditions of inverse problem and the inner surface oscillating temperature of cold head can be inversely obtained. A simple uncertainty analysis of the oscillating temperature measurement also will be provided.

  15. On-chip temperature-compensated Love mode surface acoustic wave device for gravimetric sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Flewitt, A. J.

    2014-11-01

    Love mode surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors have been recognized as one of the most sensitive devices for gravimetric sensors in liquid environments such as bio sensors. Device operation is based upon measuring changes in the transmitted (S21) frequency and phase of the first-order Love wave resonance associated with the device upon on attachment of mass. However, temperature variations also cause a change in the first order S21 parameters. In this work, shallow grooved reflectors and a "dotted" single phase unidirectional interdigitated transducer (D-SPUDT) have been added to the basic SAW structure, which promote unidirectional Love wave propagation from the device's input interdigitated transducers. Not only does this enhance the first-order S21 signal but also it allows propagation of a third-order Love wave. The attenuation coefficient of the third-order wave is sufficiently great that, whilst there is a clear reflected S11 signal, the third-order wave does not propagate into the gravimetric sensing area of the device. As a result, whilst the third-order S11 signal is affected by temperature changes, it is unaffected by mass attachment in the sensing area. It is shown that this signal can be used to remove temperature effects from the first-order S21 signal in real time. This allows gravimetric sensing to take place in an environment without the need for any other temperature measurement or temperature control; this is a particular requirement of gravimetric biosensors.

  16. Electrical Devices and Circuits for Low Temperature Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, R. L.; Hammond, A.; Dickman, J. E.; Gerber, S.; Overton, E.; Elbuluk, M.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental temperature in many NASA missions, such as deep space probes and outer planetary exploration, is significantly below the range for which conventional commercial-off-the-shelf electronics is designed. Presently, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of such deep space missions carry a large number of radioisotope or other heating units in order to maintain the surrounding temperature of the on-board electronics at approximately 20 C. Electronic devices and circuits capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures will not only tolerate the harsh environment of deep space but also will reduce system size and weight by eliminating or reducing the heating units and their associate structures; thereby reducing system development cost as well as launch costs. In addition, power electronic circuits designed for operation at low temperatures are expected to result in more efficient systems than those at room temperature. This improvement results from better behavior in the electrical and thermal properties of some semiconductor and dielectric materials at low temperatures. An on-going research and development program on low temperature electronics at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on the development of efficient electrical systems and circuits capable of surviving and exploiting the advantages of low temperature environments. An overview of the program will be presented in this paper. A description of the low temperature test facilities along with selected data obtained from in-house component testing will also be discussed. On-going research activities that are being performed in collaboration with various organizations will also be presented.

  17. Compensated vibrating optical fiber pressure measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Goff, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A microbending optical fiber is attached under tension to a diaphragm to se a differential pressure applied across the diaphragm which it causes it to deflect. The fiber is attached to the diaphragm so that one portion of the fiber, attached to a central portion of the diaphragm, undergoes a change in tension; proportional to the differential pressure applied to the diaphragm while a second portion attached at the periphery of the diaphragm remains at a reference tension. Both portions of the fiber are caused to vibrate at their natural frequencies. Light transmitted through the fiber is attenuated by both portions of the tensioned sections of the fiber by an amount which increases with the curvature of fiber bending so that the light signal is modulated by both portions of the fiber at separate frequencies. The modulated light signal is transduced into a electrical signal. The separate modulation signals are detected to generate separate signals having frequencies corresponding to the reference and measuring vibrating sections of the continuous fiber, respectively. A signal proportional to the difference between these signals is generated which is indicative of the measured pressure differential across the diaphragm. The reference portion of the fiber is used to compensate the pressure signal for zero and span changes resulting from ambient temperature and humidity effects upon the fiber and the transducer fixture.

  18. Measurement of relative permittivity of LTCC ceramic at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qiulin; Kang, Hao; Qin, Li; Xiong, Jijun; Zhou, Zhaoying; Zhang, Wendong; Luo, Tao; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Devices based on LTCC (low-temperature co-fired ceramic) technology are more widely applied in high temperature environments, and the temperature-dependent properties of the LTCC material play an important role in measurements of the characteristics of these devices at high temperature. In this paper, the temperature-dependence of the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic is studied from room temperature to 500 °C. An expression for relative permittivity is obtained, which relates the relative permittivity to the resonant frequency, inductance, parasitic capacitance and electrode capacitance of the LTCC sample. Of these properties, the electrode capacitance is the most strongly temperature-dependent. The LTCC sample resonant frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance were measured (from room temperature to 500 °C) with a high temperature measurement system comprising a muffle furnace and network analyzer. We found that the resonant frequency reduced and the inductance and parasitic capacitance increased slightly as the temperature increases. The relative permittivity can be calculated from experimental frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance measurements. Calculating results show that the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic ceramic increases to 8.21 from room temperature to 500 °C.

  19. Temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Roger D.

    1978-01-01

    A temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device includes a magnet and a ferromagnetic member defining therebetween a flow path for liquid metal, the ferromagnetic member being formed of a material having a curie temperature at which a change in the flow rate of the liquid metal is desired. According to the preferred embodiment the magnet is a cylindrical rod magnet axially disposed within a cylindrical member formed of a curie material and having iron pole pieces at the ends. A cylindrical iron shunt and a thin wall stainless steel barrier are disposed in the annulus between magnet and curie material. Below the curie temperature flow between steel barrier and curie material is impeded and above the curie temperature flow impedance is reduced.

  20. Evaluation of Advanced COTS Passive Devices for Extreme Temperature Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad; Dones, Keishla R.

    2009-01-01

    Electronic sensors and circuits are often exposed to extreme temperatures in many of NASA deep space and planetary surface exploration missions. Electronics capable of operation in harsh environments would be beneficial as they simplify overall system design, relax thermal management constraints, and meet operational requirements. For example, cryogenic operation of electronic parts will improve reliability, increase energy density, and extend the operational lifetimes of space-based electronic systems. Similarly, electronic parts that are able to withstand and operate efficiently in high temperature environments will negate the need for thermal control elements and their associated structures, thereby reducing system size and weight, enhancing its reliability, improving its efficiency, and reducing cost. Passive devices play a critical role in the design of almost all electronic circuitry. To address the needs of systems for extreme temperature operation, some of the advanced and most recently introduced commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) passive devices, which included resistors and capacitors, were examined for operation under a wide temperature regime. The types of resistors investigated included high temperature precision film, general purpose metal oxide, and wirewound.

  1. Assessment of SOI Devices and Circuits at Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik; Hammoud, Ahmad; Patterson, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    Electronics designed for use in future NASA space exploration missions are expected to encounter extreme temperatures and wide thermal swings. Such missions include planetary surface exploration, bases, rovers, landers, orbiters, and satellites. Electronics designed for such applications must, therefore, be able to withstand exposure to extreme temperatures and to perform properly for the duration of mission. The Low Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electrical devices, circuits, and systems suitable for applications in deep space exploration missions and aerospace environment. Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology has been under active consideration in the electronics industry for many years due to the advantages that it can provide in integrated circuit (IC) chips and computer processors. Faster switching, less power, radiationtolerance, reduced leakage, and high temp-erature capability are some of the benefits that are offered by using SOI-based devices. A few SOI circuits are available commercially. However, there is a noticeable interest in SOI technology for different applications. Very little data, however, exist on the performance of such circuits under cryogenic temperatures. In this work, the performance of SOI integrated circuits, evaluated under low temperature and thermal cycling, are reported. In particular, three examples of SOI circuits that have been tested for operation at low at temperatures are given. These circuits are SOI operational amplifiers, timers and power MOSFET drivers. The investigations were carried out to establish a baseline on the functionality and to determine suitability of these circuits for use in space exploration missions at cryogenic temperatures. The findings are useful to mission planners and circuit designers so that proper selection of electronic parts can be made, and risk assessment can be established for such circuits for use in space missions.

  2. 21 CFR 882.1540 - Galvanic skin response measurement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Galvanic skin response measurement device. 882.1540 Section 882.1540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Galvanic skin response measurement device. (a) Identification. A galvanic skin response measurement...

  3. 27 CFR 25.42 - Testing of measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.42 Testing of measuring devices... beer, the brewer shall periodically test the measuring device and adjust or repair it, if necessary... test; and (4) Corrective action taken, if necessary. (b) Requirements for beer meters. The...

  4. 27 CFR 25.42 - Testing of measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.42 Testing of measuring devices... beer, the brewer shall periodically test the measuring device and adjust or repair it, if necessary... test; and (4) Corrective action taken, if necessary. (b) Requirements for beer meters. The...

  5. 27 CFR 25.42 - Testing of measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.42 Testing of measuring devices... beer, the brewer shall periodically test the measuring device and adjust or repair it, if necessary... test; and (4) Corrective action taken, if necessary. (b) Requirements for beer meters. The...

  6. 27 CFR 25.42 - Testing of measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.42 Testing of measuring devices... beer, the brewer shall periodically test the measuring device and adjust or repair it, if necessary... test; and (4) Corrective action taken, if necessary. (b) Requirements for beer meters. The...

  7. 27 CFR 25.42 - Testing of measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Measurement of Beer § 25.42 Testing of measuring devices... beer, the brewer shall periodically test the measuring device and adjust or repair it, if necessary... test; and (4) Corrective action taken, if necessary. (b) Requirements for beer meters. The...

  8. 121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  9. Infrared negative luminescent devices and higher operating temperature detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Geoff R.; Gordon, Neil T.; Hall, David J.; Little, J. Chris; Masterton, G.; Hails, J. E.; Giess, J.; Haworth, L.; Emeny, Martin T.; Ashley, Tim

    2004-02-01

    Infrared LEDs and negative luminescent devices, where less light is emitted than in equilibrium, have been attracting an increasing amount of interest recently. They have a variety of applications, including as a ‘source" of IR radiation for gas sensing; radiation shielding for and non-uniformity correction of high sensitivity starring infrared detectors; and dynamic infrared scene projection. Similarly, IR detectors are used in arrays for thermal imaging and, discretely, in applications such as gas sensing. Multi-layer heterostructure epitaxy enables the growth of both types of device using designs in which the electronic processes can be precisely controlled and techniques such as carrier exclusion and extraction can be implemented. This enables detectors to be made which offer good performance at higher than normal operating temperatures, and efficient negative luminescent devices to be made which simulate a range of effective temperatures whilst operating uncooled. In both cases, however, additional performance benefits can be achieved by integrating optical concentrators around the diodes to reduce the volume of semiconductor material, and so minimise the thermally activated generation-recombination processes which compete with radiative mechanisms. The integrated concentrators are in the form of Winston cones, which can be formed using an iterative dry etch process involving methane/hydrogen and oxygen. We will present results on negative luminescence in the mid and long IR wavebands, from devices made from indium antimonide and mercury cadmium telluride, where the aim is sizes greater than 1cm x 1cm. We will also discuss progress on, and the potential for, operating temperature and/or sensitivity improvement of detectors, where very higher performance imaging is anticipated from systems which require no mechanical cooling.

  10. Infrared negative luminescent devices and higher operating temperature detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, G. R.; Gordon, N. T.; Hall, D. J.; Ashby, M. K.; Little, J. C.; Masterton, G.; Hails, J. E.; Giess, J.; Haworth, L.; Emeny, M. T.; Ashley, T.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared LEDs and negative luminescent devices, where less light is emitted than in equilibrium, have been attracting an increasing amount of interest recently. They have a variety of applications, including as a ‘source’ of IR radiation for gas sensing; radiation shielding for, and non-uniformity correction of, high sensitivity staring infrared detectors; and dynamic infrared scene projection. Similarly, infrared (IR) detectors are used in arrays for thermal imaging and, discretely, in applications such as gas sensing. Multi-layer heterostructure epitaxy enables the growth of both types of device using designs in which the electronic processes can be precisely controlled and techniques such as carrier exclusion and extraction can be implemented. This enables detectors to be made which offer good performance at higher than normal operating temperatures, and efficient negative luminescent devices to be made which simulate a range of effective temperatures whilst operating uncooled. In both cases, however, additional performance benefits can be achieved by integrating optical concentrators around the diodes to reduce the volume of semiconductor material, and so minimise the thermally activated generation-recombination processes which compete with radiative mechanisms. The integrated concentrators are in the form of Winston cones, which can be formed using an iterative dry etch process involving methane/hydrogen and oxygen. We present results on negative luminescence in the mid- and long-IR wavebands, from devices made from indium antimonide and mercury cadmium telluride, where the aim is sizes greater than 1 cm×1 cm. We also discuss progress on, and the potential for, operating temperature and/or sensitivity improvement of detectors, where very high-performance imaging is anticipated from systems which require no mechanical cooling.

  11. Infrared Negative Luminescent Devices and Higher Operating Temperature Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Tim

    2003-03-01

    Infrared LEDs and negative luminescent devices, where less light is emitted than in equilibrium, have been attracting an increasing amount of interest recently. They have a variety of applications, including as a source' of IR radiation for gas sensing; radiation shielding for and non-uniformity correction of high sensitivity starring infrared detectors; and dynamic infrared scene projection. Similarly, IR detectors are used in arrays for thermal imaging and, discretely, in applications such as gas sensing. Multi-layer heterostructure epitaxy enables the growth of both types of device using designs in which the electronic processes can be precisely controlled and techniques such as carrier exclusion and extraction can be implemented. This enables detectors to be made which offer good performance at higher than normal operating temperatures, and efficient negative luminescent devices to be made which simulate a range of effective temperatures whilst operating uncooled. In both cases, however, additional performance benefits can be achieved by integrating optical concentrators around the diodes to reduce the volume of semiconductor material, and so minimise the thermally activated generation-recombination processes which compete with radiative mechanisms. The integrated concentrators are in the form of Winston cones, which can be formed using an iterative dry etch process involving methane/hydrogen and oxygen. We will present results on negative luminescence in the mid and long IR wavebands, from devices made from indium antimonide and mercury cadmium telluride, where the aim is sizes greater than 1cm x 1cm. We will also discuss progress on, and the potential for, operating temperature and/or sensitivity improvement of detectors, where very high performance imaging is anticipated from systems which require no mechanical cooling.

  12. Simple microcalorimeter for measuring microgram samples at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doettinger-Zech, S. G.; Uhl, M.; Sisson, D. L.; Kapitulnik, A.

    2001-05-01

    An innovative microcalorimeter has been developed for measuring specific heat of very small microgram samples in the temperature range from 1.5 to 50 K and in magnetic fields up to 11 T. The device is built from a commercial sapphire temperature chip (Cernox), which is modified by means of standard microfabrication techniques and which is used as a sample holder, temperature sensor, and sample heater. Compared to existing microcalorimeters the simple design of our instrument allows a fabrication of the device in a few process steps by using facilities present in a standard laboratory clean room. As an illustrative example for the performance of our device, the specific heat of an underdoped (La1-xSrx)2CuO4 and CaRuO3 single crystal has been measured by means of the relaxation time method as well as the ac method.

  13. Temperature and Strain Coefficient of Velocity for Langasite SAW Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave sensors on Langasite substrates are being investigated for aerospace applications. Characterization of the Langasite material properties must be performed before sensors can be installed in research vehicles. The coefficients of velocity for both strain and temperature have been determined. These values have also been used to perform temperature compensation of the strain measurements.

  14. Electron cyclotron beam measurement system in the Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect

    Kamio, S. Takahashi, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Osakabe, M.; Mutoh, T.

    2014-11-15

    In order to evaluate the electron cyclotron (EC) heating power inside the Large Helical Device vacuum vessel and to investigate the physics of the interaction between the EC beam and the plasma, a direct measurement system for the EC beam transmitted through the plasma column was developed. The system consists of an EC beam target plate, which is made of isotropic graphite and faces against the EC beam through the plasma, and an IR camera for measuring the target plate temperature increase by the transmitted EC beam. This system is applicable to the high magnetic field (up to 2.75 T) and plasma density (up to 0.8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}). This system successfully evaluated the transmitted EC beam profile and the refraction.

  15. Temperature mapping of operating nanoscale devices by scanning probe thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menges, Fabian; Mensch, Philipp; Schmid, Heinz; Riel, Heike; Stemmer, Andreas; Gotsmann, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Imaging temperature fields at the nanoscale is a central challenge in various areas of science and technology. Nanoscopic hotspots, such as those observed in integrated circuits or plasmonic nanostructures, can be used to modify the local properties of matter, govern physical processes, activate chemical reactions and trigger biological mechanisms in living organisms. The development of high-resolution thermometry techniques is essential for understanding local thermal non-equilibrium processes during the operation of numerous nanoscale devices. Here we present a technique to map temperature fields using a scanning thermal microscope. Our method permits the elimination of tip-sample contact-related artefacts, a major hurdle that so far has limited the use of scanning probe microscopy for nanoscale thermometry. We map local Peltier effects at the metal-semiconductor contacts to an indium arsenide nanowire and self-heating of a metal interconnect with 7 mK and sub-10 nm spatial temperature resolution.

  16. Temperature mapping of operating nanoscale devices by scanning probe thermometry.

    PubMed

    Menges, Fabian; Mensch, Philipp; Schmid, Heinz; Riel, Heike; Stemmer, Andreas; Gotsmann, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Imaging temperature fields at the nanoscale is a central challenge in various areas of science and technology. Nanoscopic hotspots, such as those observed in integrated circuits or plasmonic nanostructures, can be used to modify the local properties of matter, govern physical processes, activate chemical reactions and trigger biological mechanisms in living organisms. The development of high-resolution thermometry techniques is essential for understanding local thermal non-equilibrium processes during the operation of numerous nanoscale devices. Here we present a technique to map temperature fields using a scanning thermal microscope. Our method permits the elimination of tip-sample contact-related artefacts, a major hurdle that so far has limited the use of scanning probe microscopy for nanoscale thermometry. We map local Peltier effects at the metal-semiconductor contacts to an indium arsenide nanowire and self-heating of a metal interconnect with 7 mK and sub-10 nm spatial temperature resolution. PMID:26936427

  17. Temperature mapping of operating nanoscale devices by scanning probe thermometry

    PubMed Central

    Menges, Fabian; Mensch, Philipp; Schmid, Heinz; Riel, Heike; Stemmer, Andreas; Gotsmann, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Imaging temperature fields at the nanoscale is a central challenge in various areas of science and technology. Nanoscopic hotspots, such as those observed in integrated circuits or plasmonic nanostructures, can be used to modify the local properties of matter, govern physical processes, activate chemical reactions and trigger biological mechanisms in living organisms. The development of high-resolution thermometry techniques is essential for understanding local thermal non-equilibrium processes during the operation of numerous nanoscale devices. Here we present a technique to map temperature fields using a scanning thermal microscope. Our method permits the elimination of tip–sample contact-related artefacts, a major hurdle that so far has limited the use of scanning probe microscopy for nanoscale thermometry. We map local Peltier effects at the metal–semiconductor contacts to an indium arsenide nanowire and self-heating of a metal interconnect with 7 mK and sub-10 nm spatial temperature resolution. PMID:26936427

  18. Device and method for measuring thermal conductivity of thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Tahani R. (Inventor); Subramanian, Chelakara (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Alderfer, David W. (Inventor); Sealey, Bradley S. (Inventor); Burkett, Jr., Cecil G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device and method are provided for measuring the thermal conductivity of rigid or flexible, homogeneous or heterogeneous, thin films between 50 .mu.m and 150 .mu.m thick with relative standard deviations of less than five percent. The specimen is sandwiched between like material, highly conductive upper and lower slabs. Each slab is instrumented with six thermocouples embedded within the slab and flush with their corresponding surfaces. A heat source heats the lower slab and a heat sink cools the upper slab. The heat sink also provides sufficient contact pressure onto the specimen. Testing is performed within a vacuum environment (bell-jar) between 10.sup.-3 to 10.sup.-6 Torr. An anti-radiant shield on the interior surface of the bell-jar is used to avoid radiation heat losses. Insulation is placed adjacent to the heat source and adjacent to the heat sink to prevent conduction losses. A temperature controlled water circulator circulates water from a constant temperature bath through the heat sink. Fourier's one-dimensional law of heat conduction is the governing equation. Data, including temperatures, are measured with a multi-channel data acquisition system. On-line computer processing is used for thermal conductivity calculations.

  19. Development of a wireless blood pressure measuring device with smart mobile device.

    PubMed

    İlhan, İlhan; Yıldız, İbrahim; Kayrak, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    Today, smart mobile devices (telephones and tablets) are very commonly used due to their powerful hardware and useful features. According to an eMarketer report, in 2014 there were 1.76 billion smartphone users (excluding users of tablets) in the world; it is predicted that this number will rise by 15.9% to 2.04 billion in 2015. It is thought that these devices can be used successfully in biomedical applications. A wireless blood pressure measuring device used together with a smart mobile device was developed in this study. By means of an interface developed for smart mobile devices with Android and iOS operating systems, a smart mobile device was used both as an indicator and as a control device. The cuff communicating with this device through Bluetooth was designed to measure blood pressure via the arm. A digital filter was used on the cuff instead of the traditional analog signal processing and filtering circuit. The newly developed blood pressure measuring device was tested on 18 patients and 20 healthy individuals of different ages under a physician's supervision. When the test results were compared with the measurements made using a sphygmomanometer, it was shown that an average 93.52% accuracy in sick individuals and 94.53% accuracy in healthy individuals could be achieved with the new device. PMID:26626086

  20. Catalytic considerations in temperature measurement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.; Crossman, G. R.; Chitnis, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    Literature discussing catalytic activity in platinum group temperature sensors is surveyed. Methods for the determination and/or elimination of catalytic activity are reported. A particular application of the literature is discussed in which it is possible to infer that a shielded platinum total temperature probe does not experience significant catalytic activity in the wake of a supersonic hydrogen burner, while a bare iridium plus rhodium, iridium thermocouple does. It is concluded that catalytic data corrections are restricted and that it is preferable to coat the temperature sensor with a noncatalytic coating. Furthermore, the desirability of transparent coatings is discussed.

  1. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  2. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  3. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  4. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  5. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  6. Improved system measures output energy of pyrotechnic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortly, E. M.

    1966-01-01

    System for measuring the output energy of pyrotechnic devices discharges the reaction products into a test chamber. It measures the radiant heat output from a pinhole aperture as well as internal pressure changes on a common time base.

  7. Suspension Device for Use with Low Temperature Refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegel, Donald C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A suspension device for use with a low temperature refrigeration system, such as an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator is provided. A support ring is provided with three spring-loaded tension assemblies equally spaced about the periphery of the support ring. The tension assemblies each have a pulley, about which is entrained a band of material. Connected to this band is a ring that laterally supports a cylindrical salt pill. Undesired variations in the amount of slack in the band as the salt pill cools are compensated for by the spring loading of the tension assemblies.

  8. THERMAL COUPLE FOR MEASURING TEMPERATURE IN A REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kanne, W.

    1959-11-24

    A thermocouple device for measuring the temperature of a flowing fluid in a conduit within which is positioned a metallic rod is presented. A thermocouple junction is secured to the rod centrally, and thermal insulating support disks having a diameter greater than the rod are secured to the end portions of the rod and adapted to fit transversely in the conduit.

  9. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.

    2013-09-11

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  10. Surface Temperature Measurement Using Hematite Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods that are capable of measuring temperature via spectrophotometry principles are discussed herein. These systems and methods are based on the temperature dependence of the reflection spectrum of hematite. Light reflected from these sensors can be measured to determine a temperature, based on changes in the reflection spectrum discussed herein.

  11. MEMS Device Being Developed for Active Cooling and Temperature Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2001-01-01

    High-capacity cooling options remain limited for many small-scale applications such as microelectronic components, miniature sensors, and microsystems. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) is currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center to meet this need. It uses a thermodynamic cycle to provide cooling or heating directly to a thermally loaded surface. The device can be used strictly in the cooling mode, or it can be switched between cooling and heating modes in milliseconds for precise temperature control. Fabrication and assembly are accomplished by wet etching and wafer bonding techniques routinely used in the semiconductor processing industry. Benefits of the MEMS cooler include scalability to fractions of a millimeter, modularity for increased capacity and staging to low temperatures, simple interfaces and limited failure modes, and minimal induced vibration.

  12. Temperature measurement inside metallic cables using distributed temperature system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Vasinek, Vladimir; Mach, Veleslav; Hruby, David; Kajnar, Tomas; Perecar, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, metallic cables are produced so as to avoid the maximum allowable temperature of the cable by the normal operation and the maximum allowable temperature for short-circuit the exceeding the maximum allowable internal temperature. The temperature increase is an unwanted phenomena causing losses in the cable and its abrasion. Longterm overload can lead to damaging of the cable or to the risk of fire in extreme cases. In our work, we present the temperature distribution measurement inside the metallic cables using distributed temperature system. Within the cooperation with manufacturer of the metallic cables, optical fibers were implemented into these cables. The cables are double coated and the fibers are allocated between these coatings and also in the centre of the cable. Thus we are able to measure the temperature inside the cable and also on the surface temperature along the whole cable length with spatial resolution 1 m during the cable heating. This measurement method can be also used for short-circuit prediction and detection, because this phenomena is always accompanied with temperature increase. Distributed temperature systems are already successfully implemented in temperature measurements in industry environment, such as construction, sewer systems, caliducts etc. The main advantage of these systems is electromagnetic resistance, low application price and the possibility of monitoring several kilometers long distances.

  13. Micro-PIT/V --- Simultaneous temperature and velocity fields in microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottebaum, Tait

    2008-11-01

    The use of encapsulated thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC) for the simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity fields in microfluidic devices has been demonstrated. Implementation of TLC thermometry at the micro-scale is significantly different than at the macro-scale due to the constraints on imaging and illumination configurations and the proximity of the measurements to interfaces and surfaces from which light will scatter. Unlike in micro-PIV, wavelength filtering (such as with fluorescent particles) cannot be used to remove undesired reflections, because the temperature information is carried by the particle color. Therefore, circular polarization filtering is used, exploiting the circular dichroism of TLC. Micro-PIT/V will enable new investigations into the physics of microfluidic devices involving temperature gradients, such as thermocapillary actuated devices and many ``lab-on-a-chip'' applications involving temperature sensitive chemical and biological processes. In addition, the design of operational devices can be improved by applying micro-PIT/V to the characterization of prototypes.

  14. Optical vibration measurement of mechatronics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanabe, Shigeo

    1993-09-01

    An optical vibration measuring system which enables to detect both linear and angular displacement of 25 nm and 5 prad was developed. The system is mainly composed of a He-Ne laser, a displacement detecting photo-diode and lenses, and has linear and angular displacement magnification mechanism using two different principles of optical lever. The system was applied to measure vibrational characteristics of magnetic head slider of hard disk drives and to measure stator teeth driving velocities of ultrasonic motor.

  15. An all optical method for lab-on-a-chip temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goering, Adam; Adams, Dan; Squier, Jeff; Durfee, Charles; Williams, Kim

    2009-10-01

    We demonstrate the use of Spatially and Spectrally Resolved Interferometry (SSRI) to measure minute temperature changes in picoliter volumes. The SSRI technique allows the measurement of refractive index changes as a function of temperature, frequency, and one spatial dimension within a microfluidic device. Integration of optical fibers and inexpensive light sources facilitate the progress of this method toward ``lab on a chip'' applications. Additionally, careful construction of microfluidic devices, in combination with SSRI will enable in-situ control of thermal gradients across the channel. Broad applications of this technology could include the measurements of reaction enthalpies, development of accurate temperature measurements in microfluidic devices, and precise characterization of temperature gradients.

  16. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  17. Temperature Correction in Probe Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsev, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    This work is devoted to experimental investigations of a decaying plasma using Langmuir probes. The gas pressure, the discharge current, and the moment of afterglow were selected to obtain probe characteristics in collisionless, intermediate, and drifting regimes of motion of charged particles. The manner in which the shape of the volt- ampere characteristics changes on passage from the collisionless motion to diffusion motion has been shown. A detailed analysis has been made of the source of errors arising when orbital-motion formulas or the logarithmic-operation method are applied to processing of the probe curves. It has been shown that neglect of collisions of charged particles in the probe layer leads to an ion-density value overstated more than three times, an electron-temperature value overstated two times, and an ion temperature overstated three to nine times. A model of interaction of charged particles in the probe layer has been proposed for correction of the procedure of determining temperature. Such an approach makes it possible to determine the space-charge layer in the probe, and also the value of the self-consistent field. The use of the developed procedures gives good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  18. Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

    2014-03-04

    A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

  19. Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation of Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices

    SciTech Connect

    Grosse, Kyle L.; Pop, Eric; King, William P.

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports a technique for independent observation of nanometer-scale Joule heating and thermoelectric effects, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is governed by both Joule and thermoelectric effects. When the device is driven by an electrical current that is both periodic and bipolar, the temperature rise due to the Joule effect is at a different harmonic than the temperature rise due to the Peltier effect. An AFM tip scanning over the device can simultaneously measure all of the relevant harmonic responses, such that the Joule effect and the Peltier effect can be independently measured. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by measuring Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices. By comparing the observed temperature responses of these working devices, we measure the device thermopower, which is in the range of 30 ± 3 to 250 ± 10 μV K{sup −1}. This technique could facilitate improved measurements of thermoelectric phenomena and properties at the nanometer-scale.

  20. A device to investigate the delamination strength in laminates at room and cryogenic temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingyi; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, You-He

    2014-12-01

    We construct an instrument to study the behavior of delamination strength in laminates which can be defined as the critical transverse stress at which an actual delamination occurs. The device allows the anvil measurements at room temperature or the liquid nitrogen temperature. For the electro-magnetic laminated materials (e.g., a superconducting YaBa2Cu3O(7-x) coated conductor which has a typical laminated structure), the delamination strength was measured while the properties of transport current were also recorded. Moreover, the influences of external magnetic field on the delamination strength were presented. PMID:25554334

  1. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S. Michael; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illuminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature.

  2. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1986-04-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illiminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature. 3 figs.

  3. International Workshop on Magnetic Measurements of Insertion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The International Workshop on Magnetic Measurements of Insertion Devices was held at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, on September 28--29, 1993. The workshop brought together scientists and engineers from Europe, Japan, and the United States to discuss the following topics: Special techniques for magnetic measurements of insertion devices, magnetic tolerances of the insertion devices for third generation synchrotron radiation sources, methods for and accuracy of the multipole moments measurements, magnetic sensors, among other topics. The workshop included thirteen presentations that are collected in this volume.

  4. Optical distance measurement device and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark W.

    2003-05-27

    A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target. A modulated optical beam may be used to determine the distance to the target. A first beam splitter may be used to split the optical beam and a second beam splitter may be used to recombine a reference beam with a return ranging beam. An optical mixing detector may be used in a receiver to efficiently detect distance measurement information.

  5. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Prather, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

  6. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1994-09-20

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

  7. Evaluation of Measuring Devices Packaged With Prescription Oral Liquid Medications

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The US Food and Drug Administration industry guidelines for manufacturers of oral, over-the-counter, liquid medications recommend that these products be packaged with dosage-delivery devices. This study describes the prevalence of these devices and instructions packaged with prescription, oral, liquid medications. METHODS: This was a descriptive study of prescription oral-liquid medications dispensed during a 6-month period at a community pharmacy. Product information was obtained from the National Library of Medicine's DailyMed database and from the products themselves. Endpoints included provision of a measuring device, the type of device, the maximum dose measurable and intervals on the provided device, and inclusion of instructions to the pharmacist. RESULTS: A total of 382 liquid prescription medications were included in the study. Forty-nine of the 382 products (12.8%) were packaged with a measuring device. The most commonly provided device was a calibrated dropper (n = 18; 36.7%), followed by an oral syringe with a bottle adaptor (n = 9, 18.4%). Specific instructions on proper use of the provided measuring device were included with 20 products (40.8%). Among the products that did not provide a measuring device, only 70 of the 333 package inserts (21%) included instructions to the pharmacist regarding counseling the patient on proper administration. CONCLUSIONS: Packaging of prescription oral-liquid medications is inconsistent and leaves room for vast variability in patient or parent administration practices. In the future, patterns of actual dispensing practices among pharmacies and pharmacists would help determine the true incidence of dispensing of measuring devices. PMID:26997931

  8. Proton irradiation of a swept charge device at cryogenic temperature and the subsequent annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gow, J. P. D.; Smith, P. H.; Pool, P.; Hall, D. J.; Holland, A. D.; Murray, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that a room temperature proton irradiation may not be sufficient to provide an accurate estimation of the impact of the space radiation environment on detector performance. This is a result of the relationship between defect mobility and temperature, causing the performance to vary subject to the temperature history of the device from the point at which it was irradiated. Results measured using Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) irradiated at room temperature therefore tend to differ from those taken when the device was irradiated at a cryogenic temperature, more appropriate considering the operating conditions in space, impacting the prediction of in-flight performance. This paper describes the cryogenic irradiation, and subsequent annealing of an e2v technologies Swept Charge Device (SCD) CCD236 irradiated at -35.4°C with a 10 MeV equivalent proton fluence of 5.0 × 108 protons · cm-2. The CCD236 is a large area (4.4 cm2) X-ray detector that will be flown on-board the Chandrayaan-2 and Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope spacecraft, in the Chandrayaan-2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer and the Soft X-ray Detector respectively. The SCD is readout continually in order to benefit from intrinsic dither mode clocking, leading to suppression of the surface component of the dark current and allowing the detector to be operated at warmer temperatures than a conventional CCD. The SCD is therefore an excellent choice to test and demonstrate the variation in the impact of irradiation at cryogenic temperatures in comparison to a more typical room temperature irradiation.

  9. Video integrated measurement system. [Diagnostic display devices

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.

    1982-06-01

    A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

  10. Optical Distance Measurement Device And Method Thereof

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark W.

    2004-06-15

    A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target by scanning the target. An optical beam is provided by a light source and modulated by a frequency source. The modulated optical beam is transmitted to an acousto-optical deflector capable of changing the angle of the optical beam in a predetermined manner to produce an output for scanning the target. In operation, reflected or diffused light from the target may be received by a detector and transmitted to a controller configured to calculate the distance to the target as well as the measurement uncertainty in calculating the distance to the target.