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1

Temperature buffer test design, instrumentation and measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Temperature Buffer Test, TBT, is a heated full-scale field experiment carried out jointly by ANDRA and SKB at the SKB Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Southeast Sweden. An existing 8 m deep, 1.8 m diameter KBS-3-type deposition hole located at -420 m level has been selected for the test. The objectives are to improve the general understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical, THM, behavior of buffer materials submitted to severe thermal conditions with temperatures well over 100 °Cduring water uptake of partly saturated bentonite-based buffer materials,and to check, in due time, their properties after water saturation. The test includes two carbon steel heating canisters each 3 m high and 0.6 m diameter, surrounded by 0.6 m of buffer material. There is a 0.2 m thick sand shield between the upper heater and the surrounding bentonite, while the lower heater is surrounded by bentonite only. On top of the stack of bentonite blocks is a confining plug anchored to the rock. In the slot between buffer and rock wall is a sand filter equipped with pipes to control the water pressure at the boundary, which is seldom done with an EBS in situ experiment. Both heater mid-height planes are densely instrumented in order to follow, with direct or indirect methods, buffer THM evolution. Temperature, relative humidity, stress and pore pressure have been monitored since the test start in March 2003. Total water inflow is also monitored. Firstly, the present paper describes the test design, the instrumentation, the plug anchoring system and the system for water boundary pressure control. Second, having described the test, the paper shows different measurements that illustrate evolution of temperature, saturation, suction and swelling pressure in the upper and the lower buffer.

Sandén, Torbjörn; Goudarzi, Reza; de Combarieu, Michel; Åkesson, Mattias; Hökmark, Harald

2

Temperature buffer test – design, instrumentation and measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Temperature Buffer Test, TBT, is a heated full-scale field experiment carried out jointly by ANDRA and SKB at the SKB Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Southeast Sweden. An existing 8m deep, 1.8m diameter KBS-3-type deposition hole located at ?420m level has been selected for the test.The objectives are to improve the general understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical, THM, behavior of buffer

Torbjörn Sandén; Reza Goudarzi; Michel de Combarieu; Mattias Åkesson; Harald Hökmark

2007-01-01

3

Validation of SABER temperature measurements using ground-based instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sounding of the atmosphere using broadband emission radiometry (SABER) instrument is one of four instruments mounted on the thermosphere ionosphere mesosphere energetics and dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER sounds the MLTI (the mesosphere and lower thermosphere\\/ionosphere) region of the earth's atmosphere by measuring infrared limb emission. The instrument measures accurate values of atmospheric limb radiance that are ground processed to

Moogega Cooper

2004-01-01

4

Temperature stabilization of a field instrument for uranium enrichment measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichment measurements with sodium iodide (NaI) detectors are hampered with a number of problems related to the temperature behavior of NaI crystals and the associated electronics. This problem is of particular concern in applications requiring the use of fixed regions of interest; such applications are used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The Canberra IMCA is a

R. Shepard; S. Wawrowski; M. Charland; H. Roberts; M. Moslinger

1996-01-01

5

Temperature stabilization of a field instrument for uranium enrichment measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichment measurements with sodium iodide (NaI) detectors are hampered with a number of problems related to the temperature behavior of NaI crystals and the associated electronics. This problem is of particular concern in applications requiring the use of fixed regions of interest; such applications are used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The Canberra IMCA is a

R. Shepard; S. Wawrowski; M. Charland; H. Roberts; M. Moslinger

1997-01-01

6

Neutral air density and temperature measurements by the TOTAL instrument aboard the ROSE payloads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four ROSE payloads, launched from November 1988 to February 1989 from northern Scandinavia, carried ionization gauges ('TOTAL' instruments) for neutral air density measurements in the altitude range 90-105 km. Temperature profiles are derived by integrating the number density profiles. Density and temperature data are presented. The limitations of the measurement technique as well as instrumental errors are discussed. In one

A. Friker; F.-J. Luebken

1992-01-01

7

Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating materials were tested/applied on the thermocouple cleaning according to the proposed approach. Different frequency, application time and power of the ultrasonic/subsonic output were tested. The results show that the ultrasonic approach is one of the best methods to clean the thermocouple tips during the routine operation of the gasifier. In addition, the real time data acquisition system was also designed and applied in the experiments. This advanced instrumentation provided the efficient and accurate data acquisition for this project. In summary, the accomplishment of the project provided useful information of the ultrasonic cleaning method applied in thermocouple tip cleaning. The temperature measurement could be much improved both in accuracy and duration provided that the proposed approach is widely used in the gasification facilities.

Seong W. Lee

2006-09-30

8

The effect of the instrument function on Doppler ion temperature measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of ion temperatures from the Doopler broadening of spectral lines is discussed. Calculations are used to show that the shape of the instrument function of the spectrometer can have a significant effect on the measured value, even when the broadening is large (~10X) compared with the half-width of the instrument function. The discussion is illustrated by the optical example of measurements made using an XUV grating spectrometer. On attachment to Culham Laboratory from the University of Essex.

Lawson, K. D.; Peacock, N. J.

1988-09-01

9

New instrumentation for temperature measurement. Phase 1: Program solicitation, small business innovation research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature sensitive liquid crystals designed to meet the need for a measuring device to accurately measure temperature and temperature distribution in the presence of electric, magnetic, and sonic fields, especially with high space and thermal resolution are discussed. A technique was developed to make highly reproducible, stable configurations of liquid crystal encapsulates. Temperature stable sensors have been produced which can be calibrated to the National Bureau of Standards. The thermal properties of the liquid crystal can be matched to the properties of the surrounding medium. Since a two dimensional representation of the temperature distribution is possible, the use of this instrumentation has significant implications for bioengineering.

Fergason, J. L.

1980-08-01

10

Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this project during this semi-annual reporting period are to test the effects of coating layer of the thermal couple on the temperature measurement and to screen out the significant factors affecting the temperature reading under differe...

S. W. Lee

2005-01-01

11

Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project during this semi-annual reporting period are to test the effects of coating layer of the thermal couple on the temperature measurement and to screen out the significant factors affecting the temperature reading under different operational conditions. The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray coated thermal couples were completed in this reporting period. The comparison tests of coated and uncoated thermal couples were conducted under various operational conditions. The temperature changes were recorded and the temperature differences were calculated to describe the thermal spray coating effect on the thermal couples. To record the temperature data accurately, the computerized data acquisition system (DAS) was adopted to the temperature reading. The DAS could record the data with the accuracy of 0.1 C and the recording parameters are configurable. In these experiments, DAS was set as reading one data for every one (1) minute. The operational conditions are the combination of three parameters: air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and the amount of fine dust particles. The results from the temperature readings show the temperature of uncoated thermal couple is uniformly higher than that of coated thermal couple for each operational condition. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was computed based on the results from systematic tests to screen out the significant factors and/or interactions. The temperature difference was used as dependent variable and three operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and amount of fine dust particle) were used as independent factors. The ANOVA results show that the operational parameters are not the statistically significant factors affecting the temperature readings which indicate that the coated thermal couple could be applied to temperature measurement in gasifier. The actual temperature reading with the coated thermal couple in the gasification could be calibrated by a constant of temperature difference.

Seong W. Lee

2005-10-01

12

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator were conducted in this reporting period. In the systematic test, two (2) factors were considered as the experimental parameters, including air injection rate and water injection rate. Each experimental factor had two (2) levels, respectively. A special water-feeding device was designed and installed to the gasifier simulator. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results of the systematic tests. The ANOVA shows that the air injection rate did have the significant impact to the temperature measurement in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA also shows that the water injection rate did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA analysis also proves that the thermocouple assembly we proposed was immune to the moisture environment, the temperature measurement remained accurate in moisture environment. Within this reporting period, the vibration application for cleaning purpose was explored. Both ultrasonic and sub-sonic vibrations were considered. A feasibility test was conducted to prove that the thermocouple vibration did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. This feasibility test was a 2{sup 2} factorial design. Two factors including temperature levels and motor speeds were set to two levels respectively. The sub-sonic vibration tests were applied to the thermocouple to remove the concrete cover layer (used to simulate the solid condensate in gasifiers) on the thermocouple tip. It was found that both frequency and amplitude had significant impacts on removal performance of the concrete cover layer.

Seong W. Lee

2004-04-01

13

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

Seong W. Lee

2003-09-01

14

Instrument for gas permeation measurements at high pressure and high temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrument was built for the permeation testing of flat polymer membranes under pressures up to 3.0 MPa and temperatures up to 300 °C. The high pressure, high temperature cell uses aluminum tape and a graphite gasket to minimize the leak from the high pressure side to the low pressure side, making possible the permeability measurements of slow diffusing gases such as N2. A computer program developed on a LabVIEW platform fully controls the instrument and data acquisition. It incorporates algorithms to automatically adjust the downstream volume, repressurize the upstream volume, vent the downstream volume to prevent over pressurization, and change the temperature of the permeation cell. The percent relative standard deviation of the permeability measurements was <5.5%. Flat membranes of VTEC PI-1388 polymer were tested from 0.3 to 3.0 MPa and from 35 to 300 °C. The permeabilities and fluxes of H2, CO2, and N2 increased with increasing temperature, while the H2/CO2 ideal selectivity remained unchanged. The major contribution to increased flux arose from increments in temperature rather than pressure.

Perez, Edson V.; Balkus, Kenneth J.; Ferraris, John P.; Musselman, Inga H.

2013-06-01

15

Instrument for gas permeation measurements at high pressure and high temperature.  

PubMed

An instrument was built for the permeation testing of flat polymer membranes under pressures up to 3.0 MPa and temperatures up to 300 °C. The high pressure, high temperature cell uses aluminum tape and a graphite gasket to minimize the leak from the high pressure side to the low pressure side, making possible the permeability measurements of slow diffusing gases such as N2. A computer program developed on a LabVIEW platform fully controls the instrument and data acquisition. It incorporates algorithms to automatically adjust the downstream volume, repressurize the upstream volume, vent the downstream volume to prevent over pressurization, and change the temperature of the permeation cell. The percent relative standard deviation of the permeability measurements was <5.5%. Flat membranes of VTEC PI-1388 polymer were tested from 0.3 to 3.0 MPa and from 35 to 300 °C. The permeabilities and fluxes of H2, CO2, and N2 increased with increasing temperature, while the H2?CO2 ideal selectivity remained unchanged. The major contribution to increased flux arose from increments in temperature rather than pressure. PMID:23822378

Perez, Edson V; Balkus, Kenneth J; Ferraris, John P; Musselman, Inga H

2013-06-01

16

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the clean thermocouple were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the clean thermocouple, five (5) factors were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition and high/low frequency device (electric motor). The fractional factorial design method was used in the experiment design with sixteen (16) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the un-balanced motor vibration frequency did not have the significant impact on the temperature changes in the gasifier simulator. For the fine dust particles testing, the amount of fine dust particles has significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The effects of the air and water on the temperature measurements show the same results as reported in the previous report. The ammonia concentration was included as an experimental parameter for the reducing environment in this reporting period. The ammonia concentration does not seem to be a significant factor on the temperature changes. The linear regression analysis was applied to the temperature reading with five (5) factors. The accuracy of the linear regression is relatively low, which is less than 10% accuracy. Nonlinear regression was also conducted to the temperature reading with the same factors. Since the experiments were designed in two (2) levels, the nonlinear regression is not very effective with the dataset (16 readings). An extra central point test was conducted. With the data of the center point testing, the accuracy of the nonlinear regression is much better than the linear regression.

Seong W. Lee

2004-10-01

17

Remote temperature-measurement instrumentation for a heated rotating turbine disk  

SciTech Connect

Thermographic-phosphor (TP) remote temperature sensors were installed on a turbine disk and subjected to thermal and centrifugal stresses in a spin-pit test. The sensors were placed at three different radii on the disk, which was run at 6600, 9330, 11400, and 13200 rpm at nominal temperatures of ambient, 300) degree)F, 600)degree)F, 900)degree)F, and 1250)degree)F (149)degree)C, 316)degree)C, 482)degree)C, and 677)degree)C, respectively). The paper gives details of the TP temperature-measurement method, phosphor bonding to the disk, calibration, optical-system design, and electronics instrumentation. The temperatures measured by the TP sensors were compared with those measured by thermocouples mounted on the disk. A number of the thermocouples behaved erratically after we operated the disk at 677)degree)C for an extended period. Nevertheless, for those cases where they could be compared with confidence, the agreement between the TP sensors and the thermocouples was good. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Lutz, S.S.; Turley, W.D.; Borella, H.M.; Noel, B.W.; Cates, M.R.; Probert, M.R.

1988-01-01

18

Self-heating probe instrument and method for measuring high temperature melting volume change rate of material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The castings defects are affected by the melting volume change rate of material. The change rate has an important effect on running safety of the high temperature thermal storage chamber, too. But the characteristics of existing measuring installations are complex structure, troublesome operation and low precision. In order to measure the melting volume change rate of material accurately and conveniently, a self-designed measuring instrument, self-heating probe instrument, and measuring method are described. Temperature in heating cavity is controlled by PID temperature controller; melting volume change rate ? and molten density are calculated based on the melt volume which is measured by the instrument. Positive and negative ? represent expansion and shrinkage of the sample volume after melting, respectively. Taking eutectic LiF+CaF2 for example, its melting volume change rate and melting density at 1 123 K are -20.6% and 2 651 kg·m-3 measured by this instrument, which is only 0.71% smaller than literature value. Density and melting volume change rate of industry pure aluminum at 973 K and analysis pure NaCl at 1 123 K are detected by the instrument too. The measure results are agreed with report values. Measuring error sources are analyzed and several improving measures are proposed. In theory, the measuring errors of the change rate and molten density which are measured by the self-designed instrument is nearly 1/20-1/50 of that measured by the refitted mandril thermal expansion instrument. The self-designed instrument and method have the advantages of simple structure, being easy to operate, extensive applicability for material, relatively high accuracy, and most importantly, temperature and sample vapor pressure have little effect on the measurement accuracy. The presented instrument and method solve the problems of complicated structure and procedures, and large measuring errors for the samples with high vapor pressure by existing installations.

Wang, Junwei; Wang, Zhiping; Lu, Yang; Cheng, Bo

2013-03-01

19

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the ultrasonic vibration application for cleaning method were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the ultrasonic vibration application, the ambient temperature and high temperature status condition were tested separately. The sticky dirt on the thermocouple tip was simulated by the cement-covered layer on the thermocouple tip. At the ambient temperature status, four (4) factors were considered as the input factors affecting the response variable of peeling off rate. The input factors include the shape of the cement-covered layer (thickness and length), the ultrasonic vibration output power, and application time. At the high temperature tests, four (4) different environments were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow supply, water and air supply environment, water/air/fine dust particle supply, and air/water/ammonia/fine dust particle supply environment. The factorial design method was used in the experiment design with twelve (12) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the thickness and length of the cement-covered layer have the significant impact on the peeling off rate of ultrasonic vibration application at the ambient temperature environment. For the high temperature tests, the different environments do not seem to have significant impact on the temperature changes. These results may indicate that the ultrasonic vibration is one of best cleaning methods for the thermocouple tip.

Seong W. Lee

2005-04-01

20

Temperature and precipitation fluctuations in the Czech Republic during the period of instrumental measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of early meteorological observations using instruments in the Czech Lands is described (the longest temperature series for Prague-Klementinum starts in 1775, precipitation series for Brno in 1803). Using the PRODIGE method, long-term monthly temperature and precipitation series from selected secular stations were homogenised (for 10 and 12 stations, respectively). All the seasonal and annual temperature series for the common period 1882-2010 show a significant positive linear trend with accelerated warming from the 1970s onwards. No significant linear trends were disclosed in the series of seasonal and annual precipitation totals. Correlation coefficients between the Czech series analysed decrease as distances between measuring stations increase. A sharper decrease of correlations for precipitation totals displays much weaker spatial relationships than those for mean temperatures. The highest correlations between all stations appeared in 1921-1950, the lowest in 1891-1920 (temperature) and 1981-2010 (precipitation). Wavelet analysis reveals that very distinct annual cycles as well as the slightly weaker semi-annual ones are better expressed for temperature series than for precipitation. Statistically significant cycles longer than 1 year are temporally unstable and sporadic for precipitation, while in the temperature series cycles of 7.4-7.7 and 17.9-18.4 years were recorded as significant by all stations in 1882-2010 (quasi-biennial cycle of 2.1-2.2 years for half the stations). Czech homogenous temperature series correlate best with those of the Northern Hemisphere for annual, spring and summer values (with significant correlation coefficients between 0.60 and 0.70), but this relation is temporally unstable. Circulation indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) and the Central European Zonal Index (CEZI), may explain the greater part of Czech temperature variability, especially from December to March and for the winter; however, this relationship is much weaker, or even random, for precipitation series. Further, relationships with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) are weak and random. Relatively weak coincidences exist between statistically significant cycles in the Czech series and those detected in NAOI, CEZI and SOI series.

Brázdil, Rudolf; Zahradní?ek, Pavel; Pišoft, Petr; Št?pánek, Petr; B?línová, Monika; Dobrovolný, Petr

2012-10-01

21

An Optical Thermometer for Direct Measurement of Cell Temperature in the Beckman Instruments XL-A Analytical Ultracentrifuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical thermometer has been evaluated for use in the Beekman Instruments Optima XL-A Analytical Ultracentrifuge. A thermochromic solution of CoCl2·6H2O was used as the temperature sensing material. The dehydration of CoCl2·6H2O is temperature dependent resulting a highly temperature dependent absorption peak at 660 nm. Spectra of 0.1 M CoCl2·6H2O in an alcohol-water mixture were measured at different temperature settings

S. Liu; W. F. Stafford

1995-01-01

22

Geothermal high temperature instrumentation applications  

SciTech Connect

A quick look at the geothermal industry shows a small industry producing about $1 billion in electric sales annually. The industry is becoming older and in need of new innovative solutions to instrumentation problems. A quick look at problem areas is given along with basic instrumentation requirements. The focus of instrumentation is on high temperature electronics.

Normann, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants (United States)

1998-06-11

23

An Ion Doppler Spectrometer Instrument for Ion Temperature and Flow Measurements on SSPX  

SciTech Connect

A high-resolution ion Doppler spectrometer has been installed on the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment to measure ion temperatures and plasma flow. The system is composed of a 1 meter focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer with diffraction grating line density of 2400 lines/mm, which allows for first order spectra between 300 and 600 nm. A 16-channel photomultiplier tube detection assembly combined with output coupling optics provides a spectral resolution of 0.0126 nm per channel. We calculate in some detail the mapping of curved slit images onto the linear detector array elements. This is important in determining wavelength resolution and setting the optimum vertical extent of the slit. Also, because of the small wavelength window of the IDS, a miniature fiber optic survey spectrometer sensitive to a wavelength range 200 to 1100 nm and having resolution 0.2 nm, is used to obtain a time-integrated spectrum for each shot to verify specific impurity line radiation. Several measurements validate the systems operation. Doppler broadening of C III 464.72 nm line in the plasma shows time-resolved ion temperatures up to 250 eV for hydrogen discharges, which is consistent with neutral particle energy analyzer measurements. Flow measurements show a sub-Alfvenic plasma flow ranging from 5 to 45 km/s for helium discharges.

King, J D; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Romero-Talamas, C A; Moller, J M; Morse, E C

2008-05-19

24

Instrument for Measuring Evaporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaporation rate meter, or evaporimeter, has been devised that shows promise of directly measuring the rate of evaporation near the sea surface. The simplicity of the instrument indicates that it may be of interest to oceanographers, and possibly to me...

A. H. Schooley

1965-01-01

25

High-temperature borehole instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A new method of extracting natural heat from the earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320/sup 0/C (610/sup 0/F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resource to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules. 60 refs., 11 figs.

Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.P.; Stephani, E.L.

1985-10-01

26

HTGR Measurements and Instrumentation Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an integrated overview of measurements and instrumentation for near-term future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Instrumentation technology has undergone revolutionary improvements since the last HTGR was constructed in the United States. This report briefly describes the measurement and communications needs of HTGRs for normal operations, maintenance and inspection, fuel fabrication, and accident response. The report includes a description of modern communications technologies and also provides a potential instrumentation communications architecture designed for deployment at an HTGR. A principal focus for the report is describing new and emerging measurement technologies with high potential to improve operations, maintenance, and accident response for the next generation of HTGRs, known as modular HTGRs, which are designed with passive safety features. Special focus is devoted toward describing the failure modes of the measurement technologies and assessing the technology maturity.

Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL

2012-05-01

27

AC resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

Hof, P.J.

1983-10-04

28

AC Resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

Hof, Peter J. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

29

A DEVELOPOMENT OF ON-LINE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION FOR GASIFICATION PROCESS CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This progress report covers continuing work to develop a temperature probe for a coal gasifier. A workable probe design requires finding answers to crucial questions involving the probe materials. We report on attempts to answer those questions. We designed, assembled, and tested a portable test fixture that can give relative quantitative data on the condition of phosphors. It needs a more-sensitive detector for optimum performance. We ordered an appropriate detector. A second experimental test of the survivability of thermographic phosphor in a high-pressure, high-temperature reducing environment showed no substantial deterioration of the phosphor. This very important result further confirmed the results reported last time. We arranged for one more test as evidence that there is no effect or, if there is, then the data will give us a deterioration rate. That third test is underway at the time of this report. We aligned and tested the prototype probe. It works as expected. The DOE/NETL arranged for a test bed to test the probe and the measurement system in a real environment. We visited the facility to learn what will be required to do the field test.

Bruce W. Noel

2003-04-30

30

ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress over the second six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on evaluating corrosion effects in single crystal sapphire at temperatures up to 1400 C, and designing the sensor mechanical packaging with input from Wabash River Power Plant. Upcoming meetings will establish details for the gasifier field test.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

2003-11-01

31

On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

2007-03-31

32

ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

2005-04-01

33

ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress over the first six months of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on analyzing and testing factors that impact performance degradation of the initially designed sensor prototype, including sensing element movement within the sensing probe and optical signal quality degradation. Based these results, a new version of the sensing system was designed by combining the sapphire disk sensing element and the single crystal zirconia right angle light reflector into one novel single crystal sapphire right angle prism. The new sensor prototype was tested up to 1650 C.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

2003-04-01

34

ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress over the third six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on sensor probe design and machining, sensor electronics design, software algorithm design, sensor field installation procedures, and sensor remote data access and control. Field testing will begin in the next several weeks.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang

2004-04-01

35

The 500-year temperature and precipitation fluctuations in the Czech Lands derived from documentary evidence and instrumental measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Series of temperature and precipitation indices (in ordinal scale) based on interpretation of various sources of documentary evidence (e.g. narrative written reports, visual daily weather records, personal correspondence, special prints, official economic records, etc.) are used as predictors in the reconstruction of mean seasonal temperatures and seasonal precipitation totals for the Czech Lands from A.D. 1500. Long instrumental measurements from 1771 (temperatures) and 1805 (precipitation) are used as a target values to calibrate and verify documentary-based index series. Reconstruction is based on linear regression with variance and mean adjustments. Reconstructed series were compared with similar European documentary-based reconstructions as well as with reconstructions based on different natural proxies. Reconstructed series were analyzed with respect to trends on different time-scales and occurrence of extreme values. We discuss uncertainties typical for documentary evidence from historical archives. Besides the fact that reports on weather and climate in documentary archives cover all seasons, our reconstructions provide the best results for winter temperatures and summer precipitation. However, explained variance for these seasons is comparable to other existing reconstructions for Central Europe.

Dobrovolný, Petr; Brázdil, Rudolf; Kotyza, Old?ich; Valášek, Hubert

2010-05-01

36

A DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION FOR GASIFICATION PROCESS CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This progress report covers continuing work to develop a temperature probe for a coal gasifier. A workable probe design requires finding answers to crucial questions involving the probe materials. We report on attempts to answer those questions. We previously reported an apparent anomaly in the high-temperature behavior of fused-silica optical components. This time, we report on further anomalies in other components. These unexpected results impede or prevent acquiring data related to the project. The commercial manufacturer of gasifier probes had agreed to lend us three ceramic inner sheaths and one outer sheath for experimentation. He subsequently sent us one inner sheath. We designed a test fixture to be used in a proposed test of phosphor material in a reducing environment at a power company's test facility. Funding delays outside our control caused a related project to be put on hold. Because the two projects shared travel funds, we are unable to continue experimental work until funding resumes. Meanwhile, we are doing some of the labor-intensive data reduction for our recent calibration curves.

Bruce W. Noel

2001-11-15

37

A DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION FOR GASIFICATION PROCESS CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This progress report covers continuing work to develop a temperature probe for a coal gasifier. A workable probe design requires finding answers to crucial questions involving the probe materials. We report on attempts to answer those questions. We designed, assembled, and tested a portable test fixture that can give relative quantitative data on the condition of phosphors. It needs a more-sensitive detector for optimum performance. We ordered an appropriate detector. An experimental test of the survivability of thermographic phosphor in an ambient environment similar to that in a slagging gasifier showed no substantial deterioration of the phosphor. We consider this result so important that we delayed the date of publication of this report by one month to accommodate it. We assembled the first version of a prototype probe and were preparing to test it at the time of this report.

Bruce W. Noel

2002-11-15

38

?Dirac: an autonomous instrument for halocarbon measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new instrument (?Dirac) capable of measuring halocarbons in the atmosphere. Portability, power efficiency and autonomy were critical requirements in the design, and the resulting instrument can be readily deployed unattended on a range of platforms: long duration balloon, aircraft, ship and ground based stations. The instrument is a temperature programmed gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The design requirements led to ?Dirac being built in-house with several novel features. It currently measures a range of halocarbons (CFCs and shorter-lived halocarbons having biogenic and anthropogenic sources) with measurement precisions ranging from ∼1% sd (CCl4) to ∼9% sd (CH3I). Since the prototype instrument was first tested in 2005 the instrument has been proved in the field on technically challenging aircraft and ground based campaigns. Results from one aircraft and two ground-based deployments are described.

Gostlow, B.; Robinson, A. D.; Harris, N. R. P.; O'Brien, L. M.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G. P.; Newton, H. M.; Pyle, J. A.

2009-09-01

39

?Dirac: an autonomous instrument for halocarbon measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new instrument (?Dirac) capable of measuring halocarbons in the atmosphere. Portability, power efficiency and autonomy were critical design requirements and the resulting instrument can be readily deployed unattended on a range of platforms: long duration balloon, aircraft, ship and ground-based stations. The instrument is a temperature programmed gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The design requirements led to ?Dirac being built in-house with several novel features. It currently measures a range of halocarbons (including short-lived tracers having biogenic and anthropogenic sources) with measurement precision relative standard deviations ranging from ± 1% (CCl4) to ± 9% (CH3I). The prototype instrument was first tested in 2005 and the instrument has been proved in the field on technically challenging aircraft and ground-based campaigns. Results from an aircraft and a ground-based deployment are described.

Gostlow, B.; Robinson, A. D.; Harris, N. R. P.; O'Brien, L. M.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G. P.; Newton, H. M.; Yong, S. E.; Pyle, J. A.

2010-04-01

40

Instrumentation for Air Density Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details an operational system for measuring air density at altitudes above those investigated by instrumented balloons and below those investigated by orbiting satellites. The system described is a 7-inch, rigid, falling sphere which is ejecte...

C. D. Westlund O. C. Haycock R. L. Smith G. D. Allred

1967-01-01

41

High-temperature borehole instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Research in materials, equipment, and instrument development was required in the Hot Dry Rock Energy Extraction Demonstration at Fenton Hill located in northern New Mexico. The new Phase II Energy Extraction System at the Fenton Hill Test Site will consist of two wellbores drilled to a depth of about 4570 m (15,000 ft) and then connected by a series of hydraulic-induced fractures. The first borehole (EE-2) was completed in May of 1980, at a depth of 4633 m (15,200 ft) of which approximately 3960 m (13,000 ft) is in Precambrian granitic rock. Starting at a depth of approximately 2930 m (9600 ft), the borehole was inclined up to 35/sup 0/ from vertical. Bottom-hole temperature in EE-2 is 317/sup 0/C. The EE-3 borehole was then drilled to a depth of 4236 m (13,900 ft). Its inclined part is positioned directly over the EE-2 wellbore with a vertical separation of about 450 m (1500 ft) between them. The materials development programs cover all aspects of geothermal energy extraction. Research on drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and wellbore logging were necessary to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the hot dry rock concepts.

Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.; Cruz, J.

1982-01-01

42

Reducing Instrument Baseline Fluctuations by Stabilizing Temperature in a Millimeter Wave SIS Receiver for Measuring Trace Gases in the Stratosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several gases can deplete the amount of ozone in the stratosphere by acting as a catalyst in the ozone depletion reaction. Since these gases are not consumed by the reaction, a single molecule of a given trace gas can eliminate tens of thousands of ozone molecules. In reality, the amount of such unwanted gases in the stratosphere is very small, typically a few parts per billion. One method of remotely sensing these trace gases is to measure the faint but characteristic millimeter wave emission spectra given off by a particular trace gas. The millimeter wave receiver and spectrometer used for this purpose has an extremely high gain, and is subject to standing wave interference patterns, whose amplitude and phase are temperature dependent. In order to obtain stable performance, the operating temperature must be well controlled. We assembled and tested a temperature control circuit which is easily adjusted to produce a desired temperature, via a 50 watt heater. The circuit operates with a continuous feedback mode to allow constant control of the heater's thermal output. Unlike most ordinary thermostats in homes and businesses, the heater controls temperature with a continuous range of flow rather than simply by an on/off switch. By the nature of the feedback system, the temperature remains almost constant at some desired value, eliminating unwanted overshoot effects.

Young, Jason

1997-10-01

43

Novel Instrumentation for Methane Flux Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development and testing of a new compact, rugged and inexpensive instrument for measurements of methane flux in ambient air. The instrument is based on a new technology called Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS). This novel instrument measures methane with high sensitivity, accuracy (<2 ppbv at 1 Hz), and specificity in real time (no cross interferences). The instrument combines inexpensive, robust telecommunications-grade room-temperature diode laser operating at 1.65 microns with Off-Axis ICOS to yield an instrument capable of continuously recording data in the field with high precision (better than 0.2% uncertainty at a 10-Hz rate). We will discuss the measurement strategy in detail and present recent results demonstrating real-time measurements without the need for any user intervention. Ongoing efforts to demonstrate the instrument's capabilities to record measurements with high precision and accuracy without calibration over extended periods as well as testing of the instrument at field sites in the AmeriFlux and FLUXNET networks, and NOAA/CMDL will also be discussed. By significantly increasing the accuracy and precision of methane flux measurements, the Off-Axis ICOS instrument will enhance local, regional and global studies of global warming and facilitate controlled multi-year studies and comparisons between field sites. These studies, which could involve using the instruments aboard airplanes to enable coverage over large distances and to correlate with satellite images, will help track and quantify the global carbon cycle on small and large spatial scales, and enable atmospheric chemists to generate more reliable models of climate change and determine environmental impact.

Owano, T.; Baer, D.; Gupta, M.; Ricci, K.; O'Keefe, A.

2004-12-01

44

ac-resistance-measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging ac resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an ac excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance.

Hof, P.J.

1981-04-22

45

Temperature measuring device  

SciTech Connect

Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Sohns, C.W.

1999-10-19

46

Temperature measuring device  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01

47

Space-borne remote sensing with active optical instruments for the measurement of temperature, pressure, ozone and the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lidar Light Detection and Ranging is regarded as an innovative component of the global observing system It offers the possibility to directly sample the four-dimensional variability of the atmosphere with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution In Europe space-borne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations since mid 1970 s resulting in mission and instrument concepts such as ATLID a backscatter lidar for aerosol and clouds for the EarthCARE mission or ALADIN a Doppler wind lidar considered for the ADM Aeolus mission Major advances particularly in humidity profiling are expected from the space-borne Differential Absorption Lidar DIAL being the Core instrument of the WALES Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space mission which was studied up to a level of Phase A In this presentation we report on the background definition of a future lidar system capable of monitoring the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide CO 2 methane CH 4 and nitrous oxide N 2 O stratospheric and tropospheric ozone O 3 and the meteorological parameter pressure p and temperature T The idea of this study which was initiated by the European Space Agency ESA was to select one or two candidate instruments for follow-on activities on sensor and mission level For each parameter appropriate performance models of active optical instruments either for range-resolved or for total column measurements were defined and implemented as computer codes for parametric analysis The sampling strategy and error characteristics for the

Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Wirth, M.

48

Biomagnetic Measurements Using SQUID Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomagnetic measurements involve the detection of the magnetic fields generated by physiological activity in living organisms. Because magnetic fields are sensed remotely, no physical contact with the subject is required, making the technique totally non-invasive Furthermore, only the magnetic fields originating within the body are measured. No external field is applied and it can therefore be confidently stated that the technique is completely safe. These characteristics make biomagnetometry an ideal tool for the investigation of physiological processes. The only magnetic field detector capable of measuring these extremely weak biomagnetic signals is the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). In the last thirty years SQUID-based ultrasensitive magnetometers have been widely used in the investigation of physiologically produced magnetic fields for diagnostic purposes. Owing to the numerous sources of noise and interference typical of an urban environment, it has until recently been considered almost impossible to operate a SQUID magnetometer in such a location without magnetic shielding. We have overcome these technical problems and have successfully used our specially developed unshielded SQUID systems in laboratory and hospital environments. This instrumentation is suitable for recording the biomagnetic fields in adults, neonates and fetuses, and has been applied in a number of clinical studies including fetal magnetocardiography.

Rassi, D.; Zhuravlev, Y.

2000-09-01

49

Plasma Potential Measurements With A New Instrument  

SciTech Connect

An efficient and fast instrument to measure the plasma potential of ECR ion sources (ECRIS) has been developed at the Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae (JYFL). The operating principle of the instrument is to measure the energy of the ion beam by applying a decelerating voltage to a mesh located in the beam line after mass analysis. The plasma potential is determined by measuring the current at the grounded electrode situated behind the mesh as a function of this adjustable voltage. The measurements were performed with ECR ion sources at JYFL (6.4 and 14 GHz) and at Argonne National Laboratory (14 GHz). The plasma potential was measured as a function of different source parameters such as microwave power, gas feed rate (with different gases), voltage of the biased disk and magnetic field strength. The effects of gas mixing and double-frequency heating were also studied. The energy of the ions extracted from an ECRIS plasma comes from the source potential, plasma potential and the thermal energy of the ions. In order to distinguish the effect of the ion temperature on the measured curve simple computer simulations were performed. With the aid of the simulation and assuming a certain potential profile and Maxwellian velocity (energy) distribution of the ions, it was seen that the ion temperature should affect the shape of the measured curve in the region where the adjustable deceleration voltage is close to the value of the plasma potential. In the measurements it was observed that the shape of the curve in this region changed dramatically when gas mixing was used. However, the effect was typical only for low charge states of the heavier element while the curves measured with higher charge states remained almost unchanged. The effect of gas mixing on the ion temperature will be discussed based upon the obtained results.

Tarvainen, O.; Suominen, P.; Ropponen, T.; Koivisto, H. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (JYFL), Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Vondrasek, R.C.; Scott, R.H. [Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois (United States)

2005-03-15

50

Plasma potential measurements with a new instrument.  

SciTech Connect

An efficient and fast instrument to measure the plasma potential of ECR ion sources (ECRIS) has been developed at the Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae (JYFL). The operating principle of the instrument is to measure the energy of the ion beam by applying a decelerating voltage to a mesh located in the beam line after mass analysis. The plasma potential is determined by measuring the current at the grounded electrode situated behind the mesh as a function of this adjustable voltage. The measurements were performed with ECR ion sources at JYFL (6.4 and 14 GHz) and at Argonne National Laboratory (14 GHz). The plasma potential was measured as a function of different source parameters such as microwave power, gas feed rate (with different gases), voltage of the biased disk and magnetic field strength. The effects of gas mixing and double-frequency heating were also studied. The energy of the ions extracted from an ECRIS plasma comes from the source potential, plasma potential and the thermal energy of the ions. In order to distinguish the effect of the ion temperature on the measured curve simple computer simulations were performed. With the aid of the simulation and assuming a certain potential profile and Maxwellian velocity (energy) distribution of the ions, it was seen that the ion temperature should affect the shape of the measured curve in the region where the adjustable deceleration voltage is close to the value of the plasma potential. In the measurements it was observed that the shape of the curve in this region changed dramatically when gas mixing was used. However, the effect was typical only for low charge states of the heavier element while the curves measured with higher charge states remained almost unchanged. The effect of gas mixing on the ion temperature will be discussed based upon the obtained results.

Tarvainen, O.; Suominen, P.; Ropponen, T.; Koivisto, H.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Scott, R. H.; Physics; Univ. of Jyvaskyla

2005-01-01

51

Advances in instrumentation for atmospheric aerosol measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instruments for airborne particle sampling and measurement are important tools for the study of particulate air contaminants. As such they are important in air quality, air pollution and industrial hygiene studies. Particle measuring instruments are important also for various industrial processes, such as clean room monitoring and contaminant measurement in clean process gases used in semiconductor manufacturing. This paper reviews the advances in particle measuring and sampling instruments, with particular emphasis on instruments for atmospheric studies. Devices for particle generation needed for instrument calibration and experimental purposes are also covered in this review.

Pui, David Y. H.; Liu, Benjamin Y. H.

1988-02-01

52

Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, the state of TC-IM (Technical Committee of Instrumentation and Measurement of IEEJ) activities and technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported, mainly referring to over seventy papers presented at the IM Technical Meeting.

Tanabe, Kazuo; Hirose, Masanobu; Otani, Akihito; Mochizuki, Ken; Uchida, Masafumi

53

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...non-compliance with this regulation, the measurements may be made with a Type 2 (or S2A...following amount to account for possible measurement instrument errors pertaining to specific measurements and sources: 1 American...

2011-07-01

54

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...non-compliance with this regulation, the measurements may be made with a Type 2 (or S2A...following amount to account for possible measurement instrument errors pertaining to specific measurements and sources: 1 American...

2009-07-01

55

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...non-compliance with this regulation, the measurements may be made with a Type 2 (or S2A...following amount to account for possible measurement instrument errors pertaining to specific measurements and sources: 1 American...

2010-07-01

56

A decibel measuring instrument for fiber optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable instrument has been designed for measuring the power output of fiber optic sources in both absolute dBm units and relative dB units over a 90 dB range. The battery-operated instrument employs a series of plug-in light sensors to monitor light sources and transmission devices on wavelengths ranging from 220 to 2000 nm. The instrument has a selectable resolution

P. H. Wendland; D. N. Horwitz

1979-01-01

57

The adaptation of iButtons® for near-surface rock temperature and thermal offset measurements in a high alpine environment - Instrumentation and first results, Kitzsteinhorn (3203 m), Hohe Tauern, Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High alpine regions are very rough terrains influenced by extreme weather conditions. Steep and inaccessible terrain complicates the installation and maintenance of monitoring instruments. Among other hazards lightning stroke, low temperatures and mass movements have a strong impact on permanently installed instruments. Therefore technical challenges include the development of robust measuring instruments to resist harsh environmental conditions. The presented work is part of the MOREXPERT ('Monitoring Expert System for Hazardous Rock Walls') project. One of the project's main objectives is the development of an easy to use and maintainable monitoring system with respect to cost and benefit. The assessment of rock permafrost distribution across the whole summit pyramid (300 meters in height, 3.5 ha) and the consideration of the heterogeneous topography requires a large number of temperature loggers. To meet these requirements iButtons® were used. The iButton® is a computer chip enclosed in a 16mm thick stainless steel can. The used DS1922L/T temperature logger iButtons® are rugged, self-sufficient systems that measure temperature and record the result in a protected memory section with an accuracy of ±0.5°C from -10°C to +65°C and a resolution of 0.0625°C. In contrast to conventionally used temperature loggers, iButtons® are cheap, end-user friendly and easily replaceable in case of damage. For this reason a large number of measurement sites can easily be equipped for the measurement of near-surface rock temperatures and thermal offset. A special instrumentation workflow for the installation of iButtons® in depths of 10 and 80 cm was developed. All iButtons® were attached to polyethylene rods and placed in previously drilled holes. First results show a good applicability of iButtons® for rock temperature measurements.

Keuschnig, M.; Hartmeyer, I.; Schmidjell, A.; Schrott, L.

2012-04-01

58

Dynamic Force Measurement: Instrumented Charpy Impact Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maximum forces and forces at general yield measured on impact reference materials in round robin testing are reported. These dynamic results are compared with static force calibration of instrumented strikers. One machine in the round robin was identified...

C. N. McCowan E. Lucon J. D. Splett

2008-01-01

59

Common Laboratory Instruments for Measurement of Radioactivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report clarifies requirements and characteristics of instrumentation used to measure levels of ionizing radiation experienced by man in his environment, and assists responsible radiological health agencies in selecting optimum surveillance and counti...

D. E. Rushing R. W. Coulter J. C. Drobinski C. R. Phillips D. G. Remark

1967-01-01

60

Study of high speed photography measuring instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High speed photograph measuring instrument is mainly used to measure and track the exterior ballistics, which can measure the flying position of the missile in the initial phase and trajectory. A new high speed photograph measuring instrument is presented in this paper. High speed photography measuring system records the parameters of object real-time, and then acquires the flying position and trajectory data of the missile in the initial phase. The detection distance of high speed photography is more than 4.5km, and the least detection distance is 450m, under the condition of well-balanced angular velocity and angular acceleration, program pilot track error less than 5'. This instrument also can measure and record the flying trail and trajectory parameters of plane's aero naval missile.

Zhang, Zhijun; Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Keyong

2007-01-01

61

Proceedings of the 1984 IEEE instrumentation and measurement conference  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers given at a conference covering automation, quality, and productivity in instrumentation and measurement technology. Topics considered at the conference included automated diagnostics for calibration, millimeter-wave InP gunn devices, a microcomputer based system for area measurement, and external fuel tank temperature evaluation.

Not Available

1984-01-01

62

Temperature, pressure, and wind instrumentation in the Phoenix meteorological package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The meteorological package (MET) on the Phoenix Lander is designed to provide information on the daily and seasonal variations in Mars near-polar weather during Martian late spring and summer. The present paper provides some background on the temperature, pressure, and wind instrumentation on the Phoenix MET station and their characterization. A separate paper addresses the MET lidar instrument. Laboratory studies in a Mars wind tunnel confirm estimates that the time constant of the thermocouples should be less than 0.5 s for wind speeds of 5 m s-1 or greater. Solar radiation falling on the thermocouples could raise the reported temperatures by up to 0.7 K for wind speeds of 5 m s-1. The increase will be wind speed dependent and will increase to 0.8 K at U = 3 m s-1 under peak solar radiation. Pressure sensors will give Mars surface pressures accurate to 10 Pa or better while Telltale deflections should provide reliable wind speed information up to at least 10 m s-1. The paper also discusses, to a limited extent, how the MET instruments will be used in conjunction with other instruments on the Phoenix Lander to provide an enhanced meteorological data set. We also describe instrumentation related to the Atmospheric Structure Experiment during entry, descent, and landing (EDL). These instruments will provide deceleration data. Together with drag coefficient information and a surface pressure measurement from MET, these data will allow us to infer the density, pressure, and temperature structure throughout the vertical column during EDL.

Taylor, Peter A.; Catling, David C.; Daly, Mike; Dickinson, Cameron S.; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur P.; Harri, Ari-Matti; Lange, Carlos F.

2008-07-01

63

Optical instrumentation for vibration measurement and monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of machine tool vibrations is an important aspect of precision manufacturing industry. The objective of this research\\u000a is the design and experimentation of a simple and unique instrument for precise vibration measurement that can be used in\\u000a industry. The instrument and the technique can also be used in a research laboratory. This paper examines the role of vibration\\u000a monitoring

Devdas Shetty; Ahad Ali; Jonathan Hill

2011-01-01

64

Instrumentation for Structure Measurements on Highly Non-equilibrium Materials  

SciTech Connect

Containerless techniques (levitation) completely eliminate contact with the sample. This unique sample environment allows deep supercooling of many liquids and avoids contamination of high temperature melts. Recent experiments at the APS high energy beamline 11 ID-C used aerodynamic levitation with laser beam heating and acoustic levitation with cryogenic cooling. By using these two methods, liquids were studied over much of the temperature range from -40 to +2500 C. This paper briefly describes the instrumentation and its use with an -Si area detector that allows fast, in-situ measurements. Use of the instruments is illustrated with examples of measurements on molten oxides and aqueous materials.

Weber, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Benmore, Chris J [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Wilding, Martin C [ORNL

2011-01-01

65

Evaluation of the use of an integration-type laser-Doppler flowmeter with a temperature-loading instrument for measuring skin blood flow in elderly subjects during cooling load: comparison with younger subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integration-type laser-Doppler flowmeter, equipped with a temperature-load instrument, for measuring skin blood flow (ILD-T), and analytical parameters developed in a previous study were used to compare changes in the skin blood flow in the forehead and cheek in elderly subjects (in their 60s and 70s) with those in younger subjects (in their teens to 50s). Age-related differences in skin

Yoshinao Nagashima; Yukihiro Yada; Toshiyuki Suzuki; Akio Sakai

2003-01-01

66

Microthermal Instrument for Measuring Surface Layer Seeing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microthermal fluctuations are introduced by atmospheric turbulence very near the ground. In order to detect microthermal fluctuations at Fuxian Solar Observatory (FSO), a microthermal instrument has been developed. The microthermal instrument consists of a microthermal sensor, which is based on a Wheatstone bridge circuit and uses fine tungsten filaments as resistance temperature detectors, an associated signal processing unit, and a data collection, & communication subsystem. In this paper, after a brief introduction to surface layer seeing, we discuss the instrumentation behind the microthermal detector we have developed and then present the results obtained. The results of the evaluation indicate that the effect of the turbulent surface boundary layer to astronomical seeing would become sufficiently small when installing a telescope at a height of 16m or higher from the ground at FSO.

Li, Xue-Bao; Zheng, Yan-Fang; Deng, Lin Hua; Xu, Guang

2012-02-01

67

[The reliability of instruments for measuring breath alcohol].  

PubMed

To describe the reliability of breath-alcohol testers, values are measured which characterize precision, accuracy, analytical sensitivity, drift, and hysteresis. The instruments tested were two infrared devices (Alcomat, Alcotest 7110) and one device equipped with a fuel cell (Alcolmeter EBA). Criteria of acceptability are the limits from the first preliminary draft of recommendations by the Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale (OIML). The results of measurements clearly show the level of reliability of modern instruments which largely attain the OIML requirements. All measurements were performed with a simulator at 34 degrees C. Therefore the definite influence of breath temperature on the alcohol concentration could be neglected. PMID:2706098

Schoknecht, G; Fleck, K; Kophamel, B

1989-03-01

68

Measurement control program for NDA instruments  

SciTech Connect

Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems.

Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

1983-01-01

69

Mirror emissivity measurements for the NASA AURA HIRDLS instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument is scheduled for launch on the NASA AURA satellite in January 2004; it is a joint project between the UK and USA. HIRDLS is a mid-infrared limb emission sounder which will measure the concentration of trace species and aerosol, and temperature and pressure variations in the Earth's atmosphere between about 8 and

John J. Barnett; Karim Djotni; Christopher L. Hepplewhite; Olusoji O. Oduleye; Christopher W. P. Palmer; Daniel M. Peters; Trevor W. Walton; Robert E. J. Watkins; John G. Whitney; John C. Gille; Philip I. Arter; Bruno Nardi

2003-01-01

70

AC instrumentation amplifier for bioimpedance measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The input impedance and common-mode rejection ratio requirements for an amplifier for bioimpedance measurements are analyzed, considering the capacitive components of the electrode-skin contact impedance. An AC-coupled instrumentation amplifier that fulfills those requirements, and provides both interference and noise reduction and a zero phase shift over a wide frequency band without using broadband operational amplifiers, is described.

R. Pallas-Areny; J. G. Webster

1993-01-01

71

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Automatic temperature control instruments...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers...314 Automatic temperature control...

2009-07-01

72

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Automatic temperature control instruments...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers...314 Automatic temperature control...

2013-07-01

73

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Automatic temperature control instruments...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers...314 Automatic temperature control...

2010-07-01

74

Input impedance of brass instruments from velocity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A velocity sensor known as the Microflown measures particle velocity from a difference in temperature between two MEMS-scale wires. With a small precision microphone in a package the size of a matchstick, simultaneous measurement of particle velocity and pressure can be accomplished in a tiny space such as the mouthpiece of a brass instrument. Traditional measurements of input impedance rely on a constant flow provided by a capillary tube or feedback loop control of the driver. This velocity sensor eliminates these technical requirements. The apparatus and calibration procedures will be described, and results of measurements of several instruments will be presented. In an easily used device, this approach could benefit instrument designers, makers, and repair technicians.

Ludwigsen, Daniel O.

2005-09-01

75

High Temperature Oxygen Index Instrument with Quantitative FT-IR Gas Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench-scale instrument has been constructed which provides a fire hazard and combustion product profile of polymers and composites used in advanced construction. Novel to the instrument is that a standardized test of material flammability (oxygen index) can be measured as a function of sample exposure temperature up to 800°C. Sample mass loss is measured concur rently ; and Fourier

Karen Kinsella; Chad M. Nelson; John R. Haigis; Martin D. Carangelo; Marie B. Ditaranto; James R. Markham

1995-01-01

76

Cement kiln temperature measurements using microwave radiometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional remote temperature measurements in cement kilns and other high-temperature industrial processes are often difficult or impossible because of the presence of dust that disables infrared remote temperature sensors. Microwave radiation is much less scattered by dust. Results from tests of an X-band microwave radiometer and antenna system at a cement kiln show that with calibration, this instrumentation will be

Karl D. Stephan; John A. Pearce; Lingyun Wang; Eric Ryza

2005-01-01

77

Temperature Measurements in Permafrost.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report focuses primarily on the use of thermistors and thermocouples as sensors for making temperature measurements in permafrost soils. Logging systems are generally recommended over permanently installed multi-sensor cables when the highest accurac...

T. E. Osterkamp

1984-01-01

78

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

2013-04-01

79

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

2009-04-01

80

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

2010-04-01

81

Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

Dennis, B.R. (comp.)

1986-06-01

82

Measuring the Curie temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Curie point temperatures (TC) of natural and synthetic magnetic materials are commonly determined in rock magnetism by several measurement methods that can be mutually incompatible and may lead to inconsistent results. Here the common evaluation routines for high-temperature magnetization and magnetic initial susceptibility curves are analyzed and revised based on Landau's theory of second-order phase transitions. It is confirmed that in high-field magnetization curves TC corresponds to the inflection point, below the temperature of maximum curvature or the double-tangent intersection point. At least four different physical processes contribute to the initial magnetic susceptibility near the ordering temperature. They include variation of saturation magnetization, superparamagnetic behavior, magnetization rotation, and magnetic domain wall motion. Because each of these processes may influence the apparent position of TC, initial susceptibility and high-field curves can yield deviating estimates of TC. A new procedure is proposed to efficiently determine the temperature variation of several magnetic parameters on a vibrating-sample magnetometer, by repeatedly measuring quarter-hysteresis loops during a single heating cycle. This procedure takes measurements during the inevitable waiting time necessary for thermal equilibration of the sample, whereby it is not slower than the commonly performed measurements on a Curie balance. However, it returns saturation magnetization, saturation remanence, high-field and low-field slopes, and other parameters as a function of temperature, which provide independent information about TC and other sample properties.

Fabian, K.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; McEnroe, S. A.

2013-04-01

83

Performance of Temperature/Dew Point Instruments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of field trials was conducted to assess the performance of temperature/dew point systems used at the US Army Dugway Proving ground, UT. Data quality was degraded by noise, calibration drift, and exposure to adverse ambient conditions. Improved no...

C. Biltoft

1982-01-01

84

NONLINEARITY TESTING OF EQUIPMENT USED IN TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the nonlinearity testing of seven resistance instruments used to measure temperature is presented. Tested were four multi-meter type instruments which use the UI method to determine resistance and three resistance bridges that measure resistance as a ratio between a resistance thermometer and a standard resistor. The device used to measure the nonlinearity of the instruments was a

Tadej Podgornik; Valentin Batagelj; Jovan Bojkovski; Janko Drnovsek

85

46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and...Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices...containment system for a design temperature colder than â55 °C...each cargo tank with a design temperature colder than â55...

2012-10-01

86

46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and...Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices...containment system for a design temperature colder than â55 °C...each cargo tank with a design temperature colder than â55...

2011-10-01

87

Standardization Procedure for Two Instruments for Color Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A standardization method was developed to check that a color measuring instrument will perform satisfactorily and that measurements made with it are within acceptable tolerances. Four types of materials were selected to test the instrument: a white opal t...

F. T. Simon J. H. Lubar

1981-01-01

88

NEUTRON SCATTERING INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASUREMENT OF MELT STRUCTURE  

SciTech Connect

This Phase II research project was focused on constructing and testing a facility for the measurement of the structure of hot solid and liquid materials under extreme conditions using neutron diffraction. The work resulted in measurements at temperatures of 3300 K, the highest ever performed in a neutron beam. Work was performed jointly by Containerless Research, Inc. and Argonne National Laboratory with significant interactions with engineers and scientists at the under construction-SNS facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The work comprised four main activities: Design and construct an advanced instrument for structural studies of liquids and hot solids using neutron scattering. Develop and test a software package for instrument control, data acquisition and analysis. Test and demonstrate the instrument in experiments at the GLAD beamline at IPNS. Evaluate requirements for performing experiments at the SNS. Develop interest from the potential user base and identify potential support for Phase III. The objectives of the research were met. A second-generation instrument was developed and constructed. The instrument design drew on the results of a formal design review which was held at Argonne National Laboratory during the Phase I research [1]. The review included discussion with potential instrument users, SNS scientists and engineers and various scientists involved with materials, glass, ceramics, and geological sciences. The instrument combines aerodynamic levitation with pulsed neutron diffraction in a controlled atmosphere. An important innovation was the use of pure vanadium levitation nozzles that effectively eliminated contributions from the sample environment to the measured data. The instrument employed a 250 Watt CO2 laser that was configured for Class I laser operation. The use of Class I laser configuration meant that operators could work with the equipment with minimal restrictions and so concentrate on the research activities. Instrument control and data acquisition software was developed and implemented. As part of a larger initiative at IPNS, PC-based programs are being developed for acquisition and processing of neutron data. The PC-based beamline data handling system will enable compatibility with the levitator software. The instrument was bench tested at CRI and operated in three campaigns at the GLAD beamline at IPNS. Samples approximately 3.5 mm in diameter were levitated for periods up to 6 hours and at temperatures up to 3300 K. Structure factors were obtained for liquid oxide materials and hot solids. Details are given in this report and in published or submitted papers. During the course of the Phase I and Phase II projects, technical presentations were made at the Materials Research Society meeting in Boston, November, 2001, the American Conference on Neutron Scattering in Knoxville, TN, June, 2002, the Gordon Research Conference on High Temperature Chemistry (poster) in Waterville, ME, August 2002, the ACNS meeting in Baltimore, MD, June, 2004 and the Non-crystalline Materials-9 meeting in Corning NY, July, 2004. Two manuscripts were prepared, one is published, one is in review. The presentations have resulted in contact with the user community and we have received several requests to use the instrument. As a result, we are seeking support for collaborative research and plan to offer beamline instruments for commercial sale.

Richard Weber, Christopher Benmore

2004-10-21

89

Spectroradiometric Temperature Measurement in Two-Phase Combustion Plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new instrument for measuring the temperature of gases to 3000K has been developed based on the spectral absorption-emission method. Step index optical fibers are employed both to couple the instrument to the measurement volume and as optical pathways inside of the instrument. By using fast miniature choppers to multiplex the required optical signals onto a single detector, by maximizing

Phillip Harris Paul

1984-01-01

90

TOPICAL REVIEW: Micromechanical instruments for ferromagnetic measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I review some of the novel methods for measuring ferromagnetic properties of thin films based on micromechanical magnetometers and put them into context relative to current research on nanomagnetism. Measurements rely on the detection of mechanical forces or torques on thin films deposited onto microcantilevers. Displacements of the cantilever are detected by optical methods similar to those developed for atomic force microscopy. High sensitivities are achieved by integrating the sample with the detector, allowing magnetic measurements of samples with a total magnetic moment smaller than that detectable with conventional magnetometers. Cantilevers with low spring constants and high mechanical Q are essential for these measurements. Sensitivities better than 105 muB are possible at room temperature with the potential for single spin detection below 1 K, where the thermomechanical noise of micromechanical sensors is substantially reduced.

Moreland, John

2003-03-01

91

Instrumentation of Sampling Aircraft for Measurement of Launch Vehicle Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obta...

D. E. Wornom D. C. Woods M. E. Thomas R. W. Tyson

1977-01-01

92

Retrieval of kinetic temperature and carbon dioxide from measurements of broadband Earth limb emission taken from the TIMED\\/SABER instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment was launched onboard the TIMED satellite in December 2001. SABER has beendesigned to provide measurements of the key radiative and chemical sources and sinks of energy in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), in order to achieve major advances in understanding the structure, energetics, chemistry, and dynamics of the

C. J. Mertens; J. M. Russell; M. G. Mlynczak; C.-Y. She; F. J. Schmidlin; R. A. Goldberg

2004-01-01

93

Global and Hemispheric Temperature Anomalies: Land and Marine Instrumental Records  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) provides the Global and Hemisphere Temperature Anomalies: Land and Marine Instrumental Records data. Data tables and graphs from 1856 to 1998 are available. At the site, users will find a description of the methods to obtain the data, summaries describing the graphs, and references.

94

Transducer Instrumentation for Surface Wave Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The transducer instrumentation system portion of the surface wave system is described. An accelerometer is vertically stabilized by a gyro. This gyro also drives potentiometers which provide pitch and roll outputs. Heading is obtained by a gyro-stabilized...

H. D. Goldberg M. I. Goldberg

1969-01-01

95

An instrument for measuring TQM implementation for Chinese manufacturing companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an extensive review of the literature in the field of total quality management (TQM), 11 constructs of TQM implementation were identified. An instrument measuring these constructs was developed. The reliability and validity of the instrument were tested and validated using data from 212 Chinese manufacturing companies. Various methods were employed for this test and validation. Comparisons between this instrument

Zhihai Zhang; Ab Waszink; Jacob Wijngaard

2000-01-01

96

Instruments measuring family or caregiver burden in severe mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consequences of psychiatric disorders for family members, usually called family or caregiver burden, have been studied during the last 4 decades. During this period a variety of instruments have been developed to measure the impact of mental illness on family members, but not all instruments have been described systematically in the published literature. The authors review 21 instruments that

A. H. Schene; R. C. Tessler; G. M. Gamache

1994-01-01

97

Sourcebook on high-temperature electronics and instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

This sourcebook summarizes the high-temperature characteristics of a number of commercially available electronic components and materials required in geothermal well-logging instruments that must operate to 275/sup 0/C. The sourcebook is written to provide a starting place for instrument designers, who need to know the high-temperature electronic products that are available and the design and performance limitations of these products. The electronic component information given includes the standard repertoire of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors, and magnetics; the active devices and integrated circuits sections emphasize silicon semiconductor JFETs and CMOS circuits; and, to complete the electronics, interconnections and packaging of hybrid microelectronics are described. Thermal insulation and refrigeration alternatives are also presented in the sourcebook. Finally, instrument housing materials and high-temperature cables and cablehead connectors are listed. This information was compiled as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program that Sandia National Laboratories conducted for the US Department of Energy's Divison of Geothermal Energy from 1976 to 1981.

Veneruso, A.F. (ed.)

1981-10-01

98

Introducing Temperature Measurement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn how to read a Celsius-scale thermometer, associate weather conditions and seasons with Celsius temperature ranges, and keep a record of temperature. Students will read the Celsius temperature each day and discuss how given temperatures "feel". They record the temperature by using a string of beads and a chart.

99

[An instrument for estimating human body composition using impedance measurement].  

PubMed

According to the impedance feature of biological tissue, the instrument was designed at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100kHz to measure human impedance, and then to calculate human FAT, FFM, FAT%, TBW, ECW, ICW and so on. A 8031 singlechip microprocessor contacuting used as a control center in the instrument. The part of electric circuit contacuting human body in the instrument was unreally earthing. The instrument was safty, effective, repeatable, and easily manpulative. Prelimintary clinical experiment showed the results measured with the instrument could effectively reflect practical, status of human composition. PMID:9647623

Yin, J; Peng, C

1997-03-01

100

Low-frequency noise measurements: applications, methodologies and instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low frequency noise measurements (f<10Hz) are a powerful tool for the investigation of the quality and reliability of electron devices and material. In most cases, however, the application of this technique is made quite difficult both because of the effect of external interferences (temperature fluctuations, EMI, mechanical vibrations, etc.) and because of the high level of flicker noise of the commercial instrumentation. In this paper the most remarkable results we obtained by using low frequency noise measurements for the characterization of the reliability of VLSI metallic interconnections and thin oxides are resumed. Moreover, we discuss the effects of the several sources of noise and interferences which contribute to reduce the sensitivity of the measurement chain. In particular, we demonstrate that by means of a proper design, dedicated instrumentation can be built which allows for a considerable reduction of the overall background noise. Examples will be given with reference to voltage and transresistance amplifiers (both AC and DC coupled), to programmable biasing systems (both current and voltage sources), to thermal stabilization systems and to data acquisition systems. Finally, we will discuss methods which may allow, in proper conditions, to accurately measure noise levels well below the background noise of the input preamplifiers coupled to the device under test. As the systems we discuss are characterized by moderate complexity and employ components readily available on the market, we trust that this paper may also serve as a simple guideline to anyone interested in exploiting the possibility of using very low frequency noise measurements by building his own instrumentation.

Ciofi, Carmine; Neri, Bruno

2003-05-01

101

The Constipation Severity Instrument: A Validated Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study was designed to develop and test the validity and reliability of the Constipation Severity Instrument.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Scale development was conducted in two stages: 1) 74 items were generated through a literature review and focus groups of\\u000a constipated patients and medical providers; and 2) a preliminary instrument was administered to 191 constipated patients and\\u000a 103 healthy volunteers. Test-retest reliability of

Madhulika G. Varma; Jennifer Y. Wang; Julia R. Berian; Taryn R. Patterson; G. Lindsay McCrea; Stacey L. Hart

2008-01-01

102

Regression based characterization of color measurement instruments in printing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of print quality and process control colorimetric parameters and tolerance values are clearly defined. Calibration procedures are well defined for color measurement instruments in printing workflows. Still, using more than one color measurement instrument measuring the same color wedge can produce clearly different results due to random and systematic errors of the instruments. In certain situations where one instrument gives values which are just inside the given tolerances and another measurement instrument produces values which exceed the predefined tolerance parameters, the question arises whether the print or proof is approved or not accepted with regards to the standard parameters. The aim of this paper was to determine an appropriate model to characterize color measurement instruments for printing applications in order to improve the colorimetric performance and hence the inter-instrument agreement. The method proposed is derived from color image acquisition device characterization methods which have been applied by performing polynomial regression with a least square technique. Six commercial color measurement instruments were used for measuring color patches of a control color wedge on three different types of paper substrates. The characterization functions were derived using least square polynomial regression, based on the training set of 14 BCRA tiles colorimetric reference values and the corresponding colorimetric measurements obtained by the measurement instruments. The derived functions were then used to correct the colorimetric values of test sets of 46 measurements of the color control wedge patches. The corrected measurement results obtained from the applied regression model was then used as the starting point with which the corrected measurements from other instruments were compared to find the most appropriate polynomial, which results in the least color difference. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed regression method works remarkably well with a range of different color measurement instruments used on three types of substrates. Finally, by extending the training set from 14 samples to 38 samples the obtained results clearly indicate that the model is robust.

Nussbaum, Peter; Hardeberg, Jon Y.; Albregtsen, Fritz

2011-01-01

103

Instrument for benzene and toluene emission measurements of glycol regenerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce an in-field and in-explosive atmosphere useable instrument, which can measure the benzene and toluene concentration in two gas and two glycol samples produced by natural gas dehydration units. It is a two-phase, on-line gas chromatograph with a photoacoustic spectroscopy based detector. The time resolution is 10 min per cycle and the minimum detectable concentrations are 2 mg m?3 for benzene, 3 mg m?3 for toluene in natural gas, and 5 g m?3 for benzene and 6 g m?3 for toluene in glycol. Test measurements were carried out at a dehydration plant belonging to MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company. Benzene and toluene emissions of gas dehydration unit are calculated from the measured values based on mass balance of a glycol regenerator. The relationship between the outdoor temperature and the measured concentration was observed which is caused by temperature-dependent operation of the whole dehydration unit. Emission decreases with increase of outdoor temperature.

Hanyecz, Veronika; Mohácsi, Árpád; Puskás, Sándor; Vágó, Árpád; Szabó, Gábor

2013-11-01

104

A New Instrument for Measuring Teacher Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 24-item Q-sort faculty evaluation instrument based on Spady's model of teacher competency was constructed and piloted. Following the second pilot and factor analysis of the data, the items were reduced to 16. Test-retest reliability was .81. High correlations between items and their subscale total and low interitem correlations indicate…

O'Tuel, Frances S.; Terry, B. Diane

105

Instrumentation Development to Measure Camoflet Size.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes results of 2 months of design and testing. The objective was to develop instrumentation capable of recording the time dependent growth of the camoflet produced by a buried explosive charge by using the conductive properties of an io...

H. R. Fueher J. W. Keeser

1977-01-01

106

A self-tuning microcontroller-based glass measuring instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and implementation of a self-tuning microcontroller-based instrument for measuring different thicknesses of glass and glass substitutes. The instrument’s hardware was successfully tested in the laboratory on coated and uncoated glass under a variety of conditions. It is designed to provide high performance and high precision measuring capability to the system user. The obtained experimental data

Robert P Marande; Ronald P Krahe; Faisal K Fadul

1999-01-01

107

Survey of Greenland instrumental temperature records: 1873-2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal and spatial variability are analysed in Greenland instrumental temperature records from 24 coastal and three ice sheet locations. Trends over the longest period available, 1873-2001, at Ilulissat\\/Jakobshavn indicate statistically significant warming in all seasons: 5°C in winter. Trends over the 1901-2000 century in southern Greenland indicate statistically significant spring and summer cooling. General periods of warming occurred from 1885

Jason E. Box

2002-01-01

108

A digital electronic instrument for measuring sound velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of ultrasonic pulse-echo overlap described by Papadakis (1967) has been used for the planning and construction of a digital electronic instrument for measuring sound velocity in connection with Matec equipment. The instrument is of simple construction and all the components are commercially available. It allows the measurement of sound velocity to within a relative uncertainty of about 10-6.

G. Carini; F. Mento

1979-01-01

109

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...measuring instrument.] 21 FOOD AND DRUGS 8 1999-04-01...886.1460 Sec. 886.1460 FOOD AND DRUGS FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, MEDICAL...device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects...

1999-04-01

110

An Instrument to Measure Ice Nucleation in the Contact Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how ice is formed in clouds is a major outstanding challenge in understanding and predicting global climate change. Of the known ice formation pathways in the atmosphere (homogeneous, deposition, immersion, condensation, and contact), the least understood is contact nucleation. Measurement of an aerosol particle's effectiveness in the contact mode requires that the particle be brought into contact with the surface of a supercooled water drop and the subsequent nucleation event (if any) detected. We describe an instrument capable of measuring ice nucleation catalyzed via aerosol particles in the contact mode. The essence of the apparatus is an electric field, created using parallel, conducting plates. The electric field forces charged aerosols into contact with a supercooled water drop held on the temperature controlled lower plate. The size of particles acting as contact nuclei can be determined from the time required for particles to traverse the vertical extent of the chamber. Nucleation events are detected using a laser, which is focused through the droplet onto a photodiode. When the droplet freezes, the voltage across the photodiode changes due to the change in transmitted/scattered laser light. This design allows us to control the temperature of the supercooled water drop as well as measure contact nucleation activity of a distribution of aerosol particles. Preliminary results using Arizona Test Dust have shown that the apparatus successfully allows ice nucleation in the contact mode to be measured.

Bunker, K. W.; Cantrell, W. H.

2009-12-01

111

Design & Development of a Remote Temperature Monitor System of Web Using Virtual Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature measure and control system is one of the widest application systems in industry fields, and National Instruments' LabVIEW has became a popular programming environment for data acquisition in academia and industry. At Wuhan Institute of Chemical Technology, experimental training for undergraduate students in electric and electronic engineering courses should strengthen students' theoretical knowledge, carry out useful self-training, and

Fan yang; Guoping Li; Huipeng Li

112

Evaluation of the use of an integration-type laser-Doppler flowmeter with a temperature-loading instrument for measuring skin blood flow in elderly subjects during cooling load: comparison with younger subjects.  

PubMed

An integration-type laser-Doppler flowmeter, equipped with a temperature-load instrument, for measuring skin blood flow (ILD-T), and analytical parameters developed in a previous study were used to compare changes in the skin blood flow in the forehead and cheek in elderly subjects (in their 60s and 70s) with those in younger subjects (in their teens to 50s). Age-related differences in skin blood flow in the forehead and cheek in response to cooling were evaluated in 90 healthy women in their teens to 70s (mean age: 17.2 +/- 0.33 years for teenagers; 24.3 +/- 0.76 years for those aged 20-29 years; 34.8 +/- 1.12 years for those aged 30-39 years; 43.3 +/- 0.78 years for those aged 40-49 years; 53.8 +/- 1.13 years for those aged 50-59 years; 63.5 +/- 0.55 years for those aged 60-69 years; 72.2 +/- 0.70 years for those aged 70-79 years). The measurement was performed continuously for 5 min: for 1 min at a sensor temperature of 30 degrees C, for 2 min after the setting of the sensor temperature had been changed to 10 degrees C, and for 2 min after the temperature setting had been cancelled. The parameters analyzed were (1) skin temperature in a resting state before measurement ( T(rest)), (2) mean skin blood flow in 1 min at a sensor temperature of 30 degrees C ( F(30 degrees C)), (3) minimum skin blood flow at a sensor temperature of 10 degrees C ( F(min)), (4) slope of the blood flow plot during the period from the beginning of cooling at 10 degrees C to F(min) ( S(fall)), (5) time required for the sensor temperature to reach 10 degrees C (Delta t(s)), (6) maximum skin blood flow during the period from the end of cooling to the end of measurement ( F(max)), (7) slope of the blood flow plot during the period from F(min) to F(max) ( S(rise)), (8) rate of decrease of the skin blood flow during cooling: FDR = ( F(min)/ F(30 degrees C))x100, (9) recovery rate of the skin blood flow after the end of cooling: FRR = ( F(max)/ F(30 degrees C))x100. When correlations among the above nine parameters were evaluated by combining all age groups, significant correlations ( P < 0.01) were observed between F(30 degrees C) and F(min), F(30 degrees C) and F(max), F(30 degrees C) and S(fall), F(min) and F(max), and F(max) and S(rise) in the forehead. In the cheek, significant correlations ( P < 0.01) were observed in all these combinations except between F(max) and S(rise). When these analytical parameters were compared among the age groups, F(30 degrees C), T(rest), F(max), and S(rise) decreased significantly ( P < 0.02 for F(30 degrees C) and T(rest), P < 0.01 for F(max) and S(rise)) and S(fall) increased significantly ( P < 0.03) in the forehead with aging. However, no significant change with aging was observed in FDR, Delta t(s), F(min), and FRR. In the cheek, FDR increased significantly ( P < 0.03), and S(rise) decreased significantly ( P < 0.01) with aging. However, no significant change with aging was observed in F(30 degrees C), T(rest), F(max), S(fall), Delta t(s), F(min), and FRR. Thus, the decrease in the skin blood flow during cooling showed no marked quantitative change with age, but, with aging, the rate of this decrease was clearly reduced in the forehead. In the cheek, on the other hand, the skin blood flow decreased markedly with aging, but no clear change was observed in the rate of this decrease. By using ILD-T and examining various parameters obtained, the skin hemodynamics in the forehead and cheek during cooling from 30 degrees C to 10 degrees C could be analyzed, and differences in the hemodynamics between the forehead and cheek and between elderly and younger individuals were clarified. This instrument is expected to be clinically useful. PMID:12687449

Nagashima, Yoshinao; Yada, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sakai, Akio

2003-04-08

113

A Temperature Calibration Procedure for the Sunset Laboratory Carbon Aerosol Analysis Lab Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sunset Laboratory Carbon Aerosol Analysis Lab Instrument is widely used for thermal-optical analysis (TOA) of ambient particulate matter samples to measure total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC), and often thermal sub-fractions of OC and EC. TOA operating protocols include a series of plateau temperatures at which the thermal sub-fractions evolve. The temperatures have conventionally been

Chin H. Phuah; Max R. Peterson; Melville H. Richards; Jay H. Turner; Ann M. Dillner

2009-01-01

114

Measuring Sexual Addiction and Compulsivity: A Critical Review of Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has proliferated on sexual addiction in recent years, and this has led to an increase in the instruments created to measure this construct. The authors review 17 instruments that have been created to assess sexual addiction, including self-report rating scales, self-report checklists, and clinician rating scales measuring symptoms of sexual addiction, as well as self-report rating scales measuring consequences

Joshua N. Hook; Jan P. Hook; Don E. Davis; Everett L. Worthington Jr; J. Kim Penberthy

2010-01-01

115

Instrument for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at high pressures  

SciTech Connect

An instrument has been developed for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at high pressures and low temperatures. This instrument couples a nonmagnetic copper-beryllium diamond anvil cell featuring perforated diamonds with a helium flow cryostat and an electromagnet. The applied pressure can be controlled in situ using a gas membrane and calibrated using Cu K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The performance of this instrument was tested by measuring the XMCD spectra of the Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} giant magnetocaloric material.

Haskel, D.; Tseng, Y. C.; Lang, J. C.; Sinogeikin, S. [Magnetic Materials Group, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, lllinois 60439 (United States); HPCAT, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, lllinois 60439 (United States)

2007-08-15

116

Instrument for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at high pressures.  

PubMed

An instrument has been developed for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at high pressures and low temperatures. This instrument couples a nonmagnetic copper-beryllium diamond anvil cell featuring perforated diamonds with a helium flow cryostat and an electromagnet. The applied pressure can be controlled in situ using a gas membrane and calibrated using Cu K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The performance of this instrument was tested by measuring the XMCD spectra of the Gd(5)Si(2)Ge(2) giant magnetocaloric material. PMID:17764332

Haskel, D; Tseng, Y C; Lang, J C; Sinogeikin, S

2007-08-01

117

An Analysis of Several Instruments Measuring "Nature of Science" Objectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reported is an investigation of the relationship among three selected instruments based on the responses of a sample of high school students. The instruments were the Nature of Science Scale (NOSS), the Science Support Scale (SSS), and the Test on the Social Aspects of Science (TSAS). All purport to measure "nature of science" objectives. (PEB)|

Doran, Rodney L.; And Others

1974-01-01

118

Cryogenic Temperature Control and Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review is given of some of the many control, measurement, and regulation techniques for cryogenic temperatures, applying liquid coolants (LN2, LHe) and the equipment developed for their realization, such as pressure, coolant level, and temperature contr...

H. J. Forth

1977-01-01

119

Temperature correction in conductivity measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Electrical conductivity has been widely used in freshwater research but usual methods employed by limnologists for converting measurements to conductance at a given temperature have not given uniformly accurate results. The temperature coefficient used to adjust conductivity of natural waters to a given temperature varies depending on the kinds and concentrations of electrolytes, the temperature at the time of measurement, and the temperature to which measurements are being adjusted. The temperature coefficient was found to differ for various lake and stream waters, and showed seasonal changes. High precision can be obtained only by determining temperature coefficients for each water studied. Mean temperature coefficients are given for various temperature ranges that may be used where less precision is required.

Smith, Stanford H.

1962-01-01

120

BOOK REVIEW: Measurement and Instrumentation Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement activities in advanced industrial countries are estimated to account for somewhere between 3% and 6% of a country's Gross National Product. A well-founded National Measurement System is crucial to economic well-being and the quality of life for all citizens. It is like the oxygen we breathe - unseen and taken for granted - but it is absolutely essential for

Alan S. Morris

2001-01-01

121

An Instrument to Measure Self-Righteousness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A seven item Likert-type scale was developed to measure self-righteousness, defined as the conviction that one's beliefs and actions are correct, especially in contrast to the beliefs and actions of others. The Self Righteousness Questionnaire (SRQ) measures three components of self-righteousness: belittlement, acceptance, and uncertainty. The…

Falbo, Toni; Belk, Sharyn S.

122

SHIM-Fire Breadboard Instrument Design, Integration, and First Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the design, integration, characterization, and the first test measurements of the SHIM-Fire (Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Fire) breadboard instrument. This effort was part of the Spectral-based component of the Volume Sensor (VS) progr...

C. R. Englert J. C. Owrutsky J. M. Harlander J. T. Bays

2005-01-01

123

The development of an instrument to measure neighborhood cohesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an instrument measuring a variable that represents a synthesis of the concepts of psychological sense of community, attractionto-neighborhood, and social interaction within a neighborhood is reported. When this individual-level variable (termed \\

John C. Buckner

1988-01-01

124

Instrument description of the airborne microwave temperature profiler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microwave temperature profiler (MTP) is a passive microwave radiometer installed in the NASA ER-2 aircraft and used to measure profiles of air temperature versus altitude. It operates at 57.3 and 58.8 GHz, where oxygen molecules emit thermal radiation. Brightness temperature is measured at a selection of viewing elevation angles every 14 s. MTP was the only remote sensing experiment aboard the ER-2 during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. This paper describes hardware, calibration, and performance aspects of the MTP.

Denning, Richard F.; Guidero, Steven L.; Parks, Gary S.; Gary, Bruce L.

1989-11-01

125

Patient Measurement of Psoriasis Disease Severity with a Structured Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) is used by dermatologic investigators to assess psoriasis disease severity. PASI measures are time-consuming and require trained personnel. We developed and evaluated a structured PASI-like instrument for self-measurement of psoriasis disease severity for use in future large-scale epidemiologic studies. The instrument consisted of a silhouette of a body for patients to shade in

Alan B. Fleischer Jr; Stephen R. Rapp; David M. Reboussin; Jill C. Vanarthos; Steven R. Feldman

1994-01-01

126

Instrument for Automatic Measurement of the Parameters of Solar Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated instrument for measurement of the parameters of solar elements based on an IBM personal computer, a digital potentiometer, and V7-21A digital voltmeters is described. The instrument produces a programmed specification of the load impedance of the solar elements in the range 0.002–800 O, measurement of short-circuit currents up to 4 A, no-load voltages and the dark and light

V. V. Naumov; O. A. Grebenshchikov; V. B. Zalesskii

2001-01-01

127

Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility  

SciTech Connect

Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the undulators to {+-}0.01 C. This note describes the temperature measurement system under construction.

Wolf, Zachary

2010-12-13

128

METHODOLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION TO MEASURE GASEOUS AMMONIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Methodology for the time integrated collection and analysis of atmospheric ammonia was developed. Ammonia is primarily measured because it can react with SOx to produce ammonium sulfate. Since SOx is one of the principle air pollutants, it is important to determine its atmospheri...

129

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...locomotive 0 1 Amount of correction to be subtracted from measured level (dB). (b) A microphone windscreen and an acoustic calibrator of the coupler type must be used as recommended by: (1) the manufacturer of the sound level meter or (2) the...

2013-07-01

130

Measuring mental models: Rationales and instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationales of measuring mental models In the field of human-computer interaction (HCI), research on mental models has produced a body of literature in the past twenty years. Despite differences in perspectives and terminologies surrounding mental models, the core of the topic concerns the understanding of the cognitive structures and processes underlying the behaviors of human beings performing computer based tasks.

Yan Zhang; Peiling Wang

2005-01-01

131

High-Sensitivity Temperature Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method of measuring small temperature differences that amount to a .01K, using an arrangement of a copper-constantan thermocouple, a microamplifier and a galvanometer, as an indirect way of measuring heat energy. (GA)

Leadstone, G. S.

1978-01-01

132

Instrumentation for transient gas velocity, pressure and heat flux measurements in a gun simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcomputer-based instrumentation for transient measurements of pressure, wall heat flux, and gas velocity in a Lagrangian gun simulator is described, and sample results are presented. The breech pressure was measured by a piezoelectric transducer and the surface temperature was measured by a fast-response thin-film resistance thermometer. The pressure and temperature signals were sampled by a microcomputer and transferred into memory

A. F. Bicen; J. R. Laker; M. C. Schmidt; J. H. Whitelaw

1989-01-01

133

Instrument for underwater measurement of optical backscatter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A backscatter sensor has been developed for rapidly measuring, in situ, the volume scattering function (VSF) in the backward direction. The backscatter sensor uses a bistatic optical geometry to measure backscatter from a small volume of seawater over a range of scattering angles from approximately 115 degree(s) to 170 degree(s). The calibration of the sensor yields a weighted, angular averaged value of the VSF with a centroid located at a scattering angle of about 150 degree(s). The backscatter sensor design is based on a sensitive synchronous detector and pulsed, light-emitting diode that has been used at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The entire sensor package, which includes circuitry for digitizing the signal, is contained in a compact, rugged housing. The sensor has been deployed both in towed arrays and in stationary profiling mode. Scattering profiles from two recent deployments are presented.

Maffione, Robert A.; Dana, David R.; Honey, Richard C.

1991-12-01

134

Modelling Electrostatic Sheath Effects on Swarm Electric Field Instrument Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electric Field Instrument (EFI) was designed to measure ionospheric ion flow velocities, temperatures and distribution functions at the ram face of the European Space Agency’s Swarm spacecraft. These flow velocities, combined with the known orbital velocity of the satellite and local magnetic field, will be used to infer local electric fields from the relation E=- v× B. EFI is among a class of many particle sensors and flow meters mounted on satellites to monitor in situ plasma conditions. The interpretation of the measurements made with EFI and similar sensors relies on a spacecraft sheath model. A common approach, valid in the relatively cold and dense ionospheric plasma, is to assume a potential drop in a thin sheath through which particle deflection and energisation can be calculated analytically. In such models, sheath effects only depend on the spacecraft floating potential, and on the angle of incidence of particles with respect to the normal to the surface. Corrections to measurements are therefore local as they do not depend on the geometry of nearby objects. In an actual plasma, satellites are surrounded by electrostatic sheaths with a finite thickness. As a result, local corrections to particle distribution functions can only be seen as an approximation. A correct interpretation of measured particle fluxes or particle distribution functions must, at least in principle, account for the extent and shape of the sheath in the vicinity of the measuring instrument. This in turn requires a careful analysis of the interaction of the satellite with the surrounding plasma, while accounting for detailed aspects of the geometry, as well as for several physical effects. In this paper, the validity of the thin sheath model is tested by comparing its predictions with detailed PIC (Particle In Cell) calculations of satellite-plasma interaction. Deviations attributed to sheath finite thickness effects are calculated for EFI measurements, with representative plasma parameters encountered along the planned Swarm orbit. Finite thickness effects of the plasma sheaths are found to induce EFI velocity measurement errors not exceeding 37 m/s, with larger errors occurring in plasmas that are simultaneously tenuous (109 m-3 or lower) and warm (0.5 eV or higher).

Marchand, R.; Burchill, J. K.; Knudsen, D. J.

2010-10-01

135

Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing  

SciTech Connect

The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

Myers, D.

1997-04-01

136

Spectroscopic Measurement of Air Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical dimensional measurements have to be corrected for the refractive index of air. The refractive index is conventionally calculated from parameters of ambient air using either Edlén or Ciddor equations or their modified versions. However, these equations require an accurate knowledge of ambient conditions and especially the temperature of air. For example, to reach an uncertainty of 10-7 in dimensions, the air temperature has to be known at ~100 mK level. This does not necessarily cause problems in a stable laboratory environment. However, if measurements are done outdoors or in an industrial environment, variations in temperature can be very rapid and local temperature gradients can cause significant error if not taken into account. Moreover, if the required distance is long, the temperature over the whole measurement path can be impractical or impossible to determine at sufficient temporal or spatial resolution by conventional temperature measurement techniques. The developed method based on molecular spectroscopy of oxygen allows both lateral spatial and temporal overlap of the temperature measurement with the actual distance measurement. Temperature measurement using spectroscopy is based on a line intensity ratio measurement of two oxygen absorption lines, previously applied for measurements of high temperatures in flames. The oxygen absorption band at 762 nm is a convenient choice for two-line thermometry since the line strengths are practical for short- and long-distance measurements and suitable distributed feedback lasers are commercially available. Measurements done on a 67 m path at ambient conditions demonstrate that the RMS noise of 22mK, or 7.5 × 10-5, near 293 K using 60 s measurement time can be achieved, which is to our knowledge the best reported resolution.

Hieta, T.; Merimaa, M.

2010-09-01

137

Feasibility of flight experiments and instrumentation hardware for in-flight hypersonic boundary-layer measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the feasibility of implementing nonintrusive optical diagnostics to measure the properties of the boundary layer surrounding a hypersonic vehicle. Measurements of density, temperature, location of the shock front, and Nâ, Oâ, and NO concentrations are feasible using electron-beam fluorescence, for which instrumentation appropriate for flight experiments already exists. In particular, NO will be a key indicator of

R. J. Cattolica; R. L. Schmitt; R. E. Palmer

1989-01-01

138

Holdup Measures on an SRNL Mossbauer Spectroscopy Instrument  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray holdup measurements of a Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument are described and modeled. In the qualitative acquisitions obtained in a low background area of Savannah River National Laboratory, only Am-241 and Np-237 activity were observed. The Am-241 was known to be the instrumental activation source, while the Np-237 is clearly observed as a source of contamination internal to the instrument. The two sources of activity are modeled separately in two acquisition configurations using two separate modeling tools. The results agree well, demonstrating a content of (1980 {+-} 150) {mu}Ci Am-241 and (110 {+-} 50) {mu}Ci of Np-237.

Dewberry, R.; Brown, T.; Salaymeh, S.

2010-05-05

139

Atmospheric measurements of nitrogen dioxide with a sensitive luminol instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

A highly sensitive, lightweight, portable instrument has been developed for continuous monitoring of N02 in air. It operates by detecting the chemiluminescence produced when N02 encounters a surface wetted with a specially formulated solution containing luminol. Unlike other chemiluminescent instruments it measures N02 directly and does not require prior conversion of N02 to NO. It does not respond to H202,

H. I. Schiff; G. I. Mackay; C. Castledine; G. W. Harris; Q. Tran

1986-01-01

140

Instrument Measurements in Osteoporosis Clinical Trials: Evaluating the Endpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical instruments can be used in one of four primary ways: for screening, diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring the natural\\u000a history of the disease or therapeutic intervention. Good quantitative endpoints in clinical trials are usually obtained from\\u000a instruments measuring a physiological parameter that is relevant to the anticipated effect of the molecular entity under investigation,\\u000a and nowhere is this more apparent

Colin G. Miller

141

Supercontiuum laser-based instrument to measure hyperspectral polarized BRDF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments of active imaging and remote sensing systems in security and defence community require comprehensive optical characterizations of man-made targets. Optical signature analysis of various targets implies a better and comprehensive understanding of reflectance properties such as Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR). Measurements and modeling of optical signatures are valuable for target classification and identification. Onera, the French Aerospace Lab, has developed an original optical instrument to measure hyperspectral polarized BRDF. Measurements are carried out on various targets to provide relevant data to simulate actual and future active imaging devices. This paper reviews the design of the instrument and its hyperspectral calibration procedure in details. A new specific tensorial hyperspectral reflectance framework is introduced. Experimental results for reference Lambertian targets and airport targets are presented to illustrate the instrument capacities. A large optical properties database is build from these measurements for defence, security and industrial needs.

Ceolato, Romain; Rivière, Nicolas; Hespel, Laurent; Biscans, Beatrice

2011-10-01

142

Outcome instruments to measure frailty: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frailty is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare professionals. The level of frailty depends on several interrelated factors and can change over time while different interventions seem to be able to influence the level of frailty. Therefore, an outcome instrument to measure frailty with sound clinimetric properties is needed. A systematic review on evaluative measures of frailty was performed

N. M. de Vries; J. B. Staal; C. D. van Ravensberg; J. S. M. Hobbelen; M. G. M. Olde Rikkert; M. W. G. Nijhuis-van der Sanden

2011-01-01

143

Scale Construction: Developing Reliable and Valid Measurement Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe the process for developing reliable and valid measurement instruments that can be used in any hospitality industry field research setting. Many instances exist in which the researcher cannot find an adequate or appropriate existing scale to measure an important construct. In these situations it is necessary to create a new scale. Failure

Timothy R. Hinkin; J. Bruce Tracey; Cathy A. Enz

1997-01-01

144

BETA GAUGE INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF AEROSOL MASS  

EPA Science Inventory

An instrument developed by LBL for the routine measurement of aerosol mass using the beta-gauge particle attenuation method is described and evaluated. Factors affecting the precision and accuracy of the measurement are discussed in detail. Results of intercomparison studies betw...

145

Measuring Service Quality In Higher Education: Three Instruments Compared  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Measuring the quality of service in higher education is increasingly important, particularly as fees introduce a more consumerist ethic amongst students. This paper aims to test and compare the relative efficacy of three measuring instruments of service quality (namely HEdPERF, SERVPERF and the moderating scale of HEdPERF-SERVPERF ) within a…

Abdullah, Firdaus

2006-01-01

146

Room-temperature phosphorescence fiber-optic instrumentation for simultaneous multiposition analysis of dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and analytical characterization of a fiber-optic instrument for simultaneous multiposition water-dissolved oxygen monitoring by room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) measurements is presented. The sensing principle is based on the RTP quenching by oxygen of the phosphorescent light emitted by the metal chelate formed by Al with 8-hydroxy-7-iodo-5-quinolinesulfonic acid (Al-ferron) trapped in a sol–gel solid support. Four RTP oxygen sensor flow-cells

Juan D??az-Garc??a; José M Costa-Fernández; Nerea Bordel-Garc??a; Alfredo Sanz-Medel

2001-01-01

147

Wind measurement systems and wind tunnel evaluation of selected instruments  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has conducted wind tunnel tests of seven relatively inexpensive wind measurement systems as part of a program to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of instruments for use in small wind energy conversion system siting studies. This report discusses wind measurement systems and documents the results of the wind tunnel studies. Documentation consists of graphs and tables relating system and system component performance to wind speed. The results describe instrument system performance under ideal conditions; tests in the atmosphere are required to evaluate performance under realistic conditions.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Wetzel, J.S.

1981-05-01

148

Shock temperature measurements in ammonia  

SciTech Connect

Our first shock temperature measurements on a cryogenic target are reported for NH/sub 3/. A new fast optical pyrometer and a cryogenic specimen holder for liquid NH/sub 3/ were developed to measure shock temperatures of 4400 and 3600 K at pressures of 61 and 48 GPa. These conditions correspond to those in the ice layers in Uranus and Neptune. The shock temperature data are in reasonable agreement with an equation of state based on an intermolecular potential derived from NH/sub 3/ Hugoniot data.

Radousky, H.B.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Ross, M.

1985-07-01

149

A new plasma potential measurement instrument for plasma ion sources  

SciTech Connect

A very efficient and fast instrument to measure the plasma potential of ion sources has been developed at the Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae (JYFL). The operating principle of this novel instrument is to apply a decelerating voltage into a mesh located in the beamline of the ion source. The plasma potential is determined by measuring the current at the grounded electrode situated behind the mesh as a function of the voltage. In this article, we will introduce the instrument and the first results. In the experiments, the instrument was connected to the beamline of the JYFL 6.4 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The plasma potential was measured with different source conditions and it was observed to vary between 30-65 V. The plasma potential tended to increase as the microwave power, or the gas feed rate, was increased. These results are consistent with earlier observations and estimations. It was also noticed that the value of the plasma potential changed when the negative voltage applied to the biased disk at the injection of the ion source was varied. Complementary to optical plasma diagnostics, such an instrument can be used as a very efficient tool to get a precise relationship between plasma conditions and extracted beams.

Tarvainen, O.; Suominen, P.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, Accelerator Laboratory, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

2004-10-01

150

Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope MeasuringInstruments  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 {micro}rad (rms).

Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

2007-08-01

151

Characterization of a traceable profiler instrument for areal roughness measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional profiler instrument was designed and realized at the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt). The main function of the instrument is to provide traceable results in the field of roughness measurement. It is equipped with a linear moving stylus which is guided by precision air bearings. The moving part of the stylus has weight around 1 g and is carried by a magnetic field. The contacting force of the tip onto the surface under test is controlled by a small voice coil actuator in a closed control loop. Vertical movements of the stylus are captured by two different, completely independent measurement systems, covering a range of 100 µm. The first one is an interferometer, which provides a traceable signal, and the second one is an inductive measurement system. The signal from the inductive measurement system is calibrated by the interferometer. The sample under test is carried within the x-y-plane by a linear guided table with low noise air bearings. These air bearings are preloaded by vacuum and a constant gap is achieved by gas pressure controllers. Both axes of the table are driven by linear voice coil actuators and their movement in the plane is measured by linear encoders. The sample carrier is equipped with two axes tilt compensation, by which the sample under test can be levelled automatically using the measurement system of the stylus. Real-time data acquisition, manual handling and automated procedures are managed by a programmable controller and proprietary software written in LabVIEW. After measurement, data from the system can be directly transferred into the smd- or sdf-format. Results of measurements on different samples to characterize the metrological behaviour of the instrument will be reported. To characterize the uncertainty of the instrument, a model is applied, which is in accordance with approved rules for contact stylus instruments.

Thomsen-Schmidt, P.

2011-09-01

152

Spectral ultraviolet radiation instrument and preliminary measurements in Mountainous terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of spectral ultraviolet irradiance require spectroradiometers with high resolution and stability, and well known behavior of the instrument. A UV-spectrophotometer is described and methods of calibrations are shown. A set of measurements in the Utah Rocky Mountains (Snowbird-Hidden Peak, in 3300 m elevation) compared to those at the Wasatch Front (Logan, 1400 m) is discussed. Several sets of measurements are used to show the effect of solar zenith angle, elevation and cloudcover on direct solar and diffuse irradiance.

Dirmhirn, Inge; Sreedharan, C. R.; Venugopal, G.

1993-12-01

153

Instrumentation for chemical species measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere  

SciTech Connect

Instrument advances made during 1987-1990 for atmospheric trace species measurements are reviewed. Problems discussed include types of measurement strategies, oxidant species, reductant species, and flux measurement. Particular attention is given to odd oxygen species, hydrogen oxides, hydrocarbon oxy and peroxy radicals, halogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, reduced sulfur compounds, ammonia, cyanide compounds, water vapor, nitrous oxide, hydrogen halides, fully halogenated carbon compounds, fully halogenated carbonyl compounds, and sulfur hexafluoride. 195 refs.

Kolb, C.E. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

154

Compensation for instrument anomalies in imaging infrared measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared imaging is commonly used for performing thermography based on field calibration that simply relates image levels to apparent temperature levels using field blackbodies. Under normal conditions, the correlation between the image levels and blackbody temperature is strong, allowing conversion of the raw data into units of blackbody-equivalent temperature without consideration of other factors. However, if certain instrument anomalies are present, a compensation procedure that involves more in-depth sensor characterization may be required. The procedure, which uses an analysis of temperature-dependent dark current, optical emissions, and detector response, is described along with results for a specific case. The procedure involves first cold soaking a thermal camera and then observing the cooldown behavior of the sensor under non-stressing conditions. Variations in environmental temperature levels are then used to observe cooler performance and dark current levels. A multi-variate linear regression is performed that allows temperature-dependent dark current, lens emission, lens transmission, and detector quantum efficiency to be fully characterized. The resulting data describe for each image pixel a relationship between the scene temperature and the observed values of image signal, detector temperature, and camera temperature. The procedure has been applied successfully to a thermal imager used to collect field data while suffering from instrument anomalies due to a faulty cooler. Using the resulting characterization data for the pixel-dependent dark current, image data collected with the thermal imager was compensated. The compensation involved using spatial filtering to determine temperature shifts caused by the faulty cooler based on the predictable pattern of pixel-to-pixel variations in dark current. The estimated temperature shift was used to compute a compensation offset for each pixel based on its known dark current coefficient. The compensated image data, while still degraded, was sufficiently corrected for the predictable effects of dark current variations to allow valid thermography to be performed.

Dobbins, Christopher L.; Dawson, James A.; Lightfoot, Jay A.; Edwards, William D.; Cobb, Ryan S.; Heckwolf, Amanda R.

2013-06-01

155

[History of instrumental measuring of hearing acuity: the first acumeter].  

PubMed

The necessity of measuring the acuity of hearing in a reproducible way arose for the first time when the invention of Volta's pile in 1800 seemed to present the opportunity of curing deafness. For this purpose Chr. H. Wolke in Jever, Northern Germany, in 1802 devised two instruments which he called "acumeter". Details of these instruments were hardly known, and Wolke's publication was believed to be lost. The author has now succeeded in tracing Wolke's publication and another associated paper by J. J. A. Sprenger. Hence, the circumstances of Wolke's and Sprenger's work and details of these first acumeters are now being published together with original figures and the correct dimensions of the instruments. The acumeters had a pendulum-like hammer that would strike against a plate swinging down from varying heights that could be read in degrees of angle from a scale. One of the instruments was made of wood. It was 1.50 m high, with the pendulum raised to the maximal position 2.70 m. The other instrument of similar construction was made of metal and about half the size of the first one, with a height of 0.70 m or 1.30 m respectively. For comparison Itard's acumeter is presented which was published in 1821. It worked on the same principle, and it is likely that Itard had been inspired by Wolke's paper. The development of mechanical acumeters after Wolke's and Itard's instruments is outlined briefly. PMID:1388477

Feldmann, H

1992-09-01

156

Measurement of Sexual Functioning After Spinal Cord Injury: Preferred Instruments  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: To determine the utility of certain instruments to assess sexuality and fertility after SCI, an expert panel identified key areas to study and evaluated available instruments. These were rated according to certain predefined criteria. Methods: The authors divided sexual issues into male and female sexual function, male reproductive function, and female reproductive function. The instruments that have been used most frequently to measure these aspects of sexual function over the past 5 years were identified by expert consensus. Finally, these instruments were subjected to a critical review. Results: The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), measurement of vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and the measurement of ejaculatory function and semen quality were considered appropriate measures to assess sexual responses and reproductive function after SCI. There were no measures identified to assess female reproductive function. Conclusions: For clinical trials aiming to improve sexual function after SCI, the FSFI or the IIEF is currently preferred. Although VPA is an appropriate means to assess female sexual responses, it is only useful for laboratory studies and is too invasive for use in clinical trials. For assessment of male fertility potential, assessment of ejaculatory capacity and semen analysis are recommended.

Autonomic Standards Committee; Alexander, Marcalee Sipski; Brackett, Nancy L; Bodner, Donald; Elliott, Stacy; Jackson, Amie; Sonksen, Jens

2009-01-01

157

Comparison of measurements from satellite radiation budget instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successive radiometers have been flown on spacecraft for measurement of the radiation budget of the Earth and to date have provided data sets which overlap in time over a 25-year period. Together these data sets cover two cycles of any decadal oscillation and are useful for climate research. However, before multiple data sets can be used, it is necessary first to establish precisions and relative biases of the data sets. Although these instruments were all calibrated with great care, inevitably there are differences between the instruments. Also, instruments change while in orbit due to degradation of optical elements and changes of the detectors. A number of studies have compared measurements between pairs of radiometers in order to establish these differences. In this paper we compile these results and by use of a bar chart demonstrate the traceability of calibration of satellite radiation budget instruments over these two decades. Using this compilation the differences are computed for any two instruments listed. The instruments considered here include the ERBE scanning and nonscanning radiometers, ScaRaB I and II, and the CERES instruments aboard the TRMM, Terra, and Aqua spacecraft. These results are a prerequisite to use of multiple data sets for long-term studies of climate process. The largest biases are between the ERBS scanning and non-scanning radiometers, which at the "top of the atmosphere" differ by 5.4 W m-2 for shortwave fluxes and by 5.8 W m-2 for daytime longwave fluxes. The standard deviations of the biases, which define how well the data sets can be connected, are less than 1 W m-2 for longwave and between 1 and 2 W m-2 for shortwave fluxes.

Smith, G. Louis; Szewczyk, Z. Peter; Rutan, David A.; Lee, Robert B.

2006-02-01

158

Performance evaluation of rf electric and magnetic field measuring instruments. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The need to quantify the electromagnetic fields emitted by industrial, scientific, or medical (ISM) products operating in the 10 to 300 MHz region requires the testing of instrumentation suitable for use in RF radiation hazard surveys. To meet this requirement, several procedures were devised to test the accuracy of the RF survey instrumentation. Measurement systems and protocols were developed and evaluated. The electric (E) and magnetic (H) field measuring instruments were tested for linearity, calibration accuracy, amplitude modulation response, directivity, antenna patterns, temperature response, drift and noise, Radiofrequency Interference (RFI), and polarization response. Tests were performed on three commercially available RF survey instruments and a one-of-a-kind device over the 10 to 100 MHz region. Complete tests were only performed at the ISM frequency of 27.12 MHz. Errors for each of the tests are presented in tabular form.

Nesmith, B.C.W.; Ruggera, P.S.

1982-03-01

159

An Automated Instrument for the Measurement of Bark Microrelief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bark microrelief is of importance to the physiological ecology of forested ecosystems because it has been documented to influence the distribution of corticolous lichens, stemflow generation, and forest biogeochemical cycles. Hitherto no instrument existed to characterize the inherent variability of bark microrelief with high spatial resolution. Our newly-designed bark microrelief instrument, the LaserBarkTM, consists of a hinged ring, laser rangefinder, and motor linked to a standard laptop. The LaserBarkTM produces trunk cross- sections at a 0.33 degree horizontal resolution and detects bark ridge-to furrow heights at < 1 mm resolution. The LaserBarkTM was validated by comparing measurements of bark microrelief between the instrument and digital calipers. The mean absolute error of the instrument was 0.83 mm. Our bark microrelief instrument can supply critical requisite information of bark microstructure that be used by researchers to interpret the distribution of lichens and bryophytes on tree surfaces, relate stemflow yield and chemistry to bark microrelief, and provide detailed measurements of the changes of bark microrelief with stem dehydration. In short, the LaserBarkTM can be used to gain a more holistic understanding of the functional ecology of forest ecosystems.

van Stan, J. T.; Jarvis, M.; Levia, D. F.

2009-05-01

160

INSTRUMENTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given on instrumentation developments during the period 1960-; 61. Discussion is given on various instruments such as supersonic and ; electrolytic machines, spectrometers, coated filters, multiplier phototube, ; balances, photoelectric refractometers, and others. lt is felt that a milestone ; in instrumentation and metrology was established when a new international ; standard of length was adopted to

1962-01-01

161

AN INSTRUMENT TO MEASURE VISUAL DISCRIMINATION OF YOUNG CHILDREN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING VISUAL DISCRIMINATION ABILITY WITHOUT CONFOUNDING VARIABLES OF MOTOR SKILLS HAS BEEN CONSTRUCTED. TO AVOID THE EYE-HAND COORDINATION USUALLY REQUIRED ON THESE TESTS, A SELECTION, RATHER THAN A DRAWING, RESPONSE WAS DEVELOPED. THIS TEST, THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT LOS ANGELES DISCRIMINATION INVENTORY (VDI), CONSISTS…

LOMBARD, AVIMA; STERN, CAROLYN

162

A Competency-Measurement Instrument for Evaluating School Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study developed the first measurement instrument designed to accompany the concept of competency basing in counselor training. In so doing, the study screened and validated a list of skills most essential in an effective counselor. The process began with a composite list of some 1600 competencies and subordinate skills enumerated by three…

Percival, Robert R.

163

7th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Symposium Series on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII) has progressed considerably over the 15 years of its existence. The first and second conferences were held in 1989 and 1993, respectively at Huazhong University of Science and Technology, in China in conjunction with the University of Birmingham in the UK, and organised by Professor Zhu Li, the founding

Xiangqian Jane Jiang; David J Whitehouse

2005-01-01

164

Concept Acquisition and Confidence Using a Spatial Probability Measure Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Instructional strategies for teaching concepts have long been identified. Less commonly studied is a learner's level of confidence and certitude in their knowledge based upon exposure to these instructional treatments. This experimental research study used an instrument referred to as the Spatial Probability Measure (SPM) to solicit levels of…

Moore, David Richard

2007-01-01

165

Testing for Factorially Invariant Measuring Instruments: A Reexamination and Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper identifies and addresses four methodological weaknesses common to most previous studies that have used LISREL confirmatory factor analysis to test for the factorial validity and invariance of a single measuring instrument. Specifically, the paper demonstrates the steps involved in: (1) conducting sensitivity analyses to determine a…

Byrne, Barbara M.

166

Instrumental variable estimation in a probit measurement error model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probit regression is studied when normally distributed covariates are subject to normally distributed measurement errors. Under the assumption that surrogate instrumental variables are available, the parameters in the probit model are shown to be identified. The maximum likelihood estimator and an easily computed two-stage estimator are derived and studied. The two-stage estimator is shown to be asymptotically efficient. Simulation results

J. S. Buzas; L. A. Stefanski

1996-01-01

167

Attitudes to teaching mathematics: Further development of a measurement instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evidence that a relationship exists between attitudes to teaching mathematics and the formation of positive attitudes to mathematics among pupils is somewhat tenuous. Nevertheless, there is a strong belief among pre-service teacher educators that positive attitudes need to be fostered in teacher education students, particularly for prospective primary school teachers. Unfortunately, the research evidence suggests that high proportions of pre-service teachers hold negative attitudes towards mathematics. Although many instruments measuring affect in areas such as self-concept, anxiety, etc. have appeared in the literature over the years, no comprehensive instrument on attitudes is available to help teacher educators monitor attitudinal changes among their pre-service student teachers to the teaching of mathematics. This research re-examines an earlier attempt to develop such an instrument in Australia (Nisbet, 1991) and posits an alternative and refined version.

Relich, Joe; Way, Jenni; Martin, Andrew

1994-07-01

168

The correlation of organoleptic and instrumental halitosis measurements.  

PubMed

Numerous detection systems are available for measuring halitosis. In order to examine their agreement, a study was conducted comparing four selected measuring methods in 100 subjects (52 females, 48 males; mean age: 25 years). Organoleptic halitosis measurement was carried out by an odor judge, and compared with instrumental halitosis measurement by sulfide monitoring using Halimeter, Fresh Kiss, and Halitox (halitosis linked toxin detection assay), with which both VSC (volatile sulphur compounds) and polyamines can be detected. The results show that the values recorded by the Halimeter correlated best with the organoleptic assessment and the least with the results of Fresh Kiss. PMID:20533102

Brunner, Flavio; Kurmann, Miranda; Filippi, Andreas

2010-01-01

169

Accuracy of Noninvasive Core Temperature Measurement in Acutely Ill Adults: The State of the Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate temperature measurement is critical to the assessment and management of temperature fluctuation in the acutely ill adult. Unfortunately, an accurate, noninvasive method to measure core temperature has yet to be established, and current instruments produce a wide range of temperatures for any given patient. This article provides an integrative review of studies comparing selected invasive and noninvasive temperature measurement

Vallire D. Hooper; Jeannette O. Andrews

2006-01-01

170

Cryogenic instrumentation for fast current measurement in a silicon single electron transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a realization of high bandwidth instrumentation at cryogenic temperatures and for dilution refrigerator operation that possesses advantages over methods using radio frequency single electron transistor or transimpedance amplifiers. The ability for the low temperature electronics to carry out faster measurements than with room temperature electronics is investigated by the use of a phosphorous-doped single electron transistor. A single shot technique is successfully implemented and used to observe the real-time decay of a quantum state. A discussion on various measurement strategies is presented and the consequences on electron heating and noise are analyzed.

Ferrus, T.; Hasko, D. G.; Morrissey, Q. R.; Burge, S. R.; Freeman, E. J.; French, M. J.; Lam, A.; Creswell, L.; Collier, R. J.; Williams, D. A.; Briggs, G. A. D.

2009-08-01

171

Instrument for measuring the misalignments of ocular surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact and robust instrument for measuring the alignment of ocular surfaces has been designed and used in living eyes. It is based on recording Purkinje images (reflections of light at the ocular surfaces) at nine different angular fixations. A complete analysis on the causes of misalignments of Purkinje images and its relations with those physical variables to be measured (global eye tilt, lens decentration and lens tilt) is presented. A research prototype based on these ideas was built and tested in normal and pseudophakic eyes (after cataract surgery). The new analysis techniques, together with the semicircular extended source and multiple fixation tests that we used, are significant improvements towards a robust approach to measuring the misalignments of the ocular surfaces in vivo. This instrument will be of use in both basic studies of the eye’s optics and clinical ophthalmology.

Tabernero, Juan; Benito, Antonio; Nourrit, Vincent; Artal, Pablo

2006-10-01

172

Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science & education, instrumentation & training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science & education, instrumentation & training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

Hofmann, D.; Dittrich, P.-G.; Duentsch, E.

2010-07-01

173

Measuring formation properties through well casing with pulsed neutron instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring formation properties through well casing with pulsed neutron instrumentation In the process of developing an oil or gas reservoir, the exploration team first confirms the existence of a potential reservoir with a discovery well. Then the size, content, and character of the reservoir are mapped with roughly six to twelve delineation wells. From this information the development team plans a development program to produce the oil and gas, which can run into hundreds of wells. Whereas the exploration and delineation wellbores are left open to the formation to allow measurement of the reservoir properties, the development wellbores are cased with cemented-in-place steel casing to isolate zones and allow targeting of specific oil or gas layers for production (which is accomplished by perforating the casing in the target zones with explosive charges). Once the casing is in place it obviously becomes more difficult to measure reservoir and formation properties since one-quarter to one-half inch of steel casing plus another inch or so of cement between the formation and the borehole greatly restrict the measurement methods that can be used. But there are over a million cased wellbores penetrating the earth's crust, many plugged, cemented, and abandoned, but many still producing oil and gas or otherwise available for logging. However difficult it may be, formation measurements through the steel casing are of importance to oil and gas production companies, and they could be of some value to earth scientists. Since 1964 when the first instrument was introduced, pulsed neutron instrumentation for oil and gas well logging has been used to measure formation properties through casing. The basic downhole instrumentation consists of a pulsed fusion reactor for a source of high energy neutrons and gamma ray detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy. The early generation instruments measured water and oil proportions crudely and only in reservoirs where the connate water was highly saline. Subsequent generations expanded the utility of the measurements, and the latest generation is able to make precise and accurate measurements of a number of formation properties through casing. This presentation reviews the state of the art in downhole pulsed neutron logging in cased wellbores and presents an overview of some of the current capabilities and limitations. The presentation is not focused on a single design or company technology. Rather, it reviews features of the technologies available from major worldwide suppliers along with a discussion of the range of applications, accuracy and precision, best practices, and recommendations for logging program planning. Measurements discussed include formation mineralogy, porosity, and density; multi-phase oil, water, gas, condensate, and CO2 proportions in the pore space; pressure; and mechanical rock properties.

Trcka, Darryl

2010-05-01

174

The Design of a Chemical Virtual Instrument Based on LabVIEW for Determining Temperatures and Pressures  

PubMed Central

A LabVIEW-based self-constructed chemical virtual instrument (VI) has been developed for determining temperatures and pressures. It can be put together easily and quickly by selecting hardware modules, such as the PCI-DAQ card or serial port method, different kinds of sensors, signal-conditioning circuits or finished chemical instruments, and software modules such as data acquisition, saving, proceeding. The VI system provides individual and extremely flexible solutions for automatic measurements in physical chemistry research.

Wang, Wen-Bin; Li, Jang-Yuan; Wu, Qi-Jun

2007-01-01

175

The Design of a Chemical Virtual Instrument Based on LabVIEW for Determining Temperatures and Pressures.  

PubMed

A LabVIEW-based self-constructed chemical virtual instrument (VI) has been developed for determining temperatures and pressures. It can be put together easily and quickly by selecting hardware modules, such as the PCI-DAQ card or serial port method, different kinds of sensors, signal-conditioning circuits or finished chemical instruments, and software modules such as data acquisition, saving, proceeding. The VI system provides individual and extremely flexible solutions for automatic measurements in physical chemistry research. PMID:17671611

Wang, Wen-Bin; Li, Jang-Yuan; Wu, Qi-Jun

2007-01-01

176

EDITORIAL: Seventh International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seventh International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments was held on 6 8 September 2005 at the University of Huddersfield, UK. Although originally held in the People's Republic of China, the popularity and relevance of the Symposium has been such that it has grown into an international event attracting many distinguished participants from around the world. Such is the nature of the Symposium that its programme is allowed to reflect to some degree the particular strengths of the host institute, in this case the Centre for Precision Technologies at Huddersfield University. Although relatively young, the Centre has quickly become a focus in the UK and EU for surface metrology and related subjects under the expert guidance of Professors Jiang and Blunt. The bulk of the Symposium papers, after peer review, have been published by Institute of Physics Publishing in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, together with a selected number of posters. However, those papers deemed best to reflect the aims and objectives of the Symposium have been published separately in this special issue of Measurement Science and Technology. Many of the current problems of surface and nanometrology are addressed in this issue. These include the measurement, characterization and instrumentation of the areal (3D) properties of surfaces as well as their standardization, traceability and underpinning mathematics. Also included are some aspects of `free form geometry' and many other related subjects. Traditional sensors and instruments have not been neglected; they ensure the continuity of subjects between this and preceding symposia. It is hoped that this special issue of Measurement Science and Technology will stimulate more research work in the fascinating and highly relevant subject of Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments.

Whitehouse, David; Xiang, Jane Jiang

2006-03-01

177

Astronomical Polarimetry : new concepts, new instruments, new measurements & observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All astronomical sources are polarized to some degree. Polarimetry is therefore a powerful astronomical technique. It furnishes unique diagnostics of e.g. magnetic fields and scattering media. This thesis presents new polarimetric concepts, instruments, and measurements targeting astronomical science questions. The first part of the thesis describes three novel polarimetric concepts. -A dedicated passive liquid crystal device known as a theta cell is introduced to enable one-shot observations of astronomical targets exhibiting a centrosymmetric polarization pattern. -A new passive measurement concept for broad-band linear polarization is introduced. It is based on a sinusoidal modulation of the spectrum, and is particularly suitable for instruments for which classical spatial and/or temporal polarization modulation is unfavorable. -Calibration of polarimetric instruments is usually limited by non-ideal effects of the calibration optics themselves. A mathematical frame-work based on Fourier analysis is introduced to tackle various non-ideal effects in polarimetric calibration. The second part of the thesis presents the designs and first results of three very different astronomical polarimeters. -The ultra-stable high-resolution HARPS spectrograph is successfully upgraded with a dual-beam polarimetric module. It furnishes direct observations of magnetic fields on stars. -The Small Synoptic Second Solar Spectrum Telescope (S5T) is designed to accurately monitor the variation of weak, turbulent magnetic fields on the Sun during a solar cycle. Such measurements are crucial for the understanding of local dynamo action in the solar photosphere. The prototype shows the feasibility of the instrument concept. -The Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXpolaration (SPEX) is designed to study a planet's or moon's atmosphere from orbit. The additional information from the polarization measurement of scattered sunlight allows for determination of microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols. The third part of the thesis presents new polarimetric measurements and observations. -A precise ellipsometer was constructed to measure the polarization properties of various optical components. The instrument was employed to measure the complete Mueller matrix of an aluminum mirror at various durations after evaporation. It is concluded that the aluminum oxide layer has a significant effect on the polarization properties, which is constant in time after a day from evaporation. -Next, an aluminized mirror was contaminated with dust. This also has a significant effect on the measured Mueller matrix, for which a linear model is presented as a function of dust absorption. -Observations of solar scattering polarization at high spatial resolution were obtained with the Hinode space telescope. A significant difference of ~10% in scattering polarization was detected between granules and intergranules, which constrains models of quiet Sun magnetoconvection.

Snik, F.

2009-10-01

178

Accelerated measurement of perikymata by an optical instrument  

PubMed Central

The proposed device considerably reduces the measuring time of important microscopic features of tooth crown surfaces. The instrumentation is accompanied by a computer program to analyse the results. Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which demonstrate daily secretory rhythms developing tissue-specific structures known as cross striations, and longer period markings that are referred as striae of Retzius. These striae correspond to linear structures on the enamel surface. This newly developed optical measuring instrument can automatically, precisely and accurately record the number and periodicity of perikymata on the dental crown. Furthermore it can characterize the variability in periodicity of perikymata in hominids. The depth of field can be extended as desired by taking several images with different focus positions and combining them into a single composite image that contains all regions fully focused.

Elhechmi, Imen; Braga, Jose; Dasgupta, Gautam; Gharbi, Tijani

2013-01-01

179

Measuring Aerosol Optical Properties with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to the NASA EOS-Aura mission scheduled for launch in January 2004. OMI is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance between 270 an 500 nm. With its relatively high spatial resolution (13x24 km2 at nadir) and daily global coverage. OMI will make a major contribution to our understanding

J. P. Veefkind; O. Torres; A. Syniuk; R. Decae; G. de Leeuw

2003-01-01

180

A high temperature apparatus for measurement of the Seebeck coefficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus with various features to minimize typical sources of error is designed and built. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement error are described and principles to overcome these are proposed. With these guiding principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus with a uniaxial 4-point contact geometry is designed to operate from room temperature to over 1200 K. This instrument design is simple to operate, and suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

Iwanaga, Shiho; Toberer, Eric S.; Lalonde, Aaron; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

2011-06-01

181

Fluorometric field instrument for continuous measurement of atmospheric hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

A sensitive (limit of detection approximately <100 pptv at S/N = 3), fully automated, portable (32 x 25 x 38 cm, 4.5 kg) instrument has been designed for continuous field measurement of atmospheric hydrogen sulfide. Air is sampled by a PTFE membrane-based diffusion scrubber and collected into an aLkaline fluorescein mercuric acetate (FMA) solution flowing under a controlled and constant pneumatic pressure. The collected sulfide quenches the fluorescence that is measured with a miniature blue LED photodiode-based fluorescence detector. Acquisition and interpretation of signal and all flow control are carried out via a mininotebook personal computer (PC) using custom software written in HP-VEE. The instrument provides for self-calibration and zero functions using an on-board permeation tube enclosed in a thermostated block, at any preprogrammed desired interval. During sampling, the computed H2S concentration is stored every 2 min. The complete system, including the PC, is operated in the field by a 12-V marine battery. The system was field tested near oil field operations in West Texas and showed good correlations with a concurrently operated lead acetate tape-based commercial sampler, with a response speed and time resolution much better than that of the latter instrument. PMID:11774912

Toda, K; Dasgupta, P K; Li, J; Tarver, G A; Zarus, G M

2001-12-01

182

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-01-30

183

30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instrument to receive reflected light from a field having an area...9) Where machine-mounted light fixtures are used on equipment...have been installed. (d) Light measuring instruments shall...l'Eclairage (CIE) Spectral Luminous Curve. The CIE Spectral...

2009-07-01

184

30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instrument to receive reflected light from a field having an area...9) Where machine-mounted light fixtures are used on equipment...have been installed. (d) Light measuring instruments shall...l'Eclairage (CIE) Spectral Luminous Curve. The CIE Spectral...

2010-07-01

185

Spectroradiometric Temperature Measurement in Two-Phase Combustion Plasmas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new instrument for measuring the temperature of gases to 3000K has been developed based on the spectral absorption-emission method. Step index optical fibers are employed both to couple the instrument to the measurement volume and as optical pathways inside of the instrument. By using fast miniature choppers to multiplex the required optical signals onto a single detector, by maximizing the instrument etendue and by using a subminiature quartz halogen lamp for the instrument reference source, a lmsec temporal resolution is achieved while maintaining a temperature measurement resolution of better than 0.1K. To economize the demand for computer data acquisition resources, a dedicated electronics package is used to monitor the instrument performance and to preprocess the raw measurement data. The sources of measurement uncertainty and systematic error are considered in depth. It is shown that optimal signal to noise occurs when the instrument reference lamp is operated at temperatures somewhat in excess of that of the gas. For gas temperatures in excess of 2500K this condition is not possible using the traditional vacuum tungsten strip lamp. Subminiature quartz halogen lamps, which can be operated in excess of 3000K, are shown to be a viable replacement for strip lamps and to have a high degree of stability and reproducibility. A reference lamp calibration procedure is described that yields a total measurement uncertainty of better than 5K. The effects, on spectroradiometric temperature measurements, due to the presence of scattering particles are considered and shown to significantly degrade the accuracy of traditional emission-absorption pyrometry. A theoretical analysis is presented which results in a new method, consistent with traditional measurement techniques, to compensate for the effects of particle scattering. This new technique makes use of the unique capability of the instrument to perform simultaneous multi-wavelength measurements. The results of experimental instrument performance studies are presented. These tests were performed using the resonance line of potassium in a unique bench-scale combustor, designed for this purpose. The construction of this combustor, which was designed to simulate coal -fired MHD plasma conditions, is also described. . . . (Author's abstract exceeds stipulated maximum length. Discontinued here with permission of author.) UMI.

Paul, Phillip Harris

186

Epoxi Hrii/hriv/mri Instrument Temperatures V2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dataset contains the raw and smoothed (averaged) instrument thermal telemetry for the entire EPOXI mission, from 04 October 2007 through 06 February 2011. Measurements were collected by 59 thermal sensors located in the HRII, HRIV, and MRI instruments, on the instrument platform, and on the solar wings of the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft.

Carcich, B.; Hampton, D.; McLaughlin, S.

2012-01-01

187

In-Core Fuel Element Temperature and Flow Measurement of HFETR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The HFETR in-core fuel element temperature-flow measurement facility and its measurement system are expounded. The applications of the instrumented fuel element to stationary and transient states measurements during the lift of power, the operation test o...

Chen Daolong Jiang Pei

1988-01-01

188

Development of the optical instrument transformer for DC voltage measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical instruments based on the Pockels effect for DC voltage measurement show great advantages in comparison with the traditional type voltage transformers, but the development is impeded due to the presence of the space charge and the charge drift effect in DC voltage measurement. In this paper, the author will analyze the reason of the space drift phenomena and the errors to the measurement accuracy. A method using the octagonal LiNbO3 crystal with a polyurethane ring with ?r=3.4 to suppress the space charge is proposed in the paper. A better result of the electrical field distribution is obtained from the simulation with the ANSOFT software. It can improve the measurement accuracy and sensitivity. At the same time, a new method in which the chopped DC voltage applied to the crystal is also introduced. It can suppress the charge drift effectively with the appropriate frequency. We will show the theoretical analysis and simulation result, and can find the new method can provide a better result, the new instruments are to be more stable and accurate.

Zhu, Pingping; Zhang, Guixin

2007-03-01

189

Design and validation of guarded hot plate instruments for measuring heat flow between evacuated plane-parallel glass surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the design and construction of guarded hot plate instruments for measuring the heat flow through an evacuated space between plane-parallel glass surfaces. In this structure, the insulating region is surrounded by two pieces of relatively highly conducting material. High resolution measurements of heat flow using these instruments therefore requires the detection of quite small temperature differences (10-4 K) between the metering piece and the guard. The instruments are calibrated, and the linearity evaluated, by measuring radiative heat transfer through the evacuated space between uncoated soda lime glass sheets; this is because this heat flow can be calculated to high accuracy from the infrared optical properties of the glass. The level of parasitic heat flow in the instruments is estimated by measuring radiative heat flow between glass surfaces coated with very low emittance layers, such as evaporated gold. These instruments operate over a range of temperatures from 0 to about 70 °C. It is shown that the heat flow between evacuated glass surfaces can be measured with these instruments to high resolution (~10 ?W) and high accuracy (~1%) over an area of ~1 cm2. The departures from linearity, and the level of parasitic heat flow, are within the measurement resolution. For a temperature difference across the sample of 20 K, the measurement resolution corresponds to an uncertainty in the thermal conductance of the sample of ~0.005 W m-2 K-1.

Dey, C. J.; Simko, T. M.; Collins, R. E.; Zhang, Q.-C.

1998-08-01

190

Direct Temperature Measurements during Netlander Descent on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new design for a platinum thermoresistance temperature sensor has been developed and tested in Earth's atmosphere and stratosphere. It will be one of the sensors equipping the scientific package ATMIS (Atmospheric and Meteorology Instrument System), which will be devoted to the measurement of the meteorological parameters during both the entry\\/descent phase and the surface phase, aboard the Netlanders. In

G. Colombatti; F. Angrilli; F. Ferri; A. Francesconi; M. Fulchignoni; P. F. Lion Stoppato; B. Saggi

1999-01-01

191

Instrument to Measure Psychological Contract Violation in Pharmacy Students  

PubMed Central

Objectives To adapt and evaluate an instrument that measures perceived psychological contract violations in pharmacy students by schools and colleges of pharmacy. Design A psychological contract violations measure was developed from existing literature and the 1997 ACPE Guidelines and pilot-tested with second-year pharmacy students at 2 schools of pharmacy. A revised measure then was administered to second-year pharmacy students at 6 schools of pharmacy. Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, participants were asked to indicate the level of obligations they received compared to what was promised by the school of pharmacy. Results Exploratory factor analysis on the psychological contract violations measure was conducted using principal components analysis resulting in 7 factors, which led to a revised measure with 26 items. Using a sample of 339 students, the proposed 7-factor measurement model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. In general, the results supported the hypothesized model. The final 23-item scale demonstrated both reliability and validity. Some students perceived certain aspects of the psychological contract that exists with their school of pharmacy were being violated. Conclusion The psychological contract violations measure may serve as a valuable tool in helping to identify areas where their students believe that schools/colleges of pharmacy have not fulfilled promised obligations.

Wilkin, Noel E.; Bentley, John P.; Bouldin, Alicia S.; Wilson, Marvin C.; Holmes, Erin R.

2010-01-01

192

Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores, etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East India Company (EEIC), and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C). This provides an out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions - supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this - such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

Brohan, P.; Allan, R.; Freeman, E.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, F.

2012-10-01

193

Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East-India Company (EEIC), and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C). This provides a powerful out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions - supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this - such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

Brohan, P.; Allan, R.; Freeman, E.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, F.

2012-05-01

194

Multi-instrument comparisons of D-region plasma measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ECOMA (Existence and Charge state Of Meteoric dust grains in the middle Atmosphere) series of sounding rocket flights consisted of nine flights with almost identical payload design and flight characteristics. All flights carried a radio wave propagation experiment together with a variety of plasma probes. Three of these measured electron densities, two ion densities. The rockets were all launched from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, in four campaigns between 2006 and 2010. Emphasis is on the final three flights from 2010 where the payloads were equipped with four instruments capable of measuring plasma densities in situ, among them a novel probe flown for the first time in conjunction with a wave propagation experiment. Deviation factors of all probe data relative to the wave propagation results were derived and revealed that none of the probe data were close to the wave propagation results at all heights, but - more importantly - the instruments showed very different behaviour at different altitudes. The novel multi-needle Langmuir probe exhibits the best correlation to the wave propagation data, as there is minimal influence of the payload potential, but it is still subject to aerodynamics, especially at its location at the rear of the payload. For all other probe types, the deviation factor comes closer to unity with increasing plasma density. No systematic difference of the empirical deviation factor between day and night can be found. The large negative payload potential in the last three flights may be the cause for discrepancies between electron and ion probe data below 85 km.

Friedrich, M.; Torkar, K. M.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Bekkeng, T.-A.; Barjatya, A.; Rapp, M.

2013-01-01

195

Measuring residual stress in glasses and ceramics using instrumented indentation.  

SciTech Connect

Instrumented indentation has yielded mixed results when used to measure surface residual stresses in metal films. Relative to metals, many glasses and ceramics have a low modulus-to-yield strength (E/sy) ratio. The advantage of this characteristic for measuring residual stress using instrumented indentation is demonstrated by a series of comparative spherical and conical tip finite element simulations. Two cases are considered: (i) a material with E/s{sub y} = 24-similar to glass and (ii) a material with E/s{sub y} = 120-similar to metal films. In both cases, compressive residual stress shifts the simulated load-displacement response toward increasing hardness, irrespective of tip geometry. This shift is shown to be entirely due to pile up for the ''metal'' case, but primarily due to the direct influence of the residual stress for the ''glass'' case. Hardness changes and load-displacement curve shifts are explained by using the spherical cavity model. Supporting experimental results on stressed glasses are provided.

Tandon, Rajan; Buchheit, Thomas E.

2007-03-01

196

A humidity temperature test on the HLNC (high-level neutron coincidence counter) instrument  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the findings of a laboratory study made to determine the effects of unusual climatic conditions on high-level neutron coincidence counters (HLNCs). The capability of the instrument, when undesirable temperatures and/or humidities are present, the change in count rate as temperature and humidity increase, and the extent of humidity/temperature interaction are examined.

Goldman, A.; Augustson, R.; Karlin, E.W.

1987-07-01

197

Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing  

SciTech Connect

Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra.

Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

2011-04-20

198

Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing.  

PubMed

Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra. PMID:21509063

Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

2011-04-20

199

High-pressure-temperature gradient instrument: use for determining the temperature and pressure limits of bacterial growth.  

PubMed Central

A pressurized temperature gradient instrument allowed a synoptic determination of the effects of temperature and pressure on the reproduction of bacteria. The instrument consisted of eight pressure vessels housed parallel to each other in an insulated aluminum block in which a linear temperature gradient was supported. For a given experiment, eight pressures between 1 and 1,100 bars were chosen; the linear temperature gradient was established over an interval within -20 to 100 degrees C. Pure cultures and natural populations were studied in liquid or solid medium either in short (ca. 2-cm) culture tubes or in long (76.2-cm) glass capillaries. In the case of a pure culture, experiments with the pressurized temperature gradient instrument determined values of temperature and pressure that bounded its growth. Feasibility experiments with mixed populations of bacteria from water samples from a shallow depth of the sea showed that the instrument may be useful in identifying the extent to which a natural population is adapted to the temperatures and pressures at the locale of origin of the sample. Additional conceived uses of the instrument included synoptic determinations of cell functions other than reproduction and of biochemical activities. Images

Yayanos, A A; van Boxtel, R; Dietz, A S

1984-01-01

200

Caffeine expectancy: instrument development in the Rasch measurement framework.  

PubMed

Although caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world, the mechanisms associated with consumption are not well understood. Nonetheless, outcome expectancies for caffeine use are thought to underlie caffeine's reinforcing properties. To date, however, there is no available, sufficient measure by which to assess caffeine expectancy. Therefore, the current study sought to develop such a measure employing Rasch measurement models. Unlike traditional measurement development techniques, Rasch analyses afford dynamic and interactive control of the analysis process and generate helpful information to guide instrument construction. A 5-stage developmental process is described, ultimately yielding a 37-item Caffeine Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) comprised of 4 factors representing "withdrawal symptoms," "positive effects," "acute negative effects," and "mood effects." Initial evaluation of the CEQ yielded sufficient evidence for various aspects of validity. Although additional research with more heterogeneous samples is required to further assess the measure's reliability and validity, the CEQ demonstrates potential with regard to its utility in experimental laboratory research and clinical application. PMID:19769434

Heinz, Adrienne J; Kassel, Jon D; Smith, Everett V

2009-09-01

201

Sea Surface Temperatures (SST): Significance and Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceans cover 71 percent of Earth's surface and control the global climate. Quoted global mean temperature values and trends, largely based on land thermometers, differ substantially -" mainly because of uncertainties about SST. The ongoing controversy about the relative importance of natural climate changes and Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) revolves mainly around disparities between temperature trends of the atmosphere and surface (in the tropics and SH, i.e. mostly SST). Accurate measurement of SST is difficult. Geographic coverage is poor and there are many different techniques, each with its own problems and uncertainties: Water temperatures from buckets and ship-engine inlets; fixed and floating buoys; air temperatures from shipboard and island stations; and remote sensing from satellites using IR and microwaves. As is evident, each technique refers to a different level below the air-water interface. Drifter buoys (at around 50 cm) measure temperatures in the euphotic layers that are generally warmer than the bulk mixed layer sampled by ships (typically around 10 m). The IR emission arises from a 10-micron-thick skin that interacts dynamically with the underlying "mixed layer." The microwave data depend also on emissivity and therefore on surface roughness and sea state. SST data derived from corals provide some support for instrumental data but are not conclusive. The majority of corals show a warming trend since 1979; others show cooling or are ambiguous. There are different ways of interpreting this result. Physical optics dictates that the downwelling IR radiation from atmospheric greenhouse gases is absorbed in the first instance within the skin. Only direct measurements can establish how much of this energy is shared with the bulk mixed layer (to which the usual SST values refer.). SST controls evaporation and therefore global precipitation. SST influences tropical cyclones and sea-level rise; but there is lively debate on those issues. Changes in SST are also responsible for changes in deep- ocean temperatures and ocean heat storage. But recent claims that an increase in heat storage is a "smoking gun" for AGW are without merit.

Singer, S. F.

2006-05-01

202

27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions...chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears...

2013-04-01

203

TRISO fuel compact thermal conductivity measurement instrument development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal conductivity is an important thermophysical property needed for effectively predicting fuel performance. As part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program, the thermal conductivity of tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel needs to be measured over a temperature range characteristic of its usage. The composite nature of TRISO fuel requires that measurement be performed over the entire length of the compact in a non-destructive manner. No existing measurement system is capable of performing such a measurement. A measurement system has been designed based on the steady-state, guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow technique. The system as currently designed is capable of measuring cylindrical samples with diameters ˜12.3-mm (˜0.5?) with lengths ˜25-mm (˜1?). The system is currently operable in a temperature range of 400 K to 1100 K for materials with thermal conductivities on the order of 10 W/m/K to 70 W/m/K. The system has been designed, built, and tested. An uncertainty analysis for the determinate errors of the system has been performed finding a result of 5.5%. Finite element modeling of the system measurement method has also been accomplished demonstrating optimal design, operating conditions, and associated bias error. Measurements have been performed on three calibration/validation materials: SS304, 99.95% pure iron, and inconel 625. In addition, NGNP graphite with ZrO2 particles and NGNP AGR-2 graphite matrix only, both in compact form, have been measured. Results from the SS304 sample show agreement of better than 3% for a 300--600°C temperature range. For iron between 100--600°C, the difference with published values is <8% for all temperatures. The maximum difference from published data for inconel 625 is 5.8%, near 600°C. Both NGNP samples were measured from 100--800°C. All results are presented and discussed. Finally, a discussion of ongoing work is included as well as a brief discussion of implementation under other operating conditions, including higher temperatures and adaptation for use in a glovebox or hot cell.

Jensen, Colby

204

Field evaluation of boat-mounted acoustic Doppler instruments used to measure streamflow  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of instruments based on the Doppler principle for measuring water velocity and computing discharge is common within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The instruments and software have changed appreciably during the last 5 years; therefore, the USGS has begun field validation of the instruments used to make discharge measurements from a moving boat. Instruments manufactured by SonTek/YSI and RD Instruments, Inc. were used to collect discharge data at five different sites. One or more traditional discharge measurements were made using a Price AA current meter and standard USGS procedures concurrent with the acoustic instruments at each site. Discharges measured with the acoustic instruments were compared with discharges measured with Price AA current meters and the USGS stage-discharge rating for each site. The mean discharges measured by each acoustic instrument were within 5 percent of the Price AA-based measurement and (or) discharge from the stage-discharge rating.

Mueller, D. S.

2003-01-01

205

Temperature and Electrical Conductivity of the Lunar Interior from Magnetic Transient Measurements in the Geomagnetic Tail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetometers have been deployed at four Apollo sites on the moon to measure remanent and induced lunar magnetic fields. Measurements from this network of instruments have been used to calculate the electrical conductivity, temperature, magnetic permeabil...

P. Dyal C. W. Parkin W. D. Daily

1973-01-01

206

Temperature and Electrical Conductivity of the Lunar Interior from Magnetic Transient Measurements in the Geomagnetic Tail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetometers were deployed at four Apollo sites on the moon to measure remanent and induced lunar magnetic fields. Measurements from this network of instruments were used to calculate the electrical conductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and i...

P. Dyal C. W. Parkin W. D. Daily

1974-01-01

207

Instrumented measurements of knee laxity: KT-1000 versus navigation.  

PubMed

The KT-1000 is widely accepted as a tool for the instrumented measurement of the antero-posterior (AP) tibial translation. The aim of this study is to compare the data obtained with the KT-1000 in ACL deficient knees with the data obtained using a navigation system during "in vivo" ACL reconstruction procedures and to validate the accuracy of the KT-1000. An ACL reconstruction was performed using computer aided surgical navigation (Orthopilot, B-Braun, Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany) in 30 patients. AP laxity measurements were obtained for all patients using KT-1000 arthrometer (in a conscious state and under general anaesthesia) and during surgery using the navigation system, always at 30 degrees of knee flexion. The mean AP translation was 14 +/- 4 and 15.6 +/- 3.8 mm using the KT-1000 in conscious and under general anaesthesia, respectively (P = 0.02) and 16.1 +/- 3.7 mm using navigation. Measurements obtained with the KT-1000 under general anaesthesia were no different from those obtained "in vivo" with the navigation system (P = 0.37). In conclusion this study validates the accuracy of the KT-1000 to exactly calculate AP translation of the tibia, in comparison with the more accurate measurements obtained using a navigation system. PMID:19238362

Monaco, Edoardo; Labianca, Luca; Maestri, Barbara; De Carli, Angelo; Conteduca, Fabio; Ferretti, Andrea

2009-02-24

208

Atmospheric transmission from an instrument measuring scatter at 1550 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has extensively investigated atmospheric effects on maritime lasercomm in both long term research studies and short term system demonstrations. A current effort is underway in the ONR Tactical Line-of-Sight Optical Communications (TALON) program to better characterize atmospheric transmission at 1550 nm in multiple climates to enable prediction of communication link performance. In order to allow long term unmanned measurements in these multiple climates, NRL developed a scattering-based 1550 nm transmission sensor similar in function to commercial visible wavelength visibility monitors. After the system was built and calibrated, it was deployed to a number of sites with various climate types to collect data over a 1-month period for each site. This paper describes the development of the instrument and the software. It also presents some of the collected data.

Vilcheck, Michael J.; Moore, Christopher I.; Mahon, Rita; Murphy, Jim; Bucholtz, Anthony; Burris, Harris R.; Thomas, Linda M.; Rabinovich, William

2013-05-01

209

Pyrometric Gas and Surface Temperature Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multiwavelength pyrometer possessing advantages over the one- and two-wavelength designs is described. Results of its application to surface temperature measurements of ceramics is presented. Also described is a probe suitable for gas temperature measur...

G. Fralick D. Ng

1999-01-01

210

Gas Turbine Combuster Exit Temperature Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new gas temperature measurement technique is presented that has the capability to eliminate radiation errors typically observed in high-temperature environments. The technique should allow high measurement accuracy and high spatial resolution and can be...

J. D. Sullivan J. E. Kendall

1991-01-01

211

A Novel Approach to Instrumentation and Application for Oil Concentration Ratio Measurement in Refrigeration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new instrument has been developed for an on-line real-time measurement of oil circulating rate in refrigeration system utilizing a ultra-violet light absorption behavior of oil. A dual optical path configuration is introduced to the flow cell of this instrument,and it allows the instrument to perform dual beam absorbance measurement which contributes to provide quite stable and precise result. This instrument is applied on OCR measurement on several refrigeration system in transient state.

Kutsuna, Kiyoharu; Nabeta, Teiichi; Wada, Akio

212

121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York, New York County, NY

213

Brazing Refractory Metals Used In High-Temperature Nuclear Instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR 1) experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed.

A. J. Palmer; C. J. Woolstenhulme

2009-06-01

214

Intelligent instruments for process measurement techniques (monitoring of sensors)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possibilities to extract redundant information of temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, semiconductor temperature sensors), and to find out which of the suggested redundancies are most suited for self controlled monitoring were investigated. Practical experience with equipment for process measurement techniques shows that sensor failures are five times more frequent than electronic malfunction. For resistance thermometers the measured values of the redundant information source (ac resistance) are too small (relative inductivity change 7 million). The information sources strain gage and propagation of ultrasonic waves are excluded because of physical properties in the sensor materials. Changes in the crystalline structure of thermocouples have the effect that there is no well defined relationship between thermoelectric voltage and the redundant information sources, resistance and coupled current impulses. A correlation of thermovoltage with these redundant values would yield a measurement uncertainty corresponding to more than + or - 50 K. Experiments with negative temperature coefficient sensors show that a failure is proceeded by a change in capacitance of the order of 0.1 pF.

Bauer, B.; Hess, H. D.; Kalinski, J. R.; Leisenberg, W.; Marsch, D.

1984-06-01

215

A High-Accuracy Digital Instrument Design for DC Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-accuracy self-calibrating digital instrument design has been developed in order to make available the inherent efficiency advantages of conventional digital meters, but without their limitations in accuracy, reliability, or certifiability. The new instrument can extend the advantages of automation to many testing, quality control, and standards laboratories where heretofore only high-quality manually balanced instruments could be used. Automation at

Loebe Julie

1972-01-01

216

Evaluating and testing thermographic phosphors for turbine-engine temperature measurements  

SciTech Connect

A technique developed earlier for measuring the temperature of inaccessible surfaces in low-temperature rotating machines is being adapted to measure the temperature of surfaces at the higher temperatures and in the erosive environment inside operating turbine engines. The method uses the temperature dependence of the characteristic decay time of the laser-induced-fluorescence of thermographic phosphors to measure the temperature. This paper summarizes recent work in four areas: phosphor characterization and calibration, instrumentation development, bonding, and field tests. By using improved instrumentation and data-analysis techniques, calibration curves for several phosphors are measured with greater accuracy and extended to higher temperatures than before. Phosphors are evaluated that were attached to sample surfaces by high-temperature bonding materials, electron-beam deposition, flame spraying, and plasma spraying. A burner rig test was performed on some phosphor-coated samples and the instrumentation required for an upcoming spin-pit test was designed, built, and calibrated.

Noel, B.W.; Allison, S.W.; Beshears, D.L.; Cates, M.R.; Borella, H.M.; Franks, L.A.; Iverson, C.E.; Dowell, L.J.; Gillies, G.T.; Lutz, W.N.

1987-01-01

217

Evaluating and testing thermographic phosphors for turbine-engine temperature measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique developed earlier for measuring the temperature of inaccessible surfaces in low-temperature rotating machines is being adapted to measure the temperature of surfaces at the higher temperatures and in the erosive environment inside operating turbine engines. The method uses the temperature dependence of the characteristic decay time of the laser-induced-fluorescence of thermographic phosphors to measure the temperature. This paper summarizes recent work in four areas: phosphor characterization and calibration, instrumentation development, bonding, and field tests. By using improved instrumentation and data-analysis techniques, calibration curves for several phosphors are measured with greater accuracy and extended to higher temperatures than before. Phosphors are evaluated that were attached to sample surfaces by high-temperature bonding materials, electron-beam deposition, flame spraying, and plasma spraying. A burner rig test was performed on some phosphor-coated samples and the instrumentation required for an upcoming spin-pit test was designed, built, and calibrated.

Noel, B. W.; Allison, S. W.; Beshears, D. L.; Cates, M. R.; Borella, H. M.; Franks, L. A.; Iverson, C. E.; Lutz, S. S.; Marshall, B. R.; Thomas, M. B.

218

Development of an Instrument for Measuring the Concentration of Dissolved Oxygen in Sea Water in Situ.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instrument is described consisting of a commercially available oxygen sensor and of a newly developed telemetering and digitizing system which permits measurement of the concentration of dissolved oxygen even in great oceanic depths. The instrument emp...

V. Graefe

1970-01-01

219

Stepper motors at LHe temperatures in astronomical mid-infrared instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Denver is now completing construction of a mid-infrared imaging polarimeter dubbed TNTCAM Mark II. The instrument will be the only one of its kind capable of attaining polarimetric accuracy of 0.2 % across the 5 -- 25 micron spectral interval. This sensitivity is only attainable by cooling the transmissive polarizing optics to liquid helium (LHe) temperatures. A major technical challenge in the design of this instrument has been finding a way to modulate the polarization signature of the incoming beam at a rate sufficient to combat the degrading effects of the atmosphere. Our group has chosen to quickly rotate a half-waveplate situated on the cold (i.e. 4 degrees Kelvin) work-surface. The waveplate is rotated between two fixed positions separated by 45 degrees at a rate of 1 Hz to obtain one of the two Stoke's parameters required to measure linear polarization. The waveplate is then offset by 22.5 degrees and then rotated again at 1 Hz between two positions separated by 45 degrees to obtain the other Stoke's parameter. In addition to rotating the waveplate, the waveplate itself must be moved out of the beam during normal imaging applications. The camera can contribute to the understanding of YSOs and evolved stars, obtaining high resolution mid-IR observations of dusty environments immediately surrounding these objects. In imaging mode mosaics of extended objects can be made in 2'x2' sub-fields. In polarimetry mode, B-fields in YSOs can be probed by dust emission from hot cores, incidentally constraining grain alignment scenarios in young stellar environments. In this paper we present the design and the results of our moving optical componenets susbsytem. Five cryo-stepper motors drive these mechanisms. This instrument is being developed under NSF grant AST-9724506 and is slated for community access in January 2000.

Theil, David S.; Stencel, Robert E.; Klebe, Dimitri I.; Flaming, Dale; Belgum, Jack

1999-09-01

220

10 CFR 35.60 - Possession, use, and calibration of instruments used to measure the activity of unsealed...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and calibration of instruments used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material...and calibration of instruments used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material...shall possess and use instrumentation to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct...

2013-01-01

221

Measuring health state preferences for hemophilia: Development of a disease-specific utility instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that disease-specific health related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments are more responsive than generic instruments to particular disease conditions. However, only a few studies have used disease-specific instruments to measure HRQoL in hemophilia. The goal of this project was to develop a disease-specific utility instrument that measures patient preferences for various hemophilia health states. The visual analog

Joan Ellen Wasserman

2004-01-01

222

Crime-based survey instrument for police integrity measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The common survey instrument for police integrity consists of case descriptions that are mainly concerned with corruption. However, the diversity in police criminal acts calls for a revision of this survey instrument. Based on cases of convicted police officers in Norway, this paper aims to propose a new survey. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Content analysis of 57 court cases in

Petter Gottschalk

2010-01-01

223

Weather Instruments for Measuring the Climate of Illinois  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Illinois State Water Survey furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. Instruments include various kinds of thermometers and rain gauges, as well as barometers, anemometers, and a hail pad.

2008-01-04

224

Feminist Identity Development Measures: Comparing the Psychometrics of Three Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reliability and validity of three current instruments (Feminist Identity Scale [FIS], Feminist Identity Development Scale [FIDS]J Feminist Identity Composite [FIC]) used to operationalize Downing and Roush's model of feminist identity development were compared. A sample of 245 women completed all three instruments, and a separate sample of 35…

Moradi, Bonnie; Subich, Linda Mezydlo

2002-01-01

225

Measurement of turbine blade temperature using pyrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the study of application of a self-made turbine blade pyrometer to measuring rotating turbine blade temperatures in a bed testing aeroengine. The study includes the temperature measuring principle and the pyrometer system; installation and adjustment of the double ball-floating type configuration optical head which goes through four different high temperatures bulkheads; and measurement of three kinds of temperature (the average blade temperature Ta, the average peak blade temperature Tap, and the maximum peak blade temperature Tmp) for all rotor blades of the turbine first stage. The experimental data analysis reveals that the first attempt of application of this pyrometer is successful. The measurement errors in the temperature range of 550-1200 C are within + or - 1 percent of calculated blade temperatures.

Cheng, H.; Du, C.

1985-09-01

226

A New Instrument for the Measurement of the Thermal Conductivity of Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transient hot-wire technique is at present the best technique for obtaining standard reference data for the thermal conductivity of fluids. It is an absolute technique, with a working equation and a complete set of corrections reflecting departures from the ideal model, where the principal variables are measured with a high degree of accuracy. It is possible to evaluate the uncertainty of the experimental thermal conductivity data obtained using the best metrological recommendations. The liquids proposed by IUPAC (toluene, benzene, and water) as primary standards were measured with this technique with an uncertainty of 1% or better (95% confidence level). Pure gases and gaseous mixtures were also extensively studied. It is the purpose of this paper to report on a new instrument, developed in Lisbon, for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of gases and liquids, covering temperature and pressure ranges that contain the near-critical region. The performance of the instrument for pressures up to 15 MPa was tested with gaseous argon, and measurements on dry air (Synthetic gas mixture, with molar composition certified by Linde AG, Wiesbaden, Germany, Ar - 0.00920; O2 - 0.20966; N2 - 0.78114), from room temperature to 473 K and pressures up to 10 MPa are also reported. The estimated uncertainty is 1%.

Beirão, S. G. S.; Ramires, M. L. V.; Dix, M.; de Castro, C. A. Nieto

2006-07-01

227

Confirmatory measurement channels for LIF-based bioaerosol instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Detect-to-Protect (DTP) program, a multilab [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] effort is addressing the need for useable detect-to-warn bioaerosol sensors for public facility protection. Towards this end, the SNL team is investigating the use of rapid fluorogenic staining to infer the protein content of bioaerosols. This is being implemented in a flow cytometer wherein each particle detected generates coincident signals of correlated forward scatter, side scatter, and fluorescence. Several thousand such coincident signal sets are typically collected to generate a distribution describing the probability of observing a particle with certain scattering and fluorescence values. These data are collected for sample particles in both a stained and unstained state. A linear unmixing analysis is performed to differentiate components in the mixture. In this paper, we discuss the implementation of the staining process and the cytometric measurement, the results of their application to the analysis of known and blind samples, and a potential instrumental implementations that would use staining.

Bisson, Scott E.; Crocker, Robert W.; Kulp, Thomas J.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Reilly, Peter T. A.; Whitten, William B.

2008-05-01

228

Cross-Validation of an Instrument for Measuring Professionalism Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Objective. To cross-validate an instrument to measure behavioral aspects of professionalism in pharmacy students using a rating scale that minimizes ceiling effects. Methods. Seven institutions collaborated to create a 33-item assessment tool that included 5 domains of professionalism: (1) Reliability, Responsibility and Accountability; (2) Lifelong Learning and Adaptability; (3) Relationships with Others; (4) Upholding Principles of Integrity and Respect; and (5) Citizenship and Professional Engagement. Each item was rated based on 5 levels of competency which were aligned with a modified Miller's Taxonomy (Knows, Knows How, Shows, Shows How and Does, and Teaches). Results. Factor analyses confirmed the presence of 5 domains for professionalism. The factor analyses from the 7-school pilot study demonstrated that professionalism items were good fits within each of the 5 domains. Conclusions. Based on a multi-institutional pilot study, data from the Professionalism Assessment Tool (PAT), provide evidence for internal validity and reliability. Use of the tool by external evaluators should be explored in future research.

Stanke, Luke D.; Rabi, Suzanne M.; Kuba, Sarah E.; Janke, Kristin K.

2011-01-01

229

Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 "Radiation Thermometry". The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.

2013-09-01

230

High-precision CTE measurement of aluminum-alloys for cryogenic astronomical instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are completing the construction of GIANO, a high resolution near-infrared cryogenic spectrograph for the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). Most of the optics are made of aluminium and operate at cryogenic temperature. We evaluated the optical degradation due to mis-matches between the thermal expansion coefficients of the different aluminium parts of the instrument. We performed accurate measurements of the relative thermal expansion coefficients (CTE) of Al-6061 and Al-6082 over the 300-77 K temperatures range. We find that the two alloys have identical thermal expansion coefficient within a maximum (3 ?) uncertainty of ? ?/ ? < 0.28%. Our results show that it is possible to overcome the problem of the alignment of a cryogenic instrument, manufacturing the curved optics, the optics’ holders and the optical bench with different metallic alloys with small CTE mismatch (Al-6061 and Al-6082). This conclusion has also been confirmed by the results of the optical tests with the instrument cooled in the laboratory, showing no significant image quality degradation.

Mochi, I.; Gennari, S.; Oliva, E.; Baffa, C.; Biliotti, V.; Falcini, G.; Giani, E.; Marcucci, G.; Sozzi, M.; Origlia, L.; Rossetti, E.; Gonzalez, M.

2009-12-01

231

Instrumentation for highly sensitive measurement of magnetocaloric effect: application to high Tc superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumentation for precise calorimetry under magnetic fields of up to 7 T in the temperature range 40 - 120 K is reported. A new type of resistance bridge with a self-compensating function for the magnetoresistance of platinum resistance thermometers has been developed for this purpose. This thermometric system suppresses the measuring error due to a magnetic field of 7 T to within 40 mK and has a resolution of 1 mK. It is also applied to observing the small magnetocaloric effect of a high Tc superconductor, YBa 2Cu 3O 7 - x, in adiabatic conditions.

Kato, H.; Nara, K.; Okaji, M.

232

40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2009-07-01

233

40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2009-07-01

234

40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2010-07-01

235

40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2010-07-01

236

Bridge Temperatures Derived From Measurement of Movement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Movements were measured at expansion joints in 7 bridges of various forms of construction and were transformed into corresponding values of effective bridge temperatures. Correlation was established between these effective temperatures and the sum of the ...

W. Black D. S. Moss M. Emerson

1976-01-01

237

DESIGN NOTE: Low-cost traceable dynamic calibration of surface texture measuring instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface texture measuring instruments are dynamic systems that have a finite frequency response. A system has been developed to measure the transmission characteristics of surface texture measuring instruments by actively vibrating the sensor that measures the vertical displacement of the surface features. The system does not require closed-loop control of the input waveforms, can operate at high frequencies and is

Richard K. Leach; Nigel Cross

2002-01-01

238

Low-cost traceable dynamic calibration of surface texture measuring instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface texture measuring instruments are dynamic systems that have a finite frequency response. A system has been developed to measure the transmission characteristics of surface texture measuring instruments by actively vibrating the sensor that measures the vertical displacement of the surface features. The system does not require closed-loop control of the input waveforms, can operate at high frequencies and is

Richard K Leach; Nigel Cross

2002-01-01

239

Precision and accuracy of three alternative instruments for measuring soil water content in two forest soils of the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the accuracy and precision of three devices for measuring soil water content in both natural and repacked soils and evaluated their temperature sensitivity. Calibrations were developed for a capacitance instrument (ECH2O), a time domain reflectometry cable tester (CT), and a water content reflectometer (WCR) in soils collected from the Wind River and H.J. Andrews Experimental Forests. We compared

Nicole M. Czarnomski; Georgianne W. Moore; Tom G. Pypker; Julian Licata; Barbara J. Bond

2005-01-01

240

A primer on lower extremity outcome measurement instruments.  

PubMed Central

Tracing the roots of lower extremity outcome scales is an interesting and somewhat bemusing journey. A large number of different grading methods can be found with limited reliability and/or validity testing. The usefulness of these instruments in the assessment of patient outcomes after lower extremity interventions is worrisome. This article focuses on the most commonly used scales and demonstrates an alarming and incestuous pattern of cross-validation with moderate to weak associations between potentially unreliable and crudely validated original instruments.

Saltzman, C. L.; Mueller, C.; Zwior-Maron, K.; Hoffman, R. D.

1998-01-01

241

Temperature measurements of laser trapped rubidium  

SciTech Connect

Temperatures of rubidium atoms confined in a magneto-optical trap have been measured using time-of-flight. By varying the parameters of the trap, we find that lower temperatures are obtained with lower laser intensities, larger laser detunings, lower atomic densities, and with the 85 vs. the 87 isotope. Temperatures are below the Doppler limit (140 {mu}K for Rb) in most cases. By measuring the size of the trapped cloud as well as the temperature, we can infer the spring constant of the trap. For comparison purposes, we can measure temperatures in optical molasses by turning off the magnetic field of the trap.

Dinneen, T.P.; Wallace, C.D.; Tan, K.Y.N.; Kumarakrishnan, A.; Gould, P.L.

1993-05-01

242

Exploration of Instruments Measuring Concepts of Graduateness in a Research University Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article considers the appropriateness of international instruments to measure the separate concepts of graduateness for a research university context. The four concepts of graduateness--reflective thinking, scholarship, moral citizenship and lifelong learning--are operationalized using five existing instruments. These instruments were…

Steur, J. M.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Hofman, W. H. A.

2011-01-01

243

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illuminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature.

Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

244

A new low-power, open-path instrument for measuring methane flux by eddy covariance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new low-power instrument for measuring methane flux by eddy covariance method at sites without grid power. Design and field performance of the LI-7700 Methane Analyzer (LI-COR Biosciences) are examined in this study. The instrument uses 8 W of power in steady-state operation and employs a tunable diode laser in an open Herriott cell configuration with 0.47 m base path and 30 m optical path length. Methane number density is measured using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with 2f detection. Typical signal noise is <5 ppb rms at 10 Hz. Corrections for variations in temperature, pressure and water vapor are described. Data losses due to mirror contamination and condensation are minimized by a radiation shield and automatic mirror cleaning system and are shown to be small. Measured spectra and co-spectra are shown to follow the Kaimal model at deployment sites meeting classical criteria, and to follow sensible heat flux co-spectra from the sonic anemometer in most other cases, including difficult ones. Measured fluxes are similar in magnitude to those expected from the literature, and zero flux was measured during both summer and winter at a site known to have fluxes at or very near zero.

McDermitt, D.; Burba, G.; Xu, L.; Anderson, T.; Komissarov, A.; Riensche, B.; Schedlbauer, J.; Starr, G.; Zona, D.; Oechel, W.; Oberbauer, S.; Hastings, S.

2011-02-01

245

Linking Fluorometry to Radiometry with Physical and Chemical Transfer Standards: Instrument Characterization and Traceable Fluorescence Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems associated with the measurement of photoluminescence are briefly reviewed, including relevant\\u000a instrument parameters affecting these measurements. Procedures for the characterization of relevant instruments\\u000a are discussed, focusing on spectrofluorometers, and fit-for-purpose methods including suitable standards\\u000a are recommended. The aim here is to increase the awareness of the importance of reliable instrument characterization\\u000a and to improve the comparability of measurements of

U. Resch-Genger; D. Pfeifer; K. Hoffmann; G. Flachenecker; A. Hoffmann; C. Monte

246

Development and testing of the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) cm and mm wavelength occultation instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present initial results from testing a new remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). ATOMMS is designed as a satellite-to-satellite occultation system for monitoring climate. We are developing the prototype instrument for an aircraft to aircraft occultation demonstration. Here we focus on field testing of the ATOMMS instrument, in particular the remote sensing of water by measuring the attenuation caused by the 22 GHz and 183 GHz water absorption lines. Our measurements of the 183 GHz line spectrum along an 820 m path revealed that the AM 6.2 spectroscopic model provdes a much better match to the observed spectrum than the MPM93 model. These comparisons also indicate that errors in the ATOMMS amplitude measurements are about 0.3%. Pressure sensitivity bodes well for ATOMMS as a climate instrument. Comparisons with a hygrometer revealed consistency at the 0.05 mb level, which is about 1% of the absolute humidity. Initial measurements of absorption by the 22 GHz line made along a 5.4 km path between two mountaintops captured a large increase in water vapor similar to that measured by several nearby hygrometers. A storm passage between the two instruments yielded our first measurements of extinction by rain and cloud droplets. Comparisons of ATOMMS 1.5 mm opacity measurements with measured visible opacity and backscatter from a weather radar revealed features simultaneously evident in all three datasets confirming the ATOMMS measurements. The combined ATOMMS, radar and visible information revealed the evolution of rain and cloud amounts along the signal path during the passage of the storm. The derived average cloud water content reached typical continental cloud amounts. These results demonstrated a significant portion of the information content of ATOMMS and its ability to penetrate through clouds and rain which is critical to its all-weather, climate monitoring capability.

Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Stovern, M.; Otarola, A. C.; Young, A.; Wheelwright, B.; Stickney, R.; Albanna, S.; Duffy, B.; Groppi, C.; Hainsworth, J.

2012-02-01

247

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement  

DOEpatents

A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

O' Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01

248

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement  

DOEpatents

A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

O' Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

1994-09-20

249

Instrumentation for Measuring Thermodynamic Properties of Rare-Earth Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current models on some Rare-Earth compounds cannot fully account for their strongly correlated electron behavior, which give rise to phenomenon such as unconventional superconductivity, heavy Fermion, and quantum critical behavior. The specific heat, thermopower, and thermal conductivity measurements give important thermodynamic properties, such as effective electronic mass, stiffness of the lattice (Debye temperature), entropy, density of states of charge carriers, and phase transitions which are crucial in characterizing these materials of interest in our laboratory. A calorimeter and a thermopower-thermal conductivity probe, which are using a modified relaxation method and standard steady-state heat flow technique, respectively, are constructed for the above purpose. Detailed schematic diagram and operating principles will be discussed in the report.

Urbina, Ulises I.; Thompson, Jonathon; Ho, Pei-Chun

2010-03-01

250

Using and Developing Measurement Instruments in Science Education: A Rasch Modeling Approach. Science & Engineering Education Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book meets a demand in the science education community for a comprehensive and introductory measurement book in science education. It describes measurement instruments reported in refereed science education research journals, and introduces the Rasch modeling approach to developing measurement instruments in common science assessment…

Liu, Xiufeng

2010-01-01

251

MAVIS: a non-invasive instrument to measure area and volume of wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate measurement of the physical size of wounds is vital for assessment of the progress of healing. An instrument has been developed to measure area and volume of skin wounds, ulcers, and pressure sores. MAVIS—Measurement of Area and Volume Instrument System—is based on the principle of colour coded structured light. A set of parallel stripes of alternating colours is projected

P Plassmann; T. D Jones

1998-01-01

252

Instrument for the in situ measurement of haze in aircraft windscreens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current instruments for the measurement of haze in aircraft windscreens generally require the removal, and possible destruction, of the windscreen to conduct the test. Most instruments available for haze measurement of samples taken from a windscreen cannot be used insitu. This is because the standard definition of haze requires measurement of light scattered in transmission through the sample so the

Frank W. Gallagher III; Fred V. Brock

1996-01-01

253

Instrumentation for intraoperative measurement of cervical spine stiffness.  

PubMed

There is scant information on in vivo cervical biomechanics. The majority of limited data available in this area has been obtained using cadaver studies. With this in mind, simple instrumentation for analysing intraoperative cervical motion segment stiffness (load-axial displacement) was developed. The instrumentation consists of a displacement and strain transducer equipped vertebral retractor to be used with Caspar pins during anterior cervical surgery. Paramount to instrument design was incorporation of components complimentary to high electrical and mechanical repeatability, electrical safety, and creation of a sterile barrier. Preliminary studies conducted on a cadaver with this device revealed C3-C4 axial displacements (millimeters) of 1.735, 2.688, and 4.024 using, respectively, loads (newtons) of 44.482, 88,964, and 133.446. These results suggest this technique will be useful in assessing intraoperative spinal stability. PMID:8837055

Frank, E H; Chamberland, D L; Ragel, B T

1996-06-01

254

An instrument to measure job satisfaction of nursing home administrators  

PubMed Central

Background The psychometric properties of the nursing home administrator job satisfaction questionnaire (NHA-JSQ) are presented, and the steps used to develop this instrument. Methods The NHA-JSQ subscales were developed from pilot survey activities with 93 administrators, content analysis, and a research panel. The resulting survey was sent to 1,000 nursing home administrators. Factor analyses were used to determine the psychometric properties of the instrument. Results Of the 1,000 surveys mailed, 721 usable surveys were returned (72 percent response rate). The factor analyses show that the items were representative of six underlying factors (i.e., coworkers, work demands, work content, work load, work skills, and rewards). Conclusion The NHA-JSQ represents a short, psychometrically sound job satisfaction instrument for use in nursing homes.

Castle, Nicholas G

2006-01-01

255

Instrument for Measuring True-RMS AC Voltage and AC Voltage Fluctuations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to devices for measuring fluctuations in alternating current voltage, and more particularly to instruments for measuring true-RMS line voltages, frequency and percent regulation in connection with measurements required in the testin...

J. L. Silbergerg

1980-01-01

256

Temperature Measurement on Shocked Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

We have used a two-stage gas gun to address issues relating to the accurate determination of the temperature of a shocked metal surface at a metal/LiF interface. We have investigated the light flash generated by the dynamics at the interface, the light sources at the LiF boundary that can contaminate the emission from the metal surface, and the light emitted from defects in the LiF crystal as it is being shocked. A seven-channel spectrometer with fiber-optic transmission of light from the target was used, and a Hohlraum geometry was used to increase the effective emissivity of the target. The method that yielded the best results is described and is expected to be useful for a wide range of applications.

Poulseu, P.; Baum, D.; Fiske, P.; Holtkamp, D.

2000-08-08

257

Infrared temperature measurement of burning droplet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the IR optical system technic used for droplet surface temperature measurements in combustion. The experimental set up is composed of two off axis parabolic mirrors, a detector and an electronic data acquisition and processing unit. Droplets with 200 micrometers diameters and velocity about 5m\\/s are investigated. In order to study the feasibility of the droplet temperature measurement

Olivier Ravel; Nicolas Naudin; Olivier Adam; Jean F. Virepinte; Jean A. Farre; Gerard Lavergne

1997-01-01

258

Measuring a caring culture in hospitals: a systematic review of instruments  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify instruments or components of instruments that aim to measure aspects of a caring culture-shared beliefs, norms and values that direct professionals and managers to act caring in hospitals, and to evaluate their psychometric properties. Design Systematic review. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Web of Science and the International bibliography of the Social Sciences. Study selection Peer-reviewed articles describing (components of) instruments measuring aspects of a caring culture in a hospital setting. Studies had to report psychometric data regarding the reliability or validity of the instrument. Potentially useful instruments that were identified after the title and abstract scan were assessed on relevance by an expert panel (n=12) using the RAND-modified Delphi procedure. Results Of the 6399 references identified, 75 were examined in detail. 7 studies each covering a unique instrument met our inclusion criteria. On average, 24% of the instrument's items were considered relevant for measuring aspects of the hospital's caring culture. Studies showed moderate-to-high validity and reliability scores. Validity was addressed for 6 of the 7 instruments. Face, content (90%) and construct (60%) validity were the most frequently reported psychometric properties described. One study (14%) reported discriminant validity of the instrument. Reliability data were available for all of the instruments. Internal consistency was the most frequently reported psychometric property for the instruments and demonstrated by: a Cronbach's ? coefficient (80%), subscale intercorrelations (60%), and item–total correlations (40%). Conclusions The ultimate standard for measuring a caring culture in hospitals does not exist. Existing instruments provide partial coverage and lack information on discriminant validity, responsiveness and feasibility. Characteristics of the instruments included in this review could provide useful input for the design of a reliable and valid instrument for measuring a caring culture in hospitals.

Hesselink, G; Kuis, E; Pijnenburg, M; Wollersheim, H

2013-01-01

259

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: FLOW MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow meter devices are the most widely used process monitoring instruments in wastewater treatment. Careful consideration must be exercised during selection of flow meters to avoid equipment misapplication that can result in operation problems and equipment failure. It is the res...

260

Art therapy assessments and rating instruments: Do they measure up?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many benefits to justify the use of art therapy assessment techniques and rating instruments. However, methodological, theoretical and philosophical problems abound. These problems are explored, in relation to art therapy assessments and their corresponding rating tools. Information about the various types of rating scales is provided, including a comparison of the Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS) rating system and

Donna J. Betts

2006-01-01

261

Research Instrumentation for Measurements of High-Speed Separated Flows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this instrumentation grant was to purchase equipment to be used in conjunction with an ongoing ARO-funded research grant entitled 'Experimental Studies of High-Speed Separated Flows.' The research efforts of this program are focused on expe...

J. C. Dutton

2002-01-01

262

Self-reported Instrument for Measuring Student Learning Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project PROCEED is dedicated towards providing more hands-on and project-centered classroom learning opportunities in the mechanical engineering department at The University of Texas at Austin. One of the challenges of PROCEED is assessing its impact on student learning. We have been developing and piloting an instrument for assessing how well these PROCEED courses are satisfying the departmental student learning outcomes.

Theresa L. Jones

263

Sodium Line Reversal Plasma Temperature Measurement System. Topical report No. 8  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Line Reversal System is one of the advanced optical diagnostic instruments developed at DIAL to measure temperatures in the coal combustion environments of large scale facilities. The principles of operation, a description of the system and its capabilities, and the operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

Philip, T.; Bauman, L.; Benton, R.

1993-09-01

264

Instrument calibration and lineshape modeling for ultraspectral imagery measurements of industrial smokestack emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Telops Hyper-Cam midwave (InSb 1.5-5.?m) imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer observed the plume from a coal-burning power plant smokestack. From a distance of 600 meters, the plume was captured on a 128×64 pixel sub-window of the focal-plane array with each pixel imaging a 19.5×19.5cm2 region. Asymmetric interferograms were collected with long side and short side maximal optical path differences of 2.4cm and 0.9cm, respectively. Interferograms were recorded for each scan direction. The plume was strongly emissive across 1800-3000cm-1, and raw spectra revealed emissions from CO2, CO, H2O, NO, SO2, and HCl. A complete description of the instrument calibration and lineshape modeling is presented, including a simple and computationally efficient method of averaging spectra from forward- and reverse-scan interferograms that avoids the need to model a complex instrument lineshape. A simple radiative transfer model is developed to interpret the spectrum between 2565 <= ~? <= 3000cm-1. Examination of the HCl spectrum demonstrates exceptional agreement between the data and an ideal instrument lineshape. For a pixel immediately above the stack exit, the plume temperature is estimated to be 399.6+/-0.6K with an SO2 concentration of 376+/-10ppmv, and these values agree well with in situ measurements of 407.0+/-0.2K and 383+/-2ppmv, respectively.

Gross, Kevin C.; Tremblay, Pierre; Bradley, Kenneth C.; Chamberland, Martin; Farley, Vincent; Perram, Glen P.

2010-04-01

265

Air temperature changes in the Canadian Arctic from the early instrumental period to modern times  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a detailed account of air temperature (using four thermal parameters: mean daily air temperature (MDAT), maximum daily temperature (TMAX), minimum daily temperature (TMIN), and diurnal temperature range (DTR)) in the Canadian Arctic from 1819 to 1859. As source data, the authors have used hourly, two-hourly, four-hourly, or six-hourly temperature measurements carried out during exploratory (land or marine)

Rajmund Przybylak; Zsuzsanna Vizi

2005-01-01

266

Temperature Sensitive Particle for Velocity and Temperature Measurement.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorescence and fluorescence are often applied to measure the temperature and the concentration of oxygen. The intensity and the lifetime of phosphor depend on the temperature and the oxygen concentration, due to the quenching effect of the phosphor. The present study clarified the effects of temperature on the lifetime of phosphorescence of Porphyrins, Ru(bpy)3^2+ and the europium complex. The phosphorescence lifetime of oil solution / water solution / painted wall were measured with changing temperature and oxygen concentration. In addition, the optical property of the small particles incorporated with the europium complex was investigated in the oil/water. The lifetime was strongly affected by temperature. Then, the temperature sensitive particle (TSParticle) with metal complex was applied to measure temperature in Silicone oil (10cSt) two-dimensionally. Present study is the result of ?High speed three-dimensional direct measurement technology development for the evaluation of heat flux and flow of liquid metal? entrusted to the University of Tokyo by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan(MEXT).

Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji; Iida, Masao

2007-11-01

267

Validation of Aura MLS HOx measurements with remote-sensing balloon instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite measurements of OH and HO2 obtained by the Aura MLS instrument are compared to the balloon-borne BOH and FIRS-2 instruments. All measurements are also compared with constrained photochemical model calculations. On average, both balloon measurements of OH agree with MLS within 17% over 25-40 km and the measurements agree with the model within 12%. The three measurements for column

H. M. Pickett; B. J. Drouin; T. Canty; L. J. Kovalenko; R. J. Salawitch; N. J. Livesey; W. G. Read; J. W. Waters; K. W. Jucks; W. A. Traub

2006-01-01

268

Validation of Aura MLS HOx measurements with remote-sensing balloon instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite measurements of OH and HO2 obtained by the Aura MLS instrument are compared to the balloon-borne BOH and FIRS-2 instruments. All measurements are also compared with constrained photochemical model calculations. On average, both balloon measurements of OH agree with MLS within 17% over 25–40 km and the measurements agree with the model within 12%. The three measurements for column

H. M. Pickett; B. J. Drouin; T. Canty; L. J. Kovalenko; R. J. Salawitch; N. J. Livesey; W. G. Read; J. W. Waters; K. W. Jucks; W. A. Traub

2006-01-01

269

Instrumentation for a Temperature Controlled Pulsed-4 Measurement System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this DURIP project, the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and the Microsystems Technology Laboratories (MTL) of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) requested funds to purchase equipment for advanced RF and microwave ...

T. Palacios

2010-01-01

270

Nonintrusive temperature measurements on advanced turbomachinery components  

SciTech Connect

A nonintrusive, noncontacting method we developed for temperature measurements in hostile environments is well-suited for measurements on advanced turbine components. The method is not only superior to thermocouples in sufficiently difficult environments, but also is the only known method for making measurements in situations where no form of pyrometry works. We demonstrated the method, which uses laser-induced fluorescence of thermographic phosphors bonded to the component surfaces, on turbine blades and vanes in developmental turbine engines. The method is extendable to the much-higher temperatures expected inside advanced turbomachinery. Of particular note is the adaptability of the method to surface-temperature measurements on ceramics operating at high temperatures. In this temperature range, the ceramics become translucent, and surface emissivity becomes meaningless. We shall discuss the method, its advantages and limitations, recent test results on operating turbine engines, and the extension to ceramic components.

Noel, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turley, W.D.; Lewis, W. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States)

1992-12-31

271

A set of instruments and equipment for measuring soil pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

because of the lack of necessary standard equipment and instruments and the lack of widely accepted methods of performing experiments under different conditions. A number of organizations [S. Ya. Zhuk All-Union Planning, Surveying, and Scientific-Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (VNIIG); All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water Supply, Sewer Systems, Hydraulic Engineering Structures, and Engineering Hydrogeology (VODGEO); Central Scientific-Research Institute of Structural

G. E. Lazebnik; A. A. Smirnov; D. G. Ivanov

1973-01-01

272

Intelligent design of hand-held color measurement instrument for leaf and petal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an intelligent design of hand-held color measurement instrument for leaf and petal, including apparent structure, image obtained de- vice, and color retrieval system based on the minimum color difference method. All the 896 RHS color samples from Royal Horticultural Society were chosen for the color database. The color measurement instrument has the system of image obtained, color

Wei Zheng; Yunwei Zhang

2011-01-01

273

An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the-art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide,

Gerald L. Gregory; Douglas D. Davis; Norbert Beltz; Alan R. Bandy; Ronald J. Ferek; Donald C. Thornton

1993-01-01

274

An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl

Gerald L. Gregory; Douglas D. Davis; Nobert Beltz; Alan R. Bandy; Ronald J. Ferek; Donald C. Thornton

1993-01-01

275

Two channel laser speckle instrument for biological microflow localization and velocity measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser speckle instrument for real-time capillary flow velocity measurements is described. The instrument is developed for investigation of lymph flow dynamics in transillumination geometry simultaneously with microscopic examination of rat lymfangions. The use of two independent channels of laser speckle registration allows both to measure flow velocity and to localize centerline flow along the probing beam direction with several micrometers

Ivan V. Fedosov; Valery V. Tuchin

2005-01-01

276

Self-shading correction for upwelling sea-surface radiance measurements made with buoyed instruments.  

PubMed

Upwelling radiance measurements made with instruments designed to float at the sea surface are shaded both by the instrument housing and by the buoy that holds the instrument. The amount of shading is wavelength dependent and is affected by the local marine and atmospheric conditions. Radiance measurements made with such instruments should be corrected for this self-shading error before being applied to remote sensing calibrations or remote sensing algorithm validation. Here we use Monte Carlo simulations to compute the self-shading error of a commercially available buoyed radiometer so that measurements made with this instrument can be improved. This approach can be easily adapted to the dimensions of other instruments. PMID:19417854

Leathers, R; Downes, T V; Mobley, C

2001-05-01

277

Optimizing the Spectral Parameters of a Lidar Receiver for Rotational Raman Temperature Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the GKSS Raman lidar, a combined system for the measurement of optical particle properties, ozone, and mois- ture, a polychromator for temperature measurements with the rotational Raman technique was developed. Since early 1998, this instrument has proved its reliability and high performance in three field campaigns. Temperature data could be taken even in the presence of clouds and up

ANDREAS BEHRENDT; CLAUS WEITKAMP

278

Improved instrumentation for near-real-time measurement of reactive hydrocarbons, NO{sub 2}, and peroxyacyl nitrates.  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of reactive hydrocarbons and associated nitrogen oxides, NO{sub 2}, and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) is of key importance to unraveling the complex chemistries involved in daytime photochemical oxidant formation and nighttime chemistry driven by the nitrate radical. Recent work has demonstrated that chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with hydrocarbons (and the temperature dependence of the reactions) can be used as a means of detecting a wide variety of organic compounds in the gas phase with sensitivity comparable to or better than that of the conventional flame ionization detection method (Marley and Gaffney, 1998). We have implemented a new design and built a new instrument to evaluate this approach for the monitoring of alkenes. This instrument makes use of a computer-controlled photon-counting system with a reaction chamber operated at room temperature. Signals are compared to those for an ethene standard to estimate relative reactivity. The instrument is described in detail here, along with a new version of a luminol-based chemiluminescence detection system with fast gas chromatography for measurement of NO{sub 2} and PANs. The photon-counting system, the reaction chamber, and the luminol detection system have been combined on one instrument rack for field use on both ground-based and aircraft platforms. Data presented show the response times of the instruments and indicate applications for examining reactive hydrocarbon emissions from both vegetation and anthropogenic sources. In addition, the luminol chemiluminescence instrument was field tested, and the data obtained are compared with data from a commercial NO{sub x} analyzer. Preliminary results demonstrating the potential use of this instrumentation for rapid measurement of key tropospheric trace species are presented and discussed.

Drayton, P. J.; Blazer, C. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

1999-10-06

279

Instrument-free exothermic heating with phase change temperature control for paper microfluidic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many infectious diseases, as well as some cancers, that affect global health are most accurately diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification and detection. There is a great need to simplify nucleic acid-based assay systems for use in global health in low-resource settings as well as in settings that do not have convenient access to laboratory staff and equipment such as doctors' offices and home care settings. In developing countries, unreliable electric power, inadequate supply chains, and lack of maintenance for complex diagnostic instruments are all common infrastructure shortfalls. Many elements of instrument-free, disposable, nucleic acid amplification assays have been demonstrated in recent years. However, the problem of instrument-free,1 low-cost, temperature-controlled chemical heating remains unsolved. In this paper we present the current status and results of work towards developing disposable, low-cost, temperature-controlled heaters designed to support isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays that are integrated with a two-dimensional paper network. Our approach utilizes the heat generated through exothermic chemical reactions and controls the heat through use of engineered phase change materials to enable sustained temperatures required for nucleic acid amplification. By selecting appropriate exothermic and phase change materials, temperatures can be controlled over a wide range, suitable for various isothermal amplification methods, and maintained for over an hour at an accuracy of +/- 1°C.

Singleton, Jered; Zentner, Chris; Buser, Josh; Yager, Paul; LaBarre, Paul; Weigl, Bernhard H.

2013-03-01

280

Earth Resources Data Systems Design S192 Instrument Measurements and Characteristics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development, and characteristics of the S192 instrument for use with the earth resources data systems are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) multispectral scanner measurements, (2) measurement characteristics, (3) calibration and aligment,...

A. S. Goldstein

1972-01-01

281

Dilemmas in Measurement of Human Body Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of human body temperature seems rather trivial until we become parents or medical professionals. If we use different thermometers, which are used at different body sites, inevitably we come across to different measurement results. Then we ask ourselves which result is the right one. The answer is far from trivial because there are a few dilemmas in measurement of

Igor Pusnik; Andraz Miklavec

2009-01-01

282

Fine Wire Thermocouple Measurements of Fluctuating Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for the measurement of the statistics of the temperature fluctuation, notably probability density function and power spectrum, in turbulent diffusion flames which employs fine wire thermocouples, compensated for the effects of thermal inertia, is assessed. Measurements made in an open turbulent methane diffusion flame are reported and compared, from the standpoint of identifying the interaction between measurement technique

A. BALLANTYNE; J. B. MOSS

1977-01-01

283

Phase principle for measuring antenna temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phase principle for measuring the temperature of a radio or radar antenna is described. The phase principle makes use of phase information exclusively and is therefore insensitive to receiver gain fluctuations. Under certain conditions the potential accuracy of the measurement is somewhat better than the potential accuracy of the corresponding measurement resulting from a balanced Dicke radiometer.

A. J. Rainal

1969-01-01

284

Flame temperature measurements by spectral remote sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In investigating the usefulness of spectral emission measurements in determining line-of-sight temperature and\\/or concentration distributions in high-temperature gaseous systems, Purdue University constructed an analytical model that relates the emitted spectral intensity to the local temperature and radiating species concentration within the gas. The mathematical statement of the model leads to a series of integral equations. The technique was applied in

P. J. Hommert; R. Viskanta; A. M. Mellor

1977-01-01

285

Junction temperature measurement of light emitting diode by electroluminescence.  

PubMed

Junction temperature (JT) is a key parameter of the performance and lifetime of light emitting diodes (LEDs). In this paper, a mobile instrument system has been developed for the non-contact measurement of JTs of LED under LabVIEW control. The electroluminescence (EL) peak shift of the LED is explored to measure the JT. Commercially available high power blue LEDs are measured. A linear relation between emission peak shift and JT is found. The accuracy of the JT is about 1 °C determined by the precision of the emission peak shift, ±0.03 nm, at 3? standard deviation for blue LED. Using this system, on-line temperature rise curves of LED lamps are determined. PMID:22225193

He, S M; Luo, X D; Zhang, B; Fu, L; Cheng, L W; Wang, J B; Lu, W

2011-12-01

286

The Aeroclipper: A new instrument for quasi-Lagrangian measurements at the air-sea interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aeroclipper is a new balloon developed by CNES. The Aeroclipper is a balloon equipped with a cable extended by a guide-rope in contact with the surface of the ocean. The balloon is vertically stabilised at a given height (currently 40 to 60m above the sea surface) and move on quasi-Lagrangian trajectories depending on the surface wind. LMD (Laboratoire de Méteorologie Dynamique), LodyC (Laboratoire d'océanographie physique et de Climatologie) and ENSTA (Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées) developed an instrumentation adapted to this new measurement system. This instrumentation is distributed on one atmospheric gondola and one oceanic gondola. The aim is to measure surface physical parameters (Air and sea surface temperatures, sea surface salinity, wind, pressure and humidity) and to derive turbulent fluxes of moisture, heat and momentum. The Aeroclippers will give legs of the different parameters at a relatively high spatial resolution and thus information on the perturbation of these parameters at mesoscale. A first test of the full system will be performed from Banyuls (France) during spring 2004. The first scientific use of the Aeroclipper is planned in February 2005 in the Indian Ocean South of the Equator in link with the pilot phase of the Vasco (Variability of the Atmosphere at the intra-Seasonal time scale and Coupling with the Ocean) experiment.

Duvel, J. P.; Reverdin, G.; Pichon, T.; Vargas, A.

287

[H2O2 low temperature plasma sterilization. New possibilities for use with eye surgery instruments].  

PubMed

The H2O2-low-temperature-plasma-sterilization (STERRAD 100) works with a temperature below 50 degrees C (140 degrees F). This system is appliable for thermostabile materials as well as for thermolabile materials. The efficancy of this new system is shown by a biological test with Bacillus pumilus spores. 5 typical ophthalmic surgical instruments were contaminated. After sterilization the numerical reduction of the microorganisms had to be at least 6 log levels. Corrosion caused by hydrogene peroxide was excluded after exposing steal with a high quantity of this substrate. Electromicroscopy analysations of the surfaces of stainless steal after LTP, steam sterilization and hot-air sterilization are compared. Options and limitations of this new sterilization technique are discussed. A newly developed operating system with a complete instrumental box (OP-Set) will be introduced. PMID:8124049

Förtsch, M; Prüter, J W; Draeger, J; Helm, F; Sammann, A; Seibt, H; Ahlborn, H

1993-12-01

288

Piston temperature measurement with SAW sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution we introduce a new approach for a piston temperature measurement system based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators sensitive to temperature. The approach offers a new and competitive way to support the development of pistons and allows the research and improvement in combustion processes.

T. Plum; S. Tourette; M. Loschonsky; M. Robel

2011-01-01

289

Transient temperature measurement using embedded thermocouples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response time of thermocouples is generally considered to be a limiting factor when transient temperature changes need to be assessed in solids. As an example, transient temperature changes which develop during dynamic straining of materials, adiabatic shear band formation, dynamic fracture and related fields are often investigated using sophisticated noncontact measurement techniques such as infrared detectors. In these phenomena,

D. Rittel

1998-01-01

290

Twoband infrared thermographer for standoff temperature measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

OPTRA presents a new approach to remote infrared temperature measurements over mid to long standoff ranges in varying atmospheric conditions. The sensor is intended as a feedback mechanism for use with the Active Denial System to insure the target's skin temperature is within a safe range. OPTRA's sensor employs a small reflector telescope followed by a series of interference filters

Julia R. Dupuis; David Mansur; Robert Vaillancourt; David Carlson; Elizabeth Schundler; George Genetti

2006-01-01

291

Coriolis mass flow measurement at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing interest in liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the energy market, Coriolis mass flowmeters have been applied to many applications in the distribution of LNG. Since Coriolis flowmeters are normally calibrated at around room temperatures, measurements for LNG at cryogenic temperatures present a challenging condition. Firstly, a theoretical analysis for Coriolis mass flow sensors is provided considering the

Tao Wang; Yousif Hussain

2009-01-01

292

Temperature measurement in fire test furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of errors associated with temperature measurement in fire endurance test furnaces has shown that conventionally used thermocouples are subject to large time constant errors in the first 20 minutes of a standard test.

Vytenis Babrauskas; Robert Brady Williamson

1978-01-01

293

Multichannel Measuring Converter for Temperature Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Described is the multichannel measuring normalizing converter constructed on the base of magnetic second harmonic modulators and intended for preliminary voltage amplification of thermocouples controlling the unit discharge chamber temperature. The conver...

M. P. Vasil'ev V. G. Ivkin Y. M. Fedorishin

1979-01-01

294

Temperature measurement with industrial color camera devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses color camera based temperature measurement. Usually, visual imaging and infrared image sensing are treated as two separate disciplines. We will show, that a well selected color camera device might be a cheaper, more robust and more sophisticated solution for optical temperature measurement in several cases. Herein, only implementation fragments and important restrictions for the sensing element will be discussed. Our aim is to draw the readers attention to the use of visual image sensors for measuring thermal radiation and temperature and to give reasons for the need of improved technologies for infrared camera devices. With AVL-List, our partner of industry, we successfully used the proposed sensor to perform temperature measurement for flames inside the combustion chamber of diesel engines which finally led to the presented insights.

Schmidradler, Dieter J.; Berndorfer, Thomas; van Dyck, Walter; Pretschuh, Juergen

1999-05-01

295

Calibration of the scales of areal surface topography measuring instruments: part 3. Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration of the scales of areal surface topography measuring instruments requires testing of the resolution. Several designs of artefact that allow testing of the resolution of such instruments are currently available; however, analysis methods need to be developed to provide comparable results. A novel method for determining the lateral resolution of areal surface topography measuring instruments is presented. The method uses a type ASP (star-shaped) material measure. To demonstrate the validity of the method, the resolution of a phase shifting interferometer was determined based on the ISO definition of the lateral period limit. Using the proposed method, the type ASP material measure, which is often used to judge qualitatively an instrument's resolution, can be used to quantitatively estimate the resolution of instruments using the topography data.

Giusca, Claudiu L.; Leach, Richard K.

2013-10-01

296

INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Many DOE applications would significantly benefit from the availability of robust and convenient instrumentation for trace-level actinide monitoring and analysis. This project focuses on developing new instrumentation for on-line or at-line monitoring for actinides with isotopic analysis capability. In addition, analytical protocols for a novel concentration method for actinides are being investigated. These efforts focus on demonstrating these techniques using uranium. In addition to its value in the analytical laboratory, the combination of a simple concentration technique with a robust isotopic monitor could provide a powerful method for addressing a number of outstanding DOE needs. Potential applications include monitors for waste water and sewage treatment systems influent and effluent, and the ability to determine the isotopic content of transuranic species in low-activity waste fractions for waste classification and product acceptance. For example, the need for improved monitoring for uranium, plutonium, and americium in treatment plant influent is clearly identified in need RF-ER11. With some additional sample pretreatment, such technology could also impact materials characterization needs by providing on-site isotopic analyses in a system that is smaller and significantly less complex than inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

Unknown

2001-12-31

297

An instrument to measure job satisfaction of certified nurse assistants.  

PubMed

We first presented the steps taken to develop the nursing home certified nurse assistant job satisfaction questionnaire (NH-CNA-JSQ) and, second, the psychometric properties of this instrument. Certified nurse assistants (CNAs) from 22 nursing homes in Pennsylvania were mailed the NH-CNA-JSQ. Of the 726 surveys mailed, 479 usable surveys were returned, giving a 66% response rate. The factor analyses show that the items were representative of the underlying factors, representing seven subscales. The percentage of CNAs not providing responses for each question was low (1.5%), and the floor and ceiling effects of the responses for each of the 19 questions were low (i.e., 9.4% and 5.2%, respectively). The item-scale internal consistency analyses determined that the correlation of items within indexes was higher than those of items with other indexes. Cronbach's alpha values for the domains ranged from .72 to .83 and were all higher than the usually recommended levels. Criterion validity was high (.77) as was the index of content validity (p > .05). We believe that we have produced a short psychometrically sound job satisfaction instrument for use in nursing homes. PMID:21035031

Castle, Nicholas G

2009-01-15

298

Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - a fully automated, miniaturized instrument for measuring gene expression in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecrafts opens the doors to a large number of experiments on the influence of space environment on biological systems that will profoundly impact our ability to conduct safe and effective space travel, and might also shed light on terrestrial physiology or biological function and human disease and aging processes. Measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, determine metabolic basis of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance, test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration, and monitor both the spacecraft environment and crew health. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology and medicine. Accordingly, supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measuring microbial expression of thousands of genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing bacterial cell walls, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing it on a microarray and (4) providing electrochemical readout, all in a microfluidics cartridge. The prototype under development is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by the NASA Small Spacecraft Office. The first target application is to cultivate and measure gene expression of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, i.e. a cyanobacterium known to exhibit remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions, under light and dark cycles exposed to polar orbit for a period of 6 months. The integration and end-to-end technology validation of this instrument will be discussed. In particular, preliminary results demonstrating that the instrument properly carries out cellular lysis, nucleic acid extraction and its purification is being assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real time PCR, in addition to microarray analysis of selected genes. Once developed, the system can be used with minor modifications for multiple experiments on different platforms in space, including extensions to higher organisms and microbial monitoring. A proposed version of GEMM that is capable of handing both microbial and tissue samples on the International Space Station will be briefly reviewed.

Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio; Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kianoosh

2012-07-01

299

Microwave radiometry for cement kiln temperature measurements.  

PubMed

The maximum temperature inside a cement kiln is a critical operating parameter, but is often difficult or impossible to measure. We present here the first data that show a correlation between cement kiln temperature measured using a microwave radiometer and product chemistry over an eight-hour period. The microwave radiometer senses radiation in the 12-13 GHz range and has been described previously [Stephan and Pearce (2002), JMPEE 37: 112-124]. PMID:17645204

Stephan, Karl D; Wang, Lingyun; Ryza, Eric

2007-01-01

300

General temperature field measurement by digital holography.  

PubMed

This paper presents a digital holographic method for measurement of periodic asymmetric temperature fields. The method is based on a modified Twyman-Green setup having double sensitivity. For measurement only one precisely synchronized and triggered digital camera is used. The periodicity and self-similarity of each cycle of the measured phenomenon combined with the precisely synchronized camera capture allow one to obtain data later used for three-dimensional (3D) measurement. The reconstruction of 3D temperature field is based on tomographic approach. PMID:23292408

Dole?ek, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít; Vít, Tomáš; Václavík, Jan; Kopecký, Václav

2013-01-01

301

The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument: role, performance, and status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) microwave imager (GMI) instrument is a multi-channel, conical-scanning, microwave radiometer serving an essential role in the near-global-coverage and frequent-revisit-time requirements of GPM. As a part of its contribution to GPM, NASA will provide a GMI instrument and a spacecraft for the Core observatory and is considering the acquisition of a second GMI instrument for placement

S. W. Bidwell; G. M. Flaming; J. F. Durning; E. A. Smith

2005-01-01

302

Device and method for self-verifying temperature measurement and control  

DOEpatents

A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cannon, Collins P. (Kearney, MO); Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-10-29

303

AMSU-A Measurements of Brightness Temperatures Over Amazon Rainforest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angular distributions of brightness temperatures over the Amazon rainforest observed by the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) window channels are studied and simulated with a radiative transfer model. The model is based on a combination of the atmospheric radiative transfer model and a vegetation canopy model which treats the rainforest as a uniform layer with an effective canopy temperature. Since emission from the ground surface is heavily attenuated by the rainforest canopy, only radiations from the rainforest canopy and the atmospheric medium contribute to the measurements. The measured angular distribution of brightness temperatures at the four window channels 1-3 and 15 (with frequencies centered at 23.8, 31.4, 50.3, and 89 GHz, respectively) has a relatively small angular dependence that is attributed to the atmospheric path length. Diurnal variation of the brightness temperatures observed by NOAA-KLM AMSU-A over Amazon Rain Forest is also investigated and modeled with Fourier Series. It shows that a second order of Fourier series can reproduce the observed pattern of diurnal variation of the brightness temperatures. The stable pattern and small variation of angular distributions can be potentially useful for post-launch calibration of new microwave radiometers. The AMSU-A is the first satellite borne instrument that has provided a large range of angular measurements of brightness temperatures over the Amazon rainforests and other global scenes. The establishment of a land calibration target is an important addition to the few tools available for calibration and validation of space-borne microwave instruments. Sample results will be presented and discussed.

Mo, T.

2007-05-01

304

Reliability issues in human brain temperature measurement  

PubMed Central

Introduction The influence of brain temperature on clinical outcome after severe brain trauma is currently poorly understood. When brain temperature is measured directly, different values between the inside and outside of the head can occur. It is not yet clear if these differences are 'real' or due to measurement error. Methods The aim of this study was to assess the performance and measurement uncertainty of body and brain temperature sensors currently in use in neurocritical care. Two organic fixed-point, ultra stable temperature sources were used as the temperature references. Two different types of brain sensor (brain type 1 and brain type 2) and one body type sensor were tested under rigorous laboratory conditions and at the bedside. Measurement uncertainty was calculated using internationally recognised methods. Results Average differences between the 26°C reference temperature source and the clinical temperature sensors were +0.11°C (brain type 1), +0.24°C (brain type 2) and -0.15°C (body type), respectively. For the 36°C temperature reference source, average differences between the reference source and clinical thermometers were -0.02°C, +0.09°C and -0.03°C for brain type 1, brain type 2 and body type sensor, respectively. Repeat calibrations the following day confirmed that these results were within the calculated uncertainties. The results of the immersion tests revealed that the reading of the body type sensor was sensitive to position, with differences in temperature of -0.5°C to -1.4°C observed on withdrawing the thermometer from the base of the isothermal environment by 4 cm and 8 cm, respectively. Taking into account all the factors tested during the calibration experiments, the measurement uncertainty of the clinical sensors against the (nominal) 26°C and 36°C temperature reference sources for the brain type 1, brain type 2 and body type sensors were ± 0.18°C, ± 0.10°C and ± 0.12°C respectively. Conclusions The results show that brain temperature sensors are fundamentally accurate and the measurements are precise to within 0.1 to 0.2°C. Subtle dissociation between brain and body temperature in excess of 0.1 to 0.2°C is likely to be real. Body temperature sensors need to be secured in position to ensure that measurements are reliable.

2009-01-01

305

Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature Dependent Thermophysical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new evaluation method for a transient measurement of thermophysical properties is presented in this paper. The aim of the research was to couple a new automatic evaluation procedure to the BICOND thermophysical property measurement method to enhance the simultaneous determination of the temperature dependent thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. The thermophysical properties of two different polymers were measured and compared with the literature data and with the measurement results that were done by well-known, traditional methods. The BICOND method involves a step-down cooling, recording the temperature histories of the inner and the outer surfaces of a hollow cylindrical sample and the thermophysical properties are evaluated from the solution of the corresponding inverse heat conduction using a genetic algorithm-based method (BIGEN) developed by the authors. The BIGEN is able to find the material properties with any kind of temperature dependency, that is illustrated through the measurement results of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and polyamide (PA) samples.

Czél, Balázs; Gróf, Gyula; Kiss, László

2011-11-01

306

An Instrument to Measure the Activity Level of the Blind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A questionnaire to measure the activity level of people with visual handicaps was developed which measured "independence" and "difficulty" in performing various activities, "felt loss" in not performing the activities, and "motivation to learn" the activities. (Author/CL)

Becker, Selwyn W.; And Others

1985-01-01

307

Measuring instrument for radial composite deviations of high-precision master gear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During double flank rolling composite detection, the radial composite deviations of master gears has been existed and transferred to the measured gear by the primary harmonic curve. In order to improve measurement accuracy, a measuring instrument is developed for radial composite deviations of high-precision master gear in the paper. This instrument uses the structure of spring-suspend swing span to overcome the shortcomings of large rotation errors, low sensitivity, low resolution and large measuring force appearing in the traditional combination-type gear inspection instrument. Artificial intelligence technology is used to improve the efficiency and accuracy of this instrument. The result is that the measuring apparatus is able to meet the requirement and improve efficiency through the measuring experiments on master gears of precision grade 2 with modulus 2 mm and 3 mm, respectively.

Ma, Yong; Wang, Tongxiang; Lou, Zhifeng; Wang, Liding; Zhang, Yuling

2010-08-01

308

The characteristics of Titan's atmosphere by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI) measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument HASI measured the main physical characteristics of the Titan atmosphere in all the phases of the Huygens probe mission at Titan entry descent and impact The accelerometers ACC sensors provided data from the very beginning of the entry phase 1500 km altitude allowing us to obtain in the upper atmosphere the density profile from which we derived pressure and temperature profiles under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium Temperature and pressure profile were obtained by direct measurements of T TEM sensors and P PPI package during descent and impact providing us with hints on the vertical structure of Titan s lower atmosphere The electrical properties as the permittivity at 45 Hz and the conductivity of the atmosphere have been measured during the whole descent phase and at the surface of Titan by the Permittivity and Wave Analysis PWA sensors The radar altimeter data collected in the range of elevation 0-30 km have been processed by the FFT device of the HASI data processing unit providing us with both information on the elevation of the probe in the last part of the descent and on some physical properties of Titan s surface Furthermore the ACC recorded the signature of the impact of the probe at the surface of Titan An overview of the obtained results concerning the atmospheric structure and electrical properties will be presented and discussed

Fulchignoni, M.; Ferri, F.; Colombatti, C.; Zarnecki, J. C.; Harri, A. M.; Grard, R.; Hamelin, M.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Angrilli, F.; HASI Team

309

BOOK REVIEW: Instrumentation & Measurement Pocket Book, Third Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book is divided into four parts: `Systems', `System Components', `Measurements' and `Microprocessor Based Systems'.The first part of the book introduces Measurement Systems, Performance Terminology, Errors, Dynamic Characteristics, Loading Effects, Noise and Reliability.The `Measurement Systems' subsection is not sufficiently concise, as only a small number of derived units have been listed. The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been publishing posters

W. Bolton

2001-01-01

310

Global trends of measured surface air temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze surface air temperature data from available meteorological stations with principal focus on the period 1880-1985. The temperature changes at mid- and high latitude stations separated by less than 1000 km are shown to be highly correlated; at low latitudes the correlation falls off more rapidly with distance for nearby stations. We combine the station data in a way which is designed to provide accurate long-term variations. Error estimates are based in part on studies of how accurately the actual station distributions are able to reproduce temperature change in a global data set produced by a three-dimensional general circulation model with realistic variability. We find that meaningful global temperature change can be obtained for the past century, despite the fact that the meteorological stations are confined mainly to continental and island locations. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5°-0.7°C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres; the northern hemisphere result is similar to that found by several other investigators. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. The warm period in recent years differs qualitatively from the earlier warm period centered about 1940; the earlier warming was focused at high northern latitudes, while the recent warming is more global. We present selected graphs and maps of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones. A computer tape of the derived regional and global temperature changes is available from the authors.

Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

1987-11-01

311

Domain sets and measurement instruments on participation and environmental factors in spinal cord injury research.  

PubMed

The understanding and measurement of participation and environmental context in spinal cord injury (SCI) is critically important. However, there is limited understanding of the environment-participation relationship in SCI research. There is little consensus on what is and on how to measure participation and its environmental determinants in the SCI. The objective of this article is to develop a set of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)-based SCI Participation and Environment Domain Set and measurement instruments that intend to measure those domains. ICF categories from the ICF components of activities and participation and environmental factors based on the comprehensive ICF Core Set for SCI and the ICF Core Set for vocational rehabilitation were merged. Measurement instruments were selected based on published systematic reviews of measurement instruments in SCI. There were 128 ICF categories or domains in total (38 for environmental factors and 90 for activities and participation). There were six measurement instruments on environmental factors and six for participation based on existing systematic reviews. This article presents a domain set that is relevant to conducting research on the social and environmental perspectives, in an effort to understand and measure functioning in SCI (i.e., "SCI participation domain set" and "SCI environment domain set," respectively). The sample of SCI Participation and Environment Measurement Instruments gathered indicate the comprehensiveness and depth of the different domains. Guiding principles on the utilization of these measurement instruments depending on the purpose and design of a research study are highly recommended to investigators. PMID:21975678

Escorpizo, Reuben; Graf, Sibylle; Marti, Albert; Noreau, Luc; Post, Marcel W M; Stucki, Gerold; Reinhardt, Jan D

2011-11-01

312

Comparison Measurements of Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitors  

SciTech Connect

As part of the efforts initiated through the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) program to make Silicon Carbide (SiC) temperature monitors available, a capability was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. INL selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. To demonstrate this new capability, comparison measurements were completed by INL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on identical samples subjected to identical irradiation conditions. Results reported in this paper indicate that the resistance measurement approach can yield similar peak irradiation temperatures if appropriate equipment is used and appropriate procedures are followed.

J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

2010-06-01

313

A portable instrument for 3-D dynamic robot measurements using triangulation and laser tracking  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the development and validation of a 3-D measurement instrument capable of determining the static and dynamic performance of industrial robots to ISO standards. Using two laser beams to track an optical target attached to the robot end-effector, the target position coordinates may be estimated, relative to the instrument coordinate frame, to a high accuracy using triangulation principles. The effect of variations in the instrument geometry from the nominal model is evaluated through a kinematic model of the tracking head. Significant improvements of the measurement accuracy are then obtained by a simple adjustment of the main parameters. Extensive experimental test results are included to demonstrate the instrument performance. Finally typical static and dynamic measurement results for an industrial robot are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the instrument.

Mayer, J.R.R. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Parker, G.A. (Univ. of Surrey (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1994-08-01

314

Accurate measurement of LED lens surface temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiant power emitted by high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been steadily increasing over the past decade. High radiation, especially short wavelength, can increase the temperature and negatively affect the primary lens performance of high-power LEDs. In this regards, assessment of lens temperature during operation is important. Past studies have shown large errors when thermocouples are used for measuring temperature in high radiant flux environments. Therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the problem in using thermocouples to measure LED lens surface temperature and to find a solution to improving the measurement accuracy. A laboratory study was conducted to better understand the issue. Results showed that most of the error is due to absorption of visible radiant energy by the thermocouple. In this study, the measurements made using an infrared (IR) thermal imaging system were used as the reference temperature because the IR imaging system is unaffected by radiant flux in the visible range. After studying the thermocouple wire metallurgy and its radiation absorption properties, a suitable material was identified to shield the thermocouple from visible radiation. Additionally, a silicone elastomer was used to maintain the thermal interface between the lens surface and the thermocouple junction bead. With these precautions, the lens temperature measurements made using the J-type thermocouple and the IR imaging system matched very well.

Perera, Indika U.; Narendran, Nadarajah; Liu, Yi-wei

2013-09-01

315

Instrumentation of broadband frequency domain thermoreflectance for measuring thermal conductivity accumulation functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the instrumentation for broadband frequency domain thermoreflectance (BB-FDTR), a novel, continuous wave laser technique for measuring the thermal conductivity accumulation function. The thermal conductivity accumulation function describes cumulative contributions to the bulk thermal conductivity of a material from energy carriers with different mean free paths. It can be used to map reductions in thermal conductivity in nano-devices, which arise when the dimensions of the device are commensurate to the mean free path of energy carriers. BB-FDTR uses high frequency surface temperature modulation to generate non-diffusive phonon transport realized through a reduction in the perceived thermal conductivity. By controlling the modulation frequency it is possible to reconstruct the thermal conductivity accumulation function. A unique heterodyning technique is used to down-convert the signal, therein improving our signal to noise ratio and enabling results over a broader range of modulation frequencies (200 kHz-200 MHz) and hence mean free paths.

Regner, K. T.; Majumdar, S.; Malen, J. A.

2013-06-01

316

Spectroscopic measurements of plasma rotation and ion temperatures in SSPX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550. To better characterize plasma behavior in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX), we measure plasma rotation and ion temperatures through spectroscopy. We measure Doppler broadening of impurity lines and line shift using a high-resolution Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS). The instrument is a Czery-Turner 1m spectrometer, blazed for first order spectra between 300 and 600 nm. Visible line emissions are coupled to the instrument through a fiber optic, pass through the IDS, and are detected by a sixteen-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) which consists of 16, 0.8 mm x 16 mm PMTs in a linear array. A linear CCD-array visible spectrometer is used to measure visible spectra. These spectra are used to tune the IDS to best observe Doppler broadening and/or shifting of intrinsic impurity emissions. Both instruments have a 2 cm collimated view of the plasma at the midplane and can be aligned to view along different radial chords. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

Brabec, C. L.; Wood, R. D.; McLean, H. S.; Sspx Team

2004-11-01

317

A new automatic system for angular measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments.  

PubMed

This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements. PMID:22319320

Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

2010-04-13

318

Validation of daily erythemal doses from Ozone Monitoring Instrument with ground-based UV measurement data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the NASA EOS Aura spacecraft is a nadir viewing spectrometer that measures solar reflected and backscattered light in a selected range of the ultraviolet and visible spectrum. The instrument has a 2600 km wide viewing swath and it is capable of daily, global contiguous mapping. The Finnish Meteorological Institute and NASA Goddard

Aapo Tanskanen; Anders Lindfors; Anu Määttä; Nickolay Krotkov; Jay Herman; Jussi Kaurola; Tapani Koskela; Kaisa Lakkala; Vitali Fioletov; Germar Bernhard; Richard McKenzie; Yutaka Kondo; Michael O'Neill; Harry Slaper; Peter den Outer; Alkiviadis F. Bais; Johanna Tamminen

2007-01-01

319

Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

2010-01-01

320

Reliability of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument with University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument was initially designed to assess high school biology teachers' acceptance of evolutionary theory. To determine if the MATE instrument is reliable with university students, it was administered to students in a non-majors biology course (n = 61) twice over a 3-week period.…

Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim C.

2007-01-01

321

Validation of a verbal autopsy instrument to measure cause-specific mortality among adults in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most developing countries, data on causes of deaths is not available as most people die at home unattended by physicians. Therefore, a verbal autopsy instrument was developed and its validity was determined for measuring causes of death among adults. The verbal autopsy instrument consisted of two main components. First, the respondent was asked to give an open-ended description of

Rajesh Kumar; J. S. Thakur; B. T. Rao; M. M. C. Singh; S. P. S. Bhatia

322

Evaluation of ozone total column measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument using a data assimilation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 15 July 2004, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the EOS Aura mission was launched. One of OMI's priorities is to continue the record of high spatial resolution ozone total column measurements provided by the various Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments since 1978. To this end, it is essential to estimate the errors affecting OMI ozone total

S. Migliorini; R. Brugge; A. O'Neill; M. Dobber; V. Fioletov; P. Levelt; R. McPeters

2008-01-01

323

Developing an Instrument to Measure School Community Engagement with Implementation of Information Literacy Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable survey instrument to be used by librarians and other educational leaders to measure implementation of a school's information literacy program. The goal was to create an instrument that would consider implementation of a library-centered program within the context and culture of the…

Aiani, Candace Wexler

2008-01-01

324

Developing and Validating a New Instrument to Measure the Self-Efficacy of Elementary Mathematics Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was the development and validation of an instrument to measure the self-efficacy of elementary mathematics teachers. Self-efficacy, as defined by Bandura, was the theoretical framework for the development of the instrument. The complex belief systems of mathematics teachers, as touted by Ernest (1989) provided insight…

McGee, Jennifer Richardson

2012-01-01

325

Development of an Instrument to Measure Consumer Satisfaction in Vocational Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although state agencies are required by law to assess their consumers' satisfaction with vocational rehabilitation (VR), each state uses its own instrument to measure satisfaction. This not only makes comparisons across states impossible but also means that the quality of these instruments varies widely from state to state. As with other…

Capella, Michele E.; Turner, Ronna C.

2004-01-01

326

Reliability of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument with University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument was initially designed to assess high school biology teachers' acceptance of evolutionary theory. To determine if the MATE instrument is reliable with university students, it was administered to students in a non-majors biology course (n = 61) twice over a 3-week period.…

Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim C.

2007-01-01

327

Development of An Instrumented, Modular "mole" For In-situ Subsurface Measurements On Planetary Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the Beagle 2 lander of ESA's Mars Express mission in 2003, a small mechanical "Mole" on a tether will be used to achieve percussive penetration into the Martian regolith to a maximum depth of some 1E1.5 m with the main objective of acquiring subsurface soil samples for analysis on the lander. For future planetary missions it is proposed to develop this concept further in order to accommodate a number of instru- ment sensor heads inside the Mole, enabling different measurements to be performed in the regolith as a function of depth. Such an instrumented, and perhaps even modular, Mole could be utilized to probe the regolith of solar system objects such as Mercury, Mars, the Earth's moon or asteroids. Depending on the mission target, different in- struments to be deployed to the subsurface will be of relevance. Candidates include thermal sensors, volatile detection sensors (including water vapor and adsorbed water for Mars applications), a multispectral imaging sensor head (soil texture and spectral reflectance) and a Raman spectrometer optical head (detailed soil mineralogy). Based on applications on various space missions, most of these instruments are already under development and will be small enough that at least their front ends can be accommo- dated inside a compact cylindrical Mole having an expected internal diameter between 20E35 mm. A particular design challenge is going to be the internal electronics and the electrical/optical interface required to pre-process sensor data and transmit them to the lander above the surface. To minimize the overall mass and length of the instrumented Mole, internal electronics should serve common functions among the accommodated instruments. Another area to be closely studied is temperature rise of the Mole due to its internal dissipation while in the subsurface which could jeopardize thermal mea- surements or could even render internal equipment inoperable. Where the physical integration of sensors is concerned, individual instrument compartments are proposed with unified electrical interfaces. To account for the shocks introduced by operation of the Mole hammering mechanism used for soil penetration, some of the sensor heads may need to be protected by appropriate shock attenuation suspensions.

Richter, L.; Kochan, H.; Michaelis, H.; Möhlmann, D.; Neuhaus, D.; Popp, J.; Spohn, T.; Stuffler, T.; Tokano, T.; Wernecke, R.

328

Core temperature measurement by microwave radiometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ‘double-container model’ was used for core temperature (Tc) measurement by microwave emission radiometry (MR) of warm fluid inside a tube, placed in a container with a cooler fluid. The intensity of microwaves emitted from the warmer fluid inside the tube were measured using a MR metering device, consisting of an antenna linked to a low-noise radio frequency amplifier (bandwidth

Daniel S. Moran; Uri Eliyahu; Yuval Heled; Shabtai Rabinovitz; Jay Hoffman; Menachem Margaliot

2004-01-01

329

An Algorithm for Express Temperature Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long time of measurement is a common disadvan? tage of most contemporary medical thermometers including digital thermometers based on conductive ther? mal exchange with the object of measurement. Specificity of a living organism as an object of temperature monitor? ing makes it difficult to solve this problem [1]. Let us con? sider modern approaches to solution of this problem. The

I. A. Dolgova; B. V. Chuvikin

2009-01-01

330

Mid-infrared reflectance and transmittance measurements in the laboratory using field instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses methods developed for measuring the reflectance and transmittance of solid materials in the laboratory using instruments designed for the field. Having the ability to use field instruments to obtain lab-quality measurements negates the need for redundant instrumentation. In our work we use an ABB MR170 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroradiometer to collect infrared spectra of natural and manmade surfaces in a variety of terrains and environments. Our laboratory protocols are optimized for the 3-14?m region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We describe our measurement protocols and present sample data.

Jackson, Andre; Nash, Bryan; Ifarraguerri, Agustin

2010-04-01

331

Johnson Noise Thermometry For Space Reactor Temperature Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary difference between terrestrial and remotely located reactors is the ability to periodically recalibrate and replace the instrumentation. Because of this, space reactors place a premium on self-calibrating, long-term reliable instrumentation. The primary temperature measurements for the SP-100 reactor were to be made using W/W-Re thermocouples. However, the large gamma and neutron dose expected at the coolant outlet (>1 MGy ? 3×1015 fast neutron fluence) combined with the high temperature (1375 K nominal; 1650 K maximum) meant that the thermocouples would drift significantly over the lifetime of the reactor. A combined Johnson noise resistance thermometer capable of performing under these extreme conditions was developed by ORNL (Carroll, 1994). Johnson noise is a fundamental representation of temperature-it is the vibration of the electronic field surrounding atoms as they thermally vibrate. Johnson noise, however, is fundamentally a small signal (~4×10-7 Vrms for a 100 ? resistor at 300 K, using a 100 kHz bandwidth) spread throughout the frequency spectrum. Creating the electronics and signal processing required to effectively measure and interpret the noise signal remains challenging. ORNL has recently developed closely related Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) electronics and signal processing capabilities under a DOE International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project with the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (U.S. DOE, 2002). An overview of the application of JNT to space nuclear power and the current status of the ORNL JNT capabilities is the subject of this paper.

Holcomb, David E.; Kisner, Roger A.; Roberts, Michael J.

2004-02-01

332

European temperature records of the past five centuries based on documentary\\/instrumental information compared to climate simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two European temperature reconstructions for the past half-millennium, January-to-April air temperature for Stockholm (Sweden)\\u000a and seasonal temperature for a Central European region, both derived from the analysis of documentary sources and long instrumental\\u000a records, are compared with the output of climate simulations with the model ECHO-G. The analysis is complemented by comparisons\\u000a with the long (early)-instrumental record of Central England

Eduardo Zorita; Anders Moberg; Lotta Leijonhufvud; Rob Wilson; Rudolf Brázdil; Petr Dobrovolný; Jürg Luterbacher; Reinhard Böhm; Christian Pfister; Dirk Riemann; Rüdiger Glaser; Johan Söderberg; Fidel González-Rouco

2010-01-01

333

Noncontact temperature measurement of a falling drop  

SciTech Connect

The 105-m drop tube at the Marshall Space Flight Center has been used in a number of experiments to determine the effects of containerless, microgravity processing on the undercooling and solidification behavior of metals and alloys. These experiments have been limited, however, because direct temperature measurement of the falling drops has not been available. Undercooling and nucleation temperatures are calculated from thermophysical properties based on droplet cooling models. In most cases these properties are not well known, particularly in the undercooled state. This results in a large amount of uncertainty in the determination of nucleation temperatures. If temperature measurement can be accomplished, then the thermal history of the drops could be well documented. This would lead to a better understanding of the thermophysicial and thermal radiative properties of undercooled melts. An effort to measure the temperature of a falling drop is under way at Vanderbilt and Marshall Space Flight Center. The technique uses two-color pyrometry and high-speed data acquisition. The approach is presented along with some preliminary data from drop tube experiments. The results from droplet cooling models are compared with noncontact temperature measurements.

Hofmeister, W.J.; Bayuzick, R.J.; Robinson, M.B.

1989-01-01

334

Assessment of body temperature measurement options.  

PubMed

Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature. PMID:24037397

Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

2013-09-12

335

Measuring concentrations of electrolytes by a differential ultrasonic instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement and automatic control of electrolyte concentrations is extremely important for the automation of various technological processes in the chemical industry. The ultrasonic method of measuring electrolyte concentrations is highly accurate and has no perturbing effect on the medium under investigation, due to the small intensity of the ultrasonic pulse radiations (of the order of hundredths of a w\\/cm2);

V. A. Nosov; S. K. Barashkov; M. A. Dyachenko; A. P. Sosenko

1962-01-01

336

Caffeine Expectancy: Instrument Development in the Rasch Measurement Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world, the mechanisms associated with consumption are not well understood. Nonetheless, outcome expectancies for caffeine use are thought to underlie caffeine’s reinforcing properties. To date, however, there is no available, sufficient measure by which to assess caffeine expectancy. Therefore, the current study sought to develop such a measure employing

Adrienne J. Heinz; Jon D. Kassel; Everett V. Smith

2009-01-01

337

Instrumentation for measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mass spectrometric 'Dynamic Delta' method for the measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes has been developed. The method is universally applicable for measurement of the permeability of any gas through polymeric membrane materials. The usual large sample size of more than 100 square centimeters required for other methods is not necessary for this new method which requires a

Billy T. Upchurch; George M. Wood; Kenneth G. Brown; Karen S. Burns

1993-01-01

338

Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (cars) Gas Temperature Measurements in a Monodisperse Combusting Droplet Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation describes a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) instrument for spatially and temporally resolved non-intrusive temperature measurements in combustion environments. It presents a detailed description of the CARS system development and standard procedures to perform CARS gas temperature measurements,and procedures to analyze the CARS spectra for temperature determination. The dissertation also applies the CARS apparatus developed to a single

Junyong Zhu

1991-01-01

339

Laser weld penetration estimation using temperature measurements  

SciTech Connect

Penetration depth is an important factor critical to the quality of a laser weld. This paper examines the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the bottom surface of the work-piece to estimate weld penetration. A three-dimensional analytical model relating penetration depth, weld bead width and welding speed to temperature distribution at the bottom surface of the workpiece is developed. Temperatures on the bottom surface of the workpiece are measured using infrared thermocouples located behind the laser beam. Experimental results from bead-on-plate welds on low carbon steel plates of varying thickness at different levels of laser power and speeds validate the model and show that the temperature on the bottom surface is a sensitive indicator of penetration depth. The proposed model is computationally efficient and is suitable for on-line process monitoring application.

Lankalapalli, K.N.; Tu, J.F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Industrial Engineering; Leong, K.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gartner, M. [Ford Motor Co., Livonia, MI (United States)

1997-10-01

340

Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma  

SciTech Connect

The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma.

Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Den Hartog, D. J. [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)

2010-12-15

341

TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED DESORPTION: PRINCIPLES, INSTRUMENT DESIGN, AND DEMONSTRATION WITH NAALH4  

SciTech Connect

This article is a brief introduction to temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), an analytical technique devised to analyze, in this case, materials for their potential as hydrogen storage materials. The principles and requirements of TPD are explained and the different components of a generic TPD apparatus are described. The construction of a modified TPD instrument from commercially available components is reported together with the control and acquisition technique used to create a TPD spectrum. The chemical and instrumental parameters to be considered in a typical TPD experiment and the analytical utility of the technique are demonstrated by the dehydrogenation of titanium-doped NaAlH{sub 4} by means of thermally programmed desorption.

Stowe, A; Ragaiy Zidan, R

2006-11-07

342

Instrumentation Research for Radiation Measurements in the Marine Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes four years continuance of research into behaviors of minute traces of artificial and natural radioactivity in the ocean and development of means for detecting and measuring extremely small changes of ionizing radiation in the marine ...

T. R. Folsom

1974-01-01

343

Measurement of wire electrode temperature in WEDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire temperature is an important parameter in the wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) process because overheating of the\\u000a wire can cause the wire to break. It is difficult, however, to measure the wire temperature directly under the condition that\\u000a the wire is emerged in water and surrounded by the workpiece. Only mathematical analyses by now have been reported to determine\\u000a such

Fuzhu Han; Gang Cheng; Zhijing Feng; Isago Soichiro

2009-01-01

344

The Development and Validation of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development and validation of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE), a 20-item, Likert-scaled instrument that assesses teachers' overall acceptance of evolutionary theory. (Author/CCM)|

Rutledge, Michael L.; Warden, Melissa A.

1999-01-01

345

Feasibility Standards for Communicative Skills. Using Existing Instruments to Measure Noncommissioned Officers' Communicative Skills Proficiencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using existing instruments to measure the communicative skills proficiencies (writing, speaking, and listening) of Noncommissioned Officers (NCOs) to the Army's standards. The literature was r...

C. R. Dolmetsch W. B. McDougal D. N. Vause

1992-01-01

346

Hip endoprosthesis for in vivo measurement of joint force and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction between the prosthetic head and acetabular cup increases the temperature in hip implants during activities like walking. A hip endoprosthesis was instrumented with sensors to measure the joint contact forces and the temperature distribution along the entire length of the titanium implant. Sensors and two inductively powered telemetry units are placed inside the hip implant and hermetically sealed against

Friedmar Graichen; Georg Bergmann; Antonius Rohlmann

1999-01-01

347

Quantitative interpretation of divergence between PM 10 and PM 2.5 mass measurement by TEOM and gravimetric (Partisol) instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intercomparison of PM 10 and PM 2.5 mass measured simultaneously by tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) instruments and Partisol samplers, with laboratory gravimetric determination of particle mass from the latter, has been carried out at a rural site in Oxfordshire, UK. The TEOM gives lower readings of both PM 10 and PM 2.5 mass and the underestimation is greater at high concentrations. The strong day-to-day variation between instruments is the result of the variability of the particle composition and the influence of temperature and relative humidity. Results show that most of the particulate material not measured by the TEOMs belongs to the PM 2.5 fraction and suggest that the loss of semi-volatile compounds constitutes an important part of the difference between instruments; even though it is not the only cause of divergence. Ammonium nitrate is one of the major particulate compounds lost in the inlet of the TEOMs located at Harwell. Its volatilisation can explain a significant part of the difference between TEOMs and filter-based Partisol methods. At Harwell, events of high concentrations are often events of high concentrations of semi-volatile compounds including particulate nitrate and as a consequence, the TEOM instrument may miss events above the daily air quality standard of 50 ?g m -3. The influences of temperature and relative humidity are demonstrated. The difference between measurements decreases with increasing temperature and with decreasing relative humidity. This result is consistent with the mass deficit being associated with loss of semi-volatile substances such as NH 4NO 3 whose formation is temperature and humidity-dependent. It may also be related to positive artefacts associated with the filter-based method such as particle-bound water and adsorbed semi-volatile components.

Charron, Aurelie; Harrison, Roy M.; Moorcroft, Steve; Booker, Jeff

348

Isotopic Measurements of Water Vapour and Methane from the MIPAS Satellite Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic composition of stratospheric water vapour depends on the sources of water vapour and on the temperature and precipitation history of the stratospheric air. Isotopic measurements of water vapour therefore have the potential to aid investigation of dehydration in the polar vortex, of stratospheric/tropospheric exchange, of upward transport in the tropics and of subsidence at polar latitudes. The isotopic composition of methane affects that of water vapour, since methane oxidation is an important source of water vapour in the stratosphere. The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is a high resolution limb sounder flying on the European Space Agency's Envisat satellite. MIPAS measures infrared atmospheric limb emission spectra from 685-2410cm-1 over an altitude range of 6-68km. These spectra are acquired continuously during both day and night, providing a three--dimensional, almost global map of the atmospheric emission every 24 hours. After suitable ground processing, these spectra allow the retrieval of concentration profiles of numerous atmospheric trace gases. The MIPAS spectra contain enough information to distinguish minor isotopes of many of these gases, including water vapour (H218O, H217O and HDO). It is also possible to obtain measurements of CH3D, giving the potential to investigate the deuterium budget of the stratosphere. Here we present global isotopic measurements of water vapour and methane from the MIPAS instrument, spanning the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

Payne, V.; Dudhia, A.; Piccolo, C.

2004-12-01

349

Research about the high precision temperature measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High precision temperature control system is one of most important support conditions for tunable birefringent filter.As the first step,we researched some high precision temperature measurement methods for it. Firstly, circuits with a 24 bit ADC as the sensor's reader were carefully designed; Secondly, an ARM porcessor is used as the centrol processing unit, it provides sufficient reading and procesing ability; Thirdly, three kinds of sensors, PT100, Dale 01T1002-5 thermistor, Wheatstone bridge(constructed by pure copper and manganin) as the senor of the temperature were tested respectively. The resolution of the measurement with these three kinds of sensors are all better than 0.001 that's enough for 0.01 stability temperature control. Comparatively, Dale 01T1002-5 thermistor could get the most accurate temperature of the key point, Wheatstone bridge could get the most accurate mean temperature of the whole layer, both of them will be used in our futrue temperature controll system.

Lin, J.; Yu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zeng, Z.; Deng, Y.

2012-12-01

350

Seasonal and Regional Variation of Pan-Arctic Surface Air Temperature over the Instrumental Record(.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumental surface air temperature (SAT) records beginning in the late 1800s from 59 Arctic stations north of 64°N show monthly mean anomalies of several degrees and large spatial teleconnectivity, yet there are systematic seasonal and regional differences. Analyses are based on time longitude plots of SAT anomalies and principal component analysis (PCA). Using monthly station data rather than gridded fields for this analysis highlights the importance of considering record length in calculating reliable Arctic change estimates; for example, the contrast of PCA performed on 11 stations beginning in 1886, 20 stations beginning in 1912, and 45 stations beginning in 1936 is illustrated. While often there is a well-known interdecadal negative covariability in winter between northern Europe and Baffin Bay, long-term changes in the remainder of the Arctic are most evident in spring, with cool temperature anomalies before 1920 and Arctic-wide warm temperatures in the 1990s. Summer anomalies are generally weaker than spring or winter but tend to mirror spring conditions before 1920 and in recent decades. Temperature advection in the trough ridge structure in the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) in the North Atlantic establishes wintertime temperature anomalies in adjacent regions, while the zonal/annular nature of the AO in the remainder of the Arctic must break down in spring to promote meridional temperature advection. There were regional/decadal warm events during winter and spring in the 1930s to 1950s, but meteorological analysis suggests that these SAT anomalies are the result of intrinsic variability in regional flow patterns. These midcentury events contrast with the recent Arctic-wide AO influence in the 1990s. The preponderance of evidence supports the conclusion that warm SAT anomalies in spring for the recent decade are unique in the instrumental record, both in having the greatest longitudinal extent and in their associated patterns of warm air advection.


Overland, James E.; Spillane, Michael C.; Percival, Donald B.; Wang, Muyin; Mofjeld, Harold O.

2004-09-01

351

Measuring the effectiveness of marketing information systems : An empirically validated instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To design and empirically validate an instrument for measuring the effectiveness of a marketing intelligence system (MkIS). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A thorough review of the literature of IS in general and MkIS in particular was the foundation for a new conceptualisation of MkIS effectiveness, which was developed into a measuring instrument for experimental application to data collected by a

Spiros P. Gounaris; George G. Panigyrakis; Kalliopi C. Chatzipanagiotou

2007-01-01

352

9.6--A dual wavelength optical distance measuring instrument which corrects for air density  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrument has been constructed which simultaneously measures optical path length at two wavelengths and so permits determination of average refractive index over the common path and hence distance to1 times 10^{-6}or better without extensive meteorological observations. Using a He-Ne laser (6328 Å) and a filtered high-pressure mercury arc lamp (3681 Å), the instrument is expected to measure distances to

K. Earnshaw; J. Owens

1967-01-01

353

Measuring subsurface water distribution using the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons instrument on Mars Science Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument, a neutron scattering instrument currently being constructed by IKI, is a component of the science payload of the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Based on simulations using the Monte-Carlo N-Particle Extended (MCNPX) particle physics code, DAN is able to measure bulk water content and to detect variations in water concentration up to ˜50 cm beneath the ground surface, assuming perfect detector performance. Data from DAN, combined with measurements from other instruments on MSL, allow derivation of profiles of water content to a depth of ˜15 cm.

Busch, Michael W.; Aharonson, Oded

2008-07-01

354

A new, four-item instrument to measure workplace bullying.  

PubMed

Studies on workplace bullying either in the U.S. or internationally rarely include nurses. We tested the concurrent validity of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (22 items) with a sample of nurses. Five hundred eleven registered nurses (RNs) responded to a mailed survey. Factor, reliability, and regression analyses tested dimensionality, reliability, and construct and criterion validity. Workplace bullying is best seen as a one-dimensional construct. A subset of four items was found to be both valid and reliable in measuring bullying in this sample. Findings support the use of a one-dimensional, four-item questionnaire to measure perceived bullying in nursing populations. Using a four-item questionnaire decreases participant and researcher burden and makes available an outcome measure for future descriptive and predictive interventional research. PMID:21246569

Simons, Shellie R; Stark, Roland B; DeMarco, Rosanna F

2011-01-18

355

A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries.  

PubMed

An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry system provides data on shore in real time if desired. The immediate purpose of measurements by this device is to continuously infer fluxes of water across the sediment-water interface in a complex estuarine system; however, direct application to assessment of sediment-water fluxes in rivers, lakes, and other systems is also possible. Key objectives of the design include both low cost, and accuracy of the order of ±0.5 mm H(2)O in measured head difference between the instrument's two pressure ports. These objectives have been met, although a revision to the design of one component was found to be necessary. Deployments of up to nine months, and wireless range in excess of 300 m have been demonstrated. PMID:22389608

Gardner, Alan T; Karam, Hanan N; Mulligan, Ann E; Harvey, Charles F; Hammar, Terence R; Hemond, Harold F

2009-01-09

356

A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries  

PubMed Central

An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry system provides data on shore in real time if desired. The immediate purpose of measurements by this device is to continuously infer fluxes of water across the sediment-water interface in a complex estuarine system; however, direct application to assessment of sediment-water fluxes in rivers, lakes, and other systems is also possible. Key objectives of the design include both low cost, and accuracy of the order of ±0.5 mm H2O in measured head difference between the instrument's two pressure ports. These objectives have been met, although a revision to the design of one component was found to be necessary. Deployments of up to nine months, and wireless range in excess of 300 m have been demonstrated.

Gardner, Alan T.; Karam, Hanan N.; Mulligan, Ann E.; Harvey, Charles F.; Hammar, Terence R.; Hemond, Harold F.

2009-01-01

357

Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

1994-10-04

358

Measurement of temperature using speckle shearing interferometry.  

PubMed

A laser speckle shearing interferometric technique is used for measuring the temperature profile inside a gaseous flame. The experimental results are compared with the values obtained by a thermocouple and also by speckle photography. Good agreement is seen among the temperatures measured by speckle shearing interferometry, speckle photography, and the thermocouple. Speckle shearing interferometry is easier to implement than speckle photography. This is because in speckle shearing interferometry the accurate positions of the fringes can be known without point-by-point analysis and correction for the halo effect. PMID:20885553

Shakher, C; Nirala, A K

1994-04-10

359

Instrumentation for measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mass spectrometric 'Dynamic Delta' method for the measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes has been developed. The method is universally applicable for measurement of the permeability of any gas through polymeric membrane materials. The usual large sample size of more than 100 square centimeters required for other methods is not necessary for this new method which requires a size less than one square centimeter. The new method should fulfill requirements and find applicability for industrial materials such as food packaging, contact lenses and other commercial materials where gas permeability or permselectivity properties are important.

Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Burns, Karen S.

1993-02-01

360

An Instrument for the Measurement of Parental Authority Prototypes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Baumrind (1971) proposed three distinct patterns of parental authority (permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness) and measured these parenting styles through interviews with parents and their children and through observations of parents interacting with their children. This study was undertaken to develop a readily-accessible,…

Buri, John R.

361

DEVELOPMENT OF A PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENT TO MEASURE WORK LIFE BALANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contribution of the service sector to the national economy of India has been considered as an important factor in the determination of the nation al GDP and over the last few decades the issue of work-life balance (WLB) especially among the ser vice sector employees has been receiving increased attention. Even though some scales are av ailable for the measurement

V. M. Rincy; N. Panchanatham

2010-01-01

362

A simple digital fringe-fraction measuring instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a simple controller for the reference mirror in a photoelectric gauge-measuring interferometer. A digital display of the transducer current, and a simple digital calculator (both readily available at low cost) are used to give rapid reading of fringe fractions without the need for calibration.

P. E. Ciddor; R. M. Duffy; W. G. Sainty

1975-01-01

363

New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts  

SciTech Connect

During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as {approx}100 {mu}m impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact.

Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding Yulong; Pitt, Kendal G. [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Faculty of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Merck Sharp and Dohme, Hertford Road, Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire EN11 9BU (United Kingdom)

2007-02-15

364

O2-MAVS: An instrument for measuring oxygen flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the awareness that the surface ocean is becoming more acidic due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 and that the resulting decrease in carbonate ion concentration is contributing to a decline in the calcification rate of many organisms, there is a pressing need to develop methods that can easily and reliably measure the calcification rates of these organisms under

Wade R. McGillis; Chris Langdon; A. J. Williams; Brice Loose

2009-01-01

365

A buoy mounted barometric pressure instrument for wave height measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, operation and testing of an ocean wave height sensor based on the measurement of wave-related barometric pressure variations. The work was done under the auspices of the NOAA Data Buoy Office (NDBO). Wave theory used and design of circuits to convert the continuous analog wave height signal to significant wave height, peak wave height and

John F. Holmes; Ronald T. Miles

1977-01-01

366

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01... 886.1460 Section 886.1460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed...

2011-04-01

367

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2002-04-01 2002-04-01... 886.1460 Section 886.1460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed...

2002-04-01

368

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2001-04-01 2001-04-01... 886.1460 Section 886.1460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed...

2001-04-01

369

Developing an Instrument to Measure Bias in CME  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduction: The pharmaceutical industry, by funding over 60% of programs in the United States and Canada, plays a major role in continuing medical education (CME), but there are concerns about bias in such CME programs. Bias is difficult to define, and currently no tool is available to measure it. Methods: Representatives from industry and…

Takhar, Jatinder; Dixon, Dave; Donahue, Jill; Marlow, Bernard; Campbell, Craig; Silver, Ivan; Eadie, Jason; Monette, Celine; Rohan, Ivan; Sriharan, Abi; Raymond, Kathryn; Macnab, Jennifer

2007-01-01

370

An instrument for measuring soil moisture by neutron scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute the neutron method has for some years been used for studies on soil moisture by means of a Danish apparatus. This report deals with the measuring equipment, sources of error, calibration technique, etc. The moisture probe is equipped with a 5 mC Ac-Be neutron source, combined with a scintillation crystal of Lithium Iodide

Todor Milanov

371

Measurement and instrumentation of a switched reluctance motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe and compare various techniques for the measurement of switched reluctance motor (SRM) inductance for any rotor position and level of excitation. Results for an experimental prototype are compared to the analytical and finite-element analysis predictions. It is shown that the proposed flux linkage method is the most appropriate for the SRM and can be applied to the

R. Krishnan; P. Materu

1989-01-01

372

Development of an Atmospheric exp 214 Bi Measuring Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Part of the radiation environment encountered during airborne gamma ray surveys is produced by exp 214 Bi existing in the atmosphere. The exp 214 Bi atmospheric concentration changes with time and location, and should be measured to process the acquired d...

1975-01-01

373

Comparing Alternative Instruments to Measure Service Quality in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of five alternative measures of service quality in the high education sector--service quality (SERVQUAL), importance-weighted SERVQUAL, service performance (SERVPERF), importance-weighted SERVPERF, and higher education performance (HEdPERF). Design/methodology/approach: Data were…

Brochado, Ana

2009-01-01

374

Development of the Scientific Measuring Instrument LINDA, a Part of the Payload on the Swedish Micro-Satellite Astrid-2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is an engineering diploma work that describes the development for a measurement instrument, LINDA (especially the development of the software). LINDA is one of four scientific measurement instruments that represent the payload on the Swedish...

A. Jacksen

1998-01-01

375

Laser radar mesospheric temperature measurements: Preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonant scattering with a laser radar was used to measure the Doppler width of the atmospheric sodium line. By reducing the bandwidth of the laser pulse used for measuring sodium density to about 0.1 pm. the temperature at mesospheric heights can be determined by measuring the width of the sodium D sub 2 line. To accomplish this, the laser wavelength and bandwidth must be sufficiently stable to integrate the return signals over several laser shots. Preliminary measurements were made by introducing an additional Fabry-Perot etalon, of high optical quality, in the laser cavity, to reduce the bandwidth. The small wavelength scan was accomplished by heating the etalon. Returns from 90 Km reproduce the shape of the D sub 2 line, indicating a temperature of about 240 K.

Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Clemesha, B. R.; Simonich, D. M.

1978-04-01

376

Measuring an 'active person' with the HMLs emergency response instruments.  

PubMed

The Human Monitoring Laboratory has had a unique opportunity to measure two volunteers who had received (99m)Tc-labelled compounds for routine medical diagnosis to check the performance of its emergency monitoring equipment. The fixed and portable whole-body counters, some hand-held monitors and portal monitors were all used to measure the 'radioactive' persons. This study validated the current emergency calibrations that are being used, and has shown areas for improvement for equipment deployment that had not been previously anticipated. The results obtained suggest, for one individual at least, that the biokinetic model for (99m)Tc-methyl diphosphonate was not a good predictor of that person's metabolism. PMID:21123244

Kramer, Gary H; Hauck, Barry M

2010-11-30

377

Flight and attitude dynamics measurements of an instrumented Frisbee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-flight measurements are made of the translational accelerations and attitude motion of a hand-thrown flying disc using miniaturized accelerometers and other sensors and a microcontroller data acquisition system. The experiments explore the capabilities and limitations of sensors on a rapidly rotating platform moving in air, and illustrate several of the complex gyrodynamic aspects of Frisbee flight. The data give insight into the biomechanics of Frisbee launch, and indicate lift, drag and pitch moment coefficients consistent with previous wind-tunnel measurements. The experiments constitute an instructive exercise in aerospace vehicle systems integration and in attitude reconstruction, and open the way to guided disc wings using control surfaces actuated during specific spin phases determined by onboard sensors.

Lorenz, Ralph D.

2005-03-01

378

The quality of evidence of psychometric properties of three-dimensional spinal posture-measuring instruments  

PubMed Central

Background Psychometric properties include validity, reliability and sensitivity to change. Establishing the psychometric properties of an instrument which measures three-dimensional human posture are essential prior to applying it in clinical practice or research. Methods This paper reports the findings of a systematic literature review which aimed to 1) identify non-invasive three-dimensional (3D) human posture-measuring instruments; and 2) assess the quality of reporting of the methodological procedures undertaken to establish their psychometric properties, using a purpose-build critical appraisal tool. Results Seventeen instruments were identified, of which nine were supported by research into psychometric properties. Eleven and six papers respectively, reported on validity and reliability testing. Rater qualification and reference standards were generally poorly addressed, and there was variable quality reporting of rater blinding and statistical analysis. Conclusions There is a lack of current research to establish the psychometric properties of non-invasive 3D human posture-measuring instruments.

2011-01-01

379

Optical measurement of temperature dissipation rates (TDR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a laboratory experiment in which the turbulent properties of fluid flow were measured using optical methods. As a source of turbulence we used a thermally isolated tank (0.3x0.3x0.3 m) which is capable of generating turbulent convective flow with a Rayleigh number of 10^9. The temperature dissipation rate (TDR) was measured optically by examining scattered light

Darek J. Bogucki; Robert Ecke; Andrzej Domaradzki; R. C. Truman

1999-01-01

380

Elevated Temperature Oxygen Index Apparatus and Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus that performs elevated temperature (300-800°C) Oxygen Index (OI) measurements using radiant heating has been developed and used to perform OI measurements on a variety of high-OI composite materials. Comparisons of data with OI values obtained using a gas preheat device indicate reasonable agreement. Flame propagation down the edges of the samples dominated the burning behavior for many high

Stephen C. Bates; Peter R. Solomon

1993-01-01

381

Measuring transient high temperature thermal phenomena in hostile environment  

SciTech Connect

The design of an instrumentation system is presented which measures the temperature and strain response of a rapidly heated and pressurized stainless steel cylinder for reactor fuel cladding and provides a simultaneous cinematographic record of the full circumference of the cylinder at 10,000 frames/second over a one-second test duration. The integrated test requirements are discussed in detail, and include a rotating prism type high-speed camera, with an optical resolution which enables visual location of cladding failures, a pyrometer, which provides reliable temperature measurements within the range of 500 to 1100 C, and an optical extensometer, which is capable of handling two strain ranges (1% and 50%) during the transient testing. The use of a reflective chamber, which improves illumination uniformity, is discussed, and the spectral energy distribution utilized by each instrument is considered. A brief description of an experiment in which a piece of cylindrical nuclear fuel pin cladding is subjected to thermal and pressure transient is presented.

Brenden, B.B.; Hartman, J.S.; Reich, F.R.

1980-01-01

382

An instrument for measuring the momentum flux from atomic and charged particle jets  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an instrument to measure the momentum flux from an intense plasma stream for which the standard techniques used for low pressure gases (<10 Torr) at room temperature are unsuitable. This device, a Plasma Momentum Meter, can measure forces of 10{sup {minus}5} {minus} 10{sup {minus}3} Newtons with a response time of <50 ms onto surfaces of different materials immersed in dense plasmas (n > 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3}). Such forces are transmitted predominantly by ionic and neutral species, with 10's of eV's of kinetic energy, are accompanied by high heat fluxes, and are pulsed. The momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer, a capacitance-type pressure gauge. This protects the transducer from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering. An absolute force calibration of the PMM to 1% accuracy has been made is described. A flat carbon target has been used in measurements of the momentum flux of He, Ne, Ar, and Kr, plasmas produced in a magnetized linear plasma device. 7 refs., 7 figs.

Cohen, S.A.; Zonca, F.; Timberlake, J.; Bennett, T.; Cuthbertson, J.; Langer, W.; Motley, R.

1990-07-01

383

Development and Use of an Instrument to Measure Retail Foodservice Employees' Motivation for Following Food Safety Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A foodborne illness outbreak can be costly to a retail foodservice operation. This research incorporated a mixed-methods approach to develop an instrument for measuring retail foodservice employees' motivational factors related to following food safety practices. Using an exploratory design for instrument development, a sequential data collection and analysis approach was taken. Instrument pilot testing revealed a reliable instrument with three

Susan W. Arendt; Jason D. Ellis; Catherine Strohbehn; Paola Paez

2011-01-01

384

Instrument for Measuring the Complex Permittivity of the Martian Top Soil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This permittivity measuring instrument measures the resistivity rho and the relative dielectric constant epsilon sub r of the Martian top soil along the path of a rover. This aim is achieved by measuring the real and imaginary parts of the complex permitt...

R. Grard

1988-01-01

385

Development and testing of the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) cm and mm wavelength occultation instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present initial results from testing a new remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). ATOMMS is designed as a satellite to satellite occultation system for monitoring climate. We are developing the prototype instrument for an aircraft to aircraft occultation demonstration. Here we focus on field testing of the ATOMMS instrument, in particular the remote sensing of water by measuring the attenuation caused by the 22 and 183 GHz water absorption lines. The 183 GHz line spectrum was measured along an 820 m path and compared with two spectroscopic models. This revealed that the AM 6.2 model is a much better match to the observed spectrum than the MPM93 model. These comparisons also indicate the ATOMMS amplitude errors were at the 0.3 % level. Comparisons with a hygrometer showed tracking consistent at the 0.05 mb level which is about 1 % of the absolute humidity. Initial 22 GHz measurements along a 5.4 path between two mountaintops showed the 22 GHz channels tracking a large change in water vapor. Ground truth is much harder to establish.

Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Stovern, M.; Otarola, A. C.; Young, A.; Wheelwright, B.; Stickney, R.; Albanna, S.; Duffy, B.; Groppi, C.; Hainsworth, J.

2011-07-01

386

Development and validation of an instrument for measuring appointment-specific client satisfaction in companion-animal practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthcare research recognizes that ‘satisfaction’ is an important health outcome of the medical encounter. As a result, many healthcare professions have pursued the development and validation of instruments for measuring patient satisfaction. However, veterinary medicine has developed and properly validated few instruments for measuring client satisfaction. This paper describes the development and psychometric assessment of an instrument for measuring appointment-specific

J. B. Coe; C. L. Adams; K. Eva; S. Desmarais; B. N. Bonnett

2010-01-01

387

IR instrumentation dedicated to the experimental validation of evaporating and burning droplets temperature models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the work described in this paper is to study experimentally the fuel droplet temperature behavior in order to better understand the processes of the fuel injected in combustion chambers of engines and to validate theoretical models of droplets vaporization. This paper describes the temperature measurement of small fuel droplets using an IR detection system, composed of two

Nicolas Naudin; Jean A. Farre; Dominique Bissieres; Gerard Lavergne

1995-01-01

388

Validation of ACE and OSIRIS ozone and NO2 measurements using ground-based instruments at 80° N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) have been taking measurements from space since 2001 and 2003, respectively. This paper presents intercomparisons between ozone and NO2 measured by the ACE and OSIRIS satellite instruments and by ground-based instruments at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL), which is located at Eureka, Canada (80° N, 86° W) and is operated by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The ground-based instruments included in this study are four zenith-sky differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments, one Bruker Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and four Brewer spectrophotometers. Ozone total columns measured by the DOAS instruments were retrieved using new Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) guidelines and agree to within 3.2%. The DOAS ozone columns agree with the Brewer spectrophotometers with mean relative differences that are smaller than 1.5%. This suggests that for these instruments the new NDACC data guidelines were successful in producing a homogenous and accurate ozone dataset at 80° N. Satellite 14-52 km ozone and 17-40 km NO2 partial columns within 500 km of PEARL were calculated for ACE-FTS Version 2.2 (v2.2) plus updates, ACE-FTS v3.0, ACE-MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) v1.2 and OSIRIS SaskMART v5.0x ozone and Optimal Estimation v3.0 NO2 data products. The new ACE-FTS v3.0 and the validated ACE-FTS v2.2 partial columns are nearly identical, with mean relative differences of 0.0 ± 0.2% and -0.2 ± 0.1% for v2.2 minus v3.0 ozone and NO2, respectively. Ozone columns were constructed from 14-52 km satellite and 0-14 km ozonesonde partial columns and compared with the ground-based total column measurements. The satellite-plus-sonde measurements agree with the ground-based ozone total columns with mean relative differences of 0.1-7.3%. For NO2, partial columns from 17 km upward were scaled to noon using a photochemical model. Mean relative differences between OSIRIS, ACE-FTS and ground-based NO2 measurements do not exceed 20%. ACE-MAESTRO measures more NO2 than the other instruments, with mean relative differences of 25-52%. Seasonal variation in the differences between NO2 partial columns is observed, suggesting that there are systematic errors in the measurements and/or the photochemical model corrections. For ozone spring-time measurements, additional coincidence criteria based on stratospheric temperature and the location of the polar vortex were found to improve agreement between some of the instruments. For ACE-FTS v2.2 minus Bruker FTIR, the 2007-2009 spring-time mean relative difference improved from -5.0 ± 0.4% to -3.1 ± 0.8% with the dynamical selection criteria. This was the largest improvement, likely because both instruments measure direct sunlight and therefore have well-characterized lines-of-sight compared with scattered sunlight measurements. For NO2, the addition of a ±1° latitude coincidence criterion improved spring-time intercomparison results, likely due to the sharp latitudinal gradient of NO2 during polar sunrise. The differences between satellite and ground-based measurements do not show any obvious trends over the missions, indicating that both the ACE and OSIRIS instruments continue to perform well.

Adams, C.; Strong, K.; Batchelor, R. L.; Bernath, P. F.; Brohede, S.; Boone, C.; Degenstein, D.; Daffer, W. H.; Drummond, J. R.; Fogal, P. F.; Farahani, E.; Fayt, C.; Fraser, A.; Goutail, F.; Hendrick, F.; Kolonjari, F.; Lindenmaier, R.; Manney, G.; McElroy, C. T.; McLinden, C. A.; Mendonca, J.; Park, J.-H.; Pavlovic, B.; Pazmino, A.; Roth, C.; Savastiouk, V.; Walker, K. A.; Weaver, D.; Zhao, X.

2012-05-01

389

Validation of ACE and OSIRIS ozone and NO2 measurements using ground-based instruments at 80° N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) have been taking measurements from space since 2001 and 2003, respectively. This paper presents intercomparisons between ozone and NO2 measured by the ACE and OSIRIS satellite instruments and by ground-based instruments at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL), which is located at Eureka, Canada (80° N, 86° W) and is operated by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The ground-based instruments included in this study are four zenith-sky differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments, one Bruker Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and four Brewer spectrophotometers. Ozone total columns measured by the DOAS instruments were retrieved using new Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) guidelines and agree to within 3.2%. The DOAS ozone columns agree with the Brewer spectrophotometers with mean relative differences that are smaller than 1.5%. This suggests that for these instruments the new NDACC data guidelines were successful in producing a homogenous and accurate ozone dataset at 80° N. Satellite 14-52 km ozone and 17-40 km NO2 partial columns within 500 km of PEARL were calculated for ACE-FTS Version 2.2 (v2.2) plus updates, ACE-FTS v3.0, ACE-MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) v1.2 and OSIRIS SaskMART v5.0x ozone and Optimal Estimation v3.0 NO2 data products. The new ACE-FTS v3.0 and the validated ACE-FTS v2.2 partial columns are nearly identical, with mean relative differences of 0.0 ± 0.2% for ozone and -0.2 ± 0.1% for v2.2 minus v3.3 NO2. Ozone columns were constructed from 14-52 km satellite and 0-14 km ozonesonde partial columns and compared with the ground-based total column measurements. The satellite-plus-sonde measurements agree with the ground-based ozone total columns with mean relative differences of 0.1-7.3%. For NO2, partial columns from 17 km upward were scaled to noon using a photochemical model. Mean relative differences between OSIRIS, ACE-FTS and ground-based NO2 measurements do not exceed 20%. ACE-MAESTRO measures more NO2 than the other instruments, with mean relative differences of 25-52%. Seasonal variation in the differences between partial columns is observed, suggesting that there are systematic errors in the measurements, the photochemical model corrections, and/or in the coincidence criteria. For ozone spring-time measurements, additional coincidence criteria based on stratospheric temperature and the location of the polar vortex were found to improve agreement between some of the instruments. For ACE-FTS v2.2 minus Bruker FTIR, the 2007-2009 spring-time mean relative difference improved from -5.0 ± 0.4% to -3.1 ± 0.8% with the dynamical selection criteria. This was the largest improvement, likely because both instruments measure direct sunlight and therefore have well-characterized lines-of-sight compared with scattered sunlight measurements. For NO2, the addition of a ±1° latitude coincidence criterion improved spring-time intercomparison results, likely due to the sharp latitudinal gradient of NO2 during polar sunrise. The differences between satellite and ground-based measurements do not show any obvious trends over the missions, indicating that both the ACE and OSIRIS instruments continue to perform well.

Adams, C.; Strong, K.; Batchelor, R. L.; Bernath, P. F.; Brohede, S.; Boone, C.; Degenstein, D.; Daffer, W. H.; Drummond, J. R.; Fogal, P. F.; Farahani, E.; Fayt, C.; Fraser, A.; Goutail, F.; Hendrick, F.; Kolonjari, F.; Lindenmaier, R.; Manney, G.; McElroy, C. T.; McLinden, C. A.; Mendonca, J.; Park, J.-H.; Pavlovic, B.; Pazmino, A.; Roth, C.; Savastiouk, V.; Walker, K. A.; Weaver, D.; Zhao, X.

2012-01-01

390

Development of a portable instrument for automated measurements of the detective quantum efficiency of x-ray detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific community has generally adopted use of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as primary measures of performance of radiographic detectors. However, measurement of these parameters is generally restricted to experts in laboratory environments due to the required x-ray physics knowledge, specialized instrumentation and computational analyses. We have developed a prototype instrument that automates both the physical measurement and subsequent image analysis to determine the MTF, noise power spectrum (NPS) and DQE of radiographic and mammographic systems. The instrument is placed in the x-ray path directly in front of the detector. A series of images are acquired, saved in "raw" DICOM format and then used to determine the MTF (using the slanted-edge method) and NPS. The number of incident quanta is calculated from measurements of the incident exposure including corrections for air temperature and pressure and ionization chamber spectral response. The primary sources of error are backscatter from the detector and scatter generated within the instrument. These have been minimized to achieve an incident exposure measurement within 2% of a calibrated electrometer and chamber in free space. The MTF and DQE of a commercial CsI-based flat-panel detector were measured over a range of incident exposures from 20 uR to 20 mR per image. Results agreed with both our own laboratory measurements and previously published measurements performed elsewhere with a similar detector within 2% for the MTF and 5% for the DQE. A complete DQE analysis of a clinical digital flat-panel detector is completed in 30 minutes and requires no system modifications.

Cunningham, I. A.; Lazarev, S.; Sattarivand, M.; Jankovic, N. D.

2007-03-01

391

A systematic review of instruments that measure attitudes toward homosexual men.  

PubMed

Scientific interest in the measurement of homophobia and internalized homophobia has grown over the past 30 years, and new instruments and terms have emerged. To help researchers with the challenging task of identifying appropriate measures for studies in sexual-minority health, we reviewed measures of homophobia published in the academic literature from 1970 to 2012. Instruments that measured attitudes toward male homosexuals/homosexuality or measured homosexuals' internalized attitudes toward homosexuality were identified using measurement manuals and a systematic review. A total of 23 instruments met criteria for inclusion, and their features were summarized and compared. All 23 instruments met minimal criteria for adequate scale construction, including scale development, sampling, reliability, and evidence of validity. Validity evidence was diverse and was categorized as interaction with gay men, HIV/AIDS variables, mental health, and conservative religious or political beliefs. Homophobia was additionally correlated with authoritarianism and bias, gender ideology, gender differences, and reactions to homosexual stimuli. Internalized homophobia was validated by examining relationships with disclosing one's homosexuality and level of homosexual identity development. We hope this review will make the process of instrument selection more efficient by allowing researchers to easily locate, evaluate, and choose the proper measure based on their research question and population of interest. PMID:23480076

Grey, Jeremy A; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Coleman, Eli; Bockting, Walter O

2013-01-01

392

Improvements to NPOESS temperature and moisture sounding by combining sounder and imaging instrument data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CrIS and ATMS instruments on NPOESS will provide high quality temperature and moisture profiles greatly surpassing the capabilities of current operational satellite sounders. However, performance of these systems continues to be a challenge in cloudy scenes. The VIIRS sensor on NPOESS will provide much higher spatial resolution data than that of CrIS, with some overlap in spectral coverage. This sub-pixel information can be used to enhance the retrieval performance in a number of ways. This paper presents a potential technique to improve performance of the CrIS temperature profile retrievals by incorporating data from VIIRS. Improvements include more accurate retrievals in partly cloudy situations, better effective spatial resolution and more robust quality control diagnostics. We provide an overview of our approach and show examples utilizing data from the EOS-Aqua AIRS, AMSU and MODIS sensors.

Lynch, Richard; Richard, Craig; Snell, Hilary E.; Hogan, David B.; Huang, Allen; Hagan, Denise; Mussetto, Michael

2006-09-01

393

A new device for high precision in situ sediment temperature profile measurements at the seafloor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ sediment temperature profile measurements at the seafloor provide valuable information on fluid seepage, hydrate stability, and ambient temperature of samples. In addition, it can be convenient to approximate other parameters such as concentrations of porewater constituents from temperature or temperature gradient using transfer functions if their distribution is controlled by the same processes and direct quantification involves time-consuming sampling and laboratory analyses. We present a new instrument that can be used to obtain precisely positioned sediment temperature profile measurements from the seafloor during ROV dives. Consisting of a 0.4 m-long sensor rod equipped with eight temperature sensors and a standard data logger, the new T-Stick can be operated by an ROV in a fully autonomous mode. The temperature range of the instrument is -5 °C to 35 °C and it can withstand pressures of up to 600 bar. Compared to previously used instruments, the smaller diameter of the new T-Stick reduces the thermal inertia of the lance and results in shorter equilibration times. Virtual measurements generated by a numerical model showed that the T-Stick provides highly accurate temperature profile measurements with a root mean square error of 0.0027 K for a wide range of thermal sediment properties. Modeled temperature gradients are representative of both normal deep sea settings and cold seep environments with elevated temperature gradients of up to three orders of magnitude above normal background values, which are the primary target areas for T-Stick measurements. Deviations from the true in situ temperature profiles are caused by disturbance of the temperature field by the probe itself and may lead to underestimation of gradients and curvature in the profiles. A first field test of the T-Stick was conducted at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano at 1250 m water depth on the Barents Sea slope, where the new instrument provided useful information about the origin and extent of freshly erupted mud.

Feseker, T.; Wetzel, G.; Heesemann, B.

2012-04-01

394

Assessment of Customer Service in Academic Health Care Libraries (ACSAHL): an instrument for measuring customer service*†  

PubMed Central

Objectives: In a pilot study, the library had good results using SERVQUAL, a respected and often-used instrument for measuring customer satisfaction. The SERVQUAL instrument itself, however, received some serious and well-founded criticism from the respondents to our survey. The purpose of this study was to test the comparability of the results of SERVQUAL with a revised and shortened instrument modeled on SERVQUAL. The revised instrument, the Assessment of Customer Service in Academic Health Care Libraries (ACSAHL), was designed to better assess customer service in academic health care libraries. Methods: Surveys were sent to clients who had used the document delivery services at three academic medical libraries in Texas over the previous twelve to eighteen months. ACSAHL surveys were sent exclusively to clients at University of Texas (UT) Southwestern, while the client pools at the two other institutions were randomly divided and provided either SERVQUAL or ACSAHL surveys. Results: Results indicated that more respondents preferred the shorter ACSAHL instrument to the longer and more complex SERVQUAL instrument. Also, comparing the scores from both surveys indicated that ACSAHL elicited comparable results. Conclusions: ACSAHL appears to measure the same type of data in similar settings, but additional testing is recommended both to confirm the survey's results through data replication and to investigate whether the instrument applies to different service areas.

Crossno, Jon E.; Berkins, Brenda; Gotcher, Nancy; Hill, Judith L.; McConoughey, Michelle; Walters, Mitchel

2001-01-01

395

Temperature measurement on and inside lamps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of thermography within the lamp manufacturing industry can improve the quality of many types of lamps ranging from normal incandescent lamps to highly specialized lamps for sports arenas, airports or small lamps for cars. There is a strong demand for more light for the same energy input. Specialized lamps for all possible purposes are developed. But it also forces the lamp manufacturers to utilize the available materials to their extremes. The exact control of the temperatures inside or on the lamp shell has therefore become increasingly necessary as temperatures in lamps can be rather extreme. In plasma lamps for example, the plasma can have a temperature of 6000 C, the bulb around 700 C and the electrodes inside the bulb can have temperatures in excess of 2000 C. Thermographic methods have shown their applicability for a large number of measurement cases. Some of these methods and measurement cases are described. As these applications put very special demands on the measurement equipment, these demands are explained in more detail.

Wallin, Bo

1994-03-01

396

Breadboard model of the SIDRA instrument designed for the measurement of charged particle fluxes in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report delves into the concept of the SIDRA instrument designed for the measurement of energetic fluxes of charged particles in space. It also presents the preliminary laboratory tests results of the breadboard model electronic units. The SIDRA instrument consists of a detector head made of high purity silicon and high performance scintillation detectors, analog and digital signal processing units, and it also includes a secondary power supply module. Preliminary results of Monte Carlo instrument simulation using the CERN GEANT4 tool are presented and the measured key specifications of charge-to-voltage converters, shapers and peak detectors are discussed. Finally, the performance of the digital processing unit with its software and the parameters of the instrument breadboard model, in particular mass, dimensions and power consumption are also presented.

Prieto, M.; Dudnik, O. V.; Sanchez, S.; Kurbatov, E. V.; Timakova, T. G.; Tejedor, J. I. G.; Titov, K. G.

2013-04-01

397

Optical Performance of Breadboard Amon-Ra Imaging Channel Instrument for Deep Space Albedo Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AmonRa instrument, the primary payload of the international EARTHSHINE mission, is designed for measurement of deep space albedo from L1 halo orbit. We report the optical design, tolerance analysis and the optical performance of the breadborad AmonRa imaging channel instrument optimized for the mission science requirements. In particular, an advanced wavefront feedback process control technique was used for the instrumentation process including part fabrication, system alignment and integration. The measured performances for the complete breadboard system are the RMS 0.091 wave(test wavelength: 632.8 nm) in wavefront error, the ensquared energy of 61.7%(in 14 ? m) and the MTF of 35.3%(Nyquist frequency: 35.7 mm^{-1}) at the center field. These resulting optical system performances prove that the breadboard AmonRa instrument, as built, satisfies the science requirements of the EARTHSHINE mission.

Park, Won Hyun; Kim, Seonghui; Lee, Hanshin; Yi, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Min; Ham, Sun-Jung; Yoon, Jeeyeon; Kim, Sug-Whan; Yang, Ho Soon; Choi, Ki-Hyuk; Kim, Zeen Chul; Lockwood, Mike; Morris, Nigel; Tosh, Ian

2007-03-01

398

Laser Doppler instrumentation for the measurement of retinal blood flow: theory and practice.  

PubMed

The theory underlying the development of laser Doppler instrumentation for the measurement of retinal blood flow is framed in terms of (a) the enunciation of the Doppler principle; (b) the invention of the laser; and (c) the invention of the technique known as optical mixing spectroscopy. The features of the instrumentation, beginning with the first prototype in 1972 and culminating with the introduction of the Canon Laser Blood Flowmeter in 1998 are presented in detail. Results from seven separate studies reporting on the reproducibility of retinal blood flow measurements using the Canon instrument, as well as a review of 12 separate presentations made at the 2004 annual meeting of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) using the Canon instrument in studies involving retinal circulatory physiology and associated clinical research are also presented. PMID:17265797

Feke, G T

2006-01-01

399

A Self-Contained Acoustic Scintillation Instrument for Path-Averaged Measurements of Flow and Turbulence with Application to Hydrothermal Vent and Bottom Boundary Layer Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-contained acoustical scintillation instrument is described that has been used to measure flow and turbulence characteristics in two diverse oceanographic settings. This instrument is a battery-operated and internally logging acoustic propagation system that is ideally suited to monitor long-term flow and small- scale effective refractive index fluctuations. When the temperature variability dominates the acoustic scat- tering, as is the

D. di Iorio; D. Lemon; R. Chave

2005-01-01

400

Direct Temperature Measurements during Netlander Descent on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design for a platinum thermoresistance temperature sensor has been developed and tested in Earth's atmosphere and stratosphere. It will be one of the sensors equipping the scientific package ATMIS (Atmospheric and Meteorology Instrument System), which will be devoted to the measurement of the meteorological parameters during both the entry/descent phase and the surface phase, aboard the Netlanders. In particular vertical profiles of temperature, density and pressure will allow the resolution of vertical gradients to investigate the atmospheric structure and dynamics. In view of the future missions to Mars, Netlander represents a unique chance to increase significantly the climate record both in time and in space, doubling the current knowledge of the atmospheric parameters. Furthermore is the only opportunity to conduct direct measurement of temperature and pressure (outside the boundary layer of the airbags used for the landing). The temperature sensor proposed is a platinum thermoresistance, enhancement of HASI TEM (Cassini/Huygens Mission); a substantial improvement of the performances, i.e. a faster dynamic response, has been obtained. Two different prototypes of new design sensor have been built, laboratory test are proceeding and the second one has been already flown aboard a stratospheric balloon.

Colombatti, G.; Angrilli, F.; Ferri, F.; Francesconi, A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Lion Stoppato, P. F.; Saggi, B.

1999-09-01

401

The use of patient-specific measurement instruments in the process of goal-setting: a systematic review of available instruments and their feasibility.  

PubMed

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the currently available patient-specific measurement instruments used in the process of goal-setting and to assess their feasibility. Methods: After a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and REHABDATA, patient-specific instruments were included, structured in a goal-setting practice framework and subjected to a qualitative thematic analysis of feasibility. Results: A total of 25 patient-specific instruments were identified and 11 were included. These instruments can be used for goal negotiation, goal-setting and evaluation. Each instrument has its own strengths and weaknesses during the different phases of the goal-setting process. Objective feasibility data were revealed for all instruments such as administration time, instruction, training and availability. Subjective feasibility could only be analysed for the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Goal Attainment Scaling, Self-Identified Goal Assessment and Talking Mats. Relevant themes were that Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and Goal Attainment Scaling were time consuming and difficult for patients with cognitive problems, but they facilitated goal-setting in a client-centred approach. Talking Mats was especially feasible for patients with cognitive and communication impairments. Conclusions: A total of 11 instruments were identified, and although some had strong points, there is no single good instrument that can be recommended specifically. Applying a combination of the strengths of the available instruments within a goal-setting framework can improve goal setting and tailor it to individual patients. PMID:23881336

Stevens, Anita; Beurskens, Anna; Köke, Albère; van der Weijden, Trudy

2013-07-23

402

Application of IR imaging during temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) system, temperatures are measured by thermocouples under the sample and reference furnaces. TMDSC helps to accurately measure temperature during a DSC measurement. It also helps the researcher to establish a more realistic model to calculate heat capacity of various materials. This study examined assumption of temperature gradient in TMDSC characterization. An infrared camera was used to obtain surface temperature maps of DSC cells during temperature sweeps. TMDSC units from Perkin-Elmer and TA Instrument were studied using different heating and cooling rates. Temperature gradient exists between the top and bottom of the sample. IR images showed that temperature distributions within the sample and reference cells exist. Phase lags between the top and bottom temperatures were also observed.

Wang, Hsin; Pyda, M.; Androsch, R.; Wunderlich, Bernhard

2002-03-01

403

Measurement of ground reaction forces using unobtrusive, on-athlete instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to investigate the measurement and characterization of ground reaction force transmitted through the foot-shoe-ground interface during the course of athletic activity (e.g running) from unobtrusive, on-athlete instrumentation. Both contact (in-shoe load) and non-contact (centre of mass acceleration) forms of sensory means to evaluate ground reaction force, are under investigation. Instrumentation has been developed to

D. C. Billing; J. P. Hayes; E. C. Harvey; J. Baker

2004-01-01

404

DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES TO DETECT AND MEASURE PARTICULATES  

SciTech Connect

In this quarter, we have constructed the first field deployable PM measurement system. This system is retrofit from the system that we designed and tested in the lab, and by adding light blocking covers and rugged electronic boxes, we are now ready to test the instrument in our industrial collaborator's site with real engines. We have also collected tons of data on standard PM particles with our lab instrument.

Sheng Wu; Steve Palm; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard III

2004-07-31

405

Development and Psychometric Validation of a Brief Instrument to Measure Satisfaction with Online Training  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, health care institutions are increasingly challenged with the need for perennial workforce training and documentation for regulatory compliance. Hence, more and more institutions are looking at online training solutions to train their workforce. We developed and validated a brief instrument designed to measure user satisfaction with online training. We present the results of psychometric analysis of our instrument that was validated in an online HIPAA training course by over 13,000 employees of our integrated delivery network.

Avital, Michel; Atreja, Ashish; Mehta, Neil; Jain, Anil

2005-01-01

406

A Virtual Instrument for the Measurement of IEEE Std. 1459-2000 Power Quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors present a PC-based instrument for the measurement of electrical-power quantities defined in IEEE Std. 1459. The instrument is based on a time-domain technique for the detection of the fundamental and harmonic components of voltages and currents. The time-domain strategy was originally developed by the authors for three-phase, three-wire systems. In that paper, the strategy had

Antonio Cataliotti; Valentina Cosentino; Salvatore Nuccio

2008-01-01

407

An InterComparison of Instruments Measuring Black Carbon Content of Soot Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter-comparison studies of well-characterized fractal soot particles were conducted using the following four instruments: Aerosol Mass Spectrometer-Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (AMS-SMPS), Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP), and Photoacoustic Spectrometer (PAS). These instruments provided measurements of the refractory mass (AMS-SMPS), incandescent mass (SP2) and optically absorbing mass (MAAP and PAS). The particles studied were in the mobility

Jay G. Slowik; Eben S. Cross; Jeong-Ho Han; Paul Davidovits; Timothy B. Onasch; John T. Jayne; Leah R. Williams; Manjula R. Canagaratna; Douglas R. Worsnop; Rajan K. Chakrabarty; Hans Moosmüller; William P. Arnott; Joshua P. Schwarz; Ru-Shan Gao; David W. Fahey; Gregory L. Kok; Andreas Petzold

2007-01-01

408

Time-series Temperature Measurement on Regions of Interest during Stir-fry Cooking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cookery science, it is already known that the application of heat contributes flavors, which improve palatability. Instruments for measuring temperature include a thermocouple. However, they cannot measure a temperature difference during cooking because of cook's motions. Therefore, we suggest a non-contact temperature measuring system by using a unit constituted by a visible and an infrared thermographic camera. In this study, we focus on the time-series temperature of a pan and of ingredients inside the pan in order to analyze quantitatively stir-fry cooking techniques.

Nakazawa, Mitsuru; Akasaka, Rie; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

409

A Narrow-band Multispectral Instrument for the Measurement of Low Density Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2001, a team of scientists and engineers from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, at the request of NASA Headquarters, lead a planning activity for future studies of the sources, sinks, and transport of carbon in the atmosphere, on land, and in the oceans. One outcome of this study was a survey of critical gaps in our current measurement suite and identification of the types of instruments that could provide this missing information. Estimating biomass in ecosystems dominated by vegetation of short-stature (< 5 m), such as grasslands and shrub lands, was one of the gaps identified. An instrument with multiple narrow bands in the visible and near infrared was one possibility for filling this gap. In addition, such an instrument might prove helpful in conjunction with lidar measurements for characterizing high density biomass ecosystems such as tropical and boreal forest. A summary of the study and the basis for the recommendations will be presented. The characteristics of a low density biomass instrument, including measurement specifications and considerations, design alternatives including full VNIR and SWIR spectral coverage, and possible spacecraft accommodations, will be discussed. One or more aircraft versions of this type of instrument could be flown as part of the North American Carbon Program's field campaign. This could test the current specifications and design alternatives, thereby helping to guide selection of the best approach for a possible spaceborne instrument, as well as provide valuable information for the campaign itself.

Gervin, J. C.; Knox, R. G.; Hall, F. G.; McClain, C. R.; Caruso, P. S.

2002-12-01

410

Thermoluminescence measurement technique using millisecond temperature pulses.  

PubMed

A measurement technique, pulsed thermoluminescence, is described which uses short thermal pulses to excite trapped carriers leading to radiative recombination. The pulses are obtained using microstructures with approximately 500 micros thermal time constants. The technique has many of the advantages of pulsed optically stimulated luminescence without the need for optical sources and filters to isolate the luminescent signal. Charge carrier traps in alpha-Al(2)O(3):C particles on microheaters were filled using 205 nm light. Temperature pulses of 10 and 50 ms were applied to the heaters and compared with a standard thermoluminescence curve taken at a ramp rate of 5 K s(-1). This produced curves of intensity verses temperature similar to standard thermoluminescence except shifted to higher temperatures. The luminescence of single particles was read multiple times with negligible loss of population. The lower limit of the duration of useful pulses appears to be limited by particle size and thermal contact between the particle and heater. PMID:20522565

Manfred, Michael E; Gabriel, Nicholas T; Yukihara, Eduardo G; Talghader, Joseph J

2010-06-01

411

Infrared measurements of stratospheric composition. I - The balloon instrument and water vapour measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and construction of a balloon-borne instrument for remote-sensing of stratospheric composition is described. Thermal emission from the constituents is detected and the spectral selectivity of the instrument is tailored to a specific gas by the use of a cell of the same gas in the optical path of the radiometer. The pressure of the gas in the cell

C. P. Chaloner; J. R. Drummond; J. T. Houghton; H. K. Roscoe; R. F. Jarnot

1978-01-01

412

Development of a Multi-Point Pyrometer System (MPPS) for measuring surface temperature and emissivity  

SciTech Connect

In support of the US DOE MHD research program, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) has been actively engaged in developing and applying advanced optical diagnostic techniques and instrumentation systems to high temperature coal-fired gas streams for over a decade. One of the earliest diagnostic systems developed by DIAL was a two color pyrometer (TCP). In this system, two commercial single-color pyrometers and a microprocessor system were used to form a TCP which can make accurate measurements of surfaces of unknown emissivity and temperature. This system has been used extensively to make measurements in support of the national MHD program. This report describes this system.

Benton, R.D.; Jang, Ping-Rey

1993-06-01

413

Comparison between UV index measurements performed by research-grade and consumer-products instruments.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, skin cancer and other related diseases are not just subjects of scientific literature. Nowadays, these themes are also discussed on television, newspapers and magazines for the general public. Consequently, the interest in prevention of sun overexposure is increasing, as the knowledge of photoprotection methods and UVR levels. The ultraviolet index (UVI) is a well-known tool recommended by the World Health Organization to avoid harmful effects of UV sunlight. UVI forecasts are provided by many national meteorological services, but local UVI measurements can provide a more realistic and appropriate evaluation of UVR levels. Indeed, as scientific instruments are very expensive and difficult to manipulate, several manufacturers and retail shops offer cheap and simple non-scientific instruments for UVI measurements, sometimes included in objects of everyday life, such as watches, outfits and hand-held instruments. In this work, we compare measurements provided by several commercial non-scientific instruments with data provided by a Bentham spectrometer, a very accurate sensor used for UV measurements. Results show that only a few of the instruments analyzed provide trustworthy UVI measurements. PMID:20354638

Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haeffelin, Martial; Brogniez, Colette; Verschaeve, Franck; Saiag, Philippe; Pazmiño, Andrea; Mahé, Emmanuel

2010-04-01

414

Wireless sensor for temperature and humidity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature and humidity sensors have a broad range of applications, from heating and ventilation of houses to controlled drying of fruits, vegetables or meat in food industry. Modern sensors are integrated devices, usually MEMS, factory-calibrated and with digital output of measured parameters. They can have power down modes for reduced energy consumption. Such an integrated device allows the implementation of a battery powered wireless sensor when coupled with a low power microcontroller and a radio subsystem. A radio sensor can work independently or together with others in a radio network. Presented paper focuses mainly on measurement and construction aspects of sensors for temperature and humidity designed and implemented by authors; network aspects (communication between two or more sensors) are not analyzed.

Drumea, Andrei; Svasta, Paul

2010-09-01

415

Temperature Measurement of Isentropically Accelerated Flyer Plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two frequently-used methods to accelerate flyer plates to extreme velocity (>10 km\\/s) are magnetic acceleration and impact of the flyer with a high velocity, layered impactor. In either case the temperature of the flyer is not definitely known, either because of diffusion of the magnetic field into the flyer or the quasi-isentropic nature of the impactor's acceleration. We have measured

Thomas Bergstresser; Steven Becker

2002-01-01

416

[Measurements of quality of life, construction and validation of an instrument].  

PubMed

Developing and validating an instrument to measure quality of life is a complexundertaking. The main stages of such a process extend from the creation of a tool through conceptual, qualitative and quantitative phases to the main notions relating to its validation: reliability and validity of the measurement, sensitivity to changes. PMID:22145435

Leplège, Alain

2011-10-01

417

Design and application of an instrumented projectile for load measurements during impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

No standardised device is available yet to measure contact forces continuously during transverse impacts caused by a projectile on a metal plate or a thin-walled structure. This study describes the design and validation phases of an instrumented projectile (mass = 1 kg) that can be used to achieve such measurements. The impact force, indeed, is computed from the strain data

Bertrand Galpin; Vincent Grolleau; Stefan Umiastowski; Gérard Rio; Laurent Mahéo

2008-01-01

418

DSP Based Portable Impedance Measurement Instrument Using Sine-Fitting Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and implementation of a digital signal processor (DSP) based portable impedance measurement instrument is described in this paper. The circuit sinewave stimulus is generated by the device using a direct digital synthesizer at the desired measurement frequency. The sine is applied to a reference impedance in series with the unknown impedance. Two analog to digital converters (ADCs) acquire

T. Radii; P. M. Ramos; A. Cruz Serra

2005-01-01

419

Negotiating Measurement: Methodological and Interpersonal Considerations in the Choice and Interpretation of Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sound evaluation planning requires numerous decisions about how constructs in a program theory will be translated into measures and instruments that produce evaluation data. This article, the first in a dialogue exchange, examines how decisions about measurement are (and should be) made, especially in the context of small-scale local program…

Braverman, Marc T.

2013-01-01

420

Development of an Instrument to Measure Enjoyment of Computer Game Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the development of an instrument designed to measure the enjoyment of computer game play. Despite the enormous technological progress in the field of computer games, enjoyment of computer game play is still not a well-defined construct. Based on Nabi and Krcmar's (2004) tripartite model of media enjoyment, a survey questionnaire was developed to measure computer game

Xiaowen Fang; Susy S. Chan; Jacek Brzezinski; Chitra Nair

2010-01-01

421

Modification, Calibration and a Field Test of an Instrument for Measuring Light Absorption by Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A filter-based single-wavelength photometer (Particle Soot Absorption Photometer, PSAP) for measuring light absorption by aerosols was modified to measure at three wavelengths, 467 nm, 530 nm, and 660 nm. The modified and an unmodified photometer were calibrated during the Reno Aerosol Optics Study (RAOS) 2002 against two absorption standards: a photoacoustic instrument and the difference between the extinction and scattering

Aki Virkkula; Norman C. Ahlquist; William P. Arnott; Patrick J. Sheridan; Patricia K. Quinn; Derek J. Coffman

2005-01-01

422

Complete velocity distribution in river cross-sections measured by acoustic instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To fully understand the hydraulic properties of natural rivers, velocity distribution in the river cross-section should be studied in detail. The measurement task is not straightforward because there is not an instrument that can measure the velocity distribution covering the entire cross-section. Particularly the velocities in regions near the free surface and in the bottom boundary layer are difficult to

Ralph T. Cheng; Jeffrey W. Gartner

2003-01-01

423

A Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Dimensionality Assessment for Measurement Instruments Modeled by Multidimensional Item Response Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The statistical assessment of dimensionality provides evidence of the underlying constructs measured by a survey or test instrument. This study focuses on educational measurement, specifically tests comprised of items described as multidimensional. That is, items that require examinee proficiency in multiple content areas and/or multiple…

Toro, Maritsa

2011-01-01

424

The Design of a Portable ECG Measurement Instrument Based on a GBA Embedded System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computer, medical equipment, and facilities often required for traditional electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements and displays usually bear some shortcomings, such as bulkiness, inconvenience in carrying around, high cost, and so forth. Based on embedded system architecture, this paper proposes a new design for an ECG measurement instrument and investigates the feasibility of such new design. Our system design adopts a

Jia-Ren Chang Chien; Cheng-Chi Tai

2006-01-01

425

10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the... Records § 35.2060 Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the...shall maintain a record of instrument calibrations required by § 35.60 for 3...

2013-01-01

426

A gas chromatographic instrument for measurement of hydrogen cyanide in the lower atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is thought to be a unique, long lived atmospheric tracer for biomass burning emissions. Very few in-situ measurements of HCN have been made at Earth’s surface to date, yet they are critically needed to better evaluate the processes governing the distribution of HCN in the global atmosphere and to assess contributions of biomass burning to the composition and chemistry of ambient air. We developed a gas-chromatographic (GC) instrument with an aim to improve capabilities for measurement of HCN in the lower atmosphere. The main features of the instrument are (1) a cryogen-free cooler for sample dehumidification and enrichment, (2) a porous polymer PLOT column for analyte separation, (3) a flame thermionic detector (FTD) for sensitive and selective detection and (4) a dynamic dilution system for calibration. The instrument was deployed for a ~4 month period from January-June, 2010 at the AIRMAP atmospheric monitoring station Thompson Farm 2 (THF2) in rural Durham, New Hampshire, USA. A subset of the measurements will be presented with a detailed description of the instrument features and performance characteristics. The results demonstrate that the instrument is capable of making long term in-situ measurements of HCN in the lower atmosphere.

Ambrose, J. L.; Zhou, Y.; Haase, K.; Mayne, H. R.; Talbot, R. W.; Sive, B. C.

2010-12-01

427

Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

The validation of a service life of 20 years for low-cost photovoltaic arrays must be accomplished through accelerated life-prediction tests. A methodology for such tests has been developed in a preceding study. The results discussed consist of the initial identification and assessment of all known measurement techniques and instruments that might be used in these life-prediction tests. Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories--chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and ''other physicals''. Using specified evaluation criteria, the most promising techniques and instruments for use in life-prediction tests of arrays are then selected. These recommended techniques and their characteristics are described. Recommendations are made regarding establishment of the adequacy, particularly with respect to precision, of the more fully developed techniques for this application, and regarding the experimental evaluation of promising developmental techniques. Measurement needs not satisfied by presently available techniques/instruments are also identified.

Noel, G.T.; Sliemers, F.A.; Deringer, G.C.; Wood, V.E.; Wilkes, K.E.; Gaines, G.B.; Carmichael, D.C.

1978-01-15

428

Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.

1992-09-01

429

DURIP/ARO Program on Time-Resolved Pressure-Measurement Instrumentation for High-Strain Rate Materials Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this program, advanced diagnostic instrumentation was developed for time-resolved pressure measurements for experimentation involving materials synthesis by shock-compression of powders and their mixtures. The instrumentation has been developed with th...

K. Vandersall N. N. Thadhani R. Russell

1996-01-01

430

An Instrument for the Measurement of Spectral Attenuation Coefficient and Narrow Angle Volume Scattering Function of Ocean Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new instrument has been developed for the study of those optical properties of ocean water that affect the transmission of image-forming light. The instrument performs simultaneous measurements of the volume attenuation coefficient and the volume scatte...

R. W. Austin T. J. Petzold

1975-01-01

431

A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 {mu}N. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2009-05-15

432

Reflectances from a supercontinuum laser-based instrument: hyperspectral, polarimetric and angular measurements.  

PubMed

Recent developments of active hyperspectral systems require optical characterization of man-made materials for instrument calibration. This work presents an original supercontinuum laser-based instrument designed by Onera, The French Aerospace Lab, for fast hyperspectral polarimetric and angular reflectances measurements. The spectral range is from 480 nm to 1000 nm with a 1 nm spectral resolution. Different polarization configurations are made possible in whole spectrum. This paper reviews the design and the calibration of the instrument. Hyper-spectral polarimetric and angular reflectances are measured for reference and man-made materials such as paint coatings. Physical properties of reflectances as positivity, energy conservation and Helmholtz reciprocity are retrieved from measurements. PMID:23388769

Ceolato, Romain; Riviere, Nicolas; Hespel, Laurent

2012-12-31

433

High temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistance measurement system for thermoelectric materials in the thin disk geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A versatile apparatus to measure the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient and the resistivity of bulk samples shaped as disks or thin plates, over a temperature range of 300 K-620 K with possible extension to higher temperatures, is presented. It is constructed from readily available equipment and instrumentation with parts that are easily manufactured. The Seebeck coefficient is measured over an average region of the sample under steady-state conditions. The sample resistance is measured using a four-point alternating current method and scaled to room temperature measurements with known geometry to calculate resistivity. A variety of sample shapes are supported. Most importantly, the support of the thin disk geometry allows for the very same samples to be used in a laser flash instrument. The design allows for rough vacuum, high vacuum, or purging with inert gases in the sample chamber. Measurements on thermoelectric ZnSb and a Ni reference material are presented.

Böttger, P. H. Michael; Flage-Larsen, E.; Karlsen, O. B.; Finstad, Terje G.

2012-02-01

434

An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of `potential` uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

Gregory, G.L.; Davis, D.D.; Beltz, N.; Bandy, A.R.; Ferek, R.J.; Thornton, D.C. [NASA, Langely Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)]|[Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)]|[J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany)]|[Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1993-12-01

435

Design of a surface deformation measuring instrument for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE-2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This final technical report covers the work accomplished (under NAG3-1300) from 1 October 1991 to 1 October 1993. The grant is a direct result of Dr. H. Philip Stahl's (of Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology) participation in the NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program at NASA Lewis Research Center sponsored by Case Western Reserve University and the Ohio Aerospace Institute. The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a fundamental fluid physics experiment designed to provide quantitative data on the thermocapillary flow of fluid under the influence of an increased localized surface temperature. STDCE flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia in the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) in June 1992. The second flight of this experiment (STDCE-2) is scheduled for 1995. The specific science objectives of STDCE-2 are to determine the extent and nature of thermocapillary flows, the effect of heating mode and level, the effect of the liquid free-surface shape, and the onset conditions for and nature of oscillatory flows. In order to satisfy one of these objectives, an instrument for measuring the shape of an air/oil free surface must be developed.

Stahl, H. Philip

1993-12-01

436

Ground-Based Millimeterwave Instrument for Measurement of Stratospheric Cio Using a Superconductive (Sis) Receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1997, Nagoya University and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) started a joint research project to develop a high-sensitivity ground-based millimeter-wave receiver capable of detecting thermal emission from the rotational lines of chlorine monoxide (CIO) and other constituents in the stratosphere. We have already constructed ozone sensors at 110 GHz employing an SIS receiver. In this project, we shall develop a 200-300 GHz SIS receiver system. The receiver noise temperature at 230 GHz is expected to be better than 50 K in single sideband. In 1999, we will install this instrument at Las Campanas Observatory at an altitude of ~2400 m (29°S, 71°W) in Chile. This project is a first dedicated effort to measure O3, CIO and other constituents in South America where the polar vortex in the Antarctic sometimes tends to move away from the South Pole, and this study should be able to provide valuable information on their behavior, giving us a better understanding of the mechanism of O3 depletion in the mid-latitude region of southern hemisphere

Fukui, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Xiao, K. C.; Iwasaka, Y.; Nakane, H.; Nagahama, T.

437

Investigation of potential factors affecting the measurement of dew point temperature in oil-soaked transformers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moisture within a transformer's insulation system has been proven to degrade its dielectric strength. When installing a transformer in situ, one method used to calculate the moisture content of the transformer insulation is to measure the dew point temperature of the internal gas volume of the transformer tank. There are two instruments commercially available that are designed for dew point temperature measurement: the Alnor Model 7000 Dewpointer and the Vaisala DRYCAPRTM Hand-Held Dewpoint Meter DM70. Although these instruments perform an identical task, the design technology behind each instrument is vastly different. When the Alnor Dewpointer and Vaisala DM70 instruments are used to measure the dew point of the internal gas volume simultaneously from a pressurized transformer, their differences in dew point measurement have been observed to vary as much as 30 °F. There is minimal scientific research available that focuses on the process of measuring dew point of a gas inside a pressurized transformer, let alone this observed phenomenon. The primary objective of this work was to determine what effect certain factors potentially have on dew point measurements of a transformer's internal gas volume, in hopes of understanding the root cause of this phenomenon. Three factors that were studied include (1) human error, (2) the use of calibrated and out-of-calibration instruments, and (3) the presence of oil vapor gases in the dry air sample, and their subsequent effects on the Q-value of the sampled gas. After completing this portion of testing, none of the selected variables proved to be a direct cause of the observed discrepancies between the two instruments. The secondary objective was to validate the accuracy of each instrument as compared to its respective published range by testing against a known dew point temperature produced by a humidity generator. In a select operating range of -22 °F to -4 °F, both instruments were found to be accurate and within their specified tolerances. This temperature range is frequently encountered in oil-soaked transformers, and demonstrates that both instruments can measure accurately over a limited, yet common, range despite their different design methodologies. It is clear that there is another unknown factor present in oil-soaked transformers that is causing the observed discrepancy between these instruments. Future work will include testing on newly manufactured or rewound transformers in order to investigate other variables that could be causing this discrepancy.

Kraus, Adam H.

438

Accuracy of junction temperature measurement in silicon power transistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports experimental measurements of junction temperature obtained by various electrical and thermal methods. Electrical measurements were based on temperature-sensitive junction parameters including pulse sampling of CCBFand VBE, steady state hFE, and pulsed ?VCBF. Direct measurement of peak junction temperature was made using an infrared microradiometer. Junction temperature measurements were obtained as a function of device operating conditions, since

H. R. Plumlee; D. A. Peterman

1966-01-01

439

High-temperature optical fiber instrumentation for gas flow monitoring in gas turbine engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the design and testing of gas turbine engines, real-time data about such physical variables as temperature, pressure and acoustics are of critical importance. The high temperature environment experienced in the engines makes conventional electronic sensors devices difficult to apply. Therefore, there is a need for innovative sensors that can reliably operate under the high temperature conditions and with the desirable resolution and frequency response. A fiber optic high temperature sensor system for dynamic pressure measurement is presented in this paper. This sensor is based on a new sensor technology - the self-calibrated interferometric/intensity-based (SCIIB) sensor, recently developed at Virginia Tech. State-of-the-art digital signal processing (DSP) methods are applied to process the signal from the sensor to acquire high-speed frequency response.

Roberts, Adrian; May, Russell G.; Pickrell, Gary R.; Wang, Anbo

2002-02-01

440

An efficient, accurate and robust radiometer configuration for microwave temperature measurement for industrial and medical applications.  

PubMed

The theoretical and practical design of a type of microwave radiometer particularly suited to industrial and medical temperature measurement is described. The use of sequential switching of source and reference signals with synchronous demodulation of switched signal components gives an efficient and robust instrument configuration. The radiometer measures the true, matched-impedance effective temperature of the coupled source. Changes in noise-figure, gain or frequency response of the radiometer microwave amplification do not affect the temperature measurement. Practical microwave radiometers using this configuration can be simply calibrated, and have inherently stable calibration and excellent accuracy. PMID:11837048

Land, D V

2001-01-01