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1

Learning Remote Temperature Measurement in Instrumentation Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our paper we present a laboratory temperature measuring system that can be remotely accessed by Internet. The system is based on the DS18B20 and DS1822 digital temperature sensors controlled with the aid of a microcontroller board PCB80c552. The system is used to measure and monitor the temperature in different places inside a computer. Using a web browser we can

L. Breniuc; C. G. Hab; A. Salceanu

2

Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pseudo-Brewster angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster angle radiometer would exploit the spectral emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation.

Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

2002-01-01

3

Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pseudo-Brewster-angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster-angle radiometer would exploit the spectral-emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation. The relevant emissivity and polarization characteristics are the following: . The Brewster angle is the angle at which light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence on a purely dielectric material is not reflected. The pseudo-Brewster angle, defined for a lossy dielectric (somewhat electrically conductive) material, is the angle for which the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is minimized. For pure water, the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is only 2.2 x 10(exp -4) at its pseudo- Brewster angle of 51deg. The reflectivity remains near zero, several degrees off from the 51deg optimum, allowing this angle of incidence requirement to be easily achieved. . The wavelength range of interest for measuring water temperatures is 8 to 12 microns. The emissivity of water for parallel- polarized light at the pseudo-Brewster angle is greater than 0.999 in this wavelength range. The radiometer would be sensitive in the wavelength range of 8 to 12 microns, would be equipped with a polarizer to discriminate against infrared light polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and would be aimed toward a body of water at the pseudo- Brewster angle (see figure). Because the infrared radiation entering the radiometer would be polarized parallel to the plane of incidence and because very little downwelling parallel-polarized radiation would be reflected into the radiometer on account of the pseudo-Brewster arrangement, the radiation received by the radiometer would consist almost entirely of thermal emission from the surface of the water. Because the emissivity of the water would be very close to 1, the water could be regarded as a close approximation of a blackbody for the purpose of computing its surface temperature from the radiometer measurements by use of the Planck radiation law.

Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

2003-01-01

4

A Measuring Instrument for Multipoint Soil Temperature Underground  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new measuring instrument for 10 points soil temperatures in 0-50 centimeters depth underground was designed. System was\\u000a based on Silicon Laboratories’ MCU C8051F310, single chip digital temperature sensor DS18B20, and other peripheral circuits.\\u000a It was simultaneously able to measure, memory and display, and also convey data to computer via a standard RS232 interface.

Cheng Wang; Chunjiang Zhao; Xiaojun Qiao; Zhilong Xu

2007-01-01

5

Instrument accurately measures small temperature changes on test surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calorimeter apparatus accurately measures very small temperature rises on a test surface subjected to aerodynamic heating. A continuous thin sheet of a sensing material is attached to a base support plate through which a series of holes of known diameter have been drilled for attaching thermocouples to the material.

Harvey, W. D.; Miller, H. B.

1966-01-01

6

Temperature field of the instrument for measuring the yield stress of magnetorheological fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the temperature distribution of the instrument for measuring yield stress of magnetorheolo gical fluid and the influence rule of deformation caused by temperature on the magnetic field between disks, on the basis of thermal conduction theory, the temperature field and deformation of disks is studied by the finite element method, the results indicate that the temperature increases along

Zuzhi Tian; Youfu Hou; Nannan Wang

2011-01-01

7

Calibration and Instrumental Errors in Early Measurements of Air Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calibration and instrumental errors of early thermometers are analysed. The first concepts, the development of scientific ideas, the main problems linked to the construction of early thermometers and the calibration are considered in order to evaluate errors. The operating principle of the `constant-volume' air thermometer is presented andits limits are discussed. The theory shows that for an ideal Amontons' thermometer,

Dario Camuffo; Corso Stati Uniti

2002-01-01

8

Measurement of Radioactivity and Temperature in Narrow Boreholes, and the Development of Instruments for this Purpose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of instruments for measuring the temperature and radioactivity in boreholes under special conditions encountered in South Africa is described. Special mention is made of size considerations and making the instruments self-contained so as to enable a single insulated wire to be used for hoisting purposes.

R. Guelke; J. C. R. Heydenrych; F. Anderson

1949-01-01

9

An instrument for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids at high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrument based on the line source method has been developed for the measurement of the thermal conductivities of liquids at high temperatures. The AC technique adopted utilizes a novel transformer bridge to provide the complete ground isolation needed for high temperature measurements. The method is used as a relative technique to minimize 'end effects', and used in this manner

J. S. Powell

1991-01-01

10

Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project during this semi-annual reporting period are to test the effects of coating layer of the thermal couple on the temperature measurement and to screen out the significant factors affecting the temperature reading under different operational conditions. The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray coated thermal couples were completed in this reporting period. The comparison tests of coated and uncoated thermal couples were conducted under various operational conditions. The temperature changes were recorded and the temperature differences were calculated to describe the thermal spray coating effect on the thermal couples. To record the temperature data accurately, the computerized data acquisition system (DAS) was adopted to the temperature reading. The DAS could record the data with the accuracy of 0.1 C and the recording parameters are configurable. In these experiments, DAS was set as reading one data for every one (1) minute. The operational conditions are the combination of three parameters: air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and the amount of fine dust particles. The results from the temperature readings show the temperature of uncoated thermal couple is uniformly higher than that of coated thermal couple for each operational condition. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was computed based on the results from systematic tests to screen out the significant factors and/or interactions. The temperature difference was used as dependent variable and three operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and amount of fine dust particle) were used as independent factors. The ANOVA results show that the operational parameters are not the statistically significant factors affecting the temperature readings which indicate that the coated thermal couple could be applied to temperature measurement in gasifier. The actual temperature reading with the coated thermal couple in the gasification could be calibrated by a constant of temperature difference.

Seong W. Lee

2005-10-01

11

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator were conducted in this reporting period. In the systematic test, two (2) factors were considered as the experimental parameters, including air injection rate and water injection rate. Each experimental factor had two (2) levels, respectively. A special water-feeding device was designed and installed to the gasifier simulator. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results of the systematic tests. The ANOVA shows that the air injection rate did have the significant impact to the temperature measurement in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA also shows that the water injection rate did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA analysis also proves that the thermocouple assembly we proposed was immune to the moisture environment, the temperature measurement remained accurate in moisture environment. Within this reporting period, the vibration application for cleaning purpose was explored. Both ultrasonic and sub-sonic vibrations were considered. A feasibility test was conducted to prove that the thermocouple vibration did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. This feasibility test was a 2{sup 2} factorial design. Two factors including temperature levels and motor speeds were set to two levels respectively. The sub-sonic vibration tests were applied to the thermocouple to remove the concrete cover layer (used to simulate the solid condensate in gasifiers) on the thermocouple tip. It was found that both frequency and amplitude had significant impacts on removal performance of the concrete cover layer.

Seong W. Lee

2004-04-01

12

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

Seong W. Lee

2003-09-01

13

Instrument for gas permeation measurements at high pressure and high temperature.  

PubMed

An instrument was built for the permeation testing of flat polymer membranes under pressures up to 3.0 MPa and temperatures up to 300 °C. The high pressure, high temperature cell uses aluminum tape and a graphite gasket to minimize the leak from the high pressure side to the low pressure side, making possible the permeability measurements of slow diffusing gases such as N2. A computer program developed on a LabVIEW platform fully controls the instrument and data acquisition. It incorporates algorithms to automatically adjust the downstream volume, repressurize the upstream volume, vent the downstream volume to prevent over pressurization, and change the temperature of the permeation cell. The percent relative standard deviation of the permeability measurements was <5.5%. Flat membranes of VTEC PI-1388 polymer were tested from 0.3 to 3.0 MPa and from 35 to 300 °C. The permeabilities and fluxes of H2, CO2, and N2 increased with increasing temperature, while the H2?CO2 ideal selectivity remained unchanged. The major contribution to increased flux arose from increments in temperature rather than pressure. PMID:23822378

Perez, Edson V; Balkus, Kenneth J; Ferraris, John P; Musselman, Inga H

2013-06-01

14

Instrument for gas permeation measurements at high pressure and high temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrument was built for the permeation testing of flat polymer membranes under pressures up to 3.0 MPa and temperatures up to 300 °C. The high pressure, high temperature cell uses aluminum tape and a graphite gasket to minimize the leak from the high pressure side to the low pressure side, making possible the permeability measurements of slow diffusing gases such as N2. A computer program developed on a LabVIEW platform fully controls the instrument and data acquisition. It incorporates algorithms to automatically adjust the downstream volume, repressurize the upstream volume, vent the downstream volume to prevent over pressurization, and change the temperature of the permeation cell. The percent relative standard deviation of the permeability measurements was <5.5%. Flat membranes of VTEC PI-1388 polymer were tested from 0.3 to 3.0 MPa and from 35 to 300 °C. The permeabilities and fluxes of H2, CO2, and N2 increased with increasing temperature, while the H2/CO2 ideal selectivity remained unchanged. The major contribution to increased flux arose from increments in temperature rather than pressure.

Perez, Edson V.; Balkus, Kenneth J.; Ferraris, John P.; Musselman, Inga H.

2013-06-01

15

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the clean thermocouple were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the clean thermocouple, five (5) factors were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition and high/low frequency device (electric motor). The fractional factorial design method was used in the experiment design with sixteen (16) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the un-balanced motor vibration frequency did not have the significant impact on the temperature changes in the gasifier simulator. For the fine dust particles testing, the amount of fine dust particles has significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The effects of the air and water on the temperature measurements show the same results as reported in the previous report. The ammonia concentration was included as an experimental parameter for the reducing environment in this reporting period. The ammonia concentration does not seem to be a significant factor on the temperature changes. The linear regression analysis was applied to the temperature reading with five (5) factors. The accuracy of the linear regression is relatively low, which is less than 10% accuracy. Nonlinear regression was also conducted to the temperature reading with the same factors. Since the experiments were designed in two (2) levels, the nonlinear regression is not very effective with the dataset (16 readings). An extra central point test was conducted. With the data of the center point testing, the accuracy of the nonlinear regression is much better than the linear regression.

Seong W. Lee

2004-10-01

16

Remote temperature-measurement instrumentation for a heated rotating turbine disk  

SciTech Connect

Thermographic-phosphor (TP) remote temperature sensors were installed on a turbine disk and subjected to thermal and centrifugal stresses in a spin-pit test. The sensors were placed at three different radii on the disk, which was run at 6600, 9330, 11400, and 13200 rpm at nominal temperatures of ambient, 300) degree)F, 600)degree)F, 900)degree)F, and 1250)degree)F (149)degree)C, 316)degree)C, 482)degree)C, and 677)degree)C, respectively). The paper gives details of the TP temperature-measurement method, phosphor bonding to the disk, calibration, optical-system design, and electronics instrumentation. The temperatures measured by the TP sensors were compared with those measured by thermocouples mounted on the disk. A number of the thermocouples behaved erratically after we operated the disk at 677)degree)C for an extended period. Nevertheless, for those cases where they could be compared with confidence, the agreement between the TP sensors and the thermocouples was good. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Lutz, S.S.; Turley, W.D.; Borella, H.M.; Noel, B.W.; Cates, M.R.; Probert, M.R.

1988-01-01

17

Recording and Indicating Instruments for Temperature Measurements Down to 10°K Using Copper-Constantan Thermocouples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly discusses the modifications and additions to a standard instrument involved in the solution of the problems encountered in the indication and recording of temperatures as low as 10°K with CC thermocouples as the primary elements.

E. Victor Larson; Robert Mayer

1952-01-01

18

Small Cold Temperature Instrument Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a small cold temperature instrument package concept that integrates a cold temperature power system with ultra low temperature ultra low power electronics components and power supplies now under development into a ‘cold temperature surface operational’ version of a planetary surface instrument package. We are already in the process of developing a lower power lower temperature version for

P. E. Clark; P. S. Millar; P. S. Yeh; S. Feng; D. Brigham; B. Beaman

2011-01-01

19

Review of modern instrumentation for magnetic measurements at high pressure and low temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-pressure magnetic susceptibility experiments can provide insights into the changes in magnetic behavior and electric properties which can accompany extreme compressions of material. Instrumentation plays an important role in the experimental work in this field since 1990s. Here we present a comprehensive review of the high-pressure instrumentation development for magnetic measurement from the engineering perspective in the last 20 years. Suitable nonmagnetic materials for high pressure cell are introduced initially. Then we focus on the existing cells developed for magnetic property measurement system (MPMS®) SQUID magnetometer from Quantum Design (USA). Two categories of high pressure cells for this system are discussed in detail respectively. Some high pressure cells with built-in magnetic measurement system are also reviewed.

Wang, X.; Kamenev, K. V.

2014-08-01

20

A Two-Line Absorption Instrument for Scramjet Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Measurement in HYPULSE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three beam water vapor sensor system has been modified to provide for near simultaneous temperature measurement. The system employs a tunable diode laser to scan spectral line of water vapor. The application to measurements in a scramjet combustor environment of a shock tunnel facility is discussed. This report presents and discusses die initial calibration of the measurement system.

Tsai, C. Y.

1998-01-01

21

Pressure and temperature determination using oxygen bands measured by the MAESTRO instrument on SciSat-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) space instrument was successfully launched on Canada's SciSat-1 satellite in August 2003 as part of the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) payload. MAESTRO is a UV-Visible-NIR dual grating spectrometer taking solar occultation and nadir backscatter spectra of the atmosphere to investigate the dynamical and chemical processes affecting stratospheric ozone distribution. On-orbit solar occultation measurements of temperature and pressure vertical profiles are desirable for accurate retrievals of aerosols and trace gas species from the instrument, as well as for incorporation into dynamical models of the atmosphere. Molecular oxygen is vertically well-mixed in the atmosphere and radiatively active in three strong absorption bands in the visible (? band) and near-infrared (A and B bands), and can be used for temperature and pressure retrievals from orbit. While the O2 A-band is the strongest feature in this spectral region and traditionally better studied than the other bands, the MAESTRO instrument is also exploiting the B and ? bands, which are much weaker but have less saturation problems than the A-band at lower tangent heights. This paper will discuss the challenges of correctly computing the profile from these measurements using our current understanding of the band structure and the radiative transfer. Specific examples will be shown demonstrating the need for precise models of both the instrument and the atmosphere in order for this effort to succeed. Results from field-deployments of MAESTRO prototype instruments on high altitude balloons will also be discussed since comparisons can be made with independent measurements of temperature and pressure profiles from the same campaigns.

Nowlan, C. R.; McElroy, C. T.; Drummond, J. R.; Midwinter, C.

22

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

2001-08-01

23

Development of techniques and associated instrumentation for high temperature emissivity measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies were made to develop a test apparatus for the measurement of total emittance of materials under repeated exposure to simulated earth entry conditions. As no existing test facility met the emittance measurement and entry simulation goals, a new apparatus was designed, fabricated and checked out. This apparatus has the capability of performing total and spectral emittance measurements during cyclic temperature and pressure exposure under sonic and supersonic flow conditions. Emittance measurements were performed on a series of oxidized superalloys, silicide coated columbium alloys and ceramic coatings.

Cunnington, G. R.; Funaa, A. I.; Cassady, P. E.

1973-01-01

24

Radiation measuring instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four radiation measuring instruments were developed. These are: (1) improved detector probe, (2) neutron spectrometer--dosimeter, (3) portable ultraviolet spectro-radiometer; and (4) pocket ionization chamber radiation dosimeter. A brief description of each of these devices is presented.

Piltingsrud, H. V.

1975-01-01

25

An instrument for the high temperature measurement of the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system for the simultaneous measurement of thermoelectric power and resistivity of one and/or two samples over a temperature range of 300-1000 K in a vacuum chamber is designed and implemented. A sample probe is developed to provide its easy mounting and usage. In addition, two samples can be measured at the same time. Measurement accuracy has been enhanced by beadless thermocouples and micro-heaters that are specifically designed in order to minimize the ‘cold-finger effect’ and to eliminate some possible source of contact, design and measurement errors. A broad range of physical types and shapes of samples, such as bulk, bar or disc, can be measured by a software controlled system. A differential steady-state method has been applied for Seebeck coefficient measurement. Resistivity measurement is conducted with the axial technique of the four-point probe method. Platinum wire and a niobium rod are chosen as the standard samples. The total data error for the Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements is estimated to be less than 2.6% and 1%, respectively.

Gunes, Murat; Parlak, Mehmet; Ozenbas, Macit

2014-05-01

26

AC Resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

Hof, Peter J. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

27

AC resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

Hof, P.J.

1983-10-04

28

On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

2007-03-31

29

ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress over the second six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on evaluating corrosion effects in single crystal sapphire at temperatures up to 1400 C, and designing the sensor mechanical packaging with input from Wabash River Power Plant. Upcoming meetings will establish details for the gasifier field test.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

2003-11-01

30

On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

2005-11-01

31

ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

2005-04-01

32

Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

Iufer, E. J.

1978-01-01

33

The effect of instrument attachment on the surface temperature of juvenile grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus) as measured by infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research has highlighted the importance of minimising hydrodynamic drag from biologging instruments fitted to marine mammals. However, there is a need to investigate other possible impacts of instruments on animals. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of deploying instruments on the surface temperature distribution of grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus). Infrared (IR) thermography was used to record the surface temperature of two juveniles that had been fitted with heart rate recorders and mounting straps for the attachment of a time depth recorder. When animals were fully wet and inactive, the surface temperature pattern was unaffected by instruments. However, as animals dried out regions of high temperature were recorded around the edges of attachment sites compared to surrounding fur. This appeared to be due to heat leakage around the sides of instruments and mounting straps that provided an additional layer of insulation. There were no obvious changes in the surface temperature distribution around instruments associated with duration of deployment. This work shows that attachment of relatively small biologging instruments will produce localised effects on heat transfer in air but will not significantly change the total heat exchange of grey seals on land or at sea. IR thermography was also shown to be a useful method of detecting surface temperature patterns associated with epidural anaesthesia and blubber biopsy.

McCafferty, Dominic J.; Currie, John; Sparling, Carol E.

2007-02-01

34

Instrumentation and measurement of airflow and temperature in attics fitted with ridge and soffit vents  

SciTech Connect

This study established a research facility where airflow velocities, temperature, and differential pressures could be measured at the ridge of an attic. Following the construction of a test building, sensors were constructed, calibrated, and installed inside the attic. Paired tests were performed for three different ridge vent treatments; two were rolled type vents and one was a baffled vent. When both attics were fitted with the same ridge vent, the airspeed and differential pressure profiles at the ridge were very similar for both attics, indicating that any observed differences in airspeed and differential pressure were caused by the ridge vent treatment used. The baffled vent and rolled vents were then installed on the ridge of the west and east attics, respectively. The data demonstrated that the baffled ridge vent provided a minimum of twice the ridge airspeed of the rolled vents, when all wind conditions were considered. On the day selected to study the direction of the airflows at the ridge, the baffled vent had airflow speeds at the ridge similar to the rolled vent without fabric backing. The baffled vent allowed air to come out of the attic through both sides of the ridge (negative differential pressures on both sides), while the rolled vent without fabric backing caused air to enter through the south side of the ridge and exit through the north side (positive differential pressure on the south side and negative differential pressure on the north), in effect short-circuiting the vent. The fabric-backed rolled vent allowed attic air to come out of the attic through both sides of the ridge, as did the baffled vent, but the airspeed was slower. The baffled vent was the one with the highest airspeed at the ridge and also had both sides of the vent under negative differential pressure, providing the most effective ventilation.

Romero, M.I.; Brenner, R.J. [USDA-ARS, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

1998-12-31

35

ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress over the first six months of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on analyzing and testing factors that impact performance degradation of the initially designed sensor prototype, including sensing element movement within the sensing probe and optical signal quality degradation. Based these results, a new version of the sensing system was designed by combining the sapphire disk sensing element and the single crystal zirconia right angle light reflector into one novel single crystal sapphire right angle prism. The new sensor prototype was tested up to 1650 C.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

2003-04-01

36

ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress over the third six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on sensor probe design and machining, sensor electronics design, software algorithm design, sensor field installation procedures, and sensor remote data access and control. Field testing will begin in the next several weeks.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang

2004-04-01

37

Water Vapor, Temperature, and Ice Particles in Polar Mesosphere as Measured by SABER/TIMED and OSIRIS/Odin Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although many new details on the properties of mesospheric ice particles that farm Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) and also cause polar mesospheric summer echoes have been recently revealed, certain aspects of mesospheric ice microphysics and dynamics still remain open. The detailed relation between PMC parameters and properties of their environment, as well as interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in PMC properties that are possibly related to global change, are among those open questions. In this work, mesospheric temperature and water vapor concentration measured by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite are used to study the properties of PMCs with respect to the surrounding atmosphere. The cloud parameters, namely location, brightness, and altitude, are obtained from the observations made by the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) on the Odin satellite. About a thousand of simultaneous common volume measurements made by SABER and OSIRIS in both hemispheres from 2002 until 2008 are used. The correlation between PMC brightness (and occurrence rate) and temperatures at PMC altitudes and at the mesopause is analysed. The relation between PMC parameters, frost point temperature, and gaseous water vapor content in and below the cloud is also discussed. Interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in the above parameters, as well as in PMC peak altitudes and mesopause altitudes are evaluated.

Feofilov, A. G.; Petelina, S. V.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

2009-01-01

38

Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide from Broadband Infrared Limb Emission Measurements Taken from the TIMED/SABER Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment is one of four instruments on NASA's Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER measures broadband infrared limb emission and derives vertical profiles of kinetic temperature (Tk) from the lower stratosphere to approximately 120 km, and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) volume mixing ratio (vmr) from approximately 70 km to 120 km. In this paper we report on SABER Tk/CO2 data in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region from the version 1.06 dataset. The continuous SABER measurements provide an excellent dataset to understand the evolution and mechanisms responsible for the global two-level structure of the mesopause altitude. SABER MLT Tk comparisons with ground-based sodium lidar and rocket falling sphere Tk measurements are generally in good agreement. However, SABER CO2 data differs significantly from TIME-GCM model simulations. Indirect CO2 validation through SABER-lidar MLT Tk comparisons and SABER-radiation transfer comparisons of nighttime 4.3 micron limb emission suggest the SABER-derived CO2 data is a better representation of the true atmospheric MLT CO2 abundance compared to model simulations of CO2 vmr.

Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell III, James M.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; She, Chiao-Yao; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Xu, Xiaojing

2008-01-01

39

Measuring Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about measuring temperature. Learners will apply their knowledge of how temperature affects matter to understand how a thermometer works. They then read about the history of the thermometer and the temperature scales that make the information from the thermometer meaningful. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 6 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

40

Radiant Power Measuring Instrument (RPMI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The radiant power measuring instrument is a rugged, hand-carried instrument which provides an ERTS investigator with a capability of obtaining radiometric measurements needed to determine solar and atmospheric parameters that affect the ERTS radiance measurements. With these parameters, ERTS data can be transformed into absolute target reflectance signatures, making accurate unambiguous interpretations possible.

Rogers, R. H. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

41

Foundations of measurement and instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The user of instrumentation has provided an understanding of the factors that influence instrument performance, selection, and application, and of the methods of interpreting and presenting the results of measurements. Such understanding is prerequisite to the successful attainment of the best compromise among reliability, accuracy, speed, cost, and importance of the measurement operation in achieving the ultimate goal of a project. Some subjects covered are dimensions; units; sources of measurement error; methods of describing and estimating accuracy; deduction and presentation of results through empirical equations, including the method of least squares; experimental and analytical methods of determining the static and dynamic behavior of instrumentation systems, including the use of analogs.

Warshawsky, Isidore

1990-01-01

42

Moiré pointer for measurement instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In measurement instruments where measured values are indicated with a mechanical pointer and a graduated scale, the observation precision is increased often by adding an auxiliary mechanical pointer (needle) with a sub graduated scale. The auxiliary pointer moves in synchronization with the main pointer but at a higher speed. A constant velocity ratio between the auxiliary pointer and the main

Emin Gabrielyan

2007-01-01

43

MACS, An Instrument, and a Methodology for Simulations and Global Measurements of the Coronal Electron Temperature and the Solar Wind Velocity on the Solar Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of the radial and latitudinal temperature and wind profiles of the solar corona is of great importance in understanding the coronal heating mechanism and the dynamics of coronal expansion. Cram presented the theory for the formation of the K-coronal spectrum and identified two important observations. He observed the existence of temperature sensitive anti-nodes at certain wavelengths in the theoretical K-coronal spectra. The anti-nodes are separated by temperature-insensitive nodes. Remarkably, Cram showed that the wavelengths of the nodes and anti-nodes are almost independent of altitude above the solar limb. Because of these features, Cram suggested that the intensity ratios at two anti-nodes could be used as a diagnostic of the electron temperature in the K-corona. Based on this temperature diagnostic technique prescribed by Cram a slit-based spectroscopic study was performed by Ichimoto et al. on the solar corona in conjunction with the total solar eclipse of 3 Nov 1994 in Putre, Chile to determine the temperature profile of the solar corona. In this thesis Cram's theory has been extended to incorporate the role of the solar wind in the formation of the K-corona, and we have identified both temperature and wind sensitive intensity ratios. The instrument, MACS, for Multi Aperture Coronal Spectrometer, a fiber optic based spectrograph, was designed for global and simultaneous measurement of the thermal electron temperature and the solar wind velocity in the solar corona. The first ever experiment of this nature was conducted in conjunction with the total solar eclipse of 11 Aug 1999 in Elazig, Turkey. In this instrument one end of each of twenty fiber optic tips were positioned in the focal plane of the telescope in such a way that we could observe conditions simultaneously at many different latitudes and two different radial distances in the solar corona. The other ends of the fibers were vertically aligned and placed at the primary focus of the collimating lens of the spectrograph to obtain simultaneous and global spectra on the solar corona. By isolating the K-coronal spectrum from the spectrum recorded by each fiber the temperature and the wind sensitive intensity ratios were calculated to obtain simultaneous and global measurements of the thermal electron temperature and the solar wind velocity. We were successful in obtaining reliable estimates of the coronal temperature at many positions in the corona. This is the first time that simultaneous measurements of coronal temperatures have been obtained at so many points. However due to instrumental scattering encountered during observations, reliable estimates of the wind velocity turned out to be impossible to obtain. Although remedial measures were taken prior to observation, this task proved to be difficult owing to the inability to replicate the conditions expected during an eclipse in the laboratory. The full extent of the instrumental scattering was apparent only when we analyzed the observational sequence. Nevertheless the experience obtained from this very first attempt to simultaneously and globally measure both the wind velocity and the temperature on the solar corona have provided valuable information to conduct any future observations successfully.

Reginald, Nelson L.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

44

Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

2009-01-01

45

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOEpatents

A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

1999-03-30

46

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOEpatents

A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

Sanders, Scott T. (Valparaiso, IN); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1999-01-01

47

Dual physiological rate measurement instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

Cooper, Tommy G. (inventor)

1990-01-01

48

Compact Instruments Measure Heat Potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based in Huntsville, Alabama, AZ Technology Inc. is a woman- and veteran-owned business that offers expertise in electromechanical-optical design and advanced coatings. AZ Technology has received eight Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center for the development of spectral reflectometers and the measurement of surface thermal properties. The company uses a variety of measurement services and instruments, including the Spectrafire, a portable spectral emissometer it used to assist General Electric with the design of its award-winning Giraffe Warmer for neonatal intensive care units.

2009-01-01

49

MACS, An Instrument and a Methodology for Simultaneous and Global Measurements of the Coronal Electron Temperature and the Solar Wind Velocity on the Solar Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Cram's theory for the formation of the K-coronal spectrum he observed the existence of temperature sensitive anti-nodes, which were separated by temperature insensitive nodes, at certain wave-lengths in the K-coronal spectrum. Cram also showed these properties were remarkably independent of altitude above the solar limb. In this thesis Cram's theory has been extended to incorporate the role of the solar wind in the formation of the K-corona, and we have identified both temperature and wind sensitive intensity ratios. The instrument, MACS, for Multi Aperture Coronal Spectrometer, a fiber optic based spectrograph, was designed for global and simultaneous measurements of the thermal electron temperature and the solar wind velocity in the solar corona. The first ever experiment of this nature was conducted in conjunction with the total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 in Elazig, Turkey. Here twenty fiber optic tips were positioned in the focal plane of the telescope to observe simultaneously at many different latitudes and two different radial distances in the solar corona. The other ends were vertically stacked and placed at the primary focus of the spectrograph. By isolating the K-coronal spectrum from each fiber the temperature and the wind sensitive intensity ratios were calculated.

Reginald, Nelson L.

2000-01-01

50

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2011-07-01

51

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2013-07-01

52

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2014-07-01

53

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2012-07-01

54

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2010-07-01

55

New type of measuring and intelligent instrument for curing tobacco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of measuring intelligent instrument for cured tobacco is presented in this paper. Based on fuzzy linguistic control principles the instrument is used to controlling the temperature and humidity during cured tobacco taking 803 1 singlechip computer as a center controller. By using methods of fuzzy weighted factors the cross coupling in curing procedures is decoupled. Results that the instrument has producted indicate the fuzzy controller in the instrument has perfect performance for process of cured tobacco as shown in figure

Yi, Chui-Jie; Huang, Xieqing; Chen, Tianning; Xia, Hong

1993-09-01

56

Recent advances in high temperature instrumentation for hot section applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Programs to develop research instrumentation for use in turbine engine hot sections are described. These programs were initiated to provide improved measurements capability as support for a multidisciplinary effort to establish technolgy leading to improved hot section durability. Specific measurement systems described here include heat flux sensors, a dynamic gas temperature measuring system, laser anemometry for hot section applications, an optical system for viewing the interior of a combustor during operation, thin film sensors for surface temperature and strain measurements, and high temperature strain measuring systems. The paper describes the state of the development of these sensors and measuring systems and, in some cases, will show examples of measurements made with this instrumentation.The paper covers work done at the NASA Lewis Research Center and at various contract and grant facilities.

Englund, David R.; Seasholtz, Richard G.

1988-01-01

57

10.3 High-temperature Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes high temperature instrumentation development from 1960-1970, 1980-1990 and 2000-present. The contents include: 1) Background; 2) Objective; 3) Application and Sensor; 4) Attachment Techniques; 5) Evaluation/Characterization Testing; and 6) Future testing.

Piazza, Anthony

2008-01-01

58

Bubble measuring instrument and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

59

Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer. respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

60

Biomagnetic Measurements Using SQUID Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomagnetic measurements involve the detection of the magnetic fields generated by physiological activity in living organisms. Because magnetic fields are sensed remotely, no physical contact with the subject is required, making the technique totally non-invasive Furthermore, only the magnetic fields originating within the body are measured. No external field is applied and it can therefore be confidently stated that the technique is completely safe. These characteristics make biomagnetometry an ideal tool for the investigation of physiological processes. The only magnetic field detector capable of measuring these extremely weak biomagnetic signals is the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). In the last thirty years SQUID-based ultrasensitive magnetometers have been widely used in the investigation of physiologically produced magnetic fields for diagnostic purposes. Owing to the numerous sources of noise and interference typical of an urban environment, it has until recently been considered almost impossible to operate a SQUID magnetometer in such a location without magnetic shielding. We have overcome these technical problems and have successfully used our specially developed unshielded SQUID systems in laboratory and hospital environments. This instrumentation is suitable for recording the biomagnetic fields in adults, neonates and fetuses, and has been applied in a number of clinical studies including fetal magnetocardiography.

Rassi, D.; Zhuravlev, Y.

2000-09-01

61

A New Flow Instrument for Conductance Measurements at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures: Measurements on NaCl(aq) to 458 K and 1.4 MPa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flow electrical conductance instrument was constructed and tested on dilute NaCl solutions up to 458 K, and on more\\u000a concentrated solutions (maximum 0.436 mol?kg?1) at 373 K. The results of the new instrument agreed with those of previous authors within the estimated experimental errors.\\u000a The model of Bernard et al. (J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3833–3840 (1992), MSA) was found to represent

G. H. Zimmerman; Philip W. Scott; Wendy Greynolds

2007-01-01

62

Temperature control system for optical elements in astronomical instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremely low temperatures may damage the optical components assembled inside of an astronomical instrument due to the crack in the resin or glue used to attach lenses and mirrors. The environment, very cold and dry, in most of the astronomical observatories contributes to this problem. This paper describes the solution implemented at SOAR for remotely monitoring and controlling temperatures inside of a spectrograph, in order to prevent a possible damage of the optical parts. The system automatically switches on and off some heat dissipation elements, located near the optics, as the measured temperature reaches a trigger value. This value is set to a temperature at which the instrument is not operational to prevent malfunction and only to protect the optics. The software was developed with LabVIEWTM and based on an object-oriented design that offers flexibility and ease of maintenance. As result, the system is able to keep the internal temperature of the instrument above a chosen limit, except perhaps during the response time, due to inertia of the temperature. This inertia can be controlled and even avoided by choosing the correct amount of heat dissipation and location of the thermal elements. A log file records the measured temperature values by the system for operation analysis.

Verducci, Orlando; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Flávio F.; Vital de Arruda, Márcio; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Fraga, Luciano

2014-07-01

63

The adaptation of iButtons® for near-surface rock temperature and thermal offset measurements in a high alpine environment - Instrumentation and first results, Kitzsteinhorn (3203 m), Hohe Tauern, Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High alpine regions are very rough terrains influenced by extreme weather conditions. Steep and inaccessible terrain complicates the installation and maintenance of monitoring instruments. Among other hazards lightning stroke, low temperatures and mass movements have a strong impact on permanently installed instruments. Therefore technical challenges include the development of robust measuring instruments to resist harsh environmental conditions. The presented work is part of the MOREXPERT ('Monitoring Expert System for Hazardous Rock Walls') project. One of the project's main objectives is the development of an easy to use and maintainable monitoring system with respect to cost and benefit. The assessment of rock permafrost distribution across the whole summit pyramid (300 meters in height, 3.5 ha) and the consideration of the heterogeneous topography requires a large number of temperature loggers. To meet these requirements iButtons® were used. The iButton® is a computer chip enclosed in a 16mm thick stainless steel can. The used DS1922L/T temperature logger iButtons® are rugged, self-sufficient systems that measure temperature and record the result in a protected memory section with an accuracy of ±0.5°C from -10°C to +65°C and a resolution of 0.0625°C. In contrast to conventionally used temperature loggers, iButtons® are cheap, end-user friendly and easily replaceable in case of damage. For this reason a large number of measurement sites can easily be equipped for the measurement of near-surface rock temperatures and thermal offset. A special instrumentation workflow for the installation of iButtons® in depths of 10 and 80 cm was developed. All iButtons® were attached to polyethylene rods and placed in previously drilled holes. First results show a good applicability of iButtons® for rock temperature measurements.

Keuschnig, M.; Hartmeyer, I.; Schmidjell, A.; Schrott, L.

2012-04-01

64

Instrument accurately measures weld angle and offset  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weld angle is measured to the nearest arc minute and offset to one thousandth of an inch by an instrument designed to use a reference plane at two locations on a test coupon. A special table for computation has been prepared for use with the instrument.

Boyd, W. G.

1967-01-01

65

Instrumentation, Data Acquisition and Controls for Temperature Measurement of Cold Surfaces at 4.5 K and 80 K of SST-1 Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-temperature regimes have been envisaged for the SST-1 machine, 80 K on the thermal shield and 4.5 K on the superconducting magnet system. The aim of temperature measurement is two folds (i) to monitor the temperature distribution as well as process parameters (ii) to achieve controlled cool down from 300 K to 4.5 K and 80 K. Temperature sensors have been mounted on cold surfaces at required locations to ease the operation during cool down and steady state. Techniques employed for temperature measurement and controls are based on continuous resistance measurement. Cernox™ sensors (Lakeshore made) and PT-102 have been used for the temperature measurement at 4.5 K and 80 K surfaces respectively. The data acquisition system (DAS) has been indigenously developed using 4-20 mA current loop temperature transmitter, which provided better functioning in terms of flexibility. The control functioning has been designed and developed using programmable logic controller with direct interfacing of the transmitter. The temperature data is obtained at the supervisory control and data acquisition of dedicated node. The developed DAS has been found to be very reliable and satisfactory.

Panchal, P.; Sonara, D.; Sarkar, B.; Bhattacharya, R.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.; Tank, J.; Singh, M.; Sahu, A. K.; Saxena, Y. C.

2008-03-01

66

A low cost, portable instrument for measuring emittance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low cost, portable instrument was developed with which emittance can be measured by comparison to a standard. A reflector collects infrared radiation from a heated sample onto a low mass, black detector and the temperature rise of the black detector is measured with a thermocouple and meter. Graphical examples are presented for determination of emittance from measurements made on a sample at any known temperature.

Mcdonald, G.

1977-01-01

67

A low cost, portable instrument for measuring emittance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low cost, portable instrument has been developed with which emittance can be measured by comparison to a standard. A reflector collects infra-red radiation from a heated sample onto a low mass, black detector and the temperature rise of the black detector is measured with a thermocouple and meter. Graphical examples are presented for determination of emittance from measurements made on a sample at any known temperature.

Mcdonald, G.

1977-01-01

68

Instrumentation for Structure Measurements on Highly Non-equilibrium Materials  

SciTech Connect

Containerless techniques (levitation) completely eliminate contact with the sample. This unique sample environment allows deep supercooling of many liquids and avoids contamination of high temperature melts. Recent experiments at the APS high energy beamline 11 ID-C used aerodynamic levitation with laser beam heating and acoustic levitation with cryogenic cooling. By using these two methods, liquids were studied over much of the temperature range from -40 to +2500 C. This paper briefly describes the instrumentation and its use with an -Si area detector that allows fast, in-situ measurements. Use of the instruments is illustrated with examples of measurements on molten oxides and aqueous materials.

Weber, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Benmore, Chris J [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Wilding, Martin C [ORNL

2011-01-01

69

Solar oscillations instrumentation and measurement theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-oscillation instruments are reviewed. Common characteristics include detecting solar radial velocities on Fraunhofer lines with a 2-point measuring technique, high spectral resolution and stability, etc. The choice of the spectral line for getting a high signal to solar noise ratio is addressed. Velocity imaging of solar oscillations modes is detailed, including spatial sampling and span, highest observable degree. Applications of these different analyses is applied to existing or future helioseismology instruments.

Appourchaux, T.

1988-01-01

70

MultiKron: performance measurement instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of our instrumentation work at NIST is to provide hardware support in obtaining performance measurement data of parallel computers, as well as uniprocessors, with tolerable perturbation to both the executing processes and the architecture on which they are executing. Tracing events and counting are two basic concepts of performance measurement-both should be controlled from within the code. The

A. Mink; R. Carpenter; G. Nacht; J. Roberts

1996-01-01

71

High temperature measuring device  

DOEpatents

A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

72

Temperature measurement and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several factors in temperature measurement that can affect the precision of melting points and phase-change phenomena are\\u000a discussed. In many cases, critical errors may arise in the measurement and control of temperatures due to incorrect placement\\u000a and\\/or interpretation of the output of temperature sensors in the various system types that are in current use. Advantages\\u000a can be obtained by using

R. P. Tye; R. L. Gardner; A. Maesono

1993-01-01

73

Environmental qualification: instrument transmitter temperature transient analysis. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of severe containment temperature transients on safety-related instrument transmitters are analyzed using a one-dimensional slab model constructed using test data from the Westinghouse Supplemental Environmental Qualification Program. This analysis is performed using the Westinghouse COCO computer code and its subroutines to compute the temperature transient responses in the transmitter for both the Westinghouse Instrument Environmental Qualification Test Curve

T. Hsieh; R. T. Barlow; H. V. Julian

1977-01-01

74

Instruments for measuring radiant thermal fluxes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An absolute two-sided radiometer, designed on the principle of replacing absorbed radiant energy with electrical energy, is described. The sensitive element of the detector is a thermoelectric transducer of thermal flux. The fabrication technology, methods of measurement, technical characteristics, and general operation of the instrument are presented.

Gerashenko, O. A.; Sazhina, S. A.

1974-01-01

75

AC instrumentation amplifier for bioimpedance measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The input impedance and common-mode rejection ratio requirements for an amplifier for bioimpedance measurements are analyzed, considering the capacitive components of the electrode-skin contact impedance. An AC-coupled instrumentation amplifier that fulfills those requirements, and provides both interference and noise reduction and a zero phase shift over a wide frequency band without using broadband operational amplifiers, is described.

R. Pallas-Areny; J. G. Webster

1993-01-01

76

Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

Hagopian, John G.

2010-01-01

77

77 FR 37409 - Request for Domains, Instruments, and Measures for Development of a Standardized Instrument for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...Domains, Instruments, and Measures for Development of a...With Their Qualified Health Plan and Exchange AGENCY...instruments, and measures for measuring the level...satisfaction with qualified health plans plus the...

2012-06-21

78

Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 ?m) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

2006-11-14

79

Measuring System for Furrow Opener Based on Virtual Instrument Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now measure instruments and electronic technology developed quickly, however, as for traditional measure instruments, even if digital instruments and intelligent instruments which heighten the accuracy and function of the traditional measurement and analysis system, they still can not change their some shortcomings, such as single function, handle manipulating, large and ponderous volume, fixed channel number and high cost to develop

Shucai Xu; Jinhuan Zhang; Jianqiao Li

2008-01-01

80

Temperature, pressure, and wind instrumentation in the Phoenix meteorological package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meteorological package (MET) on the Phoenix Lander is designed to provide information on the daily and seasonal variations in Mars near-polar weather during Martian late spring and summer. The present paper provides some background on the temperature, pressure, and wind instrumentation on the Phoenix MET station and their characterization. A separate paper addresses the MET lidar instrument. Laboratory studies

Peter A. Taylor; David C. Catling; Mike Daly; Cameron S. Dickinson; Haraldur P. Gunnlaugsson; Ari-Matti Harri; Carlos F. Lange

2008-01-01

81

Temperature Measurement with Phidgets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Temperature Measurement with Phidget collects data from a Phidget 1048 Temperature Sensor and Thermocouple. The Phdiget driver must be installed. The instructors are for an introductory physics lab on using computer controls transducers. Once Ejs is installed, right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item allows for editing of the model and, in particular, editing the serial number of the Hardware (as described in the lab instructions). The Temperature Measurement model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_PhidgetTemperatureExample.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models.

Cox, Anne; Franciscouembre

2014-08-26

82

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2014-04-01

83

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2010-04-01

84

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2013-04-01

85

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2011-04-01

86

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2012-04-01

87

High Temperature Electronics and Instrumentation Seminar Proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the art and the substantial progress in high temperature electronics were reviewed. The following topics were covered: hybrid circuits; electronic devices; transducers, cables and connectors; materials; mechanical tools; and thermal protection. The frontiers of this technology were shown to be rapidly moving beyond the 125 C Mil-Spec boundary. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this

A. F. Veneruso; C. Arnold; R. S. Simpson

1980-01-01

88

Measuring halocarbons with the MIPAS instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halocarbons, such as CFC-11, CFC-12 and HCFC-22, are important trace constituents in the atmosphere through their role as greenhouse gases and their influence on stratospheric ozone chemistry. Previous stratospheric measurements of CFC-11 and CFC-12 have only been made from a limited number of satellite instruments, for example the Cryogen Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). For HCFC-22, measurements are restricted to infrequent and sparse balloon and aircraft campaigns, giving poor spatial and temporal coverage. Improvements in the understanding of the vertical distributions of these halocarbons may be gained through the utilisation of the latest satellite remote sensing techniques. By using limb infrared sounding, spectrally resolving, instruments such as a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) it is possible to measure the infrared emission of radiation from trace gases and hence obtain atmospheric concentrations by inversion of the measured spectra. The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) onboard the ENVISAT satellite has been designed to measure spectra in the nominal altitude range (6-68 km) with global coverage every three days. The high spectral resolution of the MIPAS (0.025 cm-1 unapodised) offers the possibility of distinguishing spectral signatures of less abundant trace species from the densely packed spectral lines of the major constituent species such as CO_2 and H_2O. As a consequence, it may be possible to retrieve vertical profile information for these trace gases. The work presented here focuses on an initial study using optimal estimation techniques to retrieve vertical profile concentrations of the important halogen compounds CFC-11, CFC-12 and HCFC-22 from MIPAS level 1b spectral data. Validation of these retrievals has been made internally via tracer-tracer correlations with operational MIPAS data products and externally using datasets from other satellite and in-situ balloon measurements.

Moore, D. P.; Waterfall, A. M.; Remedios, J. J.

89

Rotor instrumentation study for high-temperature superconducting generators  

SciTech Connect

In FY 9195, ORNL carried out work on rotor instrumentation systems in support of the General Electric (GE) Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI) on Superconducting Generator Development. The objective was to develop a system for tramsitting data from sensors in the spinning rotor to a stationary data acquisition system. Previous work at ORNL had investigated an optical method of cryogenic temperature measurement using laser-induced fluorescence in certain phosphors. Later follow-up discussions with experts in the ORNL Engineering Technology Division indicated that this method could also be extended to measure strain and magnetic field. Another optical alternative using standard fiber optic transmission modules was also investigated. The equipment is very inexpensive, but needs to be adapted for operation in a high-g-force rotating environment. An optical analog of a commutator or slip ring also needs to be developed to couple the light signals from the rotor to the stationary frame. Sealed mercury-film rotary contacts are manufactured by Meridian Laboratory. Unlike conventional slipring assemblies, these offer low noise and long lifetime, with low costs per channel. Standard units may need some upgrading for 3600-rpm or high-voltage operation. A commercial electronic telemetry system offered by Wireless Data Corporation (WDC) was identified as a viable candidate, and information on this system was presented to GE. GE has since ordered two of these systems from WDC for temperature measurements in their rotating test cryostat.

Schwenterly, S.W.; Wilson, C.T.

1996-06-01

90

Measurement of proton momentum distributions using a direct geometry instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy Ei= 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO.

Senesi, R.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Andreani, C.

2014-12-01

91

Instrumentation for measuring speech privacy in rooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federal legislation pertaining to oral privacy in healthcare and financial services industries has increased the need for a convenient and economical way to document speech privacy conditions in offices, medical examination rooms, and certain other workspaces. This legislation is embodied in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA). Both laws require that reasonable measures be put in place to safeguard the oral privacy of patients and clients. While techniques for privacy documentation are known within the acoustical consulting community, it is unlikely that community alone has the capacity to provide the surveys needed to evaluate acoustical conditions and demonstrate compliance with the legislation. A portable computer with integrated soundboard and a suitable amplified loudspeaker and test microphone are all that are needed to perform in situ measurements of articulation index or other accepted indices of speech privacy. Along with modest training, such instrumentation allows technicians to survey a large number of sites economically. Cost-effective components are shown that can meet the requirements for testing in most common environments where oral privacy is likely to be required. Example cases are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of such instrumentation.

Horrall, Thomas; Pirn, Rein; Markham, Ben

2003-10-01

92

27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...2011-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices...Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

2011-04-01

93

27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...2010-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices...Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

2010-04-01

94

27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...2012-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices...Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

2012-04-01

95

27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...2014-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices...Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative...Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

2014-04-01

96

27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...2013-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices...Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative...Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

2013-04-01

97

Precise Measurement of Process Temperature Differences  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of power in a nuclear reactor system is comparable to measurement of yield in a chemical plant or to measurement of throughput in a paper mill process. In most reactor systems power is determined by measurement of heat transferred to the coolant. In this study reactor coolant heat-rise was determined by the differential-temperature measuring circuitry of a power calculator which computed and recorded reactor power. This paper presents measurement techniques involved in determining the differential temperature and may be of parallel interest to instrument engineers in other process fields.

Kitchen, B.G.

2003-01-16

98

NEUTRON SCATTERING INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASUREMENT OF MELT STRUCTURE  

SciTech Connect

This Phase II research project was focused on constructing and testing a facility for the measurement of the structure of hot solid and liquid materials under extreme conditions using neutron diffraction. The work resulted in measurements at temperatures of 3300 K, the highest ever performed in a neutron beam. Work was performed jointly by Containerless Research, Inc. and Argonne National Laboratory with significant interactions with engineers and scientists at the under construction-SNS facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The work comprised four main activities: Design and construct an advanced instrument for structural studies of liquids and hot solids using neutron scattering. Develop and test a software package for instrument control, data acquisition and analysis. Test and demonstrate the instrument in experiments at the GLAD beamline at IPNS. Evaluate requirements for performing experiments at the SNS. Develop interest from the potential user base and identify potential support for Phase III. The objectives of the research were met. A second-generation instrument was developed and constructed. The instrument design drew on the results of a formal design review which was held at Argonne National Laboratory during the Phase I research [1]. The review included discussion with potential instrument users, SNS scientists and engineers and various scientists involved with materials, glass, ceramics, and geological sciences. The instrument combines aerodynamic levitation with pulsed neutron diffraction in a controlled atmosphere. An important innovation was the use of pure vanadium levitation nozzles that effectively eliminated contributions from the sample environment to the measured data. The instrument employed a 250 Watt CO2 laser that was configured for Class I laser operation. The use of Class I laser configuration meant that operators could work with the equipment with minimal restrictions and so concentrate on the research activities. Instrument control and data acquisition software was developed and implemented. As part of a larger initiative at IPNS, PC-based programs are being developed for acquisition and processing of neutron data. The PC-based beamline data handling system will enable compatibility with the levitator software. The instrument was bench tested at CRI and operated in three campaigns at the GLAD beamline at IPNS. Samples approximately 3.5 mm in diameter were levitated for periods up to 6 hours and at temperatures up to 3300 K. Structure factors were obtained for liquid oxide materials and hot solids. Details are given in this report and in published or submitted papers. During the course of the Phase I and Phase II projects, technical presentations were made at the Materials Research Society meeting in Boston, November, 2001, the American Conference on Neutron Scattering in Knoxville, TN, June, 2002, the Gordon Research Conference on High Temperature Chemistry (poster) in Waterville, ME, August 2002, the ACNS meeting in Baltimore, MD, June, 2004 and the Non-crystalline Materials-9 meeting in Corning NY, July, 2004. Two manuscripts were prepared, one is published, one is in review. The presentations have resulted in contact with the user community and we have received several requests to use the instrument. As a result, we are seeking support for collaborative research and plan to offer beamline instruments for commercial sale.

Richard Weber, Christopher Benmore

2004-10-21

99

Instrumented Bolts Would Measure Shear Forces In Joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bolts instrumented with strain gauges used to measure shear forces. Bolts installed in multiple-bolt lap joints to obtain data on distribution of stresses and deformations in and around joints. Strain gauges indicate share of applied load borne by each individual bolt. In original application, bolted panels made of advanced refractory composite materials designed to withstand use at temperatures up to 4,000 degrees F. Also applicable to other joint materials and measurement of shear loads in other connections such as, shear loads on shafts in pulleys or gears.

Sawyer, James Wayne; Mcwithey, Robert R.

1994-01-01

100

Line spread instrumentation for propagation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A line spread device capable of yielding direct measure of a laser beam's line spread function (LSF) was developed and employed in propagation tests conducted in a wind tunnel to examine optimal acoustical suppression techniques for laser cavities exposed to simulated aircraft aerodynamic environments. Measurements were made on various aerodynamic fences and cavity air injection techniques that effect the LSF of a propagating laser. Using the quiescent tunnel as a control, the relative effect of each technique on laser beam quality was determined. The optical instrument employed enabled the comparison of relative beam intensity for each fence or mass injection. It was found that fence height had little effect on beam quality but fence porosity had a marked effect, i.e., 58% porosity alleviated cavity resonance and degraded the beam the least. Mass injection had little effect on the beam LSF. The use of a direct LSF measuring device proved to be a viable means of determining aerodynamic seeing qualities of flow fields.

Bailey, W. H., Jr.

1980-01-01

101

A computer-controlled instrument for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new instrument for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids by the transient hot-wire method is described. The instrument has features in common with earlier versions but employs a novel technique for the determination of the transient temperature rise of the hot wire during the course of a measurement. New determinations of the thermal conductivity of toluene confirm

E. Charitidou; M. Dix; M. J. Assael; C. A. Nieto de Castro; W. A. Wakeham

1987-01-01

102

Global and Hemispheric Temperature Anomalies: Land and Marine Instrumental Records  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) provides the Global and Hemisphere Temperature Anomalies: Land and Marine Instrumental Records data. Data tables and graphs from 1856 to 1998 are available. At the site, users will find a description of the methods to obtain the data, summaries describing the graphs, and references.

103

Introducing Temperature Measurement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn how to read a Celsius-scale thermometer, associate weather conditions and seasons with Celsius temperature ranges, and keep a record of temperature. Students will read the Celsius temperature each day and discuss how given temperatures "feel". They record the temperature by using a string of beads and a chart.

104

An Analysis of Selected Skinfold Measuring Instruments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of three relatively inexpensive skinfold calipers were compared with that of the Lange Skinfold Caliper. The instruments were used with 800 students ranging from elementary school to the college level. The Fat-O-Meter and Adipometer calipers compared favorably with the Lange instrument for accuracy and wearability while the…

Hawkins, Jerald D.

1983-01-01

105

Nulling Infrared Radiometer for Measuring Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nulling, self-calibrating infrared radiometer is being developed for use in noncontact measurement of temperature in any of a variety of industrial and scientific applications. This instrument is expected to be especially well-suited to measurement of ambient or near-ambient temperature and, even more specifically, for measuring the surface temperature of a natural body of water. Although this radiometer would utilize the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) portion of the spectrum (wavelengths of 8 to 12 m), its basic principle of operation could also be applied to other spectral bands (corresponding to other temperature ranges) in which the atmosphere is transparent and in which design requirements for sensitivity and temperature-measurement accuracy could be satisfied.

Ryan, Robert

2003-01-01

106

Sourcebook on high-temperature electronics and instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

This sourcebook summarizes the high-temperature characteristics of a number of commercially available electronic components and materials required in geothermal well-logging instruments that must operate to 275/sup 0/C. The sourcebook is written to provide a starting place for instrument designers, who need to know the high-temperature electronic products that are available and the design and performance limitations of these products. The electronic component information given includes the standard repertoire of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors, and magnetics; the active devices and integrated circuits sections emphasize silicon semiconductor JFETs and CMOS circuits; and, to complete the electronics, interconnections and packaging of hybrid microelectronics are described. Thermal insulation and refrigeration alternatives are also presented in the sourcebook. Finally, instrument housing materials and high-temperature cables and cablehead connectors are listed. This information was compiled as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program that Sandia National Laboratories conducted for the US Department of Energy's Divison of Geothermal Energy from 1976 to 1981.

Veneruso, A.F. (ed.)

1981-10-01

107

Hydrazine engine plume contamination mapping. [measuring instruments for rocket exhaust from liquid propellant rocket engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumentation for the measurement of plume exhaust specie deposition rates were developed and demonstrated. The instruments, two sets of quartz crystal microbalances, were designed for low temperature operation in the back flow and variable temperature operation in the core flow regions of an exhaust plume. These quartz crystal microbalances performed nominally, and measurements of exhaust specie deposition rates for 8400 number of pulses for a 0.1-lb monopropellant thruster are reported.

Chirivella, J. E.

1975-01-01

108

[An instrument for estimating human body composition using impedance measurement].  

PubMed

According to the impedance feature of biological tissue, the instrument was designed at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100kHz to measure human impedance, and then to calculate human FAT, FFM, FAT%, TBW, ECW, ICW and so on. A 8031 singlechip microprocessor contacuting used as a control center in the instrument. The part of electric circuit contacuting human body in the instrument was unreally earthing. The instrument was safty, effective, repeatable, and easily manpulative. Prelimintary clinical experiment showed the results measured with the instrument could effectively reflect practical, status of human composition. PMID:9647623

Yin, J; Peng, C

1997-03-01

109

Guide to measurement of winds with instrumented aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft measurement techniques are reviewed. Review of past and present applications of instrument aircraft to atmospheric observations is presented. Questions to be answered relative to measuring mean wind profiles as contrasted to turbulence measurements are then addressed. Requirements of instrumentation and accuracy, data reduction, data acquisition, and theoretical and certainty analysis are considered.

Frost, Walter; Paige, Terry S.; Nelius, Andrew E.

1991-01-01

110

46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154...Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked...

2014-10-01

111

46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154...Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked...

2013-10-01

112

46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154...Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked...

2010-10-01

113

46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154...Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked...

2012-10-01

114

46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154...Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked...

2011-10-01

115

Challenges in NMR instrumentation at high fields and low temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in resistive magnet and power supply technology have made available high magnetic fields suitable for condensed matter (broad line) NMR experiments. This capability expands available phase space for investigating a variety of material behavior using magnetic resonance. This also presents new challenges in the design and construction of NMR instrumentation. Field strengths and sample space limitations put constraints on RF power, tank circuit tuning range, field homogeneity and stability, and temperature control.. NMR probes incorporating capabilities such as high pressures, high (>350K) and low (<1.5K) temperatures, optical pumping, and sample rotation require creative designs. Unique user facilities at NHMFL are described focusing probe and cryogenic designs that circumvented problems associated with the high field resistive magnets. Instrumentation developed for the new 45T hybrid magnet will also be presented.

Moulton, William; Reyes, Arneil; Kuhns, Phillip

2000-03-01

116

A Moored Instrument To Measure Stimulated And Natural Oceanic Bioluminescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrument has been developed to measure stimulated and natural bioluminescence for periods of up to four months at an oceanic mooring. This article describes the instrument and the nature of the bioluminescence it is designed to measure. Results from a test mooring in Scripps Canyon are given.

Swift, Elijah; Van Keuren, Jeffrey; Batchelder, Harold P.; Booth, Charles R.; Li, C. P.

1988-08-01

117

21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

2013-04-01

118

21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

2010-04-01

119

21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

2011-04-01

120

21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

2012-04-01

121

21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

2014-04-01

122

Instrument for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at high pressures.  

PubMed

An instrument has been developed for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at high pressures and low temperatures. This instrument couples a nonmagnetic copper-beryllium diamond anvil cell featuring perforated diamonds with a helium flow cryostat and an electromagnet. The applied pressure can be controlled in situ using a gas membrane and calibrated using Cu K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The performance of this instrument was tested by measuring the XMCD spectra of the Gd(5)Si(2)Ge(2) giant magnetocaloric material. PMID:17764332

Haskel, D; Tseng, Y C; Lang, J C; Sinogeikin, S

2007-08-01

123

Instrument for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at high pressures  

SciTech Connect

An instrument has been developed for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at high pressures and low temperatures. This instrument couples a nonmagnetic copper-beryllium diamond anvil cell featuring perforated diamonds with a helium flow cryostat and an electromagnet. The applied pressure can be controlled in situ using a gas membrane and calibrated using Cu K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The performance of this instrument was tested by measuring the XMCD spectra of the Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} giant magnetocaloric material.

Haskel, D.; Tseng, Y. C.; Lang, J. C.; Sinogeikin, S. [Magnetic Materials Group, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, lllinois 60439 (United States); HPCAT, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, lllinois 60439 (United States)

2007-08-15

124

High-Sensitivity Temperature Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method of measuring small temperature differences that amount to a .01K, using an arrangement of a copper-constantan thermocouple, a microamplifier and a galvanometer, as an indirect way of measuring heat energy. (GA)

Leadstone, G. S.

1978-01-01

125

Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility  

SciTech Connect

Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the undulators to {+-}0.01 C. This note describes the temperature measurement system under construction.

Wolf, Zachary

2010-12-13

126

Instruments for measuring the amount of moisture in the air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summarization and discussion of the many systems available for measuring moisture in the atmosphere is presented. Conventional methods used in the field of meteorology and methods used in the laboratory are discussed. Performance accuracies, and response of the instruments were reviewed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. Methods of measuring humidity aloft by instrumentation onboard aircraft and balloons are given, in addition to the methods used to measure moisture at the Earth's surface.

Johnson, D. L.

1978-01-01

127

High-temperature-measuring device  

DOEpatents

A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2000/sup 0/C) is described. The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensonally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

Not Available

1981-01-27

128

Study of instrument temperature effect on MODIS thermal emissive band responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB) over a spectral range from mid-wave infrared (MWIR) to long-wave infrared (LWIR), using photovoltaic (PV) HgCdTe detectors for bands 20-25 and 27-30 with wavelengths from 3.75?m to 9.73?m and photoconductive (PC) HgCdTe detectors for bands 31-36 with wavelengths from 11.0?m to 14.2?m. A total of 160 individual detectors, 10 per band, are distributed on the short- and mid-wave (SMIR) and LWIR cold focal-plane assemblies (CFPA) with temperature controlled at 83K. The instrument temperature affects the detector response and this effect varies with the detector type. Detector responses from on-orbit calibration and pre-launch measurements have been examined to characterize this effect. Results from this analysis show that, for the PV detectors on the SMIR CFPA, the detector responses (gains) increase with instrument temperature whereas the PC detector responses decrease with the instrument temperature. The calibration impact due to on-orbit changes in instrument temperatures is examined. On-orbit detector offset and nonlinear response characterization obtained from the on-boar blackbody (BB) warm-up and cool-down (WUCD) cycle is discussed. This investigation was performed for both Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS.

Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

2010-09-01

129

Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.

Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

1986-01-01

130

BOOK REVIEW: Measurement and Instrumentation Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement activities in advanced industrial countries are estimated to account for somewhere between 3% and 6% of a country's Gross National Product. A well-founded National Measurement System is crucial to economic well-being and the quality of life for all citizens. It is like the oxygen we breathe - unseen and taken for granted - but it is absolutely essential for

Alan S. Morris

2001-01-01

131

Microcomputer control soft tube measuring-testing instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soft tube are key and easily spoiled parts used by the vehicles in the transportation with large numbers. Measuring and testing of the tubes were made by hands for a long time. Cooperating with Harbin Railway Bureau recently we have developed a new kind of automatical measuring and testing instrument In the paper the instrument structure property and measuring principle are presented in details. Centre of the system is a singlechip processor INTEL 80C31 . It can collect deal with data and display the results on LED. Furthermore it brings electromagnetic valves and motors under control. Five soft tubes are measured and tested in the same time all the process is finished automatically. On the hardware and software counter-electromagnetic disturbance methods is adopted efficiently so the performance of the instrument is improved significantly. In the long run the instrument is reliable and practical It solves a quite difficult problem in the railway transportation.

Zhou, Yanzhou; Jiang, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Wen-Yi

1993-09-01

132

Automatic Continuous Commissioning of Measurement Instruments in Air Handling Units  

E-print Network

This paper presents a robust strategy based on a condition-based adaptive statistical method for automatic commissioning of measurement instruments typically employed in air-handling units (AHU). The multivariate statistic method, principal...

Xiao, F.; Wang, S.

2006-01-01

133

Development of a Public Service Motivation Measurement Scale: Corroborating and Extending Perry's Measurement Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the existence of multiple measurement instruments, measuring public service motivation still generates controversy. The most common cited measurement issues are the application of the measurement scale outside the United States, the dimensionality of public service motivation and the length of the original measurement scale. This article discusses these issues and evaluates a measurement instrument developed in a non-US environment,

Wouter Vandenabeele

2008-01-01

134

Easy-to-use blood velocity measurement instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new kind of clinical instrument designed to allow non-specialists to quantitatively measure blood velocity. The instrument's design utilizes vector continuous-wave (CW) Doppler. Vector CW Doppler insonates a volume with simultaneous multiple-angle beams that define a measurement region; within that region, the velocity vector of the blood can be measured independently of the probe orientation. By eliminating the need for simultaneous imaging and the specially trained technician required for the complicated instrument needed for such imaging, easy and inexpensive blood velocity measurements becomes possible. A prototype for a CW vector Doppler instrument has been used to measure blood velocity in several clinically important arteries: the radial and ulnar in the arm, the femoral in the leg, and the carotid in the neck. We report here on its first clinical use -- monitoring the flow in dialysis access grafts to prevent graft thrombosis. These early clinical results show accuracy and rapid learning of proper instrument use. The design approach presented shows much promise in creating instruments that will provide simple and low-cost-of-use procedures for measurement of blood velocity.

Vilkomerson, David H. R.; Chilipka, Thomas

2003-05-01

135

Global trends of measured surface air temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the results of surface air temperature measurements from available meteorological stations for the period of 1880-1985. It is shown that the network of meteorological stations is sufficient to yield reliable long-term, decadal, and interannual temperature changes for both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, despite the fact that most stations are located on the continents. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7 C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. Selected graphs of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones are included.

Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

1987-01-01

136

An intelligent radiological instrument for field samples and contamination measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new intelligent radiological instrument for fast and accurate measurements of mass ? and ? activities of samples of human and animal food and other materials and for the detection of surface contamination of different objects have been developed. The original concept of an iterative dialogue operator-instrument, based on the built-in intelligence into the instrument—has reduced to a minimum the chance of obtaining an erroneous result. The built-in intelligence specifies: the sequence of the measurements, the subsequence of selecting the necessary absorber for mass ? activity measurement, the algorithms for all necessary calculations. Minimum detectable ? activity of measured samples (40K) is 0.17 Bq/g with an error not exceeding ±30% and measurement time 1000 s. The sensitivity of ? activity measurement is related to the method of sample preparation; it ranges from 0.04 up to 10 Bq/g, with a selectivity with respect to ? activity exceeding 104.

Drndarevic, Vujo R.; Djuric, Danko J.

1993-09-01

137

Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing  

SciTech Connect

The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

Myers, D.

1997-04-01

138

Instrument for Aircraft-Icing and Cloud-Physics Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data acquired by this system and that are used to quantify the severity of icing conditions include sizes of cloud water drops, cloud liquid water content (LWC), cloud ice water content (IWC), and cloud total water content (TWC). The sensor head is mounted on the outside of an aircraft, positioned and oriented to intercept the ambient airflow. The sensor head consists of an open housing that is heated in a controlled manner to keep it free of ice and that contains four hot-wire elements. The hot-wire sensing elements have different shapes and sizes and, therefore, exhibit different measurement efficiencies with respect to droplet size and water phase (liquid, frozen, or mixed). Three of the hot-wire sensing elements are oriented across the airflow so as to intercept incoming cloud water. For each of these elements, the LWC or TWC affects the power required to maintain a constant temperature in the presence of cloud water.

Lilie, Lyle; Bouley, Dan; Sivo, Chris

2006-01-01

139

METHODOLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION TO MEASURE GASEOUS AMMONIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Methodology for the time integrated collection and analysis of atmospheric ammonia was developed. Ammonia is primarily measured because it can react with SOx to produce ammonium sulfate. Since SOx is one of the principle air pollutants, it is important to determine its atmospheri...

140

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference  

E-print Network

encoded grid patterns. This encoding completely solves the point identification problem allowing for an absolute identification of both the line- and column-index of any individual grid node projected compact encoding which eventually leads to higher measurement precision. 1. Introduction Structured light

Petriu, Emil M.

141

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...locomotive 0 1 Amount of correction to be subtracted from measured level (dB). (b) A microphone windscreen and an acoustic calibrator of the coupler type must be used as recommended by: (1) the manufacturer of the sound level meter or (2) the...

2014-07-01

142

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...locomotive 0 1 Amount of correction to be subtracted from measured level (dB). (b) A microphone windscreen and an acoustic calibrator of the coupler type must be used as recommended by: (1) the manufacturer of the sound level meter or (2) the...

2010-07-01

143

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...locomotive 0 1 Amount of correction to be subtracted from measured level (dB). (b) A microphone windscreen and an acoustic calibrator of the coupler type must be used as recommended by: (1) the manufacturer of the sound level meter or (2) the...

2013-07-01

144

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...locomotive 0 1 Amount of correction to be subtracted from measured level (dB). (b) A microphone windscreen and an acoustic calibrator of the coupler type must be used as recommended by: (1) the manufacturer of the sound level meter or (2) the...

2011-07-01

145

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...locomotive 0 1 Amount of correction to be subtracted from measured level (dB). (b) A microphone windscreen and an acoustic calibrator of the coupler type must be used as recommended by: (1) the manufacturer of the sound level meter or (2) the...

2012-07-01

146

Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. These types of measurements are used in computer models to relate remotely sensed water-surface temperature to bulkwater temperature. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured.

Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

2003-01-01

147

An instrumented sample holder for time-lapse microtomography measurements of snow under advective airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrumented sample holder was developed for time-lapse microtomography of snow samples to enable in situ nondestructive spatial and temporal measurements under controlled advective airflows, temperature gradients, and air humidities. The design was aided by computational fluid dynamics simulations to evaluate the airflow uniformity across the snow sample. Morphological and mass transport properties were evaluated during a 4-day test run. This instrument allows the experimental characterization of metamorphism of snow undergoing structural changes with time.

Ebner, P. P.; Grimm, S. A.; Schneebeli, M.; Steinfeld, A.

2014-09-01

148

The low-cost measured instrument with LabVIEW And RJ45  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the design of a low-cost virtual instrument to measure temperature. Problem of development of instrument is the DB25 line limitation which is too short. To solve this problem, RJ45 is used with DB25 to be longer. There are several techniques in this paper such as DB25 to RJ 45 connection technique, analog to digital circuit technique, software

W. Prommee; N. Somchaiwong; S. Jeenawong

2006-01-01

149

Room-temperature phosphorescence fiber-optic instrumentation for simultaneous multiposition analysis of dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and analytical characterization of a fiber-optic instrument for simultaneous multiposition water-dissolved oxygen monitoring by room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) measurements is presented. The sensing principle is based on the RTP quenching by oxygen of the phosphorescent light emitted by the metal chelate formed by Al with 8-hydroxy-7-iodo-5-quinolinesulfonic acid (Al-ferron) trapped in a sol–gel solid support. Four RTP oxygen sensor flow-cells

Juan D??az-Garc??a; José M Costa-Fernández; Nerea Bordel-Garc??a; Alfredo Sanz-Medel

2001-01-01

150

Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement  

DOEpatents

A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

2005-11-08

151

Shock temperature measurements in ammonia  

SciTech Connect

Our first shock temperature measurements on a cryogenic target are reported for NH/sub 3/. A new fast optical pyrometer and a cryogenic specimen holder for liquid NH/sub 3/ were developed to measure shock temperatures of 4400 and 3600 K at pressures of 61 and 48 GPa. These conditions correspond to those in the ice layers in Uranus and Neptune. The shock temperature data are in reasonable agreement with an equation of state based on an intermolecular potential derived from NH/sub 3/ Hugoniot data.

Radousky, H.B.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Ross, M.

1985-07-01

152

Containerless high temperature property measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Containerless processing in the low gravity environment of space provides the opportunity to increase the temperature at which well controlled processing of and property measurements on materials is possible. This project was directed towards advancing containerless processing and property measurement techniques for application to materials research at high temperatures in space. Containerless high temperature material property studies include measurements of the vapor pressure, melting temperature, optical properties, and spectral emissivities of solid boron. The reaction of boron with nitrogen was also studied by laser polarimetric measurement of boron nitride film growth. The optical properties and spectral emissivities were measured for solid and liquid silicon, niobium, and zirconium; liquid aluminum and titanium; and liquid Ti-Al alloys of 5 to 60 atomic pct. titanium. Alternative means for noncontact temperature measurement in the absence of material emissivity data were evaluated. Also, the application of laser induced fluorescence for component activity measurements in electromagnetic levitated liquids was studied, along with the feasibility of a hybrid aerodynamic electromagnetic levitation technique.

Nordine, Paul C.; Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Anderson, Collin D.

1991-01-01

153

Holdup Measures on an SRNL Mossbauer Spectroscopy Instrument  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray holdup measurements of a Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument are described and modeled. In the qualitative acquisitions obtained in a low background area of Savannah River National Laboratory, only Am-241 and Np-237 activity were observed. The Am-241 was known to be the instrumental activation source, while the Np-237 is clearly observed as a source of contamination internal to the instrument. The two sources of activity are modeled separately in two acquisition configurations using two separate modeling tools. The results agree well, demonstrating a content of (1980 {+-} 150) {mu}Ci Am-241 and (110 {+-} 50) {mu}Ci of Np-237.

Dewberry, R.; Brown, T.; Salaymeh, S.

2010-05-05

154

Instruments for the automatic measurement of radius of curvature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roke Manor is developing a family of instruments for the automatic measurement of radius of curvature of any polished surface by non-contact means. These instruments can be of use in the optical workshop, and other places where in-situ measurements are required to be made. Simultaneous measurements of external and internal surfaces can be made and information supplied on decentration and tilt. The family of instruments removes the requirement for accurate test surfaces as required by interferometry, and the long working distance objectives of auto-collimators, while maintaining accuracy. The measurements are accomplished by non- contact means and can be made by personnel unskilled in conventional methods, such as interpreting interference fringes.

Manning, Kevin R.

1993-02-01

155

Chapter 1: Measurements in ! Temperature  

E-print Network

,000,000 mL 1000 mL #12;Chapter 1: Measurements in Chemistry ! Temperature in °C Water freezing point: 0 oC boiling point: 100 oC Chapter 1: Measurements in Chemistry ! Amount Mole (mol); SI standard 1 mol contains

Zakarian, Armen

156

Analysis of wind profile measurements from an instrumented aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental program to determine the capability of measuring wind profiles on support of STS operations with an instrumented aircraft are discussed. These results are a compilation of the flight experiments and the statistical data comparing the quality of the aircraft measurements with quasi-simultaneous and quasi-spatial overlapping Jimsphere measurements. An instrumented aircraft was chosen as a potential alternative to the Jimsphere/radar system for expediting the wind profile calculation by virtue of the ability of an aircraft to traverse the altitudes of interest in roughly 10 minutes. The two aircraft which participated in the study were F-104 and ER-2.

Paige, Terry S.; Murphy, Patrick J.

1990-01-01

157

BETA GAUGE INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF AEROSOL MASS  

EPA Science Inventory

An instrument developed by LBL for the routine measurement of aerosol mass using the beta-gauge particle attenuation method is described and evaluated. Factors affecting the precision and accuracy of the measurement are discussed in detail. Results of intercomparison studies betw...

158

Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science & education, instrumentation & training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science & education, instrumentation & training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro\\/Year. Machine

D. Hofmann; P.-G. Dittrich; E. Duentsch

2010-01-01

159

Separation of temperature and emittance in remotely sensed radiance measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The remote determination of surface temperature and surface spectral emittance by use of airborne or satellite-borne thermal infrared instruments is not straightforward. The radiance measured is a function of surface temperature, the unknown surface spectral emittance, and absorption and emission in the intervening atmosphere. With a single measurement, the solution for temperature and spectral emittance is undedetermined. This article reviews two of the early approximate methods which have been fairly widely used to approach this problem.

Kahle, Anne B.; Alley, Ronald E.

1992-01-01

160

Mid-Latitude Temperatures at 87 km: Results From Multi-Instrument Fourier Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a novel Fourier fitting method we combine two years of mid-latitude temperature measurements at 87 km from the High Resolution Doppler Imager, the Colorado State University lidar, and the Peach Mountain Interferometer. After accounting for calibration bias, significant local-time variations on the order of 10 K were observed. Stationary planetary waves with amplitudes up to 10 K were observed during winter, with weaker wave amplitudes occurring during other seasons. Because of calibration biases among these instruments, we could estimate the annual mean temperature to no better than 193.5 plus or minus 8.5 K.

Drob, Douglas P.; Picone, J. M.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; She, C . Y.; Kafkalidis, J. F.; Ortland, D. A.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Killeen, T. L.

2000-01-01

161

Temperature Measurements Through Dust or Steam for Energy-Intensive Industries  

E-print Network

The precise measurement of temperature in energy-intensive processes can lead to energy conservation and improvements in the quality and consistency of products. While temperature measurement instruments are available for a wide variety...

Stephan, K. D.; Pearce, J. A.; Wang, L.; Ryza, E.

2005-01-01

162

Measuring auroral precipitation parameters without in situ microchannel plate instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in groundbased detector technology have resulted in accurate, high-sensitivity, emission-line filtered images of aurora with sub- to a few- km resolution over a few 100 km region collected at a few second to a few Hz cadence. By combining these images with information from other groundbased instrumentation (ISR, remote photometers, and FPIs) and using well-documented empirical relationships between intensity and precipitating electron characteristics, these images hold the potential for providing an accurate, mesoscale, 2-D time history of the key parameters (characteristic energy and energy flux) of the precipitating electrons that caused the optical aurora within the imager's field of view. In situ measurements can be more accurate, but they are limited to highly localized 1-D line trajectories and are of limited use for meso-scale modeling. However, a limitation of the groundbased technique is that subvisual (low energy) precipitation is not captured. Onboard measurements of total number flux provide low resource measurements capturing specific boundary crossings and gradients as well as net precipitation including the portion not observed optically. The combination of minimal onboard instrumentation supplementing rigorous groundbased inversions can provide an optimal set of inputs for ionospheric modelling tools. Thus we are investigating the capabilities and limitations of using inversions of groundbased observations in the place of in situ precipitation monitors. While several inversion techniques are possible we will discuss two methods used in the analysis of recent rocket experiments. The first, used for the Cascades2 rocket, compares measured altitude profiles of auroral emissions to those from a 1-D electron transport code to confirm optically that two arcs transited by the rocket were produced by significantly different electron spectra. The second method, for the MICA rocket, uses the 2-D temperature maps from the Scanning Doppler Imager to estimate the altitude of the peak emission height of the auroral green line emission and thereby the precipitating electron characteristic energy. For MICA we will also show how the first (C2) method was used to validate the 2-D regional precipitation maps. We will also discuss the limitations and expected error sources of these techniques. The use of minimal onboard observations (for instance, integrated number flux) for detailed boundaries and calibration, supporting 2d-with-time groundbased inversions, can provide better overall ionospheric model input than higher-resource detailed instrumentation on a single 1-d trajectory. The groundbased information provides 2-d and continuous-time context, which can be usefully supplemented by limited onboard measurements providing local gradient and boundary information. The groundbased data provide additional valuable information of auroral morphology in a qualitative way and we build on what we already know from decades of auroral observations to provide an optimal set of input to ionospheric modelling tools.

Lynch, K. A.; Hampton, D. L.; Zettergren, M. D.; Conde, M.; Lessard, M.; Michell, R.; Samara, M.

2013-12-01

163

Wind measurement systems and wind tunnel evaluation of selected instruments  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has conducted wind tunnel tests of seven relatively inexpensive wind measurement systems as part of a program to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of instruments for use in small wind energy conversion system siting studies. This report discusses wind measurement systems and documents the results of the wind tunnel studies. Documentation consists of graphs and tables relating system and system component performance to wind speed. The results describe instrument system performance under ideal conditions; tests in the atmosphere are required to evaluate performance under realistic conditions.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Wetzel, J.S.

1981-05-01

164

Instrumentation for chemical species measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere  

SciTech Connect

Instrument advances made during 1987-1990 for atmospheric trace species measurements are reviewed. Problems discussed include types of measurement strategies, oxidant species, reductant species, and flux measurement. Particular attention is given to odd oxygen species, hydrogen oxides, hydrocarbon oxy and peroxy radicals, halogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, reduced sulfur compounds, ammonia, cyanide compounds, water vapor, nitrous oxide, hydrogen halides, fully halogenated carbon compounds, fully halogenated carbonyl compounds, and sulfur hexafluoride. 195 refs.

Kolb, C.E. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

165

Characterization of a traceable profiler instrument for areal roughness measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional profiler instrument was designed and realized at the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt). The main function of the instrument is to provide traceable results in the field of roughness measurement. It is equipped with a linear moving stylus which is guided by precision air bearings. The moving part of the stylus has weight around 1 g and is carried by a magnetic field. The contacting force of the tip onto the surface under test is controlled by a small voice coil actuator in a closed control loop. Vertical movements of the stylus are captured by two different, completely independent measurement systems, covering a range of 100 µm. The first one is an interferometer, which provides a traceable signal, and the second one is an inductive measurement system. The signal from the inductive measurement system is calibrated by the interferometer. The sample under test is carried within the x-y-plane by a linear guided table with low noise air bearings. These air bearings are preloaded by vacuum and a constant gap is achieved by gas pressure controllers. Both axes of the table are driven by linear voice coil actuators and their movement in the plane is measured by linear encoders. The sample carrier is equipped with two axes tilt compensation, by which the sample under test can be levelled automatically using the measurement system of the stylus. Real-time data acquisition, manual handling and automated procedures are managed by a programmable controller and proprietary software written in LabVIEW. After measurement, data from the system can be directly transferred into the smd- or sdf-format. Results of measurements on different samples to characterize the metrological behaviour of the instrument will be reported. To characterize the uncertainty of the instrument, a model is applied, which is in accordance with approved rules for contact stylus instruments.

Thomsen-Schmidt, P.

2011-09-01

166

Measurement of Sexual Functioning After Spinal Cord Injury: Preferred Instruments  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: To determine the utility of certain instruments to assess sexuality and fertility after SCI, an expert panel identified key areas to study and evaluated available instruments. These were rated according to certain predefined criteria. Methods: The authors divided sexual issues into male and female sexual function, male reproductive function, and female reproductive function. The instruments that have been used most frequently to measure these aspects of sexual function over the past 5 years were identified by expert consensus. Finally, these instruments were subjected to a critical review. Results: The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), measurement of vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and the measurement of ejaculatory function and semen quality were considered appropriate measures to assess sexual responses and reproductive function after SCI. There were no measures identified to assess female reproductive function. Conclusions: For clinical trials aiming to improve sexual function after SCI, the FSFI or the IIEF is currently preferred. Although VPA is an appropriate means to assess female sexual responses, it is only useful for laboratory studies and is too invasive for use in clinical trials. For assessment of male fertility potential, assessment of ejaculatory capacity and semen analysis are recommended. PMID:19810624

Autonomic Standards Committee; Alexander, Marcalee Sipski; Brackett, Nancy L; Bodner, Donald; Elliott, Stacy; Jackson, Amie; Sonksen, Jens

2009-01-01

167

Instrument for measuring dispersional distortions in optical fibers and cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrument was developed and built for measuring the dispersional distortions in optical fibers and cables on the basis of pulse widening. The instrument consists of a laser as a light source, a master oscillator, an optical transmitter, an optical shunt with mode mixer, an optical receiver, a fiber length measuring device, a smoothly adjustable delay line, and a stroboscopic oscillograph. The optical transmitter contains a semiconductor laser with GaAs-GaAlAs diheterostructure and modulator with pulse generating avalanche-breakdown transistors. The optical receiver contains a germanium photodiode with internal amplification and photoreceiver amplifier with microwave bipolar germanium transistors. Matching of the instrument to the tested fiber line is done by passing radiation into the latter from an auxiliary small He-Ne laser through a directional coupler.

Alishev, Y. V.; Maryenko, A. A.; Smirnov, Y. V.; Uryadov, V. N.; Sinkevich, V. I.

1985-03-01

168

An Automated Instrument for the Measurement of Bark Microrelief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bark microrelief is of importance to the physiological ecology of forested ecosystems because it has been documented to influence the distribution of corticolous lichens, stemflow generation, and forest biogeochemical cycles. Hitherto no instrument existed to characterize the inherent variability of bark microrelief with high spatial resolution. Our newly-designed bark microrelief instrument, the LaserBarkTM, consists of a hinged ring, laser rangefinder, and motor linked to a standard laptop. The LaserBarkTM produces trunk cross- sections at a 0.33 degree horizontal resolution and detects bark ridge-to furrow heights at < 1 mm resolution. The LaserBarkTM was validated by comparing measurements of bark microrelief between the instrument and digital calipers. The mean absolute error of the instrument was 0.83 mm. Our bark microrelief instrument can supply critical requisite information of bark microstructure that be used by researchers to interpret the distribution of lichens and bryophytes on tree surfaces, relate stemflow yield and chemistry to bark microrelief, and provide detailed measurements of the changes of bark microrelief with stem dehydration. In short, the LaserBarkTM can be used to gain a more holistic understanding of the functional ecology of forest ecosystems.

van Stan, J. T.; Jarvis, M.; Levia, D. F.

2009-05-01

169

Mathematical enhancement of data from scientific measuring instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy of any physical measurement is limited by the instruments performing it. The proposed activities of this grant are related to the study of and application of mathematical techniques of deconvolution. Two techniques are being investigated: an iterative method and a function continuation Fourier method. This final status report describes the work performed during the period July 1 to December 31, 1982.

Ioup, J. W.

1982-01-01

170

Measuring Small Changes In Aim Of An Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optoelectronic system measures small changes in direction of line of sight of instrument. Optical point source and lens mounted on x-ray telescope in reverse configuration - as projector. Magnified relative lateral motion of point source and lens imaged on position-sensing photodetector.

Arenberg, Jonathan W.; Texter, Scott C.

1993-01-01

171

Improved Measurement of Coherence in Presence of Instrument Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for correcting measured coherence spectra for the effect of incoherent instrument noise has been developed and demonstrated. Coherence measurements are widely used in engineering and science to determine the extent to which two signals are alike. The signals may come from two different sources or from the same source at different times. The coherence of time-lagged signals from a single source is an excellent indication of the effective lifetime of the signal components as a function of their frequency. Unfortunately, incoherent instrument noise will bias the measurement to lower values and may lead the user of the data to false conclusions about the longevity of significant features. The new method may be used whenever both the signal and noise power spectra are known and the noise is incoherent both with the signal and with itself at the applicable time delays. It provides a corrected coherence spectrum given the measured coherence and power spectra. For powerlaw signal spectra and instrumental white noise, the correction formula takes a particularly simple and explicit form. Since many geophysical signals exhibit powerlaw behavior and most instrument noise spectra approach white noise, the simplified form should be widely applicable in meteorology, oceanography, geology, and planetary geophysics.

Merceret, Francis J.

2003-01-01

172

7th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Symposium Series on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII) has progressed considerably over the 15 years of its existence. The first and second conferences were held in 1989 and 1993, respectively at Huazhong University of Science and Technology, in China in conjunction with the University of Birmingham in the UK, and organised by Professor Zhu Li, the founding

Xiangqian Jane Jiang; David J Whitehouse

2005-01-01

173

Towards a framework for source code instrumentation measurement validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ignoring monitoring overhead and not validating measurements are two common mistakes in benchmarking. We extend, apply and evaluate for a practical FFT library our own methodologies for overhead compensation and over-all validation. The overhead and error sources we address include the source instrumentation and separate activities unrelated to the phenomena under study. We are able to quantify the differences with

Haleh Najafzadeh; Seth Chaiken

2005-01-01

174

Laser diffraction methods for high temperature strain measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical methods, utilizing the interference fringes produced by diffraction of laser light passing through a narrow slit, have been developed for strain measurements at high temperature above 1000 C. Basic principles, instrumentation, calibration, and measurement techniques of the methods and sample applications are presented.

H. Pih; K. C. Liu

1989-01-01

175

Mass measuring instrument for use under microgravity conditions  

SciTech Connect

A prototype instrument for measuring astronaut body mass under microgravity conditions has been developed and its performance was evaluated by parabolic flight tests. The instrument, which is the space scale, is applied as follows. Connect the subject astronaut to the space scale with a rubber cord. Use a force transducer to measure the force acting on the subject and an optical interferometer to measure the velocity of the subject. The subject's mass is calculated as the impulse divided by the velocity change, i.e., M={integral}Fdt/{delta}v. Parabolic flight by using a jet aircraft produces a zero-gravity condition lasting approximately 20 s. The performance of the prototype space scale was evaluated during such a flight by measuring the mass of a sample object.

Fujii, Yusaku; Yokota, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Seiji; Sugita, Yoichi; Ito, Hitomi [Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Shimada, Kazuhito [Medical Operations, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba Space Center, Tsukuba 305-8505 (Japan)

2008-05-15

176

An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

Figurski, J.D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J.R.; Denny, M.

2011-01-01

177

Mass measuring instrument for use under microgravity conditions.  

PubMed

A prototype instrument for measuring astronaut body mass under microgravity conditions has been developed and its performance was evaluated by parabolic flight tests. The instrument, which is the space scale, is applied as follows. Connect the subject astronaut to the space scale with a rubber cord. Use a force transducer to measure the force acting on the subject and an optical interferometer to measure the velocity of the subject. The subject's mass is calculated as the impulse divided by the velocity change, i.e., M=integral Fdt/delta v. Parabolic flight by using a jet aircraft produces a zero-gravity condition lasting approximately 20 s. The performance of the prototype space scale was evaluated during such a flight by measuring the mass of a sample object. PMID:18513098

Fujii, Yusaku; Shimada, Kazuhito; Yokota, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Seiji; Sugita, Yoichi; Ito, Hitomi

2008-05-01

178

Mass measuring instrument for use under microgravity conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype instrument for measuring astronaut body mass under microgravity conditions has been developed and its performance was evaluated by parabolic flight tests. The instrument, which is the space scale, is applied as follows. Connect the subject astronaut to the space scale with a rubber cord. Use a force transducer to measure the force acting on the subject and an optical interferometer to measure the velocity of the subject. The subject's mass is calculated as the impulse divided by the velocity change, i.e., M =?Fdt/?v. Parabolic flight by using a jet aircraft produces a zero-gravity condition lasting approximately 20s. The performance of the prototype space scale was evaluated during such a flight by measuring the mass of a sample object.

Fujii, Yusaku; Shimada, Kazuhito; Yokota, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Seiji; Sugita, Yoichi; Ito, Hitomi

2008-05-01

179

A high temperature apparatus for measurement of the Seebeck coefficient  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus with various features to minimize typical sources of error is designed and built. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement error are described and principles to overcome these are proposed. With these guiding principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus with a uniaxial 4-point contact geometry is designed to operate from room temperature to over 1200 K. This instrument design is simple to operate, and suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

Iwanaga, Shiho; Toberer, Eric S.; LaLonde, Aaron; Snyder, G. Jeffrey [Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2011-06-15

180

Direct Comparisons of Radiances Measured by Independent Contemporary ERB Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparisons of radiance measurements from overlapping independent Earth and cloud radiation budget (ERB) missions are an important contribution to the validation process of the these missions and are essential to the construction of a consistent long-term record of ERB observations. Measurements from the CERES instrument on TRMM are compared to ScaRaB on Resurs (Jan-Mar 1999) and CERES on Terra (Mar-Apr 2000).

Haeffelin, Martial; Wielicki, Bruce; Priestley, Kory; Duvel, Jean Philippe; Viollier, Michel

2001-01-01

181

Comparing alternative instruments to measure service quality in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to examine the performance of five alternative measures of service quality in the high education sector – SERVQUAL (Service Quality), Importance-weighted SERVQUAL, SERVPERF (Service Performance), Importance-weighted SERVPERF and HedPERF (Higher Education Performance). We aim at determining which instrument has the superior measurement capability. Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire containing perception

Ana Oliveira-Brochado; Rui Cunha Marques

2007-01-01

182

Compact optical integration instrument to measure intraocular straylight  

PubMed Central

Optical measurement of straylight in the human eye is a challenging task. Issues such as illumination geometry, detector sensitivity and dynamic range as well as various inherent artifacts must be addressed. We developed a novel instrument based on the principle of double-pass optical integration adapted for fast measurements in a clinical setting. The experimental setup was validated using four different diffusers introduced in front of the eyes of ten subjects. Measurement limitations and future implications of rapid optical measurement of straylight in ophthalmic diagnosis are discussed. PMID:25401017

Ginis, Harilaos; Sahin, Onurcan; Pennos, Alexandros; Artal, Pablo

2014-01-01

183

Intelligent instruments for process measurement techniques (monitoring of sensors)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibilities to extract redundant information of temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, semiconductor temperature sensors), and to find out which of the suggested redundancies are most suited for self controlled monitoring were investigated. Practical experience with equipment for process measurement techniques shows that sensor failures are five times more frequent than electronic malfunction. For resistance thermometers the measured values of the

B. Bauer; H. D. Hess; J. R. Kalinski; W. Leisenberg; D. Marsch

1984-01-01

184

Measuring Stakeholder Participation in Evaluation: An Empirical Validation of the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument (PEMI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Stakeholder participation is an important trend in the field of program evaluation. Although a few measurement instruments have been proposed, they either have not been empirically validated or do not cover the full content of the concept. Objectives: This study consists of a first empirical validation of a measurement instrument that…

Daigneault, Pierre-Marc; Jacob, Steve; Tremblay, Joel

2012-01-01

185

Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science & education, instrumentation & training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science & education, instrumentation & training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

Hofmann, D.; Dittrich, P.-G.; Duentsch, E.

2010-07-01

186

Measuring formation properties through well casing with pulsed neutron instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring formation properties through well casing with pulsed neutron instrumentation In the process of developing an oil or gas reservoir, the exploration team first confirms the existence of a potential reservoir with a discovery well. Then the size, content, and character of the reservoir are mapped with roughly six to twelve delineation wells. From this information the development team plans a development program to produce the oil and gas, which can run into hundreds of wells. Whereas the exploration and delineation wellbores are left open to the formation to allow measurement of the reservoir properties, the development wellbores are cased with cemented-in-place steel casing to isolate zones and allow targeting of specific oil or gas layers for production (which is accomplished by perforating the casing in the target zones with explosive charges). Once the casing is in place it obviously becomes more difficult to measure reservoir and formation properties since one-quarter to one-half inch of steel casing plus another inch or so of cement between the formation and the borehole greatly restrict the measurement methods that can be used. But there are over a million cased wellbores penetrating the earth's crust, many plugged, cemented, and abandoned, but many still producing oil and gas or otherwise available for logging. However difficult it may be, formation measurements through the steel casing are of importance to oil and gas production companies, and they could be of some value to earth scientists. Since 1964 when the first instrument was introduced, pulsed neutron instrumentation for oil and gas well logging has been used to measure formation properties through casing. The basic downhole instrumentation consists of a pulsed fusion reactor for a source of high energy neutrons and gamma ray detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy. The early generation instruments measured water and oil proportions crudely and only in reservoirs where the connate water was highly saline. Subsequent generations expanded the utility of the measurements, and the latest generation is able to make precise and accurate measurements of a number of formation properties through casing. This presentation reviews the state of the art in downhole pulsed neutron logging in cased wellbores and presents an overview of some of the current capabilities and limitations. The presentation is not focused on a single design or company technology. Rather, it reviews features of the technologies available from major worldwide suppliers along with a discussion of the range of applications, accuracy and precision, best practices, and recommendations for logging program planning. Measurements discussed include formation mineralogy, porosity, and density; multi-phase oil, water, gas, condensate, and CO2 proportions in the pore space; pressure; and mechanical rock properties.

Trcka, Darryl

2010-05-01

187

Optical radiation measurements for photovoltaic applications: instrumentation uncertainty and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) devices in the laboratory and in the field requires accurate knowledge of the optical radiation stimulating the devices. We briefly describe the radiometric instrumentation used for characterizing broadband and spectral irradiance for PV applications. Spectral radiometric measurement systems are used to characterize solar simulators (continuous and pulsed, or flash sources) and natural sunlight. Broadband radiometers (pyranometers and pyrheliometers) are used to assess solar resources for renewable applications and develop and validate broadband solar radiation models for estimating system performance. We describe the sources and magnitudes of uncertainty associated with calibrations and measuremens using these instruments. The basic calibration and measurement uncertainty associated with this instrumentaion are based on the guidlines described in the International Standards Organization (ISO) and Bureau INternationale des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) Guide to Uncertainty in Measurement. The additional contributions to uncertainty arising from the uncertainty in characterization functions and correction schemes are discussed and ilustrated. Finally, empirical comparisons of several solar radiometer instrumentation sets illustrate that the best measurement accuracy for broadband radiation is on the order of 3%, and spectrally dependent uncertainty for spectroradiometer systems range from 4% in the visible to 8% to 10% in the ultraviolet and infrared.

Myers, Daryl R.; Reda, Ibrahim; Wilcox, Stephen; Andreas, Afshin

2004-11-01

188

The display of portable infrared measuring temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years based on security, quality supervision, inspection and medical for the urgent need of infrared temperature measurement and infrared display technology, coupled with embedded system to achieve rapid development, which is widely used in the electronic products and the field of intelligent instruments and industrial control, this paper has designed a kind of more comprehensive, more efficient and more intuitive infrared thermometer. Unlike previous handheld infrared thermometer, we regard an embedded Linux system as the system, with its open source code, support most mainstream hardware platforms, unified peripheral interface and can be customized, to build an embedded infrared system that has provided strong system support; the pseudocolor techniques and Qt interface display technology make the image more colorful and the picture function more diverse; With ARM microprocessor as the display and temperature measuring platform, it costs reduction and reduce volume and power consumption; the FrameBuffer interface technology and multithreading technology realize the smooth real-time display. And ultimately the display size of real-time infrared image is 640 * 480 at a speed of 25 frames / sec. What is more, display is equipped with the menu option so that thermometer can be required to complete the operation through the button. The temperature display system aims at small volume, easy to use and flexible. I believe this thermometer will have a good application prospect.

Qian, Yitao; Gu, Guohua; Sui, Xiubao

2014-11-01

189

Accelerated measurement of perikymata by an optical instrument  

PubMed Central

The proposed device considerably reduces the measuring time of important microscopic features of tooth crown surfaces. The instrumentation is accompanied by a computer program to analyse the results. Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which demonstrate daily secretory rhythms developing tissue-specific structures known as cross striations, and longer period markings that are referred as striae of Retzius. These striae correspond to linear structures on the enamel surface. This newly developed optical measuring instrument can automatically, precisely and accurately record the number and periodicity of perikymata on the dental crown. Furthermore it can characterize the variability in periodicity of perikymata in hominids. The depth of field can be extended as desired by taking several images with different focus positions and combining them into a single composite image that contains all regions fully focused. PMID:24156069

Elhechmi, Imen; Braga, José; Dasgupta, Gautam; Gharbi, Tijani

2013-01-01

190

Instrumentation for measuring aircraft noise and sonic boom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved instrumentation suitable for measuring aircraft noise and sonic booms is described. An electric current proportional to the sound pressure level at a condenser microphone is produced and transmitted over a cable and amplified by a zero drive amplifier. The converter consists of a local oscillator, a dual-gate field-effect transistor mixer, and a voltage regulator/impedance translator. The improvements include automatic tuning compensation against changes in static microphone capacitance and means for providing a remote electrical calibration capability.

Zuckerwar, A. J. (inventor)

1976-01-01

191

Measuring Aerosol Optical Properties with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to the NASA EOS-Aura mission scheduled for launch in January 2004. OMI is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance between 270 an 500 nm. With its relatively high spatial resolution (13x24 km2 at nadir) and daily global coverage. OMI will make a major contribution to our understanding

J. P. Veefkind; O. Torres; A. Syniuk; R. Decae; G. de Leeuw

2003-01-01

192

Issues in selection of instruments to measure negative symptoms.  

PubMed

Guidance for selection of instruments for measurement of negative symptoms is rapidly evolving. As there are continuing advances in the description of negative symptoms, new instruments are under development, and new data on the performance of instruments emerge from clinical trials. The Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Marder Negative Factor and the Negative Symptom Assessment-16 (NSA-16) are considered to be reliable and valid measures for negative symptom trials but differ with respect to their domain coverage, use of informants, integration of global scores, administration time and comprehensiveness of their structured interviews. In response to the 2005 NIMH-MATRICS consensus statement, work groups are field testing and refining two new measures, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS). Both address the five currently recognized domains of negative symptoms, differentiate appetitive from consummatory aspects of anhedonia and address desire for social relationships. Thus far, both have exhibited promising psychometric properties. PMID:23899996

Daniel, David Gordon

2013-11-01

193

Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

194

Coherent Laser Instrument Would Measure Range and Velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed instrument would project a narrow laser beam that would be frequency-modulated with a pseudorandom noise (PN) code for simultaneous measurement of range and velocity along the beam. The instrument performs these functions in a low mass, power, and volume package using a novel combination of established techniques. Originally intended as a low resource- footprint guidance sensor for descent and landing of small spacecraft onto Mars or small bodies (e.g., asteroids), the basic instrument concept also lends itself well to a similar application guiding aircraft (especially, small unmanned aircraft), and to such other applications as ranging of topographical features and measuring velocities of airborne light-scattering particles as wind indicators. Several key features of the instrument s design contribute to its favorable performance and resource-consumption characteristics. A laser beam is intrinsically much narrower (for the same exit aperture telescope or antenna) than a radar beam, eliminating the need to correct for the effect of sloping terrain over the beam width, as is the case with radar. Furthermore, the use of continuous-wave (CW), erbium-doped fiber lasers with excellent spectral purity (narrow line width) permits greater velocity resolution, while reducing the laser s power requirement compared to a more typical pulsed solid-state laser. The use of CW also takes proper advantage of the increased sensitivity of coherent detection, necessary in the first place for direct measurement of velocity using the Doppler effect. However, measuring range with a CW beam requires modulation to "tag" portions of it for time-of-flight determination; typically, the modulation consists of a PN code. A novel element of the instrument s design is the use of frequency modulation (FM) to accomplish both the PN-modulation and the Doppler-bias frequency shift necessary for signed velocity measurements. This permits the use of a single low-power waveguide electrooptic phase modulator, while simultaneously mitigating the effects of speckle as a noise source in the coherent detection.

Chang, Daniel; Cardell, Greg; San Martin, Alejandro; Spiers, Gary

2005-01-01

195

Ground-based measurements of mesosphere temperatures by optical means  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the rotatinal temperature of the molecular emissions of OH or O2 offers a means of observing from the ground the mesosphere temperature at about 90 km throughout the night. The techniques and optical instrumentation developed to carry out these measurements are described. In comparison with other methods for the observation of this important geophysical quantity the optical technique is inexpensive and readily applicable for automatic operations over a long time period.

Meriweather, J. W., Jr.

1984-11-01

196

Ground-based Measurements of Mesosphere Temperatures by Optical Means  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of the rotatinal temperature of the molecular emissions of OH or O2 offers a means of observing from the ground the mesosphere temperature at about 90 km throughout the night. The techniques and optical instrumentation developed to carry out these measurements are described. In comparison with other methods for the observation of this important geophysical quantity the optical technique is inexpensive and readily applicable for automatic operations over a long time period.

Meriweather, J. W., Jr.

1984-01-01

197

Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To facilitate astrobiological studies on the survival and adaptation of microorganisms and mixed microbial cultures to space environment, we have been developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring their gene expression on small spacecraft. This low-cost, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement in our ability to study the impact of the space environment on biological systems by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation orders of magnitude richer than what is currently available. The system supports growth of the organism, lyse it to release the expressed RNA, label the RNA, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis of labeled RNA and transmit the measurements to Earth. To measure gene expression we use microarray technology developed by CombiMatrix, which is based on electrochemical reactions on arrays of electrodes on a semiconductor substrate. Since the electrical integrity of the microarray remains intact after probe synthesis, the circuitry can be employed to sense nucleic acid binding at each electrode. CombiMatrix arrays can be sectored to allow multiple samples per chip. In addition, a single array can be used for several assays. The array has been integrated into an automated microfluidic cartridge that uses flexible reagent blisters and pinch pumping to move liquid reagents between chambers. The proposed instrument will help to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration. The instrument is suitable for small satellite platforms, which provide frequent, low cost access to space. It can be also used on any other platform in space, including the ISS. It can be replicated and used with only small modifications in multiple biological experiments with a broad range of goals in mind.

Pohorille, A.; Peyvan, K.; Danley, D.; Ricco, A. J.

2010-01-01

198

A New Instrument for Measuring Energetic Radiation From Triggered Lightning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we describe a new instrument built at the Florida Institute of Technology for measuring x-rays and gamma-rays from rocket-triggered lightning. During the summer of 2002, the instrument was placed less than 25 m from the 11 m tall launch tower at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. The instrument consists of a 5" by 3" cylinder of NaI(Tl) scintillator attached to a 5" photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector, plus a control detector, identical in every way but with no scintillator attached to the PMT. Great care was taken to reduce false signals from the electrically noisy environment. Both detectors are battery operated and placed inside a thick aluminum, watertight box, sealed to prevent RF noise and light leaks. Data are transmitted to a National Instruments PCI 5102 data acquisition card and PC via fiber optic links. The output signals from the preamplifiers attached to each PMT are digitized with 8 bit resolution every 1 microsecond, and the data acquisition is triggered externally by the current measured (threshold = 4.5 kiloamps) at the launch tower, which usually corresponds to the occurrence of the return strokes. For each trigger, a total of 1 second of data are acquired simultaneously for both PMTs with 0.1 seconds of pre-trigger data. This technique allows individual signals to be analyzed to distinguish real x-rays from noise or other false signals. On 2002 July 20 and 25, 5 rockets were launched from the tower under thunderstorm conditions, resulting in a total of 5 triggered lightning flashes containing at least 24 return strokes terminated on the launch tower. During these lightning events, large amounts of energetic radiation (>>10 keV) in the form of x-rays and gamma-rays and/or energetic electrons were observed just prior to 20 of the 24 recorded return strokes, depositing on average tens of MeV into the detector per stroke. We shall present an overview of the design of the instrument and its performance in the laboratory and field environments.

Al-Dayeh, M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H. K.; Uman, M. A.; Rakov, V. A.; Jerauld, J.; Jordan, D. M.; Rambo, K. J.; Caraway, L.; Corbin, V.; Wright, B.

2002-12-01

199

Measuring parent food practices: a systematic review of existing measures and examination of instruments  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in development of instruments to measure parent food practices. Because these instruments often measure different constructs, or define common constructs differently, an evaluation of these instruments is needed. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify existing measures of parent food practices and to assess the quality of their development. The initial search used terms capturing home environment, parenting behaviors, feeding practices and eating behaviors, and was performed in October of 2009 using PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, Web of knowledge (ISI), and ERIC, and updated in July of 2012. A review of titles and abstracts was used to narrow results, after which full articles were retrieved and reviewed. Only articles describing development of measures of parenting food practices designed for families with children 2-12 years old were retained for the current review. For each article, two reviewers extracted data and appraised the quality of processes used for instrument development and evaluation. The initial search yielded 28,378 unique titles; review of titles and abstracts narrowed the pool to 1,352 articles; from which 57 unique instruments were identified. The review update yielded 1,772 new titles from which14 additional instruments were identified. The extraction and appraisal process found that 49% of instruments clearly identified and defined concepts to be measured, and 46% used theory to guide instrument development. Most instruments (80%) had some reliability testing, with internal consistency being the most common (79%). Test-retest or inter-rater reliability was reported for less than half the instruments. Some form of validity evidence was reported for 84% of instruments. Construct validity was most commonly presented (86%), usually with analysis of associations with child diet or weight/BMI. While many measures of food parenting practices have emerged, particularly in recent years, few have demonstrated solid development methods. Substantial variation in items across different scales/constructs makes comparison between instruments extremely difficult. Future efforts should be directed toward consensus development of food parenting practices constructs and measures. PMID:23688157

2013-01-01

200

Measuring parent food practices: a systematic review of existing measures and examination of instruments.  

PubMed

During the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in development of instruments to measure parent food practices. Because these instruments often measure different constructs, or define common constructs differently, an evaluation of these instruments is needed. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify existing measures of parent food practices and to assess the quality of their development. The initial search used terms capturing home environment, parenting behaviors, feeding practices and eating behaviors, and was performed in October of 2009 using PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, Web of knowledge (ISI), and ERIC, and updated in July of 2012. A review of titles and abstracts was used to narrow results, after which full articles were retrieved and reviewed. Only articles describing development of measures of parenting food practices designed for families with children 2-12 years old were retained for the current review. For each article, two reviewers extracted data and appraised the quality of processes used for instrument development and evaluation. The initial search yielded 28,378 unique titles; review of titles and abstracts narrowed the pool to 1,352 articles; from which 57 unique instruments were identified. The review update yielded 1,772 new titles from which14 additional instruments were identified. The extraction and appraisal process found that 49% of instruments clearly identified and defined concepts to be measured, and 46% used theory to guide instrument development. Most instruments (80%) had some reliability testing, with internal consistency being the most common (79%). Test-retest or inter-rater reliability was reported for less than half the instruments. Some form of validity evidence was reported for 84% of instruments. Construct validity was most commonly presented (86%), usually with analysis of associations with child diet or weight/BMI. While many measures of food parenting practices have emerged, particularly in recent years, few have demonstrated solid development methods. Substantial variation in items across different scales/constructs makes comparison between instruments extremely difficult. Future efforts should be directed toward consensus development of food parenting practices constructs and measures. PMID:23688157

Vaughn, Amber E; Tabak, Rachel G; Bryant, Maria J; Ward, Dianne S

2013-01-01

201

High-pressure-temperature gradient instrument: use for determining the temperature and pressure limits of bacterial growth.  

PubMed Central

A pressurized temperature gradient instrument allowed a synoptic determination of the effects of temperature and pressure on the reproduction of bacteria. The instrument consisted of eight pressure vessels housed parallel to each other in an insulated aluminum block in which a linear temperature gradient was supported. For a given experiment, eight pressures between 1 and 1,100 bars were chosen; the linear temperature gradient was established over an interval within -20 to 100 degrees C. Pure cultures and natural populations were studied in liquid or solid medium either in short (ca. 2-cm) culture tubes or in long (76.2-cm) glass capillaries. In the case of a pure culture, experiments with the pressurized temperature gradient instrument determined values of temperature and pressure that bounded its growth. Feasibility experiments with mixed populations of bacteria from water samples from a shallow depth of the sea showed that the instrument may be useful in identifying the extent to which a natural population is adapted to the temperatures and pressures at the locale of origin of the sample. Additional conceived uses of the instrument included synoptic determinations of cell functions other than reproduction and of biochemical activities. Images PMID:6391378

Yayanos, A A; van Boxtel, R; Dietz, A S

1984-01-01

202

On the application of the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement to measuring instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem situation related to the calibration and use of measuring instruments is addressed in general terms with reference to the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. Some relevant concepts and definitions, not explicitly addressed in the Guide, are considered, such as the role of the compatibility of different measurements of the same measurand and the calibration

Ernesto Arri; Franco Cabiati; Saverio D'Emilio; Luigi Gonella

1995-01-01

203

A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bolometric oscillation sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that has been active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present article, the measurement principle of BOS and its transfer function are presented. The performance of the instrument is discussed based on laboratory experiments and space observations from the PICARD satellite. The comparison of the short term variation of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) with absolute radiometers such as VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE over the same period of time, suggests that BOS is a relatively much simpler but very effective sensor to monitor electromagnetic radiation variations from visible to infrared wavelengths.

Zhu, P.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Karatekin, Ö.; Noël, J.-P.; Thuillier, G.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; Conscience, C.; Janssen, E.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.

2014-12-01

204

Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing.  

PubMed

Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra. PMID:21509063

Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

2011-04-20

205

121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York, New York County, NY

206

Measuring residual stress in glasses and ceramics using instrumented indentation.  

SciTech Connect

Instrumented indentation has yielded mixed results when used to measure surface residual stresses in metal films. Relative to metals, many glasses and ceramics have a low modulus-to-yield strength (E/sy) ratio. The advantage of this characteristic for measuring residual stress using instrumented indentation is demonstrated by a series of comparative spherical and conical tip finite element simulations. Two cases are considered: (i) a material with E/s{sub y} = 24-similar to glass and (ii) a material with E/s{sub y} = 120-similar to metal films. In both cases, compressive residual stress shifts the simulated load-displacement response toward increasing hardness, irrespective of tip geometry. This shift is shown to be entirely due to pile up for the ''metal'' case, but primarily due to the direct influence of the residual stress for the ''glass'' case. Hardness changes and load-displacement curve shifts are explained by using the spherical cavity model. Supporting experimental results on stressed glasses are provided.

Tandon, Rajan; Buchheit, Thomas E.

2007-03-01

207

An instrument for high-throughput measurements of fiber mechanical properties  

E-print Network

In this thesis, an instrument is designed and constructed for the purpose of measuring the mechanical properties of single fibers. The instrument is intended to provide high throughput measurement of single fiber geometric ...

Kristofek, Grant William, 1980-

2005-01-01

208

Cutting temperature measurement while machining – a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper gives the background to the measurement of metal cutting temperatures and a review of the practicality of the various methods of measuring cutting temperature while machining metals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The review was compiled after a literature search, visits to other research establishments and discussions with other researchers in the machining\\/temperature measurement field. Findings – Information about

J. M. Longbottom; J. D. Lanham

2005-01-01

209

Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unsung heroes of today's faster prod- uct introductions might well be docu- mentation departments. They're tasked to document more products, with more fre- quent releases—often without more budget. Many documentation departments are meeting the challenge with advanced tools for document creation and distribution, as epitomized by the Texas Instruments (TI) application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) product group. \\

TELEDYNE HASTINGS; JANE SAMPLE

2002-01-01

210

Microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions; algorithms for digital processing of the measurement signal and an estimate of the errors  

SciTech Connect

Rational algorithms for measuring the harmonic coefficient in microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions based on digital processing of the codes of the instantaneous values of the signal being investigated are described and the errors of such instruments are obtained.

Mints, M.Ya.; Chinkov, V.N.

1995-09-01

211

Instrumentation for Measurement of Strain Dependence of Nb3Sn Conductors National High Magnetic Field Laboratory  

E-print Network

Instrumentation for Measurement of Strain Dependence of Nb3Sn Conductors National High Magnetic Analysis of the helical spring. #12;Instrumentation for Measurement of Strain Dependence of Nb3Sn of a BS- MS program. Part of the purpose of the award is to provide instrumentation for the measurement

Weston, Ken

212

Development of a calibration system for electronic distance measuring instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design of a facility to calibrate electronic distance measuring instruments (EDMs), as used in surveying (electronic theodolites) and large scale industrial measurement, over the range of 0 to 60 m. The combined uncertainty of the system at 60 m, estimated at the 95 percent confidence level, is expected to be 0.4 mm. The EDM is compared with a heterodyne laser measurement system in a back-to-back configuration. The trolley carrying the optics travels on aluminium rails. In order to improve the straightness of the path followed by the reflectors during measurement, the trolley optics are mounted on a two-axis motorized translation stage which uses a quadrant diode to track an additional guiding laser beam parallel to the required path. Once programmed, the trolley tracking electronics are autonomous and no connection is necessary to external power or control sources for that. However, radio frequency remote control of the motor propelling trolley motor would assist the measurements.

Forde, Lucy C.; Howick, Eleanor F.

2001-10-01

213

TRISO fuel compact thermal conductivity measurement instrument development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal conductivity is an important thermophysical property needed for effectively predicting fuel performance. As part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program, the thermal conductivity of tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel needs to be measured over a temperature range characteristic of its usage. The composite nature of TRISO fuel requires that measurement be performed over the entire length of the compact in a non-destructive manner. No existing measurement system is capable of performing such a measurement. A measurement system has been designed based on the steady-state, guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow technique. The system as currently designed is capable of measuring cylindrical samples with diameters ˜12.3-mm (˜0.5?) with lengths ˜25-mm (˜1?). The system is currently operable in a temperature range of 400 K to 1100 K for materials with thermal conductivities on the order of 10 W/m/K to 70 W/m/K. The system has been designed, built, and tested. An uncertainty analysis for the determinate errors of the system has been performed finding a result of 5.5%. Finite element modeling of the system measurement method has also been accomplished demonstrating optimal design, operating conditions, and associated bias error. Measurements have been performed on three calibration/validation materials: SS304, 99.95% pure iron, and inconel 625. In addition, NGNP graphite with ZrO2 particles and NGNP AGR-2 graphite matrix only, both in compact form, have been measured. Results from the SS304 sample show agreement of better than 3% for a 300--600°C temperature range. For iron between 100--600°C, the difference with published values is <8% for all temperatures. The maximum difference from published data for inconel 625 is 5.8%, near 600°C. Both NGNP samples were measured from 100--800°C. All results are presented and discussed. Finally, a discussion of ongoing work is included as well as a brief discussion of implementation under other operating conditions, including higher temperatures and adaptation for use in a glovebox or hot cell.

Jensen, Colby

214

Validation of low-cost ozone measurement instruments suitable for use in an air-quality monitoring network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel low-cost instrument that uses a sensor based on conductivity changes of heated tungstic oxide, which is capable of accurately measuring ambient concentrations of ozone. A combination of temperature steps and air flow-rate steps is used to continually reset and re-zero the sensor. A two-stage calibration procedure is presented, in which a nonlinear transformation converts sensor resistance to a signal linear in ozone concentration, then a linear correlation is used to align the calibration with a reference instrument. The required calibration functions specific for the sensor, and control system for air flow rate and sensor temperature, are housed with the sensor in a compact, simple-to-exchange assembly. The instrument can be operated on solar power and uses cell phone technology to enable monitoring in remote locations. Data from field trials are presented here to demonstrate that both the accuracy and the stability of the instrument over periods of months are within a few parts-per-billion by volume. We show that common failure modes can be detected through measurement of signals available from the instrument. The combination of long-term stability, self-diagnosis, and simple, inexpensive repair means that the cost of operation and calibration of the instruments is significantly reduced in comparison with traditional reference instrumentation. These instruments enable the economical construction and operation of ozone monitoring networks of accuracy, time resolution and spatial density sufficient to resolve the local gradients that are characteristic of urban air pollution.

Williams, David E.; Henshaw, Geoff S.; Bart, Mark; Laing, Greer; Wagner, John; Naisbitt, Simon; Salmond, Jennifer A.

2013-06-01

215

Interplanetary dust fluxes measurements using the Waves instrument on STEREO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust particles provide an important fraction of the matter composing the interplanetary medium, their mass density at 1 A.U. being comparable to the one of the solar wind. The impact of a dust particle on a spacecraft produces a plasma cloud whose associated electric field is detected by the on-board electric antennas. The signal measured by the wave instruments thus reveals the dust properties. We analyse the dust particle impacts on the STEREO spacecraft during the 2007-2010 period. We use the TDS waveform sampler of the STEREO/WAVES instrument, which enables us to deduce considerably more informations than in a previous study based on the LFR spectral analyzer [Meyer-Vernet et al., 2009]. We observe two distinct populations of dust that we infer to be nano and micron sized dust particles and we derive their fluxes at 1 AU and the evolution of these fluxes with time (and solar longitude). The observations are also in accord with the dynamics of nanometer-sized and micrometer-sized dust particles in the interplanetary medium.

Zaslavsky, A.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Mann, I.; Czechowski, A.; Issautier, K.; Le Chat, G.; Maksimovic, M.; Kasper, J. C.

2010-12-01

216

Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets  

DOEpatents

An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head 18 to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum Within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A packet production line model is also described.

Kollie, Thomas G. (117 Oklahoma Ave., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Thacker, Louis H. (3727 Frostwood Rd., Knoxville, TN 37921); Fine, H. Alan (949 Wishbone Cir., Lexington, KY 40502)

1993-01-01

217

Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets  

DOEpatents

An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head.

Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN); Fine, H. Alan (Lexington, KY)

1995-01-01

218

Temperature, pressure, and wind instrumentation in the Phoenix meteorological package  

Microsoft Academic Search

should be less than 0.5 s for wind speeds of 5 m s1 or greater. Solar radiation falling on the thermocouples could raise the reported temperatures by up to 0.7 K for wind speeds of 5 m s1. The increase will be wind speed dependent and will increase to 0.8 K at U =3ms 1 under peak solar radiation. Pressure

Peter A. Taylor; David C. Catling; Mike Daly; Cameron S. Dickinson; Haraldur P. Gunnlaugsson; Ari-Matti Harri; Carlos F. Lange

2008-01-01

219

Development and application of an instrument for spatially resolved Seebeck coefficient measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seebeck coefficient is a key indicator of the majority carrier type (electrons or holes) in a material. The recent trend toward the development of combinatorial materials research methods has necessitated the development of a new high-throughput approach to measuring the Seebeck coefficient at spatially distinct points across any sample. The overall strategy of the high-throughput experiments is to quickly identify the region of interest on the sample at some expense of accuracy, and then study this region by more conventional techniques. The instrument for spatially resolved Seebeck coefficient measurements reported here relies on establishing a temperature difference across the entire compositionally graded thin-film and consecutive mapping of the resulting voltage as a function of position, which facilitates the temperature-dependent measurements up to 400 °C. The results of the designed instrument are verified at ambient temperature to be repeatable over 10 identical samples and accurate to within 10% versus conventional Seebeck coefficient measurements over the -100 to +150 ?V/K range using both n-type and p-type conductive oxides as test cases. The developed instrument was used to determine the sign of electrical carriers of compositionally graded Zn-Co-O and Ni-Co-O libraries prepared by combinatorial sputtering. As a result of this study, both cobalt-based materials were determined to have p-type conduction over a broad single-phase region of chemical compositions and small variation of the Seebeck coefficient over the entire investigated range of compositions and temperature.

Zakutayev, Andriy; Luciano, Frank J.; Bollinger, Vincent P.; Sigdel, Ajaya K.; Ndione, Paul F.; Perkins, John D.; Berry, Joseph J.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S.

2013-05-01

220

27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... (b) Testing instruments. The proprietor...for determining the alcohol content unless...

2010-04-01

221

27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... (b) Testing instruments. The proprietor...for determining the alcohol content unless...

2011-04-01

222

27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... (b) Testing instruments. The proprietor...for determining the alcohol content unless...

2012-04-01

223

Alignment Measurements of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Instrument in a Thermal/Vacuum Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory, scheduled for a fall 2000 launch, is designed to measure temperature fluctuations (anisotropy) and produce a high sensitivity and high spatial resolution (approximately 0.2 degree) map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation over the entire sky between 22 and 90 GHz. MAP utilizes back-to-back Gregorian telescopes to focus the microwave signals into 10 differential microwave receivers, via 20 feed horns. Proper alignment of the telescope reflectors and the feed horns at the operating temperature of 90 K is a critical element to ensure mission success. We describe the hardware and methods used to validate the displacement/deformation predictions of the reflectors and the microwave feed horns during thermal/vacuum testing of the reflectors and the microwave instrument. The smallest deformation predictions to be measured were on the order of +/- 0.030 inches (+/- 0.762 mm). Performance of these alignment measurements inside a thermal/vacuum chamber with conventional alignment equipment posed several limitations. The most troublesome limitation was the inability to send personnel into the chamber to perform the measurements during the test due to vacuum and the temperature extremes. The photogrammetry (PG) system was chosen to perform the measurements since it is a non- contact measurement system, the measurements can be made relatively quickly and accurately, and the photogrammetric camera can be operated remotely. The hardware and methods developed to perform the MAP alignment measurements using PG proved to be highly successful. The measurements met the desired requirements, for the metal structures enabling the desired distortions to be measured resolving deformations an order of magnitude smaller than the imposed requirements. Viable data were provided to the MAP Project for a full analysis of the on-orbit performance of the Instrument's microwave system.

Hill, Michael D.; Herrera, Acey A.; Crane, J. Allen; Packard, Edward A.; Aviado, Carlos; Sampler, Henry P.

2000-01-01

224

Does an instrumented treadmill correctly measure the ground reaction forces?  

PubMed Central

Summary Since the 1990s, treadmills have been equipped with multi-axis force transducers to measure the three components of the ground reaction forces during walking and running. These measurements are correctly performed if the whole treadmill (including the motor) is mounted on the transducers. In this case, the acceleration of the treadmill centre of mass relative to the reference frame of the laboratory is nil. The external forces exerted on one side of the treadmill are thus equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the external forces exerted on the other side. However, uncertainty exists about the accuracy of these measures: due to friction between the belt and the tread-surface, due to the motor pulling the belt, some believe that it is not possible to correctly measure the horizontal components of the forces exerted by the feet on the belt. Here, we propose a simple model of an instrumented treadmill and we demonstrate (1) that the forces exerted by the subject moving on the upper part of the treadmill are accurately transmitted to the transducers placed under it and (2) that all internal forces – including friction – between the parts of the treadmill are cancelling each other. PMID:24285705

Willems, Patrick A.; Gosseye, Thierry P.

2013-01-01

225

Measurement of the Coolant Channel Temperatures and Pressures of a Cooled Radial-Inflow Turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumentation has been installed on the surface of a cooled radial-inflow turbine. Thermocouples and miniature integrated sensor pressure transducers were installed to measure steady state coolant temperatures, blade wall temperatures, and coolant pressures. These measurements will eventually be used to determine the heat transfer characteristics of the rotor. This paper will describe the procedures used to install and calibrate the instrumentation and the testing methods followed. A limited amount of data will compare the measured values to the predicted values.

Dicicco, L. Danielle; Nowlin, Brent C.; Tirres, Lizet

1994-01-01

226

Very broad-band seismic instrumentation for ground and marine high-sensitivity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) is a very broad-band high-sensitivity accelerometer, result of a long activity devoted to the development of instruments for space use (room temperature gradiometers ad accelerometers). It can equally well be used for geophysical studies. It is the underlying component of a wide variety of instruments, as a high-sensitivity seismometers (sensitivity 10-10 g-?Hz-- under 10-1 Hz) and field seismometers, gravimeters and gradiometers (which employ a sensitivity 108 g-?Hz- under 10 Hz). Many instruments have been built and operated, in a variety of environments, including the multi-parameter sea-floor station GEOSTAR (GEophysical and Oceanographic Station for Abyssal Research). Following a description of the accelerometer, a review of the various types of measurements will be given, discussing its many applications. These range from seismic measurements to environment characterization (e.g., underground cavities reconnaissance) to geodetic studies. This instrument is therefore suited for use in wide warning networks for e.g. seismic monitoring: its integration into such networks will be discussed.

Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Reale, Andrea; Santoli, Francesco

2010-05-01

227

Brazing Refractory Metals Used In High-Temperature Nuclear Instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR 1) experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed.

A. J. Palmer; C. J. Woolstenhulme

2009-06-01

228

Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points  

SciTech Connect

The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)] [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)

2013-09-11

229

Temperature and Heat Transfer Measurements Cengiz Camci  

E-print Network

EAE077 Chapter 11 Temperature and Heat Transfer Measurements Cengiz Camci Turbomachinery Aero Resistive Temperature Transducers 2 3 Thermocouples 3 4 Bi-Metallic Temperature Sensors 7 5 Diode-Based Temperature Sensors 7 6 Liquid Crystal Thermometry 7 7 Infrared Thermometry and Pyrometer 9 8 Heat Transfer

Camci, Cengiz

230

Quantifying gravity wave momentum fluxes with Mesosphere Temperature Mappers and correlative instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced Mesosphere Temperature Mapper and other instruments at the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research in Norway (69.3°N) and at Logan and Bear Lake Observatory in Utah (42°N) are used to demonstrate a new method for quantifying gravity wave (GW) pseudo-momentum fluxes accompanying spatially and temporally localized GW packets. The method improves on previous airglow techniques by employing direct characterization of the GW temperature perturbations averaged over the OH airglow layer and correlative wind and temperature measurements to define the intrinsic GW properties with high confidence. These methods are applied to two events, each of which involves superpositions of GWs having various scales and character. In each case, small-scale GWs were found to achieve transient, but very large, momentum fluxes with magnitudes varying from ~60 to 940 m2 s-2, which are ~1-2 decades larger than mean values. Quantification of the spatial and temporal variations of GW amplitudes and pseudo-momentum fluxes may also enable assessments of the total pseudo-momentum accompanying individual GW packets and of the potential for secondary GW generation that arises from GW localization. We expect that the use of this method will yield key insights into the statistical forcing of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere by GWs, the importance of infrequent large-amplitude events, and their effects on GW spectral evolution with altitude.

Fritts, David C.; Pautet, P.-Dominique; Bossert, Katrina; Taylor, Michael J.; Williams, Bifford P.; Iimura, Hiroyuki; Yuan, Tao; Mitchell, Nicholas J.; Stober, Gunter

2014-12-01

231

Specific Heat and Second Sound Measurements with the DYNAMIX Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to its primary role of studying non-linear heat transport effects near the lambda transition of He-4, the DYNAMX apparatus is suitable for measurements of the specific heat and the velocity of second sound. We plan to take advantage of available time on orbit to make measurements in these areas near to the lambda transition. The specific heat work would be similar to LPE, aimed at improving our knowledge of the singularity in the bulk heat capacity at the transition, but would provide more accurate results close to the transition. It would focus roughly equally on each side of the transition and would be synergistic with the CQ experiment, providing wider-range data at Q = 0. The second sound measurements are made possible by the fast time constant and high resolution of the DYNAMX thermometers, which allow accurate time-of-flight measurements of second sound pulses. It appears possible to measure the second sound velocity to about 1% at a reduced temperature of t = 5x10(exp -8) by averaging over a moderate number of pulses. The data would complement and extend earlier ground-based measurements, leading to improved tests of the theory of static critical phenomena at the lambda transition.

Nissen, Joel

2003-01-01

232

The rhesus measurement system: A new instrument for space research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) is a research environment designed to study the effects of microgravity using rhesus primates as human surrogates. This experimental model allows investigators to study numerous aspects of microgravity exposure without compromising crew member activities. Currently, the RRF is slated for two missions to collect its data, the first mission is SLS-3, due to fly in late 1995. The RRF is a joint effort between the United States and France. The science and hardware portions of the project are being shared between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and France's Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The RRF is composed of many different subsystems in order to acquire data, provide life support, environmental enrichment, computer facilities and measurement capabilities for two rhesus primates aboard a nominal sixteen day mission. One of these subsystems is the Rhesus Measurement System (RMS). The RMS is designed to obtain in-flight physiological measurements from sensors interfaced with the subject. The RMS will acquire, preprocess, and transfer the physiologic data to the Flight Data System (FDS) for relay to the ground during flight. The measurements which will be taken by the RMS during the first flight will be respiration, measured at two different sites; electromyogram (EMG) at three different sites; electroencephalogram (EEG); electrocardiogram (ECG); and body temperature. These measurements taken by the RMS will assist the research team in meeting the science objectives of the RRF project.

Schonfeld, Julie E.; Hines, John W.

1993-01-01

233

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illuminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature.

Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

234

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illiminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature. 3 figs.

Angel, S.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

1986-04-22

235

Satellite observations and instrumentation for measuring energetic neutral atoms  

SciTech Connect

Direct measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) and ions have been obtained with the cooled solid state detectors on the low-altitude (220 km) three-axis stabilized S81-1/ stimulated emissions of energetic particles (SEEP) satellite and on the spinning 400 km [times] 5.5 R[sub e] (where R[sub e] is Earth radii) Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). During magnetic storms ENA and ion precipitation (E > 10 keV) are evident over the low-altitude equatorial region based on data from the SEEP (ONR 804) spectrometers and CRRES ion mass spectrometer (IMS-HI) (ONR 307-8-3) ion composition and ENA instrument. The IMS-HI neutral atom spectrometer covers the energy range from 20 to 1,500 keV with a geometrical factor of 10[sub [minus]3] cm[sup 2] sr and uses a 7-kG magnetic field to screen out protons less than about 50 MeV. During the strong magnetic storm of 24 March 1991 the first ENA and ion mass composition measurements were obtained of ring current particles below the inner belt and these fluxes are compared to the IMS-HI flux measurements in the ring current. Recently, an advanced spectrometer, the Source/Loss-cone Energetic Particle Spectrometer (SEPS), has been developed to image electrons, ions, and neutrals on the despun platform of the POLAR satellite ([approximately]1.8 [times] 9 R[sub e]) for launch in the mid 1990s as part of NASA's International Solar Terrestrial Physics/Global Geospace Science (ISTP/GGS) program.

Voss, H.D.; Mobilia, J.; Collin, H.L.; Imhof, W.L. (Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab., CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.)

1993-12-01

236

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement  

DOEpatents

A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01

237

Measurement of strains at high temperatures by means of electro-optics holography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electro-optics holographic-moire interferometry is used to measure strains at temperatures up to 1000 C. A description of the instrumentation developed to carry out the measurements is given. The data processing technique is also explained. Main problems encountered in recording patterns at high temperatures are analyzed and possible solutions are outlined. Optical results are compared with strain gage values obtained with instrumented specimens and with theoretical results. Very good agreement is found between optical, strain gage and theoretical results.

Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, G.; Vaitekunas, Jeffrey

1991-01-01

238

Crime-based survey instrument for police integrity measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The common survey instrument for police integrity consists of case descriptions that are mainly concerned with corruption. However, the diversity in police criminal acts calls for a revision of this survey instrument. Based on cases of convicted police officers in Norway, this paper aims to propose a new survey. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Content analysis of 57 court cases in

Petter Gottschalk

2010-01-01

239

Instrument for measuring thin-film belt lengths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument consists of base, vernier height gauge, sliding block, and balance-beam assembly with tension weight. Pulley bracket is provided with three pulley mounting holes, 4 inches apart, to accommodate widely different belt lengths. Instrument is accurate to within 0.001 inch and is suitable for commercial production.

Casad, T. A.; Piggott, H.; Hoffman, J. K.

1974-01-01

240

Solar UV measurements with Robertson–Berger type instruments: influence of the detector’s internal humidity status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar light biometer model 501 is one of the most common detectors for routine measurements of biologically effective solar UV radiation. In addition to an already known sensitivity of the instrument to ambient temperature, the laboratory investigations presented in this manuscript revealed a significant influence of the detector’s internal humidity status on its spectral sensitivity. An extreme variation of

Martin Huber; Mario Blumthaler; Josef Schreder

2003-01-01

241

Temperature and heat flux measurements: Challenges for high temperature aerospace application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measurement of high temperatures and the influence of heat transfer data is not strictly a problem of either the high temperatures involved or the level of the heating rates to be measured at those high temperatures. It is a problem of duration during which measurements are made and the nature of the materials in which the measurements are made. Thermal measurement techniques for each application must respect and work with the unique features of that application. Six challenges in the development of measurement technology are discussed: (1) to capture the character and localized peak values within highly nonuniform heating regions; (2) to manage large volumes of thermal instrumentation in order to efficiently derive critical information; (3) to accommodate thermal sensors into practical flight structures; (4) to broaden the capabilities of thermal survey techniques to replace discrete gages in flight and on the ground; (5) to provide supporting instrumentation conduits which connect the measurement points to the thermally controlled data acquisition system; and (6) to develop a class of 'vehicle tending' thermal sensors to assure the integrity of flight vehicles in an efficient manner.

Neumann, Richard D.

1992-01-01

242

Cross-Validation of an Instrument for Measuring Professionalism Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Objective. To cross-validate an instrument to measure behavioral aspects of professionalism in pharmacy students using a rating scale that minimizes ceiling effects. Methods. Seven institutions collaborated to create a 33-item assessment tool that included 5 domains of professionalism: (1) Reliability, Responsibility and Accountability; (2) Lifelong Learning and Adaptability; (3) Relationships with Others; (4) Upholding Principles of Integrity and Respect; and (5) Citizenship and Professional Engagement. Each item was rated based on 5 levels of competency which were aligned with a modified Miller's Taxonomy (Knows, Knows How, Shows, Shows How and Does, and Teaches). Results. Factor analyses confirmed the presence of 5 domains for professionalism. The factor analyses from the 7-school pilot study demonstrated that professionalism items were good fits within each of the 5 domains. Conclusions. Based on a multi-institutional pilot study, data from the Professionalism Assessment Tool (PAT), provide evidence for internal validity and reliability. Use of the tool by external evaluators should be explored in future research. PMID:22171107

Stanke, Luke D.; Rabi, Suzanne M.; Kuba, Sarah E.; Janke, Kristin K.

2011-01-01

243

An improved measurement of Vickers indentation behaviour through enhanced instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an enhanced instrumented Vickers indentation technique capable of recording force, displacement and acoustic emission (AE) during loading condition. Four materials were chosen for examination; copper, aluminium, steel and as-sprayed HVOF WC-12%Co coating. Results indicate that force-displacement (P-h) profiles are essentially bilinear with two characteristic slopes separated by a distinct displacement arrest for all loads above 98 N. The P-h curve indicates three distinct loading stages (I, II and III) and the stage III mechanical energy increases with loads. About 66% of the hardened steel indentations but only about 18% of the as-sprayed HVOF WC-12%Co coating indentations exhibited an AE record that could be separated into three distinct zones (A, B and C). Where zoning was possible the AE corresponding to a zone correlated well with the AE associated with a loading stage. It is concluded that plastic deformation in soft metals produced little AE, whereas brittle fracture in hardened steel and as-sprayed HVOF WC-12%Co coating produced significant AE. AE may or may not be focused onto particular stages of the indentation and a full measure of crack prevalence would require fractal dimension analysis, which is time consuming, offering a motivation for AE-based indentation testing.

Faisal, N. H.; Reuben, R. L.; Ahmed, R.

2011-01-01

244

MEASURING VARIATIONS IN TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE  

E-print Network

MEASURING VARIATIONS IN TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE A Balloon Experiment by: John Bertinetti and Chip Keating #12;Purpose of the Balloon Experiment Pressure and temperature vary with altitude: pressure;Pressure: P vs. h #12;Temperature: Exponential Curve Fit Note: this is a curve, not a line #12;Our pressure

California at Santa Cruz, University of

245

Temperature standards, what and where: resources for effective temperature measurements  

SciTech Connect

Many standards have been published to describe devices, methods, and other topics. How they are developed and by whom are briefly described, and an attempt is made to extract most of those relating to temperature measurements. A directory of temperature standards and their sources is provided.

Johnston, W.W. Jr.

1982-01-01

246

Global Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): Temperature Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission of opportunity is an ultraviolet imaging spectrograph that will fly on a geostationary satellite to measure densities and temperatures in the thermosphere and ionosphere. From this vantage point, GOLD will observe emissions from an entire hemisphere (disk) and the horizon (limb) of the Earth. Atmospheric temperatures can be determined from both. Such temperature measurements are essential to answering a vital science question: What is the response of the thermosphere to geomagnetic and solar forcing? The altitude profile of the N2 LBH emission on the Earth's limb will be used to determine the temperature of the atmosphere in the 150 to 300 km range using the scale height of the emission. The GOLD instrument is designed to make this measurement with an altitude resolution of 25 km. The sensitivity of the instrument and observations at tangent altitudes of 150-300 km are adequate to deduce the exospheric temperature with an accuracy of ±50 K. The measurement sequence allows limb profiles to be made every hour over the latitude range from 45S to 45N. On the disk, temperatures near 150 km (± 30 km) are measured using high spectral resolution observations of the N2 emissions. Previous work with data from the ARGOS satellite and modeling of the observations from GOLD indicate the temperatures on the disk can be determined to ±30 K (±15 K) on time scales of half (two) hour(s). Thus, GOLD provides adequate temporal and spatial resolution to answer one of the most important science questions regarding the space environment.

Rusch, D.; Aksnes, A.; Budzien, S.; Eastes, R.; Anderson, D.; Andersson, L.; Burns, A.; Codrescu, M.; Daniell, R.; Dymond, K.; Eparvier, F.; Harvey, J.; Immel, T.; Krywonos, A.; McClintock, W.; Lankton, M.; Lumpe, J.; Prolss, G.; Richmond, A.; Solomon, S.; Strickland, D.; Woods, T.

2007-05-01

247

Global Ocean Color Measurements From the NPOESS/VIIRS Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VIIRS instrument is one of several instruments currently being designed for the National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), as part of a joint effort between the Department of Defense, NASA, and NOAA. The Ocean Color product, developed using the VIIRS sensor, contains chlorophyll concentration retrieved from remote sensing reflectances derived from VIIRS measurements. A retrieval algorithm for chlorophyll concentration has been developed for Case I waters (characterized by having a strong correlation between scattering and absorbing substance concentrations and chlorophyll a concentration, i.e. open ocean) and Case II waters (characterized by having a lack of correlation between scattering and absorbing substance concentrations and chlorophyll a concentration, i.e. coastal waters). For Case II waters a chlorophyll a algorithm developed by Carder et al. (1997) was implemented. This algorithm was based on a semi-analytical, bio-optical model of remote sensing reflectance. For Case I waters a chlorophyll a algorithm developed by Gordon and Morel (1983) was employed. It is an empirical equation and is dependent upon the ratio of the reflectances at wavelengths 488 nm and 555 nm. Algorithm performance has been evaluated using both the in situ SeaBAM data sets and simulated remote sensing reflectances. The sensor and algorithms together meet the NPOESS sensor requirements on chlorophyll precision and accuracy thresholds for chlorophyll concentrations typical for open ocean waters. NPOESS is an integrated operational system and this benefits the VIIRS ocean color product. The high spatial resolution of the VIIRS imagers from visible to infrared bands provides accurate cloud mask and sun-glint mask products. Sea surface wind vectors derived from the NPOESS Conical Scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder will allow for correction of the ocean surface roughness effect. Additionally, the ozone product was derived from the NPOESS Ozone Mapping and Profiling Suite and is expected to be an accurate correction for the ozone absorption. References Gordon H.R., and A. Morel (1983). Remote assessment of ocean color for interpretation of satellite visible imagery. A review. New York: Springer. Carder, K.L., S.K. Hawes, Z. Lee, and F.R. Chen (1997). MODIS: Case 2 chlorophyll a algorithm. MODIS ATBD-19, URL http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/atbd/modistables.html.

Hommel, D.; Carter, C.; Liu, Q.

2001-12-01

248

Positional repeatability measurements of stepper motors at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For cryogenically-cooled infrared instruments and telescopes employed in space, reliable and predictable motor operations at 4 K in vacuum are in most cases necessary. For the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), stepper motors may be employed in a number of applications. A test facility was designed and built for measuring stepper motor positional repeatability, in vacuum, over a temperature range from ambient to liquid helium temperature. Tests regarding positional repeatability were conducted at different motor speeds, directions of motor rotation, step sizes, and power conditions. In addition, tests were performed with respect to the ability of the motor to remain in a position with no power applied to the motor.

Pompea, S. M.; Hall, M. S.; Bartko, F.; Houck, J. R.

1983-01-01

249

Reliability issues in human brain temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The influence of brain temperature on clinical outcome after severe brain trauma is currently poorly understood. When brain temperature is measured directly, different values between the inside and outside of the head can occur. It is not yet clear if these differences are 'real' or due to measurement error. METHODS: The aim of this study was to assess the

Charmaine Childs; Graham Machin

2009-01-01

250

CARS application in measurement of flame temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flame temperature distribution is very important for combustion diagnosis, but it is very hard to measure it because of the instability of flame and possible transient variability. Classical method used for measurement of flame temperature is always a contact method utilizing a thermocouple. Limitations on the use of thermocouples include long response time, disturbance on target temperature field, inelasiticity in rigorous measurement circumstance. Only coarse qualitative results can be acquired. A potential laser spectrum diagnostic technology was therefore introduced. The method of coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) in the measurement of temperature distribution was discussed using CARS theory. The design of measurement system was put forward and preliminary experiment results are shown. Theoretical CARS spectrums at 2000K were calculated utilizing the model of molecule transition in CARS process. Experimental results were compared to those of thermocouple measurement, and since results of two methods are close, feasibility of CARS application in the measurement of flame temperature was verified. Although the resolution of this method is not applicable for real-time measurement, a single measurement can be accomplished in a few nanoseconds. The resolution of temperature measurement is 5% better than results of measurement by thermocouple. Furthermore, future research is suggested to overcome the insufficiency of this method was pointed out with direction suggested.

Zhang, Hu; Dai, Jing-min

2008-10-01

251

Exploration of Instruments Measuring Concepts of Graduateness in a Research University Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the appropriateness of international instruments to measure the separate concepts of graduateness for a research university context. The four concepts of graduateness--reflective thinking, scholarship, moral citizenship and lifelong learning--are operationalized using five existing instruments. These instruments were…

Steur, J. M.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Hofman, W. H. A.

2011-01-01

252

Review of measurement instruments in clinical and research ethics, 1999–2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every field of practice has the responsibility to evaluate its outcomes and to test its theories. Evidence of the underdevelopment of measurement instruments in bioethics suggests that attending to strengthening existing instruments and developing new ones will facilitate the interpretation of accumulating bodies of research as well as the making of clinical judgements. A review of 65 instruments reported in

B K Redman

2006-01-01

253

Asteroid Bennu Temperature Maps for OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft and Instrument Thermal Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermophysical model has been developed to generate asteroid Bennu surface temperature maps for OSIRIS-REx spacecraft and instrument thermal design and analyses at the Critical Design Review (CDR). Two-dimensional temperature maps for worst hot and worst cold cases are used in Thermal Desktop to assure adequate thermal design margins. To minimize the complexity of the Bennu geometry in Thermal Desktop, it is modeled as a sphere instead of the radar shape. The post-CDR updated thermal inertia and a modified approach show that the new surface temperature predictions are more benign. Therefore the CDR Bennu surface temperature predictions are conservative.

Choi, Michael K.; Emery, Josh; Delbo, Marco

2014-01-01

254

Measurement of frost characteristics on heat exchanger fins. Part 1: Test facility and instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A special test facility was developed to characterize frost growing on heat exchanger fins where the cold surfaces and the air supply conditions were similar to those experienced in freezers, i.e., cold surface temperatures ranging from {minus}35 C to {minus}40 C, air supply temperatures from {minus}10 C to {minus}20 C, and 80% to 100% relative humidity (RH). This test facility included a test section with removable fins to measure the frost height and mass concentration. Frost height on heat exchanger fins was measured using a new automated laser scanning system to measure the height of frost and its distribution on selected fins. The increase in air pressure loss resulting from frost growth on the fins was measured directly in the test loop. The frost mass accumulation distribution was measured for each test using special pre-etched fins that could be easily subdivided and weighed. The total heat rate was measured using a heat flux meter. These frost-measuring instruments were calibrated and the uncertainty of each is stated.

Thomas, L.; Chen, H.; Besant, R.W.

1999-07-01

255

27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...proof and volume of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits...30 of this chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an...

2011-04-01

256

27 CFR 19.277 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall provide for their own use accurate hydrometers, thermometers, and other necessary...or volume. (b) Instruments. Hydrometers and thermometers used by proprietors...Proprietors shall make frequent tests of their hydrometers and thermometers, and, if...

2010-04-01

257

27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...proof and volume of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits...30 of this chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an...

2012-04-01

258

27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...proof and volume of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits...30 of this chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an...

2014-04-01

259

27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...proof and volume of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits...30 of this chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an...

2013-04-01

260

Application of ceramic insulation on high temperature instrumentation wire for turbin engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems with the mineral insulated, metal sheathed lead wires used to instrument aircraft engines have become more severe at the increased operating temperatures of today's engines. To solve these problems, we have applied high purity A1 2O3 directly onto platinum wires. Three coating methods have been studied, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) from ethanol suspensions, slurry coating, and EPD from aqueous suspensions.

Eric R. Kreidler; Vidya Praveen Bhallamudi

261

Quantitative measurements of sliding friction coefficients of tribological interfaces with a new differential infrared radiometric instrument  

E-print Network

Quantitative measurements of sliding friction coefficients of tribological interfaces with a new sliding friction coefficient SFC measurements using a mechanical friction rig and infrared radiometric. INSTRUMENTAL DESIGN FOR SLIDING FRICTION COEFFICIENT MEASUREMENTS Figure 1 is an overview of the differential

Mandelis, Andreas

262

Validation of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder temperature and pressure measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy and precision of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) atmospheric temperature and tangent-point pressure measurements are described. Temperatures and tangent-point pressure (atmospheric pressure at the tangent height of the field of view boresight) are retrieved from a 15-channel 63-GHz radiometer measuring O2 microwave emissions from the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Version 3 data (first public release) contains scientifically useful temperatures from 22 to 0.46 hPa. Accuracy estimates are based on instrument performance, spectroscopic uncertainty and retrieval numerics, and range from 2.1 K at 22 hPa to 4.8 K at 0.46 hPa for temperature and from 200 m (equivalent log pressure) at 10 hPa to 300 m at 0.1 hPa. Temperature accuracy is limited mainly by uncertainty in instrument characterization, and tangent-point pressure accuracy is limited mainly by the accuracy of spectroscopic parameters. Precisions are around 1 K and 100 m. Comparisons are presented among temperatures from MLS, the National Meteorological Center (NMC) stratospheric analysis and lidar stations at Table Mountain, California, Observatory of Haute Provence (OHP), France, and Goddard Spaceflight Center, Maryland. MLS temperatures tend to be 1-2 K lower than NMC and lidar, but MLS is often 5 - 10 K lower than NMC in the winter at high latitudes, especially within the northern hemisphere vortex. Winter MLS and OHP (44°N) lidar temperatures generally agree and tend to be lower than NMC. Problems with Version 3 MLS temperatures and tangent-point pressures are identified, but the high precision of MLS radiances will allow improvements with better algorithms planned for the future.

Fishbein, E. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Lungu, T.; Read, W. G.; Shippony, Z.; Waters, J. W.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Singh, U.; Gross, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Keckhut, P.; Gelman, M. E.; Nagatani, R. M.

1996-04-01

263

Validation of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder Temperature and Pressure Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy and precision of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) atmospheric temperature and tangent-point pressure measurements are described. Temperatures and tangent- point pressure (atmospheric pressure at the tangent height of the field of view boresight) are retrieved from a 15-channel 63-GHz radiometer measuring O2 microwave emissions from the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Version 3 data (first public release) contains scientifically useful temperatures from 22 to 0.46 hPa. Accuracy estimates are based on instrument performance, spectroscopic uncertainty and retrieval numerics, and range from 2.1 K at 22 hPa to 4.8 K at 0.46 hPa for temperature and from 200 m (equivalent log pressure) at 10 hPa to 300 m at 0.1 hPa. Temperature accuracy is limited mainly by uncertainty in instrument characterization, and tangent-point pressure accuracy is limited mainly by the accuracy of spectroscopic parameters. Precisions are around 1 K and 100 m. Comparisons are presented among temperatures from MLS, the National Meteorological Center (NMC) stratospheric analysis and lidar stations at Table Mountain, California, Observatory of Haute Provence (OHP), France, and Goddard Spaceflight Center, Maryland. MLS temperatures tend to be 1-2 K lower than NMC and lidar, but MLS is often 5 - 10 K lower than NMC in the winter at high latitudes, especially within the northern hemisphere vortex. Winter MLS and OHP (44 deg N) lidar temperatures generally agree and tend to be lower than NMC. Problems with Version 3 MLS temperatures and tangent-point pressures are identified, but the high precision of MLS radiances will allow improvements with better algorithms planned for the future.

Fishbein, E. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Lungu, T.; Read, W. G.; Shippony, Z.; Waters, J. W.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Singh, U.; Gross, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Keckhut, P.; Gelman, M. E.; Nagatani, R. M.

1996-01-01

264

Midlatitude tropospheric ozone columns derived from the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument and Microwave Limb Sounder measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropospheric ozone columns derived from differences between the Dutch-Finnish Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements of the total atmospheric ozone column and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of stratospheric ozone columns are discussed. Because the measurements by these two instruments are not spatially coincident, interpolation techniques, with emphasis on mapping the stratospheric columns in space and time using

Q. Yang; D. M. Cunnold; H.-J. Wang; L. Froidevaux; H. Claude; J. Merrill; M. Newchurch; S. J. Oltmans

2007-01-01

265

James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Calibration and Verification of High-Accuracy Instrumentation to Measure Heat Flow in Cryogenic Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an upcoming flagship observatory mission scheduled to be launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. The requirement for multiple thermal zoned results in the instruments being thermally connected to five external radiators via individual high purity aluminum heat straps. Thermal-vacuum and thermal balance testing of the flight instruments at the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element level will take place within a newly constructed shroud cooled by gaseous helium inside Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Space environment Simulator (SES). The flight external radiators are not available during ISIM-level thermal vacuum/thermal testing, so they will be replaced in test with stable and adjustable thermal boundaries with identical physical interfaces to the flight radiators. Those boundaries are provided by specially designed test hardware which also measures the heat flow within each of the five heat straps to an accuracy of less than 2 mW, which is less than 5% of the minimum predicted heat flow values. Measurement of the heat loads to this accuracy is essential to ISIM thermal model correlation, since thermal models are more accurately correlated when temperature data is supplemented by accurate knowledge of heat flows. It also provides direct verification by test of several high-level thermal requirements. Devices that measure heat flow in this manner have historically been referred to a "Q-meters". Perhaps the most important feature of the design of the JWST Q-meters is that it does not depend on the absolute accuracy of its temperature sensors, but rather on knowledge of precise heater power required to maintain a constant temperature difference between sensors on two stages, for which a table is empirically developed during a calibration campaign in a small chamber at GSFC. This paper provides a brief review of Q-meter design, and discusses the Q-meter calibration procedure including calibration chamber modifications and accommodations, handling of differing conditions between calibration and usage, the calibration process itself, and the results of the tests used to determine if the calibration is successful.

Comber, Brian; Glazer, Stuart

2012-01-01

266

Nonintrusive temperature measurements on advanced turbomachinery components  

SciTech Connect

A nonintrusive, noncontacting method we developed for temperature measurements in hostile environments is well-suited for measurements on advanced turbine components. The method is not only superior to thermocouples in sufficiently difficult environments, but also is the only known method for making measurements in situations where no form of pyrometry works. We demonstrated the method, which uses laser-induced fluorescence of thermographic phosphors bonded to the component surfaces, on turbine blades and vanes in developmental turbine engines. The method is extendable to the much-higher temperatures expected inside advanced turbomachinery. Of particular note is the adaptability of the method to surface-temperature measurements on ceramics operating at high temperatures. In this temperature range, the ceramics become translucent, and surface emissivity becomes meaningless. We shall discuss the method, its advantages and limitations, recent test results on operating turbine engines, and the extension to ceramic components.

Noel, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turley, W.D.; Lewis, W. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States)

1992-12-31

267

Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (=71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in.(=1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (=6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger.

Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

2002-01-01

268

Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (approx. = 71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in. (approx. = 1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (approx. = 6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger. This work was done by Randy

Selinsky, T.; Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

2002-01-01

269

Simple microcalorimeter for measuring microgram samples at low temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative microcalorimeter has been developed for measuring specific heat of very small microgram samples in the temperature range from 1.5 to 50 K and in magnetic fields up to 11 T. The device is built from a commercial sapphire temperature chip (Cernox), which is modified by means of standard microfabrication techniques and which is used as a sample holder, temperature sensor, and sample heater. Compared to existing microcalorimeters the simple design of our instrument allows a fabrication of the device in a few process steps by using facilities present in a standard laboratory clean room. As an illustrative example for the performance of our device, the specific heat of an underdoped (La1-xSrx)2CuO4 and CaRuO3 single crystal has been measured by means of the relaxation time method as well as the ac method.

Doettinger-Zech, S. G.; Uhl, M.; Sisson, D. L.; Kapitulnik, A.

2001-05-01

270

Simultaneous distributed strain and temperature measurement.  

PubMed

Brillouin-scattering-based sensors are capable of measuring either the strain or the temperature along the length of an optical fiber in a distributed fashion through measurement of the Brillouin-frequency shift. The cross sensitivity of the frequency shift to these two parameters makes it impossible to differentiate between them by measurement of the frequency shift alone. We report on a new technique that permits the simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature to resolutions of +/-178 microepsilon and +/-3.9 degrees C at a spatial resolution of 3.5 m by incorporation of the Brillouin-loss peak power with the conventional Brillouin-frequency measurement. PMID:18324040

Smith, J; Brown, A; DeMerchant, M; Bao, X

1999-09-01

271

On quantum interferometric measurements of temperature  

E-print Network

We provide a detailed description of the interferometric thermometer, which is a device that estimates the temperature of a sample from measurements of the optical phase. For the first time, we rigorously analyze the operation of such a device by studying the interaction of the optical probe system with a heated sample. We find that this approach to thermometry is capable of measuring the temperature of a sample in the nK regime. Furthermore, we compare the theoretical precision of interferometric thermometers with the precision offered by the idealized pyrometers, which infer the temperature from a measurement of the total thermal radiation emitted by the sample.

Marcin Jarzyna; Marcin Zwierz

2014-12-17

272

An instrument to measure job satisfaction of nursing home administrators  

PubMed Central

Background The psychometric properties of the nursing home administrator job satisfaction questionnaire (NHA-JSQ) are presented, and the steps used to develop this instrument. Methods The NHA-JSQ subscales were developed from pilot survey activities with 93 administrators, content analysis, and a research panel. The resulting survey was sent to 1,000 nursing home administrators. Factor analyses were used to determine the psychometric properties of the instrument. Results Of the 1,000 surveys mailed, 721 usable surveys were returned (72 percent response rate). The factor analyses show that the items were representative of six underlying factors (i.e., coworkers, work demands, work content, work load, work skills, and rewards). Conclusion The NHA-JSQ represents a short, psychometrically sound job satisfaction instrument for use in nursing homes. PMID:17029644

Castle, Nicholas G

2006-01-01

273

Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

2011-05-01

274

Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, %5CDynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors%22. The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

2013-10-01

275

Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of stratospheric temperature and density were acquired by the NASA/GSFC lidar during the Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC) experiment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Facility (TMF) (34.4°N, 117.7°W) in July and August 1989. Lidar temperatures, obtained on 21 nights preceding and during this experiment, are compared with temperatures derived by radiosondes, datasondes, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) satellite experiment, and National Meteorological Center (NMC) analyses. Radiosondes were flown from the TMF site as well as from San Nicholas Island (33.2°N, 119.5°W) located about 225 km southwest of TMF. Datasondes were deployed from Super-Loki rockets also launched at San Nicholas Island. SAGE II satellite temperature measurements were made within 1000 km of the Table Mountain site. NMC temperature analyses derived from the NOAA satellite measurements were interpolated to coincide in space and time with the lidar measurements. The lidar temperatures, which were derived for altitudes between 30 and 65 km, were within 2-3 K of the temperatures measured by the other sensors in the altitude range 30-45 km. Between 30 and 35 km, lidar temperatures were about 2 K cooler than those obtained from the datasondes and the NMC analyses but were about 1-2 K warmer than those obtained from the radiosonde. These differences may be due to the time difference between the measurements as well as possible nonnegligible aerosol scattering near 30 km. Near and above the stratopause the temperature differences increased to 3-8 K. Lidar temperature profiles also show small-scale variations possibly caused by wave activity.

Ferrare, R. A.; McGee, T. J.; Whiteman, D.; Burris, J.; Owens, M.; Butler, J.; Barnes, R. A.; Schmidlin, F.; Komhyr, W.; Wang, P. H.; McCormick, M. P.; Miller, A. J.

1995-05-01

276

Land surface temperature measurements from EOS MODIS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A significant progress has been made in TIR instrumentation which is required to establish the spectral BRDF/emissivity knowledge base of land-surface materials and to validate the land-surface temperature (LST) algorithms. The SIBRE (spectral Infrared Bidirectional Reflectance and Emissivity) system and a TIR system for measuring spectral directional-hemispherical emissivity have been completed and tested successfully. Optical properties and performance features of key components (including spectrometer, and TIR source) of these systems have been characterized by integrated use of local standards (blackbody and reference plates). The stabilization of the spectrometer performance was improved by a custom designed and built liquid cooling system. Methods and procedures for measuring spectral TIR BRDF and directional-hemispheric emissivity with these two systems have been verified in sample measurements. These TIR instruments have been used in the laboratory and the field, giving very promising results. The measured spectral emissivities of water surface are very close to the calculated values based on well established water refractive index values in published papers. Preliminary results show that the TIR instruments can be used for validation of the MODIS LST algorithm in homogeneous test sites. The beta-3 version of the MODIS LST software is being prepared for its delivery scheduled in the early second half of this year.

Wan, Zhengming

1995-01-01

277

Fast Internal Temperature Measurements in PBX9501  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have made spatially and temporally resolved temperature measurements internal to a thermal explosion in PBX9501. These measurements are made both by thermocouples with corrections applied to compensate for the thermocouple response time and with optical pyrometry. Our original goals were to test our kinetic model over a broader range of temperatures, to look for evidence of any late endotherms during final self heating, and to study the transition between ignition and ignition propagation. This meant we needed to be able to follow temperatures later into reaction (meaning further in time and closer to the ignition point). Our previous limit was 16ms prior to ignition limited only by the sampling rate on the logger. In order to sample faster, we switched to a direct voltage reading of the thermocouples and added fiber optic temperature measurements. In this talk, I will discuss our current capabilities for controlling and measuring the development of an ignition within a piece of heated PBX9501.

Smilowitz, Laura

2005-07-01

278

The spectrometer for ice nuclei (SPIN): An instrument for continuous measurements of ice nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice in clouds has major impacts on precipitation formation and cloud characteristics including cloud dynamics and radiation. Primary nucleation of ice crystals at temperatures warmer than about -38 C occurs through heterogeneous nucleation by aerosol particles via several possible mechanisms. Droplet Measurement Technologies is producing a commercial ice nuclei (IN) counter sensitive to deposition and immersion/condensation freezing that features a parallel plate diffusion chamber. A high efficiency refrigeration system allows control of the cold wall to temperatures as low as approximately -70 C and the warm wall to temperatures as low as approximately -40 C, allowing measurements of IN activity over a wide range of atmospherically-relevant temperatures and water/ice saturations. Newly formed ice crystals are detected using an optical particle counter that features detection of polarized scattered light to identify ice crystals and distinguish them from liquid droplets. An actively controlled evaporation section can be operated to remove liquid droplets from the chamber output to further aid discrimination between ice and water. The instrument's data system and electronics allow for binning of the data as well as particle-by-particle recording of the forward scattered signal intensity and the backward scattered P and S polarization intensities. Particle sizing is from 0.4 to 10 ?m.

McMeeking, Gavin; Sagan, Frank; Kok, Greg

2013-05-01

279

Device and method for self-verifying temperature measurement and control  

DOEpatents

A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cannon, Collins P. (Kearney, MO); Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-10-29

280

A force measurement instrument for optical tweezers based on the detection of light momentum changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present and discuss several developments implemented in an instrument that uses the detection of the light momentum change for measuring forces in an optical trap. A system based on this principle provides a direct determination of this magnitude regardless of the positional response of the sample under the effect of an external force, and it is therefore to be preferred when in situ calibrations of the trap stiffness are not attainable or are difficult to achieve. The possibility to obtain this information without relying upon a harmonic model of the force is more general and can be used in a wider range of situations. Forces can be measured on non-spherical samples or non-Gaussian beams, on complex and changing environments, such as the interior of cells, or on samples with unknown properties (size, viscosity, etc.). However, the practical implementation of the method entails some difficulties due to the strict conditions in the design and operation of an instrument based on this method. We have focused on some particularly conflicting points. We developed a process and a mechanism to determine and systematically set the correct axial position of the device. We further analyzed and corrected the non-uniform transmittance of the optical system and we finally compensated for the variations in the sensor responsivity with temperature. With all these improvements, we obtained an accuracy of ~5% in force measurements for samples of different kinds.

Farré, Arnau; Marsà, Ferran; Montes-Usategui, Mario

2014-09-01

281

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: FLOW MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow meter devices are the most widely used process monitoring instruments in wastewater treatment. Careful consideration must be exercised during selection of flow meters to avoid equipment misapplication that can result in operation problems and equipment failure. It is the res...

282

Measurement of Environmental Constructs in Disability Assessment Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assumes a biopsychosocial basis for disability and provides a framework for understanding how environmental factors contribute to the experience of disability. To determine the utility of prevalent disability assessment instruments, the authors examined the extent to…

Guscia, Roma; Ekberg, Stuart; Harries, Julia; Kirby, Neil

2006-01-01

283

In vitro load measurement using an instrumented spinal fixation device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An AO spinal fixateur interne was modified to study the effects of a corpectomy on implant performance. A hermetically sealed cartridge containing strain gauges and an inductively powered telemetry unit was integrated into the threaded portion of the original implant. Five cadaveric spines were instrumented with the modified implant spanning a single lumbar vertebra. The spines were tested in axial

A. Rohlmann; L. H. Riley; G. Bergmann; F. Graichen

1996-01-01

284

The Development, Validity, and Reliability of a Psychometric Instrument Measuring Competencies in Student Affairs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of competencies in student affairs began more than 4 decades ago, but no instrument currently exists to measure competencies broadly. This study builds upon previous research by developing an instrument to measure student affairs competencies. Results not only validate the competencies espoused by NASPA and ACPA, but also suggest adding…

Sriram, Rishi

2014-01-01

285

The Measurement of Health Behavior Change: The Health Behavior Risk Factor Prevalence Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses some issues concerning the use of written instruments for measuring health behavior change. A description is given of the Health Behavior Risk Factor Prevalence Survey which was developed to identify group members' risk-taking behaviors. This instrument was used to measure the health behaviors of a group of employees in the…

Sutherland, Mary; And Others

286

The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement and instrumentation have long played an important role in production engineering, through supporting both the traditional field of manufacturing and the new field of micro\\/nanotechnology. Papers published in this special feature were selected and updated from those presented at The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011) held at KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea, on 29

Seung-Woo Kim

2012-01-01

287

THE IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT (TIM) 1 An Accelerated Stress Test Method for  

E-print Network

THE IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT (TIM) 1 An Accelerated Stress Test Method Test Method for Electro-Statically Driven MEMS Devices Journal: IEEE-TIM Authors: Corresponding Author on Instrumentation and Measurement (2012) 456-461" DOI : 10.1109/TIM.2011.2161937 #12;THE IEEE TRANSACTIONS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

288

Temperature structure parameter measurements using differential temperature sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparison of C {infT\\/sup2} estimates in the atmospheric boundary layer, from spectral and differential temperature (delta T) measurements, is discussed. Measurements of C {infT\\/sup2} using these two methods are compared and the differences between the two are shown to be due to low-frequency enhancement of the delta T spectrum. Possible explanations for this effect are considered and attention is

T. J. Moulsley; D. N. Asimakopoulos; R. S. Cole; S. J. Caughey; B. A. Crease

1982-01-01

289

Temperature structure parameter measurements using differential temperature sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparison of CinfTsup2 estimates in the atmospheric boundary layer, from spectral and differential temperature (dT) measurements, is discussed. Measurements of CinfTsup2 using these two methods are compared and the differences between the two are shown to be due to low-frequency enhancement of the dT spectrum. Possible explanations for this effect are considered and attention is drawn to the significance

T. J. Moulsley; D. N. Asimakopoulos; R. S. Cole; S. J. Caughey; B. A. Crease

1982-01-01

290

Instrument-free exothermic heating with phase change temperature control for paper microfluidic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many infectious diseases, as well as some cancers, that affect global health are most accurately diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification and detection. There is a great need to simplify nucleic acid-based assay systems for use in global health in low-resource settings as well as in settings that do not have convenient access to laboratory staff and equipment such as doctors' offices and home care settings. In developing countries, unreliable electric power, inadequate supply chains, and lack of maintenance for complex diagnostic instruments are all common infrastructure shortfalls. Many elements of instrument-free, disposable, nucleic acid amplification assays have been demonstrated in recent years. However, the problem of instrument-free,1 low-cost, temperature-controlled chemical heating remains unsolved. In this paper we present the current status and results of work towards developing disposable, low-cost, temperature-controlled heaters designed to support isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays that are integrated with a two-dimensional paper network. Our approach utilizes the heat generated through exothermic chemical reactions and controls the heat through use of engineered phase change materials to enable sustained temperatures required for nucleic acid amplification. By selecting appropriate exothermic and phase change materials, temperatures can be controlled over a wide range, suitable for various isothermal amplification methods, and maintained for over an hour at an accuracy of +/- 1°C.

Singleton, Jered; Zentner, Chris; Buser, Josh; Yager, Paul; LaBarre, Paul; Weigl, Bernhard H.

2013-03-01

291

MISSE 1 and 2 Tray Temperature Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE 1 & 2) was deployed August 10,2001 and retrieved July 30,2005. This experiment is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC. NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, NASA-JSC, the Materials Laboratory at the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Boeing Phantom Works. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate performance, stability, and long term survivability of materials and components planned for use by NASA and DOD on future LEO, synchronous orbit, and interplanetary space missions. Temperature is an important parameter in the evaluation of space environmental effects on materials. The MISSE 1 & 2 had autonomous temperature data loggers to measure the temperature of each of the four experiment trays. The MISSE tray-temperature data loggers have one external thermistor data channel, and a 12 bit digital converter. The MISSE experiment trays were exposed to the ISS space environment for nearly four times the nominal design lifetime for this experiment. Nevertheless, all of the data loggers provided useful temperature measurements of MISSE. The temperature measurement system has been discussed in a previous paper. This paper presents temperature measurements of MISSE payload experiment carriers (PECs) 1 and 2 experiment trays.

Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.

2006-01-01

292

Instrumentation to Measure the Backscattering Coefficient bb for Arbitrary Phase Functions  

E-print Network

explain the theory behind our instrument and based on measurements made in the laboratory we demonstrate that our prototype shows the predicted behavior. We present data for increased extinction in the water, and show how measuring the extinction...

Haubrich, David

2011-10-21

293

Comparison Measurements of Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitors  

SciTech Connect

As part of the efforts initiated through the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) program to make Silicon Carbide (SiC) temperature monitors available, a capability was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. INL selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. To demonstrate this new capability, comparison measurements were completed by INL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on identical samples subjected to identical irradiation conditions. Results reported in this paper indicate that the resistance measurement approach can yield similar peak irradiation temperatures if appropriate equipment is used and appropriate procedures are followed.

J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

2010-06-01

294

Combined temperature lidar for measurements in the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere.  

PubMed

We describe the performance of a combined Raman lidar. The temperature is measured with the rotational Raman technique and with the integration technique simultaneously. Additionally measured parameters are particle extinction and backscatter coefficients and water vapor mixing ratio. In a previous stage of the system, instrumental problems restricted the performance. We describe how we rebuilt the instrument and overcame these restrictions. As a result, the measurement time for the same spatial resolution and accuracy of the rotational Raman temperature measurements is reduced by a factor of approximately 4.3, and their range could be extended for the first time to the upper stratosphere. PMID:15143820

Behrendt, Andreas; Nakamura, Takuji; Tsuda, Toshitaka

2004-05-10

295

Comparison of module temperature measurement methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of this study is to improve the prediction of electrical energy yield especially for PV modules based on thin film technologies. Problems with deficient power prediction of PV power plants have manifold reasons: One of the easy accessible is the measurement of NOCT (nominal operation cell temperature). Deviations of NOCTs measured have a direct influence of the yield predicted

Stefan Krauter; Alexander Preiss

2009-01-01

296

Field measurements and interpretation of TMI-2 instrumentation: CF-2-LT4  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the measurements and results of the Core Flood Tank 1B level monitor CF-2-LT4. This instrument consists of a Bailey Type BY Process Computer Transmitter connected to a readout module by approximately 500 feet of cable through a penetration junction and an instrument mounting junction. The status of this instrument is uncertain, but it was producing a reasonable output reading which implied it had not failed. As a result, measurements on this instrument were designed to determine if it was properly functioning.

Jones, J.E.; Smith, J.T.; Mathis, M.V.

1982-01-01

297

Field measurements and interpretation of TMI-2 instrumentation: IC-10-dPT  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the measurements and results of the Control Rod Drive Bypass Flow IC-10-dPT. This instrument consists of a Bailey Type BY Process Computer Transmitter connected to a readout module by approximately 500 feet of cable through a penetration junction and an instrument mounting junction. The status of this instrument is uncertain, but it was producing a reasonable output reading of zero flow which could indicate it had not failed. As a result, measurements on this instrument were designed to determine if it were properly functioning.

Jones, J.E.; Smith, J.T.; Mathis, M.V.

1982-01-01

298

Instrumentation for localized measurements in two-phase flow conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of instrumentation that have been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and its predecessor, Aerojet Nuclear company, at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to investigate two-phase flow phenomenon in a nuclear reactor at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility are discussed: (a) a combination drag disc-turbine transducer (DTT), (b) a multibeam nuclear hardened gamma densitometer system, and (c)

G. G. Neff; R. H. Averill; S. W. Shurts

1979-01-01

299

INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU), in accordance with Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40395, will undertake four tasks for DOE EM during the period April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2001. (1) Characterization of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides and Organics in Heterogeneous Media; (2) Environmental Control Device Testing; (3) Waste Treatment and D&D Support: Process Monitoring and Control; and (4) Diagnostic Field Applications Coordination and Testing Support (DFACTS).

Dr. John Plodinec

2001-04-01

300

High Accuracy Temperature Measurements Using RTDs with Current Loop Conditioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To measure temperatures with a greater degree of accuracy than is possible with thermocouples, RTDs (Resistive Temperature Detectors) are typically used. Calibration standards use specialized high precision RTD probes with accuracies approaching 0.001 F. These are extremely delicate devices, and far too costly to be used in test facility instrumentation. Less costly sensors which are designed for aeronautical wind tunnel testing are available and can be readily adapted to probes, rakes, and test rigs. With proper signal conditioning of the sensor, temperature accuracies of 0.1 F is obtainable. For reasons that will be explored in this paper, the Anderson current loop is the preferred method used for signal conditioning. This scheme has been used in NASA Lewis Research Center's 9 x 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel, and is detailed.

Hill, Gerald M.

1997-01-01

301

Laser-based strain measurements for high temperature applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Instrumentation and Control Technology Division at NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a high performance optical strain measurement system for high temperature applications using wires and fibers. The system is based on Yamaguchi's two-beam speckle-shift strain measurement technique. The system automatically calculates surface strains at a rate of 5 Hz using a digital signal processor in a high speed micro-computer. The system is fully automated, and can be operated remotely. This report describes the speckle-shift technique and the latest NASA system design. It also shows low temperature strain test results obtained from small diameter tungsten, silicon carbide, and sapphire specimens. These specimens are of interest due to their roles in composite materials research at NASA Lewis.

Lant, Christian T.

1992-01-01

302

Development of a rocket payload with wire sensor for the measurement of upper air temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rocket-borne instrument which can measure upper air temperature in the altitude range 70 to 20 km has been designed. The instrument essentially consists of a bridge amplifier in conjunction with a voltage-controlled oscillator and a pulse amplitude type telemetry system. The temperature sensor is made from nickel iron alloy wire. Platinum resistance thermometry is employed in determining the temperature surrounding the sensor. The information regarding temperature is transmitted on a carrier link of 1680 MHz from the dipole antenna of a cavity type transmitter tube (R.C.A. 6562). The instrument has been tested in the laboratory and calibration with the copper constantan thermocouple shows high accuracy in the temperature measurement.

Chaudhuri, S.

1984-10-01

303

High temperature optical strain measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high temperature strain measurement system being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center utilizes laser speckle shift relations to measure strain components on the surface of a hot specimen in near real time. Features of this system include a totally noncontacting measurement capability and a rotatable gauge axis, allowing an optical rosette to be implemented and principal strains to be determined. Preliminary results and background work are presented.

Lant, Christian T.

1988-01-01

304

Calibration of the scales of areal surface topography measuring instruments: part 3. Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration of the scales of areal surface topography measuring instruments requires testing of the resolution. Several designs of artefact that allow testing of the resolution of such instruments are currently available; however, analysis methods need to be developed to provide comparable results. A novel method for determining the lateral resolution of areal surface topography measuring instruments is presented. The method uses a type ASP (star-shaped) material measure. To demonstrate the validity of the method, the resolution of a phase shifting interferometer was determined based on the ISO definition of the lateral period limit. Using the proposed method, the type ASP material measure, which is often used to judge qualitatively an instrument's resolution, can be used to quantitatively estimate the resolution of instruments using the topography data.

Giusca, Claudiu L.; Leach, Richard K.

2013-10-01

305

Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

1987-01-01

306

Framework for preparing and performing absolute radiometric measurements using electrooptical instruments for the earth observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex of measurements necessary for high-quality radiometric measurements of the Earth to be performed using space electrooptical instruments, including hyperspectrometric instruments, has been considered. This complex was developed in order to maintain the uniformity of measurements according to Russian legislation. In addition to organizational measures, it is necessary to determine the interrelation between radiometric data and geophysical parameters received using these data and to solve the methodological problems of the Earth observation instrument (EOI) radiometric calibration and in-orbit verification of EOI radiometric characteristics. The considered approaches are largely close to the statements of the international document "Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation—QA4EO".

Panfilov, A. S.; Gavrilov, V. R.; Sapritsky, V. I.

2014-12-01

307

Mobile CARS - IRS Instrument for Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurement of Multiple Properties in Gaseous Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a measurement system based on the dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) methods. The IRS measurement is performed simultaneously with the CARS measurement using a common green laser beam as a narrow-band light source. The mobile CARS-IRS instrument is designed for the use both in laboratories as well as in ground-based combustion test facilities. Furthermore, it is designed to be easily transported between laboratory and test facility. It performs single-point spatially and temporally resolved simultaneous measurements of temperature, species mole fraction of N2, O2, and H2, and two-components of velocity. A mobile laser system can be placed inside or outside the test facility, while a beam receiving and monitoring system is placed near the measurement location. Measurements in a laboratory small-scale Mach 1.6 H2-air combustion-heated supersonic jet were performed to test the capability of the system. Final setup and pretests of a larger scale reacting jet are ongoing at NASA Langley Research Center s Direct Connect Supersonic Combustor Test Facility (DCSCTF).

Bivolaru, Daniel; Lee, Joseph W.; Jones, Stephen B.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Weikl, M. C.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, Andrew D.

2007-01-01

308

Temperature Coefficient of the Modulus of Rigidity of Aircraft Instrument Diaphragm and Spring Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data are presented on the variation of the modulus of rigidity in the temperature range -20 to +50 degrees C. of a number of metals which are of possible use for elastic elements for aircraft and other instruments. The methods of the torsional pendulum was used to determine the modulus of rigidity and its temperature coefficient for aluminum, duralumin, monel metal, brass, phosphor bronze, coin silver, nickel silver, three high carbon steels, and three alloy steels. It was observed that tensile stress affected the values of the modulus by amounts of 1 per cent or less.

Brombacher, W G; Melton, E R

1931-01-01

309

Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma  

SciTech Connect

The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma.

Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Den Hartog, D. J. [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)

2010-12-15

310

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2014-07-01

311

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2010-07-01

312

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2012-07-01

313

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2013-07-01

314

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2011-07-01

315

Fast RPLC analysis of pharmaceutical compounds at intermediate temperatures by using a conventional instrument.  

PubMed

Recent developments in HPLC methods have focused on various strategies in order to increase the speed of analysis. One area of impressive growing is column technology. Today, analytical methods that propose the use of short columns packed with sub-2 ?m particles installed in ultra high-pressure LC instruments are not uncommon. Another strategy consisted of heating thermally resistant columns to temperatures well above of 100°C in order to reduce eluent viscosities and, therefore, column backpressure. We discuss experimental conditions for achieving high-throughput analysis using standard instruments with a few simple modifications. The chromatographic performance of two particulated and a silica-based monolithic column operated at moderate temperatures and flow rates are compared. The monolithic column proved to be stable over several thousands column volumes at 60°C. More important, its resistance to mass transfer at this temperature was significantly reduced. Very fast separations of two different mixtures of pharmaceutical compounds, anti-inflammatory drugs and ?-blockers, were achieved with the three columns at 60°C by using ACN/buffer at 5 mL/min. Excellent peak shapes of basic solutes and quite reasonable resolutions were achieved in very short analysis times with columns operated at temperatures moderately higher than the usual room temperature. PMID:20645388

Gotta, Javier; Grisales, Jaiver Osorio; Reta, Mario R; Castells, Cecilia B

2010-09-01

316

Measuring surface vibrations of musical instruments using an inexpensive digital holography device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new device for measuring surface vibrations of musical instruments is presented. The architecture of the device is based on a quasi-Fourier digital holography setup with inexpensive commercial elements capable of recording large digital holograms. Experimental results showing vibration modes for several musical instruments are given. The results demonstrate fringe pattern quality as well as the testing possibilities in tuning the musical instruments.

Demoli, Nazif; Demoli, Ivan

2005-09-01

317

Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - A Fully Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecraft opens the door to a large number of high-value experiments on the influence of the space environment on biological systems. For example, measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and determine the metabolic bases of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology, and medicine. Supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measurement of expression of several hundreds of microbial genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing cell walls of bacteria sampled from cultures grown in space, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing the RNA on a microarray and (4) providing readout of the microarray signal, all in a single microfluidics cartridge. The device is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by NASA Ames' Small Spacecraft Division. To meet space and other technical constraints imposed by these platforms, a number of technical innovations are being implemented. The integration and end-to-end technological and biological validation of the instrument are carried out using as a model the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, known for its remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions. Each step in the measurement process-lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification, and hybridization to an array-is assessed through comparison of the results obtained using the instrument with those from standard laboratory protocols. Once developed, the system can be used with minor modifications for multiple experiments on different platforms in space, including extension to higher organisms and microbial monitoring. A proposed version of GEMM that is capable of handling both microbial and tissue samples on the International Space Station will be briefly summarized.

Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kia; Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio

2012-01-01

318

Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

Webb, W. L.

1973-01-01

319

Measurement of wire electrode temperature in WEDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wire temperature is an important parameter in the wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) process because overheating of the\\u000a wire can cause the wire to break. It is difficult, however, to measure the wire temperature directly under the condition that\\u000a the wire is emerged in water and surrounded by the workpiece. Only mathematical analyses by now have been reported to determine\\u000a such

Fuzhu Han; Gang Cheng; Zhijing Feng; Isago Soichiro

2009-01-01

320

EDITORIAL: The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011) The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement and instrumentation have long played an important role in production engineering, through supporting both the traditional field of manufacturing and the new field of micro/nanotechnology. Papers published in this special feature were selected and updated from those presented at The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011) held at KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea, on 29 June-2 July 2011. ISMTII 2011 was organized by ICMI (The International Committee on Measurements and Instrumentation), Korean Society for Precision Engineering (KSPE), Japan Society for Precision Engineering (JSPE), Chinese Society for Measurement (CSM) and KAIST. The Symposium was also supported by the Korea BK21 Valufacture Institute of Mechanical Engineering at KAIST. A total of 225 papers, including four keynote papers, were presented at ISMTII 2011, covering a wide range of topics, including micro/nanometrology, precision measurement, online & in-process measurement, surface metrology, optical metrology & image processing, biomeasurement, sensor technology, intelligent measurement & instrumentation, uncertainty, traceability & calibration, and signal processing algorithms. The organizing members recommended publication of updated versions of some of the best ISMTII 2011 papers in this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology. As guest editor, I believe that this special feature presents the newest information on advances in measurement technology and intelligent instruments from basic research to applied systems for production engineering. I would like to thank all the authors for their great contributions to this special feature and the referees for their careful reviews of the papers. I would also like to express our thanks and appreciation to the publishing staff of MST for their dedicated efforts that have made this special feature possible.

Kim, Seung-Woo

2012-05-01

321

Instrumentation for the radio transmission of subsurface lake water temperature data  

E-print Network

: {Mead cf Departsect)' {Me be7r) December 1970 ABSTRACT Instrum ntation for the Radio Tzansmiosion of Subsurface Lake Water Temperatue Data. (December 1970) Carroll Julius Moench, Jr , B. S. , Texas ASM University; Directed by: Mr. J. H. Caddess... to measure the subsurface temperature of power plant cooling lakes. The system consists of two parts: the temperature measuzir g and transmitting station and the receiving and recording station. Temperature is measured by emersi ng the thermistor to the re...

Moench, Carroll Julius

2012-06-07

322

Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

Balasubramaniam, Krishnan (Mississippi State, MS); Shah, Vimal (Houston, TX); Costley, R. Daniel (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Mississippi State, MS)

2001-01-01

323

Temperature measurements of shock-compressed deuterium  

SciTech Connect

The authors measured the temperatures of single and double-shocked D{sub 2} and H{sub 2} up to 85 GPa (0.85 Mbar) and 5,200 K. While single shock temperatures, at pressures to 23 GPa, agree well with previous models, the double shock temperatures are as much as 40% lower than predicted. This is believed to be caused by molecular dissociation, and a new model of the hydrogen EOS at extreme conditions has been developed which correctly predicts their observations. These data and model have important implications for programs which use condensed-phase hydrogen in implosion systems.

Holmes, N.C.; Ross, M.; Nellis, W.J.

1994-11-01

324

Long-Term Instrumental and Reconstructed Temperature Records Contradict Anthropogenic Global Warming  

E-print Network

Monthly instrumental temperature records from 5 stations in the northern hemisphere are analyzed, each of which is local and over 200 years in length, as well as two reconstructed long-range yearly records - from a stalagmite and from tree rings that are about 2000 years long. In the instrumental records, the steepest 100-year temperature fall happened in the 19th century and the steepest rise in the 20th century, both events being of about the same magnitude. Evaluation by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) yields Hurst exponents that are in good agreement with the literature. DFA, Monte Carlo simulations, and synthetic records reveal that both 100-year events were caused by external trends. In contrast to this, the reconstructed records show stronger 100-year rises and falls as quite common during the last 2000 years. These results contradict the hypothesis of an unusual (anthropogenic) global warming during the 20th century. As a hypothesis, the sun's magnetic field, which is correlated with sunspot numbers, is put forward as an explanation. The long-term low-frequency fluctuations in sunspot numbers are not detectable by the DFA in the monthly instrumental records, resulting in the common low Hurst exponents. The same does not hold true for the 2000-year-long reconstructed records, which explains both their higher Hurst exponents and the higher probabilities of strong 100-year temperature fluctuations. A long-term synthetic record that embodies the reconstructed sunspot number fluctuations includes the different Hurst exponents of both the instrumental and the reconstructed records and, therefore, corroborates the conjecture.

Horst-Joachim Lüdecke

2011-10-09

325

Ultra Low Temperature Ultra Low Power Instrument Packages for Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Achievement of solar system exploration roadmap goals will involve robotic or human deployment and longterm operation of surface science packages remote from human presence, thus requiring autonomous, self-powered operation. The major challenge such packages face will be operating during long periods of darkness in extreme cold potentially without the Pu238 based power and thermal systems available to Apollo era packages (ALSEP). Development of such science payloads will thus require considerable optimization of instrument and subsystem design, packaging and integration for a variety of planetary surface environments in order to support solar system exploration fully. Our work supports this process through the incorporation of low temperature operational components and design strategies which radically minimize power, mass, and cost while maximizing the performance under extreme surface conditions that are in many cases more demanding than those routinely experienced by spacecraft in deep space. Chief instruments/instrument package candidates include those which could provide long-term monitoring of the surface and subsurface environments for fundamental science and human crew safety. The initial attempt to design a 10 instrument environmental monitoring package with a solar/battery based power system led to a package with a unacceptably large mass (500 kg) of which over half was battery mass. In phase 1, a factor of 5 reduction in mass was achieved, first through the introduction of high performance electronics capable of operating at far lower temperature and then through the use of innovative thermal balance strategies involving the use of multi-layer thin materials and gravity-assisted heat pipes. In phase 2, reported here, involves strategies such as universal incorporation of ULT/ULP digital and analog electronics, and distributed or non-conventionally packaged power systems. These strategies will be required to meet the far more challenging thermal requirements of operating through a normal 28 day diurnal cycle. The limited temperature range of efficient battery operation remains the largest obstacle.

Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Yeh, P. S.; Cooper, L.; Feng, S.; Young, E.

2010-01-01

326

Ultra Low Temperature Ultra Low Power Instrument Packages for Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Achievement of solar system exploration roadmap goals will involve robotic or human deployment and long-term operation of surface science packages remote from human presence, thus requiring autonomous, self-powered operation. The major challenge such packages face will be operating during long periods of darkness in extreme cold potentially without the Pu238 based power and thermal systems available to Apollo era packages (ALSEP). Development of such science payloads will thus require considerable optimization of instrument and subsystem design, packaging and integration for a variety of planetary surface environments in order to support solar system exploration fully. Our work supports this process through the incorporation of low temperature operational components and design strategies which radically minimize power, mass, and cost while maximizing the performance under extreme surface conditions that are in many cases more demanding than those routinely experienced by spacecraft in deep space. Chief instruments/instrument package candidates include those which could provide long-term monitoring of the surface and subsurface environments for fundamental science and human crew safety. The initial attempt to design a 10 instrument environmental monitoring package with a solar/battery based power system led to a package with a unacceptably large mass (500 kg) of which over half was battery mass. In phase 1, a factor of 5 reduction in mass was achieved, first through the introduction of high performance electronics capable of operating at far lower temperature and then through the use of innovative thermal balance strategies involving the use of multi-layer thin materials and gravity-assisted heat pipes. In phase 2, reported here, involves strategies such as universal incorporation of ULT/ULP digital and analog electronics, and distributed or non-conventionally packaged power systems. These strategies will be required to meet the far more challenging thermal requirements of operating through a normal 28 day diurnal cycle. The limited temperature range of efficient battery operation remains the largest obstacle.

Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Yeh, P. S.; Cooper, L.; Feng, S.; Young, E.

2010-01-01

327

INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Many DOE applications would significantly benefit from the availability of robust and convenient instrumentation for trace-level actinide monitoring and analysis. This project focuses on developing new instrumentation for on-line or at-line monitoring for actinides with isotopic analysis capability. In addition, analytical protocols for a novel concentration method for actinides are being investigated. These efforts focus on demonstrating these techniques using uranium. In addition to its value in the analytical laboratory, the combination of a simple concentration technique with a robust isotopic monitor could provide a powerful method for addressing a number of outstanding DOE needs. Potential applications include monitors for waste water and sewage treatment systems influent and effluent, and the ability to determine the isotopic content of transuranic species in low-activity waste fractions for waste classification and product acceptance. For example, the need for improved monitoring for uranium, plutonium, and americium in treatment plant influent is clearly identified in need RF-ER11. With some additional sample pretreatment, such technology could also impact materials characterization needs by providing on-site isotopic analyses in a system that is smaller and significantly less complex than inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

Unknown

2001-12-31

328

The BEAR program NRL plasma physics instrumentation measurements  

SciTech Connect

The BEAR program was a joint effort to launch, and demonstrate the feasibility of operating, a 1 MeV 10 ma Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) accelerator from a space platform. The accelerator design and manufacture were the responsibility of Los Alamos National Lab (LANL); diagnostics associated with accelerator operation and beam-plasma effects were also to be undertaken by LANL and NRL. Payload Integration and Telemetry was provided by the Air Force Geophysical Lab (AFGL) and Northeastern University (NEU). Beam effects on the local plasma in addition to accelerator produced vehicle effects (e.g., charging) were the responsibility of NRL as outlined herein. The BEAR rocket was launched successfully during the early morning hours of July 13 from White Sands Missile Range, White Sands, N.M. The NRL contribution to this effort included three instrument packages designed to diagnose beam-plasma and vehicle-plasma interactions. The instruments included: (1) Langmuir probe (LP) design consisting of 4 separate sensors; (2) High voltage (HIV) Langmuir Probe designed to monitor vehicle charging through current polarity changes; and (3) Plasma Wave Receive (PWR) designed to characterize the plasma wave emissions covering a broad frequency range from near DC to 50 MHz.

Walker, D.N.; Baumback, M.M.; Haas, D.G.; Rodriguez, P.; Siefring, C.L.; Doggett, R.A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1989-11-15

329

Apparatus to measure high-temperature thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of small specimens  

SciTech Connect

A thermal conductivity apparatus based on the parallel heat-flow technique has been fabricated to measure the thermal conductivity of small specimens. The steady-state method is used to measure samples of 1x1x10 mm{sup 3} dimension in the temperature range of room temperature-700 K. The details of instrument fabrication, the method of calibration, and typical measurements on test samples are described. The apparatus can also be used to measure the Seebeck coefficient in the same temperature range. As an example we report the thermal properties of CrSi{sub 2}, which is a potential candidate for high-temperature thermoelectric applications.

Dasgupta, T.; Umarji, A.M. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)

2005-09-15

330

A New Automatic System for Angular Measurement and Calibration in Radiometric Instruments  

PubMed Central

This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements. PMID:22319320

Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

2010-01-01

331

Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN); McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

332

Non-contact temperature measurement requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center is involved with levitation experiments for Spacelab, Space Station, and drop tube/tower operations. These experiments have temperature measurement requirements, that of course must be non-contact in nature. The experiment modules involved are the Acoustic Levitator Furnace (ALF), and the Modular Electromagnetic Levitator (MEL). User requirements of the ALF and drop tube are presented. The center also has temperature measurement needs that are not microgravity experiment oriented, but rather are related to the propulsion system for the STS. This requirement will also be discussed.

Higgins, D. B.; Witherow, W. K.

1989-01-01

333

Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

1994-10-04

334

Ground truth data for test sites (SL-4). [thermal radiation brightness temperature and solar radiation measurments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field measurements performed simultaneous with Skylab overpass in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. Wavelength region covered include: solar radiation (400 to 1300 nanometer), and thermal radiation (8 to 14 micrometer). Measurements consisted of general conditions and near surface meteorology, atmospheric temperature and humidity vs altitude, the thermal brightness temperature, total and diffuse solar radiation, direct solar radiation (subsequently analyzed for optical depth/transmittance), and target reflectivity/radiance. The particular instruments used are discussed along with analyses performed. Detailed instrument operation, calibrations, techniques, and errors are given.

1974-01-01

335

Development of an Instrument to Measure Student Use of Academic Success Skills: An Exploratory Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills instrument including item development and exploratory factor analysis. The instrument was developed to measure student use of the skills and strategies identified as most critical for long-term school success that are typically taught by school counselors.

Carey, John; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Harrington, Karen

2014-01-01

336

ECE 331 -Biomedical Instrumentation Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, UBC Cardiac Measurements  

E-print Network

ECE 331 - Biomedical Instrumentation Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, UBC Lab #7 Repeatability for each person. Is this a very meaningful value? Why or why not? #12;ECE 331 - Biomedical Instrumentation Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, UBC H) Measure the following: 1. height 2. weight

Pulfrey, David L.

337

HIDEX Generation II: a new and improved instrument for measuring marine bioluminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Engineering Division of Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, in a collaborative effort with the HBOI Marine Biophotonics Center and the Naval Oceanographic Office, have developed a new and improved instrument for measuring bioluminescence in the oceans. Known as the High-Intake Defined Excitation Bathyphotometer (HIDEX-BP), this instrument was originally developed by the University of California at Santa Barbara, and has become

Edith A. Widder; Charles L. Frey; Lawrence J. Borne

2003-01-01

338

Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

2010-01-01

339

A measurement system based on virtual instrumentation for field dynamic balancing of rotors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A network system for measuring the vibration caused by unbalance in the rotor is designed based on virtual instrumentation. A novel method which integrated the influence coefficient method (ICM) and mode-balancing method (MBM) is presented, which is used for field balancing of both the rigid and flexible rotors. Adopting a modular design concept, we developed a field dynamic balancing instrument

Shulin Chen; Xiaopeng Xie; Peitian Cong

2009-01-01

340

Measured radiance and temperature interaction in turbulent pool fires  

SciTech Connect

The fires above moderate sized pools of ethanol and isopropanol have been studied to determine how the fluctuating temperatures and concentrations of radiating species affect the radiant intensity leaving the flame. The experimental facility consists of a 12 meter diameter pool which is instrumented for radiance and soot concentration measurements. Temperature is determined from a thermocouple rake, permitting correlation of the temperature at eleven positions along the fire diameter. High speed movies and digitized time-lapse photographs enhance the understanding of the visible radiation in the fire. In both the ethanol and propanol fires, the peak average temperature is 1275 K, the standard deviation of temperature is close to 300 K, and the dominant flickering frequency is near 2 Hz. Significant differences in the two fuels also exist: the thermal output of the isopropanol is 141 kW, double the ethanol fire; the peak radiance from the isopropanol is 22 kWm/sup 2/-sr, also double the ethanol the value; the absorption coefficient in the propanol fire exceeds 15 m/sup -1/, three times that of ethanol; and the measured soot levels and visible radiation from burning propanol exceed by five times those found from burning ethanol.

Grosshandler, W.L.; Fischer, S.J.; Hardouin-Duparc, B.

1987-01-01

341

INSTRUMENTATION, FIELD OPERATIONS, AND DATA PROCESSING FOR PMEL DEEP OCEAN BOTTOM PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS  

E-print Network

for the sensor frequency F .18 .19 .22 6. The temperature sensitivity, iI, as a function of ambient pressure at O Pressure Observational Program. 2.1 Transducer Conformance Equation 2.2 Static Sensitivity . . . . 2-7H. .26 .27 .29 .33 .37 Paroscientific pressure transducer, temperature sensor, and instrument

342

The Quantitative Measurement of Organizational Culture in Health Care: A Review of the Available Instruments  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the quantitative instruments available to health service researchers who want to measure culture and cultural change. Data Sources A literature search was conducted using Medline, Cinahl, Helmis, Psychlit, Dhdata, and the database of the King's Fund in London for articles published up to June 2001, using the phrase “organizational culture.” In addition, all citations and the gray literature were reviewed and advice was sought from experts in the field to identify instruments not found on the electronic databases. The search focused on instruments used to quantify culture with a track record, or potential for use, in health care settings. Data Extraction For each instrument we examined the cultural dimensions addressed, the number of items for each questionnaire, the measurement scale adopted, examples of studies that had used the tool, the scientific properties of the instrument, and its strengths and limitations. Principal Findings Thirteen instruments were found that satisfied our inclusion criteria, of which nine have a track record in studies involving health care organizations. The instruments varied considerably in terms of their grounding in theory, format, length, scope, and scientific properties. Conclusions A range of instruments with differing characteristics are available to researchers interested in organizational culture, all of which have limitations in terms of their scope, ease of use, or scientific properties. The choice of instrument should be determined by how organizational culture is conceptualized by the research team, the purpose of the investigation, intended use of the results, and availability of resources. PMID:12822919

Scott, Tim; Mannion, Russell; Davies, Huw; Marshall, Martin

2003-01-01

343

In Situ and Satellite Measured Temperature Comparability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the International Geophysical Year in the late 1950's, small meteorological rockets caught the interest of scientists as a potentially inexpensive method to obtain meteorological information (density, temperature, wind) above balloon-borne radiosonde altitudes. These small rocketsondes have served many important observational roles in terms of studies conducted of atmospheric structure and processes, enabling many new ideas about the atmosphere to emerge. Although no longer manufactured a small residual inventory of meteorological rocketsondes exist for specific research projects. The value of data from meteorological rocketsondes is without question but with their disappearance data from many different satellites are filling the need, some able to resolve high-altitude temperatures quite well. However, the rocketsonde vertical profile is more localized to the launch site whereas satellites move several kilometers per second. The objective of this presentation is to compare in situ temperature data with remotely measured/retrieved temperature data. There have been a number of U.S. conducted missions utilizing the passive falling sphere data that we use to verify the comparability of retrieved temperatures from these satellites. Missions, some as early as 1991, were conducted in polar, equatorial, and mid-latitude locations. An important aspect is that a single satellite profile compared to a falling sphere profile often does not agree while high density satellite measurements when averaged over an area near the rocketsonde data area seems to be in better agreement. Radiosonde temperature data are used in the analysis when appropriate

Schmidlin, F. J.; Goldberg, R. A.; Bedrick, Mary; Rose, R. Lynn

2011-01-01

344

A Multi-Instrument Measurement of a Mesospheric Bore at the Equator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have made a comprehensive measurement of mesospheric bore phenomenon at the equator at Kototabang, Indonesia (0.2 deg S, 100.3 deg E), using an airglow imager, an airglow temperature photometer, a meteor radar, and the SABER instrument on board the TIMED satellite. The bore was detected in airglow images of both OH-band (peak emission altitude: 87 km) and 557.7-nm (96 km) emissions, as east-west front-like structure propagating northward with a velocity of 52-58 m/s. Wave trains with a horizontal wavelength of 30-70 km are observed behind the bore front. The airglow intensity decreases for all the mesospheric emissions of OI (557.7 nm), OH-band, O2-band (altitude: 94 km), and Na (589.3 nm) (90 km) after the bore passage. The rotational temperatures of both OH-band and O2-band also decrease approximately 10 K after the bore passage. An intense shear in northward wind velocity of 80m/s was observed at altitudes of 84-90 km by the meteor radar. Kinetic temperature profile at altitudes of 20-120 km was observed near Kototabang by TIMED/SABER. On the basis of these observations, we discuss generation and ducting of the observed mesospheric bore.

Shiokawa, K.; Suzuki, S.; Otsuka, Y.; Ogawa, T.; Nakamura, T.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M., III

2005-01-01

345

Measurement of surface temperature in lung cancer.  

PubMed

We measured the surface temperature of the tumors in 27 patients with primary lung cancer, using a flexible bronchofiberscope and a thermometer made from chromel-constantan. The thermometer was inserted into the aspiration channel of the bronchofiberscope, and temperature was studied under bronchofiberscopic located in the central portion of the lung were higher than those of the carina of the trachea (P less than 0.01), truncus superior (P less than 0.01), or truncus inferior (P less than 0.05), and almost equal to those of the peripheral lung. Thus, lung cancer showed a significantly higher surface temperature. When 67Ga scintigraphy was performed in 22 patients with lung cancer, the temperature of the high-uptake group was higher than that of the low-uptake group. PMID:6274590

Ohgimi, T; Akiyama, S; Shimokata, K

1982-01-01

346

Caffeine Expectancy: Instrument Development in the Rasch Measurement Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world, the mechanisms associated with consumption are not well understood. Nonetheless, outcome expectancies for caffeine use are thought to underlie caffeine’s reinforcing properties. To date, however, there is no available, sufficient measure by which to assess caffeine expectancy. Therefore, the current study sought to develop such a measure employing

Adrienne J. Heinz; Jon D. Kassel; Everett V. Smith

2009-01-01

347

MARSAME Appendix D D. INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES  

E-print Network

; · Radiation Types ­ Applicability of the measurement technique for different types of ionizing radiation provides information on various field and laboratory equipment used to measure radiation levels and radioactive material concentrations. The descriptions provide information pertaining to the general types

348

Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e.g. in mofettes and diffuse degassing areas). The occurrence of thermal anomalies at the surface often reveals that a process of steam condensation is occurring below the ground and that CO2 fluxes are being released on the surface. A thermal map of steam heated grounds therefore highlights boundaries of underground steam advection and also the more suitable sites for geochemical monitoring. Pirogips has been assembled for the quick acquisition of surface parameters related to the exhaling activity of volcanic systems. It has been formerly tested in a controlled environment, after in the well known fumaroles areas of Vulcano island, and then in the volcanic system El Machin (Colombia) for the field survey preliminary to the installation of new monitoring stations. The preliminary test and the first field experiences confirmed that pirogips acquires the surface temperatures quickly and with good detail. The combination of sensors supplies the advantage of in situ methods (i.e. accuracy of the direct measurement by thermocouple) and those of ground-based remote sensing techniques (i.e. quickness of measurement process), at the same time reducing the main disadvantages of each method. A home-made data-logger combines the acquired parameters and returns a data-string allowing an easy visualization of acquired data on geo-referenced maps. The string of data returns the position of acquisition (lat, long, WGS84), surface temperature (either derived by the pyrometer and by thermocouple), ambient temperature, barometric pressure and air moisture. -References -Diliberto I.S., Gurrieri S., Valenza M. (2002) Relationships between diffuse CO2 emissions and volcanic activity on the island of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) during the period 1984-1994 Bulletin of Volcanology vol 64: 219-228. -Diliberto I.S., (2013) Time series analysis of high temperature fumaroles monitored on the island of Vulcano (Aeolian Archipelago, italy). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research Manuscript Number: doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.08.003. Inguaggiato, S., Mazot, A., Diliberto, I.S.,

Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

2014-05-01

349

Critical temperature measurement method of composite superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical temperature ( Tc) is one of the most important properties in applications of superconductors. There are a lot of test methods to measure Tc of superconductors and therefore the standardization of the measurement method of Tc is needed. For those demands the draft of Tc measurement method was prepared by various organizations and committees in Japan. The outline of the method was the resistance method using a 50% resistance criterion, which is applicable to both metallic and oxide composite superconductors in industrial uses. The draft was submitted to IEC/TC90 and certified as a new work item proposal.

Murase, S.; Itoh, K.; Wada, H.; Noto, K.; Kimura, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Osamura, K.

2001-08-01

350

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2013-07-01

351

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2014-07-01

352

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2010-07-01

353

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2011-07-01

354

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2012-07-01

355

Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam.  

PubMed

We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO_{2}) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1-15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding to shock pressures of 0.3-2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. Simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements. PMID:25314547

Falk, K; McCoy, C A; Fryer, C L; Greeff, C W; Hungerford, A L; Montgomery, D S; Schmidt, D W; Sheppard, D G; Williams, J R; Boehly, T R; Benage, J F

2014-09-01

356

A comparison of “GLOBAL” temperature estimates from satellite and instrumental data, 1979-88  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of surface temperature changes over land and ocean areas with tropospheric air temperatures derived from satellite measurements over the period 1979-88 reveals differences in the relative rankings of the individual yearly values over the oceans. The discrepancy occurs mainly in the warm half of the set of years, with good agreement evident during the colder half. Since the land data agrees well with the satellite measurements, unless there is an unknown problem with the surface marine temperatures, it appears that interannual surface temperature variations over the oceans compare poorly with such variations in the troposphere above it, particularly when the oceans are relatively warm. Agreement between the satellite measurements and an index of troposheric temperature derived from a set of globally distributed radiosonde stations is excellent.

Diaz, Henry F.

1990-12-01

357

Specifying and calibrating instrumentations for wideband electronic power measurements. [in switching circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wideband electric power measurement related topics of electronic wattmeter calibration and specification are discussed. Tested calibration techniques are described in detail. Analytical methods used to determine the bandwidth requirements of instrumentation for switching circuit waveforms are presented and illustrated with examples from electric vehicle type applications. Analog multiplier wattmeters, digital wattmeters and calculating digital oscilloscopes are compared. The instrumentation characteristics which are critical to accurate wideband power measurement are described.

Lesco, D. J.; Weikle, D. H.

1980-01-01

358

Prairie grassland bidirectional reflectances measured by different instruments at the FIFE site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Land surface reflectance measurements were obtained during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) field campaigns utilizing a variety of airborne and ground-based spectral radiometers. To study the validity of the assumption that the values obtained by the several different teams and instruments were interchangeable, the surface radiation measurement teams converged on a common site for one day during the fifth intensive field campaign in 1989. The bidirectional reflectances from the various instruments were basically found to be comparable.

Deering, D. W.; Middleton, E. M.; Irons, J. R.; Blad, B. L.; Walter-Shea, E. A.; Hays, C. J.; Walthall, C.; Eck, T. F.; Ahmad, S. P.; Banerjee, B. P.

1992-01-01

359

EDITORIAL: Advances in Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments for Production Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement and instrumentation have long played an important role in Production Engineering, through supporting both the traditional field of manufacturing and the new field of micro\\/nano-technology. Papers published in this special feature were selected and updated from those presented at The 8th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2007) held at Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, on 24-27

Wei Gao; Yasuhiro Takaya; Yongsheng Gao; Michael Krystek

2008-01-01

360

Measuring the effectiveness of marketing information systems : An empirically validated instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To design and empirically validate an instrument for measuring the effectiveness of a marketing intelligence system (MkIS). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A thorough review of the literature of IS in general and MkIS in particular was the foundation for a new conceptualisation of MkIS effectiveness, which was developed into a measuring instrument for experimental application to data collected by a

Spiros P. Gounaris; George G. Panigyrakis; Kalliopi C. Chatzipanagiotou

2007-01-01

361

Progress in the specification of optical instruments for the measurement of surface form and texture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specifications for confocal microscopes, optical interferometers and other methods of measuring areal surface topography can be confusing and misleading. The emerging ISO 25178 standards, together with the established international vocabulary of metrology, provide a foundation for improved specifications for 3D surface metrology instrumentation. The approach in this paper links instrument specifications to metrological characteristics that can influence a measurement, using consistent definitions of terms, and reference to verification procedures.

de Groot, Peter J.

2014-05-01

362

A photophonic instrument concept to measure atmospheric aerosol absorption. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory model of an instrument to measure the absorption of atmospheric aerosols was designed, built, and tested. The design was based on the photophonic phenomenon discovered by Bell and an acoustic resonator developed by Helmholtz. Experiments were done to show ways the signal amplitude could be improved and the noise reduced and to confirm the instrument was sensitive enough to be practical. The research was undertaken to develop concepts which show promise of being improvements on the instruments that are presently used to measure the absorption of the Sun's radiation by the Earth's atmospheric aerosols.

Engle, C. D.

1982-01-01

363

Plan for the testing of radiation measurement instrumentation intended for use at an excavation site  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes performance tests to be made with ionizing radiation measurement instrumentation designed and built for in-field assay at an excavation site. One instrument measures gross gamma-ray and neutron fields and the other identifies gamma-ray emitting radionuclides and also is capable of assaying for selected hazardous materials. These instruments will be operationally tested to verify that original specifications have been met and performance tested to establish and verify that they have the potential to function as intended at an excavation site.

Gehrke, R.J.

1994-11-01

364

The Development of An Instrument Measuring Values Associated with Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of the Maryland Work Value Inventory, designed to obtain research data and also to measure a range of attitudes held by high school students toward work, yielding useful data for subsequent studies. (MF)

Mietus, Walter S.

1977-01-01

365

Correcting horsepower measurements to a standard temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses the relation between the temperature of the air at the entrance to the carburetor and the power developed by the engine. Its scope is limited to a consideration of the range of temperatures likely to result from changes of season, locality, or altitude, since its primary aim is the finding of a satisfactory basis for correcting power measurements to a standard temperature. The tests upon which this report is based were made upon aviation engines in the Altitude Laboratory of the Bureau of Standards. From the results of over 1,600 tests it is concluded that if calculations be based on the assumption that the indicated horsepower of an engine varies inversely as the square root of the absolute temperature of the carburetor air the values obtained will check closely experimental measurements. The extent to which this relationship would be expected from theoretical considerations is discussed and some suggestions are given relative to the use of this relationship in correcting horsepower measurements. (author)

Sparrow, Stanwood W

1925-01-01

366

STP Temperature Measurement Lennard-Jones Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP TemperatureMeasurementLJ program simulates the exchange energy between a demon and a system of particles interacting via the Lennard-Jones potential. The program shows the kinetic temperature of the system as a function of time, and the energy distribution of the demon. The purpose of this simulation is to understand why the demon acts as an ideal thermometer The default system is a one-dimensional ideal gas of N=64 particles in a box with linear dimension 30 and initial kinetic energy per particle of 1.0. Additional states and parameters can be specified using the Display|Switch GUI menu item. STP TemperatureMeasurementLJ is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp_TemperatureMeasurementLJ.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2009-03-03

367

Portable Instrument to Measure CDOM Light Absorption in Aquatic Systems: WPI Success Story  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

World Precision Instruments, Inc. (WPI), of Sarasota, FL, in collaboration with NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, has developed an innovative instrument to accurately measure Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) absorption in the field. This successful collaboration has culminated in an exciting new device, called the UltraPath, now commercially available through WPI. Traditional methods of measuring absorption of dissolved materials require special handling and storage prior to measurement. Use of laboratory spectrophotometers as the measuring devices have proven time consuming, cumbersome, and delicate to handle. The UltraPath provides a low-cost, highly sensitive, rugged, portable system that is capable of high sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters.

2001-01-01

368

Development of a canopy Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurement instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence detecting instrument based on Fraunhofer line principle was designed and tested. The instrument has a valid survey area of 1.3 × 1.3 meter when the height was fixed to 1.3 meter. The instrument uses sunlight as its light source. The instrument is quipped with two sets of special photoelectrical detectors with the centre wavelength at 760 nm and 771 nm respectively and bandwidth less than 1nm. Both sets of detectors are composed of an upper detector which are used for detecting incidence sunlight and a bottom detector which are used for detecting reflex light from the canopy of crop. This instrument includes photoelectric detector module, signal process module, A/D convert module, the data storage and upload module and human-machine interface module. The microprocessor calculates solar-induced fluorescence value based on the A/D values get from detectors. And the value can be displayed on the instrument's LCD, stored in the flash memory of instrument and can also be uploaded to PC through the PC's serial interface. The prototype was tested in the crop field and the results demonstrate that the instrument can measure the solar-induced chlorophyll value exactly with the correlation coefficients was 0.9 compared to the values got from Analytical Spectral Devices FieldSpec Pro spectrometer. This instrument can diagnose the plant growth status by the acquired spectral response.

Sun, G.; Wang, X.; Niu, Zh; Chen, F.

2014-02-01

369

A Regularized Neural Net Approach for Retrieval of Atmospheric and Surface Temperatures with the IASI Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstract In this paper, a fast atmospheric and surface temperature retrieval algorithm is developed for the high resolution Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) space-borne instrument. This algorithm is constructed on the basis of a neural network technique that has been regularized by introduction of a priori information. The performance of the resulting fast and accurate inverse radiative transfer model is presented for a large divE:rsified dataset of radiosonde atmospheres including rare events. Two configurations are considered: a tropical-airmass specialized scheme and an all-air-masses scheme.

Aires, F.; Chedin, A.; Scott, N. A.; Rossow, W. B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

370

Global High-Accuracy Intercomparison of Slope Measuring Instruments  

SciTech Connect

The upcoming generation of high accuracy synchrotron radiation (SR) optics will be characterized by a slope deviation from ideal shape in the range of some 0.05{mu}rad rms at a sampling interval of about 1mm. To certify and improve the measurement capabilities of metrology tools to inspect these stringent specifications, an essential step is a worldwide intercomparison of these measurements based on a set of transfer standards. It is the aim of these cross measurements to verify the ''absolute'' correctness and comparability of the measurement results obtained by the cooperating partners when measuring the topography of specific reference optics (ROs) using their latest metrology tools and methods. Organized by members of the SR-optics community, new national and international cross measurement comparisons of typical synchrotron radiation mirrors have been realized during the last few years: A round robin test by the European COST-program (BESSY, Elettra, ESRF, Soleil) during the years 2004-2005 and a similar cooperation realized by the APS, ESRF and Spring-8 have proceeded. The first results of both projects were presented at the ''Optics and Photonics'' conference in San Diego in August 2005. This work build upon earlier work. The participants of both groups and representatives of other SR-laboratories agreed to start a global cooperation bringing together the two round-robin projects and open these activities to other partners from the SR-community, optical manufacturers and other interested parties. This initiative is intended to start an extensive comparison of various measurement principles and tools and will help to push the frontiers in metrology, and hence production, to a precision well below the current state-of-the-art limit of 0.5{mu}rad rms for slope errors.

Siewert, Frank; Lammert, Heiner; Zeschke, Thomas [BESSY mbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Assoufid, Lahsen [APS, Argone National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argone 60439, IL (United States); Cocco, Daniele; Sostero, Giovani [Elettra, Sinchrotrone Trieste, SS14 Km163.5 in Area Science Park, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Hignette, Olivier; Rommeveaux, Amparo [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220. 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Irick, Steve; McKinney, Wayne; Yashchuk, Valeriy [ALS, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720-8199 (United States); Ohashi, Haruhiko [SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Polack, Francois; Thomasset, Muriel [Synchrotron Soleil, BP 34 -Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Qian, Shinan; Takacs, Peter [BNL, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rah, Seungyu [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory/POSTECH, Hyoja-Dong San 31, Namku, Pohang, 790-390, Rep. of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Schoenherr, Veit [SLS, WSLA 119, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villingen (Switzerland); Yamauchi, Kazuto [Departement of Precision Science and Technology, Graduated School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

2007-01-19

371

Instruments Measuring Externalizing Mental Health Problems in Immigrant Ethnic Minority Youths: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about reliability and validity of instruments measuring externalizing mental health problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths. Aims To provide an overview of studies on measurement properties of instruments measuring these problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths, their methodological quality and results. Methods A systematic review of the literature in MEDLINE, EMbase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library was performed. Evaluation of methodological quality of studies found was done by using the ‘COSMIN-checklist’. Full text, original articles, published in English after 1990 were included. Articles had to concern the development or evaluation of the measurement properties of self-reported, parent-reported and/or teacher- or clinician-reported questionnaires assessing or screening externalizing mental health problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths. Specific results of analyses on (an) immigrant ethnic minority group had to be given. Results Twenty-nine studies evaluating 18 instruments met our criteria. Most studies concerned instruments with known validity in Western populations, tested mainly in African Americans. Considering methodological quality, inequivalences between ethnicities were found, self-reports seemed to perform better, and administration of an instrument influenced reliability and validity. Conclusion It seems that the majority of instruments for assessing externalizing problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths is currently not sufficiently validated. Further evaluating existing instruments is crucial to accurately assess and interpreted externalizing problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths. PMID:23704892

Paalman, Carmen H.; Terwee, Caroline B.; Jansma, Elise P.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.

2013-01-01

372

Rocket borne instrument to measure electric fields inside electrified clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for measuring the electric field in the atmosphere which includes a pair of sensors carried on a rocket for sensing the voltages in the atmosphere being measured is described. One of the sensors is an elongated probe with a fine point which causes a corona current to be produced as it passes through the electric field. An electric circuit is coupled between the probe and the other sensor and includes a high ohm resistor which linearizes the relationship between the corona current and the electric field being measured. A relaxation oscillator and transmitter are provided for generating and transmitting an electric signal having a frequency corresponding to the magnitude of the electric field.

Ruhnke, L. H. (inventor)

1973-01-01

373

A new, four-item instrument to measure workplace bullying.  

PubMed

Studies on workplace bullying either in the U.S. or internationally rarely include nurses. We tested the concurrent validity of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (22 items) with a sample of nurses. Five hundred eleven registered nurses (RNs) responded to a mailed survey. Factor, reliability, and regression analyses tested dimensionality, reliability, and construct and criterion validity. Workplace bullying is best seen as a one-dimensional construct. A subset of four items was found to be both valid and reliable in measuring bullying in this sample. Findings support the use of a one-dimensional, four-item questionnaire to measure perceived bullying in nursing populations. Using a four-item questionnaire decreases participant and researcher burden and makes available an outcome measure for future descriptive and predictive interventional research. PMID:21246569

Simons, Shellie R; Stark, Roland B; DeMarco, Rosanna F

2011-04-01

374

Instrumentation for measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mass spectrometric 'Dynamic Delta' method for the measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes has been developed. The method is universally applicable for measurement of the permeability of any gas through polymeric membrane materials. The usual large sample size of more than 100 square centimeters required for other methods is not necessary for this new method which requires a size less than one square centimeter. The new method should fulfill requirements and find applicability for industrial materials such as food packaging, contact lenses and other commercial materials where gas permeability or permselectivity properties are important.

Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Burns, Karen S.

1993-02-01

375

Direct measurement of skin friction with a new instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a small belt-type skin-friction gage to measure wall shear-stress coefficients in wind-tunnel testing are described, summarizing the report of Vakili and Wu (1982). The sensor employs a flexible belt of variable surface characteristics; this belt, wrapped tightly around two cylinders mounted on frictionless flexures, is equipped with strain gages to estimate the deflection of the belt by the flow. An alternative approach uses IR illumination, optical fibers, and a photosensitive transistor, permitting direct measurement of the belt deflection. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of sample data are provided.

Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

1986-01-01

376

Instrumentation for Measurement of Gas Permeability of Polymeric Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass spectrometric 'Dynamic Delta' method for the measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes has been developed. The method is universally applicable for measurement of the permeability of any gas through polymeric membrane materials. The usual large sample size of more than 100 square centimeters required for other methods is not necessary for this new method which requires a size less than one square centimeter. The new method should fulfill requirements and find applicability for industrial materials such as food packaging, contact lenses and other commercial materials where gas permeability or permselectivity properties are important.

Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Burns, Karen S.

1993-01-01

377

Miniaturized instrumentation for routine measurement of aerosol and gas phase pollution by lightweight autonomous unmanned aircraft.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upcoming California AUAV Pollution Profiling project (CAPPS) will routinely monitor the vertical distribution of aerosol and gas pollutants over California during 2008 using autonomous lightweight unmanned aircraft. The measurements will be used to evaluate the impact of pollutants on California's climate, detect long range transport, and to validate satellite measurements. Proven miniaturized instrumentation for collecting aerosol parameters (concentration, size distribution, absorption), atmospheric solar radiation (flux, heating rates, albedo) and meteorological parameters (thermodynamic structure, water vapor) that were flown during previous studies will be deployed. Validation of these instruments is reviewed. New miniaturized instruments to collect the concentration of gas species are being developed to compliment these established measurements. An ozone monitor with a resolution of 2 ppb has been successfully integrated into the flight package. Results from the laboratory validation of this instrument are presented. In addition, progress on a miniaturized carbon monoxide sensor and NOx sensor are also presented.

Corrigan, C. E.; Ramanathan, V.; Roberts, G.; Ramana, M. V.

2007-12-01

378

Temperature and turbulence measurements during the ECOMA sounding rocket campaign 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two instrumented rockets were launched at Andøya (69 ° N) during the ECOMA sounding rocket campaign in September 2006. A comprehensive set of different data was measured insitu and by ground-based instruments. Temperature measurements were done by rocketborne instruments (ionization gauge and two Pirani gauges on each payload) and the ALOMAR RMR- and Weber Na-lidars. Simultaneously, turbulence measurements were done both in-situ using ionization gauges and using remote soundings with the SAURA MF radar. Measurements show a pronounced temperature inversion of about 30 K in the region from 80 to 100 km which coincides with a broad layer of neutral turbulence. From the morphology of the turbulence layer it can be attributed as likely originating from a wind shear.

Strelnikov, Boris; Rapp, Markus; Singer, Werner; Baumgarten, Gerd; Williams, Bifford

379

Instruments and Methods A non-destructive method for measuring the salinity and solid  

E-print Network

Instruments and Methods A non-destructive method for measuring the salinity and solid fraction developed to make in situ measurements of salinity and solid- fraction profiles in growing sea ice with theoretical predictions. In a field test in the Arctic, the bulk salinity of growing sea ice has been measured

Worster, M. Grae

380

Parched elasto hydrodynamic lubrication film thickness measurement in an instrument ball bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parched Elasto Hydrodynamic Lubricant (PEHL) film thickness in a large instrument ball bearing is measured by electrical capacitance across its ball set. Correlation is shown between changes in film thickness and changes in Basic Speed Ratio (BSR) measured at the same time. BSR is confirmed as a sensitive, non-intrusive measure of transients in film thickness in a real bearing.

Kingsbury, E.; Schritz, B.; Prahl, J.

1988-01-01

381

Uncertainty Management in the measurements performed by means of virtual instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncertainty management is the discipline of optimising the cost of a measurement versus the uncertainty target. In particular, the paper deals with the measurements performed by using a generic virtual instrument. The task is achieved by using the PUMA (procedure for uncertainty management) method that is an iterative technique originally conceived for geometrical and mechanical measurements. The approach is

Salvatore Nuccio; Ciro Spataro

2008-01-01

382

Using broadband erythemal UV instruments to measure relative irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the accuracy of the model 501A UV biometer in taking measurements relative to a predetermined background condition. The UVSPEC model with the discrete ordinates radiative transfer (DISORT) algorithm was used to mimic a range of radiation environments covering differing zenith angles, aerosol, and cloud regimes. These data were used to model typical responses for two hypothetical biometers

Manuel Nunez; Christopher Kuchinke; Peter Gies

2002-01-01

383

Developing an Instrument to Measure Bias in CME  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The pharmaceutical industry, by funding over 60% of programs in the United States and Canada, plays a major role in continuing medical education (CME), but there are concerns about bias in such CME programs. Bias is difficult to define, and currently no tool is available to measure it. Methods: Representatives from industry and…

Takhar, Jatinder; Dixon, Dave; Donahue, Jill; Marlow, Bernard; Campbell, Craig; Silver, Ivan; Eadie, Jason; Monette, Celine; Rohan, Ivan; Sriharan, Abi; Raymond, Kathryn; Macnab, Jennifer

2007-01-01

384

A Portable Measurement Instrument for Soft Tissue Mechanical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specially designed device is used to link ultrasound and force transducers by mounting them in series to simultaneously measure the deformation and force in soft tissue. Correlation analysis is used to detect the time of flight (TOF) of the ultrasound through the soft tissue. Data sampling and correlation analyses are performed by FPGA and are realized in the hardware.

Xingfei Li; Sun Ying; Theodor Freiheit

2004-01-01

385

Offshore wind profile measurements from remote sensing instruments  

E-print Network

height as the increase in mast height would increase also the price of the whole installation. Another of the multi-MW wind turbines has increased the need for measurements at higher heights and this in combination in diameter and 69m in hub height. The turbines are installed in 8 rows in the north-south direction 850m

386

Development of an Instrument To Measure Classroom Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that developed and field-tested the Classroom Community Scale, which measures the sense of community in a learning environment, and to determine its validity and reliability for use with university students taking distance courses via the Internet. Considers gender and ethnic groups, and a copy of the scale is appended.…

Rovai, Alfred P.

2002-01-01

387

Low Temperature Photocurrent Measurements in Graphene Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dirac-like chiral nature of charge carriers in graphene has been linked to a number of unusual charge transport phenomena, including suppression of localization and minimum conductivity. A crucial ingredient to understand such phenomena in graphene is the ability to correlate the charge transport characteristics with the corresponding internal potential landscape and band-bending. With a scanning optical microscope operated at LHe temperature we have measured lateral photo-current in graphene-based devices. Spatial maps of photocurrent obtained using this approach contain information about the distribution of lateral electrostatic fields in these devices. At room temperature, band-bending induced by metal contacts has been observed. At cryogenic temperature, formation of electron-hole puddles leads to spatially inhomogeneous maps of photocurrent, which become very sensitive to the applied gate voltage.

Nazin, George; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Liyuan; Sutter, Peter

2010-03-01

388

Measuring Addiction Propensity and Severity: The Need for a New Instrument  

PubMed Central

Drug addiction research requires but lacks a valid and reliable way to measure both the risk (propensity) to develop addiction and the severity of manifest addiction. This paper argues for a new measurement approach and instrument to quantify propensity to and severity of addiction, based on the testable assumption that these constructs can be mapped onto the same dimension of liability to addiction. The case for this new direction becomes clear from a critical review of empirical data and the current instrumentation. The many assessment instruments in use today have proven utility, reliability, and validity, but they are of limited use for evaluating individual differences in propensity and severity. The conceptual and methodological shortcomings of instruments currently used in research and clinical practice can be overcome through the use of new technologies to develop a reliable, valid, and standardized assessment instrument(s) to measure and distinguish individual variations in expression of the underlying latent trait(s) that comprises propensity to and severity of drug addiction. Such instrumentation would enhance our capacity for drug addiction research on linkages and interactions among familial, genetic, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with variations in propensity and severity. It would lead to new opportunities in substance abuse prevention, treatment, and services research, as well as in interventions and implementation science for drug addiction. PMID:20462706

Conway, Kevin P.; Levy, Janet; Vanyukov, Michael; Chandler, Redonna; Rutter, Joni; Swan, Gary E.; Neale, Michael

2010-01-01

389

Validation of ACE and OSIRIS ozone and NO2 measurements using ground-based instruments at 80° N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) have been taking measurements from space since 2001 and 2003, respectively. This paper presents intercomparisons between ozone and NO2 measured by the ACE and OSIRIS satellite instruments and by ground-based instruments at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL), which is located at Eureka, Canada (80° N, 86° W) and is operated by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The ground-based instruments included in this study are four zenith-sky differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments, one Bruker Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and four Brewer spectrophotometers. Ozone total columns measured by the DOAS instruments were retrieved using new Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) guidelines and agree to within 3.2%. The DOAS ozone columns agree with the Brewer spectrophotometers with mean relative differences that are smaller than 1.5%. This suggests that for these instruments the new NDACC data guidelines were successful in producing a homogenous and accurate ozone dataset at 80° N. Satellite 14-52 km ozone and 17-40 km NO2 partial columns within 500 km of PEARL were calculated for ACE-FTS Version 2.2 (v2.2) plus updates, ACE-FTS v3.0, ACE-MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) v1.2 and OSIRIS SaskMART v5.0x ozone and Optimal Estimation v3.0 NO2 data products. The new ACE-FTS v3.0 and the validated ACE-FTS v2.2 partial columns are nearly identical, with mean relative differences of 0.0 ± 0.2% and -0.2 ± 0.1% for v2.2 minus v3.0 ozone and NO2, respectively. Ozone columns were constructed from 14-52 km satellite and 0-14 km ozonesonde partial columns and compared with the ground-based total column measurements. The satellite-plus-sonde measurements agree with the ground-based ozone total columns with mean relative differences of 0.1-7.3%. For NO2, partial columns from 17 km upward were scaled to noon using a photochemical model. Mean relative differences between OSIRIS, ACE-FTS and ground-based NO2 measurements do not exceed 20%. ACE-MAESTRO measures more NO2 than the other instruments, with mean relative differences of 25-52%. Seasonal variation in the differences between NO2 partial columns is observed, suggesting that there are systematic errors in the measurements and/or the photochemical model corrections. For ozone spring-time measurements, additional coincidence criteria based on stratospheric temperature and the location of the polar vortex were found to improve agreement between some of the instruments. For ACE-FTS v2.2 minus Bruker FTIR, the 2007-2009 spring-time mean relative difference improved from -5.0 ± 0.4% to -3.1 ± 0.8% with the dynamical selection criteria. This was the largest improvement, likely because both instruments measure direct sunlight and therefore have well-characterized lines-of-sight compared with scattered sunlight measurements. For NO2, the addition of a ±1° latitude coincidence criterion improved spring-time intercomparison results, likely due to the sharp latitudinal gradient of NO2 during polar sunrise. The differences between satellite and ground-based measurements do not show any obvious trends over the missions, indicating that both the ACE and OSIRIS instruments continue to perform well.

Adams, C.; Strong, K.; Batchelor, R. L.; Bernath, P. F.; Brohede, S.; Boone, C.; Degenstein, D.; Daffer, W. H.; Drummond, J. R.; Fogal, P. F.; Farahani, E.; Fayt, C.; Fraser, A.; Goutail, F.; Hendrick, F.; Kolonjari, F.; Lindenmaier, R.; Manney, G.; McElroy, C. T.; McLinden, C. A.; Mendonca, J.; Park, J.-H.; Pavlovic, B.; Pazmino, A.; Roth, C.; Savastiouk, V.; Walker, K. A.; Weaver, D.; Zhao, X.

2012-05-01

390

Validation of ACE and OSIRIS ozone and NO2 measurements using ground-based instruments at 80° N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imager System (OSIRIS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) have been taking measurements from space since 2001 and 2003, respectively. This paper presents intercomparisons between ozone and NO2 measured by the ACE and OSIRIS satellite instruments and by ground-based instruments at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL), which is located at Eureka, Canada (80° N, 86° W) and is operated by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The ground-based instruments included in this study are four zenith-sky differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instruments, one Bruker Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and four Brewer spectrophotometers. Ozone total columns measured by the DOAS instruments were retrieved using new Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) guidelines and agree to within 3.2%. The DOAS ozone columns agree with the Brewer spectrophotometers with mean relative differences that are smaller than 1.5%. This suggests that for these instruments the new NDACC data guidelines were successful in producing a homogenous and accurate ozone dataset at 80° N. Satellite 14-52 km ozone and 17-40 km NO2 partial columns within 500 km of PEARL were calculated for ACE-FTS Version 2.2 (v2.2) plus updates, ACE-FTS v3.0, ACE-MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) v1.2 and OSIRIS SaskMART v5.0x ozone and Optimal Estimation v3.0 NO2 data products. The new ACE-FTS v3.0 and the validated ACE-FTS v2.2 partial columns are nearly identical, with mean relative differences of 0.0 ± 0.2% for ozone and -0.2 ± 0.1% for v2.2 minus v3.3 NO2. Ozone columns were constructed from 14-52 km satellite and 0-14 km ozonesonde partial columns and compared with the ground-based total column measurements. The satellite-plus-sonde measurements agree with the ground-based ozone total columns with mean relative differences of 0.1-7.3%. For NO2, partial columns from 17 km upward were scaled to noon using a photochemical model. Mean relative differences between OSIRIS, ACE-FTS and ground-based NO2 measurements do not exceed 20%. ACE-MAESTRO measures more NO2 than the other instruments, with mean relative differences of 25-52%. Seasonal variation in the differences between partial columns is observed, suggesting that there are systematic errors in the measurements, the photochemical model corrections, and/or in the coincidence criteria. For ozone spring-time measurements, additional coincidence criteria based on stratospheric temperature and the location of the polar vortex were found to improve agreement between some of the instruments. For ACE-FTS v2.2 minus Bruker FTIR, the 2007-2009 spring-time mean relative difference improved from -5.0 ± 0.4% to -3.1 ± 0.8% with the dynamical selection criteria. This was the largest improvement, likely because both instruments measure direct sunlight and therefore have well-characterized lines-of-sight compared with scattered sunlight measurements. For NO2, the addition of a ±1° latitude coincidence criterion improved spring-time intercomparison results, likely due to the sharp latitudinal gradient of NO2 during polar sunrise. The differences between satellite and ground-based measurements do not show any obvious trends over the missions, indicating that both the ACE and OSIRIS instruments continue to perform well.

Adams, C.; Strong, K.; Batchelor, R. L.; Bernath, P. F.; Brohede, S.; Boone, C.; Degenstein, D.; Daffer, W. H.; Drummond, J. R.; Fogal, P. F.; Farahani, E.; Fayt, C.; Fraser, A.; Goutail, F.; Hendrick, F.; Kolonjari, F.; Lindenmaier, R.; Manney, G.; McElroy, C. T.; McLinden, C. A.; Mendonca, J.; Park, J.-H.; Pavlovic, B.; Pazmino, A.; Roth, C.; Savastiouk, V.; Walker, K. A.; Weaver, D.; Zhao, X.

2012-01-01

391

Improved Refractometer for Measuring Temperatures of Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Dual Rainbow refractometer is an enhanced version of the Rainbow refractometer, which is added to, and extends the capabilities of, a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A PDPA utilizes pairs of laser beams to measure individual components of velocity and sizes of drops in a spray. The Rainbow-refractometer addition measures the temperatures of individual drops. The designs of prior versions of the Rainbow refractometer have required substantial modifications of PDPA transmitting optics, plus dedicated lasers as sources of illumination separate from, and in addition to, those needed for PDPA measurements. The enhancement embodied in the Dual Rainbow refractometer eliminates the need for a dedicated laser and confers other advantages as described below. A dedicated laser is no longer needed because the Dual Rainbow refractometer utilizes one of the pairs of laser beams already present in a PDPA. Hence, the design of the Dual Rainbow refractometer simplifies the task of upgrading PDPA hardware to enable measurement of temperature. Furthermore, in a PDPA/Dual Rainbow refractometer system, a single argon-ion laser with three main wavelengths can be used to measure the temperatures, sizes, and all three components of velocity (in contradistinction to only two components of velocity in a prior PDPA/Rainbow refractometer system). In order to enable the Dual Rainbow refractometer to utilize a pair of PDPA laser beams, it was necessary to (1) find a location for the refractometer receiver, such that the combined rainbow patterns of two laser beams amount to a pattern identical to that of a single beam, (2) adjust the polarization of the two beams to obtain the strongest rainbow pattern, and (3) find a location for the PDPA receiver to obtain a linear relationship between the measured phase shift and drop size.

Naqwi, Amir A.

2004-01-01

392

Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient ?, close to 10-3 K-1 versus 10-5 K-1 for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

Pradere, C.; Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Pernot, G.; Palomo, E.; Dilhaire, S.; Batsale, J.-C.

2014-06-01

393

Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave.  

PubMed

GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient ?, close to 10(-3) K(-1) versus 10(-5) K(-1) for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications. PMID:24985839

Pradere, C; Caumes, J-P; BenKhemis, S; Pernot, G; Palomo, E; Dilhaire, S; Batsale, J-C

2014-06-01

394

Measurement of small differences between low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A manganin-constantan thermocouple was prepared.2.Calibration of the thermocouple between 273 and 73°K showed that its electromotive force is close to that of a copper-constantan thermocouple, whereas its heat conductivity lies between 1 and 10% relative to the latter.3.The manganin-constantan thermocouple may be recommended for measuring small differences between low temperatures in adiabatic microcalorimeters.

M. G. Ostronov; Yu. B. Samarin; V. N. Koloshina

1972-01-01

395

Instrumentation for measuring the dynamic pressure on rotating compressor blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To establish the capability for measurement of oscillatory pressure on rotating blades, miniature fast response semiconductor strain gage pressure transducers (2mm x 0.33mm) were mounted in several configurations on thin titanium and steel compressor blades and subjected to pressure cycles from 1 to 310 kPa during static tests and spin tests. Static test conditions included 20 C to 150 C, 0 to 3000 tensile microstrain, -1000 to +1000 bending microstrain and + or - 650G vibration. The spin test conditions included 20 C to 82 C at 0 to 90,000G. Durability was excellent. Pressure transducer sensitivity changed by only a few percent over this range of environmental conditions. Noise signal due to oscillatory acceleration normal to the diaphragm was acceptable (0.33Pa/G). Noise signal due to oscillatory strain was acceptable (0.5 Pa/microstrain) when the transducer was mounted on a 0.05mm rubber pad, with a total buildup of 0.38mm on the measure surface. Back mounting or partial recessing to eliminate buildup, increased the strain effect to 1.2 Pa/microstrain. Flush mounting within the blade to eliminate buildup reduced the strain effect, but required development of a special transducer shape. This transducer was not available in time for spin tests. Unpredictable zero drift + or - 14 kPa ruled out the use of these mounting arrangements for accurate steady-state (D.C.) measurements on rotating blades. The two best configurations fully developed and spin tested were then successfully applied in the NAS3-20606 rotating fan flutter program for quantitative measurement of oscillatory pressure amplitudes.

Grant, H. P.; Lanati, G. A.

1978-01-01

396

Comparing alternative instruments to measure service quality in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of five alternative measures of service quality in the high education sector – service quality (SERVQUAL), importance-weighted SERVQUAL, service performance (SERVPERF), importance-weighted SERVPERF, and higher education performance (HEdPERF). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire containing perception items enhanced from the SERVPERF and HEdPERF

Ana Brochado; Rui Cunha Marques

2009-01-01

397

Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.

1992-01-01

398

A systematic review of instruments that measure attitudes toward homosexual men.  

PubMed

Scientific interest in the measurement of homophobia and internalized homophobia has grown over the past 30 years, and new instruments and terms have emerged. To help researchers with the challenging task of identifying appropriate measures for studies in sexual-minority health, we reviewed measures of homophobia published in the academic literature from 1970 to 2012. Instruments that measured attitudes toward male homosexuals/homosexuality or measured homosexuals' internalized attitudes toward homosexuality were identified using measurement manuals and a systematic review. A total of 23 instruments met criteria for inclusion, and their features were summarized and compared. All 23 instruments met minimal criteria for adequate scale construction, including scale development, sampling, reliability, and evidence of validity. Validity evidence was diverse and was categorized as interaction with gay men, HIV/AIDS variables, mental health, and conservative religious or political beliefs. Homophobia was additionally correlated with authoritarianism and bias, gender ideology, gender differences, and reactions to homosexual stimuli. Internalized homophobia was validated by examining relationships with disclosing one's homosexuality and level of homosexual identity development. We hope this review will make the process of instrument selection more efficient by allowing researchers to easily locate, evaluate, and choose the proper measure based on their research question and population of interest. PMID:23480076

Grey, Jeremy A; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Coleman, Eli; Bockting, Walter O

2013-01-01

399

Measuring Health Literacy Regarding Infectious Respiratory Diseases: A New Skills-Based Instrument  

PubMed Central

Background There is no special instrument to measure skills-based health literacy where it concerns infectious respiratory diseases. This study aimed to explore and evaluate a new skills-based instrument on health literacy regarding respiratory infectious diseases. Methods This instrument was designed to measure not only an individual’s reading and numeracy ability, but also their oral communication ability and their ability to use the internet to seek information. Sixteen stimuli materials were selected to enable measurement of the skills, which were sourced from the WHO, China CDC, and Chinese Center of Health Education. The information involved the distribution of epidemics, immunization programs, early symptoms, means of disease prevention, individual’s preventative behavior, use of medications and thermometers, treatment plans and the location of hospitals. Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed to collect participants. Psychometric properties were used to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results The overall degree of difficulty and discrimination of the instrument were 0.693 and 0.482 respectively. The instrument demonstrated good internal consistency reliability with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.864. As for validity, six factors were extracted from 30 items, which together explained 47.3% of the instrument’s variance. And based on confirmatory factor analysis, the items were grouped into five subscales representing prose, document, quantitative, oral and internet based information seeking skills (?2?=?9.200, P>0.05, GFI?=?0.998, TLI?=?0.988, AGFI?=?0.992, RMSEA?=?0.028). Conclusion The new instrument has good reliability and validity, and it could be used to assess the health literacy regarding respiratory infectious disease status of different groups. PMID:23724029

Sun, Xinying; Chen, Juan; Shi, Yuhui; Zeng, Qingqi; Wei, Nanfang; Xie, Ruiqian; Chang, Chun; Du, Weijing

2013-01-01

400

Model Engine Performance Measurement From Force Balance Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large scale model representative of a low-noise, high bypass ratio turbofan engine was tested for acoustics and performance in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. This test was part of NASA's continuing Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. The low tip speed fan, nacelle, and an un-powered core passage (with core inlet guide vanes) were simulated. The fan blades and hub are mounted on a rotating thrust and torque balance. The nacelle, bypass duct stators, and core passage are attached to a six component force balance. The two balance forces, when corrected for internal pressure tares, measure the total thrust-minus-drag of the engine simulator. Corrected for scaling and other effects, it is basically the same force that the engine supports would feel, operating at similar conditions. A control volume is shown and discussed, identifying the various force components of the engine simulator thrust and definitions of net thrust. Several wind tunnel runs with nearly the same hardware installed are compared, to identify the repeatability of the measured thrust-minus-drag. Other wind tunnel runs, with hardware changes that affected fan performance, are compared to the baseline configuration, and the thrust and torque effects are shown. Finally, a thrust comparison between the force balance and nozzle gross thrust methods is shown, and both yield very similar results.

Jeracki, Robert J.

1998-01-01

401

Instruments to measure patient experience of health care quality in hospitals: a systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Improving and sustaining the quality of care in hospitals is an intractable and persistent challenge. The patients’ experience of the quality of hospital care can provide insightful feedback to enable clinical teams to direct quality improvement efforts in areas where they are most needed. Yet, patient experience is often marginalised in favour of aspects of care that are easier to quantify (for example, waiting time). Attempts to measure patient experience have been hindered by a proliferation of instruments using various outcome measures with varying degrees of psychometric development and testing. Methods/Design We will conduct a systematic review and utility critique of instruments used to measure patient experience of health care quality in hospitals. The databases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psychological Information (Psych Info) and Web of Knowledge will be searched from inception until end November 2013. Search strategies will include the key words; patient, adult, hospital, secondary care, questionnaires, instruments, health care surveys, experience, satisfaction and patient opinion in various combinations. We will contact experts in the field of measuring patient experience and scrutinise all secondary references. A reviewer will apply an inclusion criteria scale to all titles and abstracts. A second reviewer will apply the inclusion criteria scale to a random 10% selection. Two reviewers will independently evaluate the methodological rigour of the testing of the instruments using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. Disagreements will be resolved through consensus. Instruments will be critiqued and grouped using van der Vleuten’s utility index. We will present a narrative synthesis on the utility of all instruments and make recommendations for instrument selection in practice. Discussion This systematic review of the utility of instruments to measure patient experience of hospital quality care will aid clinicians, managers and policy makers to select an instrument fit for purpose. Importantly, appropriate instrument selection will provide a mechanism for patients’ voices to be heard on the quality of care they receive in hospitals. PROSPERO registration CRD42013006754. PMID:24387141

2014-01-01

402

Measurement of routinely encountered neutron field doses using portable survey instruments and a Bonner multisphere system  

E-print Network

against two 10 Ci PuBe neutron sources. Measurements were m de at a research reactor facility and a cyclotron facility using a Victoreen 4BBA portable survey instrument, a Ludlum Mode1 15 portable survey instrument and a Bonner multisphere system. Data... the portable survey instruments overestimated the true dose by factors of between 2. 9 and 49. B. Subsequent analysis recommended that the calibration program be altered by calibrating with moderated ID Ci PuBe sources and correlating the portable neutron...

Davis, Donald Reed

1981-01-01

403

Transmission level instrument transformers and transient event recorders characterization for harmonic measurements  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a technique for laboratory characterization of instrument transformers designed for transmission level voltage and current measurements. The technique is also extended to Transient Event Recorders (TERs). The objective of the method is to determine the suitability of existing substation instrument transformers for harmonic measurements, particularly in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz covering the first 25 harmonics. Specifically, the following characteristics are of interest in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz: transfer function magnitude and phase, linearity, and sensitivity of the frequency response to burdens. The measurement technique is based on exciting the instrument transformer primary with an impulsive waveform. Both input and output waveforms are recorded using laboratory grade probes and digitizers. Subsequently, digital signal processing techniques are used to compute the instrument transformer frequency response. Several voltage transformers (both PTs and CCVTs) and current transformers in the 230kV-765kV voltage range were tested. The results of these tests are described in the paper. Conclusions are presented regarding the suitability of the instrument transformers and transient event recorders for harmonic measurement and the requirements for such a system. A quantitative analysis of the measurement accuracy and software based methods to enhance the measurement accuracy is also presented.

Meliopoulos, A.P.S.; Zhang, Fan (Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)); Cokkinides, G.J. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)); Coffeen, L.; Burnett, R.; McBride, J. (Georgia Power Co., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Zelingher, S.; Stillman, G.

1993-07-01

404

Comparisons of calculated and measured helicopter noise near instrument hill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The polar parabolic equation (POPE) method solves for the diffraction of sound by a curved surface including a realistic sound speed profile. POPE is outlined briefly to describe diffraction which propagates the field over a hill. Experimental data are compared with POPE predictions using the measured sound speed profile and ground impedance. Two trial cases are considered for the comparisons: the helicopter located at the base of the hill and far away from the base of the hill, respectively. The physical mechanisms for sound propagation over a hill are examined with and of POPE calculations and experimental data. The shedding of rays from the hillside gives an interference effect with a wave along the flat surface beyond the base of a hill.

Bass, Henry E.; You, Chulsoo

1993-01-01

405

7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28.301 Agriculture...28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any...of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70...

2012-01-01

406

7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28.301 Agriculture...28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any...of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70...

2014-01-01

407

7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28.301 Agriculture...28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any...of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70...

2013-01-01

408

7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28.301 Agriculture...28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any...of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70...

2011-01-01

409

7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28.301 Agriculture...28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any...of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70°...

2010-01-01

410

DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES TO DETECT AND MEASURE PARTICULATES  

SciTech Connect

In this quarter, we have constructed the first field deployable PM measurement system. This system is retrofit from the system that we designed and tested in the lab, and by adding light blocking covers and rugged electronic boxes, we are now ready to test the instrument in our industrial collaborator's site with real engines. We have also collected tons of data on standard PM particles with our lab instrument.

Sheng Wu; Steve Palm; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard III

2004-07-31

411

Land Surface Temperature Measurements form EOS MODIS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a physics-based land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm for simultaneously retrieving surface band-averaged emissivities and temperatures from day/night pairs of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in seven thermal infrared bands. The set of 14 nonlinear equations in the algorithm is solved with the statistical regression method and the least-squares fit method. This new LST algorithm was tested with simulated MODIS data for 80 sets of band-averaged emissivities calculated from published spectral data of terrestrial materials in wide ranges of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions. Comprehensive sensitivity and error analysis has been made to evaluate the performance of the new LST algorithm and its dependence on variations in surface emissivity and temperature, upon atmospheric conditions, as well as the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE(Delta)T) and calibration accuracy specifications of the MODIS instrument. In cases with a systematic calibration error of 0.5%, the standard deviations of errors in retrieved surface daytime and nighttime temperatures fall between 0.4-0.5 K over a wide range of surface temperatures for mid-latitude summer conditions. The standard deviations of errors in retrieved emissivities in bands 31 and 32 (in the 10-12.5 micrometer IR spectral window region) are 0.009, and the maximum error in retrieved LST values falls between 2-3 K. Several issues related to the day/night LST algorithm (uncertainties in the day/night registration and in surface emissivity changes caused by dew occurrence, and the cloud cover) have been investigated. The LST algorithms have been validated with MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) dada and ground-based measurement data in two field campaigns conducted in Railroad Valley playa, NV in 1995 and 1996. The MODIS LST version 1 software has been delivered.

Wan, Zhengming

1996-01-01

412

Temperature measurements during laser skin welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal camera was used to measure surface temperatures during laser skin welding to provide feedback for optimization of the laser parameters. Two-cm-long, full- thickness incisions were made in guinea pig skin. India ink was used as an absorber. Continuous-wave, 1.06-?m, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing a pulse duration of approximately 100 ms. Cooling durations between scans of 1.6, 4.0, and 8.0 s were studied with total operation times of 3, 5, and 10 min, respectively. A laser spot diameter of 5 mm was used with the power constant at 10 W. Thermal images were obtained at 30 frames per second with a thermal camera detecting 3.5 micrometers radiation. Surface temperatures were recorded at 0, 1, and 6 mm from the center line of the incision. Cooling durations between scans of 1.6 s and 4.0 s in vitro resulted in temperatures at the weld site remaining above ~65°C for prolonged periods of time. Cooling durations between scans as long as 8.0 s were sufficient both in vitro and in vivo to prevent a significant rise in baseline temperatures at the weld site over time.

Fried, Nathaniel M.; Choi, Bernard; Welch, Ashley J.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

1999-06-01

413

Instrumentation for near-Earth measurement of orbital debris and cosmic dust particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dust instrumentation based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust sensor arrays is described which will measure the masses, fluxes, velocities, and trajectories of orbital debris particles and natural micrometeoroids. Orbital debris particles are distinguished from natural particles (cosmic dust) by means of the velocity/trajectory information. The instrumentation will measure particle trajectory with a mean error of approximately 7 degrees (for isotropic flux) and is designed for measurements over the particle diameter range of approximately 2 to 200 micro-m. For future missions having Earth-return capabilities, arrays of capture cell devices positioned behind the PVDF trajectory system would provide for Earth-based chemical and isotopic analysis of captured dust.

Tuzzolino, Anthony J.

1992-01-01

414

Development and test of a Microwave Ice Accretion Measurement Instrument (MIAMI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an ice accretion measurement instrument that is a highly sensitive, accurate, rugged and reliable microprocessor controlled device using low level microwave energy for non-instrusive real time measurement and recording of ice growth history, including ice thickness and accretion rate is discussed. Data is displayed and recorded digitally. New experimental data is presented, obtained with the instrument, which demonstrates its ability to measure ice growth on a two-dimensional airfoil. The device is suitable for aircraft icing protection. It may be mounted flush, non-intrusively, on any part of an aircraft skin including rotor blades and engine inlets.

Magenheim, B.; Rocks, J. K.

1982-01-01

415

Permalloy inductor based instrument that measures the sedimentation constant of magnetorheological fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrument, which incorporates a permalloy inductor, an acid buret, a z-axis translating stage, and a multifunctional inductance meter, has been designed and built to measure the sedimentation constant of magnetorheological (MR) fluids. The permalloy inductor is able to sense the tiny settling distance and thus eliminates measurement dependence on the centrifuge. Usage of the device is described and performance of the instrument is validated by measurement on a MRF-132LD MR fluid with a sedimentation constant of about 4.7×10-10 s obtained within 5 h.

Chen, L. S.; Chen, D. Y.

2003-07-01

416

Modular instrumentation system for real-time measurements and control on reciprocating engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrumentation system was developed for reciprocating engines. Among the parameters measured are the indicated mean effective pressure, or theoretical work per cycle, and the mass fraction burn rate, a measure of the combustion rate in the cylinder. These computations are performed from measured cylinder pressure and crankshaft angle and are available in real time for the experimenter. A 100 or 200 consecutive-cycle sample is analyzed to reduce the effect of cyclic variations in the engine. Data are displayed in bargraph form, and the mean and standard deviation are computed. Other instruments are also described.

Rice, W. J.; Birchenough, A. G.

1980-01-01

417

A Narrow-band Multispectral Instrument for the Measurement of Low Density Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 2001, a team of scientists and engineers from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, at the request of NASA Headquarters, lead a planning activity for future studies of the sources, sinks, and transport of carbon in the atmosphere, on land, and in the oceans. One outcome of this study was a survey of critical gaps in our current measurement suite and identification of the types of instruments that could provide this missing information. Estimating biomass in ecosystems dominated by vegetation of short-stature (< 5 m), such as grasslands and shrub lands, was one of the gaps identified. An instrument with multiple narrow bands in the visible and near infrared was one possibility for filling this gap. In addition, such an instrument might prove helpful in conjunction with lidar measurements for characterizing high density biomass ecosystems such as tropical and boreal forest. A summary of the study and the basis for the recommendations will be presented. The characteristics of a low density biomass instrument, including measurement specifications and considerations, design alternatives including full VNIR and SWIR spectral coverage, and possible spacecraft accommodations, will be discussed. One or more aircraft versions of this type of instrument could be flown as part of the North American Carbon Program's field campaign. This could test the current specifications and design alternatives, thereby helping to guide selection of the best approach for a possible spaceborne instrument, as well as provide valuable information for the campaign itself.

Gervin, J. C.; Knox, R. G.; Hall, F. G.; McClain, C. R.; Caruso, P. S.

2002-12-01

418

A review of pH measurement at high temperatures.  

PubMed

Measurement of pH in aqueous solutions at up to 300 degrees and 150-300 bar is reviewed. Potentiometric membrane electrodes are identified as the sensors giving the most immediate hope of being practical. Zirconia membranes work well above 200 degrees and in alkaline solution, whereas glass membranes are best up to 150 degrees and in acidic solutions. Both membranes are largely free from interferences. Metal-metal oxide electrodes offer poor prospects, deviating from the ideal Nernstian response at all temperatures and being susceptible to interference from many redox and complexing agents, but systems based on iridium oxide have some promise. The hydrogen electrode remains the standard for pH measurement, but its analytical application is limited by the need to know the hydrogen partial pressure. A practical solution to this problem has yet to be found, except in restricted and artificial circumstances. Palladium hydride electrodes may be useful up to about 200 degrees , but in hydrogen-saturated waters revert to being hydrogen electrodes in any case. Non-potentiometric pH measurements with semiconducting oxides have been shown to be possible, but there are many unanswered questions about possible interferences. Considerable extra instrumentation is required, compared with potentiometry. Fibre-optic sensors based on indicator dyes have been investigated at room temperature, and have the great merit of not requiring a reference electrode. They seem, however, prone to many interferences and have an inherently limited working range of approximately 2 pH. No measurements at high temperature have been reported. Improved reference electrodes for potentiometric systems are still needed, although there have been advances in the design of external pressure-compensated electrodes working at room temperature. The silver-silver chloride system is still the one most favoured. There has been little rigorous work on standard buffer solutions at above 100 degrees and none at above 200 degrees . Neutral and alkaline buffers are especially needed. The establishment of proper pH standards for high-temperature work would make the testing of sensors both speedier and more reliable. Doubtless because of the experimental difficulties involved, few measurements have actually been made at high temperature, and those in a rather restricted range of conditions. In particular, measurements in dilute, poorly buffered, solutions, which provide the most rigorous test of a system's capability, are completely lacking. PMID:18965019

Midgley, D

1990-08-01

419

High Data Density Temperature Measurement for Quasi Steady-State Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new optical instrument, the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI), is used to measure the temperature distribution across a heated chamber filled with silicone oil. Data taken using the LCPDI are compared to equivalent measurements made with a traversing thermo-couple and the two data sets show excellent agreement. This instrument maintains the compact, robust design of Linniks point diffraction interferometer and adds to it phase stepping capability for quantitative interferogram analysis. The result is a compact, simple to align, environmentally insensitive interferometer capable of accurately measuring optical wave-fronts with very high data density and with automated data reduction.

Mercer, C. R.; Rashidnia, N.; Creath, K.

1996-01-01

420

High data density temperature measurement for quasi steady-state flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new optical instrument, the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI), is used to measure the temperature distribution across a heated chamber filled with silicone oil. Data taken using the LCPDI are compared to equivalent measurements made with a traversing thermocouple and the two data sets show excellent agreement This instrument maintains the compact, robust design of Linnik's point diffraction interferometer and adds to it phase stepping capability for quantitative interferogram analysis. The result is a compact, simple to align, environmentally insensitive interferometer capable of accurately measuring optical wavefronts with very high data density and with automated data reduction.

Mercer, Carolyn R.; Rashidnia, Nasser; Creath, Katherine

1995-01-01

421

Comparison between UV index measurements performed by research-grade and consumer-products instruments.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, skin cancer and other related diseases are not just subjects of scientific literature. Nowadays, these themes are also discussed on television, newspapers and magazines for the general public. Consequently, the interest in prevention of sun overexposure is increasing, as the knowledge of photoprotection methods and UVR levels. The ultraviolet index (UVI) is a well-known tool recommended by the World Health Organization to avoid harmful effects of UV sunlight. UVI forecasts are provided by many national meteorological services, but local UVI measurements can provide a more realistic and appropriate evaluation of UVR levels. Indeed, as scientific instruments are very expensive and difficult to manipulate, several manufacturers and retail shops offer cheap and simple non-scientific instruments for UVI measurements, sometimes included in objects of everyday life, such as watches, outfits and hand-held instruments. In this work, we compare measurements provided by several commercial non-scientific instruments with data provided by a Bentham spectrometer, a very accurate sensor used for UV measurements. Results show that only a few of the instruments analyzed provide trustworthy UVI measurements. PMID:20354638

Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haeffelin, Martial; Brogniez, Colette; Verschaeve, Franck; Saiag, Philippe; Pazmiño, Andrea; Mahé, Emmanuel

2010-04-01

422

Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: Probing atomic structure in situ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO2 measurements. The new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO2 sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H2 and natural gas uptake/storage.

Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Fanelli, Victor R.; Reiche, Helmut M.; Larson, Eric; Taylor, Mark A.; Xu, Hongwu; Zhu, Jinlong; Siewenie, Joan; Page, Katharine

2014-12-01

423

Development and Testing of a New Instrument for Measuring Concerns about Dying in Health Care Providers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new measure of concerns about dying was investigated in this psychometric study. The Concerns About Dying instrument (CAD) was administered to medical students, nursing students, hospice nurses, and life sciences graduate students ( N = 207) on two occasions; on one occasion they also completed three related measures. Analyses included…

Mazor, Kathleen M.; Schwartz, Carolyn E.; Rogers, H. Jane

2004-01-01

424

Negotiating Measurement: Methodological and Interpersonal Considerations in the Choice and Interpretation of Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sound evaluation planning requires numerous decisions about how constructs in a program theory will be translated into measures and instruments that produce evaluation data. This article, the first in a dialogue exchange, examines how decisions about measurement are (and should be) made, especially in the context of small-scale local program…

Braverman, Marc T.

2013-01-01

425

Measuring the Youth Bullying Experience: A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of Available Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Bullying is a significant problem in schools and measuring this concept remains problematic. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the published self-report measures developed to assess youth bullying; (2) evaluate their psychometric properties and instrument characteristics; and (3) evaluate the quality of identified…

Vessey, Judith; Strout, Tania D.; DiFazio, Rachel L.; Walker, Allison

2014-01-01

426

A Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Dimensionality Assessment for Measurement Instruments Modeled by Multidimensional Item Response Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The statistical assessment of dimensionality provides evidence of the underlying constructs measured by a survey or test instrument. This study focuses on educational measurement, specifically tests comprised of items described as multidimensional. That is, items that require examinee proficiency in multiple content areas and/or multiple cognitive…

Toro, Maritsa

2011-01-01

427

AC 2009-206: DEVELOPING AN INSTRUMENT TO MEASURE ENGINEERING DESIGN SELF-EFFICACY  

E-print Network

is an Associate Professor in the School of Engineering Education at Purdue University and is the Past President to Measure Engineering Design Self-Efficacy: A Pilot Study Keywords: self-efficacy, engineering design Abstract The following pilot study is an investigation of how to develop an instrument that measures

428

EDITORIAL: The 9th International Symposium on Measurement Science and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII-2009) The 9th International Symposium on Measurement Science and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The papers for this special feature have been selected for publication after the successful measurement forum that took place in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 2009. ISMTII-2009 presented state-of-the-art approaches and solutions in the most challenging areas and focused on microscale and nanoscale measurements and metrology; novel measurements and diagnostic technologies, including nondestructive and dimensional inspection; measurements for geometrical and mechanical quantities, terahertz technologies for science, industry and biomedicine; intelligent measuring instruments and systems for industry and transport; optical and x-ray tomography and interferometry, metrology and characterization of materials, measurements and metrology for the humanitarian fields; and education in measurement science. We believe that scientists and specialists around the world found there the newest information on measurement technology and intelligent instruments, and this will stimulate work in these areas which is an essential part of progress in measurement. The ISMTII Symposia have been held successfully every two years from 1989 in the People's Republic of China, Hungary, Egypt, Hong Kong, UK and Japan under the direction of ICMI. In 2009 the ISMTII measuring forum took place in Russia, and it is a great honour for our country, as well as for the Russian Academy of Sciences and its Siberian Branch—Novosibirsk Scientific Center. This Symposium was located in historic Saint Petersburg, which from its foundation has been a unique bridge of communication between countries on all continents, and participation provided an excellent opportunity for the exchange of experience, information and knowledge between specialists from different countries and fields. On behalf of the Organizers, Steering Committee and International Program Committee I would like to thank all the participants for their valuable contributions without which this special feature would not have become reality, as well as the reviewers for their careful evaluation of the papers. My special thanks go to the publishing team of the Measurement Science and Technology journal.

Chugui, Yuri

2010-05-01

429

The PUMA method applied to the measures carried out by using a PC-based measurement instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the uncertainty management in the measurements performed by using a generic PC-based measurement instrument. To accomplish the task, the uncertainty estimation is performed by using the PUMA (Procedure for Uncertainty MAnagement) method, which is an iterative technique completely based on the \\

Ciro Spataro

430

Improving solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements by applying a temperature correction method for Teflon diffusers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To establish trends in surface ultraviolet radiation levels, accurate and stable long-term measurements are required. The accuracy level of today's measurements has become high enough to notice even smaller effects that influence instrument sensitivity. Laboratory measurements of the sensitivity of the entrance optics have shown a decrease of as much as 0.07-0.1%/deg temperature increase. Since the entrance optics can heat to greater than 45 °C in Dutch summers, corrections are necessary. A method is developed to estimate the entrance optics temperatures from pyranometer measurements and meteorological data. The method enables us to correct historic data records for which temperature information is not available. The temperature retrieval method has an uncertainty of less than 2.5 °C, resulting in a 0.3% uncertainty in the correction to be performed. The temperature correction improves the agreement between modeled and measured doses and instrument intercomparison as performed within the Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe project. The retrieval method is easily transferable to other instruments.

Jäkel, Evelyn; den Outer, Peter N.; Tax, Rick B.; Görts, Peter C.; Reinen, Henk A. J. M.

2007-07-01

431

Measuring team factors thought to influence the success of quality improvement in primary care: a systematic review of instruments  

PubMed Central

Background Measuring team factors in evaluations of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) may provide important information for enhancing CQI processes and outcomes; however, the large number of potentially relevant factors and associated measurement instruments makes inclusion of such measures challenging. This review aims to provide guidance on the selection of instruments for measuring team-level factors by systematically collating, categorizing, and reviewing quantitative self-report instruments. Methods Data sources: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Health and Psychosocial Instruments; reference lists of systematic reviews; and citations and references of the main report of instruments. Study selection: To determine the scope of the review, we developed and used a conceptual framework designed to capture factors relevant to evaluating CQI in primary care (the InQuIRe framework). We included papers reporting development or use of an instrument measuring factors relevant to teamwork. Data extracted included instrument purpose; theoretical basis, constructs measured and definitions; development methods and assessment of measurement properties. Analysis and synthesis: We used qualitative analysis of instrument content and our initial framework to develop a taxonomy for summarizing and comparing instruments. Instrument content was categorized using the taxonomy, illustrating coverage of the InQuIRe framework. Methods of development and evidence of measurement properties were reviewed for instruments with potential for use in primary care. Results We identified 192 potentially relevant instruments, 170 of which were analyzed to develop the taxonomy. Eighty-one instruments measured constructs relevant to CQI teams in primary care, with content covering teamwork context (45 instruments measured enabling conditions or attitudes to teamwork), team process (57 instruments measured teamwork behaviors), and team outcomes (59 instruments measured perceptions of the team or its effectiveness). Forty instruments were included for full review, many with a strong theoretical basis. Evidence supporting measurement properties was limited. Conclusions Existing instruments cover many of the factors hypothesized to contribute to QI success. With further testing, use of these instruments measuring team factors in evaluations could aid our understanding of the influence of teamwork on CQI outcomes. Greater consistency in the factors measured and choice of measurement instruments is required to enable synthesis of findings for informing policy and practice. PMID:23410500

2013-01-01

432

A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 {mu}N. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2009-05-15

433

A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5mN with a resolution of 15?N. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.

2009-05-01

434

An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of 'potential' uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Beltz, Nobert; Bandy, Alan R.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Thornton, Donald C.

1993-01-01

435

Improving solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements by applying a temperature correction method for Teflon diffusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish trends in surface ultraviolet radiation levels, accurate and stable long-term measurements are required. The accuracy level of today's measurements has become high enough to notice even smaller effects that influence instrument sensitivity. Laboratory measurements of the sensitivity of the entrance optics have shown a decrease of as much as 0.07- 0.1%deg temperature increase. Since the entrance optics can

Evelyn Jäkel; Peter N. den Outer; Rick B. Tax; Peter C. Görts; Henk A. J. M. Reinen

2007-01-01

436

Improving solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements by applying a temperature correction method for Teflon diffusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish trends in surface ultraviolet radiation levels, accurate and stable long-term measurements are required. The accuracy level of today's measurements has become high enough to notice even smaller effects that influence instrument sensitivity. Laboratory measurements of the sensitivity of the entrance optics have shown a decrease of as much as 0.07-0.1%\\/deg temperature increase. Since the entrance optics can heat

Evelyn Jäkel; Peter N. den Outer; Rick B. Tax; Peter C. Görts; Henk A. J. M. Reinen

2007-01-01

437

The Solar Oblateness Measured On Board The PICARD Spacecraft, and The Solar Disk Sextant Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PICARD Spacecraft was launched on 15 June 2010. It carries four instruments. One of them, SODISM is an imaging telescope with a 2K x 2K CCD detector, dedicated to the measurement of the solar diameter and the limb shape. Although the data processing is still in a validation phase, we can already present some preliminary results concerning the solar oblateness. These measurements are obtained during a special operation in which the spacecraft turns around the Sun direction. The rotation, made by 300 angular increments, allows us to determine the instrument optical distortion and the solar oblateness. The method used to extract this information will be described. We shall present the preliminary results as a function of wavelength, and compare them with measurements obtained with the SDS instrument, and with the predictions from theoretical modeling.

Thuillier, G. O.; Hauchecorne, A.; Sofia, S.; Girard, T.; Hochedez, J.; Irbah, A.; Marcovici, J.; Meissonnier, M.; Meftah, M.; Sofia, U. J.

2011-12-01

438

NIGHTGLOW: An Instrument to Measure the Earth's Nighttime Ultraviolet Glow - Results from the First Engineering Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have designed and built an instrument to measure and monitor the "nightglow" of the Earth's atmosphere in the near ultraviolet (NUV). In this paper we describe the design of this instrument, called NIGHTGLOW. NIGHTGLOW is designed to be flown-from a high altitude research balloon, and circumnavigate the globe. NIGHTGLOW is a NASA, University of Utah, and New Mexico State University project. A test flight took place from Palestine, Texas on July 5, 2000, lasting about 8 hours. The instrument performed well and landed safely in Stiles, Texas with little damage. The resulting measurements of the NUV nightglow are consistent with previous measurements from sounding rockets and balloons. The results will be presented and discussed.

Barbier, Louis M.; Smith, Robert; Murphy, Scott; Christian, Eric R.; Farley, Rodger; Krizmanic, John F.; Mitchell, John W.; Streitmatter, Robert E.; Loh, Eugene C.; Stochaj, Stephen

2004-01-01

439

Portable instrument to measure the average luminance coefficient of a road surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a portable instrument that measures the average luminance coefficient of a road surface, Q0, in the field. The design employs a modified integrating hemisphere with light-emitting diode lamps as light sources and a calibrated charge-coupled device luminance meter with an observation angle of 1° as the detector. The diameter and weight of the hemisphere are 50 cm and approximately 8 kg, respectively. After first demonstrating proof of concept of the instrument, we calibrated the prototype with two methods and evaluated the performance by comparing its measurement results with those obtained by a gonioreflectometer for a series of samples. The performance characteristics of the instrument are appropriate for in situ Q0 measurement.

Chen, Xin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Wu, Chunhai

2014-03-01

440

A cryogenically cooled photofragment fluorescence instrument for measuring stratospheric water vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrument developed for high-resolution daytime measurements of water vapor in the stratosphere using the technique of photofragment fluorescence is examined. A detailed description of all aspects of the instrument, as well as the results of its first two flights, are presented. The main areas of concern were optical baffling, cryogen transfer, water vapor measurement without contamination, and a dual path absorption measurement. Results of the second flight test indicate that the problems of instrument and gondola contamination, identified in the first flight test, were solved. A signal-to-noise ratio of about 50:1 for 10 sec of averaging throughout the stratosphere is achieved, as well as an altitude resolution of better than 100 m.

Weinstock, Elliot M.; Schwab, James J.; Nee, Jan Bai; Schwab, M. J.; Anderson, James G.

1990-01-01

441

Double-theodolite measurement system used in the image calibration of space photographic instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of characterizing the image of space photographic instrument is to gain the space included angles from three coordinate axes in the three — dimensional coordinate of the image and the directionality of the three axes of coordinate in the frame of axes of the instrument. The two reference frames will keep in the same direction finally by adjusting according to space angles. This problem was solved by a new high-precision measurement system composed of a double-theodolite and a set of communication system. In the survey system, two TDA5005 total stations from Leica Company will be selected as the double-theodolite and the interdependence of both coordinate systems can be achieved by moving the stations only at one time. Therefore, this measurement system provides a highly efficient and high-precision surveying method to the image calibration of the space photographic instrument. According to the experiment, its measuring accuracy can reach arc-second level.

Li, Yan; Qiao, Yan-Feng; Su, Wan-Xin; Liu, Ze-Xun

2005-11-01

442

Development of optical near-infrared spectroscopy instruments for human skin sebum measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many techniques and instruments that are currently available to give better results for measuring the quality of human skin. In this study, two non-invasive spectroscopy instruments have been used namely NIRQuest spectrometer and ASD FieldSpec® 3 Spectroradiometer. Both of these spectroscopy instruments were used to find the correlation technique with the commercial instruments (DermaLab® USB Sebum Module). Initially an experiment was conducted to find intensities peak of the absorption of oleic acid as a part of sebum composition. From the spectra peak of the absorbance, the wavelength will be determined. Next step was to measure the reflectance of human skin sebum by using two spectroscopic instruments. The analysis will carry on at the wavelength that have been chosen from the previous study and also from the wavelength of the fatty acid to find the best wavelength that contribute in sebum composition. From several analyses, the wavelengths that contribute in sebum were 1208, 1414, 1726, and 1758 nm that obtained the value of R2 0.8444 for NIRQuest Spectrometer and 0.8532 for ASD FieldSpec® 3 Spectroradiometer. For future research this non- invasive techniques can be used in dermatology field for the use of various skin analysis. Besides that, the less wavelength used is an advantage to develop instruments with less amount of wavelength sensor. It can reduce the cost of development.

Msabbri, A. R.; Mohamad, M.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Omar, A. F.

2014-05-01

443

Measurement of Sticky Point Temperature of Coffee Powder with a Rheometer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sticky point temperature (Ts) measurement for hygroscopic food and biomaterial powders is traditionally performed with complex glass instruments. This property is used to characterize material stickiness, which substantially affects the flow and physical behavior of powders. In this research study w...

444

Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in primary care: an observational pilot study of seven generic instruments  

PubMed Central

Background Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) have been introduced in studies to assess healthcare performance. The development of PROMs for primary care poses specific challenges, including a preference for generic measures that can be used across diseases, including early phases or mild conditions. This pilot study aimed to explore the potential usefulness of seven generic measures for assessing health outcomes in primary care patients. Methods A total of 300 patients in three general practices were invited to participate in the study, shortly after their visit to the general practitioner. Patients received a written questionnaire, containing seven validated instruments, focused on patient empowerment (PAM-13 or EC-17), quality of life (EQ-5D or SF-12), mental health (GHQ-12), enablement (PEI) and perceived treatment effect (GPE). Furthermore, questions on non-specific symptoms and number of GP contacts were included. After 4 weeks patients received a second, identical, questionnaire. Response and missing items, total scores and dispersion, responsiveness, and associations between instruments and other measures were examined. Results A total of 124 patients completed the questionnaire at baseline, of whom 98 completed it both at baseline and 4 weeks later (response rate: 32.7%). The instruments had a full completion rate of 80% or higher. Differences between baseline and follow up were significant for the EQ-5D (p?=?0.026), SF-12 PCS (p?=?0.026) and the GPE (p?=?0.006). A strong correlation (r???0.6) was found between the SF-12 MCS and GHQ-12, at both baseline measurement and after four weeks. Other observed associations between instruments were moderately strong. No strong correlations were found between instruments and non-specific symptoms or number of GP contacts. Conclusions The present study is among the first to explore the use of generic patient-reported outcome measures in primary care. It provides several leads for developing a generic PROM questionnaire in primary care as well as for potential limitations of such instruments. PMID:24884544

2014-01-01

445

Thermal band selection for the PRISM instrument: 1. Analysis of emissivity-temperature separation algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the missions being planned by the European Space Agency (ESA) within the framework of its Earth Observation Programme is the Processes Research by Imaging Space Mission (PRISM). The PRISM instrument consists of a thermal sensor whose main objective is to retrieve accurate land surface temperatures (LST) and whose band positions are 3.5-4.1 ?m, 8.1-9.5 ?m, 10.3-11.3 ?m, and 11.5-12.5 ?m. We have studied the optimal design of this instrument to retrieve accurate LSTs. First, we have analyzed several emissivity-temperature separation methods (part 1) and atmospheric and emissivity correction algorithms (part 2). Finally, we have identified the optimal band configuration (part 3). This paper is the first of a series of three and addresses the question of the emissivity-temperature separability. Among all the existing algorithms, we have studied the "absolute methods," which are able to estimate the absolute value of emissivity at satellite scale and can yield better results in the emissivity estimate. These methods are the algorithm based on the