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1

Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating materials were tested/applied on the thermocouple cleaning according to the proposed approach. Different frequency, application time and power of the ultrasonic/subsonic output were tested. The results show that the ultrasonic approach is one of the best methods to clean the thermocouple tips during the routine operation of the gasifier. In addition, the real time data acquisition system was also designed and applied in the experiments. This advanced instrumentation provided the efficient and accurate data acquisition for this project. In summary, the accomplishment of the project provided useful information of the ultrasonic cleaning method applied in thermocouple tip cleaning. The temperature measurement could be much improved both in accuracy and duration provided that the proposed approach is widely used in the gasification facilities.

Seong W. Lee

2006-09-30

2

Instrument for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Materials at Low Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advance of polymer and other non-metallic material sciences, whole new series of polymeric materials and composites are being created. These materials are being optimized for many different applications including cryogenic and low-temperature industrial processes. Engineers need these data to perform detailed system designs and enable new design possibilities for improved control, reliability, and efficiency in specific applications. One main area of interest is cryogenic structural elements and fluid handling components and other parts, films, and coatings for low-temperature application. An important thermal property of these new materials is the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value).

Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Johnson, Wesley

2010-01-01

3

Research of Temperature Measuring Virtual Instrument Based on Smart Mobile Phone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A temperature measuring virtual instrument based on smart mobile phone is introduced in this paper. The research was mainly done about the mobile phone hardware platform combined with general purpose software developing tools to be used as virtual instrument for data acquisition and signal process. This novel idea was realized on the smart mobile phone of Nokia N91 used for

Pingchuan Zhang; Buyin Li; Zhaoxiang Huang; Maosheng Shen; Jia Liu

2009-01-01

4

Prov av Instrument foer Maetning av Ytvattentemperatur Samt Raketsondsmaetning av Temperatur och Luftfuktighet (Test of Instrument Measuring Water Surface Temperature and Rocket Sonde Measurements of Temperature and Humidity).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes tests performed using an infrared radiation pyrometer KT19.85 manufactured by Heitronics, which was used to measure the water surface temperature, and a rocket sonde type RK91 manufactured by Vaisala which was used to measure the air...

K. O. S. Gustafsson E. Karlsson M. Nordstrand

2005-01-01

5

Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project during this semi-annual reporting period are to test the effects of coating layer of the thermal couple on the temperature measurement and to screen out the significant factors affecting the temperature reading under different operational conditions. The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray coated thermal couples were completed in this reporting period. The comparison tests of coated and uncoated thermal couples were conducted under various operational conditions. The temperature changes were recorded and the temperature differences were calculated to describe the thermal spray coating effect on the thermal couples. To record the temperature data accurately, the computerized data acquisition system (DAS) was adopted to the temperature reading. The DAS could record the data with the accuracy of 0.1 C and the recording parameters are configurable. In these experiments, DAS was set as reading one data for every one (1) minute. The operational conditions are the combination of three parameters: air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and the amount of fine dust particles. The results from the temperature readings show the temperature of uncoated thermal couple is uniformly higher than that of coated thermal couple for each operational condition. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was computed based on the results from systematic tests to screen out the significant factors and/or interactions. The temperature difference was used as dependent variable and three operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and amount of fine dust particle) were used as independent factors. The ANOVA results show that the operational parameters are not the statistically significant factors affecting the temperature readings which indicate that the coated thermal couple could be applied to temperature measurement in gasifier. The actual temperature reading with the coated thermal couple in the gasification could be calibrated by a constant of temperature difference.

Seong W. Lee

2005-10-01

6

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator were conducted in this reporting period. In the systematic test, two (2) factors were considered as the experimental parameters, including air injection rate and water injection rate. Each experimental factor had two (2) levels, respectively. A special water-feeding device was designed and installed to the gasifier simulator. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results of the systematic tests. The ANOVA shows that the air injection rate did have the significant impact to the temperature measurement in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA also shows that the water injection rate did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA analysis also proves that the thermocouple assembly we proposed was immune to the moisture environment, the temperature measurement remained accurate in moisture environment. Within this reporting period, the vibration application for cleaning purpose was explored. Both ultrasonic and sub-sonic vibrations were considered. A feasibility test was conducted to prove that the thermocouple vibration did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. This feasibility test was a 2{sup 2} factorial design. Two factors including temperature levels and motor speeds were set to two levels respectively. The sub-sonic vibration tests were applied to the thermocouple to remove the concrete cover layer (used to simulate the solid condensate in gasifiers) on the thermocouple tip. It was found that both frequency and amplitude had significant impacts on removal performance of the concrete cover layer.

Seong W. Lee

2004-04-01

7

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

Seong W. Lee

2003-09-01

8

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the clean thermocouple were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the clean thermocouple, five (5) factors were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition and high/low frequency device (electric motor). The fractional factorial design method was used in the experiment design with sixteen (16) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the un-balanced motor vibration frequency did not have the significant impact on the temperature changes in the gasifier simulator. For the fine dust particles testing, the amount of fine dust particles has significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The effects of the air and water on the temperature measurements show the same results as reported in the previous report. The ammonia concentration was included as an experimental parameter for the reducing environment in this reporting period. The ammonia concentration does not seem to be a significant factor on the temperature changes. The linear regression analysis was applied to the temperature reading with five (5) factors. The accuracy of the linear regression is relatively low, which is less than 10% accuracy. Nonlinear regression was also conducted to the temperature reading with the same factors. Since the experiments were designed in two (2) levels, the nonlinear regression is not very effective with the dataset (16 readings). An extra central point test was conducted. With the data of the center point testing, the accuracy of the nonlinear regression is much better than the linear regression.

Seong W. Lee

2004-10-01

9

High temperature geophysical instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The instrumentation development program was to proceed in parallel with scientific research and was driven by the needs of researchers. The development of these instruments has therefore included numerous geophysical field tests, many of which have resulted in the publication of scientific articles. This paper is a brief summary of some of the major geophysical instruments that have been developed and tested under the High Temperature Geophysics Program. These instruments are briefly described and references are given for further detailed information and for scientific papers that have resulted from the use of these instruments. 9 refs., 14 figs.

Hardee, H.C.

1988-06-01

10

Instrument for gas permeation measurements at high pressure and high temperature.  

PubMed

An instrument was built for the permeation testing of flat polymer membranes under pressures up to 3.0 MPa and temperatures up to 300 °C. The high pressure, high temperature cell uses aluminum tape and a graphite gasket to minimize the leak from the high pressure side to the low pressure side, making possible the permeability measurements of slow diffusing gases such as N2. A computer program developed on a LabVIEW platform fully controls the instrument and data acquisition. It incorporates algorithms to automatically adjust the downstream volume, repressurize the upstream volume, vent the downstream volume to prevent over pressurization, and change the temperature of the permeation cell. The percent relative standard deviation of the permeability measurements was <5.5%. Flat membranes of VTEC PI-1388 polymer were tested from 0.3 to 3.0 MPa and from 35 to 300 °C. The permeabilities and fluxes of H2, CO2, and N2 increased with increasing temperature, while the H2?CO2 ideal selectivity remained unchanged. The major contribution to increased flux arose from increments in temperature rather than pressure. PMID:23822378

Perez, Edson V; Balkus, Kenneth J; Ferraris, John P; Musselman, Inga H

2013-06-01

11

Feasibility of miniaturized instrumentation of the inflatable sphere for temperature, pressure and acceleration measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of instrumenting the inflatable passive sphere (presently used to provide upper atmosphere density measurements) with miniaturized thermistors, pressure transducers, and accelerometers was analyzed. Data from the sensors must be transmitted by an onboard telemetry system to a ground receiving station. To assure a sufficiently slow fall velocity for the sphere the additional mass of the sensor and telemetry hardware must be less than 100 grams. Other constraints that must be satisfied by the sensor and telemetry systems include the ability to withstand a 150 g launch acceleration, the ability to function in both high and low temperature and pressure environments and be sufficiently small to be packaged within the body of a 3.81 cm diameter dart. A differential transducer that will measure the difference between ambient and internal sphere pressures is recommended. The application of each type of measurement relative to its ability to monitor sphere malfunction and to provide additional meteorological data is considered.

Luers, J. K.

1975-01-01

12

Self-heating probe instrument and method for measuring high temperature melting volume change rate of material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The castings defects are affected by the melting volume change rate of material. The change rate has an important effect on running safety of the high temperature thermal storage chamber, too. But the characteristics of existing measuring installations are complex structure, troublesome operation and low precision. In order to measure the melting volume change rate of material accurately and conveniently, a self-designed measuring instrument, self-heating probe instrument, and measuring method are described. Temperature in heating cavity is controlled by PID temperature controller; melting volume change rate ? and molten density are calculated based on the melt volume which is measured by the instrument. Positive and negative ? represent expansion and shrinkage of the sample volume after melting, respectively. Taking eutectic LiF+CaF2 for example, its melting volume change rate and melting density at 1 123 K are -20.6% and 2 651 kg·m-3 measured by this instrument, which is only 0.71% smaller than literature value. Density and melting volume change rate of industry pure aluminum at 973 K and analysis pure NaCl at 1 123 K are detected by the instrument too. The measure results are agreed with report values. Measuring error sources are analyzed and several improving measures are proposed. In theory, the measuring errors of the change rate and molten density which are measured by the self-designed instrument is nearly 1/20-1/50 of that measured by the refitted mandril thermal expansion instrument. The self-designed instrument and method have the advantages of simple structure, being easy to operate, extensive applicability for material, relatively high accuracy, and most importantly, temperature and sample vapor pressure have little effect on the measurement accuracy. The presented instrument and method solve the problems of complicated structure and procedures, and large measuring errors for the samples with high vapor pressure by existing installations.

Wang, Junwei; Wang, Zhiping; Lu, Yang; Cheng, Bo

2013-03-01

13

Measuring 14 Properties with the Multi-Purpose Instrument and a Temperature Free Method of Measuring Thermal Transport Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multi-purpose instrument originally designed to determine seven properties was extended in its capabilities to measure additional properties. The paper describes briefly the instrument and the operational procedures and brings the results of measurement...

W. Leidenfrost

1969-01-01

14

Temperature and precipitation fluctuations in the Czech Republic during the period of instrumental measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of early meteorological observations using instruments in the Czech Lands is described (the longest temperature series for Prague-Klementinum starts in 1775, precipitation series for Brno in 1803). Using the PRODIGE method, long-term monthly temperature and precipitation series from selected secular stations were homogenised (for 10 and 12 stations, respectively). All the seasonal and annual temperature series for the common period 1882-2010 show a significant positive linear trend with accelerated warming from the 1970s onwards. No significant linear trends were disclosed in the series of seasonal and annual precipitation totals. Correlation coefficients between the Czech series analysed decrease as distances between measuring stations increase. A sharper decrease of correlations for precipitation totals displays much weaker spatial relationships than those for mean temperatures. The highest correlations between all stations appeared in 1921-1950, the lowest in 1891-1920 (temperature) and 1981-2010 (precipitation). Wavelet analysis reveals that very distinct annual cycles as well as the slightly weaker semi-annual ones are better expressed for temperature series than for precipitation. Statistically significant cycles longer than 1 year are temporally unstable and sporadic for precipitation, while in the temperature series cycles of 7.4-7.7 and 17.9-18.4 years were recorded as significant by all stations in 1882-2010 (quasi-biennial cycle of 2.1-2.2 years for half the stations). Czech homogenous temperature series correlate best with those of the Northern Hemisphere for annual, spring and summer values (with significant correlation coefficients between 0.60 and 0.70), but this relation is temporally unstable. Circulation indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) and the Central European Zonal Index (CEZI), may explain the greater part of Czech temperature variability, especially from December to March and for the winter; however, this relationship is much weaker, or even random, for precipitation series. Further, relationships with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) are weak and random. Relatively weak coincidences exist between statistically significant cycles in the Czech series and those detected in NAOI, CEZI and SOI series.

Brázdil, Rudolf; Zahradní?ek, Pavel; Pišoft, Petr; Št?pánek, Petr; B?línová, Monika; Dobrovolný, Petr

2012-10-01

15

A Two-Line Absorption Instrument for Scramjet Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Measurement in HYPULSE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three beam water vapor sensor system has been modified to provide for near simultaneous temperature measurement. The system employs a tunable diode laser to scan spectral line of water vapor. The application to measurements in a scramjet combustor environment of a shock tunnel facility is discussed. This report presents and discusses die initial calibration of the measurement system.

Tsai, C. Y.

1998-01-01

16

Development of techniques and associated instrumentation for high temperature emissivity measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies were made to develop a test apparatus for the measurement of total emittance of materials under repeated exposure to simulated earth entry conditions. As no existing test facility met the emittance measurement and entry simulation goals, a new apparatus was designed, fabricated and checked out. This apparatus has the capability of performing total and spectral emittance measurements during cyclic temperature and pressure exposure under sonic and supersonic flow conditions. Emittance measurements were performed on a series of oxidized superalloys, silicide coated columbium alloys and ceramic coatings.

Cunnington, G. R.; Funaa, A. I.; Cassady, P. E.

1973-01-01

17

Development of techniques and associated instrumentation for high temperature emissivity measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress during the sixth quarterly period is reported on construction and assembly of a test facility to determine the high temperature emittance properties of candidate thermal protection system materials for the space shuttle. This facility will provide simulation of such reentry environment parameters as temperature, pressure, and gas flow rate to permit studies of the effects of these parameters on the emittance stability of the materials. Also reported are the completed results for emittance tests on a set of eight Rene 41 samples and one anodized titanium alloy sample which were tested at temperatures up to 1600 F in vacuum. The data includes calorimetric determinations of total hemispherical emittance, radiometric determinations of total and spectral normal emittance, and pre- and post-test room temperature reflectance measurements.

Cunnington, G. R.; Funai, A. I.

1972-01-01

18

Turbulence Measurements with a Moored Instrument.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new, autonomous and moored microstructure measuring instrument has been tested in coastal waters. The instrument measures shear in the dissipation range of the wavenumber spectrum using 4 shear probes, temperature fluctuations using two FP-07 thermistor...

R. Lueck D. Huang D. Newman J. Box

1996-01-01

19

Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

Kounaves, Sam

2011-01-01

20

An instrument for the high temperature measurement of the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system for the simultaneous measurement of thermoelectric power and resistivity of one and/or two samples over a temperature range of 300–1000 K in a vacuum chamber is designed and implemented. A sample probe is developed to provide its easy mounting and usage. In addition, two samples can be measured at the same time. Measurement accuracy has been enhanced by beadless thermocouples and micro-heaters that are specifically designed in order to minimize the ‘cold-finger effect’ and to eliminate some possible source of contact, design and measurement errors. A broad range of physical types and shapes of samples, such as bulk, bar or disc, can be measured by a software controlled system. A differential steady-state method has been applied for Seebeck coefficient measurement. Resistivity measurement is conducted with the axial technique of the four-point probe method. Platinum wire and a niobium rod are chosen as the standard samples. The total data error for the Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements is estimated to be less than 2.6% and 1%, respectively.

Gunes, Murat; Parlak, Mehmet; Ozenbas, Macit

2014-05-01

21

An Ion Doppler Spectrometer Instrument for Ion Temperature and Flow Measurements on SSPX  

SciTech Connect

A high-resolution ion Doppler spectrometer has been installed on the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment to measure ion temperatures and plasma flow. The system is composed of a 1 meter focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer with diffraction grating line density of 2400 lines/mm, which allows for first order spectra between 300 and 600 nm. A 16-channel photomultiplier tube detection assembly combined with output coupling optics provides a spectral resolution of 0.0126 nm per channel. We calculate in some detail the mapping of curved slit images onto the linear detector array elements. This is important in determining wavelength resolution and setting the optimum vertical extent of the slit. Also, because of the small wavelength window of the IDS, a miniature fiber optic survey spectrometer sensitive to a wavelength range 200 to 1100 nm and having resolution 0.2 nm, is used to obtain a time-integrated spectrum for each shot to verify specific impurity line radiation. Several measurements validate the systems operation. Doppler broadening of C III 464.72 nm line in the plasma shows time-resolved ion temperatures up to 250 eV for hydrogen discharges, which is consistent with neutral particle energy analyzer measurements. Flow measurements show a sub-Alfvenic plasma flow ranging from 5 to 45 km/s for helium discharges.

King, J D; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Romero-Talamas, C A; Moller, J M; Morse, E C

2008-05-19

22

A DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION FOR GASIFICATION PROCESS CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This progress report covers continuing work to develop a temperature probe for a coal gasifier. A workable probe design requires finding answers to crucial questions involving the probe materials. We report on attempts to answer those questions. We attempted to measure the laser-input power at a wavelength of 355 nm that would damage the ends of sapphire fiber optics. We were surprised and pleased to learn that they survived an input power density of about 3 x 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, which greatly exceeds the best that fused-silica fibers can do. During a run of our new simulator to obtain an upgraded calibration curve for the improved YAG:Dy phosphors, we found that the phosphor appeared to form a eutectic, with the fused-silica cuvette used to hold the phosphor, when the temperature exceeded 1450 C. This result could have substantial ramifications in this and other high-temperature applications. Our new proprietary detector package that replaced the original photomultiplier tube gave excellent results, with much better signal-to-noise ratio at a given temperature than the old package. Our new plasma-spraying operation has succeeded in spraying YAG, which we think may be a technological breakthrough.

Bruce W. Noel

2001-04-15

23

High-temperature borehole instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A new method of extracting natural heat from the earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320/sup 0/C (610/sup 0/F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resource to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules. 60 refs., 11 figs.

Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.P.; Stephani, E.L.

1985-10-01

24

AC Resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

Hof, Peter J. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

25

AC resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

Hof, P.J.

1983-10-04

26

HTGR Measurements and Instrumentation Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an integrated overview of measurements and instrumentation for near-term future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Instrumentation technology has undergone revolutionary improvements since the last HTGR was constructed in the United States. This report briefly describes the measurement and communications needs of HTGRs for normal operations, maintenance and inspection, fuel fabrication, and accident response. The report includes a description of modern communications technologies and also provides a potential instrumentation communications architecture designed for deployment at an HTGR. A principal focus for the report is describing new and emerging measurement technologies with high potential to improve operations, maintenance, and accident response for the next generation of HTGRs, known as modular HTGRs, which are designed with passive safety features. Special focus is devoted toward describing the failure modes of the measurement technologies and assessing the technology maturity.

Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL

2012-05-01

27

Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

Iufer, E. J.

1978-01-01

28

ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress over the second six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on evaluating corrosion effects in single crystal sapphire at temperatures up to 1400 C, and designing the sensor mechanical packaging with input from Wabash River Power Plant. Upcoming meetings will establish details for the gasifier field test.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

2003-11-01

29

On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

2005-11-01

30

ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

2005-04-01

31

On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

2007-03-31

32

Remote temperature-measurement instrumentation for a heated rotating turbine disk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermographic-Phosphor (TP) remote temperature sensors were installed on a turbine disk and subjected to thermal and centrifugal stresses in a spin-pit test. The sensors were placed at three different radii on the disk, which was run at 6600, 9330, 11400, and 13200 rpm at nominal temperatures of ambient, 300 F, 600 F, 900 F, and 1250 F. The paper gives

S. S. Lutz; W. D. Turley; H. M. Borella; B. W. Noel; M. R. Cates; M. R. Probert

1988-01-01

33

Spectroscopy-based photonic instrumentation for the manufacturing industry: contactless measurements of distances, temperatures, and chemical composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steady progress in photonic components in terms of cost-to-performance ratio, maturity and robustness opens new avenues for the commercial deployment of photonic sensor systems in a wide range of industrial applications. Advanced sensing can be used to optimize complex processes and thereby enable significant savings in energy consumption. Three cases of robust photonic instrumentation for process optimization and quality control in manufacturing industries are presented: improved metal recycling with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, quality control in precision machining by white-light interferometry with optical fiber probes embedded in machining tools, and process optimization in steel foundries by stand-off temperature measurements in blast furnaces with optical fiber lances and spectral analysis techniques. Each of these methods utilizes a low-cost spectrometer, and requires dedicated calibration and signal processing methods to guarantee robust operation in industrial environments with varying conditions. Experimental results are presented, including on-line steel alloy analysis with correct classification rates in excess of 95%, distance measurements with axial resolution of +/- 2nm over a 75?m range, and continuous temperature monitoring of molten steel in oxygen blast furnaces with temperature measurement accuracy better than 1%.

Noharet, B.; Zetterlund, E.; Tarasenko, O.; Lindblom, M.; Gurell, J.; Bengtson, A.; Lundin, P.

2014-03-01

34

ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress over the first six months of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on analyzing and testing factors that impact performance degradation of the initially designed sensor prototype, including sensing element movement within the sensing probe and optical signal quality degradation. Based these results, a new version of the sensing system was designed by combining the sapphire disk sensing element and the single crystal zirconia right angle light reflector into one novel single crystal sapphire right angle prism. The new sensor prototype was tested up to 1650 C.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

2003-04-01

35

ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress over the third six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on sensor probe design and machining, sensor electronics design, software algorithm design, sensor field installation procedures, and sensor remote data access and control. Field testing will begin in the next several weeks.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang

2004-04-01

36

Water Vapor, Temperature, and Ice Particles in Polar Mesosphere as Measured by SABER/TIMED and OSIRIS/Odin Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although many new details on the properties of mesospheric ice particles that farm Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) and also cause polar mesospheric summer echoes have been recently revealed, certain aspects of mesospheric ice microphysics and dynamics still remain open. The detailed relation between PMC parameters and properties of their environment, as well as interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in PMC properties that are possibly related to global change, are among those open questions. In this work, mesospheric temperature and water vapor concentration measured by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite are used to study the properties of PMCs with respect to the surrounding atmosphere. The cloud parameters, namely location, brightness, and altitude, are obtained from the observations made by the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) on the Odin satellite. About a thousand of simultaneous common volume measurements made by SABER and OSIRIS in both hemispheres from 2002 until 2008 are used. The correlation between PMC brightness (and occurrence rate) and temperatures at PMC altitudes and at the mesopause is analysed. The relation between PMC parameters, frost point temperature, and gaseous water vapor content in and below the cloud is also discussed. Interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in the above parameters, as well as in PMC peak altitudes and mesopause altitudes are evaluated.

Feofilov, A. G.; Petelina, S. V.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

2009-01-01

37

A DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION FOR GASIFICATION PROCESS CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This progress report covers continuing work to develop a temperature probe for a coal gasifier. A workable probe design requires finding answers to crucial questions involving the probe materials. We report on attempts to answer those questions. We received and studied new samples of an important thermographic phosphor, YAG:Dy. We studied the brightness as a function of dopant concentration and the relative brightnesses of the pertinent thermographic emission lines, both with respect to each other and among the phosphors. With the previously reported failure of the binder method for coatings, we are setting up a plasma-spray facility in cooperation with a subcontractor. We have been forming a network of people and organizations that may help us with various aspects of the problems at hand. This period, we approached a company with commercially successful probes, met with Tennessee Valley Authority staff (codes and coatings), and added a new faculty member to the team with materials expertise.

Bruce W. Noel

2000-10-15

38

Biases caused by the instrument bandwidth and beam width on simulated brightness temperature measurements from scanning microwave radiometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More so than the traditional fixed radiometers, the scanning radiometer requires a careful design to ensure high quality measurements. Here the impact of the radiometer characteristics (e.g., antenna beam width and receiver bandwidth) and atmospheric propagation (e.g. curvature of the Earth and vertical gradient of refractive index) on scanning radiometer measurements are presented. A forward radiative transfer model that includes all these effects to represent the instrument measurements is used to estimate the biases. These biases are estimated using differences between the measurement with and without these characteristics for three commonly used frequency bands: K, V and W-band. The receiver channel bandwidth errors are less important in K-band and W-band. Thus, the use of a wider bandwidth to improve detection at low signal-to-noise conditions is acceptable at these frequencies. The biases caused by omitting the antenna beam width in measurement simulations are larger than those caused by omitting the receiver bandwidth, except for V-band where the bandwidth may be more important in the vicinity of absorption peaks. Using simple regression algorithms, the effects of the bandwidth and beam width biases in liquid water path, integrated water vapour, and temperature are also examined. The largest errors in liquid water path and integrated water vapour are associated with the beam width errors.

Meunier, V.; Löhnert, U.; Kollias, P.; Crewell, S.

2013-05-01

39

Biases caused by the instrument bandwidth and beam width on simulated brightness temperature measurements from scanning microwave radiometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More so than the traditional fixed radiometers, the scanning radiometer requires a careful design to ensure high quality measurements. Here the impact of the radiometer characteristics (e.g. antenna beam width, receiver bandwidth) and atmospheric propagation (e.g. curvature of the earth and refractivity) on the scanning radiometer measurements are presented. A forward radiative transfer model that includes all these effects to represent the instrument measurements is used to estimate the biases as differences between the measurement with and without these characteristics for three commonly used frequency bands: K, V and W-band. The receiver channel bandwidth errors are not so important in K-band and W-band. Thus, the use of a wider bandwidth to improve detection at low signal-to-noise conditions is acceptable. The impact of the antenna beam width is higher than the receiver bandwidth, but, for V-band where they are of similar importance. Using simple regression algorithms, the effects of the bandwidth and beam width biases in liquid water path, integrated water vapor, and temperature are also examined. The largest errors in liquid water path and integrated water vapor are associated with the beam width errors.

Meunier, V.; Löhnert, U.; Kollias, P.; Crewell, S.

2012-11-01

40

Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide from Broadband Infrared Limb Emission Measurements Taken from the TIMED/SABER Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment is one of four instruments on NASA's Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER measures broadband infrared limb emission and derives vertical profiles of kinetic temperature (Tk) from the lower stratosphere to approximately 120 km, and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) volume mixing ratio (vmr) from approximately 70 km to 120 km. In this paper we report on SABER Tk/CO2 data in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region from the version 1.06 dataset. The continuous SABER measurements provide an excellent dataset to understand the evolution and mechanisms responsible for the global two-level structure of the mesopause altitude. SABER MLT Tk comparisons with ground-based sodium lidar and rocket falling sphere Tk measurements are generally in good agreement. However, SABER CO2 data differs significantly from TIME-GCM model simulations. Indirect CO2 validation through SABER-lidar MLT Tk comparisons and SABER-radiation transfer comparisons of nighttime 4.3 micron limb emission suggest the SABER-derived CO2 data is a better representation of the true atmospheric MLT CO2 abundance compared to model simulations of CO2 vmr.

Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell III, James M.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; She, Chiao-Yao; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Xu, Xiaojing

2008-01-01

41

Measured and simulated absorption of CO2 at high pressure and temperature: a new tool for remote sensing instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a comparison between measured and calculated absorption of CO2 gas at extreme conditions as found in the deep Venusian atmosphere. In addition, we describe a new tool to reproduce the absorption of CO2 with state of the art theory, in order to support remote sensing studies by instrumentation on orbiting spacecraft. Gas transmittance spectra have been recorded by a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectrometer covering a wide spectral range, from 350 to 25000 cm-1 (0.4 to 29 ?m) with a spectral resolution from 10 to 0.07 cm-1. A special customized gas cell, certified to support pressures up to 350 bar and temperatures up to 300° C, has been integrated inside a compartment of the interferometer. A large number of spectra has been recorded on a pressuretemperature grid from 1 to 30 bar and 298 to 600 K. Our experimental spectra have been compared with synthetic spectra obtained by a software that takes into account line-mixing due to inter-molecular collisions. Inclusion of the line mixing, which is depending on the molecular density, produces spectra which differ substantially from those produced by simpler models, (such as ARS [3]) using a Voigt profile and neglecting line mixing, in particular for the high pressure and temperature conditions present in the Venus' atmosphere.

Stefani, S.; Piccioni, G.; Snels, M.; Tran, H.; Grassi, D.

2011-10-01

42

LIMS Instrument Package (LIP) balloon experiment: Nimbus 7 satellite correlative temperature, ozone, water vapor, and nitric acid measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) LIP balloon experiment was used to obtain correlative temperature, ozone, water vapor, and nitric acid data at altitudes between 10 and 36 kilometers. The performance of the LIMS sensor flown on the Nimbus 7 Satellite was assessed. The LIP consists of the modified electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde, the ultraviolet absorption photometric of ozone, the water vapor infrared radiometer sonde, the chemical absorption filter instrument for nitric acid vapor, and the infrared radiometer for nitric acid vapor. The limb instrument package (LIP), its correlative sensors, and the resulting data obtained from an engineering and four correlative flights are described.

Lee, R. B., III; Gandrud, B. W.; Robbins, D. E.; Rossi, L. C.; Swann, N. R. W.

1982-01-01

43

Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

2006-01-01

44

Foundations of measurement and instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The user of instrumentation has provided an understanding of the factors that influence instrument performance, selection, and application, and of the methods of interpreting and presenting the results of measurements. Such understanding is prerequisite to the successful attainment of the best compromise among reliability, accuracy, speed, cost, and importance of the measurement operation in achieving the ultimate goal of a project. Some subjects covered are dimensions; units; sources of measurement error; methods of describing and estimating accuracy; deduction and presentation of results through empirical equations, including the method of least squares; experimental and analytical methods of determining the static and dynamic behavior of instrumentation systems, including the use of analogs.

Warshawsky, Isidore

1990-01-01

45

Measuring Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about measuring temperature. Learners will apply their knowledge of how temperature affects matter to understand how a thermometer works. They then read about the history of the thermometer and the temperature scales that make the information from the thermometer meaningful. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 6 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

46

Comparison of Temperature and Ozone Measured by the AROTEL Instrument on DC8 Overflights of Ny Aalesund during the SOLVE Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AROTEL instrument, deployed on the NASA DC-8 at Kiruna, Sweden for the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), flew over the NDSC station operated by the Alfred Wegner Institute at Ny Aalesund, Spitsbergen. AROTEL ozone and temperature measurements made during near overflights of Ny Aalesund are compared with sonde ozone and temperature, and lidar ozone measurements from the NDSC station. Nine of the seventeen science flights during the December through March measurement period overflew near Ny Aalesund. Agreement of AROTEL with the ground-based temperature and ozone values at altitudes from just above the aircraft to about 30 km gives strong confidence in using AROTEL temperature and ozone mixing ratio to study the mechanisms of ozone loss in the winter arctic polar region.

Hoegy, Walter R.; McGee, Thomas J.; Burris, John F.; Heaps, William; Silbert, Donald; Sumnicht, Grant; Twigg, Laurence; Neuber, Roland

2000-01-01

47

Instrument measures dynamic pressure fluctuations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure probe instrument, incorporating "infinite line" principle, can be used to remotely measure dynamic pressure fluctuations in hot high-pressure environemnts too severe for sensors. System is designed and can be utilized for measurements in core of operating turbofan engine.

Coats, J. W.; Penko, P. E.; Reshotko, M.

1977-01-01

48

ac-resistance-measuring instrument  

SciTech Connect

An auto-ranging ac resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an ac excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance.

Hof, P.J.

1981-04-22

49

Instrumentation for atmospheric ion measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small ions are part of the atmospheric aerosol spectrum, and study of ion-aerosol interactions is fundamental in atmospheric physics. Air ion physics and instrumentation are reviewed, including the historical context. A miniaturised Gerdien condenser for ion measurement, operating in situ to minimise inlet errors, is described. Two operating modes using independent current and voltage decay measurements are employed. A more sophisticated self-calibrating and fully programmable ion mobility spectrometer (PIMS) based on the same principles, is also discussed. Detailed analysis of error terms and application of new technology is demonstrated to greatly improve its capability. Self-consistent experimental approaches, including ionisation and ion concentration instruments, are used for calibration. In developing and characterising the individual components of the PIMS, favourable and unfavourable operating regimes are identified: this approach can also be applied to other aspiration ion counting techniques. Use of a sophisticated programmable electrometer permits compensation for leakage terms. Electrically-charged aerosol particles have been found to complicate the ion measurements. Consequently, conventional ion-aerosol theory, which neglects the particulate concentration, is thought to be incomplete. The polymodal ion mobility spectrum is also found to influence the instrument's operation. Development of the novel programmable ion instrumentation, in conjunction with consideration of the ion mobility spectrum yields an improved and flexible approach to in situ atmospheric ion measurements.

Aplin, K. L.

2005-01-01

50

Instrumentation for air quality measurements.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison of the new generation of air quality monitoring instruments with some more traditional methods. The first generation of air quality measurement instruments, based on the use of oxidant coulometric cells, nitrogen oxide colorimetry, carbon monoxide infrared analyzers, and other types of detectors, is compared with new techniques now coming into wide use in the air monitoring field and involving the use of chemiluminescent reactions, optical absorption detectors, a refinement of the carbon monoxide infrared analyzer, electrochemical cells based on solid electrolytes, and laser detectors.

Loewenstein, M.

1973-01-01

51

MACS, An Instrument, and a Methodology for Simulations and Global Measurements of the Coronal Electron Temperature and the Solar Wind Velocity on the Solar Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of the radial and latitudinal temperature and wind profiles of the solar corona is of great importance in understanding the coronal heating mechanism and the dynamics of coronal expansion. Cram presented the theory for the formation of the K-coronal spectrum and identified two important observations. He observed the existence of temperature sensitive anti-nodes at certain wavelengths in the theoretical K-coronal spectra. The anti-nodes are separated by temperature-insensitive nodes. Remarkably, Cram showed that the wavelengths of the nodes and anti-nodes are almost independent of altitude above the solar limb. Because of these features, Cram suggested that the intensity ratios at two anti-nodes could be used as a diagnostic of the electron temperature in the K-corona. Based on this temperature diagnostic technique prescribed by Cram a slit-based spectroscopic study was performed by Ichimoto et al. on the solar corona in conjunction with the total solar eclipse of 3 Nov 1994 in Putre, Chile to determine the temperature profile of the solar corona. In this thesis Cram's theory has been extended to incorporate the role of the solar wind in the formation of the K-corona, and we have identified both temperature and wind sensitive intensity ratios. The instrument, MACS, for Multi Aperture Coronal Spectrometer, a fiber optic based spectrograph, was designed for global and simultaneous measurement of the thermal electron temperature and the solar wind velocity in the solar corona. The first ever experiment of this nature was conducted in conjunction with the total solar eclipse of 11 Aug 1999 in Elazig, Turkey. In this instrument one end of each of twenty fiber optic tips were positioned in the focal plane of the telescope in such a way that we could observe conditions simultaneously at many different latitudes and two different radial distances in the solar corona. The other ends of the fibers were vertically aligned and placed at the primary focus of the collimating lens of the spectrograph to obtain simultaneous and global spectra on the solar corona. By isolating the K-coronal spectrum from the spectrum recorded by each fiber the temperature and the wind sensitive intensity ratios were calculated to obtain simultaneous and global measurements of the thermal electron temperature and the solar wind velocity. We were successful in obtaining reliable estimates of the coronal temperature at many positions in the corona. This is the first time that simultaneous measurements of coronal temperatures have been obtained at so many points. However due to instrumental scattering encountered during observations, reliable estimates of the wind velocity turned out to be impossible to obtain. Although remedial measures were taken prior to observation, this task proved to be difficult owing to the inability to replicate the conditions expected during an eclipse in the laboratory. The full extent of the instrumental scattering was apparent only when we analyzed the observational sequence. Nevertheless the experience obtained from this very first attempt to simultaneously and globally measure both the wind velocity and the temperature on the solar corona have provided valuable information to conduct any future observations successfully.

Reginald, Nelson L.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

52

Temperature measuring device  

SciTech Connect

Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Sohns, C.W.

1999-10-19

53

Dual physiological rate measurement instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

Cooper, Tommy G. (inventor)

1990-01-01

54

Compact Instruments Measure Heat Potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based in Huntsville, Alabama, AZ Technology Inc. is a woman- and veteran-owned business that offers expertise in electromechanical-optical design and advanced coatings. AZ Technology has received eight Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center for the development of spectral reflectometers and the measurement of surface thermal properties. The company uses a variety of measurement services and instruments, including the Spectrafire, a portable spectral emissometer it used to assist General Electric with the design of its award-winning Giraffe Warmer for neonatal intensive care units.

2009-01-01

55

Instrumentation for Sensitive Gas Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved instrument for optical absorption spectroscopy utilizes off-axis paths in an optical cavity in order to increase detection sensitivity while suppressing resonance effects. The instrument is well suited for use in either cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) [in which one pulses an incident light beam and measures the rate of decay of light in the cavity] or integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) [in which one uses a continuous-wave incident light beam and measures the power of light in the cavity as a function of wavelength]. Typically, in optical absorption spectroscopy, one seeks to measure absorption of a beam of light in a substance (usually a gas or liquid) in a sample cell. In CRDS or ICOS, the sample cell is placed in (or consists of) an optical cavity, so that one can utilize multiple reflections of the beam to increase the effective optical path length through the absorbing substance and thereby increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption. If an absorbing substance is not present in the optical cavity, one can utilize the multiple passes of the light beam to increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption and scattering by components of the optical cavity itself. It is desirable to suppress the effects of resonances in the cavity in order to make the spectral response of the cavity itself as nearly constant as possible over the entire wavelength range of interest. In the present instrument, the desired flattening of the spectral response is accomplished by utilizing an off-axis beam geometry to effectively decrease the frequency interval between longitudinal electromagnetic modes of the cavity, such that the resulting transmission spectrum of the cavity is nearly continuous: in other words, the cavity becomes a broad-band optical device.

OKeefe, Anthony

2005-01-01

56

Compact Instruments Measure Helium-Leak Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, lightweight instruments have been developed for measuring small flows of helium and/or detecting helium leaks in solenoid valves when the valves are nominally closed. These instruments do not impede the flows when the valves are nominally open. They can be integrated into newly fabricated valves or retrofitted to previously fabricated valves. Each instrument includes an upstream and a downstream thermistor separated by a heater, plus associated analog and digital heater-control, signal- conditioning, and data-processing circuits. The thermistors and heater are off-the-shelf surface mount components mounted on a circuit board in the flow path. The operation of the instrument is based on a well-established thermal mass-flow-measurement technique: Convection by the flow that one seeks to measure gives rise to transfer of heat from the heater to the downstream thermistor. The temperature difference measured by the thermistors is directly related to the rate of flow. The calibration curve from temperature gradient to helium flow is closely approximated via fifth-order polynomial. A microprocessor that is part of the electronic circuitry implements the calibration curve to compute the flow rate from the thermistor readings.

Stout, Stephen; Immer, Christopher

2003-01-01

57

Temperature measurement  

MedlinePLUS

... Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends against using glass thermometers with mercury. The glass can break, and mercury is a poison. Electronic thermometers are the most recommended type. The temperature is ...

58

Thermospheric temperature measurement technique.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for measurement of temperature in the earth's lower thermosphere from a high-velocity probes is described. An undisturbed atmospheric sample is admitted to the instrument by means of a free molecular flow inlet system of skimmers which avoids surface collisions of the molecules prior to detection. Measurement of the time-of-flight distribution of an initially well-localized group of nitrogen metastable molecular states produced in an open, crossed electron-molecular beam source, yields information on the atmospheric temperature. It is shown that for high vehicle velocities, the time-of-flight distribution of the metastable flux is a sensitive indicator of atmospheric temperature. The temperature measurement precision should be greater than 94% at the 99% confidence level over the range of altitudes from 120-170 km. These precision and altitude range estimates are based on the statistical consideration of the counting rates achieved with a multichannel analyzer using realistic values for system parameters.

Hueser, J. E.; Fowler, P.

1972-01-01

59

Measuring Temperature Reading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two requirements for taking a measurement of something. The first is a tool for taking a measurement. The second is scale for making sense of the numbers of the measurement. For example, a ruler is often used to measure short lengths. It is the tool for measurement. On the ruler are one or more number scales with equally spaced numbers. These numbers can be compared with numbers from any other ruler that is accurately set to the same scale. Measuring length is far simpler than measuring temperature. While there is evidence of tools for measuring length at various times in human history, tools and scales for measuring temperature do not appear until more recent human history. Early thermometers, called thermoscopes, first appear in the 1500's. They were crude instruments that were not at all accurate. Most did not even have a number scale associated with them. This made them useless for most practical purposes. Gabriel Fahrenheit created the first accurate thermometer in 1714, and the Fahrenheit temperature scale followed it in 1724. The thermometer s accuracy was based on its use of mercury, a silver colored substance that remains liquid over a wide range of temperatures but expands or contracts in a standard, predictable way with changes in temperature. To set the scale, Fahrenheit created the coldest temperature that he could. He mixed equal parts of ice, water, and salt, and then used this as the zero point, 0 degrees, of his scale. He intended to make 30 degrees the freezing point of water and 90 degrees the temperature of the human body, but he had to later revise these temperatures to be 32 degrees and 96 degrees. In the final version of the scale, the temperature of the human body became 98.6 degrees. 19th century thermoscope

2003-01-01

60

Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting. distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receive, the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

61

Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer. respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

62

Bubble measuring instrument and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

63

Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

64

New type of measuring and intelligent instrument for curing tobacco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of measuring intelligent instrument for cured tobacco is presented in this paper. Based on fuzzy linguistic control principles the instrument is used to controlling the temperature and humidity during cured tobacco taking 803 1 singlechip computer as a center controller. By using methods of fuzzy weighted factors the cross coupling in curing procedures is decoupled. Results that the instrument has producted indicate the fuzzy controller in the instrument has perfect performance for process of cured tobacco as shown in figure

Yi, Chui-Jie; Huang, Xieqing; Chen, Tianning; Xia, Hong

1993-09-01

65

Theory, Design and Use of the Multi-Purpose Instrument for Determining Many Properties, and a New Unsteady Temperature-Free Measurement of Heat Transfer and Thermal Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a new instrument is described and also techniques of measurement to determine, under steady state conditions; for fluids: (1) thermal conductivity, (2) dielectric constant, and hence (3) index of refraction, (4) electrical conductivity ...

W. Leidenfrost

1972-01-01

66

Plasma Potential Measurements With A New Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient and fast instrument to measure the plasma potential of ECR ion sources (ECRIS) has been developed at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The operating principle of the instrument is to measure the energy of the ion beam by applying a decelerating voltage to a mesh located in the beam line after mass analysis. The plasma potential is determined by measuring the current at the grounded electrode situated behind the mesh as a function of this adjustable voltage. The measurements were performed with ECR ion sources at JYFL (6.4 and 14 GHz) and at Argonne National Laboratory (14 GHz). The plasma potential was measured as a function of different source parameters such as microwave power, gas feed rate (with different gases), voltage of the biased disk and magnetic field strength. The effects of gas mixing and double-frequency heating were also studied. The energy of the ions extracted from an ECRIS plasma comes from the source potential, plasma potential and the thermal energy of the ions. In order to distinguish the effect of the ion temperature on the measured curve simple computer simulations were performed. With the aid of the simulation and assuming a certain potential profile and Maxwellian velocity (energy) distribution of the ions, it was seen that the ion temperature should affect the shape of the measured curve in the region where the adjustable deceleration voltage is close to the value of the plasma potential. In the measurements it was observed that the shape of the curve in this region changed dramatically when gas mixing was used. However, the effect was typical only for low charge states of the heavier element while the curves measured with higher charge states remained almost unchanged. The effect of gas mixing on the ion temperature will be discussed based upon the obtained results.

Tarvainen, O.; Suominen, P.; Ropponen, T.; Koivisto, H.; Vondrasek, R. C.; Scott, R. H.

2005-03-01

67

Advanced high temperature instrument for hot section research applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Programs to develop research instrumentation for use in turbine engine hot sections are described. These programs were initiated to provide improved measurements capability as support for a multidisciplinary effort to establish technology leading to improved hot section durability. Specific measurement systems described here include heat flux sensors, a dynamic gas temperature measuring system, laser anemometry for hot section applications, an optical system for viewing the interior of a combustor during operation, thin film sensors for surface temperature and strain measurements, and high temperature strain measuring systems. The state of development of these sensors and measuring systems is described, and, in some cases, examples of measurements made with these instruments are shown. Work done at the NASA Lewis Research Center and at various contract and grant facilities is covered.

Englund, D. R.; Seasholtz, R. G.

1989-01-01

68

Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, recent technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported.

Tanabe, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Arakawa, Satoru; Sayama, Shuji

69

Temperature monitor and alarm for cryogenic instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal temperatures in filled cryostats must be continuously monitored to preserve the health and safety of hardware and personnel. The accidental response of cryogenic gases into the atmosphere pose a health threat and, if the gases are flammable, may lead to an explosion. One indication of an imminent cryogen release is the sudden increase in cryogen temperature. Although there are many data acquisition systems and temperature monitoring products commercially available, these systems lack the portability and safety features required during cryostat qualification tests and transport. This paper describes a temperature monitor and alarm circuit developed for the Spirit II solid hydrogen cryostat program. The instrument is battery-operated, accurate, portable, and intrinsically safe in an explosive atmosphere.

Thatcher, John B., Jr.; Keliher, Pat; Jeanpierre, Carlos

1994-06-01

70

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...non-compliance with this regulation, the measurements may be made with a Type 2 (or S2A...following amount to account for possible measurement instrument errors pertaining to specific measurements and sources: 1 American...

2010-07-01

71

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...non-compliance with this regulation, the measurements may be made with a Type 2 (or S2A...following amount to account for possible measurement instrument errors pertaining to specific measurements and sources: 1 American...

2009-07-01

72

Transforming Vectors Measured By Noncoaligned Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method for computing relationships between coordinate axes of two vector-measuring instruments not aligned with each other, one need only measure two nonparallel vectors u and v simultaneously in both coordinate systems. These measurements provide all data needed to compute transformation of any vector from one coordinate system to other. Particularly useful in computing alignments and transformations between accelerometers, gyroscopes, and instruments mounted on platforms subjected to vibrations, thermal strains, and other distortions causing alignments to vary unpredictably with time.

Ritter, James R.; Dahlstrom, Eric L.

1993-01-01

73

Developing an Instrument to Measure General Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Mountain Empire Community College's locally-developed instrument, called the Schoch-Tucker Assessment of General Education (STAGE), which provides student biographical data, insight on students' self-esteem, and a means of measuring students' knowledge in the eight areas of general education. Also describes the adoption of the instrument

Tucker, Kendall; Schoch, Eugene; Fisher, Sharon

1997-01-01

74

The oscilloscope as a measuring instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a wide-ranging revision and modernization of the first-year laboratory program a work package was put into effect based solely on introducing our students to the oscilloscope as a measuring instrument. The features of the instrumentation developed to allow the students to investigate the oscilloscope bandwidth and rise time are described and the correct use and value of

B. A. Cooke; T. J. Harris; H. S. Derbyshire

1990-01-01

75

Biomagnetic Measurements Using SQUID Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomagnetic measurements involve the detection of the magnetic fields generated by physiological activity in living organisms. Because magnetic fields are sensed remotely, no physical contact with the subject is required, making the technique totally non-invasive Furthermore, only the magnetic fields originating within the body are measured. No external field is applied and it can therefore be confidently stated that the

D. Rassi; Y. Zhuravlev

2000-01-01

76

The adaptation of iButtons® for near-surface rock temperature and thermal offset measurements in a high alpine environment - Instrumentation and first results, Kitzsteinhorn (3203 m), Hohe Tauern, Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High alpine regions are very rough terrains influenced by extreme weather conditions. Steep and inaccessible terrain complicates the installation and maintenance of monitoring instruments. Among other hazards lightning stroke, low temperatures and mass movements have a strong impact on permanently installed instruments. Therefore technical challenges include the development of robust measuring instruments to resist harsh environmental conditions. The presented work is part of the MOREXPERT ('Monitoring Expert System for Hazardous Rock Walls') project. One of the project's main objectives is the development of an easy to use and maintainable monitoring system with respect to cost and benefit. The assessment of rock permafrost distribution across the whole summit pyramid (300 meters in height, 3.5 ha) and the consideration of the heterogeneous topography requires a large number of temperature loggers. To meet these requirements iButtons® were used. The iButton® is a computer chip enclosed in a 16mm thick stainless steel can. The used DS1922L/T temperature logger iButtons® are rugged, self-sufficient systems that measure temperature and record the result in a protected memory section with an accuracy of ±0.5°C from -10°C to +65°C and a resolution of 0.0625°C. In contrast to conventionally used temperature loggers, iButtons® are cheap, end-user friendly and easily replaceable in case of damage. For this reason a large number of measurement sites can easily be equipped for the measurement of near-surface rock temperatures and thermal offset. A special instrumentation workflow for the installation of iButtons® in depths of 10 and 80 cm was developed. All iButtons® were attached to polyethylene rods and placed in previously drilled holes. First results show a good applicability of iButtons® for rock temperature measurements.

Keuschnig, M.; Hartmeyer, I.; Schmidjell, A.; Schrott, L.

2012-04-01

77

Common Laboratory Instruments for Measurement of Radioactivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report clarifies requirements and characteristics of instrumentation used to measure levels of ionizing radiation experienced by man in his environment, and assists responsible radiological health agencies in selecting optimum surveillance and counti...

D. E. Rushing R. W. Coulter J. C. Drobinski C. R. Phillips D. G. Remark

1967-01-01

78

Isotopic CO2 Instrumentation for UAV Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide is the largest component of anthroprogenic green house gas emissions. Knowing atmospheric 13CO2/12CO2 ratios precisely is important for understanding biogenic and anthroprogenic sources and sinks for carbon. Instrumentation mounted on UAV aircraft would enable important spatial isotopic CO2 information. However, current isotopic CO2 instrumentation have unfavorable attributes for UAV use, such as high power requirements, high cost, high weight, and large size. Here we present the early development of a compact isotopic CO2 instrument that is designed to nullify effects of pressure, temperature and moisture, and will ultimately be suitable for UAV deployment.

Gomez, A.; Silver, J.

2013-12-01

79

Instrumentation, Data Acquisition and Controls for Temperature Measurement of Cold Surfaces at 4.5 K and 80 K of SST-1 Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-temperature regimes have been envisaged for the SST-1 machine, 80 K on the thermal shield and 4.5 K on the superconducting magnet system. The aim of temperature measurement is two folds (i) to monitor the temperature distribution as well as process parameters (ii) to achieve controlled cool down from 300 K to 4.5 K and 80 K. Temperature sensors have been mounted on cold surfaces at required locations to ease the operation during cool down and steady state. Techniques employed for temperature measurement and controls are based on continuous resistance measurement. Cernox™ sensors (Lakeshore made) and PT-102 have been used for the temperature measurement at 4.5 K and 80 K surfaces respectively. The data acquisition system (DAS) has been indigenously developed using 4-20 mA current loop temperature transmitter, which provided better functioning in terms of flexibility. The control functioning has been designed and developed using programmable logic controller with direct interfacing of the transmitter. The temperature data is obtained at the supervisory control and data acquisition of dedicated node. The developed DAS has been found to be very reliable and satisfactory.

Panchal, P.; Sonara, D.; Sarkar, B.; Bhattacharya, R.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.; Tank, J.; Singh, M.; Sahu, A. K.; Saxena, Y. C.

2008-03-01

80

Comparative measurements using different particle size instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the measurement and comparison of particle size and velocity measurements in sprays. The general nature of sprays and the development of standard, consistent research sprays are described. The instruments considered in this paper are: pulsed laser photography, holography, television, and cinematography; laser anemometry and interferometry using visibility, peak amplitude, and intensity ratioing; and laser diffraction. Calibration is by graticule, reticle, powders with known size distributions in liquid cells, monosize sprays, and, eventually, standard sprays. Statistical analyses including spatial and temporal long-time averaging as well as high-frequency response time histories with conditional sampling are examined. Previous attempts at comparing instruments, the making of simultaneous or consecutive measurements with similar types and different types of imaging, interferometric, and diffraction instruments are reviewed. A program of calibration and experiments for comparing and assessing different instruments is presented.

Chigier, N.

1984-01-01

81

Measuring space radiation with ADIS instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of radiation in space, cosmic rays and Solar energetic particles, date back to the dawn of space flight. Solid state detectors, the basis of most modern high energy charged particle instruments, first flew in space in the 1960's. Modern particle spectrometers, such as ACE/CRIS, ACE/SIS and Ulysses/HET, can measure the elemental and isotopic composition of ions through the iron peak. This is achieved by using position sensing detectors (PSD's) arranged into hodoscopes to measure particle trajectories through the instrument, allowing for pathlength corrections to energy loss measurements. The Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) technique measures particle angle of incidence using a simple system of detectors inclined to the instrument axis. It achieves elemental resolution well beyond iron, and isotopic resolution for moderate mass elements without the complexity of position sensing detectors. An ADIS instrument was selected to fly as the High Energy Particle Sensor (HEPS) on NPOESS, but was de-scoped with the rest of the space weather suite. Another ADIS instrument, the Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS), is being developed for GOES-R. UNH has built and tested a engineering unit of the EHIS. Applications for manned dosimetery on the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) are also being explored. The basic ADIS technique is explained and accelerator data for heavy ions shown.

Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; McKibben, R. B.; Merk, J.

2010-08-01

82

40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205 Performance specifications for measurement instruments. Your test...

2010-07-01

83

40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205 Performance specifications for measurement instruments. Your test...

2013-07-01

84

40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205 Performance specifications for measurement instruments. Your test...

2009-07-01

85

Non-contact temperature measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three methods for noncontact temperature measurement are presented. Ideal gas thermometry is realized by using laser-induced fluorescence to measure the concentration of mercury atoms in a Hg-Ar mixture in the vicinity of hot specimens. Emission polarimetry is investigated by measuring the spatially resolved intensities of polarized light from a hot tungsten sphere. Laser polarimetry is used to measure the optical properties, emissivity, and, in combination with optical pyrometry, the temperature of electromagnetically levitated liquid aluminum. The precision of temperature measurements based on the ideal gas law is + or - 2.6 percent at 1500-2000 K. The polarized emission technique is found to have the capability to determine optical properties and/or spectral emissivities of specimens over a wide range of wavelengths with quite simple instruments.

Nordine, Paul C.; Krishnan, Shankar; Weber, J. K. R.; Schiffman, Robert A.

86

Instrument for measuring laser-beam profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple single-element instrument for measuring laser-beam profiles is described. The laser beam is deflected by a self-resonant scanner and transmitted through a pinhole or a variable slit. Correction factors for various relative sizes of pinholes and slits are also given.

Dietmar Letalick; Ingmar Renhorn

1987-01-01

87

40 CFR 92.117 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration, particulate measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Record the stabilized air temperature and pressure upstream of the instrument and as required for... (4) Calculate air flow at standard conditions...range. (6) If the air flow at standard conditions measured by the instrument differs by...

2013-07-01

88

Study on influencing factors of measuring precision of OTF measurement instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Transfer Function(OTF) Measurement is well known as the more accurate and more comprehensive method that is used in evaluating the imaging quality of optical systems. Nowadays almost all optical companies and national standard institutes use the OTF measurement instruments as the most reliable image evaluation systems. But in the actually measuring process, it is frequent that the measuring results of the same sample are variable by using different instruments. The reason is that the subsystems of the OTF measurement instrument have inherent errors, which made the different OTF measurement instruments have dissimilar measuring precisions. In addition, temperature and the resulting thermal expansion dynamics of the mechanical set-up become factors limiting the performance of OTF measurement instruments. In this paper, the fundamental theories of OTF measurement instrument were introduced, including its mathematical model, measuring principle, basic structure and so on. Then the influences of inherent errors of subsystems and the thermal expansion dynamics of the mechanical set-up on OTF measurement instrument were also discussed in detail. Based on the analyses of this paper, it is obvious that the OTF value measured by OTF measurement instrument can only be treated as a sort of relative benchmark. However, this relative benchmark can also produces feedback on the performances of optical systems by rule and line in time. And it always has the main effect in guiding the design, machining, assembly, debugging and any other process of production.

Zhao, Kan; Meng, Junhe; Zhang, Zheng; Tao, Yu; Zhang, Chengzhong; Lei, Li; Dun, Xiong; Feng, Litong

2010-05-01

89

Smart thermocouple system for industrial temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A smart temperature measurement system is described which takes advantage of known sensor performance characteristics to improve industrial temperature measurement. The sensor includes provisions for integrating information into the sensor via an internal memory device. Complementary software and instrumentation then utilizes this information during field operation. Improvements include performance benefits such as reduced measurement uncertainty, increased robustness, and failure prediction

B. Schuh

2001-01-01

90

High temperature measuring device  

DOEpatents

A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

91

Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

Hagopian, John G.

2010-01-01

92

Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 ?m) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

2006-11-14

93

Temperature, pressure, and wind instrumentation in the Phoenix meteorological package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meteorological package (MET) on the Phoenix Lander is designed to provide information on the daily and seasonal variations in Mars near-polar weather during Martian late spring and summer. The present paper provides some background on the temperature, pressure, and wind instrumentation on the Phoenix MET station and their characterization. A separate paper addresses the MET lidar instrument. Laboratory studies

Peter A. Taylor; David C. Catling; Mike Daly; Cameron S. Dickinson; Haraldur P. Gunnlaugsson; Ari-Matti Harri; Carlos F. Lange

2008-01-01

94

Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes technical progress during the program Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engin...

A. Wang G. R. Pickrell K. L. Cooper

2006-01-01

95

Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

Dennis, B.R. (comp.)

1986-06-01

96

Large Area Lunar Dust Flux Measurement Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrument under development is designed to characterize the flux and size distribution of the lunar micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta environment. When deployed on the lunar surface, the data collected will benefit fundamental lunar science as well as enabling more reliable impact risk assessments for human lunar exploration activities. To perform this task, the instrument requirements are demanding. It must have as large a surface area as possible to sample the very sparse population of the larger potentially damage-inducing micrometeorites. It must also have very high sensitivity to enable it to measure the flux of small (<10 micron) micrometeorite and secondary ejecta dust particles. To be delivered to the lunar surface, it must also be very low mass, rugged and stow compactly. The instrument designed to meet these requirements is called FOMIS. It is a large-area thin film under tension (i.e. a drum) with multiple fiber optic displacement (FOD) sensors to monitor displacements of the film. This sensor was chosen since it can measure displacements over a wide dynamic range: 1 cm to sub-Angstrom. A prototype system was successfully demonstrated using the hypervelocity impact test facility at the University of Kent (Canterbury, UK). Based on these results, the prototype system can detect hypervelocity (approx.5 km/s) impacts by particles as small as 2 microns diameter. Additional tests using slow speeds find that it can detect secondary ejecta particles (which do not penetrate the film) with momentums as small as 15 pico-gram 100m/s, or nominally 5 microns diameter at 100 m/s.

Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burchell, M.; Stansbery, Eugene; Lagakos, N.

2009-01-01

97

Measuring the Curie temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of Curie or Néel temperatures is one of the central techniques in rock magnetism, because it is a relatively fast and reliable method to determine the predominant magnetic minerals in natural samples, even if their concentrations are relatively small. Unfortunately, the results of different commonly used measurement protocols for the same sample can deviate enough to be confusing. Serious problems occur especially for studies which interpret differences in Curie temperatures obtained from M(T)- and ?(T)- measurements, and many of these results must be questioned, or even disregarded. Primarily this is due to insufficient theoretical foundation, leading to incompatible TC values when determinations by different measurements are evaluated by the same or similar methods. Using Landau theory for in-field magnetization measurements, high-temperature measurement procedures are studied to revise the common evaluation routines for M(T)- and ?(T)-curves. While at least four different physical processes can contribute to the low-field initial susceptibility near the ordering temperature, each of which may influence the apparent position of TC, high-field methods are better defined, but do not truly trace a second-order phase transition. Here, a series of theoretical calculations are compared to high-temperature VSM measurements of quarter-hysteresis loops, a procedure developed to efficiently measure several hysteresis parameters in a single heating cycle. This method is equally as fast as a typical TC determination on a Curie balance and provides a considerable amount of additional information which can be modeled to obtain a more robust Curie Temperature.

Fabian, K.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; McEnroe, S. A.

2012-04-01

98

Measuring the Curie temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Curie point temperatures (TC) of natural and synthetic magnetic materials are commonly determined in rock magnetism by several measurement methods that can be mutually incompatible and may lead to inconsistent results. Here the common evaluation routines for high-temperature magnetization and magnetic initial susceptibility curves are analyzed and revised based on Landau's theory of second-order phase transitions. It is confirmed that in high-field magnetization curves TC corresponds to the inflection point, below the temperature of maximum curvature or the double-tangent intersection point. At least four different physical processes contribute to the initial magnetic susceptibility near the ordering temperature. They include variation of saturation magnetization, superparamagnetic behavior, magnetization rotation, and magnetic domain wall motion. Because each of these processes may influence the apparent position of TC, initial susceptibility and high-field curves can yield deviating estimates of TC. A new procedure is proposed to efficiently determine the temperature variation of several magnetic parameters on a vibrating-sample magnetometer, by repeatedly measuring quarter-hysteresis loops during a single heating cycle. This procedure takes measurements during the inevitable waiting time necessary for thermal equilibration of the sample, whereby it is not slower than the commonly performed measurements on a Curie balance. However, it returns saturation magnetization, saturation remanence, high-field and low-field slopes, and other parameters as a function of temperature, which provide independent information about TC and other sample properties.

Fabian, K.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; McEnroe, S. A.

2013-04-01

99

Instrumentation for measuring speech privacy in rooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federal legislation pertaining to oral privacy in healthcare and financial services industries has increased the need for a convenient and economical way to document speech privacy conditions in offices, medical examination rooms, and certain other workspaces. This legislation is embodied in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA). Both laws require that reasonable measures be put in place to safeguard the oral privacy of patients and clients. While techniques for privacy documentation are known within the acoustical consulting community, it is unlikely that community alone has the capacity to provide the surveys needed to evaluate acoustical conditions and demonstrate compliance with the legislation. A portable computer with integrated soundboard and a suitable amplified loudspeaker and test microphone are all that are needed to perform in situ measurements of articulation index or other accepted indices of speech privacy. Along with modest training, such instrumentation allows technicians to survey a large number of sites economically. Cost-effective components are shown that can meet the requirements for testing in most common environments where oral privacy is likely to be required. Example cases are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of such instrumentation.

Horrall, Thomas; Pirn, Rein; Markham, Ben

2003-10-01

100

Rotor instrumentation study for high-temperature superconducting generators  

SciTech Connect

In FY 9195, ORNL carried out work on rotor instrumentation systems in support of the General Electric (GE) Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI) on Superconducting Generator Development. The objective was to develop a system for tramsitting data from sensors in the spinning rotor to a stationary data acquisition system. Previous work at ORNL had investigated an optical method of cryogenic temperature measurement using laser-induced fluorescence in certain phosphors. Later follow-up discussions with experts in the ORNL Engineering Technology Division indicated that this method could also be extended to measure strain and magnetic field. Another optical alternative using standard fiber optic transmission modules was also investigated. The equipment is very inexpensive, but needs to be adapted for operation in a high-g-force rotating environment. An optical analog of a commutator or slip ring also needs to be developed to couple the light signals from the rotor to the stationary frame. Sealed mercury-film rotary contacts are manufactured by Meridian Laboratory. Unlike conventional slipring assemblies, these offer low noise and long lifetime, with low costs per channel. Standard units may need some upgrading for 3600-rpm or high-voltage operation. A commercial electronic telemetry system offered by Wireless Data Corporation (WDC) was identified as a viable candidate, and information on this system was presented to GE. GE has since ordered two of these systems from WDC for temperature measurements in their rotating test cryostat.

Schwenterly, S.W.; Wilson, C.T.

1996-06-01

101

Raman temperature measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are examining the experimental trade-offs for the use of the spontaneous Raman Stokes/anti-Stokes intensity ratio as a fundamental temperature measurement at static and dynamic extreme conditions. The trade-off space includes spatial resolution and temperature range versus vibrational frequency, as well as heating of the sample and nonlinear damage caused by the excitation laser. The experiments are being performed under a range of experimental conditions from nanoseconds to seconds and from cryogenic (77 K) to elevated (ca. 1000 K) temperatures. The results are being compared to calculations for transparent metal oxide and polymer materials, with the aim to demonstrate their potential as temperature reporters when used as thin windows on opaque materials.

Moore, D. S.; McGrane, S. D.

2014-05-01

102

Line spread instrumentation for propagation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A line spread device capable of yielding direct measure of a laser beam's line spread function (LSF) was developed and employed in propagation tests conducted in a wind tunnel to examine optimal acoustical suppression techniques for laser cavities exposed to simulated aircraft aerodynamic environments. Measurements were made on various aerodynamic fences and cavity air injection techniques that effect the LSF of a propagating laser. Using the quiescent tunnel as a control, the relative effect of each technique on laser beam quality was determined. The optical instrument employed enabled the comparison of relative beam intensity for each fence or mass injection. It was found that fence height had little effect on beam quality but fence porosity had a marked effect, i.e., 58% porosity alleviated cavity resonance and degraded the beam the least. Mass injection had little effect on the beam LSF. The use of a direct LSF measuring device proved to be a viable means of determining aerodynamic seeing qualities of flow fields.

Bailey, W. H., Jr.

1980-04-01

103

Line spread instrumentation for propagation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A line spread device capable of yielding direct measure of a laser beam's line spread function (LSF) was developed and employed in propagation tests conducted in a wind tunnel to examine optimal acoustical suppression techniques for laser cavities exposed to simulated aircraft aerodynamic environments. Measurements were made on various aerodynamic fences and cavity air injection techniques that effect the LSF of a propagating laser. Using the quiescent tunnel as a control, the relative effect of each technique on laser beam quality was determined. The optical instrument employed enabled the comparison of relative beam intensity for each fence or mass injection. It was found that fence height had little effect on beam quality but fence porosity had a marked effect, i.e., 58% porosity alleviated cavity resonance and degraded the beam the least. Mass injection had little effect on the beam LSF. The use of a direct LSF measuring device proved to be a viable means of determining aerodynamic seeing qualities of flow fields.

Bailey, W. H., Jr.

1980-01-01

104

A review of instruments measuring resilience.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study were to evaluate the psychometric properties and appropriateness of instruments for the study of resilience in adolescents. A search was completed using the terms resilience and instruments or scales using the EBSCO database (CINAHL, PreCINAHL, and Academic Search Premier), MEDLINE, PsychINFO and PsychARTICLES, and the Internet. After instruments were identified, a second search was performed for studies reporting the psychometric development of these instruments. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, six psychometric development of instrument studies were selected for a full review. A data extraction table was used to compare the six instruments. Two of the six instruments (Baruth Protective Factors Inventory [BPFI] and Brief-Resilient Coping Scale) lacked evidence that they were appropriate for administration with the adolescent population due to lack of research applications. Three instruments (Adolescent Resilience Scale [ARS], Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Resilience Scale for Adults) had acceptable credibility but needed further study in adolescents. One instrument (Resilience Scale [RS]) was determined to be the best instrument to study resilience in the adolescent population due to psychometric properties of the instrument and applications in a variety of age groups, including adolescence. Findings of this review indicate that the RS is the most appropriate instrument to study resilience in the adolescent population. While other instruments have potential (e.g., ARS, BPFI) as they were tested in the adolescent and young adult populations, they lack evidence for their use at this time. An evaluation of the review and recommendations are discussed. PMID:16772239

Ahern, Nancy R; Kiehl, Ermalynn M; Sole, Mary Lou; Byers, Jacqueline

2006-01-01

105

Design of a PD measuring instrument based on digital oscilloscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partial discharge (PD) measuring instrument based on the following structure is designed: a digital oscilloscope and a Labview™ program are respectively used to replace the data acquisition hardware and the software of the conventional digital PD measuring instruments. The use of a general purpose oscilloscope enables a broad applicability of the designed instrument. The developed program, which is employed

Y. Hu

2010-01-01

106

Instrumentation for Measuring Physical Properties of a Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumentation has been designed, developed, calibrated, and installed for recording temperature profiles and flow rates at several points in Cayuga Lake in the vicinity of a fossil-fueled power plant. Four buoys and one rigid pole in the lake are used for the instrument installations and are connected to shore via coaxial cable. The temperature and flow rate data are transmitted

DITMAR H. BOCK

1970-01-01

107

Calibration Service for Instruments that Measure Laser Beam Diameter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the calibration service for instruments that measure laser beam diameter. An overview of the measurement procedures, measurement system, and uncertainty analysis is presented. A sample measurement report is included in this documen...

S. Yang

2010-01-01

108

Sourcebook on high-temperature electronics and instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

This sourcebook summarizes the high-temperature characteristics of a number of commercially available electronic components and materials required in geothermal well-logging instruments that must operate to 275/sup 0/C. The sourcebook is written to provide a starting place for instrument designers, who need to know the high-temperature electronic products that are available and the design and performance limitations of these products. The electronic component information given includes the standard repertoire of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors, and magnetics; the active devices and integrated circuits sections emphasize silicon semiconductor JFETs and CMOS circuits; and, to complete the electronics, interconnections and packaging of hybrid microelectronics are described. Thermal insulation and refrigeration alternatives are also presented in the sourcebook. Finally, instrument housing materials and high-temperature cables and cablehead connectors are listed. This information was compiled as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program that Sandia National Laboratories conducted for the US Department of Energy's Divison of Geothermal Energy from 1976 to 1981.

Veneruso, A.F. (ed.)

1981-10-01

109

40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Record the stabilized air temperature and pressure upstream of the instrument and as required for... (4) Calculate air flow at standard conditions...range. (6) If the air flow at standard conditions measured by the instrument differs by...

2013-07-01

110

40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Record the stabilized air temperature and pressure upstream of the instrument and as required for... (4) Calculate air flow at standard conditions...range. (6) If the air flow at standard conditions measured by the instrument differs by...

2013-07-01

111

Instrumentation of sampling aircraft for measurement of launch vehicle effluents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obtaining valid airborne measurements. Discussions of the data acquisition system used, the instrument power system, and operational sampling procedures are included. Representative measurements obtained from an actual rocket launch monitoring activity are also presented.

Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Tyson, R. W.

1977-01-01

112

Multi-Purpose-Instrument Research: A New Measurement Technique and Property Table Generation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Described is a Multi-purpose-Instrument which has demonstrated a new temperature-free technique to observe heat transfer and thermal transport properties by means of capacitance measurements. This technique is analyzed for a system of simple geometry. For...

W. Leidenfrost

1971-01-01

113

Guide to measurement of winds with instrumented aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft measurement techniques are reviewed. Review of past and present applications of instrument aircraft to atmospheric observations is presented. Questions to be answered relative to measuring mean wind profiles as contrasted to turbulence measurements are then addressed. Requirements of instrumentation and accuracy, data reduction, data acquisition, and theoretical and certainty analysis are considered.

Frost, Walter; Paige, Terry S.; Nelius, Andrew E.

1991-01-01

114

Development of a portable ambient temperature radiometric assaying instrument  

SciTech Connect

There is a strong need for portable radiometric instrumentation that can accurately confirm the presence of nuclear materials and allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. To fulfill this need we are developing a hand-held, non-cryogenic, low-power gamma- and x-ray measurement and analysis instrument that can both search and then accurately verify the presence of nuclear materials. We report on the use of cadmium zinc telluride detectors, signal processing electronics, and the new field-portable instrument based on the MicroNOMAD Multichannel Analyzer from EG&G ORTBC. We also describe the isotopic analysis that allows uranium enrichment measurements to be made accurately in the field.

Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Ruhter, W.D.

1994-10-01

115

Hydrazine engine plume contamination mapping. [measuring instruments for rocket exhaust from liquid propellant rocket engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumentation for the measurement of plume exhaust specie deposition rates were developed and demonstrated. The instruments, two sets of quartz crystal microbalances, were designed for low temperature operation in the back flow and variable temperature operation in the core flow regions of an exhaust plume. These quartz crystal microbalances performed nominally, and measurements of exhaust specie deposition rates for 8400 number of pulses for a 0.1-lb monopropellant thruster are reported.

Chirivella, J. E.

1975-01-01

116

Instrumentation Development to Measure Camoflet Size.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes results of 2 months of design and testing. The objective was to develop instrumentation capable of recording the time dependent growth of the camoflet produced by a buried explosive charge by using the conductive properties of an io...

H. R. Fueher J. W. Keeser

1977-01-01

117

Nulling Infrared Radiometer for Measuring Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nulling, self-calibrating infrared radiometer is being developed for use in noncontact measurement of temperature in any of a variety of industrial and scientific applications. This instrument is expected to be especially well-suited to measurement of ambient or near-ambient temperature and, even more specifically, for measuring the surface temperature of a natural body of water. Although this radiometer would utilize the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) portion of the spectrum (wavelengths of 8 to 12 m), its basic principle of operation could also be applied to other spectral bands (corresponding to other temperature ranges) in which the atmosphere is transparent and in which design requirements for sensitivity and temperature-measurement accuracy could be satisfied.

Ryan, Robert

2003-01-01

118

Instrumentation, measurement techniques, and analytical tools in power quality studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proper choice of instrumentation, measurement techniques and analytical tools is vital to the successful implementation of any power quality study. Whether the desired result is the determination of harmonic distortion levels, an harmonic filter design or transient waveform analysis, the proper choice of instrument, measurement technique and analytical tools can make the difference between a well-engineered solution to a

Ronald H. Simpson

1998-01-01

119

Determination of spectral irradiances from broadband instrument measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the discovery of the ozone hole the use of spectral and multiband instruments in UV radiation measurements became more common, but time series for these instruments are still relatively short to determine trends. Nevertheless, systematic measurements of ozone column have been performed since late fifties at several stations and with worldwide coverage since late seventies, and long time series

Susana B. Diaz; Donald W. Nelson; Guillermo Deferrari; Carolina Camilion

2002-01-01

120

Instruments Measuring Spirituality in Clinical Research: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION  Numerous instruments have been developed to assess spirituality and measure its association with health outcomes. This study’s\\u000a aims were to identify instruments used in clinical research that measure spirituality; to propose a classification of these\\u000a instruments; and to identify those instruments that could provide information on the need for spiritual intervention.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a METHODS  A systematic literature search in MEDLINE, CINHAL, PsycINFO, ATLA,

Stéfanie Monod; Mark Brennan; Etienne Rochat; Estelle Martin; Stéphane Rochat; Christophe J. Büla

121

Holdup Measures on an SRNL Mossbauer Spectroscopy Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-ray holdup measurements of a Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument are described and modeled. In the qualitative acquisitions obtained in a low background area of Savannah River National Laboratory, only Am-241 and Np-237 activity were observed. The Am-241 was known to be the instrumental activation source, while the Np-237 is clearly observed as a source of contamination internal to the instrument. The

R. Dewberry; T. Brown; S. Salaymeh

2010-01-01

122

Holdup measurements on an SRNL Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-ray holdup measurements of a Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument are described and modeled. In the qualitative acquisitions\\u000a obtained in a low background area of Savannah River National Laboratory, only Am-241 and Np-237 activity were observed. The\\u000a Am-241 was known to be the instrumental activation source, while the Np-237 is clearly observed as a source of contamination\\u000a internal to the instrument. The

R. A. Dewberry; T. B. Brown; S. R. Salaymeh

2011-01-01

123

Instrumentation for measurement of atmospheric radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation associated with earth's atmospheric phenomena presents a variety of problems that can be investigated with the technique of radiative transfer. A wide range of both active and passive techniques have been developed for in situ and remote sensing of the atmosphere. A significant fraction of electromagnetic spectrum ranging from ultraviolet to low-frequency radio waves is utilized, which means that many important parameters of the neutral and ionized atmosphere can be studied. The ability of many ground-based techniques to provide almost continuous monitoring of the state of the atmosphere, often with excellent time and height resolution, shows their importance in the atmospheric research programs. A variety of instruments have been developed which focus on different principles of optical probing of the upper atmosphere. Some details are given of the grating spectroscopic systems, interference filter photometers, and Fabry-Perot and wide-angle Michelson interferometers. Finally, application of modern imaging technology is briefly described.

Agashe, V. V.

1991-08-01

124

Development of a Binary Mixture Gas Composition Instrument for Use in a Confined High Temperature Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With recent advancements in material science, industrial operations are being conducted at higher and higher temperatures. This is apparent in the nuclear industry where a division of the field is working to develop the High Temperature Gas Reactor and the Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concurrently. Both of these facilities will have outlet gas temperatures that are at significantly higher temperatures than the typical water cooled reactor. These increased temperatures provide improved efficiency for the production of hydrogen, provide direct heating for oil refineries, or more efficient electricity generation. As high temperature operations are being developed, instruments capable of measuring the operating parameters must be developed concurrently. Within the gas reactor community there is a need to measure the impurities within the primary coolant. Current devices will not survive the temperature and radiation environments of a nuclear reactor. An instrument is needed to measure the impurities within the coolant while living inside the reactor, where this instrument would measure the amount of the impurity within the coolant. There are many industrial applications that need to measure the ratio of two components, whether it be the amount of particulate in air that is typical to pneumatic pumping, or the liquid to gas ratio in natural gas as it flows through a pipeline. All of the measurements in these applications can be met using a capacitance sensor. Current capacitance sensors are built to operate at ambient temperatures with only one company producing a product that will handle a temperature of up to 400 °C. This maximum operating temperature is much too low to measure the gas characteristics in the High Temperature Gas Reactor. If this measurement technique were to be improved to operate at the expected temperatures, the coolant within the primary loop could be monitored for water leaks in the steam generator, carbon dust buildup entrained in the flow, or used to measure the purity of the coolant itself. This work details the efforts conducted to develop such an instrument. While the concept of designing a capacitance sensor to measure a gas mixture is not unique, the application of using a capacitance sensor within a nuclear reactor is a new application. This application requires the development of an instrument that will survive a high temperature nuclear reactor environment and operate at a sensitivity not found in current applications. To prove this technique, instrument prototypes were built and tested in confined environments and at high temperatures. This work discusses the proof of concept testing and outlines an application in the High Temperature Test Facility to increase the operational understanding of the instrument. This work is the first step toward the ultimate outcome of this work, which is to provide a new tool to the gas reactor community allowing real-time measurements of coolant properties within the core.

Cadell, Seth R.

125

Measured Spacecraft Dynamic Effects on Atmospheric Science Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On September 1991, NASA launched the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. In addition to its atmospheric science mission, spacecraft dynamic effects on science measurements were analyzed. The investigation included two in-flight experiments to determine how each on-board instrument, subsystem and environmental disturbance contributed to the spacecraft dynamic response and how these disturbances affected science measurements. Three case studies are presented which show the impact of spacecraft dynamic response on science measurements. In the first case, correlation of independent atmospheric meridional wind measurements taken by two instruments with the spacecraft dynamic response demonstrated that excessive vibration (exceeding instrument pointing requirements) resulted in wind measurement disagreement. In the second case, solar array disturbances produced a spacecraft response signature on radiometer measurements. The signature explicitly demonstrated that if an instrument has sufficient spatial and temporal resolution, spacecraft dynamic response could impact measurements. In the final case, correlation of an instrument's fine sun sensor data and CO2 measurements demonstrated the effect of temporal and spatial sampling resolution and active pointing control on science measurements. The sun sensor had a frequency modulated characteristic due to spacecraft vibration and the periodic scanning of another instrument which was not present on the CO2 measurements.

Woodard, Stanley E.; Gell, David A.; Lay, Richard R.

1997-01-01

126

Instruments for measuring the amount of moisture in the air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summarization and discussion of the many systems available for measuring moisture in the atmosphere is presented. Conventional methods used in the field of meteorology and methods used in the laboratory are discussed. Performance accuracies, and response of the instruments were reviewed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. Methods of measuring humidity aloft by instrumentation onboard aircraft and balloons are given, in addition to the methods used to measure moisture at the Earth's surface.

Johnson, D. L.

1978-01-01

127

An instrument for measuring thermal inertia in the field  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Features and test results of a thermal inertial meter (TIM) for cataloging the thermal inertial of surface material in situ as a basis for satellite remote sensing of geologic materials are described. The instrument is employed to determine the temperature rise of the materials in the field, with the assumptions that the sample and a standard are homogeneous in composition, the heat flux density is constant at the surface of each material, and the specimens are thick enough to be treated as semi-infinite bodies. A formula for calculating thermal inertia is presented, and the components of the TIM are detailed. A box with three compartments, two holding standards, is placed on the sample surface with the third compartment open to the specimen. Dolomite and quartz are used as references when all samples are measured after heating. Tests with rocks and sand in Nevada and California revealed that chert has a higher thermal inertia than barite.

Marsh, S. E.; Schieldge, J. P.; Kahle, A. B.

1982-01-01

128

Vibration and noise measuring instruments built in the RSR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The demands placed upon vibration and noise measuring instruments are discussed. The instruments that are now being manufactured in the RSR are described, as well as those that are being made ready for manufacture, namely: the VP-3 portable vibrometer, the N2103 precision electronic vibrometer, the N2103 B sonometric preamplifier, as well as vibration transducers of the electrodynamic and piezoelectric types.

Georgescu, I.

1974-01-01

129

Measuring Patients' Communication Apprehension about Interacting with Physicians: Instrument Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that the purpose of two studies was to develop an instrument to measure patients' perceived communication apprehension in patient/physician interactions. Describes how, in the first study, the five-item Patients' Report of Communication Apprehension with Physicians (PRCAP) was developed. Examines the validity of the new test instrument.…

Ayres, Joe; And Others

1996-01-01

130

Instrument for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at high pressures  

SciTech Connect

An instrument has been developed for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at high pressures and low temperatures. This instrument couples a nonmagnetic copper-beryllium diamond anvil cell featuring perforated diamonds with a helium flow cryostat and an electromagnet. The applied pressure can be controlled in situ using a gas membrane and calibrated using Cu K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The performance of this instrument was tested by measuring the XMCD spectra of the Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} giant magnetocaloric material.

Haskel, D.; Tseng, Y. C.; Lang, J. C.; Sinogeikin, S. [Magnetic Materials Group, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, lllinois 60439 (United States); HPCAT, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, lllinois 60439 (United States)

2007-08-15

131

Measuring Temperature: The Thermometer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the historical development of the thermometer with the view of helping children understand the role that mathematics plays in society. A model thermometer that is divided into three sections, each displaying one of the three temperature scales used today (Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin) is highlighted as a project to allow…

Chamoun, Mirvette

2005-01-01

132

Instrument description of the airborne microwave temperature profiler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microwave temperature profiler (MTP) is a passive microwave radiometer installed in the NASA ER-2 aircraft and used to measure profiles of air temperature versus altitude. It operates at 57.3 and 58.8 GHz, where oxygen molecules emit thermal radiation. Brightness temperature is measured at a selection of viewing elevation angles every 14 s. MTP was the only remote sensing experiment aboard the ER-2 during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. This paper describes hardware, calibration, and performance aspects of the MTP.

Denning, Richard F.; Guidero, Steven L.; Parks, Gary S.; Gary, Bruce L.

1989-01-01

133

Instrument for the Noncontact Measurement of Thin Semiconductor Film Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instrument is described for the rapid measurement of parameters (dark current and photoconductivity) of semiconductor films without the necessity of applying special electrodes to these films. The method is based on the use of a Hartley oscillator. (Au...

M. K. Sheinkman I. B. Shulga

1968-01-01

134

Cutting Force Measurement in Production Machining via Instrumented Toolholders.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of a low-cost metal cutting force transducer which accurately predicts the magnitude of strain signals on an instrumental standard lathe toolholder. This innovative approach to the measurement of cutting tool forces i...

J. F. Pearson W. D. Syniuta N. H. Cook

1980-01-01

135

Universal interface enables one recorder to serve numerous measuring instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circuit handles data, regardless of polarity and amplitude, in 10-line decimal form or in any form of binary coded decimal. When measuring instruments have common chassis grounds, Zener diodes prevent low-leak circulating currents from unbalancing the circuit.

Donlin, N. E.

1971-01-01

136

Instrumentation for Measurement of Aircraft Noise and Sonic Boom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instrumentation suitable for measuring both aircraft noise and sonic boom is described. It is comprised of a converter that produces an electric current proportional to the sound pressure level at a condenser microphone. The electric current is transmitte...

A. J. Zuckerwar

1973-01-01

137

SHIM-Fire Breadboard Instrument Design, Integration, and First Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the design, integration, characterization, and the first test measurements of the SHIM-Fire (Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Fire) breadboard instrument. This effort was part of the Spectral-based component of the Volume Sensor (VS) progr...

C. R. Englert J. C. Owrutsky J. M. Harlander J. T. Bays

2005-01-01

138

Communications-Electronic Intrasystem Electromagnetic Interference Measurement Techniques and Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report concludes the results obtained during the Communications-Electronics Intrasystem Electromagnetic Interference Measurement Techniques and Instrumentation Project. The major effort consisted of an IEMCAP feasibility study, development of a broad...

L. E. Polisky J. W. Savage

1980-01-01

139

Communications-Electronic Intrasystem Electromagnetic Interference Measurement Techniques and Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results obtained during the third quarter of the Communications-Electronics Intrasystem Electromagnetic Interference Measurement Techniques and Instrumentation Project. The period covered was 21 Dec. 1979 to 20 March 1980. The maj...

L. E. Polisky J. Savage

1980-01-01

140

Real Time Instrumentation for Pavement Rut Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the increase in rutting seen in Texas over the last few years, a reliable rut measuring system has been needed. This report provides results of research performed for the Texas Department of Transportation which would assist in developing a more reli...

R. S. Walker S. Wright W. M. Kuo

1995-01-01

141

METHODOLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION TO MEASURE GASEOUS AMMONIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Methodology for the time integrated collection and analysis of atmospheric ammonia was developed. Ammonia is primarily measured because it can react with SOx to produce ammonium sulfate. Since SOx is one of the principle air pollutants, it is important to determine its atmospheri...

142

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...locomotive 0 1 Amount of correction to be subtracted from measured level (dB). (b) A microphone windscreen and an acoustic calibrator of the coupler type must be used as recommended by: (1) the manufacturer of the sound level meter or (2) the...

2013-07-01

143

An objective instrument for measuring defense mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the Defense Mechanism Inventory, a paper and pencil test which purports to measure the relative intensity of usage of 5 major groups of defenses. The inventory consists of 10 brief stories, 2 per conflict area, followed by 4 questions regarding S's actual behavior, fantasy behavior, thoughts, and feelings in the situations described. 5 responses typifying the 5 defenses (i.e.,

Goldine C. Gleser; David Ihilevich

1969-01-01

144

Patient Measurement of Psoriasis Disease Severity with a Structured Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) is used by dermatologic investigators to assess psoriasis disease severity. PASI measures are time-consuming and require trained personnel. We developed and evaluated a structured PASI-like instrument for self-measurement of psoriasis disease severity for use in future large-scale epidemiologic studies. The instrument consisted of a silhouette of a body for patients to shade in

Alan B. Fleischer Jr; Stephen R. Rapp; David M. Reboussin; Jill C. Vanarthos; Steven R. Feldman

1994-01-01

145

Easy-to-use blood velocity measurement instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new kind of clinical instrument designed to allow non-specialists to quantitatively measure blood velocity. The instrument's design utilizes vector continuous-wave (CW) Doppler. Vector CW Doppler insonates a volume with simultaneous multiple-angle beams that define a measurement region; within that region, the velocity vector of the blood can be measured independently of the probe orientation. By eliminating the need for simultaneous imaging and the specially trained technician required for the complicated instrument needed for such imaging, easy and inexpensive blood velocity measurements becomes possible. A prototype for a CW vector Doppler instrument has been used to measure blood velocity in several clinically important arteries: the radial and ulnar in the arm, the femoral in the leg, and the carotid in the neck. We report here on its first clinical use -- monitoring the flow in dialysis access grafts to prevent graft thrombosis. These early clinical results show accuracy and rapid learning of proper instrument use. The design approach presented shows much promise in creating instruments that will provide simple and low-cost-of-use procedures for measurement of blood velocity.

Vilkomerson, David H. R.; Chilipka, Thomas

2003-05-01

146

Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility  

SciTech Connect

Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the undulators to {+-}0.01 C. This note describes the temperature measurement system under construction.

Wolf, Zachary

2010-12-13

147

Fabrication of sensors for high-temperature steam instrumentation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of instruments is being developed for measurement of two-phase (steam and water) flow parameters in out-of-reactor safety tests that simulate a loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor. We have developed a unique ceramic-to-metal seal system, which will withstand relatively short-time exposure to 800°C (1470°F) steam and remain leaktight after repetitive thermal transients of 300°C\\/s (540°F\\/s). A ceramic

A. J. Moorhead; M. B. Herskovitz; C. S. Morgan; J. J. Woodhouse; R. W. Reed

1980-01-01

148

High-Sensitivity Temperature Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method of measuring small temperature differences that amount to a .01K, using an arrangement of a copper-constantan thermocouple, a microamplifier and a galvanometer, as an indirect way of measuring heat energy. (GA)

Leadstone, G. S.

1978-01-01

149

Optimization and structuring of the instrument matrix for polarimetric measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of polarimeter instrument matrix plays a key role in the problem of polarimeter optimization, which is widely discussed in the literature. The dimensionality and form of the instrument matrix are determined by the construction of the probing channel [polarization state generation (PSG)] and the receiving channel [polarization state analyzer (PSA)] of a polarimeter. We study the effect of structural features of the instrument matrix on error in the Mueller matrix measurement for the type of polarimeter whose PSA is a complete Stokes polarimeter. We show that the structuring of the instrument matrix due to the decreasing of number of input polarizations and optimization of the set of input polarizations result in a considerable decrease in the number of necessary measurements and an increase of the precision of the Mueller matrix element measurement.

Savenkov, Sergey N.

2002-05-01

150

Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing  

SciTech Connect

The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

Myers, D.

1997-04-01

151

Communications-electronic intrasystem electromagnetic interference measurement technique and instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results obtained during the second quarter of the communications-electronics intrasystem electromagnetic interference measurement techniques and instrumentation project. The period covered was 21 Sep. 1979 to 21 Dec 1979. The major efforts in the second quarter consisted of completing the IEMCAP feasibility study and developing a broadband measurement system for conducting EMC measurements. Bibtex entry for this

L. E. Polisky; T. E. Baldwin Jr.; J. Savage

1980-01-01

152

Acoustical Measurement Of Furnace Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple probes withstand severe conditions, yet give spatially-resolved temperature readings. Prototype acoustical system developed to measure temperatures from ambient to 1,800 degree F in such structures as large industrial lime kilns and recovery-boiler furnaces. Pulses of sound reflected from obstructions in sensing tube. Speed of sound and temperature in each segment deduced from travel times of pulses.

Parthasarathy, Shakkottai; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

1989-01-01

153

Development of a Public Service Motivation Measurement Scale: Corroborating and Extending Perry's Measurement Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the existence of multiple measurement instruments, measuring public service motivation still generates controversy. The most common cited measurement issues are the application of the measurement scale outside the United States, the dimensionality of public service motivation and the length of the original measurement scale. This article discusses these issues and evaluates a measurement instrument developed in a non-US environment,

Wouter Vandenabeele

2008-01-01

154

Measuring electron temperature in the extended corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for measuring electron temperature in the extended corona from the line profile of the electron scattered component of coronal H I Ly alpha produced by Thomson scattering of chromospheric Ly alpha emission is discussed. Because of the high thermal velocity of electrons at coronal temperatures (approximately 6800 km/s at T(sub e) = 1,500,000 K) the effect of nonthermal velocities and solar wind flows on the electron velocity distribution are negligible. However, the low electron mass which is responsible for the high thermal velocity also results in a very wide profile (approximately equal to 50 A). This wide profile, together with an intensity that is three orders of magnitude weaker than the resonantly scattered component of Ly alpha makes the direct measurement of T(sub e) a challenging observational problem. An evaluation of this technique based on simulated measurements is presented and the subsequent instrumental requirements necessary to make a meaningful determination of the electron temperature are discussed. Estimates of uncertainties in the measured electron temperature are related to critical instrument parameters such as grating stray light suppression.

Hassler, Donald M.; Gardner, L. D.; Kohl, John L.

1992-01-01

155

Development of a compact inner profile measuring instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inner profile measurement has a lot of request for the applications in field of mechanical industry and even in the medical and dental fields. We proposed measurement method of inner diameters of pipes and/or holes using a ring beam device which consists of a conical mirror and a laser diode. This measurement method is based on optical sectioning of inner wall. This optically sectioned profile is analyzed to calculate the inner diameter and/or profile. Here, an optical instrument with a simple and compact configuration is reported for the inner profile measurement. As experimental results, we show performance of the instrument and some examples for inspection of mechanical components.

Wakayama, T.; Takano, H.; Yoshizawa, T.

2007-09-01

156

High-temperature-measuring device  

DOEpatents

A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2000/sup 0/C) is described. The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensonally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

Not Available

1981-01-27

157

Calibration of optical 3D-measuring instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the inspection and measurement of microstructures small accurate three-dimensional coordinate measuring machines are needed. Typical measurement volumes are 10 mm by 10 mm by 3 mm and the desired 3D-measurement uncertainty is 0.1 micrometer. Up to now only optical coordinate measuring machines (CMM) offer the necessary lateral measurement ranges. But optical CMMs are restricted to two-dimensional measurements and moreover the aimed uncertainty has not been achieved yet. Since a few years new optical techniques are available which are able to measure nearly three-dimensionally (scanning white light, fringe projection, confocal microscopy, photogrammetry). In order to use these instruments and to specify their measurement uncertainty, calibration of these instruments is necessary. The calibration of the three measurement axes is divided into calibration of the lateral axes and calibration of the vertical axis. The contribution focuses on the development of new depth setting standards (1 micrometer - 1 milimeter) and their traceability.

Brand, Uwe

1998-09-01

158

Temperature measurements of falling droplets  

SciTech Connect

The temperature of 225-{mu}m-dia decane droplets, which have fallen 100 mm through a hot quiescent, oxygen-free environment, has been measured using exciplex fluorescence thermometry. The droplets were doped with pyrene, and the relative intensities of pyrene monomer and excimer emissions were used to determine the droplet temperatures. The droplet temperature increases approximately 0.4C per C increase in the ambient temperature up to an ambient temperature of 200C. Less than 10% evaporation was observed for the droplets at the highest ambient temperatures.

Wells, M.R.; Melton, L.A. (Univ. of Texas, Richardson (USA))

1990-11-01

159

Multi-color pyrometer temperature measurement system. Topical report 10  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Color Pyrometer System is one of the advanced optical diagnostic instruments developed at DIAL to measure temperatures in the coal combustion environments of large scale facilities. The principles of operation, a description of the system and its capabilities, and the operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

Green, R.A.; Philip, T.

1995-04-01

160

Noncontact true temperature measurement, 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser pyrometer was developed for acquiring the true temperature of a levitated sample. The reflectivity is measured by first expanding the laser beam to cover the entire cross-sectional surface of the diffuse target. The reflectivity calibration of this system is determined from the surface emissivity of a target with a blackbody cavity. The emissivity of the real target can then be calculated. The overall system constant is obtained by passively measuring the radiance of the blackbody cavity (emissivity = 1.0) at a known, arbitrary temperature. Since the photosensor used is highly linear over the entire operating temperature range, the true temperature of the target can then be computed. The latest results available from this on-going research indicate that true temperatures thus obtained are in very good quantitative agreement with thermocouple measured temperatures.

Lee, Mark C.; Allen, James L.

1988-01-01

161

Argus: a lightweight TDL instrument to measure stratospheric tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Argus is a two channel, tunable diode laser instrument which measures atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide in the upper troposphere and stratosphere up to an altitude of 32 km using second harmonic detection. Investigations of stratospheric transport from mid-latitudes into the tropics is the current focus of our work which requires high precision and high accuracy data. Argus was designed for use on remotely piloted aircraft or light-payload balloons and weighs less than 20 kg. The two channels each have their own laser, optics, detector and signal processing chains. We sample methane at 3.3 micrometers and nitrous oxide at 4.5 micrometers at a rate of 0.1 Hz. The gas is sampled in a Herriott cell which has a total path length of 18.8 m. Each laser is current- and temperature-controlled by a dedicated microprocessor. We sweep the laser at 10 Hz and record direct absorption spectra during the ramping of the laser current. The lasers are modulated with a 40 kHz sine wave; a phase sensitive amplifier and integrator detects the second harmonic data. The analysis is performed offline by applying direct fits to the measured spectra using the non-linear Marquardt- Levenberg algorithm. We have recently flown Argus and ATLAS together on the ER-2 platform for comparison. Precision of Argus is 0.6% and accuracy is estimated to 4 - 17% increasing with altitude.

Jost, Hansjuerg; Loewenstein, Max

1999-10-01

162

Supercontiuum laser-based instrument to measure hyperspectral polarized BRDF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments of active imaging and remote sensing systems in security and defence community require comprehensive optical characterizations of man-made targets. Optical signature analysis of various targets implies a better and comprehensive understanding of reflectance properties such as Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR). Measurements and modeling of optical signatures are valuable for target classification and identification. Onera, the French Aerospace Lab, has developed an original optical instrument to measure hyperspectral polarized BRDF. Measurements are carried out on various targets to provide relevant data to simulate actual and future active imaging devices. This paper reviews the design of the instrument and its hyperspectral calibration procedure in details. A new specific tensorial hyperspectral reflectance framework is introduced. Experimental results for reference Lambertian targets and airport targets are presented to illustrate the instrument capacities. A large optical properties database is build from these measurements for defence, security and industrial needs.

Ceolato, Romain; Rivière, Nicolas; Hespel, Laurent; Biscans, Beatrice

2011-10-01

163

GALEX Instrument: Pegasus Launch Temperature Effects on a Frequency Tuned Damped Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viewgraph presentation about the GALEX instrument provides information about instrument layout, background information about the telescope response, instrument bipod redesign, and temperature effects on bipod stiffness and damping. The discussion of instrument bipod redesign includes stiffness reduction, damping, and test results.

Coleman, Michelle

2003-01-01

164

Automotive Laboratory Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Automotive laboratory instrumentation may be divided into the five broad classifications, power absorption and measurement, temperature measurement and control, pressure measurements, fluid flow, and dimensional measurement. Many of these instruments find...

1968-01-01

165

Measuring Service Quality In Higher Education: Three Instruments Compared  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measuring the quality of service in higher education is increasingly important, particularly as fees introduce a more consumerist ethic amongst students. This paper aims to test and compare the relative efficacy of three measuring instruments of service quality (namely HEdPERF, SERVPERF and the moderating scale of HEdPERF-SERVPERF ) within a…

Abdullah, Firdaus

2006-01-01

166

Knowledge Management Capability Assessment: Validating a Knowledge Assets Measurement Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of organizational knowledge assets is necessary to determine the effectiveness of knowledge management initiatives. A Knowledge Management Capability Assessment instrument has been developed and operationalized to measure knowledge assets identified as Knowledge Capability Areas. A longitudinal field study is initiated in a large microchip manufacturing company to determine the reliability and validity of the KMCA and to assess the

Ron Freeze; Uday R. Kulkarni

2005-01-01

167

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS HS). Student Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards High School (AIMS HS) is an assessment program that measures high school students' achievement of the Arizona Academic Standards adopted by the state Board of Education in three subject areas: reading, writing, and mathematics. All students in high school are required to participate in AIMS HS testing.…

Arizona Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

168

An Assessment Instrument to Measure Geospatial Thinking Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spatial thinking is fundamental to the practice and theory of geography, however there are few valid and reliable assessment methods in geography to measure student performance in spatial thinking. This article presents the development and evaluation of a geospatial thinking assessment instrument to measure participant understanding of spatial…

Huynh, Niem Tu; Sharpe, Bob

2013-01-01

169

An Instrument to Measure Chickering's Vector of Identity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the construction of an instrument to measure identity, primarily based on Chickering's approach, i.e., the Erwin Identity Scale (EIS), designed to measure the three main concepts comprising identity: confidence, sexual identity, and conceptions about body and appearance. (Author)

Erwin, T. Dary; Delworth, Ursula

1980-01-01

170

Investigation of the measurement precision of oil analysis instruments, using fully formulated oils. Part 2: contamination-measuring instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this study is to determine the variation of the different oil analysis instruments in terms of standard deviation and CV-values, when measuring samples of fully formulated hydraulic and gear oils taken from working systems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In this investigation two different spectrometric techniques, ICP-OES and RDE-OES, have been studied to determine the instruments' precision of

Sven Berg; Ulf Jungmar; Jan Lundberg; Pekka Vähäoja

2011-01-01

171

Wind measurement systems and wind tunnel evaluation of selected instruments  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has conducted wind tunnel tests of seven relatively inexpensive wind measurement systems as part of a program to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of instruments for use in small wind energy conversion system siting studies. This report discusses wind measurement systems and documents the results of the wind tunnel studies. Documentation consists of graphs and tables relating system and system component performance to wind speed. The results describe instrument system performance under ideal conditions; tests in the atmosphere are required to evaluate performance under realistic conditions.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Wetzel, J.S.

1981-05-01

172

Optimizing a remote sensing instrument to measure atmospheric surface pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric surface pressure can be remotely sensed from a satellite by an active instrument which measures return echoes from the ocean at frequencies near the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band. The instrument is optimized by selecting its frequencies of operation, transmitter powers and antenna size through a new procedure baesd on numerical simulation which maximizes the retrieval accuracy. The predicted standard deviation error in the retrieved surface pressure is 1 mb. In addition the measurements can be used to retrieve water vapor, cloud liquid water and sea state, which is related to wind speed.

Peckham, G. E.; Gatley, C.; Flower, D. A.

1983-01-01

173

Instrumentation for chemical species measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere  

SciTech Connect

Instrument advances made during 1987-1990 for atmospheric trace species measurements are reviewed. Problems discussed include types of measurement strategies, oxidant species, reductant species, and flux measurement. Particular attention is given to odd oxygen species, hydrogen oxides, hydrocarbon oxy and peroxy radicals, halogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, reduced sulfur compounds, ammonia, cyanide compounds, water vapor, nitrous oxide, hydrogen halides, fully halogenated carbon compounds, fully halogenated carbonyl compounds, and sulfur hexafluoride. 195 refs.

Kolb, C.E. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

1991-01-01

174

ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 6: Flow measurement instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary is provided of information available on liquid and gaseous oxygen flowmetering including an evaluation of commercial meters. The instrument types, physical principles of measurement, and performance characteristics are described. Problems concerning flow measurements of less than plus or minus two percent uncertainty are reviewed. Recommendations concerning work on flow reference systems, the use of surrogate fluids, and standard tests for oxygen flow measurements are also presented.

Mann, D. B.

1974-01-01

175

Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement  

DOEpatents

A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

2005-11-08

176

Containerless high temperature property measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Containerless processing in the low gravity environment of space provides the opportunity to increase the temperature at which well controlled processing of and property measurements on materials is possible. This project was directed towards advancing containerless processing and property measurement techniques for application to materials research at high temperatures in space. Containerless high temperature material property studies include measurements of the vapor pressure, melting temperature, optical properties, and spectral emissivities of solid boron. The reaction of boron with nitrogen was also studied by laser polarimetric measurement of boron nitride film growth. The optical properties and spectral emissivities were measured for solid and liquid silicon, niobium, and zirconium; liquid aluminum and titanium; and liquid Ti-Al alloys of 5 to 60 atomic pct. titanium. Alternative means for noncontact temperature measurement in the absence of material emissivity data were evaluated. Also, the application of laser induced fluorescence for component activity measurements in electromagnetic levitated liquids was studied, along with the feasibility of a hybrid aerodynamic electromagnetic levitation technique.

Nordine, Paul C.; Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Anderson, Collin D.

1991-01-01

177

Fabrication of sensors for high-temperature steam instrumentation systems  

SciTech Connect

A series of instruments is being developed for measurement of two-phase (steam and water) flow parameters in out-of-reactor safety tests that simulate a loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor. We have developed a unique ceramic-to-metal seal system, which will withstand relatively short-time exposure to 800/sup 0/C (1470/sup 0/F) steam and remain leaktight after repetitive thermal transients of 300/sup 0/C/s (540/sup 0/F/s). A ceramic insulator was developed. This material is basically aluminum oxide containing a very fine dispersion of platinum nodules, which greatly enhance the thermal shock resistance of the hot-pressed cylinders. This insulator has little or no weight change on exposure to steam at 650 to 750/sup 0/C (1200-1380/sup 0/F) for over 100 h and has a helium leak rate of less than 0.005 mm/sup 3//s after 25 quenches from 520/sup 0/C (970/sup 0/F) air into water at 80/sup 0/C (175/sup 0/F). The ceramic-to metal seal system consists of this insulator directly brazed to one or more metallic transition pieces with an ORNL-developed brazing filler metal having composition 49 Ti-49 Cu-2 Be (wt %). Thirteen highly complex instrumented guide tube assemblies, each containing a number of these ceramic-to-metal seals, have been fabricated, and seven were shipped to Germany for testing in an out-of-reactor safety test facility. Procedures were also developed for laser welding of sensor subassemblies into the tube wall, induction brazing of four stainless-steel-sheathed thermocouples through the tube wall, and furnace brazing of the eight triaxial cables, four thermocouples, and a vent tube where they passed through the upper end of the guide tube.

Moorhead, A.J.; Herskovitz, M.B.; Morgan, C.S.; Woodhouse, J.J.; Reed, R.W.

1980-05-01

178

Compensation for instrument anomalies in imaging infrared measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared imaging is commonly used for performing thermography based on field calibration that simply relates image levels to apparent temperature levels using field blackbodies. Under normal conditions, the correlation between the image levels and blackbody temperature is strong, allowing conversion of the raw data into units of blackbody-equivalent temperature without consideration of other factors. However, if certain instrument anomalies are present, a compensation procedure that involves more in-depth sensor characterization may be required. The procedure, which uses an analysis of temperature-dependent dark current, optical emissions, and detector response, is described along with results for a specific case. The procedure involves first cold soaking a thermal camera and then observing the cooldown behavior of the sensor under non-stressing conditions. Variations in environmental temperature levels are then used to observe cooler performance and dark current levels. A multi-variate linear regression is performed that allows temperature-dependent dark current, lens emission, lens transmission, and detector quantum efficiency to be fully characterized. The resulting data describe for each image pixel a relationship between the scene temperature and the observed values of image signal, detector temperature, and camera temperature. The procedure has been applied successfully to a thermal imager used to collect field data while suffering from instrument anomalies due to a faulty cooler. Using the resulting characterization data for the pixel-dependent dark current, image data collected with the thermal imager was compensated. The compensation involved using spatial filtering to determine temperature shifts caused by the faulty cooler based on the predictable pattern of pixel-to-pixel variations in dark current. The estimated temperature shift was used to compute a compensation offset for each pixel based on its known dark current coefficient. The compensated image data, while still degraded, was sufficiently corrected for the predictable effects of dark current variations to allow valid thermography to be performed.

Dobbins, Christopher L.; Dawson, James A.; Lightfoot, Jay A.; Edwards, William D.; Cobb, Ryan S.; Heckwolf, Amanda R.

2013-06-01

179

Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. These types of measurements are used in computer models to relate remotely sensed water-surface temperature to bulkwater temperature. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured.

Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

2003-01-01

180

Temperature instrumentation and telemetry for thermal striping test specimens  

SciTech Connect

A 356-mm-long section of 3-1/2 in., schedule 80, type 304 stainless steel pipe was instrumented with four, type K insulated junction thermocouples embedded at precise locations in the inner wall of the pipe. The sheath diameter of the thermocouples was 0.81 mm and their response times were approx. 22 ms. After the thermocouples were embedded, response times were measured by plunging the pipe section into a bath of liquid metal. The response times varied from 0.21 to 1.27 s, depending on the embedded depth. A new analytical method was developed to calculate the response time for the test condition, wherein the bath simultaneously heated the pipe segment but became cooled by the insertion of the pipe segment. A short-range radio transmitter-receiver, which added 27 ms to the response time, was installed to transmit the thermocouple signals. The new computer analysis technique and the telemetry response time were verified by measuring the thermocouple response time with two different methods while the pipe segment was plunged into a large circulating water bath.

Carroll, R.M.; Kerlin, T.W.; Rochelle, J.M.; Shepard, R.L.

1981-03-01

181

Mid-latitude temperatures at 87 km: Results from multi-instrument Fourier analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a novel Fourier fitting method we combine two years of mid-latitude temperature measurements at 87 km from the High Resolution Doppler Imager, the Colorado State University lidar, and the Peach Mountain Interferometer. After accounting for calibration bias, significant local-time variations on the order of 10 K were observed. Stationary planetary waves with amplitudes up to 10 K were observed during winter, with weaker wave amplitudes occurring during other seasons. Because of calibration biases among these instruments, we could estimate the annual mean temperature to no better than 193.5±8.5 K.

Drob, Douglas P.; Picone, J. Michael; Eckermann, Stephen D.; She, C. Y.; Kafkalidis, J. F.; Ortland, D. A.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Killeen, T. L.

182

Mid-Latitude Temperatures at 87 km: Results From Multi-Instrument Fourier Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a novel Fourier fitting method we combine two years of mid-latitude temperature measurements at 87 km from the High Resolution Doppler Imager, the Colorado State University lidar, and the Peach Mountain Interferometer. After accounting for calibration bias, significant local-time variations on the order of 10 K were observed. Stationary planetary waves with amplitudes up to 10 K were observed during winter, with weaker wave amplitudes occurring during other seasons. Because of calibration biases among these instruments, we could estimate the annual mean temperature to no better than 193.5 plus or minus 8.5 K.

Drob, Douglas P.; Picone, J. M.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; She, C . Y.; Kafkalidis, J. F.; Ortland, D. A.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Killeen, T. L.

2000-01-01

183

Comparison of measurements from satellite radiation budget instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successive radiometers have been flown on spacecraft for measurement of the radiation budget of the Earth and to date have provided data sets which overlap in time over a 25-year period. Together these data sets cover two cycles of any decadal oscillation and are useful for climate research. However, before multiple data sets can be used, it is necessary first to establish precisions and relative biases of the data sets. Although these instruments were all calibrated with great care, inevitably there are differences between the instruments. Also, instruments change while in orbit due to degradation of optical elements and changes of the detectors. A number of studies have compared measurements between pairs of radiometers in order to establish these differences. In this paper we compile these results and by use of a bar chart demonstrate the traceability of calibration of satellite radiation budget instruments over these two decades. Using this compilation the differences are computed for any two instruments listed. The instruments considered here include the ERBE scanning and nonscanning radiometers, ScaRaB I and II, and the CERES instruments aboard the TRMM, Terra, and Aqua spacecraft. These results are a prerequisite to use of multiple data sets for long-term studies of climate process. The largest biases are between the ERBS scanning and non-scanning radiometers, which at the "top of the atmosphere" differ by 5.4 W m-2 for shortwave fluxes and by 5.8 W m-2 for daytime longwave fluxes. The standard deviations of the biases, which define how well the data sets can be connected, are less than 1 W m-2 for longwave and between 1 and 2 W m-2 for shortwave fluxes.

Smith, G. Louis; Szewczyk, Z. Peter; Rutan, David A.; Lee, Robert B.

2006-02-01

184

AZ State Profile. Arizona: Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides information about the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). The purpose of the test is to determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum and to meet a state mandate. [For the main report, "State High School Tests: Exit Exams and Other Assessments", see ED514155.

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

185

Mathematical enhancement of data from scientific measuring instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy of any physical measurement is limited by the instruments performing it. The proposed activities of this grant are related to the study of and application of mathematical techniques of deconvolution. Two techniques are being investigated: an iterative method and a function continuation Fourier method. This final status report describes the work performed during the period July 1 to December 31, 1982.

Ioup, J. W.

1982-01-01

186

Instrumentation used to measure residential magnetic fields and currents.  

PubMed

The equipment used to measure magnetic fields and electric currents in residences is described. The instrumentation consisted of current transformers, magnetic field probes and locally designed and built signal conditioning modules. The data acquisition system was capable of unattended recording for extended time periods. The complete system was calibrated to verify its response to known physical inputs. PMID:14582878

Lahijanian, H; Yatapanage, K; Rosen, R; Cross, J

2003-10-01

187

Evaluation of an Instrument for Measuring Multiple Intelligences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to assess the use of multiple intelligence assessment instruments as predictor measurements of achievement. The sample included 51 male and female students enrolled in two sections of an introductory psychology course. They were asked to complete the Multiple Intelligences Challenge (MIC) and the Self…

Osborne, Francis; And Others

188

Miniature implantable instrument measures and transmits heart function data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heart diameter is derived from measured transit time of 2.25 MHz ultrasonic pulse between two piezoelectric crystals attached to diametrically opposite heart surfaces. Miniature instrument implanted in chest telemeters information to external receiver-converter. System permits continual dimensional data recording taken from awake animals during long-term experiments.

Lee, R. D.

1971-01-01

189

Validation of an Instrument to Measure Community College Student Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the development and validation of a survey instrument to measure community college students' satisfaction with their educational experiences. The initial survey included 95 questions addressing community college student experiences. Data were collected from 558 community college students during spring of 2001. An exploratory…

Zhai, Lijuan

2012-01-01

190

Comparison of measurements from satellite radiation budget instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successive radiometers have been flown on spacecraft for measurement of the radiation bud- get of the Earth and to date have provided data sets which overlap in time over a 25 -year period. In this paper we compile these results in order to demonstrate the traceability of calibration of satellite radiation budget instruments over these two decades. From this compilation

G. Louis Smith; Z. Peter Szewczyk; David A. Rutan; Robert B. Lee

2006-01-01

191

Wind-instrument reflection function measurements in the time domain.  

PubMed

Theoretical and computational analyses of wind-instrument sound production in the time domain have emerged as useful tools for understanding musical instrument acoustics, yet there exist few experimental measurements of the air-column response directly in the time domain. A new experimental, time-domain technique is proposed to measure the reflection function response of woodwind and brass-instrument air columns. This response is defined at the location of sound regeneration in the mouthpiece or double reed. A probe assembly comprised of an acoustic source and microphone is inserted directly into the air column entryway using a foam plug to ensure a leak-free fit. An initial calibration phase involves measurements on a single cylindrical tube of known dimensions. Measurements are presented on an alto saxophone and euphonium. The technique has promise for testing any musical instrument air columns using a single probe assembly and foam plugs over a range of diameters typical of air-column entryways. PMID:8730084

Keefe, D H

1996-04-01

192

Improved Measurement of Coherence in Presence of Instrument Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for correcting measured coherence spectra for the effect of incoherent instrument noise has been developed and demonstrated. Coherence measurements are widely used in engineering and science to determine the extent to which two signals are alike. The signals may come from two different sources or from the same source at different times. The coherence of time-lagged signals from a single source is an excellent indication of the effective lifetime of the signal components as a function of their frequency. Unfortunately, incoherent instrument noise will bias the measurement to lower values and may lead the user of the data to false conclusions about the longevity of significant features. The new method may be used whenever both the signal and noise power spectra are known and the noise is incoherent both with the signal and with itself at the applicable time delays. It provides a corrected coherence spectrum given the measured coherence and power spectra. For powerlaw signal spectra and instrumental white noise, the correction formula takes a particularly simple and explicit form. Since many geophysical signals exhibit powerlaw behavior and most instrument noise spectra approach white noise, the simplified form should be widely applicable in meteorology, oceanography, geology, and planetary geophysics.

Merceret, Francis J.

2003-01-01

193

Argus: a lightweight TDL instrument to measure stratospheric tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argus is a two channel, tunable diode laser instrument which measures atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide in the upper troposphere and stratosphere up to an altitude of 32 km using second harmonic detection. Investigations of stratospheric transport from mid-latitudes into the tropics is the current focus of our work which requires high precision and high accuracy data. Argus was designed

Hansjuerg Jost; Max Loewenstein

1999-01-01

194

Virtual instrumentation for pH measurements in biological systems.  

PubMed

In the present communication a personal computer control methodology for pH data acquisition and analysis in biological systems is reported. The instrumental control, acquisition, storage, processing and presentation of the experimental data are provided by a data acquisition board, a graphical programming software and numerical analysis/graphics software. The major objective of this work is to improve the performance and flexibility of the personal computer acquisition system compared with traditional approaches depending on potentiometric recorders. In particular, virtual instruments for interfacing pH meters of different brands to a personal computer and for measuring proton changes in lightly buffered solutions during enzymatic reactions are provided. PMID:10430463

Rigobello, M P; Cazzaro, F; Scutari, G; Bindoli, A

1999-07-01

195

Instrument for the in situ measurement of depositing particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaminant particles peculiar to a type of equipment emanate inside and around a semiconductor, or thin-film-transistor–liquid-crystal-display device fabrication front-end equipment. To analyze such deposition phenomena and implement contamination control measures, it is necessary to observe in situ deposition behavior over a long period. This article describes a measuring instrument for this purpose. Deposition and tearing off of particles or mist

Masayoshi Tsuchiya; Katsumi Takami

1997-01-01

196

Communications-electronic intrasystem electromagnetic interference measurement techniques and instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results obtained during the third quarter of the Communications-Electronics Intrasystem Electromagnetic Interference Measurement Techniques and Instrumentation Project. The period covered was 21 Dec. 1979 to 20 March 1980. The major effort in the third quarter consisted of completing the broadband measurement technique description and initiating the evaluation of MIL-STD-461A techniques. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred

L. E. Polisky; J. Savage

1980-01-01

197

Method for measuring surface temperature  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-07-28

198

Measuring High-Frequency Humidity, Temperature and Radio Refractive Index in the Surface Layer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three different instrument systems are compared in their ability to either directly measure humidity, temperature, and refractive-index fluctuations. Each system consists of a basic instrument--a Lyman-alpha hygrometer, an infrared absorption hygrometer o...

J. T. Priestley R. J. Hill

1985-01-01

199

Instrumented parallel bars for three-dimensional force measurement.  

PubMed

This paper describes the modification and instrumentation of standard parallel bars to allow for the measurement of applied forces on both horizontal bars in three dimensions. This measurement system has been used in the development and evaluation of functional electrical stimulation (FES) devices for standing and gait restoration in paralyzed patients. Real-time measurement of forces applied by the upper body of the patient to the parallel bars is of use in the evaluation of FES stimulation patterns (or automatic controllers of stimulation). Such measurements are useful in the redesign of stimulation patterns and/or stimulation controllers. PMID:1578391

Jin, Z; Chizeck, H J

1992-01-01

200

Instrument for measuring the misalignments of ocular surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact and robust instrument for measuring the alignment of ocular surfaces has been designed and used in living eyes. It is based on recording Purkinje images (reflections of light at the ocular surfaces) at nine different angular fixations. A complete analysis on the causes of misalignments of Purkinje images and its relations with those physical variables to be measured (global eye tilt, lens decentration and lens tilt) is presented. A research prototype based on these ideas was built and tested in normal and pseudophakic eyes (after cataract surgery). The new analysis techniques, together with the semicircular extended source and multiple fixation tests that we used, are significant improvements towards a robust approach to measuring the misalignments of the ocular surfaces in vivo. This instrument will be of use in both basic studies of the eye’s optics and clinical ophthalmology.

Tabernero, Juan; Benito, Antonio; Nourrit, Vincent; Artal, Pablo

2006-10-01

201

Intelligent instruments for process measurement techniques (monitoring of sensors)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibilities to extract redundant information of temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, semiconductor temperature sensors), and to find out which of the suggested redundancies are most suited for self controlled monitoring were investigated. Practical experience with equipment for process measurement techniques shows that sensor failures are five times more frequent than electronic malfunction. For resistance thermometers the measured values of the

B. Bauer; H. D. Hess; J. R. Kalinski; W. Leisenberg; D. Marsch

1984-01-01

202

Cryogenic instrumentation for fast current measurement in a silicon single electron transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a realization of high bandwidth instrumentation at cryogenic temperatures and for dilution refrigerator operation that possesses advantages over methods using radio frequency single electron transistor or transimpedance amplifiers. The ability for the low temperature electronics to carry out faster measurements than with room temperature electronics is investigated by the use of a phosphorous-doped single electron transistor. A single shot technique is successfully implemented and used to observe the real-time decay of a quantum state. A discussion on various measurement strategies is presented and the consequences on electron heating and noise are analyzed.

Ferrus, T.; Hasko, D. G.; Morrissey, Q. R.; Burge, S. R.; Freeman, E. J.; French, M. J.; Lam, A.; Creswell, L.; Collier, R. J.; Williams, D. A.; Briggs, G. A. D.

2009-08-01

203

A passive DOAS instrument for trace gas measurements on medium sized UAS: Instrumental design and first measurements.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on UAS. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). We present a new developed passive DOAS instrument for the APAESO Platform of the Cyprus Institute, a medium size UAS. It is equipped with two telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction, respectively. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the horizontal distribution of trace gases. This is accomplished by analyzing the radiation collected by the telescopes with compact spectrometers, which cover the UV-blue spectral range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) as well as aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a VIS-NIR spectrometer. It is used to measure reflection spectra of different types of vegetation. These will serve as references for satellite measurements to create global maps. First measurements on the APAESO platform were performed in October 2012 on Cyprus in a rural area south of Nicosia. The instrument is shown to work reliably and was able to detect NO2, H2O and O4 at atmospheric column densities. The instrumental design and first measurements will be presented and discussed.

Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Lange, Manfred A.; Lelieveld, Jos; Platt, Ulrich

2013-04-01

204

Accelerated measurement of perikymata by an optical instrument  

PubMed Central

The proposed device considerably reduces the measuring time of important microscopic features of tooth crown surfaces. The instrumentation is accompanied by a computer program to analyse the results. Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which demonstrate daily secretory rhythms developing tissue-specific structures known as cross striations, and longer period markings that are referred as striae of Retzius. These striae correspond to linear structures on the enamel surface. This newly developed optical measuring instrument can automatically, precisely and accurately record the number and periodicity of perikymata on the dental crown. Furthermore it can characterize the variability in periodicity of perikymata in hominids. The depth of field can be extended as desired by taking several images with different focus positions and combining them into a single composite image that contains all regions fully focused.

Elhechmi, Imen; Braga, Jose; Dasgupta, Gautam; Gharbi, Tijani

2013-01-01

205

Accuracy of Noninvasive Core Temperature Measurement in Acutely Ill Adults: The State of the Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate temperature measurement is critical to the assessment and management of temperature fluctuation in the acutely ill adult. Unfortunately, an accurate, noninvasive method to measure core temperature has yet to be established, and current instruments produce a wide range of temperatures for any given patient. This article provides an integrative review of studies comparing selected invasive and noninvasive temperature measurement

Vallire D. Hooper; Jeannette O. Andrews

2006-01-01

206

New instrument for rapid measurement of changes in ultrasonic velocity  

SciTech Connect

A new instrument for rapid measurement of changes in ultrasonic velocity in a material has been developed. The changes in velocity are recorded automatically with the time difference between reflection and transmission waves. The minimum recording interval is 1 ms. The relative accuracy is from 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -4/ for the velocity change in a sample length of about 6 mm. Two applications are reported.

Taki, S.; Furuta, Y.; Takemura, T.

1981-09-01

207

Micro-cantilever Array Pressure Measurement System for Biomedical Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analog signal processing IC for micro-cantilever array is designed for pressure measurement in biomedical applications. The chip includes analog multiplexer, instrumentation amplifier, sample and hold circuit, on chip voltage reference, SAR ADC and digital control unit. The 8-b ADC attains 45.4 dB SNDR and 56.4 dB SFDR while operating at 772 KHz. The chip occupies an area of 1.54

Wenchao Qu; Syed K. Islam; Gary To; Mohamed R. Mahfouz

2007-01-01

208

Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

209

Coherent Laser Instrument Would Measure Range and Velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed instrument would project a narrow laser beam that would be frequency-modulated with a pseudorandom noise (PN) code for simultaneous measurement of range and velocity along the beam. The instrument performs these functions in a low mass, power, and volume package using a novel combination of established techniques. Originally intended as a low resource- footprint guidance sensor for descent and landing of small spacecraft onto Mars or small bodies (e.g., asteroids), the basic instrument concept also lends itself well to a similar application guiding aircraft (especially, small unmanned aircraft), and to such other applications as ranging of topographical features and measuring velocities of airborne light-scattering particles as wind indicators. Several key features of the instrument s design contribute to its favorable performance and resource-consumption characteristics. A laser beam is intrinsically much narrower (for the same exit aperture telescope or antenna) than a radar beam, eliminating the need to correct for the effect of sloping terrain over the beam width, as is the case with radar. Furthermore, the use of continuous-wave (CW), erbium-doped fiber lasers with excellent spectral purity (narrow line width) permits greater velocity resolution, while reducing the laser s power requirement compared to a more typical pulsed solid-state laser. The use of CW also takes proper advantage of the increased sensitivity of coherent detection, necessary in the first place for direct measurement of velocity using the Doppler effect. However, measuring range with a CW beam requires modulation to "tag" portions of it for time-of-flight determination; typically, the modulation consists of a PN code. A novel element of the instrument s design is the use of frequency modulation (FM) to accomplish both the PN-modulation and the Doppler-bias frequency shift necessary for signed velocity measurements. This permits the use of a single low-power waveguide electrooptic phase modulator, while simultaneously mitigating the effects of speckle as a noise source in the coherent detection.

Chang, Daniel; Cardell, Greg; San Martin, Alejandro; Spiers, Gary

2005-01-01

210

The Cloud Physics Lidar: Instrument Description and Initial Measurement Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multi-wavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low pulse energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. We provide here an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, V. Stanley; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

211

Multi-periodic climate dynamics: spectral analysis of long-term instrumental and proxy temperature records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The longest six instrumental temperature records of monthly means reach back maximally to 1757 AD and were recorded in Europe. All six show a V-shape, with temperature drop in the 19th and rise in the 20th century. Proxy temperature time series of Antarctic ice cores show this same characteristic shape, indicating this pattern as a global phenomenon. We used the mean of the 6 instrumental records for analysis by discrete Fourier transformation (DFT), wavelets, and the detrended fluctuation method (DFA). For comparison, a stalagmite record was also analyzed by DFT. The harmonic decomposition of the mean shows only 6 significant frequencies above periods over 30 yr. The Pearson correlation between the mean, smoothed by a 15 yr running average (boxcar) and the reconstruction using the 6 significant frequencies yields r = 0.961. This good agreement has a > 99.9% confidence level confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. Assumption of additional forcing by anthropogenic green house gases would therefore not improve the agreement between measurement and temperature construction from the 6 documented periodicities. We find indications that the observed periodicities result from intrinsic system dynamics.

Lüdecke, H.-J.; Hempelmann, A.; Weiss, C. O.

2012-09-01

212

A high temperature apparatus for measurement of the Seebeck coefficient  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus with various features to minimize typical sources of error is designed and built. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement error are described and principles to overcome these are proposed. With these guiding principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus with a uniaxial 4-point contact geometry is designed to operate from room temperature to over 1200 K. This instrument design is simple to operate, and suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

Iwanaga, Shiho; Toberer, Eric S.; LaLonde, Aaron; Snyder, G. Jeffrey [Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2011-06-15

213

Fluorometric field instrument for continuous measurement of atmospheric hydrogen sulfide.  

PubMed

A sensitive (limit of detection approximately <100 pptv at S/N = 3), fully automated, portable (32 x 25 x 38 cm, 4.5 kg) instrument has been designed for continuous field measurement of atmospheric hydrogen sulfide. Air is sampled by a PTFE membrane-based diffusion scrubber and collected into an aLkaline fluorescein mercuric acetate (FMA) solution flowing under a controlled and constant pneumatic pressure. The collected sulfide quenches the fluorescence that is measured with a miniature blue LED photodiode-based fluorescence detector. Acquisition and interpretation of signal and all flow control are carried out via a mininotebook personal computer (PC) using custom software written in HP-VEE. The instrument provides for self-calibration and zero functions using an on-board permeation tube enclosed in a thermostated block, at any preprogrammed desired interval. During sampling, the computed H2S concentration is stored every 2 min. The complete system, including the PC, is operated in the field by a 12-V marine battery. The system was field tested near oil field operations in West Texas and showed good correlations with a concurrently operated lead acetate tape-based commercial sampler, with a response speed and time resolution much better than that of the latter instrument. PMID:11774912

Toda, K; Dasgupta, P K; Li, J; Tarver, G A; Zarus, G M

2001-12-01

214

Instrument and methods for surface dilatational rheology measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an instrument combining the advantages of two methods, axisymmetric drop shape analysis for well-deformed drops and capillary pressure tensiometry for spherical drops, both used for measuring the interfacial tension and interfacial rheological parameters. The rheological parameters are the complex interfacial elasticity, and the surface elasticity and viscosity of Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell rheological models. The instrument is applicable for investigation of the effect of different types of surfactants (nonionic, ionic, proteins, and polymers) on the interfacial rheological properties both of air/water and oil/water interfaces, and of interfaces between liquids with equal mass densities. A piezodriven system and a specially designed interface unit, implemented in the instrument, ensure precise control for standard periodic waveforms of surface deformation (sine, square, triangle, and sawtooth) at a fixed frequency, or produce surface deformation at constant rate. The interface unit ensures accurate synchronization between the pressure measurement and the surface control, which is used for real-time data processing and feedback control of drop area in some of the applications.

Russev, Stoyan C.; Alexandrov, Nikola; Marinova, Krastanka G.; Danov, Krassimir D.; Denkov, Nikolai D.; Lyutov, Lyudmil; Vulchev, Vassil; Bilke-Krause, Christine

2008-10-01

215

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-01-30

216

Spectroradiometric Temperature Measurement in Two-Phase Combustion Plasmas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new instrument for measuring the temperature of gases to 3000K has been developed based on the spectral absorption-emission method. Step index optical fibers are employed both to couple the instrument to the measurement volume and as optical pathways inside of the instrument. By using fast miniature choppers to multiplex the required optical signals onto a single detector, by maximizing the instrument etendue and by using a subminiature quartz halogen lamp for the instrument reference source, a lmsec temporal resolution is achieved while maintaining a temperature measurement resolution of better than 0.1K. To economize the demand for computer data acquisition resources, a dedicated electronics package is used to monitor the instrument performance and to preprocess the raw measurement data. The sources of measurement uncertainty and systematic error are considered in depth. It is shown that optimal signal to noise occurs when the instrument reference lamp is operated at temperatures somewhat in excess of that of the gas. For gas temperatures in excess of 2500K this condition is not possible using the traditional vacuum tungsten strip lamp. Subminiature quartz halogen lamps, which can be operated in excess of 3000K, are shown to be a viable replacement for strip lamps and to have a high degree of stability and reproducibility. A reference lamp calibration procedure is described that yields a total measurement uncertainty of better than 5K. The effects, on spectroradiometric temperature measurements, due to the presence of scattering particles are considered and shown to significantly degrade the accuracy of traditional emission-absorption pyrometry. A theoretical analysis is presented which results in a new method, consistent with traditional measurement techniques, to compensate for the effects of particle scattering. This new technique makes use of the unique capability of the instrument to perform simultaneous multi-wavelength measurements. The results of experimental instrument performance studies are presented. These tests were performed using the resonance line of potassium in a unique bench-scale combustor, designed for this purpose. The construction of this combustor, which was designed to simulate coal -fired MHD plasma conditions, is also described. . . . (Author's abstract exceeds stipulated maximum length. Discontinued here with permission of author.) UMI.

Paul, Phillip Harris

217

REVIEW ARTICLE: Molecular electronics: prospects for instrumentation and measurement science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular electronics is a new, exciting, interdisciplinary field of research. The subject broadly concerns the exploitation of organic materials in electronic and optoelectronic devices. There are many current commercial applications, including liquid crystal displays, conductive polymer sensors and pyroelectric plastics. Longer term developments might include molecular computational devices. In this review, the scope of molecular electronics is first discussed. Three examples of ongoing research that could have an impact on instrumentation and measurement science are then described. This is followed by some speculation on the possibilities for `molecular scale' electronic systems.

Petty, M. C.

1996-05-01

218

Infrared Temperature Measurements in Combustion Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique for gas temperature measurement which uses the infrared radiation from and absorption of a hog molecular species is described. The system was developed for measuring fluctuating temperature in combustion systems and transient temperatures in s...

R. Lewin

1982-01-01

219

Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations - notable differences include large differences in multi-decadal variability between proxy reconstructions, and big uncertainties in the effect of volcanic eruptions. Because the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. By constraining key aspects of the reconstructions and simulations, instrumental observations, inevitably from a limited period, can reduce reconstruction uncertainty throughout the millennium. A considerable quantity of early instrumental observations are preserved in the world's archives. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East-India Company (EEIC), and 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure have been preserved in the British Library. Similar records from voyages of exploration and scientific investigation are preserved in published literature and the records in National Archives. Some of these records have been extracted and digitised, providing hundreds of thousands of new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5C). This provides a powerful out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions --- supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this --- such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

Brohan, P.

2012-12-01

220

Instrument to Measure Psychological Contract Violation in Pharmacy Students  

PubMed Central

Objectives To adapt and evaluate an instrument that measures perceived psychological contract violations in pharmacy students by schools and colleges of pharmacy. Design A psychological contract violations measure was developed from existing literature and the 1997 ACPE Guidelines and pilot-tested with second-year pharmacy students at 2 schools of pharmacy. A revised measure then was administered to second-year pharmacy students at 6 schools of pharmacy. Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, participants were asked to indicate the level of obligations they received compared to what was promised by the school of pharmacy. Results Exploratory factor analysis on the psychological contract violations measure was conducted using principal components analysis resulting in 7 factors, which led to a revised measure with 26 items. Using a sample of 339 students, the proposed 7-factor measurement model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. In general, the results supported the hypothesized model. The final 23-item scale demonstrated both reliability and validity. Some students perceived certain aspects of the psychological contract that exists with their school of pharmacy were being violated. Conclusion The psychological contract violations measure may serve as a valuable tool in helping to identify areas where their students believe that schools/colleges of pharmacy have not fulfilled promised obligations.

Wilkin, Noel E.; Bentley, John P.; Bouldin, Alicia S.; Wilson, Marvin C.; Holmes, Erin R.

2010-01-01

221

Temperature dependence of Brewer UV measurements at Rome station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decreasing trends of total ozone affect mainly solar ultraviolet (UV) levels at ground level with adverse effects on the biosphere. Highly accurate measurements of solar UV irradiance have become an important issue to assess UV trends. To detect these trends stations with well calibrated instruments, with long-term stability and Quality Assurance (QA)/ Quality Control (QC) carefully followed procedures, are necessary. The Solar Radiometry Observatory of Rome, University "La Sapienza" (city center) is one of the stations regularly measuring UV irradiance in Italy. Measurements of UV spectral (290-325 nm) irradiance started in 1992, using Brewer MKIV 067. Measurements of total irradiance contained in the 280 - 320 nm waveband begun in 2000 with the YES UVB-1 broad-band radiometer. An investigation of the internal temperature dependence of the spectral responsivity to improve the quality of the Brewer UV data was carried out. The study was based on the analysis of responsivity files recorded during the years 2000-2002. Responsivities are provided by specific tests through a set of five 50 W quartz tungsten-halogen lamps, traceable to the standards of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The lamp tests allow to measure any changes in the instrument response over time. It was observed that a decrease in the instrument's responsivity resulted from an increase of the internal temperature. A methodology based on a family of responsivity files at different temperature intervals is proposed to allow correction of UV irradiances using the responsivity file at the corresponding temperatures. The mean percentage differnce between temperature corrected and non-corrected Brewer data varies from 0.8% to 1.5% over an internal temperature of 8°C-42°C. In addition the results of a field evaluation in Rome between Brewer 067 and two temperature stabilized instruments, a broad-band radiometer (YES UVB-1) and a moderate bandwidth multichannel radiometer (Biospherical GUV-511C) were analyzed using temperature corrected spectral measurements.

Siani, Anna M.; Benevento, Giuseppe; Casale, Giuseppe R.

2003-11-01

222

An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentation developed in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell or battery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. This instrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electronic cards. Software under Hpvee® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout of the impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, like the ambient temperature, the fuel cell temperature, the level of the hydrogen, etc…, were taken with several sensors that enable us to control the measurement. To filter the noise and the influence of the 50Hz, we have implemented a synchronous detection which filters in a very narrow way around the useful signal. The theoretical result obtained by a simulation under Pspice® of the method used consolidates the choice of this method and the possibility of obtaining correct and exploitable results. The experimental results are preliminary results on a 12V vehicle battery, having an inrush current of 330A and a capacity of 40Ah (impedance measurements on a fuel cell are in progress, and will be the subject of a forthcoming paper). The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7V, 10V, 8V and 5V) and with two imposed currents (0.6A and 4A). The Nyquist diagram resulting from the experimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internal impedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the values obtained (both theoretical and practical) enables us to validate our electronic measurement instrumentation. One of the future uses for this instrumentation is to integrate it with several control sensors, on a vehicle as an embedded system to monitor the degradation of fuel cell membranes.

Aglzim, El-Hassane; Rouane, Amar; El-Moznine, Reddad

2007-01-01

223

Measuring residual stress in glasses and ceramics using instrumented indentation.  

SciTech Connect

Instrumented indentation has yielded mixed results when used to measure surface residual stresses in metal films. Relative to metals, many glasses and ceramics have a low modulus-to-yield strength (E/sy) ratio. The advantage of this characteristic for measuring residual stress using instrumented indentation is demonstrated by a series of comparative spherical and conical tip finite element simulations. Two cases are considered: (i) a material with E/s{sub y} = 24-similar to glass and (ii) a material with E/s{sub y} = 120-similar to metal films. In both cases, compressive residual stress shifts the simulated load-displacement response toward increasing hardness, irrespective of tip geometry. This shift is shown to be entirely due to pile up for the ''metal'' case, but primarily due to the direct influence of the residual stress for the ''glass'' case. Hardness changes and load-displacement curve shifts are explained by using the spherical cavity model. Supporting experimental results on stressed glasses are provided.

Tandon, Rajan; Buchheit, Thomas E.

2007-03-01

224

Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores, etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East India Company (EEIC), and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C). This provides an out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions - supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this - such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

Brohan, P.; Allan, R.; Freeman, E.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, F.

2012-10-01

225

Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East-India Company (EEIC), and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C). This provides a powerful out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions - supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this - such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

Brohan, P.; Allan, R.; Freeman, E.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, F.

2012-05-01

226

Compact Instrument for Measuring Profile of a Light Beam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The beamviewer is an optical device designed to be attached to a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector for measuring the spatial distribution of intensity of a beam of light (the beam profile ) at a designated plane intersecting the beam. The beamviewer-and-CCD combination is particularly well suited for measuring the radiant- power profile (for a steady beam) or the radiant-energy profile (for a pulsed beam) impinging on the input face or emerging from the output face of a bundle of optical fibers. The beamviewer and-CCD combination could also be used as a general laboratory instrument for profiling light beams, including beams emerging through small holes and laser beams in free space.

Papanyan, Valeri

2004-01-01

227

Measuring Aerosol Optical Properties with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to the NASA EOS-Aura mission scheduled for launch in January 2004. OM1 is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance between 270 an 500 nm. With its relatively high spatial resolution (13x24 sq km at nadir) and daily global coverage. OM1 will make a major contribution to our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and to climate research. OM1 will provide data continuity with the TOMS instruments. One of the pleasant surprises of the TOMS data record was its information on aerosol properties. First, only the absorbing aerosol index, which is sensitive to elevated lay- ers of aerosols such as desert dust and smoke aerosols, was derived. Recently these methods were further improved to yield aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over land and ocean for 19 years of TOMS data (1979-1992,1997-2002), making it one of the longest and most valuable time series for aerosols presently available. Such long time series are essential to quantify the effect of aerosols on the Earth& climate. The OM1 instrument is better suited to measure aerosols than the TOMS instruments because of the smaller footprint, and better spectral coverage. The better capabilities of OMI will enable us to provide an improved aerosol product, but the knowledge will also be used for further analysis of the aerosol record from TOMS. The OM1 aerosol product that is currently being developed for OM1 combines the TOMS experience and the multi-spectral techniques that are used in the visible and near infrared. The challenge for this new product is to provide aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo from the near ultraviolet to the visible (330-500 nm) over land and ocean. In this presentation the methods for deriving the OM1 aerosol product will be presented. Part of these methods developed for OM1 can already be applied to TOMS data and results of such analysis will be shown.

Veefkind, J. P.; Torres, O.; Syniuk, A.; Decae, R.; deLeeuw, G.

2003-01-01

228

Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A setup to measure skin autofluorescence was developed to assess accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in patients noninvasively. The method applies direct blacklight tube illumination of the skin of the lower arm, and spectrometry. The setup displays skin autofluorescence (AF) as a ratio of mean intensities detected from the skin between 420-600 nm and 300-420 nm, respectively. In an early clinical application in 46 and control subjects matched for age and gender, AF was significantly increased in the patients (p = 0.015), and highly correlated with skin AGE's that were determined from skin biopsies in both groups. A large follow-up study on type 2 diabetes mellitus, ongoing since 2001 with more than 1000 subjects, aims to assess the value of the instrument in predicting chronic complications of diabetes. At baseline, a relation with age, glycemic status and with complications present was found. In a study in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis AF was a strong and independent predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality. A commercial version of this AGE-reader is now under development and becomes available early 2005 (DiagnOptics B.V., Groningen, The Netherlands). One of the remaining questions, that will be answered by measuring so-called Exciation-Emission Matrices (EEM's) of the skin tissue in vivo, is whether a more selective choice of wavelengths is more strongly related to clinical characteristics. An experimental instrument to measure these EEM's was, therefore, developed as well. Clinical measurements are underway of EEM's in patient groups with diabetes mellitus and in healthy volunteers.

Graaff, Reindert; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Lutgers, Helen L.; Baptist, Rene; de Jong, Ed D.; Zijp, Jaap R.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard

2005-04-01

229

Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

1988-01-01

230

System of wireless temperature and humidity measurement based on LabVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of virtual instruments and meteorological automation, combining virtual technology with meteorological measurement is becoming an important development direction of meteorological instruments. It can realize the data acquisition of temperature and humidity as well as data transmission, analysis and display, with the development software of virtual instruments - LabVIEW, sensors, wireless transmission modules, which receive and send

Hongqun Zhang; Yuanyuan Yan

2009-01-01

231

Atmospheric structure measurements from accelerometer instrumented falling spheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three axis piezoelectric accelerometer, mounted in a 25 cm diameter sphere was used to measure atmospheric density and winds and to obtain a temperature profile in the altitude range from 50 to 150 km. The sphere with its own telemetry system and beacon transponder was released from a rocket at 70 km altitude on the up leg of the

C. R. Philbrick; J. P. McIsaac; D. H. Fryklund; R. F. Buck

1981-01-01

232

Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets  

DOEpatents

An instrument is disclosed for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head. 4 figs.

Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

1995-04-18

233

Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets  

DOEpatents

An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head 18 to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum Within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A packet production line model is also described.

Kollie, Thomas G. (117 Oklahoma Ave., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Thacker, Louis H. (3727 Frostwood Rd., Knoxville, TN 37921); Fine, H. Alan (949 Wishbone Cir., Lexington, KY 40502)

1993-01-01

234

Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets  

DOEpatents

An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head.

Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN); Fine, H. Alan (Lexington, KY)

1995-01-01

235

Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets  

DOEpatents

An instrument is described for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A packet production line model is also described. 3 figures.

Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

1993-10-05

236

Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To facilitate astrobiological studies on the survival and adaptation of microorganisms and mixed microbial cultures to space environment, we have been developing a fully automated, minia-turized system for measuring their gene expression on small spacecraft. This low-cost, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement in our ability to study the impact of the space environment on biological systems by providing data on cel-lular metabolism and regulation orders of magnitude richer than what is currently available. The system supports growth of the organism, lyse it to release the expressed RNA, label the RNA, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis of labeled RNA and transmit the measurements to Earth. To measure gene expression we use microarray technology developed by CombiMatrix, which is based on electrochemical reactions on arrays of electrodes on a semiconductor substrate. Since the electrical integrity of the microarray re-mains intact after probe synthesis, the circuitry can be employed to sense nucleic acid binding at each electrode. CombiMatrix arrays can be sectored to allow multiple samples per chip. In addition, a single array can be used for several assays. The array has been integrated into an automated microfluidic cartridge that uses flexible reagent blisters and pinch pumping to move liquid reagents between chambers. The proposed instrument will help to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions be-yond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and test our ability to sustain and grow in space organ-isms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration. The instrument is suitable for small satellite platforms, which provide frequent, low cost access to space. It can be also used on any other platform in space, including the ISS. It can be replicated and used with only small modifications in multiple biological experiments with a broad range of goals in mind.

Pohorille, Andrew; Danley, David; Payvan, Kia; Ricco, Antonio

237

TRISO fuel compact thermal conductivity measurement instrument development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal conductivity is an important thermophysical property needed for effectively predicting fuel performance. As part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program, the thermal conductivity of tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel needs to be measured over a temperature range characteristic of its usage. The composite nature of TRISO fuel requires that measurement be performed over the entire length of the compact in a non-destructive manner. No existing measurement system is capable of performing such a measurement. A measurement system has been designed based on the steady-state, guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow technique. The system as currently designed is capable of measuring cylindrical samples with diameters ˜12.3-mm (˜0.5?) with lengths ˜25-mm (˜1?). The system is currently operable in a temperature range of 400 K to 1100 K for materials with thermal conductivities on the order of 10 W/m/K to 70 W/m/K. The system has been designed, built, and tested. An uncertainty analysis for the determinate errors of the system has been performed finding a result of 5.5%. Finite element modeling of the system measurement method has also been accomplished demonstrating optimal design, operating conditions, and associated bias error. Measurements have been performed on three calibration/validation materials: SS304, 99.95% pure iron, and inconel 625. In addition, NGNP graphite with ZrO2 particles and NGNP AGR-2 graphite matrix only, both in compact form, have been measured. Results from the SS304 sample show agreement of better than 3% for a 300--600°C temperature range. For iron between 100--600°C, the difference with published values is <8% for all temperatures. The maximum difference from published data for inconel 625 is 5.8%, near 600°C. Both NGNP samples were measured from 100--800°C. All results are presented and discussed. Finally, a discussion of ongoing work is included as well as a brief discussion of implementation under other operating conditions, including higher temperatures and adaptation for use in a glovebox or hot cell.

Jensen, Colby

238

Measurements of the Ice Water Content of Cirrus in the Tropics and Subtropics. I; Instrument Details and Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an instrument mounted in a pallet on the NASA WB-57 aircraft that is designed to measure the sum of gas phase and solid phase water, or total water, in cirrus clouds. Using an isokinetic inlet, a 600-watt heater mounted directly in the flow, and Lyman-alpha photofragment fluorescence technique for detection, accurate measurements of total water have been made over almost three orders of magnitude. Isokinetic flow is achieved with an actively controlled roots pump by referencing aircraft pressure, temperature, and true air speed, together with instrument flow velocity, temperature, and pressure. During CRYSTAL FACE, the instrument operated at duct temperatures sufficiently warm to completely evaporate particles up to 150 microns diameter. In flight diagnostics, intercomparison with water measured by absorption in flight, as well as intercomparisons in clear air with water vapor measured by the Harvard water vapor instrument and the JPL infrared tunable diode laser hygrometer validate the detection sensitivity of the instrument and illustrate minimal hysteresis from instrument surfaces. The simultaneous measurement of total water and water vapor in cirrus clouds yields their ice water content.

Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Sayres, D.; Pittman, J. V.; Allen, N.; Demusz, J.; Greenberg, M.; Rivero, M.; Anderson, J. G.

2003-01-01

239

The role of fiberoptics in remote temperature measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of optical fibers in conjunction with infrared detectors and signal processing electronics represents the latest advance in the field of non-contact temperature measurement and control. The operating principles and design of fiber-optic radiometric systems are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of using optical fibers are addressed. Signal processing requirements and various infrared detector types are also described. Several areas in which infrared fiber-optic instrumentation is used for temperature monitoring and control are discussed.

Vanzetti, Riccardo

1988-01-01

240

Acoustic snowdrift measurements: experiences from the FlowCapt instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three acoustic FlowCapt™ (IAV Engineering) drifting snow instruments were deployed during the 1999 and 2000 field season on Spitsbergen, Norway. Three different experiments were carried out to test the instruments for their use in snowdrift research. The data from the three instruments were compared during a study of drifting snow within an Arctic catchment and around a building. The principle

Christian Jaedicke

2001-01-01

241

Temperature, pressure, and wind instrumentation in the Phoenix meteorological package  

Microsoft Academic Search

should be less than 0.5 s for wind speeds of 5 m s1 or greater. Solar radiation falling on the thermocouples could raise the reported temperatures by up to 0.7 K for wind speeds of 5 m s1. The increase will be wind speed dependent and will increase to 0.8 K at U =3ms 1 under peak solar radiation. Pressure

Peter A. Taylor; David C. Catling; Mike Daly; Cameron S. Dickinson; Haraldur P. Gunnlaugsson; Ari-Matti Harri; Carlos F. Lange

2008-01-01

242

Brazing refractory metals used in high-temperature nuclear instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-1) TRISO fuel experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR,

A. J. Palmer; C. J. Woolstenhulme

2009-01-01

243

Correcting Instrumental Variables Estimators for Systematic Measurement Error  

PubMed Central

Instrumental variables (IV) estimators are well established to correct for measurement error on exposure in a broad range of fields. In a distinct prominent stream of research IV’s are becoming increasingly popular for estimating causal effects of exposure on outcome since they allow for unmeasured confounders which are hard to avoid. Because many causal questions emerge from data which suffer severe measurement error problems, we combine both IV approaches in this article to correct IV-based causal effect estimators in linear (structural mean) models for possibly systematic measurement error on the exposure. The estimators rely on the presence of a baseline measurement which is associated with the observed exposure and known not to modify the target effect. Simulation studies and the analysis of a small blood pressure reduction trial (n = 105) with treatment noncompliance confirm the adequate performance of our estimators in finite samples. Our results also demonstrate that incorporating limited prior knowledge about a weakly identified parameter (such as the error mean) in a frequentist analysis can yield substantial improvements.

Vansteelandt, Stijn; Babanezhad, Manoochehr; Goetghebeur, Els

2008-01-01

244

Automated measuring instrument of the surface electric potential and potential distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated measuring instrument of the surface electric potential and its distribution was presented. The schematic instrument diagram, metrological assessment, the relation of measured voltage with the sample electrophysical parameters are discussed. Possibilities of measuring instruments are demonstrated by some physical investigations.

Sakalauskas, S.; Sodeika, A.

1998-02-01

245

Atmospheric transmission from an instrument measuring scatter at 1550 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has extensively investigated atmospheric effects on maritime lasercomm in both long term research studies and short term system demonstrations. A current effort is underway in the ONR Tactical Line-of-Sight Optical Communications (TALON) program to better characterize atmospheric transmission at 1550 nm in multiple climates to enable prediction of communication link performance. In order to allow long term unmanned measurements in these multiple climates, NRL developed a scattering-based 1550 nm transmission sensor similar in function to commercial visible wavelength visibility monitors. After the system was built and calibrated, it was deployed to a number of sites with various climate types to collect data over a 1-month period for each site. This paper describes the development of the instrument and the software. It also presents some of the collected data.

Vilcheck, Michael J.; Moore, Christopher I.; Mahon, Rita; Murphy, Jim; Bucholtz, Anthony; Burris, Harris R.; Thomas, Linda M.; Rabinovich, William

2013-05-01

246

An instrumented cylinder measuring pinch force and orientation  

PubMed Central

Background The function of a cylinder allowing simultaneous measurements of the opposition axis of the index finger and thumb of the hand and the magnitude of pinch force is described. Methods The apparatus is made of two half-cylinders that are bonded together through a 6-axis force/torque sensor and allows the measurement of 3D orthogonal forces and moments of force. The amplitude of the pinch force exerted on the cylinder by the fingers is defined as the resultant of the forces in the different axes. A software program was developed to measure the barycentre of the forces on the instrumented cylinder, allowing calculation of the angle of the opposition axis between the fingers and the location of the resulting pinch force on the cylinder, assuming that the pinch or grip forces are co-linear through the center of the cylinder. In order to assess the validity and reliability of the measurements, the cylinder was mounted on a milling table and seven calibrated weights (from 100 to 500 g) were successively applied perpendicularly to a 9*9 matrix of sites separated by 1 cm. With the exception of the extreme lateral parts of the cylinder, the dispersion of the calculated vertical position of the resulting force was always within 1 mm of the application point, suggesting a high reliability of these measurements. In addition, the errors in the angles of the applied force were calculated and found to be less than 2 degree with no clear patterns of variation across the different locations of the cylinder. Results The usefulness of the cylinder is demonstrated by evaluating the pinch force and the opposition axis in six healthy subjects lifting the cylinder from the table using three different orientations of their right hand. The magnitude of the grip force was not significantly different across orientations (45, 22 and -22 degrees relative to the midline of the subject) suggesting that force grip is controlled. Conclusion From these results, it has been concluded that the cylinder is a valid, reliable and precise instrument that may prove useful for evaluating opposition axis and grip force in healthy and pathological populations.

Bourbonnais, Daniel; Frak, Victor; Pilon, Jean-Francois; Goyette, Michel

2008-01-01

247

Monitoring of Refractory Wall recession using high temperature impact echo instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Regression of refractory linings of furnaces occurs due to a variety of mechanisms. The specific mechanism selected for investigation during this program is the regression of refractories which are in direct contact with a liquid corrodant. Examples include the melting of glass, the production of pig iron and steel, and the melting of aluminum. The rates of regression to a wall thickness which requires reline or extensive reconstruction vary widely, from less than a year to over ten years depending on the specific service environment. This program investigated the feasibility of measuring refractory wall thickness with an impact-echo method while at operating temperature (wall temperatures exceeding 500 C). The impact-echo method uses the impact of a small sphere with the surface of the test object to send a stress wave into the object. In a plate-like structure, the stress wave reflects back to the front surface, reverberating in the structure and causing a periodic surface displacement whose frequency is inversely proportional to the thickness of the test object. Impact-echo testing was chosen because it requires access to only one side of the test object and could be performed during the operation of a refractory structure. Commercially-available impact-echo instrumentation is available for room temperature use for a variety of tests on concrete. The enabling technology for this work was to use a high-temperature piezoelectric material, aluminum nitride, as the receiving sensor for the stress waves, allowing its use on refractories during furnace operation.

University of Dayton

2004-04-30

248

Development and application of an instrument for spatially resolved Seebeck coefficient measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seebeck coefficient is a key indicator of the majority carrier type (electrons or holes) in a material. The recent trend toward the development of combinatorial materials research methods has necessitated the development of a new high-throughput approach to measuring the Seebeck coefficient at spatially distinct points across any sample. The overall strategy of the high-throughput experiments is to quickly identify the region of interest on the sample at some expense of accuracy, and then study this region by more conventional techniques. The instrument for spatially resolved Seebeck coefficient measurements reported here relies on establishing a temperature difference across the entire compositionally graded thin-film and consecutive mapping of the resulting voltage as a function of position, which facilitates the temperature-dependent measurements up to 400 °C. The results of the designed instrument are verified at ambient temperature to be repeatable over 10 identical samples and accurate to within 10% versus conventional Seebeck coefficient measurements over the -100 to +150 ?V/K range using both n-type and p-type conductive oxides as test cases. The developed instrument was used to determine the sign of electrical carriers of compositionally graded Zn-Co-O and Ni-Co-O libraries prepared by combinatorial sputtering. As a result of this study, both cobalt-based materials were determined to have p-type conduction over a broad single-phase region of chemical compositions and small variation of the Seebeck coefficient over the entire investigated range of compositions and temperature.

Zakutayev, Andriy; Luciano, Frank J.; Bollinger, Vincent P.; Sigdel, Ajaya K.; Ndione, Paul F.; Perkins, John D.; Berry, Joseph J.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S.

2013-05-01

249

Alignment Measurements of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Instrument in a Thermal/Vacuum Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory, scheduled for a fall 2000 launch, is designed to measure temperature fluctuations (anisotropy) and produce a high sensitivity and high spatial resolution (approximately 0.2 degree) map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation over the entire sky between 22 and 90 GHz. MAP utilizes back-to-back Gregorian telescopes to focus the microwave signals into 10 differential microwave receivers, via 20 feed horns. Proper alignment of the telescope reflectors and the feed horns at the operating temperature of 90 K is a critical element to ensure mission success. We describe the hardware and methods used to validate the displacement/deformation predictions of the reflectors and the microwave feed horns during thermal/vacuum testing of the reflectors and the microwave instrument. The smallest deformation predictions to be measured were on the order of +/- 0.030 inches (+/- 0.762 mm). Performance of these alignment measurements inside a thermal/vacuum chamber with conventional alignment equipment posed several limitations. The most troublesome limitation was the inability to send personnel into the chamber to perform the measurements during the test due to vacuum and the temperature extremes. The photogrammetry (PG) system was chosen to perform the measurements since it is a non- contact measurement system, the measurements can be made relatively quickly and accurately, and the photogrammetric camera can be operated remotely. The hardware and methods developed to perform the MAP alignment measurements using PG proved to be highly successful. The measurements met the desired requirements, for the metal structures enabling the desired distortions to be measured resolving deformations an order of magnitude smaller than the imposed requirements. Viable data were provided to the MAP Project for a full analysis of the on-orbit performance of the Instrument's microwave system.

Hill, Michael D.; Herrera, Acey A.; Crane, J. Allen; Packard, Edward A.; Aviado, Carlos; Sampler, Henry P.

2000-01-01

250

The validation of ATSR measurements with in situ sea temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The largest source of uncertainty in the retrieval of SST (sea-surface) temperature from space-borne infrared radiometric measurements is in the correction for the effects of the intervening atmosphere. During a research cruise of the R/V Alliance measurements of sea surface temperature, surface meteorological variables and surface infrared radiances were taken. SST fields were generated from the ATSR data using pre-launch algorithims derived by the ATSR Instrument Team (A.M. Zavody, personal communication), and the initial comparison between ATSR measurements and SST taken along the ship`s track indicate that the dual-angle atmospheric correction is accurate in mid-latitude conditions.

Minnett, P.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Stansfield, K.L. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Marine Sciences Research Center

1993-10-08

251

A High-Accuracy Digital Instrument Design for DC Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-accuracy self-calibrating digital instrument design has been developed in order to make available the inherent efficiency advantages of conventional digital meters, but without their limitations in accuracy, reliability, or certifiability. The new instrument can extend the advantages of automation to many testing, quality control, and standards laboratories where heretofore only high-quality manually balanced instruments could be used. Automation at

Loebe Julie

1972-01-01

252

A new method and instrument for accurately measuring interval between ultrashort pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using second-order autocorrelation conception, a novel method and instrument for accurately measuring interval between two linearly polarized ultrashort pulses with real time were presented. The experiment demonstrated that the measuring method and instrument were simple and accurate (the measurement error <5 fs). During measuring, there was no moving element resulting in dynamic measurement error.

Zhonggang Ji; Yuxin Leng; Yunpei Deng; Bin Tang; Haihe Lu; Ruxin Li; Zhizhan Xu

2005-01-01

253

Optical Temperature Measurement Method for Glowing Microcomponents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A measurement method and measurement results for the temperature of miniature microbridge emitters integrated on silicon are presented. First, the extinction coefficient of highly doped silicon was measured at high temperatures: a piece of a silicon-on-insulator wafer was heated to several temperatures in a high-temperature furnace, and the emitted spectra were measured using a spectroradiometer with focusing optics. The optical behavior of the sample was modeled with Fresnel equations. The extinction coefficient of silicon was obtained from the model, because other optical properties, the dimensions, and the temperature of the structure were known. An emissivity model was then developed and adapted for the microbridge with the known extinction coefficient values, which allows the temperature to be determined from the measured spectrum. We can now measure optically the temperatures of the microbridges of dimensions 400 × 25 × 4 ?m3 in the temperature range 600 °C to 1200 °C with an uncertainty of 100 °C.

Shpak, M.; Kärhä, P.; Ojanen, M.; Ikonen, E.; Heinonen, M.

2010-09-01

254

The rhesus measurement system: A new instrument for space research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) is a research environment designed to study the effects of microgravity using rhesus primates as human surrogates. This experimental model allows investigators to study numerous aspects of microgravity exposure without compromising crew member activities. Currently, the RRF is slated for two missions to collect its data, the first mission is SLS-3, due to fly in late 1995. The RRF is a joint effort between the United States and France. The science and hardware portions of the project are being shared between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and France's Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The RRF is composed of many different subsystems in order to acquire data, provide life support, environmental enrichment, computer facilities and measurement capabilities for two rhesus primates aboard a nominal sixteen day mission. One of these subsystems is the Rhesus Measurement System (RMS). The RMS is designed to obtain in-flight physiological measurements from sensors interfaced with the subject. The RMS will acquire, preprocess, and transfer the physiologic data to the Flight Data System (FDS) for relay to the ground during flight. The measurements which will be taken by the RMS during the first flight will be respiration, measured at two different sites; electromyogram (EMG) at three different sites; electroencephalogram (EEG); electrocardiogram (ECG); and body temperature. These measurements taken by the RMS will assist the research team in meeting the science objectives of the RRF project.

Schonfeld, Julie E.; Hines, John W.

1993-01-01

255

Apparatus Would Measure Temperatures Of Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rig for testing ball bearings under radial and axial loads and measuring surface temperatures undergoing development. Includes extensible thermocouples: by means of bellows as longitudinal positioners, thermocouples driven into contact with bearing balls to sense temperatures immediately after test run. Not necessary to disassemble rig or to section balls to obtain indirect indications of maximum temperatures reached. Thermocouple measurements indicate temperatures better than temperature-sensitive paints.

Gibson, John C.; Fredricks, Thomas H.

1995-01-01

256

Weather Instruments for Measuring the Climate of Illinois  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Illinois State Water Survey furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. Instruments include various kinds of thermometers and rain gauges, as well as barometers, anemometers, and a hail pad.

2008-01-04

257

Uncertainty of temperature measurement with thermal cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

All main international metrological organizations are proposing a parameter called uncertainty as a measure of the accuracy of measurements. A mathematical model that enables the calculations of uncertainty of temperature measurement with thermal cameras is presented. The standard uncertainty or the expanded uncertainty of temperature measurement of the tested object can be calculated when the bounds within which the real

Krzysztof Chrzanowski; Robert Matyszkiel; Joachim Fischer; Jaroslaw Barela

2001-01-01

258

Measurement Error Webinar Series: Combining self-report dietary assessment instruments to reduce the effects of measurement error  

Cancer.gov

Describe methods of combining self-report dietary instruments to reduce measurement error and improve the power to detect diet-health associations. Understand situations in which combining information from various instruments may provide the most benefit.

259

Verifax: Biometric instruments measuring neuromuscular disorders/performance impairments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VeriFax, founded in 1990 by Dr. Ruth Shrairman and Mr. Alex Landau, began operations with the aim of developing a biometric tool for the verification of signatures from a distance. In the course of developing this VeriFax Autograph technology, two other related applications for the technologies under development at VeriFax became apparent. The first application was in the use of biometric measurements as clinical monitoring tools for physicians investigating neuromuscular diseases (embodied in VeriFax's Neuroskill technology). The second application was to evaluate persons with critical skills (e.g., airline pilots, bus drivers) for physical and mental performance impairments caused by stress, physiological disorders, alcohol, drug abuse, etc. (represented by VeriFax's Impairoscope prototype instrument). This last application raised the possibility of using a space-qualified Impairoscope variant to evaluate astronaut performance with respect to the impacts of stress, fatigue, excessive workload, build-up of toxic chemicals within the space habitat, etc. The three applications of VeriFax's patented technology are accomplished by application-specific modifications of the customized VeriFax software. Strong commercial market potentials exist for all three VeriFax technology applications, and market progress will be presented in more detail below.

Morgenthaler, George W.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander

1998-01-01

260

A new instrument for high statistics measurement of scintillating fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large scale use of scintillating optical fibers in particle detectors is now starting, with the advent of lead-scintillating fiber calorimeters and their use in physics experiments. With respect to the use of scintillating fibers for the tracking of particle trajectories close to the interacting point, in this application we face very massive detectors and a very large quantity of scintillating fibers. On the other hand, their diameter does not need to be particularly small, as in the case of particle tracking when a good space resolution is required. The CHORUS Collaboration is presently building a new detector for the search of ?? - ?? oscillations on the CERN neutrino beam. A crucial task in the detector is ruled by the high energy resolution calorimeter. For its construction more than 400 000 scintillating plastic fibers have been used. Here we report on the characteristics and performance of a new instrument for high statistics measurement of the fiber properties in terms of light output and attenuation length of the light.

Buontempo, S.; Ianovski, V.; Marchetti-Stasi, F.; Parascandolo, L.; Riccardi, F.

1994-04-01

261

An improved measurement of Vickers indentation behaviour through enhanced instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an enhanced instrumented Vickers indentation technique capable of recording force, displacement and acoustic emission (AE) during loading condition. Four materials were chosen for examination; copper, aluminium, steel and as-sprayed HVOF WC-12%Co coating. Results indicate that force-displacement (P-h) profiles are essentially bilinear with two characteristic slopes separated by a distinct displacement arrest for all loads above 98 N. The P-h curve indicates three distinct loading stages (I, II and III) and the stage III mechanical energy increases with loads. About 66% of the hardened steel indentations but only about 18% of the as-sprayed HVOF WC-12%Co coating indentations exhibited an AE record that could be separated into three distinct zones (A, B and C). Where zoning was possible the AE corresponding to a zone correlated well with the AE associated with a loading stage. It is concluded that plastic deformation in soft metals produced little AE, whereas brittle fracture in hardened steel and as-sprayed HVOF WC-12%Co coating produced significant AE. AE may or may not be focused onto particular stages of the indentation and a full measure of crack prevalence would require fractal dimension analysis, which is time consuming, offering a motivation for AE-based indentation testing.

Faisal, N. H.; Reuben, R. L.; Ahmed, R.

2011-01-01

262

Influence of Resistance Method on Motor Winding Temperature Rise Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this article is presentation of influences when measuring the motor winding temperature rise in the scope of safety testing of electrical appliances, with respect to conformity assessment. The temperature measurement in testing is one of the most defined fields of measurement, but it is very important how the measurement is performed. Standards only describe that the resistance method shall be used for determination of the temperature rise (heating) of the winding. The temperature rise is defined as the average temperature rise of the windings above the ambient (surrounding) temperature, at the specified load of the unit under test. It is not explicitly defined how to approach this measurement when using cooling characteristics of the winding for determination of the temperature rise. Since the extrapolation curve is used, the procedure is also very important to obtain a result as accurate as possible. It is important that measurement results and their associated uncertainties are correctly evaluated, and on that basis, appropriate conclusions of conformity of the product with specifications are made. The resistance method influence on the motor winding temperature rise measurement is a case study in this article. The article focuses on the measurement of the temperature rise of electrical motors used in electrical appliances according to the standard EN 60335-1, clause 11 (2002) (identical as standard IEC 60335-1, 2001). In this article, the influencing parameters are analyzed when measuring the temperature rise of electromotor winding. As a case study, concrete measurements are presented. The optimal time after which the performer has to start measurement of the cooling characteristics is analyzed, since the motors are typically mounted deep into appliances. Especially for a collector motor winding, it takes some time for a performer to be able to connect the measuring instrument to collector's lamellas because this contact has an important influence on extrapolation results.

Beges, G.

2011-12-01

263

Global Ocean Color Measurements From the NPOESS/VIIRS Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The VIIRS instrument is one of several instruments currently being designed for the National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), as part of a joint effort between the Department of Defense, NASA, and NOAA. The Ocean Color product, developed using the VIIRS sensor, contains chlorophyll concentration retrieved from remote sensing reflectances derived from VIIRS measurements. A retrieval algorithm for chlorophyll concentration has been developed for Case I waters (characterized by having a strong correlation between scattering and absorbing substance concentrations and chlorophyll a concentration, i.e. open ocean) and Case II waters (characterized by having a lack of correlation between scattering and absorbing substance concentrations and chlorophyll a concentration, i.e. coastal waters). For Case II waters a chlorophyll a algorithm developed by Carder et al. (1997) was implemented. This algorithm was based on a semi-analytical, bio-optical model of remote sensing reflectance. For Case I waters a chlorophyll a algorithm developed by Gordon and Morel (1983) was employed. It is an empirical equation and is dependent upon the ratio of the reflectances at wavelengths 488 nm and 555 nm. Algorithm performance has been evaluated using both the in situ SeaBAM data sets and simulated remote sensing reflectances. The sensor and algorithms together meet the NPOESS sensor requirements on chlorophyll precision and accuracy thresholds for chlorophyll concentrations typical for open ocean waters. NPOESS is an integrated operational system and this benefits the VIIRS ocean color product. The high spatial resolution of the VIIRS imagers from visible to infrared bands provides accurate cloud mask and sun-glint mask products. Sea surface wind vectors derived from the NPOESS Conical Scanning Microwave Imager/Sounder will allow for correction of the ocean surface roughness effect. Additionally, the ozone product was derived from the NPOESS Ozone Mapping and Profiling Suite and is expected to be an accurate correction for the ozone absorption. References Gordon H.R., and A. Morel (1983). Remote assessment of ocean color for interpretation of satellite visible imagery. A review. New York: Springer. Carder, K.L., S.K. Hawes, Z. Lee, and F.R. Chen (1997). MODIS: Case 2 chlorophyll a algorithm. MODIS ATBD-19, URL http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/atbd/modistables.html.

Hommel, D.; Carter, C.; Liu, Q.

2001-12-01

264

Measurement of small temperature fluctuations at high average temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both absolute and differential temperature measurements were simultaneously performed as a function of time for a pixel on a high-temperature, multi-spectral, spatially and temporally varying infrared target simulator. A scanning laser beam was used to maintain a pixel at an on-the-average constant temperature of 520 K. The laser refresh rate of up to 1 kHz resulted in small-amplitude temperature fluctuations with a peak-to-peak amplitude of less than 1 K. The experimental setup to accurately measure the differential and the absolute temperature as a function of time is described.

Scholl, James W.; Scholl, Marija S.

1988-01-01

265

Validation of the envisat atmospheric chemistry instruments by correlative measurements of MIPAS-STR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MIPAS-STR has been operated from the high altitude aircraft M55-Geophysica during several flights at middle and high latitudes. The flights were dedicated to the validation of the Envisat atmospheric chemistry instruments with emphasis on the MIPAS validation. By a combination of continuous limb sounding and upward measurements two-dimensional distributions of the temperature and of several trace gases have been derived. After a short description of relevant details of the MIPAS-STR instrument and an overview of the flights made during the campaigns from Forli (July and October 2002) and Kiruna in (February/March 2003), we present first results on the validation of the on-line MIPAS processor of ESA.

Blom, C. E.; Gulde, T.; Höpfner, M.; Keim, C.; Liu, G. Y.; Piesch, C.; Sartorius, C.

2003-04-01

266

Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points  

SciTech Connect

The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)] [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)

2013-09-11

267

Pyrometric Gas and Surface Temperature Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multiwavelength pyrometer possessing advantages over the one- and two-wavelength designs is described. Results of its application to surface temperature measurements of ceramics is presented. Also described is a probe suitable for gas temperature measurements to temperatures > 2600 K. The design of the probe includes a multiwavelength pyrometer with fiber optic input.

Fralick, Gustave; Ng, Daniel

1999-01-01

268

Core temperature measurement in carbothermal reduction processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate temperature measurement of the core in carbothermal reduction processes, such as boron and silicon carbide manufacturing processes, is not only important from product quality viewpoint but also quite a challenging task. The core temperature in these processes ranges 2200 to 3000K. In this study, a device has been designed to measure the core temperature. Much attention has been

M. P. L. N. Rao; G. S. Gupta; P. Manjunath; S. Kumar; A. K. Suri; N. Krishnamurthy; C. Subramanian

2009-01-01

269

Measurement of the Coolant Channel Temperatures and Pressures of a Cooled Radial-Inflow Turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumentation has been installed on the surface of a cooled radial-inflow turbine. Thermocouples and miniature integrated sensor pressure transducers were installed to measure steady state coolant temperatures, blade wall temperatures, and coolant pressures. These measurements will eventually be used to determine the heat transfer characteristics of the rotor. This paper will describe the procedures used to install and calibrate the instrumentation and the testing methods followed. A limited amount of data will compare the measured values to the predicted values.

Dicicco, L. Danielle; Nowlin, Brent C.; Tirres, Lizet

1994-01-01

270

An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentation developed in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell or battery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. This instrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electronic cards. Software under Hpvee ® was developed for automatic measurements

El-Hassane Aglzim; Amar Rouane; Reddad El-Moznine

2007-01-01

271

40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2009-07-01

272

40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2010-07-01

273

A primer on lower extremity outcome measurement instruments.  

PubMed Central

Tracing the roots of lower extremity outcome scales is an interesting and somewhat bemusing journey. A large number of different grading methods can be found with limited reliability and/or validity testing. The usefulness of these instruments in the assessment of patient outcomes after lower extremity interventions is worrisome. This article focuses on the most commonly used scales and demonstrates an alarming and incestuous pattern of cross-validation with moderate to weak associations between potentially unreliable and crudely validated original instruments.

Saltzman, C. L.; Mueller, C.; Zwior-Maron, K.; Hoffman, R. D.

1998-01-01

274

Measurement of instrument noise spectra at frequencies below 1 hertz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of peak-to-peak values in describing output noise of a magnetometer or low frequency amplifier is of questionable value for certain applications. A more precise statement of instrument noise is made with a plot of the noise power spectral density vs frequency. The spectral density plot provides a rich source of information which can be used in the selection and testing of such instrumentation.

Snare, R. C.; Mcpherron, R. L.

1973-01-01

275

Measurements of particle temperature under combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The particle temperature is a crucial parameter with respect of the characterization of the properties and behaviours of pulverized fuels. The surface temperature measurement of coal particles is studied in an atmospheric entrained-flow reactor and a pres...

S. Clausen

1996-01-01

276

Development of a Ground-Based LIF Instrument for Measuring HOx Radicals: Instrumentation and Calibrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrument for measuringtropospheric OH\\/HO2 radicals by laser-inducedfluorescence developed in our laboratory is presentedin detail. It is based on FAGE (fluorescence assay bygas expansion) technique and OH is both excited anddetected at 308 nm corresponding to its A-X(0,0) band.The alignment of the laser beam, the design of thesample gas inlet, and the devices for the fluorescencedetection are optimized so as

Yugo Kanaya; Yasuhiro Sadanaga; Jun Hirokawa; Yoshizumi Kajii; Hajime Akimoto

2001-01-01

277

An autonomous profiler for near surface temperature measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the profiling instrument SkinDeEP (Skin Depth Experimental Profiler), which measures the temperature of the water column from a depth of about 6 meters to the surface with high resolution thermometers. The instrument operates in an autonomous mode as it has the capability to change buoyancy by inflating a neoprene bladder attached to the body of the profiler. Measurements are recorded only during the ascending phase of the profile so as to minimize disturbances at the surface. Results from deployment of the profiler show strong temperature gradients within the bulk waters under conditions of high insolation. These data were compared to the skin temperatures as measured by the M-AERI (Marine—Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer), a high accuracy infrared spectroradiometer. The corresponding bulk-skin temperature differences, ?T, were shown to have strong dependence on the depth of the bulk measurement during the daytime with low wind speeds, but at higher wind speeds, the depth dependence vanishes. One set of profiles under nighttime conditions is also presented, showing the presence of overturning and thus a heterogeneous temperature structure within the bulk.

Ward, Brian; Minnett, Peter J.

278

Precision and accuracy of three alternative instruments for measuring soil water content in two forest soils of the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the accuracy and precision of three devices for measuring soil water content in both natural and repacked soils and evaluated their temperature sensitivity. Calibrations were developed for a capacitance instrument (ECH2O), a time domain reflectometry cable tester (CT), and a water content reflectometer (WCR) in soils collected from the Wind River and H.J. Andrews Experimental Forests. We compared

Nicole M. Czarnomski; Georgianne W. Moore; Tom G. Pypker; Julian Licata; Barbara J. Bond

2005-01-01

279

Adjustment of the measurement point's position in a double-disc instrument for measuring an involute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In all indexes of the accuracy of gears, the measurement of the error of an involute tooth profile is a difficult technical problem. A double-disc instrument for measuring an involute is introduced, the measuring principle of which is the same as the 'rolling artefact method' developed by PTB. In this paper, the measurement error caused by deviation of the measurement point is analysed. In order to increase the position accuracy of the measurement point, a novel method called the 'error compensation method' is introduced, which searches for the best position of the stylus by tentatively compensating the measurement error caused by deviation of the measurement point. According to analysis and experiment, the stylus's adjustment deviation by the 'error compensation method' is 8 µm.

Zhifeng, Lou; Liding, Wang

2010-10-01

280

EMC Measurements from the Instrument ASPOC Aboard Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present EMC measurements from the instrument Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) aboard the future NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. After a brief description of MMS including the main scientific goals, the outline of the instrument, and an overview about the EMC strategy, we focus on test procedures and results from the radiated EMC tests at ASPOC instrument level.

Eichelberger, H.; Prattes, G.; Fremuth, G.; Giner, F.; Jeszenszky, H.; kürbisch, Ch.; Leichtfried, M.; Torkar, K.

2012-05-01

281

High-temperature emission spectroscopy in support of the MERTIS instrument on BepiColombo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyzing the surface composition of Mercury's regolith from remote-sensing measurements is a challenging task. In preparation for the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spec-trometer (MERTIS) instrument on the BepiColombo mission of the European Space Agency and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, Geochemistry, and Ranging (MESSEN-GER) mission, we have completely refurbished the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) at Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Berlin. MERTIS is a mapping thermal infrared spectrometer covering the wavelength range 7-14 m with an integrated radiometer extending the wavelength coverage out to 40 m. MERTIS will globally map the mineralogy of Mercury with a spatial resolution of 500 m in a spectral range not covered by MESSENGER. To facilitate the data analysis of MERTIS, the PEL has been upgraded to allow measure-ment of the emissivity of Mercury-analogue materials at grain sizes smaller than 25 m and at temperatures of more than 400C, typical for Mercury's low-latitude dayside. The PEL develop-ment follows a multi-step approach. We have already obtained emissivity data at mid-infrared wavelengths that show significant changes in spectral behavior with temperature indicative of changes in the crystal structure of the samples. We have tested new calibration targets that will allow the acquisition of emissivity data over the full wavelength range from 1 to 50 m with good signal-to-noise ratio. Currently we are in the final verification steps of the full setup. In parallel with the laboratory work with are developing and testing data analysis techniques to deal with the wealth of data to be returned by MERTIS. We are currently focusing on approaches using clustering and neural network techniques. These approaches are being tested on our laboratory data as well as on visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance data returned by the MESSENGER spacecraft.

Helbert, Jorn; Maturilli, Alessandro; D'Amore, Mario; Hiesinger, Harald; Solomon, Sean C.

282

Hydrothermal vent flow and turbulence measurements with acoustic scintillation instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustically derived measurements of hydrothermal vent flow and turbulence were obtained from the active black smoker Dante in the Main Endeavour vent field, using scintillation analysis from one-way transmissions. The scintillation transmitter and receiver array formed a 93 m acoustic path through the buoyant plume 20 m above the structure. The acoustic path was parallel to the valley sidewall where the M2 tidal currents are approximately aligned along ridge due to topographic steering by the valley walls and hence most of the plume displacement is expected to occur along the acoustic path. On one deployment, data were collected for 6.5 weeks and vertical velocities range from 0.1 to 0.2 m/s showing a strong dependence on the spring/neap tidal cycle. The refractive index fluctuations which can be paramaterized in terms of the root-mean-square temperature fluctuations also shows a strong tidal modulation during spring tide.

di Iorio, D.; Xu, G.

2009-12-01

283

Development and testing of the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) cm and mm wavelength occultation instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present initial results from testing a new remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). ATOMMS is designed as a satellite-to-satellite occultation system for monitoring climate. We are developing the prototype instrument for an aircraft to aircraft occultation demonstration. Here we focus on field testing of the ATOMMS instrument, in particular the remote sensing of water by measuring the attenuation caused by the 22 GHz and 183 GHz water absorption lines. Our measurements of the 183 GHz line spectrum along an 820 m path revealed that the AM 6.2 spectroscopic model provdes a much better match to the observed spectrum than the MPM93 model. These comparisons also indicate that errors in the ATOMMS amplitude measurements are about 0.3%. Pressure sensitivity bodes well for ATOMMS as a climate instrument. Comparisons with a hygrometer revealed consistency at the 0.05 mb level, which is about 1% of the absolute humidity. Initial measurements of absorption by the 22 GHz line made along a 5.4 km path between two mountaintops captured a large increase in water vapor similar to that measured by several nearby hygrometers. A storm passage between the two instruments yielded our first measurements of extinction by rain and cloud droplets. Comparisons of ATOMMS 1.5 mm opacity measurements with measured visible opacity and backscatter from a weather radar revealed features simultaneously evident in all three datasets confirming the ATOMMS measurements. The combined ATOMMS, radar and visible information revealed the evolution of rain and cloud amounts along the signal path during the passage of the storm. The derived average cloud water content reached typical continental cloud amounts. These results demonstrated a significant portion of the information content of ATOMMS and its ability to penetrate through clouds and rain which is critical to its all-weather, climate monitoring capability.

Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Stovern, M.; Otarola, A. C.; Young, A.; Wheelwright, B.; Stickney, R.; Albanna, S.; Duffy, B.; Groppi, C.; Hainsworth, J.

2012-02-01

284

Trends in instrumentation for environmental radiation measurements at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Recent instruments developed to fulfill radiation monitoring needs at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are described. Laboratory instruments that measure tritium gas effluents alone, or in the presence of activated air from D-T fusion reactors are discussed. Fully portable systems for gamma, x-ray, and alpha analyses in the field are described. Also included are descriptions of survey instruments that measure low levels of transuranic contaminants and that measure pulsed-neutron dose rates.

Hiebert, R.D.; Wolf, M.A.

1980-01-01

285

Trends in instrumentation for environmental radiation measurements at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Recent instruments developed to fulfill radiation monitoring needs at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are described. Laboratory instruments that measure tritium gas effluents alone, or in the presence of activated air from D-T fusion reactors are discussed. Fully portable systems for gamma, x-ray, and alpha analyses in the field are described. Also included are descriptions of survey instruments that measure low levels of transuranic contaminants and that measure pulsed-neutron dose rates.

Hiebert, R.D.; Wolf, M.A.

1981-02-01

286

Instrumental effects on the temperature and density derived from the light ion mass spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expression for the flux into a retarding potential analyzer (RPA) is derived which takes into account the instrumental effect of a dependence on energy of the solid angle of the acceptance cone. A second instrumental effect of a limited bandpass is briefly discussed. Using the (LIMS) instrument on SCATHA, it is shown that temperatures and densities derived without considering the effect of the solid angle dependence on energy will be too low, dramatically so for E(t) E(1), where E(1) is the e folding distance of the solid angle dependence and E(t) is the thermal energy of the plasma. For E(t) E(1), there is effectively no impact on the derived temperatures and densities if the solid angle effect is ignored.

Craven, P. D.; Reasoner, D. L.

1983-01-01

287

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illuminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature.

Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

288

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illiminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature. 3 figs.

Angel, S.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

1986-04-22

289

10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the activity...35.2060 Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the activity...shall maintain a record of instrument calibrations required by §...

2009-01-01

290

10 CFR 35.60 - Possession, use, and calibration of instruments used to measure the activity of unsealed...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Possession, use, and calibration of instruments used to measure the activity...Possession, use, and calibration of instruments used to measure the activity...retain a record of each instrument calibration required by this...

2010-01-01

291

10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the activity...35.2060 Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the activity...shall maintain a record of instrument calibrations required by §...

2010-01-01

292

10 CFR 35.60 - Possession, use, and calibration of instruments used to measure the activity of unsealed...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Possession, use, and calibration of instruments used to measure the activity...Possession, use, and calibration of instruments used to measure the activity...retain a record of each instrument calibration required by this...

2009-01-01

293

Design Principles of the LVT-2 Model Laser Instrument for the Measurement of Visual Characteristics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The LVT-2 model laser visual acuity measuring instrument, after its model improvement, it not only is capable of measuring the visual acuity of retina (LVA), but also capable of measuring the MTF of retina. The light path system of the instrument has thre...

W. Sun

1989-01-01

294

Using and Developing Measurement Instruments in Science Education: A Rasch Modeling Approach. Science & Engineering Education Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book meets a demand in the science education community for a comprehensive and introductory measurement book in science education. It describes measurement instruments reported in refereed science education research journals, and introduces the Rasch modeling approach to developing measurement instruments in common science assessment domains,…

Liu, Xiufeng

2010-01-01

295

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement  

DOEpatents

A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

1994-09-20

296

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement  

DOEpatents

A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01

297

Development of an Instrument to Measure Fourteen Theoretical Factors for the Attribution of Charisma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study attempted to validate Hicks' (1991) findings of 11 factors which could be used to measure the attribution of charisma. Three new factors were added and their validity measured. The instrument measured whether followers differentiated between ch...

T. J. Bach M. J. Labosky

1993-01-01

298

James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Calibration and Verification of High-Accuracy Instrumentation to Measure Heat Flow in Cryogenic Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an upcoming flagship observatory mission scheduled to be launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. The requirement for multiple thermal zoned results in the instruments being thermally connected to five external radiators via individual high purity aluminum heat straps. Thermal-vacuum and thermal balance testing of the flight instruments at the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element level will take place within a newly constructed shroud cooled by gaseous helium inside Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Space environment Simulator (SES). The flight external radiators are not available during ISIM-level thermal vacuum/thermal testing, so they will be replaced in test with stable and adjustable thermal boundaries with identical physical interfaces to the flight radiators. Those boundaries are provided by specially designed test hardware which also measures the heat flow within each of the five heat straps to an accuracy of less than 2 mW, which is less than 5% of the minimum predicted heat flow values. Measurement of the heat loads to this accuracy is essential to ISIM thermal model correlation, since thermal models are more accurately correlated when temperature data is supplemented by accurate knowledge of heat flows. It also provides direct verification by test of several high-level thermal requirements. Devices that measure heat flow in this manner have historically been referred to a "Q-meters". Perhaps the most important feature of the design of the JWST Q-meters is that it does not depend on the absolute accuracy of its temperature sensors, but rather on knowledge of precise heater power required to maintain a constant temperature difference between sensors on two stages, for which a table is empirically developed during a calibration campaign in a small chamber at GSFC. This paper provides a brief review of Q-meter design, and discusses the Q-meter calibration procedure including calibration chamber modifications and accommodations, handling of differing conditions between calibration and usage, the calibration process itself, and the results of the tests used to determine if the calibration is successful.

Comber, Brian; Glazer, Stuart

2012-01-01

299

Measuring Moduli Of Elasticity At High Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shorter, squatter specimens and higher frequencies used in ultrasonic measurement technique. Improved version of piezo-electric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique used to measure moduli of elasticity of solid materials at high temperatures.

Wolfenden, Alan

1993-01-01

300

NASA-6 atmospheric measuring station. [calibration, functional checks, and operation of measuring instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information required to calibrate, functionally check, and operate the Instrumentation Branch equipment on the NASA-6 aircraft is provided. All procedures required for preflight checks and in-flight operation of the NASA-6 atmospheric measuring station are given. The calibration section is intended for only that portion of the system maintained and calibrated by IN-MSD-12 Systems Operation contractor personnel. Maintenance is not included.

1973-01-01

301

Evaluating the performance of pulse and oscilloscope measuring instruments by the accuracy of instantaneous signal measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic standards (GOST 8.009-84 and GOST 8.256-77) establish the need for separate static and dynamic specifications for all Mls. These demands have been published as specific lists of MI parameters and values as established by GOST 22261-82, GOST 22737-77, and GOST 11113-82 standards and other normative documents. Unfortunately, the practice of design of measuring instruments and their metrological support

V. Z. Manevich; É. F. Khamadulin

1987-01-01

302

Minimizing noise-temperature measurement errors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of noise-temperature measurement errors of low-noise amplifiers was performed. Results of this analysis can be used to optimize measurement schemes for minimum errors. For the cases evaluated, the effective noise temperature (Te) of a Ka-band maser can be measured most accurately by switching between an ambient and a 2-K cooled load without an isolation attenuator. A measurement accuracy of 0.3 K was obtained for this example.

Stelzried, C. T.

1992-01-01

303

Safety measurements for heating of instruments for cardiovascular interventions in magnetic particle imaging (MPI) - first experiences.  

PubMed

Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) has emerged as a new imaging method with the potential of delivering images of high spatial and temporal resolutions and free of ionizing radiation. Recent studies demonstrated the feasibility of differentiation between signal-generating and non-signal-generating devices in Magnetic Particle Spectroscopy (MPS) and visualization of commercially available catheters and guide-wires in MPI itself. Thus, MPI seems to be a promising imaging tool for cardiovascular interventions. Several commercially available catheters and guide-wires were tested in this study regarding heating. Heating behavior was correlated to the spectra generated by the devices and measured by the MPI. The results indicate that each instrument should be tested separately due to the wide spectrum of measured temperature changes of signal-generating instruments, which is up to 85°C in contrast to non-signal-generating devices. Development of higher temperatures seems to be a limitation for the use of these devices in cardiovascular interventions. PMID:24691388

Duschka, Robert L; Wojtczyk, Hanne; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Haegele, Julian; Bringout, Gael; Buzug, Thorsten M; Barkhausen, Joerg; Vogt, Florian M

2014-01-01

304

Art therapy assessments and rating instruments: Do they measure up?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many benefits to justify the use of art therapy assessment techniques and rating instruments. However, methodological, theoretical and philosophical problems abound. These problems are explored, in relation to art therapy assessments and their corresponding rating tools. Information about the various types of rating scales is provided, including a comparison of the Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS) rating system and

Donna J. Betts

2006-01-01

305

Measuring Student Attitudes: Semantic Differential or Likert Instruments?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following descriptions of a semantic differential (SD) and test of science-related attitudes (TOSRA)--a Likert-type scale--reports results of using the instruments with secondary school students in various Australian schools (N=1,049 for TOSRA and 1,116 for SD). Suggests SD for general attitude and Likert-type scales of specific attitude…

Schibeci, R. A.

1982-01-01

306

Instruments and field work to measure a Magnetic Resonance Sounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various instruments performing Magnetic Resonance Soundings are briefly introduced. The NUMIS equipment includes two to five modules depending on the investigation depth to reach. It is controlled by a PC which carries out soundings through an automatic pro- cedure leaving to the operator the final choice of the frequency and of the number of stacks to apply. The double

J. Bernard

2007-01-01

307

The Lexington Developmental Scale: An Instrument of Measurement. First Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Lexington Development Scale was designed to be used by the teacher as an instrument for assessing developmentally handicapped children, as an aid in helping parents to better understand their child, as a basis for curriculum planning for the total class and especially for the individual child, as a means for evaluating the progress of the…

United Cerebral Palsy of the Bluegrass, Inc., Lexington, KY.

308

Measurement of strains at high temperatures by means of electro-optics holography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electro-optics holographic-moire interferometry is used to measure strains at temperatures up to 1000 C. A description of the instrumentation developed to carry out the measurements is given. The data processing technique is also explained. Main problems encountered in recording patterns at high temperatures are analyzed and possible solutions are outlined. Optical results are compared with strain gage values obtained with instrumented specimens and with theoretical results. Very good agreement is found between optical, strain gage and theoretical results.

Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, G.; Vaitekunas, Jeffrey

1991-01-01

309

Advances in turbine blade temperature measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation pyrometry principles and imaging methods like photography and photoelectric scanning are combined to make accurate research quality temperature measurements on turbine airfoils. Two systems are described for obtaining detailed temperature distribution measurements: an infrared photographic system for stationary vanes and a photoelectric scanning system for rotating blades. An overview is presented outlining the design, calibration methods, and recent test results.

Pollack, F. G.

1976-01-01

310

Dynamic Surface Temperature Measurements in ICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring techniques of the die surface temperature in integrated circuits are reported as very appropriate for failure analysis, for thermal characterization, and for testing modern devices. The paper is arranged as a survey of techniques oriented towards measuring the temperature dynamics of the circuit surface and presenting and discussing both the merits and drawbacks of each technique with regard to

Josep Altet; Wilfrid Claeys; Stefan Dilhaire; Antonio Rubio

2006-01-01

311

Cosmic microwave background dipole spectrum measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) has determined the dipole spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) from 2 to 20/cm. For each frequency the signal is decomposed by fitting to a monopole, a dipole, and a Galactic template for approximately 60% of the sky. The overall dipole spectrum fits the derivative of a Planck function with an amplitude of 3.343 +/- 0.016 mK (95% confidence level), a temperature of 2.714 +/- 0.022 K (95% confidence level), and an rms deviation of 6 x 10(exp -9) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm limited by a detector and cosmic-ray noise. The monopole temperature is consistent with that determined by direct measurement in the accompanying article by Mather et al.

Fixsen, D. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Isaacman, R. B.; Mather, J. C.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.; Shafer, R. A.; Weiss, R.

1994-01-01

312

Temperature and heat flux measurements: Challenges for high temperature aerospace application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measurement of high temperatures and the influence of heat transfer data is not strictly a problem of either the high temperatures involved or the level of the heating rates to be measured at those high temperatures. It is a problem of duration during which measurements are made and the nature of the materials in which the measurements are made. Thermal measurement techniques for each application must respect and work with the unique features of that application. Six challenges in the development of measurement technology are discussed: (1) to capture the character and localized peak values within highly nonuniform heating regions; (2) to manage large volumes of thermal instrumentation in order to efficiently derive critical information; (3) to accommodate thermal sensors into practical flight structures; (4) to broaden the capabilities of thermal survey techniques to replace discrete gages in flight and on the ground; (5) to provide supporting instrumentation conduits which connect the measurement points to the thermally controlled data acquisition system; and (6) to develop a class of 'vehicle tending' thermal sensors to assure the integrity of flight vehicles in an efficient manner.

Neumann, Richard D.

1992-01-01

313

Agri-environmental policy measures in Israel: the potential of using market-oriented instruments.  

PubMed

This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use. PMID:21431445

Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

2011-05-01

314

Optical temperature measurements of silicon microbridge emitters.  

PubMed

Microbridges are miniature suspended structures fabricated in silicon. Passing a current through the microbridge can heat it up to the point of incandescence. A glowing microbridge can be used as a wideband light source. This study presents a method for optical measurement of the temperature of a microbridge. Spectroscopic measurements of microbridges are optically challenging, because the multilayer structures cause interference effects. To determine the temperature from the emitted spectrum, the emissivity was modeled with thin-film Fresnel equations. Temperatures of 500-1100 degrees C were obtained from the measured spectra at different levels of applied power. The range is limited by the sensitivity of the detectors at lower power levels and by the stability of the bridge at higher levels. Results of the optical measurements were compared with contact temperature measurements made with a microthermocouple in the same temperature range. The results of the two methods agree within 100 K. PMID:20300142

Shpak, Maksim; Sainiemi, Lauri; Ojanen, Maija; Kärhä, Petri; Heinonen, Martti; Franssila, Sami; Ikonen, Erkki

2010-03-20

315

Air temperature changes in the Canadian Arctic from the early instrumental period to modern times  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a detailed account of air temperature (using four thermal parameters: mean daily air temperature (MDAT), maximum daily temperature (TMAX), minimum daily temperature (TMIN), and diurnal temperature range (DTR)) in the Canadian Arctic from 1819 to 1859. As source data, the authors have used hourly, two-hourly, four-hourly, or six-hourly temperature measurements carried out during exploratory (land or marine)

Rajmund Przybylak; Zsuzsanna Vizi

2005-01-01

316

Research and development of an on-line instrument for measuring cooling air flow of car radiator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new instrument for measuring cooling air flow of car radiator is introduced after analyzing existing instruments and methods, and the measuring principle and design method of new instrument is described in detail too. On-line measurement can be realized by the new instrument, and the information of cooling air flow distribution can also be got during the measuring process. In

Aiqi Bian; Xihan Wang; Yuming Shen

2009-01-01

317

Temperature Sensitive Particle for Velocity and Temperature Measurement.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorescence and fluorescence are often applied to measure the temperature and the concentration of oxygen. The intensity and the lifetime of phosphor depend on the temperature and the oxygen concentration, due to the quenching effect of the phosphor. The present study clarified the effects of temperature on the lifetime of phosphorescence of Porphyrins, Ru(bpy)3^2+ and the europium complex. The phosphorescence lifetime of oil solution / water solution / painted wall were measured with changing temperature and oxygen concentration. In addition, the optical property of the small particles incorporated with the europium complex was investigated in the oil/water. The lifetime was strongly affected by temperature. Then, the temperature sensitive particle (TSParticle) with metal complex was applied to measure temperature in Silicone oil (10cSt) two-dimensionally. Present study is the result of ?High speed three-dimensional direct measurement technology development for the evaluation of heat flux and flow of liquid metal? entrusted to the University of Tokyo by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan(MEXT).

Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji; Iida, Masao

2007-11-01

318

Instrumentation for localized measurements in two-phase flow conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of instrumentation that have been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and its predecessor, Aerojet Nuclear company, at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to investigate two-phase flow phenomenon in a nuclear reactor at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility are discussed: (a) a combination drag disc-turbine transducer (DTT), (b) a multibeam nuclear hardened gamma densitometer system, and (c)

G. G. Neff; R. H. Averill; S. W. Shurts

1979-01-01

319

Sodium Line Reversal Plasma Temperature Measurement System. Topical report No. 8  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Line Reversal System is one of the advanced optical diagnostic instruments developed at DIAL to measure temperatures in the coal combustion environments of large scale facilities. The principles of operation, a description of the system and its capabilities, and the operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

Philip, T.; Bauman, L.; Benton, R.

1993-09-01

320

Optimized instrumentation for edge Te and ne measurements on COMPASS-D tokamak from He I line intensity ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumentation has been developed for the measurement of electron temperature and density profiles at the boundary of COMPASS-D tokamak plasmas from He I line intensities. The technique is applicable to measurements of ne and Te over the relevant ranges of 1017–1020m?3 and 10–500 eV. Spectra from eight viewing chords viewing a thermal helium jet are recorded on a CCD sensor

A. R. Field; P. G. Carolan; N. J. Conway; M. G. O’Mullane

1999-01-01

321

Optimized instrumentation for edge Te and ne measurements on COMPASS-D tokamak from He I line intensity ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumentation has been developed for the measurement of electron temperature and density profiles at the boundary of COMPASS-D tokamak plasmas from He I line intensities. The technique is applicable to measurements of ne and Te over the relevant ranges of 1017-1020 m-3 and 10-500 eV. Spectra from eight viewing chords viewing a thermal helium jet are recorded on a CCD

A. R. Field; P. G. Carolan; N. J. Conway; M. G. O'Mullane

1999-01-01

322

Hydroxyl column abundance measurements: PEPSIOS instrumentation at the Fritz Peak Observatory and data analysis techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the observations and spectral analysis for daytime measurements of the vertical column abundance of hydroxyl (OH) in the earth's atmosphere from the Fritz Peak Observatory in Colorado /(40°N) and from a concurrent series of observations from New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology /(34°N). These are high-resolution measurements of solar ultraviolet absorption by atmospheric OH in the P1(1)2?-->2? electronic transition at 3081.7Å. The Fritz Peak OH database, initiated in 1977, consists of over 19,000 measurements and shows distinct diurnal, seasonal, and long-term variations. New Mexico OH observations began in 1996 using an instrument of comparable design and operation. Data from both locations are in conflict with OH abundances calculated by photochemical models for solar zenith angles less than about /60°. In addition, OH variations observed with respect to latitude, season, and long-term changes are not explained using current models. We present a critical examination of instrument characteristics and spectral analysis, one which indicates no tendency for systematic or interference effects that could contaminate observed OH abundances or their variations. This includes results of sensitivity analyses on synthetic spectra, taking into account temperature and pressure variations along the atmospheric optical path, and effects of absorption by SO2 and CH2O.

Minschwaner, K.; Canty, T.; Burnett, C. R.

2003-02-01

323

Overview of a novel point of care instrument system for measuring whole blood Prothrombin time  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new diagnostic instrument which uses magnetic modulation of an optical signal to rapidly measure whole blood Prothrombin time. The new instrument improves diagnosing and level monitoring by allowing accurate, rapid, low cost near patient testing. The measurement system consists of five major components: a control system; a user interface, a disposable-strip laminate architecture with proprietary chemistry

Greg P. Carpenter; T. Gary Neel; James R. Parker

1994-01-01

324

Measuring Communicative Participation: A Review of Self-Report Instruments in Speech-Language Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To assess the adequacy of self-report instruments in speech-language pathology for measuring a construct called communicative participation. Method: Six instruments were evaluated relative to (a) the construct measured, (b) the relevance of individual items to communicative participation, and (c) their psychometric properties. Results: No…

Eadie, Tanya L.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Deitz, Jean C.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

2006-01-01

325

Measuring Children's Attitudes towards Peers with Disabilities: A Review of Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to identify instruments for measuring children's attitudes towards their peers with disabilities that are suitable for use in epidemiological studies and to report on their psychometric properties. A literature review was conducted to identify instruments measuring at least one of the three components of children's attitudes…

Vignes, Celine; Coley, Nicola; Grandjean, Helene; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Arnaud, Catherine

2008-01-01

326

Cathode-Ray Instrument for Measuring Vibrations of Motor Vanes in the 'Elura' Turbodynamo.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cathode-ray instrument for measuring the vibrations of rotor vanes in the 'Elura' turbodynamo has been patented under authorship certificate No. 160886. The instrument allows the simultaneous measurement, on the screen of its cathode ray tube, of the am...

I. E. Zablotskii Y. A. Korostelev

1974-01-01

327

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide, Grade 8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS), a Standards-Based test, provides educators and the public with valuable information regarding the progress of Arizona's students toward mastering Arizona's reading, writing and mathematics Standards. This specific test, Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is…

Arizona Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

328

The radiation budget of stratocumulus clouds measured by tethered balloon instrumentation: Variability of flux measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of longwave and shortwave radiation were made using an instrument package on the NASA tethered balloon during the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus experiment. Radiation data from two pairs of pyranometers were used to obtain vertical profiles of the near-infrared and total solar fluxes through the boundary layer, while a pair of pyrgeometers supplied measurements of the longwave fluxes in the cloud layer. The radiation observations were analyzed to determine heating rates and to measure the radiative energy budget inside the stratocumulus clouds during several tethered balloon flights. The radiation fields in the cloud layer were also simulated by a two-stream radiative transfer model, which used cloud optical properties derived from microphysical measurements and Mie scattering theory.

Duda, David P.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Cox, Stephen K.

1990-01-01

329

Investigation of the measurement precision of oil analysis instruments, using fully formulated oils. Part 1: spectroscopic instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this study is to determine the variation of the different oil analysis instruments in terms of standard deviation and CV-values, when measuring samples of fully formulated hydraulic and gear oils taken from working systems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In this investigation, two different spectrometric techniques, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES) and rotating disk electrode-optical emission spectrometers

Sven Berg; Ulf Jungmar; Jan Lundberg; Pekka Vähäoja

2011-01-01

330

Improved instrumentation for near-real-time measurement of reactive hydrocarbons, NO{sub 2}, and peroxyacyl nitrates.  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of reactive hydrocarbons and associated nitrogen oxides, NO{sub 2}, and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) is of key importance to unraveling the complex chemistries involved in daytime photochemical oxidant formation and nighttime chemistry driven by the nitrate radical. Recent work has demonstrated that chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with hydrocarbons (and the temperature dependence of the reactions) can be used as a means of detecting a wide variety of organic compounds in the gas phase with sensitivity comparable to or better than that of the conventional flame ionization detection method (Marley and Gaffney, 1998). We have implemented a new design and built a new instrument to evaluate this approach for the monitoring of alkenes. This instrument makes use of a computer-controlled photon-counting system with a reaction chamber operated at room temperature. Signals are compared to those for an ethene standard to estimate relative reactivity. The instrument is described in detail here, along with a new version of a luminol-based chemiluminescence detection system with fast gas chromatography for measurement of NO{sub 2} and PANs. The photon-counting system, the reaction chamber, and the luminol detection system have been combined on one instrument rack for field use on both ground-based and aircraft platforms. Data presented show the response times of the instruments and indicate applications for examining reactive hydrocarbon emissions from both vegetation and anthropogenic sources. In addition, the luminol chemiluminescence instrument was field tested, and the data obtained are compared with data from a commercial NO{sub x} analyzer. Preliminary results demonstrating the potential use of this instrumentation for rapid measurement of key tropospheric trace species are presented and discussed.

Drayton, P. J.; Blazer, C. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

1999-10-06

331

Use of the mathematical modelling method for the investigation of dynamic characteristics of acoustical measuring instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The schematic diagram of a noise measuring device is presented that uses pulse expansion modeling according to the peak or any other measured values, to obtain instrument readings at a very low noise error.

Vasilyev, Y. M.; Lagunov, L. F.

1973-01-01

332

Surface temperature measurement of turbine disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of temperature measurement with a single-wire thermocouple - slip ring system is introduced to measure the surface temperature of the turbine disks in the turbojet engines, and the accuracy of this method is considered. In this case, the limited channels of the slip ring are fully utilized and the measured surface temperatures of the disk are actual and believable enough. The problems in its application, such as the installation of the thermocouples, the cooling of the slip ring, and the balance of the turbine rotor with this system, are discussed briefly.

Wu, Hongdao; Qu, Yuwu; Li, Xungguang; Du, Shengqin

1993-01-01

333

Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (=71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in.(=1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (=6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger.

Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

2002-01-01

334

Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (approx. = 71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in. (approx. = 1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (approx. = 6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger. This work was done by Randy

Selinsky, T.; Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

2002-01-01

335

Temperature control analysis and flight results for the Viking Orbiter 1975 Mars atmospheric water detection instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars atmospheric water detector (MAWD) instrument required a temperature of -70 C at the detector. The monochromator housing required +20 C + or - 1 C. This instrument was located on the scan platform, and slewed across two solar panels. The thermal design for the detector was an open flat plate radiator thermally isolated on four 1-in. tubes, with a flexible strap to the detector. MAWD radiator view factors and heat loads from the spacecraft were determined for the Lander on and off, for all angular positions of the scan platform. Subsystem and system tests were performed using the 25-ft diameter solar simulator. In-flight results have shown no anomalies, and no degradation has been observed. Servo-controlled heaters are used to control the temperature.

Kavanagh, H. M.; Murphy, F. L.

1978-01-01

336

Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, %5CDynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors%22. The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

2013-10-01

337

Measuring Contact Thermal Conductances at Low Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument measures thermal conductance of pressed contacts in liquid helium. Makes measurements automatically as function of force on pairs of brass samples having various surface finishes. Developed as part of effort to determine heat-transfer characteristics of bolted joints on cryogenically cooled focal planes in infrared equipment. Cylindrical chamber hangs from cover plate in bath of liquid helium. Inside chamber rocker arm applies controlled force to samples. Upper sample made slightly wider than lower one so two samples remain in complete contact even under slight lateral misalignment.

Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Brooks, Walter; Spivak, Alan L.; Marks, William G., Jr.

1987-01-01

338

Comparison Measurements of Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a process initiated through the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) program to make Silicon Carbide (SiC) temperature monitors available for experiments, a capability was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. INL selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors.

Joy L. Rempe; Keith G. Condie; Darrell L. Knudson; Lance Lewis Snead

2010-01-01

339

The Aeroclipper: A new instrument for quasi-Lagrangian measurements at the air-sea interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aeroclipper is a new balloon developed by CNES. The Aeroclipper is a balloon equipped with a cable extended by a guide-rope in contact with the surface of the ocean. The balloon is vertically stabilised at a given height (currently 40 to 60m above the sea surface) and move on quasi-Lagrangian trajectories depending on the surface wind. LMD (Laboratoire de Méteorologie Dynamique), LodyC (Laboratoire d'océanographie physique et de Climatologie) and ENSTA (Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées) developed an instrumentation adapted to this new measurement system. This instrumentation is distributed on one atmospheric gondola and one oceanic gondola. The aim is to measure surface physical parameters (Air and sea surface temperatures, sea surface salinity, wind, pressure and humidity) and to derive turbulent fluxes of moisture, heat and momentum. The Aeroclippers will give legs of the different parameters at a relatively high spatial resolution and thus information on the perturbation of these parameters at mesoscale. A first test of the full system will be performed from Banyuls (France) during spring 2004. The first scientific use of the Aeroclipper is planned in February 2005 in the Indian Ocean South of the Equator in link with the pilot phase of the Vasco (Variability of the Atmosphere at the intra-Seasonal time scale and Coupling with the Ocean) experiment.

Duvel, J. P.; Reverdin, G.; Pichon, T.; Vargas, A.

340

Laser interferometric thermometry for substrate temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates a simple noncontact optical thermometry technique based on the laser interferometric measurement of the thermal expansion and refractive index change of a thin transparent substrate or temperature sensor. The technique is shown to be extendible from room temperature to at least 900 C with the proper choice of a thermally stable sensor. Sensor materials investigated included c-axis

Katherine L. Saenger; Julie Gupta

1991-01-01

341

Precise temperature control for measurement purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning we discuss a few models of electrothermal devices intended for the measurements of thermal parameters of materials, components or devices. A solution to the task of optimal control of furnace batch temperature is presented. On the basis of a multisectional thermal system model with equivalent delays, the solution to the reactor batch optimal temperature control is found.

M. Orzylowski; T. Kaluzniacki; Z. Rudolf; G. Nowicki

1999-01-01

342

The measurement of radiant temperature in neonatal thermal environments.  

PubMed

Heat exchange through radiation is recognized as the dominant mode of heat transfer for an infant nursed in an incubator or warmer. A radiometer was constructed to measure the planar radiant temperature experienced by the infant. Two heat-flow sensors of different emissivities were mounted onto a heat sink such that one measured principally convective heat exchange while the other measured convective and radiant heat exchange. The radiant heat exchange was obtained from the difference between these values, from which the planar radiant temperature could be calculated. The spatial variation in planar radiant temperatures within an incubator and warmer was determined by orienting the instrument towards the five orthogonal hemispheres sensed by the infant abdomen, sides, head, and feet. In the incubator, the spatial variation in radiant temperatures exceeded 2 degrees C, or four times the spatial variation in air temperatures (0.5 degrees C). The radiant warmer had a spatial variation of 18 degrees C in radiant temperature at three-fourths of maximum power, corresponding to a variation in heat flux over the infant's surface of 100 W/m2. This thermal asymmetry would be expected to influence the variation in surface skin temperature, and thus the thermal stimuli to the infant thermoregulatory system. Further research is needed to understand the clinical significance of this asymmetry. Furthermore, the precise control over air temperature in modern incubators provides a false sense of thermal control and stability. Radiant temperature needs to be measured in addition to air temperature if the thermal performances of incubators and warmers are to be fully understood. PMID:1393209

Sinclair, A

1992-01-01

343

A Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer instrument for the Measurement of Tropospheric HO2 and RO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory characterisations and field deployments of a Peroxy Radical Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (PerCIMS) instrument have been performed. During peroxy radical measurements with this instrument, ambient air is sampled through a 20-mum diameter orifice into an inlet held at low-pressure, typically 150 torr. Peroxy radicals are converted to other species in the instrument inlet through the addition of NO and

G. D. Edwards; C. A. Cantrell; S. Stephens; R. E. Shetter; L. Mauldin; E. Kosciuch; D. J. Tanner; F. L. Eisele

2002-01-01

344

POST-SHOCK TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS OF ALUMINUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-shock temperature is an important quantity in shock physics experiments for constraining the dynamic equations of state of materials. A high-speed, infrared, multi-wavelength pyrometer has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for measurements in the temperature range from 400 to 1200 K. With customized front end optics, permitting concurrent VISAR measurements in the same optical path, validation experiments

A. Seifter; S. T. Stewart; M. R. Furlanetto; G. B. Kennedy; J. R. Payton

345

Measuring the temperature of microparticles in plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Temperature sensitive features of particular phosphors were utilized for measuring the temperature T{sub p} of microparticles, confined in the sheath of a rf plasma. The experiments were performed under variation of argon pressure and rf power of the process plasma. T{sub p} has been determined by evaluation of characteristic fluorescent lines. The results for T{sub p} measurements are strongly dependent on rf power and gas pressure.

Maurer, Horst; Basner, Ralf [INP Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Kersten, Holger [IEAP Kiel, Leibnizstr. 19, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

2008-09-15

346

BOOK REVIEW: Instrumentation & Measurement Pocket Book, Third Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book is divided into four parts: `Systems', `System Components', `Measurements' and `Microprocessor Based Systems'.The first part of the book introduces Measurement Systems, Performance Terminology, Errors, Dynamic Characteristics, Loading Effects, Noise and Reliability.The `Measurement Systems' subsection is not sufficiently concise, as only a small number of derived units have been listed. The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been publishing posters

W. Bolton

2001-01-01

347

Temperature coefficient of the modulus of rigidity of aircraft instrument diaphragm and spring materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data are presented on the variation of the modulus of rigidity in the temperature range -20 to +50 degrees C. of a number of metals which are of possible use for elastic elements for aircraft and other instruments. The methods of the torsional pendulum was used to determine the modulus of rigidity and its temperature coefficient for aluminum, duralumin, monel metal, brass, phosphor bronze, coin silver, nickel silver, three high carbon steels, and three alloy steels. It was observed that tensile stress affected the values of the modulus by amounts of 1 per cent or less.

Brombacher, W G; Melton, E R

1931-01-01

348

Temperature Coefficient of the Modulus of Rigidity of Aircraft Instrument Diaphragm and Spring Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data are presented on the variation of the modulus of rigidity in the temperature range -20 to +50 degrees C. of a number of metals which are of possible use for elastic elements for aircraft and other instruments. The methods of the torsional pendulum was used to determine the modulus of rigidity and its temperature coefficient for aluminum, duralumin, monel metal, brass, phosphor bronze, coin silver, nickel silver, three high carbon steels, and three alloy steels. It was observed that tensile stress affected the values of the modulus by amounts of 1 per cent or less.

Brombacher, W G; Melton, E R

1931-01-01

349

Surface flux estimation using radiometric temperature: A dual-temperature-difference method to minimize measurement errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface temperature serves as a key boundary condition that defines the partitioning of surface radiation into sensible and latent heat fluxes. Surface brightness temperature measurements from satellites offer the unique possibility of mapping surface heat fluxes at regional scales. Because uncertainties in satellite measurements of surface radiometric temperature arise from atmospheric corrections, surface emissivity, and instrument calibrations, a number of studies have found significant discrepancies between modeled and measured heat fluxes when using radiometric temperature. Recent research efforts have overcome these uncertainties and in addition have accounted for the difference between radiometric and aerodynamic temperature by considering soil and vegetative-canopy aerodynamic resistances. The major remaining obstacle to using satellite data for regional heat flux estimation is inadequate density of near-surface air temperature observations. In this paper we describe a simple, operational, double-difference approach for relating surface sensible heat flux to remote observations of surface brightness temperature, vegetative cover and type, and measurements of near-surface wind speed and air temperature from the synoptic weather network. A double difference of the time rate of change in radiometric and air temperature observations is related to heat flux. This double-difference approach reduces both the errors associated with deriving a radiometric temperature and with defining meteorological quantities at large scales. The scheme is simpler than other recent approaches because it requires minimal ground-based data and does not require modeling boundary layer development. The utility of this scheme is tested with ground-based radiometric temperature observations from several arid and subhumid climates with a wide range of vegetative cover and meteorological conditions.

Norman, J. M.; Kustas, W. P.; Prueger, J. H.; Diak, G. R.

2000-08-01

350

Set of axes compensation and measurement between multitudinous photoelectric instruments under shape changing carrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The set of axes compensation and measurement between multitudinous photoelectric instruments is represented in this paper, these photoelectric instrument is installed in the stuffless, proteiform ship, armored car shell, or some instrumentation and command systems, the set of axes precision between these photoelectric instrument need be insured, the compensation method dealing with the stochastic shape change is introduced in this paper. The principle is described as follows: it begins that the deformation amount of each installation site is acquired utilizing inertial measurement unit, then, the coordinate system of two photoelectric instrument is rotated according to the deformation amount, the coordinate system of one photoelectric instrument is treated as standard, the other one is formed by rotating the standard coordinate system twice and three times, finally, the other photoelectric instrument is compensated utilizing matrix manipulation method, adapting to the deformation environment of dynamic random is the characteristic of the compensation method, so the measurement system have the ability of real time simulating deformation and measuring compensation effect, the measurement of simulating the continuous deformation utilizing the three-axis stable platform and measuring compensation effect utilizing the zenith tube is introduced in this work, the three-dimensional analog deformation is achieved utilizing coordinate vector method, finally, the compensation method and measuring method is testified by experiment.

Wang, Jing; Chen, Wen-Jian; Han, Jun; Yu, Xun

2009-05-01

351

Measuring transient temperatures in brake rotors  

SciTech Connect

A vehicle's kinetic energy is converted into thermal energy when its brakes are applied. If this energy is dissipated in the disc rotor, it can cause local temperature rises which induce disc distortions. Although analysis of this thermal phenomenon has been attempted by several means, a study of the transient temperature distribution has not been made due to the difficulty of measuring it by conventional means. The system to be discussed in this article makes non-contact measurement possible even in a narrow space. Temperature distribution patterns during a revolution of high speed braking can be determined for both sides of a disc rotor.

Idogaki, T.; Kawai, H.; Harada, H.; Inoune, H.

1987-06-01

352

MISSE 1 and 2 Tray Temperature Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE 1 & 2) was deployed August 10,2001 and retrieved July 30,2005. This experiment is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC. NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, NASA-JSC, the Materials Laboratory at the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Boeing Phantom Works. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate performance, stability, and long term survivability of materials and components planned for use by NASA and DOD on future LEO, synchronous orbit, and interplanetary space missions. Temperature is an important parameter in the evaluation of space environmental effects on materials. The MISSE 1 & 2 had autonomous temperature data loggers to measure the temperature of each of the four experiment trays. The MISSE tray-temperature data loggers have one external thermistor data channel, and a 12 bit digital converter. The MISSE experiment trays were exposed to the ISS space environment for nearly four times the nominal design lifetime for this experiment. Nevertheless, all of the data loggers provided useful temperature measurements of MISSE. The temperature measurement system has been discussed in a previous paper. This paper presents temperature measurements of MISSE payload experiment carriers (PECs) 1 and 2 experiment trays.

Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.

2006-01-01

353

A portable instrument for 3-D dynamic robot measurements using triangulation and laser tracking  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the development and validation of a 3-D measurement instrument capable of determining the static and dynamic performance of industrial robots to ISO standards. Using two laser beams to track an optical target attached to the robot end-effector, the target position coordinates may be estimated, relative to the instrument coordinate frame, to a high accuracy using triangulation principles. The effect of variations in the instrument geometry from the nominal model is evaluated through a kinematic model of the tracking head. Significant improvements of the measurement accuracy are then obtained by a simple adjustment of the main parameters. Extensive experimental test results are included to demonstrate the instrument performance. Finally typical static and dynamic measurement results for an industrial robot are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the instrument.

Mayer, J.R.R. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Parker, G.A. (Univ. of Surrey (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1994-08-01

354

A New Automatic System for Angular Measurement and Calibration in Radiometric Instruments  

PubMed Central

This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements.

Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohorquez, Miguel Angel Martinez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

2010-01-01

355

Ultra Low Temperature Ultra Low Power Instrument Packages for Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Achievement of solar system exploration roadmap goals will involve robotic or human deployment and long-term operation of surface science packages remote from human presence, thus requiring autonomous, self-powered operation. The major challenge such packages face will be operating during long periods of darkness in extreme cold potentially without the Pu238 based power and thermal systems available to Apollo era packages (ALSEP). Development of such science payloads will thus require considerable optimization of instrument and subsystem design, packaging and integration for a variety of planetary surface environments in order to support solar system exploration fully. Our work supports this process through the incorporation of low temperature operational components and design strategies which radically minimize power, mass, and cost while maximizing the performance under extreme surface conditions that are in many cases more demanding than those routinely experienced by spacecraft in deep space. Chief instruments/instrument package candidates include those which could provide long-term monitoring of the surface and subsurface environments for fundamental science and human crew safety. The initial attempt to design a 10 instrument environmental monitoring package with a solar/battery based power system led to a package with a unacceptably large mass (500 kg) of which over half was battery mass. In phase 1, a factor of 5 reduction in mass was achieved, first through the introduction of high performance electronics capable of operating at far lower temperature and then through the use of innovative thermal balance strategies involving the use of multi-layer thin materials and gravity-assisted heat pipes. In phase 2, reported here, involves strategies such as universal incorporation of ULT/ULP digital and analog electronics, and distributed or non-conventionally packaged power systems. These strategies will be required to meet the far more challenging thermal requirements of operating through a normal 28 day diurnal cycle. The limited temperature range of efficient battery operation remains the largest obstacle.

Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Yeh, P. S.; Cooper, L.; Feng, S.; Young, E.

2010-01-01

356

Ultra Low Temperature Ultra Low Power Instrument Packages for Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Achievement of solar system exploration roadmap goals will involve robotic or human deployment and longterm operation of surface science packages remote from human presence, thus requiring autonomous, self-powered operation. The major challenge such packages face will be operating during long periods of darkness in extreme cold potentially without the Pu238 based power and thermal systems available to Apollo era packages (ALSEP). Development of such science payloads will thus require considerable optimization of instrument and subsystem design, packaging and integration for a variety of planetary surface environments in order to support solar system exploration fully. Our work supports this process through the incorporation of low temperature operational components and design strategies which radically minimize power, mass, and cost while maximizing the performance under extreme surface conditions that are in many cases more demanding than those routinely experienced by spacecraft in deep space. Chief instruments/instrument package candidates include those which could provide long-term monitoring of the surface and subsurface environments for fundamental science and human crew safety. The initial attempt to design a 10 instrument environmental monitoring package with a solar/battery based power system led to a package with a unacceptably large mass (500 kg) of which over half was battery mass. In phase 1, a factor of 5 reduction in mass was achieved, first through the introduction of high performance electronics capable of operating at far lower temperature and then through the use of innovative thermal balance strategies involving the use of multi-layer thin materials and gravity-assisted heat pipes. In phase 2, reported here, involves strategies such as universal incorporation of ULT/ULP digital and analog electronics, and distributed or non-conventionally packaged power systems. These strategies will be required to meet the far more challenging thermal requirements of operating through a normal 28 day diurnal cycle. The limited temperature range of efficient battery operation remains the largest obstacle.

Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Yeh, P. S.; Cooper, L.; Feng, S.; Young, E.

2010-01-01

357

Comparison Measurements of Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitors  

SciTech Connect

As part of the efforts initiated through the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) program to make Silicon Carbide (SiC) temperature monitors available, a capability was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. INL selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. To demonstrate this new capability, comparison measurements were completed by INL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on identical samples subjected to identical irradiation conditions. Results reported in this paper indicate that the resistance measurement approach can yield similar peak irradiation temperatures if appropriate equipment is used and appropriate procedures are followed.

J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

2010-06-01

358

Development and Validation of Scores from an Instrument Measuring Student Test-Taking Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the expectancy-value model of achievement motivation as a basis, this study's purpose is to develop, apply, and validate scores from a self-report instrument measuring student test-taking motivation. Sampled evidence of construct validity for the present sample indicates that a number of the items in the instrument could be used as an…

Eklof, Hanna

2006-01-01

359

Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

2010-01-01

360

Classroom Social Capital: Development of a Measure of Instrumental Social Support within Academic Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many universities implement programs and interventions to increase students' perceived instrumental social support within the classroom setting, yet to date, no measures exist to adequately assess such perceptions. In response to this need, the current research developed an operational definition of instrumental classroom social support and also…

Shecter, Julie

2009-01-01

361

Design and development of a fast scan infrared detection and measurement instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared microscope instrument measures and plots the infrared profile of semiconductor chips, transistors and integrated circuits. Infrared analyses yields information on electrical and physical properties, enabling manufacturing improvements in semiconductor performance and reliability. Operational performance and main sections of the instrument are given.

Dostoomian, A. S.; Hamiter, L.; Nowakowski, M.; Vanzetti, R.

1971-01-01

362

Global trends of measured surface air temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze surface air temperature data from available meteorological stations with principal focus on the period 1880-1985. The temperature changes at mid- and high latitude stations separated by less than 1000 km are shown to be highly correlated; at low latitudes the correlation falls off more rapidly with distance for nearby stations. We combine the station data in a way which is designed to provide accurate long-term variations. Error estimates are based in part on studies of how accurately the actual station distributions are able to reproduce temperature change in a global data set produced by a three-dimensional general circulation model with realistic variability. We find that meaningful global temperature change can be obtained for the past century, despite the fact that the meteorological stations are confined mainly to continental and island locations. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5°-0.7°C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres; the northern hemisphere result is similar to that found by several other investigators. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. The warm period in recent years differs qualitatively from the earlier warm period centered about 1940; the earlier warming was focused at high northern latitudes, while the recent warming is more global. We present selected graphs and maps of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones. A computer tape of the derived regional and global temperature changes is available from the authors.

Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

1987-11-01

363

Mid-infrared reflectance and transmittance measurements in the laboratory using field instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses methods developed for measuring the reflectance and transmittance of solid materials in the laboratory using instruments designed for the field. Having the ability to use field instruments to obtain lab-quality measurements negates the need for redundant instrumentation. In our work we use an ABB MR170 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroradiometer to collect infrared spectra of natural and manmade surfaces in a variety of terrains and environments. Our laboratory protocols are optimized for the 3-14?m region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We describe our measurement protocols and present sample data.

Jackson, Andre; Nash, Bryan; Ifarraguerri, Agustin

2010-04-01

364

Device and method for self-verifying temperature measurement and control  

DOEpatents

A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cannon, Collins P. (Kearney, MO); Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-10-29

365

An Algorithm for Express Temperature Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long time of measurement is a common disadvan? tage of most contemporary medical thermometers including digital thermometers based on conductive ther? mal exchange with the object of measurement. Specificity of a living organism as an object of temperature monitor? ing makes it difficult to solve this problem [1]. Let us con? sider modern approaches to solution of this problem. The

I. A. Dolgova; B. V. Chuvikin

2009-01-01

366

An instrument for spray droplet size and velocity measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes laser light scattering techniques that measure the size of single droplets at a time. The method has the advantage of being insensitive to the absolute intensity of light scattered and absorbed by the droplet and simultaneously measures the droplet size and velocity. This technique experienced difficulties when applied to high number density sprays, which was alleviated by

W. D. Bacholo; C. F. Hess; C. A. Hartwell

1979-01-01

367

Novel Instrument Techniques to Measure Magnetospheric Ion Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the variable transport of solar wind and ionospheric plasma through the magnetosphere is critical for global prediction of magnetospheric structure and dynamics, particularly for interpolation of single- point in situ measurements and development of predictive tools for space weather. Measuring the plasmasheet composition (H+, O+, He+, He++) from these variable sources enables understanding the source of the ring current

H. O. Funsten; E. A. MacDonald; M. F. Thomsen; E. E. Dors; P. H. Janzen; R. M. Skoug; G. D. Reeves; D. T. Young; J.-Jahn

2006-01-01

368

Alternate instrumental methods of measuring scorch and cure characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the development of the oscillating disk curemeter over 30 years ago, standard conditions for measuring scorch times (time till the onset of vulcanization) were developed. ISO 3417 and ASTM D2084 describe ts1 and ts2 test parameters which are accepted by the rubber industry as a method for measuring scorch times. ts1 is the time until one torque unit rise

Erwin Scheers

1995-01-01

369

Practical resolution requirements of measurement instruments for precise characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different ways to evaluate the optical performances of auto-stereoscopic 3D displays are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the crosstalk measurements that can be performed by measuring, either the precise angular emission at one or few locations on the display surface, or the full display surface emission from very specific locations in front of the display. Using measurements made in the two ways with different instruments on different auto-stereoscopic displays, we show that measurement instruments need to match the resolution of the human eye to obtain reliable results in both cases. Practical requirements in terms of angular resolution for viewing angle measurement instruments and in terms of spatial resolution for imaging instruments are derived and verified on practical examples.

Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Collomb-Patton, Véronique; Bignon, Thibault

2014-03-01

370

Future instrumentation and missions for measurements of tropospheric trace species from space: Workshop recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was recommended that gas filter correlation radiometry and high-resolution interferometry be exploited and expanded for measurements of the distribution of tropospheric trace gases. Instruments and missions were identified and discussed. Several instrument/measurement/mission feasibility studies were recommended, including: a three-layer measurement of carbon monoxide, using a nadir-viewing gas filter correlation radiometer; a lower or middle tropospheric measurement of methane, using a nadir-viewing gas filter correlation radiometer; and a survey of lower, middle, and upper tropospheric trace gases using a nadir-viewing high-resolution interferometer operating in the thermal emission mode. It was also concluded that lidar systems appear to have the potential of obtaining measurments of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols from space. In addition to the specific instrument/mission recommendations, the panels made several general recommendations that may lead to future spaceborne instruments, techniques, and missions for tropospheric research.

1987-01-01

371

Laboratory Measurements of the Ozone Absorption Coefficient in the Wavelength Region 339 to 362 nm at Different Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instrumentation for the absolute measurement of the ozone absorption coefficient in the Huggins bands at different temperatures was set up. Ozone is produced with an electrical discharge and stored cryogenically; differential absorption measurements are c...

M. Cacciani A. Disarra G. Fiocco

1987-01-01

372

Instrument for Contactless Measuring of Parameters of Thin Semiconductive Films.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device for rapid measurement of parameters of semiconductor films is described. The apparatus removes the need for direct contact of electrodes upon test specimens and permits the study of parameter distribution along the film, as well as the investigat...

M. K. Sheinkman I. B. Shulga

1967-01-01

373

Instrumentation for Measurement of Aircraft Noise and Sonic Boom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A jet aircraft noise and sonic boom measuring device which converts sound pressure into electric current is described. An electric current proportional to the sound pressure level at a condenser microphone is produced and transmitted over a cable, amplifi...

A. J. Zuckerwar

1975-01-01

374

Remote Measurement of Upper Atmospheric Density: Instrument Definition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study conducted previously at the Space Physics Research Laboratory, University of Michigan (Hays et al., 1988) has concluded that measurement of the spectral intensity of the O sub 2 atmospheric band is the most feasible technique. The basic determinat...

P. B. Hays J. H. Yee V. J. Abreu

1991-01-01

375

Instrumentation Research for Radiation Measurements in the Marine Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes four years continuance of research into behaviors of minute traces of artificial and natural radioactivity in the ocean and development of means for detecting and measuring extremely small changes of ionizing radiation in the marine ...

T. R. Folsom

1974-01-01

376

Instrument for air conductivity measurements in cloud chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a device for measuring air conductivity in a large cloud chamber. Two cylindrical aspiration capacitors with an inner collecting plate ensure measurement of the polar conductivity of air in the presence of aerosol particles. The flow velocity in the capacitor is 0.85 m\\/sec and the bulk discharge is 0.03 cu m\\/sec. The electrometric amplifiers with a vibrating

V. V. Smirnov; V. A. Poleshchuk; Kh. D. Liampert

1974-01-01

377

New instrumentation for precise (n,?) measurements at ILL Grenoble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of eight Ge detectors for coincidence measurements of ? rays from neutron-capture reactions has been constructed at the PF1B cold-neutron facility of the Institut Laue-Langevin. The detectors arranged in one plane every 45° can be used for angular correlation measurements. The neutron collimation line of the setup provides a neutron beam of 12 mm in diameter and the capture flux of about 108/(s × cm2) at the target position, with a negligible neutron halo. With the setup up to 109 ?? and up to 108 triple-? coincidence events have been collected in a day measurement. Precise energy and efficiency calibrations up to 10 MeV are easily performed with 27Al(n,?)28Al and 35Cl(n,?)36Cl reactions. Test measurements have shown that neutron binding energies can be determined with an accuracy down to a few eV and angular correlation coefficients measured with a precision down to a percent level. The triggerless data collected with a digital electronics and acquisition allows to determine half-lives of excited levels in the nano- to microsecond range. The high resolving power of double- and triple-? time coincidences allows significant improvements of excitation schemes reported in previous (n,?) works and complements high-resolution ?-energy measurements at the double-crystal Bragg spectrometer GAMS of ILL.

Urban, W.; Jentschel, M.; Märkisch, B.; Materna, Th; Bernards, Ch; Drescher, C.; Fransen, Ch; Jolie, J.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Simpson, G. S.

2013-03-01

378

Measuring nicotine dependence among youth: a review of available approaches and instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews issues and concepts related to the measurement of nicotine dependence among youth. The primary objectives of this review are to: (1) review the measures of nicotine dependence currently being used; and (2) delineate a future research agenda in an attempt to advance the quality of measurement and instrumentation for this important research endeavor. Existing measures of nicotine

Suzanne M. Colby; Stephen T. Tiffany; Saul Shiffman; Raymond S. Niaura

2000-01-01

379

Laser-based strain measurements for high temperature applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Instrumentation and Control Technology Division at NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a high performance optical strain measurement system for high temperature applications using wires and fibers. The system is based on Yamaguchi's two-beam speckle-shift strain measurement technique. The system automatically calculates surface strains at a rate of 5 Hz using a digital signal processor in a high speed micro-computer. The system is fully automated, and can be operated remotely. This report describes the speckle-shift technique and the latest NASA system design. It also shows low temperature strain test results obtained from small diameter tungsten, silicon carbide, and sapphire specimens. These specimens are of interest due to their roles in composite materials research at NASA Lewis.

Lant, Christian T.

1992-01-01

380

Laser-based strain measurements for high temperature applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Instrumentation and Control Technology Division at NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a high performance optical strain measurement system for high temperature applications using wires and fibers. The system is based on Yamaguchi's two-beam speckle-shift strain measurement technique. The system automatically calculates surface strains at a rate of 5 Hz using a digital signal processor in a high speed micro-computer. The system is fully automated, and can be operated remotely. This report describes the speckle-shift technique and the latest NASA system design. It also shows low temperature strain test results obtained from small diameter tungsten, silicon carbide, and sapphire specimens. These specimens are of interest due to their roles in composite materials research at NASA Lewis.

Lant, Christian T.

1992-09-01

381

TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED DESORPTION: PRINCIPLES, INSTRUMENT DESIGN, AND DEMONSTRATION WITH NAALH4  

SciTech Connect

This article is a brief introduction to temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), an analytical technique devised to analyze, in this case, materials for their potential as hydrogen storage materials. The principles and requirements of TPD are explained and the different components of a generic TPD apparatus are described. The construction of a modified TPD instrument from commercially available components is reported together with the control and acquisition technique used to create a TPD spectrum. The chemical and instrumental parameters to be considered in a typical TPD experiment and the analytical utility of the technique are demonstrated by the dehydrogenation of titanium-doped NaAlH{sub 4} by means of thermally programmed desorption.

Stowe, A; Ragaiy Zidan, R

2006-11-07

382

What does the Ashworth scale really measure and are instrumented measures more valid and precise?  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore the limitations of the Ashworth scale for measuring spasticity. An isokinetic dynamometer to quantify resistance to passive stretch and surface EMG was used to verify if a stretch response occurred and, if so, at what joint angle. The authors sought to determine which components of passive resistance (magnitude, rate of change, onset angle of stretch, or velocity dependence) were most related to Ashworth scores and which were related to motor function in cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-two individuals with spastic CP (11 males, 11 females; mean age 11.9 years, SD 4.3) and a comparison group of nine children without CP (four males, five females; mean age 11.3 years, SD 2.5) participated in the study. The group with CP included those with a diagnosis of spastic diplegia, hemiplegia, or quadriplegia, distributed across Gross Motor Functional Classification Levels. Procedures included: (1) clinical assessment at the knee joint, (2) functional assessments, and (3) isokinetic assessment of passive resistance torque in hamstrings and quadriceps at three velocities. EMG data were recorded simultaneously to identify stretch responses. Detecting stretch responses using the Ashworth scale compared with instrumented measures showed near complete agreement at extremes of the scale, with marked inconsistencies in mid-range values. Ashworth scores were correlated with instrumented measures, particularly for the quadriceps, with higher correlations to the rate of change in resistance (stiffness) and onset angle of stretch than to peak resistance torque. Those with greater resistance tended to have poorer function with isokinetic relations typically stronger. PMID:11848107

Damiano, Diane L; Quinlivan, Jeffrey M; Owen, Bryan F; Payne, Patricia; Nelson, Karen C; Abel, Mark F

2002-02-01

383

Expressions to determine temperatures and emission measures for solar X-ray events from GOES measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expressions which give the effective color temperatures and corresponding emission measures for solar X-ray events observed with instruments onboard any of the GOES satellites are developed. Theoretical spectra were used to simulate the solar X-ray input at a variety of plasma temperatures. These spectra were folded through the wavelength dependent transfer functions for the two GOES detectors. The resulting detector responses and their ratio as a function of plasma temperature were then fit with simple analytic curves. Over the entire range between 5 and 30 million degrees, these fits reproduce the calculated color temperatures within 2% and the calculated emission measures within 5%. With the theoretical spectra, similar expressions for any pair of broadband X-ray detectors whose sensitivities are limited to wavelengths between 0.2 and 100 A are calculable.

Thomas, R. J.; Starr, R.; Crannell, C. J.

1984-01-01

384

A Multi-Instrument Measurement of a Mesospheric Bore at the Equator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have made a comprehensive measurement of mesospheric bore phenomenon at the equator at Kototabang, Indonesia (0.2 deg S, 100.3 deg E), using an airglow imager, an airglow temperature photometer, a meteor radar, and the SABER instrument on board the TIMED satellite. The bore was detected in airglow images of both OH-band (peak emission altitude: 87 km) and 557.7-nm (96 km) emissions, as east-west front-like structure propagating northward with a velocity of 52-58 m/s. Wave trains with a horizontal wavelength of 30-70 km are observed behind the bore front. The airglow intensity decreases for all the mesospheric emissions of OI (557.7 nm), OH-band, O2-band (altitude: 94 km), and Na (589.3 nm) (90 km) after the bore passage. The rotational temperatures of both OH-band and O2-band also decrease approximately 10 K after the bore passage. An intense shear in northward wind velocity of 80m/s was observed at altitudes of 84-90 km by the meteor radar. Kinetic temperature profile at altitudes of 20-120 km was observed near Kototabang by TIMED/SABER. On the basis of these observations, we discuss generation and ducting of the observed mesospheric bore.

Shiokawa, K.; Suzuki, S.; Otsuka, Y.; Ogawa, T.; Nakamura, T.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M., III

2005-01-01

385

Temperature measurements in the inner corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To increase the understanding of the acceleration of the solar wind, it is necessary to combine observations and theoretical approaches. The importance of coordinated measurements in the inner corona and interplanetary space to place constraints on solar wind models is demonstrated. Given the fact that the temperature in the inner corona is the most important parameter in solar wind modeling, observations from which reliable temperatures can be deduced are crucial for such coordinated approaches. The derivation of temperatures in the inner corona are addressed, as well as which assumptions and models are inherent in the temperatures derived using different observational techniques. Two examples of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations are chosen to demonstrate problems that can arise in the interpretation of measurements.

Esser, Ruth; Habbal, S. R.; Arndt, M. B.

1992-01-01

386

Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

Webb, W. L.

1973-01-01

387

Laser weld penetration estimation using temperature measurements  

SciTech Connect

Penetration depth is an important factor critical to the quality of a laser weld. This paper examines the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the bottom surface of the work-piece to estimate weld penetration. A three-dimensional analytical model relating penetration depth, weld bead width and welding speed to temperature distribution at the bottom surface of the workpiece is developed. Temperatures on the bottom surface of the workpiece are measured using infrared thermocouples located behind the laser beam. Experimental results from bead-on-plate welds on low carbon steel plates of varying thickness at different levels of laser power and speeds validate the model and show that the temperature on the bottom surface is a sensitive indicator of penetration depth. The proposed model is computationally efficient and is suitable for on-line process monitoring application.

Lankalapalli, K.N.; Tu, J.F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Industrial Engineering; Leong, K.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gartner, M. [Ford Motor Co., Livonia, MI (United States)

1997-10-01

388

[An improved PID algorithm for temperature control used by tumor combined therapeutic instrument].  

PubMed

The development of a multi-functional tumor combined therapeutic instrument based on improved PID algorithm is introduced. It is based on the theory of 1 + 1 = 3 or 1 + 1 + 1 > 3 curative effect enhancement by tumor combined therapy, and it can be used solely, or with the combination of chemotherapy or actinotheraphy or both for tumor hyperthermia. By adopting improved PID temperature control algorithm, the problem of temperature control precision reduction due to process characteristics changing with different heaters was solved, thus ensuring homogeneous and smooth radio frequency heating by different heaters to intracavity tumor foci. These experiments demonstrated that the new algorithm has strong adaptability and anti-disturbance capability, the equipment works stably and reliably, and it can control therapeutic temperature precisely (+/- 0.1 degree C), which indicates a good value in clinical application. PMID:14565029

Lu, Hongwei; Feng, Xuesu; Chen, Yazhu; Ni, Yanghua

2003-09-01

389

Instrumental Effects in Secondary Electron Yield and Energy Distribution Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of secondary electron yields and electron energy distributions appears straightforward - simple equipment, simple electronics, easy-to-acquire data, at least in a laboratory setting. Unfortunately, the low secondary electron energy (2-5 eV) and the extreme sensitivity of the yield to surface condition and surrounding environment make the measurement details anything but simple. These problems affect the accuracy and interpretation of the experimental results, often in a subtle way. Most troublesome is the production of unwanted (and unexpected) secondary electrons from within the electron sources and detectors, and tertiary electrons from the surrounding vacuum chamber environment. In addition, the sample surface condition can change during measurement, for example, through electron damage or enhanced oxidation/carburization. Electron source, analyzer, and sample effects will be discussed.

Kirby, R

2004-04-29

390

Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Tests Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) was a development test performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) East Test Area (ETA) Test Stand 116. The test article included a 5% scale Ares I vehicle model and tower mounted on the Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 200 instruments located throughout the test article. There were four primary ASMAT instrument suites: ignition overpressure (IOP), lift-off acoustics (LOA), ground acoustics (GA), and spatial correlation (SC). Each instrumentation suite incorporated different sensor models which were selected based upon measurement requirements. These requirements included the type of measurement, exposure to the environment, instrumentation check-outs and data acquisition. The sensors were attached to the test article using different mounts and brackets dependent upon the location of the sensor. This presentation addresses the observed effect of the sensors and mounts on the acoustic and pressure measurements.

Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas D.

2011-01-01

391

The Development and Validation of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and validation of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE), a 20-item, Likert-scaled instrument that assesses teachers' overall acceptance of evolutionary theory. (Author/CCM)

Rutledge, Michael L.; Warden, Melissa A.

1999-01-01

392

Gerdien Condenser Instrumentation for Measuring High-Latitude Middle Atmosphere Electrical Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gerdien condensers for measuring electrical conductivity, ion mobility and charge number density were flown in recent rocket programs to investigate the high-latitude middle atmosphere. The instruments were launched in two coordinated programs (Aurorozone...

K. Domagalski J. D. Mitchell

1979-01-01

393

Feasibility Standards for Communicative Skills. Using Existing Instruments to Measure Noncommissioned Officers' Communicative Skills Proficiencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using existing instruments to measure the communicative skills proficiencies (writing, speaking, and listening) of Noncommissioned Officers (NCOs) to the Army's standards. The literature was r...

C. R. Dolmetsch W. B. McDougal D. N. Vause

1992-01-01

394

Instrumentation for measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass spectrometric 'Dynamic Delta' method for the measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes has been developed. The method is universally applicable for measurement of the permeability of any gas through polymeric membrane materials. The usual large sample size of more than 100 square centimeters required for other methods is not necessary for this new method which requires a size less than one square centimeter. The new method should fulfill requirements and find applicability for industrial materials such as food packaging, contact lenses and other commercial materials where gas permeability or permselectivity properties are important.

Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Burns, Karen S.

1993-01-01

395

Direct measurement of skin friction with a new instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a small belt-type skin-friction gage to measure wall shear-stress coefficients in wind-tunnel testing are described, summarizing the report of Vakili and Wu (1982). The sensor employs a flexible belt of variable surface characteristics; this belt, wrapped tightly around two cylinders mounted on frictionless flexures, is equipped with strain gages to estimate the deflection of the belt by the flow. An alternative approach uses IR illumination, optical fibers, and a photosensitive transistor, permitting direct measurement of the belt deflection. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of sample data are provided.

Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

1986-01-01

396

Optical fiber sensor for temperature measuring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple fiber-optic sensor for temperature measuring, based upon the temperature-dependent bend losses in plastic clad silica optical fibers, is being proposed. The quantity of light energy transmitted along the fiber depends on the numerical aperture of the fiber, i.e. the refractive index difference between the silica core (n1) and the plastic cladding (n0). On the one hand, the refractive index

Markijan Baran

1996-01-01

397

Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

Balasubramaniam, Krishnan (Mississippi State, MS); Shah, Vimal (Houston, TX); Costley, R. Daniel (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Mississippi State, MS)

2001-01-01

398

[Flame temperature distribution measurement of solid propellants].  

PubMed

Many high temperature bodies such as flame, in which chemical reactions are very complex, emit their own spectra. These emission spectra usually consist of the spectral lines, spectral bands and the continuous spectra. In some cases, the spectral lines gather together. It is very difficult to find the right single spectral line when the spectral line intensity method is used. To deal with this problem, the idea that the single spectral line intensity is replaced by the total intensity of many spectral lines to measure the temperature is mentioned. And the relative intensity method is also changed to deal with this idea. The measurement of the temperature distribution based on this improved method is successful, and the measurement results are compared with the results of the thermocouple method. PMID:15762546

Zhao, Wen-hua; Zhu, Shu-guang; Li, Yan; Fang, Zhong-yan; Yang, Rong-jie; Li, Yu-ping; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yun-fei

2004-09-01

399

Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based

Alisa Rudnitskaya; Evgeny Polshin; Dmitry Kirsanov; Jeroen Lammertyn; Bart Nicolai; Daan Saison; Freddy R. Delvaux; Filip Delvaux; Andrey Legin

2009-01-01

400

New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as ~100 ?m impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact.

Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Long Ding, Yu; Pitt, Kendal G.

2007-02-01

401

Comparison of measurements from satellite radiation budget instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successive radiometers have been flown on spacecraft for measurement of the radiation budget of the Earth and to date have provided data sets which overlap in time over a 25-year period. Together these data sets cover two cycles of any decadal oscillation and are useful for climate research. However, before multiple data sets can be used, it is necessary first

G. Louis Smith; Z. Peter Szewczyk; David A. Rutan; Robert B. Lee

2006-01-01

402

Development of an Instrument To Measure Classroom Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that developed and field-tested the Classroom Community Scale, which measures the sense of community in a learning environment, and to determine its validity and reliability for use with university students taking distance courses via the Internet. Considers gender and ethnic groups, and a copy of the scale is appended.…

Rovai, Alfred P.

2002-01-01

403

Development of a New Instrument for Direct Skin Friction Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficul...

A. D. Vakili J. M. Wu

1986-01-01

404

A Field Instrument for Measurement of AC Voltage Fluctuations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a device for measuring the AC voltage fluctuation and, more particularly, to a high accuracy, high resolution, fast response field device which stores and displays the sag and surge voltage values of an AC source for X-ra...

J. L. Silberberg

1974-01-01

405

Web belt load measuring instrument has excellent stability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Web belt system measures belt or strap load. It is partially disassembled and installed on an existing belt without cutting or re-threading the belt. A strain gage, installed on one of the support beams, eliminates errors due to uneven loading.

Walker, R. R.

1967-01-01

406

New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts.  

PubMed

During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as approximately 100 microm impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact. PMID:17578138

Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding, Yu Long; Pitt, Kendal G

2007-02-01

407

New instrument for tribocharge measurement due to single particle impacts  

SciTech Connect

During particulate solid processing, particle-particle and particle-wall collisions can generate electrostatic charges. This may lead to a variety of problems ranging from fire and explosion hazards to segregation, caking, and blocking. A fundamental understanding of the particle charging in such situations is therefore essential. For this purpose we have developed a new device that can measure charge transfer due to impact between a single particle and a metal plate. The device consists of an impact test system and two sets of Faraday cage and preamplifier for charge measurement. With current amplifiers, high-resolution measurements of particle charges of approximately 1 and 10 fC have been achieved before and after the impact, respectively. The device allows charge measurements of single particles with a size as small as {approx}100 {mu}m impacting on the target at different incident angles with a velocity up to about 80 m/s. Further analyses of the charge transfer as a function of particle initial charge define an equilibrium charge, i.e., an initial charge level prior to impact for which no net charge transfer would occur as a result of impact.

Watanabe, Hideo; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Ding Yulong; Pitt, Kendal G. [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Faculty of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Merck Sharp and Dohme, Hertford Road, Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire EN11 9BU (United Kingdom)

2007-02-15

408

The Evaluation of an Instrument to Measure Counselor Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Techniques for evaluating counselor effectiveness have been less than definitive in the past, and the profession has need for a scientific method of measuring counselor effectiveness. Results are reported of research conducted to determine the reliability of the Kelz Rating Scale for counselor effectiveness with noncoached clients. (Author)

Ryan, Charles W.; And Others

1970-01-01

409

Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes.

A. D. Vakili; J. M. Wu

1986-01-01

410

Measuring salt and freezing temperature on roads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical monitoring of the amount of salt spread on the road surface for de-icing purposes is technically difficult, especially if it has to be done in a commercially viable way. Possible solutions to this problem are discussed. As it has become customary to refer to the freezing temperature of a salted road, the physical meaning of such a temperature is scrutinised. It turns out that the meaning and the definition of freezing temperature are not clear, and that it also does not have the significance that is often associated with it. Some experimental results of salt measurements on a road are presented.

Turunen, Markus

1997-03-01

411

Temperature measurements of shock-compressed deuterium  

SciTech Connect

The authors measured the temperatures of single and double-shocked D{sub 2} and H{sub 2} up to 85 GPa (0.85 Mbar) and 5,200 K. While single shock temperatures, at pressures to 23 GPa, agree well with previous models, the double shock temperatures are as much as 40% lower than predicted. This is believed to be caused by molecular dissociation, and a new model of the hydrogen EOS at extreme conditions has been developed which correctly predicts their observations. These data and model have important implications for programs which use condensed-phase hydrogen in implosion systems.

Holmes, N.C.; Ross, M.; Nellis, W.J.

1994-11-01

412

A microprocessor controlled instrument for measurement and display of X-ray waveforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Center for Devices and Radiological Health has developed a radiation measurement instrument for use by Food and Drug Administration personnel in determining compliance of X-ray machines with applicable performance standards. The instrument measures radiation exposures from 1 mR to 590 R and exposure times from 1 msec to 5.76 seconds. It is compact, lightweight and battery powered, and suitable for field use.

Lee, T. R.

1983-04-01

413

EDITORIAL: Advances in Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments for Production Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement and instrumentation have long played an important role in Production Engineering, through supporting both the traditional field of manufacturing and the new field of micro\\/nano-technology. Papers published in this special feature were selected and updated from those presented at The 8th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2007) held at Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, on 24-27

Wei Gao; Yasuhiro Takaya; Yongsheng Gao; Michael Krystek

2008-01-01

414

Pressure instrumentation for gas turbine engines - A review of measurement technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many types and designs of pressure measuring instrumentation are used during the development and testing of gas turbine engines. This paper provides an overview of more commonly available pressure transducers and their characteristics. Probe designs for use in both steady-state and dynamic pressure measurement systems are reviewed. Techniques used to qualify instrument probes and the methods used to calibrate pressure transducers during engine testing are described.

Armentrout, E. C.; Kicks, J. C.

1978-01-01

415

A WWW-based virtual instrument software for electric power measurement with Java enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A web-based virtual instrument software for electric power measurement with Java enhancement is proposed in this paper. Because of the operating platform independence exhibited by Java, such a programming technique is embedded in virtual instrument software LabVIEW™ for the improvement of data communication capability. In this method, web-based measurement software is developed that utilizes Java Servlet to achieve the data

Shyh-Jier Huang; Pao-Shing Tseng

2002-01-01

416

Specifying and calibrating instrumentations for wideband electronic power measurements. [in switching circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wideband electric power measurement related topics of electronic wattmeter calibration and specification are discussed. Tested calibration techniques are described in detail. Analytical methods used to determine the bandwidth requirements of instrumentation for switching circuit waveforms are presented and illustrated with examples from electric vehicle type applications. Analog multiplier wattmeters, digital wattmeters and calculating digital oscilloscopes are compared. The instrumentation characteristics which are critical to accurate wideband power measurement are described.

Lesco, D. J.; Weikle, D. H.

1980-01-01

417

Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e.g. in mofettes and diffuse degassing areas). The occurrence of thermal anomalies at the surface often reveals that a process of steam condensation is occurring below the ground and that CO2 fluxes are being released on the surface. A thermal map of steam heated grounds therefore highlights boundaries of underground steam advection and also the more suitable sites for geochemical monitoring. Pirogips has been assembled for the quick acquisition of surface parameters related to the exhaling activity of volcanic systems. It has been formerly tested in a controlled environment, after in the well known fumaroles areas of Vulcano island, and then in the volcanic system El Machin (Colombia) for the field survey preliminary to the installation of new monitoring stations. The preliminary test and the first field experiences confirmed that pirogips acquires the surface temperatures quickly and with good detail. The combination of sensors supplies the advantage of in situ methods (i.e. accuracy of the direct measurement by thermocouple) and those of ground-based remote sensing techniques (i.e. quickness of measurement process), at the same time reducing the main disadvantages of each method. A home-made data-logger combines the acquired parameters and returns a data-string allowing an easy visualization of acquired data on geo-referenced maps. The string of data returns the position of acquisition (lat, long, WGS84), surface temperature (either derived by the pyrometer and by thermocouple), ambient temperature, barometric pressure and air moisture. -References -Diliberto I.S., Gurrieri S., Valenza M. (2002) Relationships between diffuse CO2 emissions and volcanic activity on the island of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) during the period 1984-1994 Bulletin of Volcanology vol 64: 219-228. -Diliberto I.S., (2013) Time series analysis of high temperature fumaroles monitored on the island of Vulcano (Aeolian Archipelago, italy). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research Manuscript Number: doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.08.003. Inguaggiato, S., Mazot, A., Diliberto, I.S.,

Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

2014-05-01

418

A photophonic instrument concept to measure atmospheric aerosol absorption. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory model of an instrument to measure the absorption of atmospheric aerosols was designed, built, and tested. The design was based on the photophonic phenomenon discovered by Bell and an acoustic resonator developed by Helmholtz. Experiments were done to show ways the signal amplitude could be improved and the noise reduced and to confirm the instrument was sensitive enough to be practical. The research was undertaken to develop concepts which show promise of being improvements on the instruments that are presently used to measure the absorption of the Sun's radiation by the Earth's atmospheric aerosols.

Engle, C. D.

1982-01-01

419

Development of a canopy Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurement instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence detecting instrument based on Fraunhofer line principle was designed and tested. The instrument has a valid survey area of 1.3 × 1.3 meter when the height was fixed to 1.3 meter. The instrument uses sunlight as its light source. The instrument is quipped with two sets of special photoelectrical detectors with the centre wavelength at 760 nm and 771 nm respectively and bandwidth less than 1nm. Both sets of detectors are composed of an upper detector which are used for detecting incidence sunlight and a bottom detector which are used for detecting reflex light from the canopy of crop. This instrument includes photoelectric detector module, signal process module, A/D convert module, the data storage and upload module and human-machine interface module. The microprocessor calculates solar-induced fluorescence value based on the A/D values get from detectors. And the value can be displayed on the instrument's LCD, stored in the flash memory of instrument and can also be uploaded to PC through the PC's serial interface. The prototype was tested in the crop field and the results demonstrate that the instrument can measure the solar-induced chlorophyll value exactly with the correlation coefficients was 0.9 compared to the values got from Analytical Spectral Devices FieldSpec Pro spectrometer. This instrument can diagnose the plant growth status by the acquired spectral response.

Sun, G.; Wang, X.; Niu, Zh; Chen, F.

2014-02-01

420

Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

1994-10-04

421

Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN); McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

422

Measurement of temperature using speckle shearing interferometry.  

PubMed

A laser speckle shearing interferometric technique is used for measuring the temperature profile inside a gaseous flame. The experimental results are compared with the values obtained by a thermocouple and also by speckle photography. Good agreement is seen among the temperatures measured by speckle shearing interferometry, speckle photography, and the thermocouple. Speckle shearing interferometry is easier to implement than speckle photography. This is because in speckle shearing interferometry the accurate positions of the fringes can be known without point-by-point analysis and correction for the halo effect. PMID:20885553

Shakher, C; Nirala, A K

1994-04-10

423

Tropospheric Formaldehyde Measurements from the ESA GOME Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) was launched on the European Space Agency's ERS-2 satellite on April 20, 1995. GOME measures the Earth's atmosphere in the nadir geometry, using a set of spectrometers that cover the UV and visible (240-790 nm) at moderate resolution (0.2 nm in the UV, 0.4 nm in the visible), employing silicon diode array detectors. GOME takes some 30,000 spectra per day, obtaining full global coverage in three days. We directly fit GOME radiance spectra using nonlinear least-squares analysis to obtain column amounts of several trace species with significant tropospheric concentrations, including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and formaldehyde (HCHO). Measurements of HCHO due to biogenic activity in the troposphere are presented here.

Chance, K.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Kurosu, T. P.; Palmer, P. I.; Martin, R. V.; Fiore, A.; Li, Q.; Jacob, D. J.

2001-01-01

424

Instrumentation for measuring the dynamic pressure on rotating compressor blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To establish the capability for measurement of oscillatory pressure on rotating blades, miniature fast response semiconductor strain gage pressure transducers (2mm x 0.33mm) were mounted in several configurations on thin titanium and steel compressor blades and subjected to pressure cycles from 1 to 310 kPa during static tests and spin tests. Static test conditions included 20 C to 150 C, 0 to 3000 tensile microstrain, -1000 to +1000 bending microstrain and + or - 650G vibration. The spin test conditions included 20 C to 82 C at 0 to 90,000G. Durability was excellent. Pressure transducer sensitivity changed by only a few percent over this range of environmental conditions. Noise signal due to oscillatory acceleration normal to the diaphragm was acceptable (0.33Pa/G). Noise signal due to oscillatory strain was acceptable (0.5 Pa/microstrain) when the transducer was mounted on a 0.05mm rubber pad, with a total buildup of 0.38mm on the measure surface. Back mounting or partial recessing to eliminate buildup, increased the strain effect to 1.2 Pa/microstrain. Flush mounting within the blade to eliminate buildup reduced the strain effect, but required development of a special transducer shape. This transducer was not available in time for spin tests. Unpredictable zero drift + or - 14 kPa ruled out the use of these mounting arrangements for accurate steady-state (D.C.) measurements on rotating blades. The two best configurations fully developed and spin tested were then successfully applied in the NAS3-20606 rotating fan flutter program for quantitative measurement of oscillatory pressure amplitudes.

Grant, H. P.; Lanati, G. A.

1978-01-01

425

Measuring Individual Differences in Trait Sympathy: Instrument Construction and Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 3 studies, I report on the construction and validation of a multifaceted, self-report measure of an individual's tendency to experience feelings of sorrow or concern for the suffering of others. The Trait Sympathy Scales (TSS) displayed solid properties of reliability (Studies 1–3), content validity (Study 1), factorial validity (Study 1), construct-related validity (Studies 1–3), convergent and discriminant validity (Study

Sherman A. Lee

2009-01-01

426

A Regularized Neural Net Approach for Retrieval of Atmospheric and Surface Temperatures with the IASI Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstract In this paper, a fast atmospheric and surface temperature retrieval algorithm is developed for the high resolution Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) space-borne instrument. This algorithm is constructed on the basis of a neural network technique that has been regularized by introduction of a priori information. The performance of the resulting fast and accurate inverse radiative transfer model is presented for a large divE:rsified dataset of radiosonde atmospheres including rare events. Two configurations are considered: a tropical-airmass specialized scheme and an all-air-masses scheme.

Aires, F.; Chedin, A.; Scott, N. A.; Rossow, W. B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

427

Robust Calibration Transfer in Noninvasive Ethanol Measurements, Part II: Modification of Instrument Measurements by Incorporation of Expert Knowledge (MIMIK).  

PubMed

Several calibration transfer methods require measurement of a subset of the calibration samples on each future instrument, which is impractical in some applications. Another consideration is that these methods model inter-instrument spectral differences implicitly rather than explicitly. The present work argues that explicit knowledge of the origins of inter-instrument spectral distortions can benefit calibration transfer during the fabrication and assembly of instrumentation, the formation of the multivariate regression, and its subsequent transfer to future instruments. In Part I of this work, a Fourier transform near-infrared system designed to perform noninvasive ethanol measurements was discussed and equations describing the optical distortions caused by self-apodization, retroreflector misalignment, and off-axis detector field of view were provided and examined using laboratory measurements. The spectral distortions were shown to be nonlinear in the amplitude and wavenumber domains, and thus cannot be compensated by simple wavenumber calibration procedures or background correction. Part II presents a calibration transfer method that combines in vivo data with controlled amounts of optical distortions in order to develop a multivariate regression model that is robust to instrument variation. Evaluation of the method using clinical data showed improved measurement accuracy, outlier detection, and generalization to future instruments relative to simple background correction. PMID:25061788

Ridder, Trent D; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J; Laaksonen, Bentley D; Radigan, William T

2014-08-01

428

Continuous H 2O, CO 2, 222Rn and temperature measurements on Merapi Volcano, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of analytical instruments, consisting of a gas chromatograph for water and carbon dioxide, an alpha scintillation counter to measure radon and a temperature sensor, was especially designed and constructed to monitor volcanic gases and was successfully operated over weeks in the high temperature fumaroles at the summit of Merapi Volcano, Indonesia. The analytical unit runs automatically and is

Martin Zimmer; Jörg Erzinger

2003-01-01

429

The quality of evidence of psychometric properties of three-dimensional spinal posture-measuring instruments  

PubMed Central

Background Psychometric properties include validity, reliability and sensitivity to change. Establishing the psychometric properties of an instrument which measures three-dimensional human posture are essential prior to applying it in clinical practice or research. Methods This paper reports the findings of a systematic literature review which aimed to 1) identify non-invasive three-dimensional (3D) human posture-measuring instruments; and 2) assess the quality of reporting of the methodological procedures undertaken to establish their psychometric properties, using a purpose-build critical appraisal tool. Results Seventeen instruments were identified, of which nine were supported by research into psychometric properties. Eleven and six papers respectively, reported on validity and reliability testing. Rater qualification and reference standards were generally poorly addressed, and there was variable quality reporting of rater blinding and statistical analysis. Conclusions There is a lack of current research to establish the psychometric properties of non-invasive 3D human posture-measuring instruments.

2011-01-01

430

Novel quantitative test method of laser range finder for range measurement: computerized instrument test method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The maximum rang finding ability of laser range finder (LRF) is greatly influenced by various factors under field conditions, and these factors are changing constantly. In this paper, the advantages and shortcomings of traditional test method 'dissipated light power ratio method' through field object target are analyzed. A computerized instrument is developed, this instrument has no influence with field environment and characteristics of targets, it is simple, effective, accurate and quantitative to test comprehensive ability of range measurement which LRF system itself has. This paper introduces optimal formulas by use of computerized instrument to estimate the measuring rang of LRF, studied the theory of equations of measuring range by laser, and made a breakthrough of test method at program control of time-delay simulating space range and transmission and receiving of LRF under field conditions. This computerized test instrument has highly practical application and theoretical guiding meaning in demarcating checking and accepting of product produced by factories.

Chen, Zhibin

1996-10-01

431

Measuring Addiction Propensity and Severity: The Need for a New Instrument  

PubMed Central

Drug addiction research requires but lacks a valid and reliable way to measure both the risk (propensity) to develop addiction and the severity of manifest addiction. This paper argues for a new measurement approach and instrument to quantify propensity to and severity of addiction, based on the testable assumption that these constructs can be mapped onto the same dimension of liability to addiction. The case for this new direction becomes clear from a critical review of empirical data and the current instrumentation. The many assessment instruments in use today have proven utility, reliability, and validity, but they are of limited use for evaluating individual differences in propensity and severity. The conceptual and methodological shortcomings of instruments currently used in research and clinical practice can be overcome through the use of new technologies to develop a reliable, valid, and standardized assessment instrument(s) to measure and distinguish individual variations in expression of the underlying latent trait(s) that comprises propensity to and severity of drug addiction. Such instrumentation would enhance our capacity for drug addiction research on linkages and interactions among familial, genetic, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with variations in propensity and severity. It would lead to new opportunities in substance abuse prevention, treatment, and services research, as well as in interventions and implementation science for drug addiction.

Conway, Kevin P.; Levy, Janet; Vanyukov, Michael; Chandler, Redonna; Rutter, Joni; Swan, Gary E.; Neale, Michael

2010-01-01

432

In Situ and Satellite Measured Temperature Comparability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the International Geophysical Year in the late 1950's, small meteorological rockets caught the interest of scientists as a potentially inexpensive method to obtain meteorological information (density, temperature, wind) above balloon-borne radiosonde altitudes. These small rocketsondes have served many important observational roles in terms of studies conducted of atmospheric structure and processes, enabling many new ideas about the atmosphere to emerge. Although no longer manufactured a small residual inventory of meteorological rocketsondes exist for specific research projects. The value of data from meteorological rocketsondes is without question but with their disappearance data from many different satellites are filling the need, some able to resolve high-altitude temperatures quite well. However, the rocketsonde vertical profile is more localized to the launch site whereas satellites move several kilometers per second. The objective of this presentation is to compare in situ temperature data with remotely measured/retrieved temperature data. There have been a number of U.S. conducted missions utilizing the passive falling sphere data that we use to verify the comparability of retrieved temperatures from these satellites. Missions, some as early as 1991, were conducted in polar, equatorial, and mid-latitude locations. An important aspect is that a single satellite profile compared to a falling sphere profile often does not agree while high density satellite measurements when averaged over an area near the rocketsonde data area seems to be in better agreement. Radiosonde temperature data are used in the analysis when appropriate

Schmidlin, F. J.; Goldberg, R. A.; Bedrick, Mary; Rose, R. Lynn

2011-01-01

433

Ion temperature measurements in the Maryland Spheromak  

SciTech Connect

Initial spectroscopic data from MS showed evidence of ion heating as deduced from the line widths of different ion species. Detailed measurements of OIV spectral emission line profiles in space and time revealed that heating takes place at early time, before spheromak formation and is occurring within the current discharge. The measured ion temperature is several times the electron temperature and cannot be explained by classical (Spitzer) resistivity. Classically, ions are expected to have lower temperatures than the electrons and therefore, lower temperatures than observed. High ion temperatures have been observed in different RFP`s and Spheromaks but are usually associated with relaxation to the Taylor state and occur in the sustainment phase. During formation, the current delivered to start the discharge is not axisymmetric and as a consequence, X-points appear in the magnetic flux. A two dimensional analysis predicts that magnetic reconnection occurring at an X-point can give rise to high ion heating rates. A simple 0-dimensional calculation showed that within the first 20 {mu}s, a conversion of mass flow kinetic energy into ion temperature could take place due to viscosity.

Gauvreau, J.L.

1992-12-31

434

Mid-Latitude Temperatures at 87 km: Results From Multi-Instrument Fourier Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using a novel Fourier fitting method we combine two years of mid- latitude temperature measurements at 87 km from the High Resolution Doppler Imager, the Colorado State University lidar, and the Peach Mountain Interferometer. After accounting for calibrat...

C. Y. She D. P. Drob J. F. Kafkalidis J. M. Picone S. D. Eckermann

2000-01-01

435

Parched elasto hydrodynamic lubrication film thickness measurement in an instrument ball bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parched Elasto Hydrodynamic Lubricant (PEHL) film thickness in a large instrument ball bearing is measured by electrical capacitance across its ball set. Correlation is shown between changes in film thickness and changes in Basic Speed Ratio (BSR) measured at the same time. BSR is confirmed as a sensitive, non-intrusive measure of transients in film thickness in a real bearing.

Kingsbury, E.; Schritz, B.; Prahl, J.

1988-01-01

436

An instrument for measuring the momentum flux from atomic and charged particle jets  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an instrument to measure the momentum flux from an intense plasma stream for which the standard techniques used for low pressure gases (<10 Torr) at room temperature are unsuitable. This device, a Plasma Momentum Meter, can measure forces of 10{sup {minus}5} {minus} 10{sup {minus}3} Newtons with a response time of <50 ms onto surfaces of different materials immersed in dense plasmas (n > 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3}). Such forces are transmitted predominantly by ionic and neutral species, with 10's of eV's of kinetic energy, are accompanied by high heat fluxes, and are pulsed. The momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer, a capacitance-type pressure gauge. This protects the transducer from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering. An absolute force calibration of the PMM to 1% accuracy has been made is described. A flat carbon target has been used in measurements of the momentum flux of He, Ne, Ar, and Kr, plasmas produced in a magnetized linear plasma device. 7 refs., 7 figs.

Cohen, S.A.; Zonca, F.; Timberlake, J.; Bennett, T.; Cuthbertson, J.; Langer, W.; Motley, R.

1990-07-01

437

SPTpol: an instrument for CMB polarization measurements with the South Pole Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPTpol is a dual-frequency polarization-sensitive camera that was deployed on the 10-meter South Pole Telescope in January 2012. SPTpol will measure the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on angular scales spanning an arcminute to several degrees. The polarization sensitivity of SPTpol will enable a detection of the CMB “B-mode” polarization from the detection of the gravitational lensing of the CMB by large scale structure, and a detection or improved upper limit on a primordial signal due to inationary gravity waves. The two measurements can be used to constrain the sum of the neutrino masses and the energy scale of ination. These science goals can be achieved through the polarization sensitivity of the SPTpol camera and careful control of systematics. The SPTpol camera consists of 768 pixels, each containing two transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers coupled to orthogonal polarizations, and a total of 1536 bolometers. The pixels are sensitive to light in one of two frequency bands centered at 90 and 150 GHz, with 180 pixels at 90 GHz and 588 pixels at 150 GHz. The SPTpol design has several features designed to control polarization systematics, including: singlemoded feedhorns with low cross-polarization, bolometer pairs well-matched to dfference atmospheric signals, an improved ground shield design based on far-sidelobe measurements of the SPT, and a small beam to reduce temperature to polarization leakage. We present an overview of the SPTpol instrument design, project status, and science projections.

Austermann, J. E.; Aird, K. A.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Bender, A.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Britton, J.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H.-M.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Datesman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; George, E. M.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Kennedy, J.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E.; Li, D.; Lueker, M.; Marrone, D. P.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Montroy, T. E.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Niemack, M. D.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Williamson, R.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.; Zahn, O.

2012-09-01

438

Development and testing of the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) cm and mm wavelength occultation instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present initial results from testing a new remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). ATOMMS is designed as a satellite to satellite occultation system for monitoring climate. We are developing the prototype instrument for an aircraft to aircraft occultation demonstration. Here we focus on field testing of the ATOMMS instrument, in particular the remote sensing of water by measuring the attenuation caused by the 22 and 183 GHz water absorption lines. The 183 GHz line spectrum was measured along an 820 m path and compared with two spectroscopic models. This revealed that the AM 6.2 model is a much better match to the observed spectrum than the MPM93 model. These comparisons also indicate the ATOMMS amplitude errors were at the 0.3 % level. Comparisons with a hygrometer showed tracking consistent at the 0.05 mb level which is about 1 % of the absolute humidity. Initial 22 GHz measurements al