Science.gov

Sample records for temperature measuring instruments

  1. Simple, accurate temperature-measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Fadin, L. W.

    1970-01-01

    Compact instrument, composed of integrated circuits and a temperature-sensitive platinum resistor, measures temperature over a wide dynamic range. Ultimate accuracy is limited by nonlinearity of the platinum resistor. With proper calibration and current regulation to within 0.01 percent, a measurement accuracy of 0.05 percent can be achieved.

  2. Temperature buffer test design, instrumentation and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandén, Torbjörn; Goudarzi, Reza; de Combarieu, Michel; Åkesson, Mattias; Hökmark, Harald

    The Temperature Buffer Test, TBT, is a heated full-scale field experiment carried out jointly by ANDRA and SKB at the SKB Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Southeast Sweden. An existing 8 m deep, 1.8 m diameter KBS-3-type deposition hole located at -420 m level has been selected for the test. The objectives are to improve the general understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical, THM, behavior of buffer materials submitted to severe thermal conditions with temperatures well over 100 °C during water uptake of partly saturated bentonite-based buffer materials, and to check, in due time, their properties after water saturation. The test includes two carbon steel heating canisters each 3 m high and 0.6 m diameter, surrounded by 0.6 m of buffer material. There is a 0.2 m thick sand shield between the upper heater and the surrounding bentonite, while the lower heater is surrounded by bentonite only. On top of the stack of bentonite blocks is a confining plug anchored to the rock. In the slot between buffer and rock wall is a sand filter equipped with pipes to control the water pressure at the boundary, which is seldom done with an EBS in situ experiment. Both heater mid-height planes are densely instrumented in order to follow, with direct or indirect methods, buffer THM evolution. Temperature, relative humidity, stress and pore pressure have been monitored since the test start in March 2003. Total water inflow is also monitored. Firstly, the present paper describes the test design, the instrumentation, the plug anchoring system and the system for water boundary pressure control. Second, having described the test, the paper shows different measurements that illustrate evolution of temperature, saturation, suction and swelling pressure in the upper and the lower buffer.

  3. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster angle radiometer would exploit the spectral emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation.

  4. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2003-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster-angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster-angle radiometer would exploit the spectral-emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation. The relevant emissivity and polarization characteristics are the following: . The Brewster angle is the angle at which light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence on a purely dielectric material is not reflected. The pseudo-Brewster angle, defined for a lossy dielectric (somewhat electrically conductive) material, is the angle for which the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is minimized. For pure water, the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is only 2.2 x 10(exp -4) at its pseudo- Brewster angle of 51deg. The reflectivity remains near zero, several degrees off from the 51deg optimum, allowing this angle of incidence requirement to be easily achieved. . The wavelength range of interest for measuring water temperatures is 8 to 12 microns. The emissivity of water for parallel- polarized light at the pseudo-Brewster angle is greater than 0.999 in this wavelength range. The radiometer would be sensitive in the wavelength range of 8 to 12 microns, would be equipped with a polarizer to discriminate against infrared light polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and would be aimed toward a body of water at the pseudo- Brewster angle (see figure). Because the infrared radiation entering the radiometer would be polarized parallel to the plane of incidence and because very little downwelling parallel-polarized radiation would be reflected into the radiometer on account of the pseudo-Brewster arrangement, the

  5. Optical Instrumentation for Temperature and Velocity Measurements in Rig Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceyhan, I.; dHoop, E. M.; Guenette, G. R.; Epstein, A. H.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.

    1998-01-01

    Non-intrusive optical measurement techniques have been examined in the context of developing robust instruments which can routinely yield data of engineering utility in high speed turbomachinery test rigs. The engineering requirements of such a measurement are presented. Of particular interest were approaches that provide both velocity and state-variable information in order to be able to completely characterize transonic flowfields. Consideration of all of the requirements lead to the selection of particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the approach to velocity measurement while laser induced fluorescence of oxygen (O2 LIF) appeared to offer the most promise for gas temperature measurement. A PIV system was developed and demonstrated on a transonic turbine stage in the MIT blowdown turbine facility. A comprehensive data set has been taken at one flow condition. Extensive calibration established the absolute accuracy of the velocity measurements to be 3-5 %. The O2 LIF proved less successful. Although accurate for low speed flows, vibrational freezing of O2 prevented useful measurements in the transonic, 300-600 K operating range of interest here.

  6. Instrument accurately measures small temperature changes on test surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Miller, H. B.

    1966-01-01

    Calorimeter apparatus accurately measures very small temperature rises on a test surface subjected to aerodynamic heating. A continuous thin sheet of a sensing material is attached to a base support plate through which a series of holes of known diameter have been drilled for attaching thermocouples to the material.

  7. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2006-09-30

    The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating materials were tested

  8. Instrument for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Materials at Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Johnson, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    With the advance of polymer and other non-metallic material sciences, whole new series of polymeric materials and composites are being created. These materials are being optimized for many different applications including cryogenic and low-temperature industrial processes. Engineers need these data to perform detailed system designs and enable new design possibilities for improved control, reliability, and efficiency in specific applications. One main area of interest is cryogenic structural elements and fluid handling components and other parts, films, and coatings for low-temperature application. An important thermal property of these new materials is the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value).

  9. The effect of the instrument function on Doppler ion temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, K. D.; Peacock, N. J.

    1988-09-01

    The measurement of ion temperatures from the Doopler broadening of spectral lines is discussed. Calculations are used to show that the shape of the instrument function of the spectrometer can have a significant effect on the measured value, even when the broadening is large (˜10X) compared with the half-width of the instrument function. The discussion is illustrated by the optical example of measurements made using an XUV grating spectrometer.

  10. Single-Crystal Sapphire High-Temperature Measurement Instrument for Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yibing; Pickrell, Gary; Qi, Bing; May, Russell G.; Wang, Anbo

    2003-09-01

    Based on the broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) technology, a complete prototype optical sensor instrumentation system was designed and implemented for on-line reliable and accurate high temperature measurement in a slagging coal gasifier, which operates under high temperatures and extremely corrosive conditions. A wide dynamic measurement range from room temperature up to 1600 °C with a resolution better than 0.1 °C and high accuracy is achieved; long-term operating stability has also been tested.

  11. New instrumentation for temperature measurement. Phase 1: Program solicitation, small business innovation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergason, J. L.

    1980-08-01

    Temperature sensitive liquid crystals designed to meet the need for a measuring device to accurately measure temperature and temperature distribution in the presence of electric, magnetic, and sonic fields, especially with high space and thermal resolution are discussed. A technique was developed to make highly reproducible, stable configurations of liquid crystal encapsulates. Temperature stable sensors have been produced which can be calibrated to the National Bureau of Standards. The thermal properties of the liquid crystal can be matched to the properties of the surrounding medium. Since a two dimensional representation of the temperature distribution is possible, the use of this instrumentation has significant implications for bioengineering.

  12. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this project during this semi-annual reporting period are to test the effects of coating layer of the thermal couple on the temperature measurement and to screen out the significant factors affecting the temperature reading under different operational conditions. The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray coated thermal couples were completed in this reporting period. The comparison tests of coated and uncoated thermal couples were conducted under various operational conditions. The temperature changes were recorded and the temperature differences were calculated to describe the thermal spray coating effect on the thermal couples. To record the temperature data accurately, the computerized data acquisition system (DAS) was adopted to the temperature reading. The DAS could record the data with the accuracy of 0.1 C and the recording parameters are configurable. In these experiments, DAS was set as reading one data for every one (1) minute. The operational conditions are the combination of three parameters: air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and the amount of fine dust particles. The results from the temperature readings show the temperature of uncoated thermal couple is uniformly higher than that of coated thermal couple for each operational condition. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was computed based on the results from systematic tests to screen out the significant factors and/or interactions. The temperature difference was used as dependent variable and three operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and amount of fine dust particle) were used as independent factors. The ANOVA results show that the operational parameters are not the statistically significant factors affecting the temperature readings which indicate that the coated thermal couple could be applied to temperature measurement in gasifier. The actual temperature reading with the coated thermal couple in

  13. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2004-04-01

    The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator were conducted in this reporting period. In the systematic test, two (2) factors were considered as the experimental parameters, including air injection rate and water injection rate. Each experimental factor had two (2) levels, respectively. A special water-feeding device was designed and installed to the gasifier simulator. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results of the systematic tests. The ANOVA shows that the air injection rate did have the significant impact to the temperature measurement in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA also shows that the water injection rate did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA analysis also proves that the thermocouple assembly we proposed was immune to the moisture environment, the temperature measurement remained accurate in moisture environment. Within this reporting period, the vibration application for cleaning purpose was explored. Both ultrasonic and sub-sonic vibrations were considered. A feasibility test was conducted to prove that the thermocouple vibration did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. This feasibility test was a 2{sup 2} factorial design. Two factors including temperature levels and motor speeds were set to two levels respectively. The sub-sonic vibration tests were applied to the thermocouple to remove the concrete cover layer (used to simulate the solid condensate in gasifiers) on the thermocouple tip. It was found that both frequency and amplitude had significant impacts on removal performance of the concrete cover layer.

  14. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2003-09-01

    During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

  15. Improvement to a bench top instrument for measuring spectral emittance at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzani, Peter J.; Florczak, Elizabeth H.; Scire, James J.; Markham, James R.

    2003-06-01

    Advanced ceramic materials are widely being developed and studied for application as thermal barrier coatings in the next generation of gas turbine engines. Knowledge of the spectral radiative properties at high temperatures is important so as to ensure the desired effect as a thermal barrier and for accurate radiation thermometry measurements. A bench top instrument previously introduced in this journal has been utilized to determine the high temperature spectral emittance of these materials from measurements of hemispherical-directional reflection and hemispherical-directional transmission in the infrared range of 500-12 500 wave numbers (20-0.8 μm). However, a temperature limitation of the instrument's flat, near-blackbody source of infrared radiance has been shown to result in spectral dependent measurement error that is unacceptable when the sample of interest is a few hundred degrees or more higher than the source. This article describes an improved flat near-blackbody source that allows operation to higher temperatures. Benefits to the desired measurement of high-temperature spectral radiative properties of ceramic thermal barrier coatings are also presented.

  16. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2004-10-01

    The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the clean thermocouple were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the clean thermocouple, five (5) factors were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition and high/low frequency device (electric motor). The fractional factorial design method was used in the experiment design with sixteen (16) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the un-balanced motor vibration frequency did not have the significant impact on the temperature changes in the gasifier simulator. For the fine dust particles testing, the amount of fine dust particles has significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The effects of the air and water on the temperature measurements show the same results as reported in the previous report. The ammonia concentration was included as an experimental parameter for the reducing environment in this reporting period. The ammonia concentration does not seem to be a significant factor on the temperature changes. The linear regression analysis was applied to the temperature reading with five (5) factors. The accuracy of the linear regression is relatively low, which is less than 10% accuracy. Nonlinear regression was also conducted to the temperature reading with the same factors. Since the experiments were designed in two (2) levels, the nonlinear regression is not very effective with the dataset (16 readings). An extra central point test was conducted. With the data of the center point testing, the accuracy of the nonlinear regression is much better than the linear regression.

  17. Instrument for stable high temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements under controlled oxygen partial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Sharma, Peter Anand

    2015-04-28

    The transport properties of ceramic materials strongly depend on oxygen activity, which is tuned by changing the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) prior to and during measurement. Within, we describe an instrument for highly stable measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at temperatures up to 1300 K with controlled oxygen partial pressure. An all platinum construction is used to avoid potential materials instabilities that can cause measurement drift. Two independent heaters are employed to establish a small temperature gradient for Seebeck measurements, while keeping the average temperature constant and avoiding errors associated with pO2-induced drifts in thermocouple readings. Oxygen equilibrium is monitored using both an O2 sensor and the transient behavior of the resistance as a proxy. A pO2 range of 10-25–100 atm can be established with appropriate gas mixtures. Seebeck measurements were calibrated against a high purity platinum wire, Pt/Pt–Rh thermocouple wire, and a Bi2Te3 Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material. To demonstrate the utility of this instrument for oxide materials we present measurements as a function of pO2 on a 1 % Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal, and show systematic changes in properties consistent with oxygen vacancy defect chemistry. Thus, an approximately 11% increase in power factor over a pO2 range of 10-19–10-8 atm at 973 K for the donor-doped single crystals is observed.

  18. Instrument for stable high temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements under controlled oxygen partial pressure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Sharma, Peter Anand

    2015-04-28

    The transport properties of ceramic materials strongly depend on oxygen activity, which is tuned by changing the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) prior to and during measurement. Within, we describe an instrument for highly stable measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at temperatures up to 1300 K with controlled oxygen partial pressure. An all platinum construction is used to avoid potential materials instabilities that can cause measurement drift. Two independent heaters are employed to establish a small temperature gradient for Seebeck measurements, while keeping the average temperature constant and avoiding errors associated with pO2-induced drifts in thermocouple readings. Oxygen equilibriummore » is monitored using both an O2 sensor and the transient behavior of the resistance as a proxy. A pO2 range of 10-25–100 atm can be established with appropriate gas mixtures. Seebeck measurements were calibrated against a high purity platinum wire, Pt/Pt–Rh thermocouple wire, and a Bi2Te3 Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material. To demonstrate the utility of this instrument for oxide materials we present measurements as a function of pO2 on a 1 % Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal, and show systematic changes in properties consistent with oxygen vacancy defect chemistry. Thus, an approximately 11% increase in power factor over a pO2 range of 10-19–10-8 atm at 973 K for the donor-doped single crystals is observed.« less

  19. An instrument to measure fast gas phase radical kinetics at high temperatures and pressures.

    PubMed

    Stone, Daniel; Blitz, Mark; Ingham, Trevor; Onel, Lavinia; Medeiros, Diogo J; Seakins, Paul W

    2016-05-01

    Fast radical reactions are central to the chemistry of planetary atmospheres and combustion systems. Laser-induced fluorescence is a highly sensitive and selective technique that can be used to monitor a number of radical species in kinetics experiments, but is typically limited to low pressure systems owing to quenching of fluorescent states at higher pressures. The design and characterisation of an instrument are reported using laser-induced fluorescence detection to monitor fast radical kinetics (up to 25 000 s(-1)) at high temperatures and pressures by sampling from a high pressure reaction region to a low pressure detection region. Kinetics have been characterised at temperatures reaching 740 K and pressures up to 2 atm, with expected maximum operational conditions of up to ∼900 K and ∼5 atm. The distance between the point of sampling from the high pressure region and the point of probing within the low pressure region is critical to the measurement of fast kinetics. The instrumentation described in this work can be applied to the measurement of kinetics relevant to atmospheric and combustion chemistry. PMID:27250442

  20. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2005-04-01

    The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the ultrasonic vibration application for cleaning method were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the ultrasonic vibration application, the ambient temperature and high temperature status condition were tested separately. The sticky dirt on the thermocouple tip was simulated by the cement-covered layer on the thermocouple tip. At the ambient temperature status, four (4) factors were considered as the input factors affecting the response variable of peeling off rate. The input factors include the shape of the cement-covered layer (thickness and length), the ultrasonic vibration output power, and application time. At the high temperature tests, four (4) different environments were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow supply, water and air supply environment, water/air/fine dust particle supply, and air/water/ammonia/fine dust particle supply environment. The factorial design method was used in the experiment design with twelve (12) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the thickness and length of the cement-covered layer have the significant impact on the peeling off rate of ultrasonic vibration application at the ambient temperature environment. For the high temperature tests, the different environments do not seem to have significant impact on the temperature changes. These results may indicate that the ultrasonic vibration is one of best cleaning methods for the thermocouple tip.

  1. Self-heating probe instrument and method for measuring high temperature melting volume change rate of material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junwei; Wang, Zhiping; Lu, Yang; Cheng, Bo

    2013-03-01

    The castings defects are affected by the melting volume change rate of material. The change rate has an important effect on running safety of the high temperature thermal storage chamber, too. But the characteristics of existing measuring installations are complex structure, troublesome operation and low precision. In order to measure the melting volume change rate of material accurately and conveniently, a self-designed measuring instrument, self-heating probe instrument, and measuring method are described. Temperature in heating cavity is controlled by PID temperature controller; melting volume change rate υ and molten density are calculated based on the melt volume which is measured by the instrument. Positive and negative υ represent expansion and shrinkage of the sample volume after melting, respectively. Taking eutectic LiF+CaF2 for example, its melting volume change rate and melting density at 1 123 K are -20.6% and 2 651 kg·m-3 measured by this instrument, which is only 0.71% smaller than literature value. Density and melting volume change rate of industry pure aluminum at 973 K and analysis pure NaCl at 1 123 K are detected by the instrument too. The measure results are agreed with report values. Measuring error sources are analyzed and several improving measures are proposed. In theory, the measuring errors of the change rate and molten density which are measured by the self-designed instrument is nearly 1/20-1/50 of that measured by the refitted mandril thermal expansion instrument. The self-designed instrument and method have the advantages of simple structure, being easy to operate, extensive applicability for material, relatively high accuracy, and most importantly, temperature and sample vapor pressure have little effect on the measurement accuracy. The presented instrument and method solve the problems of complicated structure and procedures, and large measuring errors for the samples with high vapor pressure by existing installations.

  2. Flight Instrument for Measurement of Liquid-Water Content in Clouds at Temperatures Above and Below Freezing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Porter J.

    1951-01-01

    A principle formerly used in an instrument for cloud detection was further investigated to provide a simple and rapid means for measuring the liquid-water content of clouds at temperatures above and below freezing. The instrument consists of a small cylindrical element so operated at high surface temperatures that the impingement of cloud droplets creates a significant drop in the surface temperature. ? The instrument is sensitive to a wide range of liquid-water content and was calibrated at one set of fixed conditions against rotating multicylinder measurements. The limited conditions of the calibration Included an air temperature of 20 F, an air velocity of 175 miles per hour, and a surface temperature in clear air of 475 F. The results obtained from experiments conducted with the instrument indicate that the principle can be used for measurements in clouds at temperatures above and below freezing. Calibrations for ranges of airspeed, air temperature, and air density will be necessary to adapt the Instrument for general flight use.

  3. A Two-Line Absorption Instrument for Scramjet Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Measurement in HYPULSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. Y.

    1998-01-01

    A three beam water vapor sensor system has been modified to provide for near simultaneous temperature measurement. The system employs a tunable diode laser to scan spectral line of water vapor. The application to measurements in a scramjet combustor environment of a shock tunnel facility is discussed. This report presents and discusses die initial calibration of the measurement system.

  4. Development of techniques and associated instrumentation for high temperature emissivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnington, G. R.; Funaa, A. I.; Cassady, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    Studies were made to develop a test apparatus for the measurement of total emittance of materials under repeated exposure to simulated earth entry conditions. As no existing test facility met the emittance measurement and entry simulation goals, a new apparatus was designed, fabricated and checked out. This apparatus has the capability of performing total and spectral emittance measurements during cyclic temperature and pressure exposure under sonic and supersonic flow conditions. Emittance measurements were performed on a series of oxidized superalloys, silicide coated columbium alloys and ceramic coatings.

  5. Rocket-borne instrument for measuring vibrational-rotational temperature and density in the lower thermosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, Junichi; Oyama, Koh-Ichiro

    2005-08-15

    We applied the electron beam fluorescence (EBF) technique to measure the vibrational temperature, rotational temperature, and number density of atmospheric molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) in the altitude range of 100-150 km. The atmospheric N{sub 2} is excited and ionized by electron beam of the energy of 1 keV and the subsequent fluorescence of the N{sub 2}{sup +} first negative band is detected by a sensitive spectrometer, which covers the 360-440 nm wavelength range. In contrast to previous rocket-borne photometric measurements using the EBF technique, the spectrometric measurement provides the above three parameters simultaneously and more accurately. Preflight laboratory experiments were carried out in order to test the spectral sensitivity over the whole spectral range, to calibrate the number density from the band intensity, and to know the accuracy of the rotational temperature measurement. Finally, we tried to calibrate the vibrational temperature measurement by using heated N{sub 2} gas which is ejected from the small nozzle.

  6. Development of techniques and associated instrumentation for high temperature emissivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnington, G. R.; Funai, A. I.

    1972-01-01

    The progress during the sixth quarterly period is reported on construction and assembly of a test facility to determine the high temperature emittance properties of candidate thermal protection system materials for the space shuttle. This facility will provide simulation of such reentry environment parameters as temperature, pressure, and gas flow rate to permit studies of the effects of these parameters on the emittance stability of the materials. Also reported are the completed results for emittance tests on a set of eight Rene 41 samples and one anodized titanium alloy sample which were tested at temperatures up to 1600 F in vacuum. The data includes calorimetric determinations of total hemispherical emittance, radiometric determinations of total and spectral normal emittance, and pre- and post-test room temperature reflectance measurements.

  7. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  8. Development of techniques and associated instrumentation for high temperature emissivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnington, G. R.; Funai, A. I.

    1972-01-01

    The calibrating and testing procedures for the radiometric emittance measurement apparatus are described. Test results are given for the NBS platinum-rhodium standard (SRM No. 1409), the NBS oxidized Kanthal standard, and the oxidized Rene 41 materials. Results indicate that with the platinum-rhodium standard the measurement system compared with the NBS data to within 0.02 for both total and spectral normal emitttance. Data from the Kanthal strip was consistently higher than NBS values. For oxidized Rene 41, no significant changes in as prepared emittance was observed. The emittance was stable for temperatures up to 1150 K.

  9. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  10. Temperature measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003400.htm Temperature measurement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The measurement of body temperature can help detect illness. It can also monitor ...

  11. Instrument Measures Ocular Counterrolling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitan, Barry M.; Reschke, Millard F.; Spector, Lawrence N.

    1991-01-01

    Compact, battery-powered, noninvasive unit replaces several pieces of equipment and operator. Instrument that looks like pair of goggles with small extension box measures ocular counterrotation. Called "otolith tilt-translation reinterpretation" (OTTR) goggles, used in studies of space motion sickness. Also adapted to use on Earth and determine extent of impairment in patients who have impaired otolith functions.

  12. Instrumentation and measurement of airflow and temperature in attics fitted with ridge and soffit vents

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, M.I.; Brenner, R.J.

    1998-12-31

    This study established a research facility where airflow velocities, temperature, and differential pressures could be measured at the ridge of an attic. Following the construction of a test building, sensors were constructed, calibrated, and installed inside the attic. Paired tests were performed for three different ridge vent treatments; two were rolled type vents and one was a baffled vent. When both attics were fitted with the same ridge vent, the airspeed and differential pressure profiles at the ridge were very similar for both attics, indicating that any observed differences in airspeed and differential pressure were caused by the ridge vent treatment used. The baffled vent and rolled vents were then installed on the ridge of the west and east attics, respectively. The data demonstrated that the baffled ridge vent provided a minimum of twice the ridge airspeed of the rolled vents, when all wind conditions were considered. On the day selected to study the direction of the airflows at the ridge, the baffled vent had airflow speeds at the ridge similar to the rolled vent without fabric backing. The baffled vent allowed air to come out of the attic through both sides of the ridge (negative differential pressures on both sides), while the rolled vent without fabric backing caused air to enter through the south side of the ridge and exit through the north side (positive differential pressure on the south side and negative differential pressure on the north), in effect short-circuiting the vent. The fabric-backed rolled vent allowed attic air to come out of the attic through both sides of the ridge, as did the baffled vent, but the airspeed was slower. The baffled vent was the one with the highest airspeed at the ridge and also had both sides of the vent under negative differential pressure, providing the most effective ventilation.

  13. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  14. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the second six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on evaluating corrosion effects in single crystal sapphire at temperatures up to 1400 C, and designing the sensor mechanical packaging with input from Wabash River Power Plant. Upcoming meetings will establish details for the gasifier field test.

  15. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

    2005-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

  16. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  17. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  18. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  19. The effect of instrument attachment on the surface temperature of juvenile grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus) as measured by infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCafferty, Dominic J.; Currie, John; Sparling, Carol E.

    2007-02-01

    Previous research has highlighted the importance of minimising hydrodynamic drag from biologging instruments fitted to marine mammals. However, there is a need to investigate other possible impacts of instruments on animals. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of deploying instruments on the surface temperature distribution of grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus). Infrared (IR) thermography was used to record the surface temperature of two juveniles that had been fitted with heart rate recorders and mounting straps for the attachment of a time depth recorder. When animals were fully wet and inactive, the surface temperature pattern was unaffected by instruments. However, as animals dried out regions of high temperature were recorded around the edges of attachment sites compared to surrounding fur. This appeared to be due to heat leakage around the sides of instruments and mounting straps that provided an additional layer of insulation. There were no obvious changes in the surface temperature distribution around instruments associated with duration of deployment. This work shows that attachment of relatively small biologging instruments will produce localised effects on heat transfer in air but will not significantly change the total heat exchange of grey seals on land or at sea. IR thermography was also shown to be a useful method of detecting surface temperature patterns associated with epidural anaesthesia and blubber biopsy.

  20. Spectroscopy-based photonic instrumentation for the manufacturing industry: contactless measurements of distances, temperatures, and chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noharet, B.; Zetterlund, E.; Tarasenko, O.; Lindblom, M.; Gurell, J.; Bengtson, A.; Lundin, P.

    2014-03-01

    The steady progress in photonic components in terms of cost-to-performance ratio, maturity and robustness opens new avenues for the commercial deployment of photonic sensor systems in a wide range of industrial applications. Advanced sensing can be used to optimize complex processes and thereby enable significant savings in energy consumption. Three cases of robust photonic instrumentation for process optimization and quality control in manufacturing industries are presented: improved metal recycling with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, quality control in precision machining by white-light interferometry with optical fiber probes embedded in machining tools, and process optimization in steel foundries by stand-off temperature measurements in blast furnaces with optical fiber lances and spectral analysis techniques. Each of these methods utilizes a low-cost spectrometer, and requires dedicated calibration and signal processing methods to guarantee robust operation in industrial environments with varying conditions. Experimental results are presented, including on-line steel alloy analysis with correct classification rates in excess of 95%, distance measurements with axial resolution of +/- 2nm over a 75μm range, and continuous temperature monitoring of molten steel in oxygen blast furnaces with temperature measurement accuracy better than 1%.

  1. Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iufer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

  2. Water Vapor, Temperature, and Ice Particles in Polar Mesosphere as Measured by SABER/TIMED and OSIRIS/Odin Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Petelina, S. V.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Although many new details on the properties of mesospheric ice particles that farm Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) and also cause polar mesospheric summer echoes have been recently revealed, certain aspects of mesospheric ice microphysics and dynamics still remain open. The detailed relation between PMC parameters and properties of their environment, as well as interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in PMC properties that are possibly related to global change, are among those open questions. In this work, mesospheric temperature and water vapor concentration measured by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite are used to study the properties of PMCs with respect to the surrounding atmosphere. The cloud parameters, namely location, brightness, and altitude, are obtained from the observations made by the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) on the Odin satellite. About a thousand of simultaneous common volume measurements made by SABER and OSIRIS in both hemispheres from 2002 until 2008 are used. The correlation between PMC brightness (and occurrence rate) and temperatures at PMC altitudes and at the mesopause is analysed. The relation between PMC parameters, frost point temperature, and gaseous water vapor content in and below the cloud is also discussed. Interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in the above parameters, as well as in PMC peak altitudes and mesopause altitudes are evaluated.

  3. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang

    2004-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the third six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on sensor probe design and machining, sensor electronics design, software algorithm design, sensor field installation procedures, and sensor remote data access and control. Field testing will begin in the next several weeks.

  4. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the first six months of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on analyzing and testing factors that impact performance degradation of the initially designed sensor prototype, including sensing element movement within the sensing probe and optical signal quality degradation. Based these results, a new version of the sensing system was designed by combining the sapphire disk sensing element and the single crystal zirconia right angle light reflector into one novel single crystal sapphire right angle prism. The new sensor prototype was tested up to 1650 C.

  5. Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide from Broadband Infrared Limb Emission Measurements Taken from the TIMED/SABER Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell III, James M.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; She, Chiao-Yao; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Xu, Xiaojing

    2008-01-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment is one of four instruments on NASA's Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER measures broadband infrared limb emission and derives vertical profiles of kinetic temperature (Tk) from the lower stratosphere to approximately 120 km, and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) volume mixing ratio (vmr) from approximately 70 km to 120 km. In this paper we report on SABER Tk/CO2 data in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region from the version 1.06 dataset. The continuous SABER measurements provide an excellent dataset to understand the evolution and mechanisms responsible for the global two-level structure of the mesopause altitude. SABER MLT Tk comparisons with ground-based sodium lidar and rocket falling sphere Tk measurements are generally in good agreement. However, SABER CO2 data differs significantly from TIME-GCM model simulations. Indirect CO2 validation through SABER-lidar MLT Tk comparisons and SABER-radiation transfer comparisons of nighttime 4.3 micron limb emission suggest the SABER-derived CO2 data is a better representation of the true atmospheric MLT CO2 abundance compared to model simulations of CO2 vmr.

  6. LIMS Instrument Package (LIP) balloon experiment: Nimbus 7 satellite correlative temperature, ozone, water vapor, and nitric acid measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. B., III; Gandrud, B. W.; Robbins, D. E.; Rossi, L. C.; Swann, N. R. W.

    1982-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) LIP balloon experiment was used to obtain correlative temperature, ozone, water vapor, and nitric acid data at altitudes between 10 and 36 kilometers. The performance of the LIMS sensor flown on the Nimbus 7 Satellite was assessed. The LIP consists of the modified electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde, the ultraviolet absorption photometric of ozone, the water vapor infrared radiometer sonde, the chemical absorption filter instrument for nitric acid vapor, and the infrared radiometer for nitric acid vapor. The limb instrument package (LIP), its correlative sensors, and the resulting data obtained from an engineering and four correlative flights are described.

  7. Optical distance measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.

  8. Viscosity measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinstein, S. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for enabling the measurement of the viscosity of substances, especially those containing volatiles at elevated temperatures, with greater accuracy and at less cost than before. The apparatus includes a cylinder with a narrow exit opening at one end and a piston which closely slides within the cylinder to apply force against a sample in the cylinder to force the sample through the exit opening. In order to more rapidly heat a sample the ends of the cylinder and piston are tapered and the sample is correspondingly tapered, to provide a large surface to volume ratio. A corresponding coal sample is formed by compressing particles of coal under high pressure in a mold of appropriate shape.

  9. Instruments for Water Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

    1975-01-01

    This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

  10. Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

  11. Instrument measures cloud cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Eight solar sensing cells comprise inexpensive monitoring instrument. Four cells always track Sun while other four face sky and clouds. On overcast day, cloud-irradiance sensors generate as much short-circuit current as Sun sensor cells. As clouds disappear, output of cloud sensors decreases. Ratio of two sensor type outputs determines fractional cloud cover.

  12. Assessment of adequate quality and collocation of reference measurements with space-borne hyperspectral infrared instruments to validate retrievals of temperature and water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbet, X.

    2016-01-01

    A method is presented to assess whether a given reference ground-based point observation, typically a radiosonde measurement, is adequately collocated and sufficiently representative of space-borne hyperspectral infrared instrument measurements. Once this assessment is made, the ground-based data can be used to validate and potentially calibrate, with a high degree of accuracy, the hyperspectral retrievals of temperature and water vapour.

  13. Radiant Power Measuring Instrument (RPMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The radiant power measuring instrument is a rugged, hand-carried instrument which provides an ERTS investigator with a capability of obtaining radiometric measurements needed to determine solar and atmospheric parameters that affect the ERTS radiance measurements. With these parameters, ERTS data can be transformed into absolute target reflectance signatures, making accurate unambiguous interpretations possible.

  14. Comparison of Temperature and Ozone Measured by the AROTEL Instrument on DC8 Overflights of Ny Aalesund during the SOLVE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, Walter R.; McGee, Thomas J.; Burris, John F.; Heaps, William; Silbert, Donald; Sumnicht, Grant; Twigg, Laurence; Neuber, Roland

    2000-01-01

    The AROTEL instrument, deployed on the NASA DC-8 at Kiruna, Sweden for the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), flew over the NDSC station operated by the Alfred Wegner Institute at Ny Aalesund, Spitsbergen. AROTEL ozone and temperature measurements made during near overflights of Ny Aalesund are compared with sonde ozone and temperature, and lidar ozone measurements from the NDSC station. Nine of the seventeen science flights during the December through March measurement period overflew near Ny Aalesund. Agreement of AROTEL with the ground-based temperature and ozone values at altitudes from just above the aircraft to about 30 km gives strong confidence in using AROTEL temperature and ozone mixing ratio to study the mechanisms of ozone loss in the winter arctic polar region.

  15. Foundations of measurement and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, Isidore

    1990-01-01

    The user of instrumentation has provided an understanding of the factors that influence instrument performance, selection, and application, and of the methods of interpreting and presenting the results of measurements. Such understanding is prerequisite to the successful attainment of the best compromise among reliability, accuracy, speed, cost, and importance of the measurement operation in achieving the ultimate goal of a project. Some subjects covered are dimensions; units; sources of measurement error; methods of describing and estimating accuracy; deduction and presentation of results through empirical equations, including the method of least squares; experimental and analytical methods of determining the static and dynamic behavior of instrumentation systems, including the use of analogs.

  16. High temperature electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkurankov, Andrei; Endres, Frank; Freyland, Werner

    2002-01-01

    We present a novel construction of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) for investigations of fluid/solid interfaces and, in particular, for in situ electrochemical measurements at elevated temperatures. A special feature of this instrument is a vacuum tight connection of the electrochemical cell with the STM scanner via a flexible metal bellow. This enables measurements with highly reactive and volatile fluids at high temperatures. Details of the mechanical and electronic parts of this setup are described. Test measurements on the electrodeposition of metals from molten salt electrolytes have been performed. The Ag deposition has been studied in an acidic room temperature molten salt composed of 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazoliumchloride and AlCl3 up to 355 K. As a second example the Al deposition from molten AlCl3-NaCl has been tested up to 500 K. First results of these experiments are briefly presented.

  17. Temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Bible, Don W.; Sohns, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  18. Temperature measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... body. Wait for 5 minutes before reading. Plastic strip thermometers change color to show the temperature. This method is the least accurate. Place the strip on the forehead and read it after 1 ...

  19. Instrument measures dynamic pressure fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, J. W.; Penko, P. E.; Reshotko, M.

    1977-01-01

    Pressure probe instrument, incorporating "infinite line" principle, can be used to remotely measure dynamic pressure fluctuations in hot high-pressure environemnts too severe for sensors. System is designed and can be utilized for measurements in core of operating turbofan engine.

  20. MACS, An Instrument, and a Methodology for Simulations and Global Measurements of the Coronal Electron Temperature and the Solar Wind Velocity on the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginald, Nelson L.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The determination of the radial and latitudinal temperature and wind profiles of the solar corona is of great importance in understanding the coronal heating mechanism and the dynamics of coronal expansion. Cram presented the theory for the formation of the K-coronal spectrum and identified two important observations. He observed the existence of temperature sensitive anti-nodes at certain wavelengths in the theoretical K-coronal spectra. The anti-nodes are separated by temperature-insensitive nodes. Remarkably, Cram showed that the wavelengths of the nodes and anti-nodes are almost independent of altitude above the solar limb. Because of these features, Cram suggested that the intensity ratios at two anti-nodes could be used as a diagnostic of the electron temperature in the K-corona. Based on this temperature diagnostic technique prescribed by Cram a slit-based spectroscopic study was performed by Ichimoto et al. on the solar corona in conjunction with the total solar eclipse of 3 Nov 1994 in Putre, Chile to determine the temperature profile of the solar corona. In this thesis Cram's theory has been extended to incorporate the role of the solar wind in the formation of the K-corona, and we have identified both temperature and wind sensitive intensity ratios. The instrument, MACS, for Multi Aperture Coronal Spectrometer, a fiber optic based spectrograph, was designed for global and simultaneous measurement of the thermal electron temperature and the solar wind velocity in the solar corona. The first ever experiment of this nature was conducted in conjunction with the total solar eclipse of 11 Aug 1999 in Elazig, Turkey. In this instrument one end of each of twenty fiber optic tips were positioned in the focal plane of the telescope in such a way that we could observe conditions simultaneously at many different latitudes and two different radial distances in the solar corona. The other ends of the fibers were vertically aligned and placed at the primary focus of

  1. Instrument Measures Shift In Focus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steimle, Lawrence J.

    1992-01-01

    Optical components tested at wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared. Focus-shift-measuring instrument easy to use. Operated in lighted room, without having to make delicate adjustments while peering through microscope. Measures distance along which focal point of converging beam of light shifted by introduction of nominally plane parallel optical component into beam. Intended primarily for measuring focus shifts produced by windows and filters at wavelengths from 120 to 1,100 nanometers. Portable, compact, and relatively inexpensive for degree of precision.

  2. ac-resistance-measuring instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, P.J.

    1981-04-22

    An auto-ranging ac resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an ac excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance.

  3. Measuring Temperature Reading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    There are two requirements for taking a measurement of something. The first is a tool for taking a measurement. The second is scale for making sense of the numbers of the measurement. For example, a ruler is often used to measure short lengths. It is the tool for measurement. On the ruler are one or more number scales with equally spaced numbers. These numbers can be compared with numbers from any other ruler that is accurately set to the same scale. Measuring length is far simpler than measuring temperature. While there is evidence of tools for measuring length at various times in human history, tools and scales for measuring temperature do not appear until more recent human history. Early thermometers, called thermoscopes, first appear in the 1500's. They were crude instruments that were not at all accurate. Most did not even have a number scale associated with them. This made them useless for most practical purposes. Gabriel Fahrenheit created the first accurate thermometer in 1714, and the Fahrenheit temperature scale followed it in 1724. The thermometer s accuracy was based on its use of mercury, a silver colored substance that remains liquid over a wide range of temperatures but expands or contracts in a standard, predictable way with changes in temperature. To set the scale, Fahrenheit created the coldest temperature that he could. He mixed equal parts of ice, water, and salt, and then used this as the zero point, 0 degrees, of his scale. He intended to make 30 degrees the freezing point of water and 90 degrees the temperature of the human body, but he had to later revise these temperatures to be 32 degrees and 96 degrees. In the final version of the scale, the temperature of the human body became 98.6 degrees. 19th century thermoscope

  4. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  5. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, Scott T.; Niemann, Ralph C.

    1999-01-01

    A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

  6. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

    1999-03-30

    A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  7. Musical Intonation of Wind Instruments and Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendri, G.; Valdan, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2015-01-01

    Wind musical instruments are affected in their intonation by temperature. We show how to account for these effects in a simple experiment, and provide results in languages accessible to both physics and music professionals.

  8. Musical intonation of wind instruments and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zendri, G.; Valdan, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2015-05-01

    Wind musical instruments are affected in their intonation by temperature. We show how to account for these effects in a simple experiment, and provide results in languages accessible to both physics and music professionals.

  9. Dual physiological rate measurement instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

  10. MACS, An Instrument and a Methodology for Simultaneous and Global Measurements of the Coronal Electron Temperature and the Solar Wind Velocity on the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginald, Nelson L.

    2000-01-01

    In Cram's theory for the formation of the K-coronal spectrum he observed the existence of temperature sensitive anti-nodes, which were separated by temperature insensitive nodes, at certain wave-lengths in the K-coronal spectrum. Cram also showed these properties were remarkably independent of altitude above the solar limb. In this thesis Cram's theory has been extended to incorporate the role of the solar wind in the formation of the K-corona, and we have identified both temperature and wind sensitive intensity ratios. The instrument, MACS, for Multi Aperture Coronal Spectrometer, a fiber optic based spectrograph, was designed for global and simultaneous measurements of the thermal electron temperature and the solar wind velocity in the solar corona. The first ever experiment of this nature was conducted in conjunction with the total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 in Elazig, Turkey. Here twenty fiber optic tips were positioned in the focal plane of the telescope to observe simultaneously at many different latitudes and two different radial distances in the solar corona. The other ends were vertically stacked and placed at the primary focus of the spectrograph. By isolating the K-coronal spectrum from each fiber the temperature and the wind sensitive intensity ratios were calculated.

  11. Compact Instruments Measure Heat Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Based in Huntsville, Alabama, AZ Technology Inc. is a woman- and veteran-owned business that offers expertise in electromechanical-optical design and advanced coatings. AZ Technology has received eight Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center for the development of spectral reflectometers and the measurement of surface thermal properties. The company uses a variety of measurement services and instruments, including the Spectrafire, a portable spectral emissometer it used to assist General Electric with the design of its award-winning Giraffe Warmer for neonatal intensive care units.

  12. Compact Instruments Measure Helium-Leak Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, Stephen; Immer, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Compact, lightweight instruments have been developed for measuring small flows of helium and/or detecting helium leaks in solenoid valves when the valves are nominally closed. These instruments do not impede the flows when the valves are nominally open. They can be integrated into newly fabricated valves or retrofitted to previously fabricated valves. Each instrument includes an upstream and a downstream thermistor separated by a heater, plus associated analog and digital heater-control, signal- conditioning, and data-processing circuits. The thermistors and heater are off-the-shelf surface mount components mounted on a circuit board in the flow path. The operation of the instrument is based on a well-established thermal mass-flow-measurement technique: Convection by the flow that one seeks to measure gives rise to transfer of heat from the heater to the downstream thermistor. The temperature difference measured by the thermistors is directly related to the rate of flow. The calibration curve from temperature gradient to helium flow is closely approximated via fifth-order polynomial. A microprocessor that is part of the electronic circuitry implements the calibration curve to compute the flow rate from the thermistor readings.

  13. Instrumentation for Sensitive Gas Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    An improved instrument for optical absorption spectroscopy utilizes off-axis paths in an optical cavity in order to increase detection sensitivity while suppressing resonance effects. The instrument is well suited for use in either cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) [in which one pulses an incident light beam and measures the rate of decay of light in the cavity] or integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) [in which one uses a continuous-wave incident light beam and measures the power of light in the cavity as a function of wavelength]. Typically, in optical absorption spectroscopy, one seeks to measure absorption of a beam of light in a substance (usually a gas or liquid) in a sample cell. In CRDS or ICOS, the sample cell is placed in (or consists of) an optical cavity, so that one can utilize multiple reflections of the beam to increase the effective optical path length through the absorbing substance and thereby increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption. If an absorbing substance is not present in the optical cavity, one can utilize the multiple passes of the light beam to increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption and scattering by components of the optical cavity itself. It is desirable to suppress the effects of resonances in the cavity in order to make the spectral response of the cavity itself as nearly constant as possible over the entire wavelength range of interest. In the present instrument, the desired flattening of the spectral response is accomplished by utilizing an off-axis beam geometry to effectively decrease the frequency interval between longitudinal electromagnetic modes of the cavity, such that the resulting transmission spectrum of the cavity is nearly continuous: in other words, the cavity becomes a broad-band optical device.

  14. Temperature Measurement Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center has designed a simple but medically important device--one which holds temperature probes, called thermistors, to a person's skin without affecting the characteristics of the skin segment being measured. The device improves the accuracy of skin surface temperature measurements, valuable data in health evaluation. The need for such a device was recognized in the course of life science experiments at Ames. In earlier methods, the sensing head of the temperature probe was affixed to the patient's skin by tape or elastic bands. This created a heat variance which altered skin temperature readings. The Ames-developed thermistor holder is a plastic ring with tab extensions, shown in the upper photo on the chest, arm and leg of the patient undergoing examination. The ring holds the sensing head of the temperature probe and provides firm, constant pressure between the skin and the probe. The tabs help stabilize the ring and provide attachment points for the fastening tape or bands, which do not directly touch the sensor. With this new tool, it is possible to determine more accurately the physiological effects of strenuous exercise, particularly on the treadmill. The holder is commercially available from Yellow Springs Instrument Company, Inc., Yellow Springs, Ohio, which is producing the device under a NASA patent license.

  15. Instrument remotely measures wind velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, J. S.; Mccleese, D. J.; Seaman, C. H.; Shumate, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    Doppler-shift spectrometer makes remote satellite measurements of atmospheric wind velocity and temperature at specified altitudes. As in correlation spectrometer, spectrum of gas in reference cell and spectrum of same gas in atmosphere are correlated both in emission and absorption.

  16. Instrument for Measuring Cryo CTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.; Hadaway, James B.

    2003-01-01

    Coefficient of thermal expansion is an integral part of the performance of optical systems, especially for those, which operate at cryogenic temperatures. The measurement of the coefficient of relevant materials has been of continuous interest. Besides commercial measurement sources, development of one-of-a-kind tools have always been of interest due to local needs. This paper describes one such development at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). The approach involves two vertical rods (one sample and one reference) on a flat platform. A probe bar is held horizontally atop the two samples. A temperature change will generally cause rotation of the probe bar. A mirrored surface on one end of the probe bar is used to measure the rotation using the reflection of an incident laser beam upon it. A position-sensing detector measures the change of the reflected beam spot position. Using other known quantities, the change determines the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sample material as a function of temperature. A parallel measurement of the rotation of the sample support platform is also performed to account for any unwanted background effects. This system has been demonstrated in a cryogenic chamber at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). We present the system details, achievable sensitivity, and up-to-date experimental performance.

  17. 10.3 High-temperature Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazza, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes high temperature instrumentation development from 1960-1970, 1980-1990 and 2000-present. The contents include: 1) Background; 2) Objective; 3) Application and Sensor; 4) Attachment Techniques; 5) Evaluation/Characterization Testing; and 6) Future testing.

  18. Bubble measuring instrument and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  19. Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  20. Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting. distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receive, the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  1. Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer. respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  2. Recent advances in high temperature instrumentation for hot section applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, David R.; Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    Programs to develop research instrumentation for use in turbine engine hot sections are described. These programs were initiated to provide improved measurements capability as support for a multidisciplinary effort to establish technolgy leading to improved hot section durability. Specific measurement systems described here include heat flux sensors, a dynamic gas temperature measuring system, laser anemometry for hot section applications, an optical system for viewing the interior of a combustor during operation, thin film sensors for surface temperature and strain measurements, and high temperature strain measuring systems. The paper describes the state of the development of these sensors and measuring systems and, in some cases, will show examples of measurements made with this instrumentation.The paper covers work done at the NASA Lewis Research Center and at various contract and grant facilities.

  3. New type of measuring and intelligent instrument for curing tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Chui-Jie; Huang, Xieqing; Chen, Tianning; Xia, Hong

    1993-09-01

    A new type of measuring intelligent instrument for cured tobacco is presented in this paper. Based on fuzzy linguistic control principles the instrument is used to controlling the temperature and humidity during cured tobacco taking 803 1 singlechip computer as a center controller. By using methods of fuzzy weighted factors the cross coupling in curing procedures is decoupled. Results that the instrument has producted indicate the fuzzy controller in the instrument has perfect performance for process of cured tobacco as shown in figure

  4. Instrumentation for detailed bridge-scour measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.; Trent, Roy E.

    1993-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is being developed to obtain channel bathymetry during floods for detailed bridge-scour measurements. Portable scour measuring systems have four components: sounding instrument, horizontal positioning instrument, deployment mechanisms, and data storage device. The sounding instrument will be a digital fathometer. Horizontal position will be measured using a range-azimuth based hydrographic survey system. The deployment mechanism designed for this system is a remote-controlled boat using a small waterplane area, twin-hull design. An on-board computer and radio will monitor the vessel instrumentation, record measured data, and telemeter data to shore.

  5. Limnological instrumentation in the middle of the 19th century: the first temperature and density profiles measured in the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oren, Aharon

    2015-11-01

    The first modern survey of the Dead Sea was performed by the Geological Survey of Israel in 1959-1960, and the report published remains the baseline study for our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the lake. At the time the Dead Sea was a meromictic lake with a strong salinity gradient separating the deep waters (>40 m depth) from the less saline surface waters. A few results of analyses of deeper water samples collected in the 1930s were reported, but overall we have very little information about the structure of the lake's water column before the 1959-1960 survey. However, it is little known that data on the physical and the chemical structure of the Dead Sea water column were obtained already in the middle of the 19th century, and the information collected then is highly relevant for the reconstruction of the limnological properties of the lake in earlier times. The expedition of Lieutenant William Lynch (U.S. Navy) in 1848 reported the presence of a temperature minimum at a depth of ~18 m, and also retrieved a water sample collected close to the bottom for chemical analysis. In 1864, the French Dead Sea exploration by the Duc de Luynes and his crew yielded detailed density and salinity profiles for a number of sampling stations. The results of these pioneering studies are discussed here, as well as the sampling equipment and measuring instruments used by the 1848 and the 1864 expeditions.

  6. Temperature monitor and alarm for cryogenic instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, John B., Jr.; Keliher, Pat; Jeanpierre, Carlos

    1994-06-01

    Internal temperatures in filled cryostats must be continuously monitored to preserve the health and safety of hardware and personnel. The accidental response of cryogenic gases into the atmosphere pose a health threat and, if the gases are flammable, may lead to an explosion. One indication of an imminent cryogen release is the sudden increase in cryogen temperature. Although there are many data acquisition systems and temperature monitoring products commercially available, these systems lack the portability and safety features required during cryostat qualification tests and transport. This paper describes a temperature monitor and alarm circuit developed for the Spirit II solid hydrogen cryostat program. The instrument is battery-operated, accurate, portable, and intrinsically safe in an explosive atmosphere.

  7. Report on Instruments for Measuring School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzetti, Barbara J.

    An extensive search of the literature and existing programs was undertaken to identify instruments that were being used to measure school effectiveness. Twenty-four instruments are currently available and are critiqued in this publication. Each critique reports the format and components of the instrument, its intended purpose and uses, reliability…

  8. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level...

  9. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level...

  10. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level...

  11. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level...

  12. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement instrumentation. 201.22... PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level...

  13. Instrument accurately measures stress loads in threaded bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, F. R., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Interferometric instrument response is linearly related to axial tensile stresses, and, under idealized conditions, measurement errors are within approximately plus or minus 1 percent. Ultimate accuracy of instrument depends on a number of variables, such as bolt material, dimensions, and geometry and uniformity of stresses and temperature.

  14. Temperature control system for optical elements in astronomical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verducci, Orlando; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Flávio F.; Vital de Arruda, Márcio; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Fraga, Luciano

    2014-07-01

    Extremely low temperatures may damage the optical components assembled inside of an astronomical instrument due to the crack in the resin or glue used to attach lenses and mirrors. The environment, very cold and dry, in most of the astronomical observatories contributes to this problem. This paper describes the solution implemented at SOAR for remotely monitoring and controlling temperatures inside of a spectrograph, in order to prevent a possible damage of the optical parts. The system automatically switches on and off some heat dissipation elements, located near the optics, as the measured temperature reaches a trigger value. This value is set to a temperature at which the instrument is not operational to prevent malfunction and only to protect the optics. The software was developed with LabVIEWTM and based on an object-oriented design that offers flexibility and ease of maintenance. As result, the system is able to keep the internal temperature of the instrument above a chosen limit, except perhaps during the response time, due to inertia of the temperature. This inertia can be controlled and even avoided by choosing the correct amount of heat dissipation and location of the thermal elements. A log file records the measured temperature values by the system for operation analysis.

  15. 40 CFR 1066.120 - Measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Specifications § 1066.120 Measurement instruments. The measurement instrument requirements in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart C, apply with the following exceptions: (a) The provisions of § 1066.125 apply instead of 40 CFR 1065.202. (b) The provisions of 40 CFR 1065.210 and 1065.295 do not apply....

  16. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  17. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  18. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  19. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  20. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  1. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra and Temperature Analyses based on Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, Leonid V.; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Moore, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Some initial results of soft x-ray spectral (0.5 to 3.0 nm) observations of active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) from a sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT are reported. These observations were made by a Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a rocket version of the EUV Variability Experiment’s (EVE) channel, a pinhole camera modified for EVE rocket suite of instruments to include a free-standing transmission grating (200 nm period), which provided spectrally-resolved images of the solar disk. Intensity ratios for strong emission lines extracted from temporally averaged SAM spectral profiles of the ARs were compared to appropriately convolved modeled CHIANTI spectra. These ratios represent the AR’s temperature structures, which are compared to the structures derived from some other observations and temperature models.

  2. Transforming Vectors Measured By Noncoaligned Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, James R.; Dahlstrom, Eric L.

    1993-01-01

    Method for computing relationships between coordinate axes of two vector-measuring instruments not aligned with each other, one need only measure two nonparallel vectors u and v simultaneously in both coordinate systems. These measurements provide all data needed to compute transformation of any vector from one coordinate system to other. Particularly useful in computing alignments and transformations between accelerometers, gyroscopes, and instruments mounted on platforms subjected to vibrations, thermal strains, and other distortions causing alignments to vary unpredictably with time.

  3. Measuring the instrument function of radiometers

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, R.; Littlejohn, R.G.

    1997-12-31

    The instrument function is a function of position and angle, the knowledge of which allows one to compute the response of a radiometer to an incident wave field in any state of coherence. The instrument function of a given radiometer need not be calculated; instead, it may be measured by calibration with incident plane waves.

  4. Instrument accurately measures weld angle and offset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, W. G.

    1967-01-01

    Weld angle is measured to the nearest arc minute and offset to one thousandth of an inch by an instrument designed to use a reference plane at two locations on a test coupon. A special table for computation has been prepared for use with the instrument.

  5. Acoustic input impedance measurements on brass instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, Robert W., Jr.

    2002-11-01

    Measurement of the acoustic input impedance of a brass instrument can reveal something about the instrument's intonation, its reasonable playing range, its tone color, and perhaps whether the mouthpiece used for the impedance measurement is appropriate for the instrument. Such measurements are made at sound-presssure levels much lower than those encountered under playing conditions. Thus, impedance measurements may offer the only feasible way to infer something about the playing characteristics of instruments, typically museum specimens, that are too rare or too fragile to be played. In this paper the effects of some of the available choices of sound source and stimulus signal on measurement accuracy will be explored. Driver-transducer nonlinearity, source impedance, signal-to-noise ratio, and any necessary signal processing will be discussed.

  6. High temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  7. Instrumentation for bone density measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meharg, L. S.

    1968-01-01

    Measurement system evaluates the integrated bone density over a specific cross section of bone. A digital computer converts stored bone scan data to equivalent aluminum calibration wedge thickness, and bone density is then integrated along the scan by using the trapezoidal approximation integration formula.

  8. Isotopic CO2 Instrumentation for UAV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A.; Silver, J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is the largest component of anthroprogenic green house gas emissions. Knowing atmospheric 13CO2/12CO2 ratios precisely is important for understanding biogenic and anthroprogenic sources and sinks for carbon. Instrumentation mounted on UAV aircraft would enable important spatial isotopic CO2 information. However, current isotopic CO2 instrumentation have unfavorable attributes for UAV use, such as high power requirements, high cost, high weight, and large size. Here we present the early development of a compact isotopic CO2 instrument that is designed to nullify effects of pressure, temperature and moisture, and will ultimately be suitable for UAV deployment.

  9. μDirac: an autonomous instrument for halocarbon measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostlow, B.; Robinson, A. D.; Harris, N. R. P.; O'Brien, L. M.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G. P.; Newton, H. M.; Pyle, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    We describe a new instrument (μDirac) capable of measuring halocarbons in the atmosphere. Portability, power efficiency and autonomy were critical requirements in the design, and the resulting instrument can be readily deployed unattended on a range of platforms: long duration balloon, aircraft, ship and ground based stations. The instrument is a temperature programmed gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The design requirements led to μDirac being built in-house with several novel features. It currently measures a range of halocarbons (CFCs and shorter-lived halocarbons having biogenic and anthropogenic sources) with measurement precisions ranging from ∼1% sd (CCl4) to ∼9% sd (CH3I). Since the prototype instrument was first tested in 2005 the instrument has been proved in the field on technically challenging aircraft and ground based campaigns. Results from one aircraft and two ground-based deployments are described.

  10. μDirac: an autonomous instrument for halocarbon measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostlow, B.; Robinson, A. D.; Harris, N. R. P.; O'Brien, L. M.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G. P.; Newton, H. M.; Yong, S. E.; Pyle, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    We describe a new instrument (μDirac) capable of measuring halocarbons in the atmosphere. Portability, power efficiency and autonomy were critical design requirements and the resulting instrument can be readily deployed unattended on a range of platforms: long duration balloon, aircraft, ship and ground-based stations. The instrument is a temperature programmed gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The design requirements led to μDirac being built in-house with several novel features. It currently measures a range of halocarbons (including short-lived tracers having biogenic and anthropogenic sources) with measurement precision relative standard deviations ranging from ± 1% (CCl4) to ± 9% (CH3I). The prototype instrument was first tested in 2005 and the instrument has been proved in the field on technically challenging aircraft and ground-based campaigns. Results from an aircraft and a ground-based deployment are described.

  11. A low cost, portable instrument for measuring emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G.

    1977-01-01

    A low cost, portable instrument has been developed with which emittance can be measured by comparison to a standard. A reflector collects infra-red radiation from a heated sample onto a low mass, black detector and the temperature rise of the black detector is measured with a thermocouple and meter. Graphical examples are presented for determination of emittance from measurements made on a sample at any known temperature.

  12. A low cost, portable instrument for measuring emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G.

    1977-01-01

    A low cost, portable instrument was developed with which emittance can be measured by comparison to a standard. A reflector collects infrared radiation from a heated sample onto a low mass, black detector and the temperature rise of the black detector is measured with a thermocouple and meter. Graphical examples are presented for determination of emittance from measurements made on a sample at any known temperature.

  13. Study of high speed photography measuring instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Keyong

    2007-01-01

    High speed photograph measuring instrument is mainly used to measure and track the exterior ballistics, which can measure the flying position of the missile in the initial phase and trajectory. A new high speed photograph measuring instrument is presented in this paper. High speed photography measuring system records the parameters of object real-time, and then acquires the flying position and trajectory data of the missile in the initial phase. The detection distance of high speed photography is more than 4.5km, and the least detection distance is 450m, under the condition of well-balanced angular velocity and angular acceleration, program pilot track error less than 5'. This instrument also can measure and record the flying trail and trajectory parameters of plane's aero naval missile.

  14. Comparative measurements using different particle size instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the measurement and comparison of particle size and velocity measurements in sprays. The general nature of sprays and the development of standard, consistent research sprays are described. The instruments considered in this paper are: pulsed laser photography, holography, television, and cinematography; laser anemometry and interferometry using visibility, peak amplitude, and intensity ratioing; and laser diffraction. Calibration is by graticule, reticle, powders with known size distributions in liquid cells, monosize sprays, and, eventually, standard sprays. Statistical analyses including spatial and temporal long-time averaging as well as high-frequency response time histories with conditional sampling are examined. Previous attempts at comparing instruments, the making of simultaneous or consecutive measurements with similar types and different types of imaging, interferometric, and diffraction instruments are reviewed. A program of calibration and experiments for comparing and assessing different instruments is presented.

  15. Noncontact Temperature Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Noncontact temperature measurement has been identified as one of the eight advanced technology development (ATD) areas to support the effort of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division in developing six Space Station flight experiment facilities. This two-day workshop was an opportunity for all six disciplines to present their requirements on noncontact temperature measurement and to discuss state-of-the-art developments. Multi-color pyrometry, laser pyrometry and radiometric imaging techniques are addressed.

  16. Solar oscillations instrumentation and measurement theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appourchaux, T.

    1988-01-01

    Solar-oscillation instruments are reviewed. Common characteristics include detecting solar radial velocities on Fraunhofer lines with a 2-point measuring technique, high spectral resolution and stability, etc. The choice of the spectral line for getting a high signal to solar noise ratio is addressed. Velocity imaging of solar oscillations modes is detailed, including spatial sampling and span, highest observable degree. Applications of these different analyses is applied to existing or future helioseismology instruments.

  17. [Improved measuring instruments for endodontic radiography].

    PubMed

    Voss, A; Hickel, R

    1989-03-01

    Fine steel instruments used for the radiographic length measurement of root canals are not always imaged clearly enough on the x-ray film, due to lacking absorption of radiation. Although silver points have a higher radiopacity, they lend themselves less to practical use, since they are too soft, tend to bend easily and fail to convey any sense of touch. Improved measuring instruments made from a hard gold alloy combine the elastic properties of steel and the radiopacity of silver and can be recommended for routine application in length measurement radiographs. PMID:2639035

  18. Measuring space radiation with ADIS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; McKibben, R. B.; Merk, J.

    2010-09-01

    Measurements of radiation in space, cosmic rays and Solar energetic particles, date back to the dawn of space flight. Solid state detectors, the basis of most modern high energy charged particle instruments, first flew in space in the 1960's. Modern particle spectrometers, such as ACE/CRIS, ACE/SIS and Ulysses/HET, can measure the elemental and isotopic composition of ions through the iron peak. This is achieved by using position sensing detectors (PSD's) arranged into hodoscopes to measure particle trajectories through the instrument, allowing for pathlength corrections to energy loss measurements. The Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) technique measures particle angle of incidence using a simple system of detectors inclined to the instrument axis. It achieves elemental resolution well beyond iron, and isotopic resolution for moderate mass elements without the complexity of position sensing detectors. An ADIS instrument was selected to fly as the High Energy Particle Sensor (HEPS) on NPOESS, but was de-scoped with the rest of the space weather suite. Another ADIS instrument, the Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS), is being developed for GOES-R. UNH has built and tested a engineering unit of the EHIS. Applications for manned dosimetery on the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) are also being explored. The basic ADIS technique is explained and accelerator data for heavy ions shown.

  19. Instrument continuously measures density of flowing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, R. B.; Macinko, J.; Miller, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Electromechanical densitometer continuously measures the densities of either single-phase or two-phase flowing cryogenic fluids. Measurement is made on actual flow. The instrument operates on the principle that the mass of any vibrating system is a primary factor in determining the dynamic characteristics of the system.

  20. The neutral-atmosphere temperature instrument.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, N. W.; Niemann, H. B.; Carignan, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    The determination of the temperature of the neutral gas at the location of the satellite is based on measurement of the velocity distribution of the molecular nitrogen. Measurement of the thermal-velocity component in the presence of the free-stream velocity will be obtained through application of the velocity-scan technique and, independently, through use of a baffle technique. A 3-cm diameter spherical sampling chamber with a 0.5-cm diameter precisely knife-edged orifice is located at the satellite equator to permit free diffusion of atmosphere gases between the chamber interior and the atmosphere. The spherical chamber is connected through a high-conductance tube to a quadrupole mass-spectrometer sensor to permit accurate quantitative evaluation of the density of the gas.

  1. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; et al

    2015-04-14

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of datamore » normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given.« less

  2. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; Wallace, Alex; Jastrow, Ulf; Kreis, Svea; Sorokin, Andrey A.; Tiedtke, Kai

    2015-04-14

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of data normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given.

  3. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; Wallace, Alex; Jastrow, Ulf; Kreis, Svea; Sorokin, Andrey A.; Tiedtke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of data normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given. PMID:25931075

  4. Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Tim; Speed, Kerry; Lange, Robert; Olsen, Art; Smith, Brett; Taylor, Robert; Schmidt, Mark; Racette, Paul; Bonds, Quenton; Brucker, Ludovic; Koenig, Lora; Marshall, Hans-Peter; Vanhille, Ken; Borissenko, Anatoly; Tsang, Leung; Tan, Shurun

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses current efforts to develop a Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM). The objective of the effort are as follows: to advance the utility of a wideband active and passive instrument (8-40 gigahertz) to support the snow science community; improve snow measurements through advanced calibration and expanded frequency of active and passive sensors; demonstrate science utility through airborne retrievals of snow water equivalent (SWE); and advance the technology readiness of broadband current sheet array (CSA) antenna technology for spaceflight applications.

  5. Measurement control program for NDA instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems.

  6. Instruments for measuring radiant thermal fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerashenko, O. A.; Sazhina, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    An absolute two-sided radiometer, designed on the principle of replacing absorbed radiant energy with electrical energy, is described. The sensitive element of the detector is a thermoelectric transducer of thermal flux. The fabrication technology, methods of measurement, technical characteristics, and general operation of the instrument are presented.

  7. Instrumented Bolt Measures Load In Two Ways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Melvick, G. R.; Klundt, T. J.; Everton, R. L.; Eggett, M.

    1995-01-01

    Bolt instrumented to allow both ultrasonic and strain-gauge measurements of tensile load in bolt during installation and use of bolt in structure. Bolt head design allows interface for ultrasonic transducer installed, while shallow chamfered circumferential groove on bolt shank contains four strain gauges at equal angular intervals wired as a full-bridge transducer.

  8. Instrument for Measuring Engine Clearance Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, S W

    1920-01-01

    With the advent of the V type engine, a new method to measure the clearance volume in cylinders was needed. It was suggested that this measurement could be made by a process which consisted essentially of simultaneously changing both a known and unknown volume of gas by a known amount and then calculating the magnitude of the unknown from the resulting difference in pressure between the two. An instrument based on this design is described.

  9. Input impedance of brass instruments from velocity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwigsen, Daniel O.

    2005-09-01

    A velocity sensor known as the Microflown measures particle velocity from a difference in temperature between two MEMS-scale wires. With a small precision microphone in a package the size of a matchstick, simultaneous measurement of particle velocity and pressure can be accomplished in a tiny space such as the mouthpiece of a brass instrument. Traditional measurements of input impedance rely on a constant flow provided by a capillary tube or feedback loop control of the driver. This velocity sensor eliminates these technical requirements. The apparatus and calibration procedures will be described, and results of measurements of several instruments will be presented. In an easily used device, this approach could benefit instrument designers, makers, and repair technicians.

  10. Force measurement in a nanomachining instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Hocken, Robert J.; Patten, John A.; Lovingood, John

    2000-11-01

    Two miniature, high sensitivity force transducers were employed to measure the thrust force along the in-feed direction and the cutting force along the cross-feed direction in a nanomachining instrument. The instrument was developed for conducting fundamental experiments of nanocutting especially on brittle materials. The force transducers of piezoelectric quartz type can measure machining forces ranging from 0.2 mN to 10 N. The submillinewton resolution makes it possible to measure the machining forces in the cutting experiments with depths of cut as small as the nanometer level. The stiffness and resonant frequency of the force transducers are 400 mN/nm and 300 kHz, respectively, which meet the specification of the instrument. A force transducer assembly is designed to provide a mechanism to adjust the preload on the force transducer and to decouple the measurement of forces. The assembly consists of three dual-axis circular flexures and a subframe. The axial stiffness of the flexures is designed to be greater than 6×107 N/m and the lateral stiffness of the flexures is designed to be 1×106 N/m to provide proper decoupling of forces.

  11. Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a brief summary of the utility of a wideband active and passive (radar and radiometer, respectively) instrument (8-40 GHz) to support the snow science community. The effort seeks to improve snow measurements through advanced calibration and expanded frequency of active and passive sensors and to demonstrate their science utility through airborne retrievals of snow water equivalent (SWE). In addition the effort seeks to advance the technology readiness of broadband current sheet array (CSA) antenna technology for spaceflight applications.

  12. Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

  13. Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.

    1986-06-01

    The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  14. Rotor instrumentation study for high-temperature superconducting generators

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenterly, S.W.; Wilson, C.T.

    1996-06-01

    In FY 9195, ORNL carried out work on rotor instrumentation systems in support of the General Electric (GE) Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI) on Superconducting Generator Development. The objective was to develop a system for tramsitting data from sensors in the spinning rotor to a stationary data acquisition system. Previous work at ORNL had investigated an optical method of cryogenic temperature measurement using laser-induced fluorescence in certain phosphors. Later follow-up discussions with experts in the ORNL Engineering Technology Division indicated that this method could also be extended to measure strain and magnetic field. Another optical alternative using standard fiber optic transmission modules was also investigated. The equipment is very inexpensive, but needs to be adapted for operation in a high-g-force rotating environment. An optical analog of a commutator or slip ring also needs to be developed to couple the light signals from the rotor to the stationary frame. Sealed mercury-film rotary contacts are manufactured by Meridian Laboratory. Unlike conventional slipring assemblies, these offer low noise and long lifetime, with low costs per channel. Standard units may need some upgrading for 3600-rpm or high-voltage operation. A commercial electronic telemetry system offered by Wireless Data Corporation (WDC) was identified as a viable candidate, and information on this system was presented to GE. GE has since ordered two of these systems from WDC for temperature measurements in their rotating test cryostat.

  15. Large Area Lunar Dust Flux Measurement Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burchell, M.; Stansbery, Eugene; Lagakos, N.

    2009-01-01

    The instrument under development is designed to characterize the flux and size distribution of the lunar micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta environment. When deployed on the lunar surface, the data collected will benefit fundamental lunar science as well as enabling more reliable impact risk assessments for human lunar exploration activities. To perform this task, the instrument requirements are demanding. It must have as large a surface area as possible to sample the very sparse population of the larger potentially damage-inducing micrometeorites. It must also have very high sensitivity to enable it to measure the flux of small (<10 micron) micrometeorite and secondary ejecta dust particles. To be delivered to the lunar surface, it must also be very low mass, rugged and stow compactly. The instrument designed to meet these requirements is called FOMIS. It is a large-area thin film under tension (i.e. a drum) with multiple fiber optic displacement (FOD) sensors to monitor displacements of the film. This sensor was chosen since it can measure displacements over a wide dynamic range: 1 cm to sub-Angstrom. A prototype system was successfully demonstrated using the hypervelocity impact test facility at the University of Kent (Canterbury, UK). Based on these results, the prototype system can detect hypervelocity (approx.5 km/s) impacts by particles as small as 2 microns diameter. Additional tests using slow speeds find that it can detect secondary ejecta particles (which do not penetrate the film) with momentums as small as 15 pico-gram 100m/s, or nominally 5 microns diameter at 100 m/s.

  16. Infrared radiometric technique in temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazer, S.; Madding, R.

    1988-01-01

    One class of commercially available imaging infrared radiometers using cooled detectors is sensitive to radiation over the 3 to 12 micron wavelength band. Spectral filters can tailor instrument sensitivity to specific regions where the target exhibits optimum radiance. The broadband spectral response coupled with real time two-dimensional imaging and emittance/background temperature corrections make the instruments useful for remote measurement of surface temperatures from -20 C to +1500 C. Commonly used radiometric techniques and assumptions are discussed, and performance specifications for a typical modern commercial instrument are presented. The potential usefulness of an imaging infrared radiometer in space laboratories is highlighted through examples of research, nondestructive evaluation, safety, and routine maintenance applications. Future improvements in instrument design and application of the radiometric technique are discussed.

  17. Instrumentation for measuring speech privacy in rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrall, Thomas; Pirn, Rein; Markham, Ben

    2003-10-01

    Federal legislation pertaining to oral privacy in healthcare and financial services industries has increased the need for a convenient and economical way to document speech privacy conditions in offices, medical examination rooms, and certain other workspaces. This legislation is embodied in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA). Both laws require that reasonable measures be put in place to safeguard the oral privacy of patients and clients. While techniques for privacy documentation are known within the acoustical consulting community, it is unlikely that community alone has the capacity to provide the surveys needed to evaluate acoustical conditions and demonstrate compliance with the legislation. A portable computer with integrated soundboard and a suitable amplified loudspeaker and test microphone are all that are needed to perform in situ measurements of articulation index or other accepted indices of speech privacy. Along with modest training, such instrumentation allows technicians to survey a large number of sites economically. Cost-effective components are shown that can meet the requirements for testing in most common environments where oral privacy is likely to be required. Example cases are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of such instrumentation.

  18. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 μm) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  19. High-temperature prototype instrument for downhole acoustic sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the design for an acoustic instrument which can operate at frequencies of 10 to 40 KHz and temperatures up to 250/sup 0/C. It first introduces a high temperature circuit using Sandia's Sprytron switching tube and Krytron over-voltage gap. Next, the high temperature performance of a 2 V Permendur magnetostrictive transducer (for the transmitter), and a piezoelectric material (for the receiver) is described. The problems encountered and the corresponding solutions are revealed. The design of an acoustic isolator and the mechanical housing of this instrument are presented.

  20. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1460 Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stereopsis measuring instrument. 886.1460...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1460 Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stereopsis measuring instrument. 886.1460...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1460 Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stereopsis measuring instrument. 886.1460...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section...

  6. Measurement of proton momentum distributions using a direct geometry instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senesi, R.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Andreani, C.

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy Ei= 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO.

  7. Brief communication "Snow profile associated measurements (SPAM) - a new instrument for quick snow profile measurements"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, P.

    2011-06-01

    A new instrument concept (SPAM) for snow profile associated measurements is presented. The potential of the concept is demonstrated by presenting preliminary results obtained with the prototype instrument. With this concept it is possible to retrieve rapid snow profiles of e.g. light extinction, reflectance, temperature and snow layer structure with high vertical resolution. As a side-product, also snow depth is retrieved.

  8. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section 886.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section 886.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is...

  10. Nulling Infrared Radiometer for Measuring Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2003-01-01

    A nulling, self-calibrating infrared radiometer is being developed for use in noncontact measurement of temperature in any of a variety of industrial and scientific applications. This instrument is expected to be especially well-suited to measurement of ambient or near-ambient temperature and, even more specifically, for measuring the surface temperature of a natural body of water. Although this radiometer would utilize the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) portion of the spectrum (wavelengths of 8 to 12 m), its basic principle of operation could also be applied to other spectral bands (corresponding to other temperature ranges) in which the atmosphere is transparent and in which design requirements for sensitivity and temperature-measurement accuracy could be satisfied.

  11. Cloud liquid measurement with a ground-based microwave instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snider, J. B.; Burdick, H. M.; Hogg, D. C.

    1980-06-01

    The design of a new instrument developed to measure the integrated liquid content in clouds is described. The system simultaneously measures the absorption of a 28-GHz coherent signal transmitted from the Comstar 3 synchronous satellite and the associated increase in brightness temperature radiated by the absorbing clouds by means of a bandwidth-switched receiver. By combination of the two quantities the line integral of the cloud liquid is obtained. Examples of absorption events observed during the first six months of operation are presented.

  12. Line spread instrumentation for propagation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A line spread device capable of yielding direct measure of a laser beam's line spread function (LSF) was developed and employed in propagation tests conducted in a wind tunnel to examine optimal acoustical suppression techniques for laser cavities exposed to simulated aircraft aerodynamic environments. Measurements were made on various aerodynamic fences and cavity air injection techniques that effect the LSF of a propagating laser. Using the quiescent tunnel as a control, the relative effect of each technique on laser beam quality was determined. The optical instrument employed enabled the comparison of relative beam intensity for each fence or mass injection. It was found that fence height had little effect on beam quality but fence porosity had a marked effect, i.e., 58% porosity alleviated cavity resonance and degraded the beam the least. Mass injection had little effect on the beam LSF. The use of a direct LSF measuring device proved to be a viable means of determining aerodynamic seeing qualities of flow fields.

  13. Development of the emergency physician job satisfaction measurement instrument.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, S; Streiner, D; Hahn, E; Shannon, S

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure the job satisfaction of physicians practicing emergency medicine. A prospective survey involving four separate stages (an item evaluation and reduction stage, a factor analysis stage, a construct validity stage, and a reliability stage) was distributed in Canada to full-time emergency physicians. Three separate survey instruments were administered (an initial draft instrument with 228 items, a pilot instrument with 142 items, and the final instrument with 79 items). Construct validity of the final instrument was tested by evaluating the correlation between physician scores on the instrument, and scores on two instruments measuring the same construct, and three measuring different but related constructs. A draft instrument with 228 items and six hypothetical domains was tested on 61 physicians. Evaluation for frequency endorsement, redundancy, and homogeneity reduced the item pool to 157. The remaining 157 items were used as a pilot instrument and tested on 223 physicians. Factor analysis eliminated 66 items from the pilot instrument, creating a final instrument with 79 items, 11 factors, and six domains. Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the final instrument domains is 0.81, and all domain-total correlations are greater than 0.4. All correlations between the final instrument and the construct validity instruments were statistically significant (P < .001), but not so high that they appeared to be measuring the same thing. Correlations between instruments measuring the same construct were higher than those measuring related but different constructs. Correlations between the final instrument and the CES-D scale, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory were negative. A test-retest reliability study on 42 physicians showed Pearson's correlation coefficients for individual domains were all greater than 0.7 and greater than 0.8 for the final

  14. Measuring Soil Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil temperature is a critical factor in the germination and early growth of many crops including corn, cotton, small grains, and vegetable crops. Soil temperature strongly influences the rate of critical biological reactions in the soil such as the rates of nitrification and microbial respiration. ...

  15. A review of instruments measuring resilience.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Kiehl, Ermalynn M; Sole, Mary Lou; Byers, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the psychometric properties and appropriateness of instruments for the study of resilience in adolescents. A search was completed using the terms resilience and instruments or scales using the EBSCO database (CINAHL, PreCINAHL, and Academic Search Premier), MEDLINE, PsychINFO and PsychARTICLES, and the Internet. After instruments were identified, a second search was performed for studies reporting the psychometric development of these instruments. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, six psychometric development of instrument studies were selected for a full review. A data extraction table was used to compare the six instruments. Two of the six instruments (Baruth Protective Factors Inventory [BPFI] and Brief-Resilient Coping Scale) lacked evidence that they were appropriate for administration with the adolescent population due to lack of research applications. Three instruments (Adolescent Resilience Scale [ARS], Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Resilience Scale for Adults) had acceptable credibility but needed further study in adolescents. One instrument (Resilience Scale [RS]) was determined to be the best instrument to study resilience in the adolescent population due to psychometric properties of the instrument and applications in a variety of age groups, including adolescence. Findings of this review indicate that the RS is the most appropriate instrument to study resilience in the adolescent population. While other instruments have potential (e.g., ARS, BPFI) as they were tested in the adolescent and young adult populations, they lack evidence for their use at this time. An evaluation of the review and recommendations are discussed. PMID:16772239

  16. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  1. Models of Solar Irradiance Variability and the Instrumental Temperature Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, S. L.; Ghil, M.; Ide, K.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of decade-to-century (Dec-Cen) variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on global mean surface temperature Ts during the pre-Pinatubo instrumental era (1854-1991) are studied by using two different proxies for TSI and a simplified version of the IPCC climate model.

  2. An Analysis of Selected Skinfold Measuring Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jerald D.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of three relatively inexpensive skinfold calipers were compared with that of the Lange Skinfold Caliper. The instruments were used with 800 students ranging from elementary school to the college level. The Fat-O-Meter and Adipometer calipers compared favorably with the Lange instrument for accuracy and wearability while the…

  3. Instrumentation for measuring energy inputs to implements

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, F.D.; Wilhelm, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    A microcomputer-based instrumentation system for monitoring tractor operating parameters and energy inputs to implements was developed and mounted on a 75-power-takeoff-KW tractor. The instrumentation system, including sensors and data handling equipment, is discussed. 10 refs.

  4. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  5. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-12-31

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with super-heated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200{degrees}C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220{degrees}C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: (1) At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. (2) There is no significant temperature effect. (3) Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. (4) Pores smaller than 15 {Angstrom} do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  6. A compact DOAS instrument optimised for ammonia field-measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neftel, Albrecht; Sintermann, Joerg; Dietrich, Klaus; Häni, Christoph; Jocher, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Accurate, high time-resolution measurements of NH3 in ambient air are still a challenge due to the stickiness of this molecule and its interactions with inlet or instrument surfaces. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) with open-path arrangement offers a contact-free in-situ approach to determine ambient NH3. We present a DOAS instrument, optimised for open-path field-measurements of ambient ammonia (NH3) alongside nitrogen oxide (NO) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). This device, operating in the UV range over paths of up to 100 m, is a further development of the miniDOAS presented by Volten et al. (2012). We use a temperature-controlled spectrometer, a deuterium light source and a modified optical arrangement. The system was set up in a robust, field-deployable, temperature-regulated housing. For the evaluation of light spectra a new high-pass filter routine based upon robust baseline extraction with local regression was used. In order to fit differential absorption cross-sections to the measurements, multiple linear regression is performed including terms of an autoregressive-moving-average model. In this presentation we discuss the influence of filter and fit procedure on the precision and accuracy of the system with examples of field measurements with artificial NH3 sources. Volten, H., Bergwerff, J. B., Haaima, M., Lolkema, D. E., Berkhout, A. J. C., van der Hoff, G. R., Potma, C. J. M., Wichink Kruit, R. J., van Pul, W. A. J. and Swart, D. P. J.: Two instruments based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to measure accurate ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere, Atmospheric Meas. Tech., 5(2), 413-427, doi:10.5194/amt-5-413-2012, 2012.

  7. Temperature correction in conductivity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1962-01-01

    Electrical conductivity has been widely used in freshwater research but usual methods employed by limnologists for converting measurements to conductance at a given temperature have not given uniformly accurate results. The temperature coefficient used to adjust conductivity of natural waters to a given temperature varies depending on the kinds and concentrations of electrolytes, the temperature at the time of measurement, and the temperature to which measurements are being adjusted. The temperature coefficient was found to differ for various lake and stream waters, and showed seasonal changes. High precision can be obtained only by determining temperature coefficients for each water studied. Mean temperature coefficients are given for various temperature ranges that may be used where less precision is required.

  8. Measuring Temperature: The Thermometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamoun, Mirvette

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses the historical development of the thermometer with the view of helping children understand the role that mathematics plays in society. A model thermometer that is divided into three sections, each displaying one of the three temperature scales used today (Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin) is highlighted as a project to allow…

  9. Sourcebook on high-temperature electronics and instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneruso, A. F.

    1981-10-01

    The high-temperature characteristics of a number of commercially available electronic components and materials required in geothermal well-logging instruments that must operate to 2750 C are summarized. The high-temperature electronic products that are available and the design and performance limitations of these products are discussed. The electronic component information given includes the standard repertoire of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors, and magnetics; the active devices and integrated circuits sections emphasize silicon semiconductor JFETs and CMOS circuits; and, to complete the electronics, interconnections and packaging of hybrid microelectronics are described. Thermal insulation and refrigeration alternatives are also presented. Finally, instrument housing materials and high-temperature cables and cablehead connectors are listed.

  10. Sourcebook on high-temperature electronics and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Veneruso, A.F.

    1981-10-01

    This sourcebook summarizes the high-temperature characteristics of a number of commercially available electronic components and materials required in geothermal well-logging instruments that must operate to 275/sup 0/C. The sourcebook is written to provide a starting place for instrument designers, who need to know the high-temperature electronic products that are available and the design and performance limitations of these products. The electronic component information given includes the standard repertoire of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors, and magnetics; the active devices and integrated circuits sections emphasize silicon semiconductor JFETs and CMOS circuits; and, to complete the electronics, interconnections and packaging of hybrid microelectronics are described. Thermal insulation and refrigeration alternatives are also presented in the sourcebook. Finally, instrument housing materials and high-temperature cables and cablehead connectors are listed. This information was compiled as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program that Sandia National Laboratories conducted for the US Department of Energy's Divison of Geothermal Energy from 1976 to 1981.

  11. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  12. High-Sensitivity Temperature Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadstone, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a method of measuring small temperature differences that amount to a .01K, using an arrangement of a copper-constantan thermocouple, a microamplifier and a galvanometer, as an indirect way of measuring heat energy. (GA)

  13. Potential Applications of an Integrated Seismic, Tilt, and Temperature Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, Geoffrey; Parker, Tim; Karimi, Sepideh; Devanney, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Force feedback seismometers provide mass position outputs which represent the time-averaged feedback force applied to each inertial mass, in order to cancel external forces and keep it balanced at its center point. These external forces are primarily due to tilt and temperature. In a symmetric triaxial seismometer, tilt and temperature effects can be distinguished because temperature affects all 3 axes equally whereas tilt causes a different force on each axis. This study analyzes the resolution of tilt and temperature signals that can be obtained from a force-feedback seismometer, and the potential applicability of this data to applications such as volcano monitoring and cap rock integrity monitoring. Also the synergy of a combined seismic, tilt, and temperature instrument is considered.

  14. Acoustical Measurement Of Furnace Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, Shakkottai; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Simple probes withstand severe conditions, yet give spatially-resolved temperature readings. Prototype acoustical system developed to measure temperatures from ambient to 1,800 degree F in such structures as large industrial lime kilns and recovery-boiler furnaces. Pulses of sound reflected from obstructions in sensing tube. Speed of sound and temperature in each segment deduced from travel times of pulses.

  15. Impact of instrument response variations on health physics measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Armantrout, G.A.

    1984-10-01

    Uncertainties in estimating the potential health impact of a given radiation exposure include instrument measurement error in determining exposure and difficulty in relating this exposure to an effective dose value. Instrument error can be due to design or manufacturing deficiencies, limitations of the sensing element used, and calibration and maintenance of the instrument. This paper evaluates the errors which can be introduced by design deficiencies and limitations of the sensing element for a wide variety of commonly used survey instruments. The results indicate little difference among sensing element choice for general survey work, with variations among specific instrument designs being the major factor. Ion chamber instruments tend to be the best for all around use, while scintillator-based units should not be used where accurate measurements are required. The need to properly calibrate and maintain an instrument appears to be the most important factor in instrument accuracy. 8 references, 6 tables.

  16. Development of a portable ambient temperature radiometric assaying instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Ruhter, W.D.

    1994-10-01

    There is a strong need for portable radiometric instrumentation that can accurately confirm the presence of nuclear materials and allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. To fulfill this need we are developing a hand-held, non-cryogenic, low-power gamma- and x-ray measurement and analysis instrument that can both search and then accurately verify the presence of nuclear materials. We report on the use of cadmium zinc telluride detectors, signal processing electronics, and the new field-portable instrument based on the MicroNOMAD Multichannel Analyzer from EG&G ORTBC. We also describe the isotopic analysis that allows uranium enrichment measurements to be made accurately in the field.

  17. Hydrazine engine plume contamination mapping. [measuring instruments for rocket exhaust from liquid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirivella, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Instrumentation for the measurement of plume exhaust specie deposition rates were developed and demonstrated. The instruments, two sets of quartz crystal microbalances, were designed for low temperature operation in the back flow and variable temperature operation in the core flow regions of an exhaust plume. These quartz crystal microbalances performed nominally, and measurements of exhaust specie deposition rates for 8400 number of pulses for a 0.1-lb monopropellant thruster are reported.

  18. Instrumentation of sampling aircraft for measurement of launch vehicle effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Tyson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obtaining valid airborne measurements. Discussions of the data acquisition system used, the instrument power system, and operational sampling procedures are included. Representative measurements obtained from an actual rocket launch monitoring activity are also presented.

  19. High-temperature-measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-27

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2000/sup 0/C) is described. The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensonally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  20. [An instrument for estimating human body composition using impedance measurement].

    PubMed

    Yin, J; Peng, C

    1997-03-01

    According to the impedance feature of biological tissue, the instrument was designed at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100kHz to measure human impedance, and then to calculate human FAT, FFM, FAT%, TBW, ECW, ICW and so on. A 8031 singlechip microprocessor contacuting used as a control center in the instrument. The part of electric circuit contacuting human body in the instrument was unreally earthing. The instrument was safty, effective, repeatable, and easily manpulative. Prelimintary clinical experiment showed the results measured with the instrument could effectively reflect practical, status of human composition. PMID:9647623

  1. Guide to measurement of winds with instrumented aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Walter; Paige, Terry S.; Nelius, Andrew E.

    1991-01-01

    Aircraft measurement techniques are reviewed. Review of past and present applications of instrument aircraft to atmospheric observations is presented. Questions to be answered relative to measuring mean wind profiles as contrasted to turbulence measurements are then addressed. Requirements of instrumentation and accuracy, data reduction, data acquisition, and theoretical and certainty analysis are considered.

  2. Noncontact true temperature measurement, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.; Allen, James L.

    1988-01-01

    A laser pyrometer was developed for acquiring the true temperature of a levitated sample. The reflectivity is measured by first expanding the laser beam to cover the entire cross-sectional surface of the diffuse target. The reflectivity calibration of this system is determined from the surface emissivity of a target with a blackbody cavity. The emissivity of the real target can then be calculated. The overall system constant is obtained by passively measuring the radiance of the blackbody cavity (emissivity = 1.0) at a known, arbitrary temperature. Since the photosensor used is highly linear over the entire operating temperature range, the true temperature of the target can then be computed. The latest results available from this on-going research indicate that true temperatures thus obtained are in very good quantitative agreement with thermocouple measured temperatures.

  3. Measuring electron temperature in the extended corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Gardner, L. D.; Kohl, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A technique for measuring electron temperature in the extended corona from the line profile of the electron scattered component of coronal H I Ly alpha produced by Thomson scattering of chromospheric Ly alpha emission is discussed. Because of the high thermal velocity of electrons at coronal temperatures (approximately 6800 km/s at T(sub e) = 1,500,000 K) the effect of nonthermal velocities and solar wind flows on the electron velocity distribution are negligible. However, the low electron mass which is responsible for the high thermal velocity also results in a very wide profile (approximately equal to 50 A). This wide profile, together with an intensity that is three orders of magnitude weaker than the resonantly scattered component of Ly alpha makes the direct measurement of T(sub e) a challenging observational problem. An evaluation of this technique based on simulated measurements is presented and the subsequent instrumental requirements necessary to make a meaningful determination of the electron temperature are discussed. Estimates of uncertainties in the measured electron temperature are related to critical instrument parameters such as grating stray light suppression.

  4. Long-term Passive Mode Data Measured by the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) Instrument onboard Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and Comparison to REMS Surface Pressure and Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, I.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Martín-Torres, J.; Zorzano, M. P.; Boynton, W. V.; Fedosov, F.; Golovin, D.; Hardgrove, C. J.; Harshman, K.; Kozyrev, A.; Kuzmin, R.; Malakhov, A. V.; Mischna, M. A.; Moersch, J.; Mokrousov, M.; Nikiforov, S.; Tate, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Since the landing in August 2012, DAN has provided a wealth of scientific data from the successful surface operation in both Active mode and Passive mode. While the main DAN science investigation so far has focused in estimating the contents of water-equivalent-hydrogen (WEH) and chlorine-equivalent-neutron-absorption in the surface, here we will provide/discuss low energy (less than about 1 keV) background neutron environment at the Martian surface as measured by DAN Passive mode operation. Passive mode measurements have been done on almost every sols with durations ranging from 1 hour to ~9 hour, covering different times of a day. Neutrons from the onboard power source Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermonuclear Generator (MMRTG) and induced by Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR)/Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) interactions with the Martian atmosphere and the surface material contribute to the DAN passive data. An approach to separate out the respective contributions from the DAN total count rates was developed previously (Jun et al., 2013) using the data collected at Rocknest (where the rover stayed from sol 60 to sol 100). The main goal of this paper is to extend the same analysis to other locations encountered during the rover traverse especially to understand the long-term (through Sol 800, covering more than 1 Martian year) behavior of the neutron environment at the Martian surface as measured by DAN in response to variation of the free space GCR/SEP environment. Extensive Monte Carlo transport simulations using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) have been performed to support the analysis and to aid interpretation of the DAN passive data. In addition, the DAN passive data are compared to the long-term surface temperature and pressure data (both measured and modeled) from Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) to investigate possible correlation of the DAN data with ambient environmental conditions.

  5. Quantifying the information measured by neutron scattering instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.W.

    1997-09-01

    The concept of the information content of a scientific measurement is introduced, and a theory is presented which enables the information that may be obtained by a neutron scattering instrument to be calculated. When combined with the time taken to perform the measurement the bandwidth of the instrument is obtained. This bandwidth is effectively a figure of merit which is of use in three respects: in the design of neutron instrumentation, the optimisation of measurements, and in the comparison of one instrument with another.

  6. Low-cost optical instrumentation for biomedical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind

    2000-12-01

    Low-cost instruments for measurement in medicine, biotechnology, and environmental monitoring are presented. Recent developments in optoelectronic technology enable practical compact designs. This article presents the available types of light emitters, detectors, and wavelength selection components that are used in low-cost instruments. The main spectroscopic techniques (absorption, reflectance, luminescence intensity, lifetime, and polarization, evanescent wave and surface plasmon resonance) that are used with these instruments are described. Numerous examples of devices for a broad variety of biomedical measurements are presented.

  7. The Development of an Instrument To Measure Organizational Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Dunlop, Korynne; Lester, Paula E.

    An instrument to measure organizational trust was developed, and a pilot study was conducted to evaluate the instrument and make appropriate revisions. The 23-item Organizational Trust Measure (OTM) was developed based on the perceptions of 42 doctoral students regarding trust and its role in educational leadership. Content analysis procedures and…

  8. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stereopsis measuring instrument. 886.1460 Section 886.1460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1460 Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis...

  9. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  10. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices. 24.36 Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

  11. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  12. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stereopsis measuring instrument. 886.1460 Section 886.1460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1460 Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis...

  13. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices. 24.36 Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

  14. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  15. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices. 24.36 Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

  16. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  17. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Measuring devices and testing instruments. 24.170 Section 24.170 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170 Measuring devices and testing instruments....

  18. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices. 24.36 Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

  19. 27 CFR 24.36 - Instruments and measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Instruments and measuring devices. 24.36 Section 24.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Authorities § 24.36 Instruments and measuring...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  4. Noncontact temperature pattern measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D. (Inventor); Allen, J. L. (Inventor); Lee, M. C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a noncontact imagine pyrometer system for obtaining the true temperature image of a given substance in a contactless fashion without making assumptions about localized emissivity of the substance or the uniformity of the temperature distribution. Such a contactless temperature imaging system has particular application in the study and production of many materials where the physical contact required to make a conventional temperature measurement drastically effects or contaminates the physical process being observed. Two examples where accurate temperature profiles are of critical interest are: (1) the solid-liquid phase change interface in the production of electronic materials and (2) metastable materials in the undercooling region. The apparent novelty resides in the recognition that an active pyrometer system may be advantageously adapted to perform contactless temperature imaging so that an accurate temperature profile can be obtained.

  5. Development of a Binary Mixture Gas Composition Instrument for Use in a Confined High Temperature Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadell, Seth R.

    With recent advancements in material science, industrial operations are being conducted at higher and higher temperatures. This is apparent in the nuclear industry where a division of the field is working to develop the High Temperature Gas Reactor and the Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concurrently. Both of these facilities will have outlet gas temperatures that are at significantly higher temperatures than the typical water cooled reactor. These increased temperatures provide improved efficiency for the production of hydrogen, provide direct heating for oil refineries, or more efficient electricity generation. As high temperature operations are being developed, instruments capable of measuring the operating parameters must be developed concurrently. Within the gas reactor community there is a need to measure the impurities within the primary coolant. Current devices will not survive the temperature and radiation environments of a nuclear reactor. An instrument is needed to measure the impurities within the coolant while living inside the reactor, where this instrument would measure the amount of the impurity within the coolant. There are many industrial applications that need to measure the ratio of two components, whether it be the amount of particulate in air that is typical to pneumatic pumping, or the liquid to gas ratio in natural gas as it flows through a pipeline. All of the measurements in these applications can be met using a capacitance sensor. Current capacitance sensors are built to operate at ambient temperatures with only one company producing a product that will handle a temperature of up to 400 °C. This maximum operating temperature is much too low to measure the gas characteristics in the High Temperature Gas Reactor. If this measurement technique were to be improved to operate at the expected temperatures, the coolant within the primary loop could be monitored for water leaks in the steam generator, carbon dust buildup entrained in the flow

  6. A miniDOAS instrument optimised for ammonia field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintermann, Jörg; Dietrich, Klaus; Häni, Christoph; Bell, Michael; Jocher, Markus; Neftel, Albrecht

    2016-06-01

    We present a differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument, called "miniDOAS", optimised for optical open-path field-measurements of ambient ammonia (NH3) alongside nitrogen oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The instrument is a further development of the miniDOAS presented by Volten et al. (2012). We use a temperature-controlled spectrometer, a deuterium light source and a modified optical arrangement. The system was set up in a robust, field-deployable, temperature-regulated housing. For the evaluation of light spectra we use a new high-pass filter routine based upon robust baseline extraction with local regression. Multiple linear regression including terms of an autoregressive-moving-average model is used to determine concentrations. For NH3 the random uncertainty is about 1.4 % of the concentration, and not better than 0.2 µg m-3. Potential biases for the slope of the calibration are given by the precision of the differential absorption cross sections (±3 %) and for the offset by the precision of the estimation of concentration offsets (cref) introduced by the reference spectrum Iref. Comparisons of miniDOAS measurements to those by NH3 acid trap devices showed good agreement. The miniDOAS can be flexibly used for a wide range of field trials, such as micrometeorological NH3 flux measurements with approaches based upon horizontal or vertical concentration differences. Results from such applications covering concentration dynamics of less than one up to several hundreds of µg m-3 are presented.

  7. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOEpatents

    Poulsen, Peter

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  8. Shock temperature measurements in ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H.B.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Ross, M.

    1985-07-01

    Our first shock temperature measurements on a cryogenic target are reported for NH/sub 3/. A new fast optical pyrometer and a cryogenic specimen holder for liquid NH/sub 3/ were developed to measure shock temperatures of 4400 and 3600 K at pressures of 61 and 48 GPa. These conditions correspond to those in the ice layers in Uranus and Neptune. The shock temperature data are in reasonable agreement with an equation of state based on an intermolecular potential derived from NH/sub 3/ Hugoniot data.

  9. Containerless high temperature property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Anderson, Collin D.

    1991-01-01

    Containerless processing in the low gravity environment of space provides the opportunity to increase the temperature at which well controlled processing of and property measurements on materials is possible. This project was directed towards advancing containerless processing and property measurement techniques for application to materials research at high temperatures in space. Containerless high temperature material property studies include measurements of the vapor pressure, melting temperature, optical properties, and spectral emissivities of solid boron. The reaction of boron with nitrogen was also studied by laser polarimetric measurement of boron nitride film growth. The optical properties and spectral emissivities were measured for solid and liquid silicon, niobium, and zirconium; liquid aluminum and titanium; and liquid Ti-Al alloys of 5 to 60 atomic pct. titanium. Alternative means for noncontact temperature measurement in the absence of material emissivity data were evaluated. Also, the application of laser induced fluorescence for component activity measurements in electromagnetic levitated liquids was studied, along with the feasibility of a hybrid aerodynamic electromagnetic levitation technique.

  10. An instrument for measuring endometrial blood flow in the uterus, using two thermistor probes.

    PubMed

    Hansson, G A; Hauksson, A; Strömberg, P; Akerlund, M

    1987-01-01

    An instrument was developed for continuous measurement of thermal conductance reflecting blood flow locally in the endometrium. The probe consists of two small thermistors, one sensing the tissue temperature, and the other working at 5 degrees C elevated temperature, sensing the heat loss caused by thermal conduction mainly due to the blood flow. The power needed to keep this temperature difference was recorded as a measure of flow. When the instrument was tested in model experiments, for measurement of flows at temperatures of 35 to 40 degrees C, stable recordings with high sensitivity were obtained and no influence of the surrounding temperature was observed. Recordings were also made in vivo in non-pregnant women by applying the instrument to the endometrium of the uterine fundus. Intrauterine pressure was recorded simultaneously. The blood flow recordings were stable over long periods in spite of changes in body temperature, but with fluctuations of up to 0.1 mW concomitant with uterine contractions. Pulse-syncronous variations in flow were recorded, indicating a high sensitivity and a short time constant of the instrument. The blood flow effects of vasoactive substances, i.e. vasopressin and a vasopressin antagonist, could readily be distinguished. It is concluded that this instrument can be used for semi-quantitative recordings of blood flow in cavities of the body, for example the uterus, which can be reached by small probes and that changes of body temperature do not effect the measurements. PMID:3585951

  11. Measuring transient high temperature thermal phenomena in hostile environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brenden, B.B.; Hartman, J.S.; Reich, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    The design of equipment for measuring temperature and strain in a rapidly heated and pressurized cylinder of stainless steel is discussed. Simultaneous cinematography of the full circumference of the cylinder without interference with temperature and strain measurements is also illustrated. The integrated system uses a reflective chamber for the sample and requires careful consideration of the spectral energy distribution utilized by each instrument.

  12. An instrument for measuring thermal inertia in the field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, S. E.; Schieldge, J. P.; Kahle, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    Features and test results of a thermal inertial meter (TIM) for cataloging the thermal inertial of surface material in situ as a basis for satellite remote sensing of geologic materials are described. The instrument is employed to determine the temperature rise of the materials in the field, with the assumptions that the sample and a standard are homogeneous in composition, the heat flux density is constant at the surface of each material, and the specimens are thick enough to be treated as semi-infinite bodies. A formula for calculating thermal inertia is presented, and the components of the TIM are detailed. A box with three compartments, two holding standards, is placed on the sample surface with the third compartment open to the specimen. Dolomite and quartz are used as references when all samples are measured after heating. Tests with rocks and sand in Nevada and California revealed that chert has a higher thermal inertia than barite.

  13. Instrument description of the airborne microwave temperature profiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Richard F.; Guidero, Steven L.; Parks, Gary S.; Gary, Bruce L.

    1989-01-01

    The microwave temperature profiler (MTP) is a passive microwave radiometer installed in the NASA ER-2 aircraft and used to measure profiles of air temperature versus altitude. It operates at 57.3 and 58.8 GHz, where oxygen molecules emit thermal radiation. Brightness temperature is measured at a selection of viewing elevation angles every 14 s. MTP was the only remote sensing experiment aboard the ER-2 during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. This paper describes hardware, calibration, and performance aspects of the MTP.

  14. Clinical evaluation of five electronic root canal length measuring instruments.

    PubMed

    Fouad, A F; Krell, K V; McKendry, D J; Koorbusch, G F; Olson, R A

    1990-09-01

    A previous in vitro study has shown high accuracy, but no clinically significant differences in a group of five electronic root canal length measuring instruments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance of the same group of instruments under clinical conditions and to correlate their accuracy to radiographic estimates of canal length. Five electronic root canal length measuring instruments were used to measure the working length to the "apex" in 20 single-rooted teeth scheduled for extraction. After extraction, the actual canal length was measured visually to a point just within the apical foramen. This length was compared with instrument length as determined electronically. The accuracy of the instruments in determining canal measurement within +/- 0.5 mm from the apical foramen varied from 55 to 75%. The differences between the instruments were not statistically significant. On average, all of the instruments except for the Endocater gave canal length measurements that were beyond the apical foramen. The variability of the measurements, which was comparable to that of estimates of canal length from preoperative radiographs, indicated that radiographic verification of the working length is still desirable. PMID:2098464

  15. Instruments for measuring the amount of moisture in the air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A summarization and discussion of the many systems available for measuring moisture in the atmosphere is presented. Conventional methods used in the field of meteorology and methods used in the laboratory are discussed. Performance accuracies, and response of the instruments were reviewed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. Methods of measuring humidity aloft by instrumentation onboard aircraft and balloons are given, in addition to the methods used to measure moisture at the Earth's surface.

  16. An Instrument to Measure Self-Righteousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni; Belk, Sharyn S.

    A seven item Likert-type scale was developed to measure self-righteousness, defined as the conviction that one's beliefs and actions are correct, especially in contrast to the beliefs and actions of others. The Self Righteousness Questionnaire (SRQ) measures three components of self-righteousness: belittlement, acceptance, and uncertainty. The…

  17. Instrument Measures Airflow Friction Without Contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Dual beam laser interferometer determines airflow friction against body by measuring time-varying thickness of wind sheared oil film. Measurements yield skin friction between film and airstream. Errors from prerun oil flow, tunnel starting transients, and initial surface waves therefore eliminated.

  18. Self-contained instrument for measuring subterranean tunnel wall deflection

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Donald Edgar; Hof, Jr., Peter John

    1978-01-01

    The deflection of a subterranean tunnel is measured with a rod-like, self-contained instrument that is adapted to be inserted into a radially extending bore of the tunnel adjacent an end of the tunnel where the tunnel is being dug. One end of the instrument is anchored at the end of the bore remote from the tunnel wall, while the other end of the intrument is anchored adjacent the end of the wall in proximity to the tunnel wall. The two ends of the instrument are linearly displaceable relative to each other; the displacement is measured by a transducer means mounted on the instrument. Included in the instrument is a data storage means including a paper tape recorder periodically responsive to a parallel binary signal indicative of the measured displacement.

  19. Instrument for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Haskel, D.; Tseng, Y. C.; Lang, J. C.; Sinogeikin, S.

    2007-08-15

    An instrument has been developed for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at high pressures and low temperatures. This instrument couples a nonmagnetic copper-beryllium diamond anvil cell featuring perforated diamonds with a helium flow cryostat and an electromagnet. The applied pressure can be controlled in situ using a gas membrane and calibrated using Cu K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The performance of this instrument was tested by measuring the XMCD spectra of the Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} giant magnetocaloric material.

  20. LEDA beam diagnostics instrumentation: Beam current measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, D.; Day, L.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Kasemir, K.-U.; Martinez, D.; Power, J. F.; Shurter, R.; Stettler, M.

    2000-11-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7 MeV and current of 100 mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Two types of current measurements are used. The first is an AC or pulsed-current measurement which uses three LANL built toroids. They are placed in the beamline in such a way as to measure important transmission parameters and act as a differential current-loss machine protection system. The second system is a DC current measurement used to measure cw beam characteristics and uses toroids from Bergoz Inc. There are two of these systems, so they can also be used for transmission measurements. The AC system uses custom processing electronics whereas the DC system uses a modified Bergoz® electronics system. Both systems feature data acquisition via a series of custom TMS320C40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of these systems, the calibration technique, the differential current loss measurements and fast-protection processing, current droop characteristics for the AC system, and existing system noise levels. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  1. Development of an Instrument To Measure Attitudes toward Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Beverly; Troyer, Rik

    A group of 261 college juniors, seniors, and graduate students anticipating careers in mental health professions were administered an instrument designed to measure attitudes toward old age (people 65 and older). The instrument consisted of 60 statements regarding old age, and used a six-point Likert-type scale. Items were categorized into 10…

  2. An Analysis of Several Instruments Measuring "Nature of Science" Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Rodney L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is an investigation of the relationship among three selected instruments based on the responses of a sample of high school students. The instruments were the Nature of Science Scale (NOSS), the Science Support Scale (SSS), and the Test on the Social Aspects of Science (TSAS). All purport to measure "nature of science" objectives. (PEB)

  3. INSTRUMENTAL and OPERATIONAL IMPACTS on SPECTROPHOTOMETER COLOR MEASUREMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color measurements for the classing of U.S. cottons have been performed on the Uster® High Volume Instrumentation (HVI) instrument for several years. Two color parameters specific to cotton—Rd (reflectance) and +b (yellowness)—are used to express the color of cotton. Since Rd and +b do not readily...

  4. Measurement of Solo Instrumental Music Performance; A Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdzinski, Stephen F.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses research literature dealing with measurement of solo instrumental music performance. Compares the Watkins-Farnum Performance Scale with facet-factorial and other rating scales. Covers acoustic analysis and evaluation of tone, loudness, and pitch. Includes discussion of computer-assisted acoustic analysis and instrumental evaluation.…

  5. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Political Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.; Napier, John D.

    The Opinionnaire on Political Institutions and Participation (OPIP) was designed to measure six dimensions of the overall construct of political attitude. Three studies were undertaken to determine the validity and reliability of the instrument, and the OPIP was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for research and evaluations using…

  6. Electrical instrument measures position and velocity of shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, R. E.; Humphry, D. E.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument employs a sensor consisting of twin-electrode probe mounted in shock tube wall, with small dc voltage impressed across electrodes. Power supply, amplifier, and gate pulse generator complete the system. Instrument provides data for construction of wave diagrams, as well as measurement of shock velocity.

  7. Vibration and noise measuring instruments built in the RSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgescu, I.

    1974-01-01

    The demands placed upon vibration and noise measuring instruments are discussed. The instruments that are now being manufactured in the RSR are described, as well as those that are being made ready for manufacture, namely: the VP-3 portable vibrometer, the N2103 precision electronic vibrometer, the N2103 B sonometric preamplifier, as well as vibration transducers of the electrodynamic and piezoelectric types.

  8. Device for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-08-03

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  9. The Kelvin and Temperature Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mangum, B. W.; Furukawa, G. T.; Kreider, K. G.; Meyer, C. W.; Ripple, D. C.; Strouse, G. F.; Tew, W. L.; Moldover, M. R.; Johnson, B. Carol; Yoon, H. W.; Gibson, C. E.; Saunders, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is defined from 0.65 K upwards to the highest temperature measurable by spectral radiation thermometry, the radiation thermometry being based on the Planck radiation law. When it was developed, the ITS-90 represented thermodynamic temperatures as closely as possible. Part I of this paper describes the realization of contact thermometry up to 1234.93 K, the temperature range in which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of calibration of thermometers at 15 fixed points and vapor pressure/temperature relations which are phase equilibrium states of pure substances. The realization is accomplished by using fixed-point devices, containing samples of the highest available purity, and suitable temperature-controlled environments. All components are constructed to achieve the defining equilibrium states of the samples for the calibration of thermometers. The high quality of the temperature realization and measurements is well documented. Various research efforts are described, including research to improve the uncertainty in thermodynamic temperatures by measuring the velocity of sound in gas up to 800 K, research in applying noise thermometry techniques, and research on thermocouples. Thermometer calibration services and high-purity samples and devices suitable for “on-site” thermometer calibration that are available to the thermometry community are described. Part II of the paper describes the realization of temperature above 1234.93 K for which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of the calibration of spectroradiometers using reference blackbody sources that are at the temperature of the equilibrium liquid-solid phase transition of pure silver, gold, or copper. The realization of temperature from absolute spectral or total radiometry over the temperature range from about 60 K to 3000 K is also described. The dissemination of the temperature scale using radiation thermometry from NIST to the customer is achieved by

  10. An ultra-high temperature testing instrument under oxidation environment up to 1800 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiangmeng; Qu, Zhaoliang; He, Rujie; Ai, Shigang; Zhang, Rubing; Pei, Yongmao; Fang, Daining

    2016-04-01

    A new testing instrument was developed to measure the high-temperature constitutive relation and strength of materials under an oxidative environment up to 1800 °C. A high temperature electric resistance furnace was designed to provide a uniform temperature environment for the mechanical testing, and the temperature could vary from room temperature (RT) to 1800 °C. A set of semi-connected grips was designed to reduce the stress. The deformation of the specimen gauge section was measured by a high temperature extensometer. The measured results were acceptable compared with the results from the strain gauge method. Meanwhile, tensile testing of alumina was carried out at RT and 800 °C, and the specimens showed brittle fracture as expected. The obtained Young's modulus was in agreement with the reported value. In addition, tensile experiment of ZrB2-20%SiC ceramic was conducted at 1700 °C and the high-temperature tensile stress-strain curve was first obtained. Large plastic deformation up to 0.46% and the necking phenomenon were observed before the fracture of specimen. This instrument will provide a powerful research tool to study the high temperature mechanical property of materials under oxidation and is benefit for the engineering application of materials in aerospace field.

  11. Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

    2003-01-01

    A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. These types of measurements are used in computer models to relate remotely sensed water-surface temperature to bulkwater temperature. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured.

  12. Method for measuring surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Gary A.; Baker, Sheila N.; McCleskey, T. Mark

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  13. Microwave radiometer for subsurface temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. A.; Bechis, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    A UHF radiometer, operating at a frequency of 800 MHz, was modified to provide an integral, three frequency voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) circuit in the radio frequency (RF) head. The VSWR circuit provides readings of power transmission at the antenna-material interface with an accuracy of plus or minus 5 percent. The power transmission readings are numerically equal to the emissivity of the material under observation. Knowledge of material emissivity is useful in the interpretation of subsurface apparent temperatures obtained on phantom models of biological tissue. The emissivities of phantom models consisting of lean beefsteak were found to lie in the range 0.623 to 0.779, depending on moisture content. Radiometric measurements performed on instrumented phantoms showed that the radiometer was capable of sensing small temperature changes occurring at depths of at least 19 to 30 mm. This is consistent with previously generated data which showed that the radiometer could sense temperatures at a depth of 38 mm.

  14. Accuracy, Precision, and Resolution in Strain Measurements on Diffraction Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvino, Sean M.

    Diffraction stress analysis is a commonly used technique to evaluate the properties and performance of different classes of materials from engineering materials, such as steels and alloys, to electronic materials like Silicon chips. Often to better understand the performance of these materials at operating conditions they are also commonly subjected to elevated temperatures and different loading conditions. The validity of any measurement under these conditions is only as good as the control of the conditions and the accuracy and precision of the instrument being used to measure the properties. What is the accuracy and precision of a typical diffraction system and what is the best way to evaluate these quantities? Is there a way to remove systematic and random errors in the data that are due to problems with the control system used? With the advent of device engineering employing internal stress as a method for increasing performance the measurement of stress from microelectronic structures has become of enhanced importance. X-ray diffraction provides an ideal method for measuring these small areas without the need for modifying the sample and possibly changing the strain state. Micro and nano diffraction experiments on Silicon-on-Insulator samples revealed changes to the material under investigation and raised significant concerns about the usefulness of these techniques. This damage process and the application of micro and nano diffraction is discussed.

  15. Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.

  16. Standard of Measurement for Student Evaluation Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simione, Kathleen; Cadden, David; Mattie, Angela

    2008-01-01

    For colleges and universities, the expectation for excellence in teaching and learning has made development of a system for measuring teaching effectiveness critical. Teaching effectiveness is generally assessed with a comprehensive review of skills including instructional design, instructional delivery and course management. This requires student…

  17. OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENT IN INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GUTSCH, KENNETH U.

    THIS STUDY DEVELOPED AN INDIVIDUAL TEST FOR ASSESSING A MUSIC INSTRUMENTALIST'S ACHIEVEMENT WHILE SIGHT-READING RHYTHMS. A MATHEMATICAL SYSTEM WAS USED TO CONSTRUCT 300 RHYTHMICAL PROBLEMS CONSISTING OF 1 OR MORE MEASURES OF MUSICAL NOTATION. BASED ON PRETESTING RESULTS, A TEST WAS CONSTRUCTED OF 200 FLASH CARDS ARRANGED IN ORDER OF DIFFICULTY.…

  18. Measurements on insulating materials at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Davis, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a four-year effort to study the high voltage dielectric behavior of various materials at cryogenic temperatures are described. Dissipation factors at 60 Hz were measured for polymer tapes and epoxy samples at 4.2 K, atmospheric pressure. Multi-layer polymer samples in coaxial geometries at temperatures from 7 K to 10 K and helium pressures up to 1.5 megapascals were also studied. The measurements were performed at stresses up to 40 MV/m. Since partial discharges were major source of losses at the higher stresses and their presence was possibly detrimental to the integrity of the insulation, instrumentation was developed and implemented to study these discharges under conditions found in proposed ac superconducting power-transmission lines.

  19. Microcomputer control soft tube measuring-testing instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanzhou; Jiang, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Wen-Yi

    1993-09-01

    Soft tube are key and easily spoiled parts used by the vehicles in the transportation with large numbers. Measuring and testing of the tubes were made by hands for a long time. Cooperating with Harbin Railway Bureau recently we have developed a new kind of automatical measuring and testing instrument In the paper the instrument structure property and measuring principle are presented in details. Centre of the system is a singlechip processor INTEL 80C31 . It can collect deal with data and display the results on LED. Furthermore it brings electromagnetic valves and motors under control. Five soft tubes are measured and tested in the same time all the process is finished automatically. On the hardware and software counter-electromagnetic disturbance methods is adopted efficiently so the performance of the instrument is improved significantly. In the long run the instrument is reliable and practical It solves a quite difficult problem in the railway transportation.

  20. Universal interface enables one recorder to serve numerous measuring instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlin, N. E.

    1971-01-01

    Circuit handles data, regardless of polarity and amplitude, in 10-line decimal form or in any form of binary coded decimal. When measuring instruments have common chassis grounds, Zener diodes prevent low-leak circulating currents from unbalancing the circuit.

  1. Trends in power quality measuring instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.

    1995-06-01

    A new power monitoring system has been designed which uses the latest digital signal processing technology to provide complete power analysis of power consumption, power disturbances, harmonics, and flicker in a single system. A database approach to the organization of stored data provides the ability to select and sort information in any order. A new technique to measure impedances in real-time and under dynamic operating conditions is also introduced.

  2. Easy-to-use blood velocity measurement instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilkomerson, David H. R.; Chilipka, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    This paper describes a new kind of clinical instrument designed to allow non-specialists to quantitatively measure blood velocity. The instrument's design utilizes vector continuous-wave (CW) Doppler. Vector CW Doppler insonates a volume with simultaneous multiple-angle beams that define a measurement region; within that region, the velocity vector of the blood can be measured independently of the probe orientation. By eliminating the need for simultaneous imaging and the specially trained technician required for the complicated instrument needed for such imaging, easy and inexpensive blood velocity measurements becomes possible. A prototype for a CW vector Doppler instrument has been used to measure blood velocity in several clinically important arteries: the radial and ulnar in the arm, the femoral in the leg, and the carotid in the neck. We report here on its first clinical use -- monitoring the flow in dialysis access grafts to prevent graft thrombosis. These early clinical results show accuracy and rapid learning of proper instrument use. The design approach presented shows much promise in creating instruments that will provide simple and low-cost-of-use procedures for measurement of blood velocity.

  3. Instrument for Aircraft-Icing and Cloud-Physics Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilie, Lyle; Bouley, Dan; Sivo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data acquired by this system and that are used to quantify the severity of icing conditions include sizes of cloud water drops, cloud liquid water content (LWC), cloud ice water content (IWC), and cloud total water content (TWC). The sensor head is mounted on the outside of an aircraft, positioned and oriented to intercept the ambient airflow. The sensor head consists of an open housing that is heated in a controlled manner to keep it free of ice and that contains four hot-wire elements. The hot-wire sensing elements have different shapes and sizes and, therefore, exhibit different measurement efficiencies with respect to droplet size and water phase (liquid, frozen, or mixed). Three of the hot-wire sensing elements are oriented across the airflow so as to intercept incoming cloud water. For each of these elements, the LWC or TWC affects the power required to maintain a constant temperature in the presence of cloud water.

  4. Unsteady 2-phase flow instrumentation and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, R. J.

    The performance of a transverse field electromagnetic flowmeter in a steady two phase flow was investigated analytically for a disperse and an annular flow regime. The flowmeter output voltage was found to be proportional to the mean velocity of the liquid phase. Experiments in a steady air water mixture showed good agreement with the analysis. An impedance void fraction meter was designed and built to conduct measurements of unsteady void fractions. Short electrodes excited by voltages of opposite polarity were used in combination with a highly sensitive signal processor. The steady state calibration indicated that the meter was somewhat sensitive to the void fraction distribution for the bubbly flow regime. However, the transition to a churn turbulent regime greatly affected the meer steady state response. The dynamic capability of the void fraction meter was estimated by comparison of the statistical properties of the voltage fluctuations in a nominally steady bubbly flow with those of a shot noise process.

  5. Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation: Development of a Measurement Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Dawn Langkamp; Lane, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a measurement instrument for individual entrepreneurial orientation to be used to measure the entrepreneurial orientation of students and other individuals. Design/methodology/approach: A measure of Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation (IEO) was generated, validated, and then tested on 1,100…

  6. Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.

    1997-04-01

    The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

  7. Optical Fiber Strain Instrumentation for High Temperature Aerospace Structural Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the program is the development and laboratory demonstration of sensors based on silica optical fibers for measurement of high temperature strain for aerospace materials evaluations. A complete fiber strain sensor system based on white-light interferometry was designed and implemented. An experiment set-up was constructed to permit testing of strain measurement up to 850 C. The strain is created by bending an alumina cantilever beam to which is the fiber sensor is attached. The strain calibration is provided by the application of known beam deflections. To ensure the high temperature operation capability of the sensor, gold-coated single-mode fiber is used. Moreover, a new method of sensor surface attachment which permits accurate sensor gage length determination is also developed. Excellent results were obtained at temperatures up to 800-850 C.

  8. Noncontact temperature pattern measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Allen, James L. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Laser pyrometer techniques are utilized to accurately image a true temperature distribution on a given target without touching the target and without knowing the localized emissivity of the target. The pyrometer utilizes a very high definition laser beam and photodetector, both having a very narrow focus. The pyrometer is mounted in a mechanism designed to permit the pyrometer to be aimed and focused at precise localized points on the target surface. The pyrometer is swept over the surface area to be imaged, temperature measurements being taken at each point of focus.

  9. Assessing adolescent substance use: a critique of current measurement instruments.

    PubMed

    Leccese, M; Waldron, H B

    1994-01-01

    A variety of instruments are currently available to screen for and assess adolescent substance abuse and aid in planning appropriate interventions. Assessment practices in treatment facilities for adolescents have tended to rely on the use of unstandardized, local measures or on measures developed for adults with unknown reliability and validity for adolescents. This review is designed to serve as a resource for health professionals regarding the issues involved in assessing adolescent substance involvement and the types of instruments that are available for use. Conceptual issues relevant to the evaluation of adolescent substance use are discussed. Then, standardized, adolescent-specific assessment tools are briefly summarized, including screening questionnaires, comprehensive instruments, and several other substance-related instruments. PMID:7884839

  10. Holdup Measures on an SRNL Mossbauer Spectroscopy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.; Brown, T.; Salaymeh, S.

    2010-05-05

    Gamma-ray holdup measurements of a Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument are described and modeled. In the qualitative acquisitions obtained in a low background area of Savannah River National Laboratory, only Am-241 and Np-237 activity were observed. The Am-241 was known to be the instrumental activation source, while the Np-237 is clearly observed as a source of contamination internal to the instrument. The two sources of activity are modeled separately in two acquisition configurations using two separate modeling tools. The results agree well, demonstrating a content of (1980 {+-} 150) {mu}Ci Am-241 and (110 {+-} 50) {mu}Ci of Np-237.