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Sample records for temperature measuring instruments

  1. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster angle radiometer would exploit the spectral emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation.

  2. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2003-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster-angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster-angle radiometer would exploit the spectral-emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation. The relevant emissivity and polarization characteristics are the following: . The Brewster angle is the angle at which light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence on a purely dielectric material is not reflected. The pseudo-Brewster angle, defined for a lossy dielectric (somewhat electrically conductive) material, is the angle for which the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is minimized. For pure water, the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is only 2.2 x 10(exp -4) at its pseudo- Brewster angle of 51deg. The reflectivity remains near zero, several degrees off from the 51deg optimum, allowing this angle of incidence requirement to be easily achieved. . The wavelength range of interest for measuring water temperatures is 8 to 12 microns. The emissivity of water for parallel- polarized light at the pseudo-Brewster angle is greater than 0.999 in this wavelength range. The radiometer would be sensitive in the wavelength range of 8 to 12 microns, would be equipped with a polarizer to discriminate against infrared light polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and would be aimed toward a body of water at the pseudo- Brewster angle (see figure). Because the infrared radiation entering the radiometer would be polarized parallel to the plane of incidence and because very little downwelling parallel-polarized radiation would be reflected into the radiometer on account of the pseudo-Brewster arrangement, the radiation received by the radiometer would consist almost entirely of thermal emission from the surface of the water. Because the emissivity of the water would be very close to 1, the water could be regarded as a close approximation of a blackbody for the purpose of computing its surface temperature from the radiometer measurements by use of the Planck radiation law.

  3. An intelligent instrument for measuring exhaust temperature of marine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Nan-Qi; Su, Hua; Liu, Jun

    2006-12-01

    Exhaust temperature of the marine engine is commonly measured through thermocouple. Measure deviation will occur after using the thermocouple for some time due to nonlinearity of thermocouple itself, high temperature and chemical corrosion of measure point. Frequent replacement of thermocouple will increase the operating cost. This paper designs a new intelligent instrument for solving the above-mentioned problems of the marine engine temperature measurement, which combines the conventional thermocouple temperature measurement technology and SCM(single chip microcomputer). The reading of the thermocouple is simple and precise and the calibration can be made automatically and manually.

  4. Instrument accurately measures small temperature changes on test surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Miller, H. B.

    1966-01-01

    Calorimeter apparatus accurately measures very small temperature rises on a test surface subjected to aerodynamic heating. A continuous thin sheet of a sensing material is attached to a base support plate through which a series of holes of known diameter have been drilled for attaching thermocouples to the material.

  5. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2006-09-30

    The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating materials were tested/applied on the thermocouple cleaning according to the proposed approach. Different frequency, application time and power of the ultrasonic/subsonic output were tested. The results show that the ultrasonic approach is one of the best methods to clean the thermocouple tips during the routine operation of the gasifier. In addition, the real time data acquisition system was also designed and applied in the experiments. This advanced instrumentation provided the efficient and accurate data acquisition for this project. In summary, the accomplishment of the project provided useful information of the ultrasonic cleaning method applied in thermocouple tip cleaning. The temperature measurement could be much improved both in accuracy and duration provided that the proposed approach is widely used in the gasification facilities.

  6. Instrument for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Materials at Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Johnson, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    With the advance of polymer and other non-metallic material sciences, whole new series of polymeric materials and composites are being created. These materials are being optimized for many different applications including cryogenic and low-temperature industrial processes. Engineers need these data to perform detailed system designs and enable new design possibilities for improved control, reliability, and efficiency in specific applications. One main area of interest is cryogenic structural elements and fluid handling components and other parts, films, and coatings for low-temperature application. An important thermal property of these new materials is the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value).

  7. Combined CARS/LDA instrument for simultaneous temperature and velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, L. P.; Trump, D. D.; Roquemore, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of a combined CARS/LDA instrument capable of measuring temperature and two velocity components with a time coincidence of about 4 ?s is evaluated in a turbulent premixed propane-air Bunsen-burner flame. Measurements near the base of the flame exhibit negative axial correlations, indicative of normal gradient transport; those near the flame tip show strong positive axial correlations, indicative of transport counter to the temperature gradient. The radial correlations are positive both in the reaction zone and in the plume. An analysis of temperature data from measurements made (1) independent of and (2) coincidental with LDA measurements indicates that the CARS/LDA instrument provides a density-weighted velocity, temperature, and velocity temperature correlation due to the density variations in the flame.

  8. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2004-04-01

    The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator were conducted in this reporting period. In the systematic test, two (2) factors were considered as the experimental parameters, including air injection rate and water injection rate. Each experimental factor had two (2) levels, respectively. A special water-feeding device was designed and installed to the gasifier simulator. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results of the systematic tests. The ANOVA shows that the air injection rate did have the significant impact to the temperature measurement in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA also shows that the water injection rate did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA analysis also proves that the thermocouple assembly we proposed was immune to the moisture environment, the temperature measurement remained accurate in moisture environment. Within this reporting period, the vibration application for cleaning purpose was explored. Both ultrasonic and sub-sonic vibrations were considered. A feasibility test was conducted to prove that the thermocouple vibration did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. This feasibility test was a 2{sup 2} factorial design. Two factors including temperature levels and motor speeds were set to two levels respectively. The sub-sonic vibration tests were applied to the thermocouple to remove the concrete cover layer (used to simulate the solid condensate in gasifiers) on the thermocouple tip. It was found that both frequency and amplitude had significant impacts on removal performance of the concrete cover layer.

  9. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2003-09-01

    During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

  10. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2004-10-01

    The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the clean thermocouple were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the clean thermocouple, five (5) factors were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition and high/low frequency device (electric motor). The fractional factorial design method was used in the experiment design with sixteen (16) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the un-balanced motor vibration frequency did not have the significant impact on the temperature changes in the gasifier simulator. For the fine dust particles testing, the amount of fine dust particles has significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The effects of the air and water on the temperature measurements show the same results as reported in the previous report. The ammonia concentration was included as an experimental parameter for the reducing environment in this reporting period. The ammonia concentration does not seem to be a significant factor on the temperature changes. The linear regression analysis was applied to the temperature reading with five (5) factors. The accuracy of the linear regression is relatively low, which is less than 10% accuracy. Nonlinear regression was also conducted to the temperature reading with the same factors. Since the experiments were designed in two (2) levels, the nonlinear regression is not very effective with the dataset (16 readings). An extra central point test was conducted. With the data of the center point testing, the accuracy of the nonlinear regression is much better than the linear regression.

  11. Feasibility of miniaturized instrumentation of the inflatable sphere for temperature, pressure and acceleration measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luers, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of instrumenting the inflatable passive sphere (presently used to provide upper atmosphere density measurements) with miniaturized thermistors, pressure transducers, and accelerometers was analyzed. Data from the sensors must be transmitted by an onboard telemetry system to a ground receiving station. To assure a sufficiently slow fall velocity for the sphere the additional mass of the sensor and telemetry hardware must be less than 100 grams. Other constraints that must be satisfied by the sensor and telemetry systems include the ability to withstand a 150 g launch acceleration, the ability to function in both high and low temperature and pressure environments and be sufficiently small to be packaged within the body of a 3.81 cm diameter dart. A differential transducer that will measure the difference between ambient and internal sphere pressures is recommended. The application of each type of measurement relative to its ability to monitor sphere malfunction and to provide additional meteorological data is considered.

  12. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2005-04-01

    The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the ultrasonic vibration application for cleaning method were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the ultrasonic vibration application, the ambient temperature and high temperature status condition were tested separately. The sticky dirt on the thermocouple tip was simulated by the cement-covered layer on the thermocouple tip. At the ambient temperature status, four (4) factors were considered as the input factors affecting the response variable of peeling off rate. The input factors include the shape of the cement-covered layer (thickness and length), the ultrasonic vibration output power, and application time. At the high temperature tests, four (4) different environments were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow supply, water and air supply environment, water/air/fine dust particle supply, and air/water/ammonia/fine dust particle supply environment. The factorial design method was used in the experiment design with twelve (12) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the thickness and length of the cement-covered layer have the significant impact on the peeling off rate of ultrasonic vibration application at the ambient temperature environment. For the high temperature tests, the different environments do not seem to have significant impact on the temperature changes. These results may indicate that the ultrasonic vibration is one of best cleaning methods for the thermocouple tip.

  13. Flight Instrument for Measurement of Liquid-Water Content in Clouds at Temperatures Above and Below Freezing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Porter J.

    1951-01-01

    A principle formerly used in an instrument for cloud detection was further investigated to provide a simple and rapid means for measuring the liquid-water content of clouds at temperatures above and below freezing. The instrument consists of a small cylindrical element so operated at high surface temperatures that the impingement of cloud droplets creates a significant drop in the surface temperature. ? The instrument is sensitive to a wide range of liquid-water content and was calibrated at one set of fixed conditions against rotating multicylinder measurements. The limited conditions of the calibration Included an air temperature of 20 F, an air velocity of 175 miles per hour, and a surface temperature in clear air of 475 F. The results obtained from experiments conducted with the instrument indicate that the principle can be used for measurements in clouds at temperatures above and below freezing. Calibrations for ranges of airspeed, air temperature, and air density will be necessary to adapt the Instrument for general flight use.

  14. Review of modern instrumentation for magnetic measurements at high pressure and low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Kamenev, K. V.

    2014-08-01

    High-pressure magnetic susceptibility experiments can provide insights into the changes in magnetic behavior and electric properties which can accompany extreme compressions of material. Instrumentation plays an important role in the experimental work in this field since 1990s. Here we present a comprehensive review of the high-pressure instrumentation development for magnetic measurement from the engineering perspective in the last 20 years. Suitable nonmagnetic materials for high pressure cell are introduced initially. Then we focus on the existing cells developed for magnetic property measurement system (MPMS®) SQUID magnetometer from Quantum Design (USA). Two categories of high pressure cells for this system are discussed in detail respectively. Some high pressure cells with built-in magnetic measurement system are also reviewed.

  15. A Two-Line Absorption Instrument for Scramjet Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Measurement in HYPULSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. Y.

    1998-01-01

    A three beam water vapor sensor system has been modified to provide for near simultaneous temperature measurement. The system employs a tunable diode laser to scan spectral line of water vapor. The application to measurements in a scramjet combustor environment of a shock tunnel facility is discussed. This report presents and discusses die initial calibration of the measurement system.

  16. Virtual instrument based measurement system for analysis of static and dynamic characteristics of temperature transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Baczewski, Micha?

    2014-11-01

    The present work shows the structure of a measurement system dedicated to examine static and dynamic characteristics of sensors used to measure temperature. The measurement system was built on the basis of a set of signal conditioners connected with a data acquisition card built in a PC. The data acquisition was completed with the use of a virtual measurement device developed in the LabVIEW environment. A was used as the source of reference temperature. During the experiments, the sensors were submersed in water of given temperature with the use of a computer controlled arm. The article also presents the results of the calibration procedure which was carried out, as well as selected application schemes.

  17. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  18. Development of techniques and associated instrumentation for high temperature emissivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnington, G. R.; Funaa, A. I.; Cassady, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    Studies were made to develop a test apparatus for the measurement of total emittance of materials under repeated exposure to simulated earth entry conditions. As no existing test facility met the emittance measurement and entry simulation goals, a new apparatus was designed, fabricated and checked out. This apparatus has the capability of performing total and spectral emittance measurements during cyclic temperature and pressure exposure under sonic and supersonic flow conditions. Emittance measurements were performed on a series of oxidized superalloys, silicide coated columbium alloys and ceramic coatings.

  19. Development of techniques and associated instrumentation for high temperature emissivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnington, G. R.; Funai, A. I.

    1972-01-01

    The calibrating and testing procedures for the radiometric emittance measurement apparatus are described. Test results are given for the NBS platinum-rhodium standard (SRM No. 1409), the NBS oxidized Kanthal standard, and the oxidized Rene 41 materials. Results indicate that with the platinum-rhodium standard the measurement system compared with the NBS data to within 0.02 for both total and spectral normal emitttance. Data from the Kanthal strip was consistently higher than NBS values. For oxidized Rene 41, no significant changes in as prepared emittance was observed. The emittance was stable for temperatures up to 1150 K.

  20. A DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION FOR GASIFICATION PROCESS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce W. Noel

    2001-04-15

    This progress report covers continuing work to develop a temperature probe for a coal gasifier. A workable probe design requires finding answers to crucial questions involving the probe materials. We report on attempts to answer those questions. We attempted to measure the laser-input power at a wavelength of 355 nm that would damage the ends of sapphire fiber optics. We were surprised and pleased to learn that they survived an input power density of about 3 x 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, which greatly exceeds the best that fused-silica fibers can do. During a run of our new simulator to obtain an upgraded calibration curve for the improved YAG:Dy phosphors, we found that the phosphor appeared to form a eutectic, with the fused-silica cuvette used to hold the phosphor, when the temperature exceeded 1450 C. This result could have substantial ramifications in this and other high-temperature applications. Our new proprietary detector package that replaced the original photomultiplier tube gave excellent results, with much better signal-to-noise ratio at a given temperature than the old package. Our new plasma-spraying operation has succeeded in spraying YAG, which we think may be a technological breakthrough.

  1. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  2. High-temperature borehole instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.P.; Stephani, E.L.

    1985-10-01

    A new method of extracting natural heat from the earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320/sup 0/C (610/sup 0/F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resource to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules. 60 refs., 11 figs.

  3. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

    2005-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

  4. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  5. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the second six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on evaluating corrosion effects in single crystal sapphire at temperatures up to 1400 C, and designing the sensor mechanical packaging with input from Wabash River Power Plant. Upcoming meetings will establish details for the gasifier field test.

  6. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  7. Spectroscopy-based photonic instrumentation for the manufacturing industry: contactless measurements of distances, temperatures, and chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noharet, B.; Zetterlund, E.; Tarasenko, O.; Lindblom, M.; Gurell, J.; Bengtson, A.; Lundin, P.

    2014-03-01

    The steady progress in photonic components in terms of cost-to-performance ratio, maturity and robustness opens new avenues for the commercial deployment of photonic sensor systems in a wide range of industrial applications. Advanced sensing can be used to optimize complex processes and thereby enable significant savings in energy consumption. Three cases of robust photonic instrumentation for process optimization and quality control in manufacturing industries are presented: improved metal recycling with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, quality control in precision machining by white-light interferometry with optical fiber probes embedded in machining tools, and process optimization in steel foundries by stand-off temperature measurements in blast furnaces with optical fiber lances and spectral analysis techniques. Each of these methods utilizes a low-cost spectrometer, and requires dedicated calibration and signal processing methods to guarantee robust operation in industrial environments with varying conditions. Experimental results are presented, including on-line steel alloy analysis with correct classification rates in excess of 95%, distance measurements with axial resolution of +/- 2nm over a 75?m range, and continuous temperature monitoring of molten steel in oxygen blast furnaces with temperature measurement accuracy better than 1%.

  8. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  9. Instrumentation development for magneto-transport and neutron scattering measurements at high pressure and low temperature 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Weiwei

    2013-07-01

    High pressure, high magnetic field and low temperature techniques are required to investigate magnetic transitions and quantum critical behaviour in different ferromagnetic materials to elucidate how novel forms of ...

  10. Water Vapor, Temperature, and Ice Particles in Polar Mesosphere as Measured by SABER/TIMED and OSIRIS/Odin Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Petelina, S. V.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Although many new details on the properties of mesospheric ice particles that farm Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) and also cause polar mesospheric summer echoes have been recently revealed, certain aspects of mesospheric ice microphysics and dynamics still remain open. The detailed relation between PMC parameters and properties of their environment, as well as interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in PMC properties that are possibly related to global change, are among those open questions. In this work, mesospheric temperature and water vapor concentration measured by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite are used to study the properties of PMCs with respect to the surrounding atmosphere. The cloud parameters, namely location, brightness, and altitude, are obtained from the observations made by the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) on the Odin satellite. About a thousand of simultaneous common volume measurements made by SABER and OSIRIS in both hemispheres from 2002 until 2008 are used. The correlation between PMC brightness (and occurrence rate) and temperatures at PMC altitudes and at the mesopause is analysed. The relation between PMC parameters, frost point temperature, and gaseous water vapor content in and below the cloud is also discussed. Interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in the above parameters, as well as in PMC peak altitudes and mesopause altitudes are evaluated.

  11. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang

    2004-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the third six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on sensor probe design and machining, sensor electronics design, software algorithm design, sensor field installation procedures, and sensor remote data access and control. Field testing will begin in the next several weeks.

  12. ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2003-04-01

    This report summarizes technical progress over the first six months of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on analyzing and testing factors that impact performance degradation of the initially designed sensor prototype, including sensing element movement within the sensing probe and optical signal quality degradation. Based these results, a new version of the sensing system was designed by combining the sapphire disk sensing element and the single crystal zirconia right angle light reflector into one novel single crystal sapphire right angle prism. The new sensor prototype was tested up to 1650 C.

  13. Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iufer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

  14. A DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION FOR GASIFICATION PROCESS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce W. Noel

    2000-10-15

    This progress report covers continuing work to develop a temperature probe for a coal gasifier. A workable probe design requires finding answers to crucial questions involving the probe materials. We report on attempts to answer those questions. We received and studied new samples of an important thermographic phosphor, YAG:Dy. We studied the brightness as a function of dopant concentration and the relative brightnesses of the pertinent thermographic emission lines, both with respect to each other and among the phosphors. With the previously reported failure of the binder method for coatings, we are setting up a plasma-spray facility in cooperation with a subcontractor. We have been forming a network of people and organizations that may help us with various aspects of the problems at hand. This period, we approached a company with commercially successful probes, met with Tennessee Valley Authority staff (codes and coatings), and added a new faculty member to the team with materials expertise.

  15. Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide from Broadband Infrared Limb Emission Measurements Taken from the TIMED/SABER Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell III, James M.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; She, Chiao-Yao; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Xu, Xiaojing

    2008-01-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment is one of four instruments on NASA's Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER measures broadband infrared limb emission and derives vertical profiles of kinetic temperature (Tk) from the lower stratosphere to approximately 120 km, and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) volume mixing ratio (vmr) from approximately 70 km to 120 km. In this paper we report on SABER Tk/CO2 data in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region from the version 1.06 dataset. The continuous SABER measurements provide an excellent dataset to understand the evolution and mechanisms responsible for the global two-level structure of the mesopause altitude. SABER MLT Tk comparisons with ground-based sodium lidar and rocket falling sphere Tk measurements are generally in good agreement. However, SABER CO2 data differs significantly from TIME-GCM model simulations. Indirect CO2 validation through SABER-lidar MLT Tk comparisons and SABER-radiation transfer comparisons of nighttime 4.3 micron limb emission suggest the SABER-derived CO2 data is a better representation of the true atmospheric MLT CO2 abundance compared to model simulations of CO2 vmr.

  16. LIMS Instrument Package (LIP) balloon experiment: Nimbus 7 satellite correlative temperature, ozone, water vapor, and nitric acid measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. B., III; Gandrud, B. W.; Robbins, D. E.; Rossi, L. C.; Swann, N. R. W.

    1982-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) LIP balloon experiment was used to obtain correlative temperature, ozone, water vapor, and nitric acid data at altitudes between 10 and 36 kilometers. The performance of the LIMS sensor flown on the Nimbus 7 Satellite was assessed. The LIP consists of the modified electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde, the ultraviolet absorption photometric of ozone, the water vapor infrared radiometer sonde, the chemical absorption filter instrument for nitric acid vapor, and the infrared radiometer for nitric acid vapor. The limb instrument package (LIP), its correlative sensors, and the resulting data obtained from an engineering and four correlative flights are described.

  17. Optical distance measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.

  18. Instruments for Water Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

    1975-01-01

    This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

  19. Temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  20. Foundations of measurement and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, Isidore

    1990-01-01

    The user of instrumentation has provided an understanding of the factors that influence instrument performance, selection, and application, and of the methods of interpreting and presenting the results of measurements. Such understanding is prerequisite to the successful attainment of the best compromise among reliability, accuracy, speed, cost, and importance of the measurement operation in achieving the ultimate goal of a project. Some subjects covered are dimensions; units; sources of measurement error; methods of describing and estimating accuracy; deduction and presentation of results through empirical equations, including the method of least squares; experimental and analytical methods of determining the static and dynamic behavior of instrumentation systems, including the use of analogs.

  1. A transient hot-wire instrument for thermal conductivity measurements in electrically conducting liquids at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloush, A.; Gosney, W. B.; Wakeham, W. A.

    1982-09-01

    This paper describes a novel type of transient hot-wire cell for thermal conductivity measurements on electrically conducting liquids. A tantalum wire of 25 ?m. diameter is used as the sensing element in the cell, and it is insulated from the conducting liquids by an anodic film of tantalum pentoxide, 70 nm thick. The cell is suitable for measurements on conducting liquids at elevated temperatures. The results of test measurements on liquid water at its saturation vapor pressure are reported in order to confirm the correct operation of the thermal conductivity cell. The data, which have an estimated accuracy of ±3%, depart by less than ±1.8% from the correlation proposed by the International Association for the Properties of Steam. Results are also presented for concentrated aqueous solutions of lithium bromide, which are frequently used in absorption refrigerator cycles.

  2. Temperature measurement

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends against using glass thermometers with mercury. The glass can break, and mercury is a poison. Electronic thermometers are most often recommended. The temperature is displayed ...

  3. Measuring Temperature Reading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    There are two requirements for taking a measurement of something. The first is a tool for taking a measurement. The second is scale for making sense of the numbers of the measurement. For example, a ruler is often used to measure short lengths. It is the tool for measurement. On the ruler are one or more number scales with equally spaced numbers. These numbers can be compared with numbers from any other ruler that is accurately set to the same scale. Measuring length is far simpler than measuring temperature. While there is evidence of tools for measuring length at various times in human history, tools and scales for measuring temperature do not appear until more recent human history. Early thermometers, called thermoscopes, first appear in the 1500's. They were crude instruments that were not at all accurate. Most did not even have a number scale associated with them. This made them useless for most practical purposes. Gabriel Fahrenheit created the first accurate thermometer in 1714, and the Fahrenheit temperature scale followed it in 1724. The thermometer s accuracy was based on its use of mercury, a silver colored substance that remains liquid over a wide range of temperatures but expands or contracts in a standard, predictable way with changes in temperature. To set the scale, Fahrenheit created the coldest temperature that he could. He mixed equal parts of ice, water, and salt, and then used this as the zero point, 0 degrees, of his scale. He intended to make 30 degrees the freezing point of water and 90 degrees the temperature of the human body, but he had to later revise these temperatures to be 32 degrees and 96 degrees. In the final version of the scale, the temperature of the human body became 98.6 degrees. 19th century thermoscope

  4. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, Scott T. (Valparaiso, IN); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

  5. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

    1999-03-30

    A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  6. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  7. Musical intonation of wind instruments and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zendri, G.; Valdan, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2015-05-01

    Wind musical instruments are affected in their intonation by temperature. We show how to account for these effects in a simple experiment, and provide results in languages accessible to both physics and music professionals.

  8. Musical Intonation of Wind Instruments and Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendri, G.; Valdan, M.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2015-01-01

    Wind musical instruments are affected in their intonation by temperature. We show how to account for these effects in a simple experiment, and provide results in languages accessible to both physics and music professionals.

  9. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  10. MACS, An Instrument and a Methodology for Simultaneous and Global Measurements of the Coronal Electron Temperature and the Solar Wind Velocity on the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginald, Nelson L.

    2000-01-01

    In Cram's theory for the formation of the K-coronal spectrum he observed the existence of temperature sensitive anti-nodes, which were separated by temperature insensitive nodes, at certain wave-lengths in the K-coronal spectrum. Cram also showed these properties were remarkably independent of altitude above the solar limb. In this thesis Cram's theory has been extended to incorporate the role of the solar wind in the formation of the K-corona, and we have identified both temperature and wind sensitive intensity ratios. The instrument, MACS, for Multi Aperture Coronal Spectrometer, a fiber optic based spectrograph, was designed for global and simultaneous measurements of the thermal electron temperature and the solar wind velocity in the solar corona. The first ever experiment of this nature was conducted in conjunction with the total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 in Elazig, Turkey. Here twenty fiber optic tips were positioned in the focal plane of the telescope to observe simultaneously at many different latitudes and two different radial distances in the solar corona. The other ends were vertically stacked and placed at the primary focus of the spectrograph. By isolating the K-coronal spectrum from each fiber the temperature and the wind sensitive intensity ratios were calculated.

  11. Compact Instruments Measure Helium-Leak Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, Stephen; Immer, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Compact, lightweight instruments have been developed for measuring small flows of helium and/or detecting helium leaks in solenoid valves when the valves are nominally closed. These instruments do not impede the flows when the valves are nominally open. They can be integrated into newly fabricated valves or retrofitted to previously fabricated valves. Each instrument includes an upstream and a downstream thermistor separated by a heater, plus associated analog and digital heater-control, signal- conditioning, and data-processing circuits. The thermistors and heater are off-the-shelf surface mount components mounted on a circuit board in the flow path. The operation of the instrument is based on a well-established thermal mass-flow-measurement technique: Convection by the flow that one seeks to measure gives rise to transfer of heat from the heater to the downstream thermistor. The temperature difference measured by the thermistors is directly related to the rate of flow. The calibration curve from temperature gradient to helium flow is closely approximated via fifth-order polynomial. A microprocessor that is part of the electronic circuitry implements the calibration curve to compute the flow rate from the thermistor readings.

  12. Dual physiological rate measurement instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

  13. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

  14. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

  15. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

  16. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

  17. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

  18. Compact Instruments Measure Heat Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Based in Huntsville, Alabama, AZ Technology Inc. is a woman- and veteran-owned business that offers expertise in electromechanical-optical design and advanced coatings. AZ Technology has received eight Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center for the development of spectral reflectometers and the measurement of surface thermal properties. The company uses a variety of measurement services and instruments, including the Spectrafire, a portable spectral emissometer it used to assist General Electric with the design of its award-winning Giraffe Warmer for neonatal intensive care units.

  19. Instrumentation for Sensitive Gas Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    An improved instrument for optical absorption spectroscopy utilizes off-axis paths in an optical cavity in order to increase detection sensitivity while suppressing resonance effects. The instrument is well suited for use in either cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) [in which one pulses an incident light beam and measures the rate of decay of light in the cavity] or integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) [in which one uses a continuous-wave incident light beam and measures the power of light in the cavity as a function of wavelength]. Typically, in optical absorption spectroscopy, one seeks to measure absorption of a beam of light in a substance (usually a gas or liquid) in a sample cell. In CRDS or ICOS, the sample cell is placed in (or consists of) an optical cavity, so that one can utilize multiple reflections of the beam to increase the effective optical path length through the absorbing substance and thereby increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption. If an absorbing substance is not present in the optical cavity, one can utilize the multiple passes of the light beam to increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption and scattering by components of the optical cavity itself. It is desirable to suppress the effects of resonances in the cavity in order to make the spectral response of the cavity itself as nearly constant as possible over the entire wavelength range of interest. In the present instrument, the desired flattening of the spectral response is accomplished by utilizing an off-axis beam geometry to effectively decrease the frequency interval between longitudinal electromagnetic modes of the cavity, such that the resulting transmission spectrum of the cavity is nearly continuous: in other words, the cavity becomes a broad-band optical device.

  20. Advanced high temperature instrument for hot section research applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, D. R.; Seasholtz, R. G.

    1989-01-01

    Programs to develop research instrumentation for use in turbine engine hot sections are described. These programs were initiated to provide improved measurements capability as support for a multidisciplinary effort to establish technology leading to improved hot section durability. Specific measurement systems described here include heat flux sensors, a dynamic gas temperature measuring system, laser anemometry for hot section applications, an optical system for viewing the interior of a combustor during operation, thin film sensors for surface temperature and strain measurements, and high temperature strain measuring systems. The state of development of these sensors and measuring systems is described, and, in some cases, examples of measurements made with these instruments are shown. Work done at the NASA Lewis Research Center and at various contract and grant facilities is covered.

  1. New type of measuring and intelligent instrument for curing tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Chui-Jie; Huang, Xieqing; Chen, Tianning; Xia, Hong

    1993-09-01

    A new type of measuring intelligent instrument for cured tobacco is presented in this paper. Based on fuzzy linguistic control principles the instrument is used to controlling the temperature and humidity during cured tobacco taking 803 1 singlechip computer as a center controller. By using methods of fuzzy weighted factors the cross coupling in curing procedures is decoupled. Results that the instrument has producted indicate the fuzzy controller in the instrument has perfect performance for process of cured tobacco as shown in figure

  2. 10.3 High-temperature Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazza, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes high temperature instrumentation development from 1960-1970, 1980-1990 and 2000-present. The contents include: 1) Background; 2) Objective; 3) Application and Sensor; 4) Attachment Techniques; 5) Evaluation/Characterization Testing; and 6) Future testing.

  3. Instrument for Measuring Cryo CTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.; Hadaway, James B.

    2003-01-01

    Coefficient of thermal expansion is an integral part of the performance of optical systems, especially for those, which operate at cryogenic temperatures. The measurement of the coefficient of relevant materials has been of continuous interest. Besides commercial measurement sources, development of one-of-a-kind tools have always been of interest due to local needs. This paper describes one such development at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). The approach involves two vertical rods (one sample and one reference) on a flat platform. A probe bar is held horizontally atop the two samples. A temperature change will generally cause rotation of the probe bar. A mirrored surface on one end of the probe bar is used to measure the rotation using the reflection of an incident laser beam upon it. A position-sensing detector measures the change of the reflected beam spot position. Using other known quantities, the change determines the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sample material as a function of temperature. A parallel measurement of the rotation of the sample support platform is also performed to account for any unwanted background effects. This system has been demonstrated in a cryogenic chamber at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). We present the system details, achievable sensitivity, and up-to-date experimental performance.

  4. Bubble measuring instrument and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  5. Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer. respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

  6. Advances in instrumentation for atmospheric aerosol measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pui, David Y. H.; Liu, Benjamin Y. H.

    1988-02-01

    Instruments for airborne particle sampling and measurement are important tools for the study of particulate air contaminants. As such they are important in air quality, air pollution and industrial hygiene studies. Particle measuring instruments are important also for various industrial processes, such as clean room monitoring and contaminant measurement in clean process gases used in semiconductor manufacturing. This paper reviews the advances in particle measuring and sampling instruments, with particular emphasis on instruments for atmospheric studies. Devices for particle generation needed for instrument calibration and experimental purposes are also covered in this review.

  7. Limnological instrumentation in the middle of the 19th century: the first temperature and density profiles measured in the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oren, Aharon

    2015-11-01

    The first modern survey of the Dead Sea was performed by the Geological Survey of Israel in 1959-1960, and the report published remains the baseline study for our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the lake. At the time the Dead Sea was a meromictic lake with a strong salinity gradient separating the deep waters (>40 m depth) from the less saline surface waters. A few results of analyses of deeper water samples collected in the 1930s were reported, but overall we have very little information about the structure of the lake's water column before the 1959-1960 survey. However, it is little known that data on the physical and the chemical structure of the Dead Sea water column were obtained already in the middle of the 19th century, and the information collected then is highly relevant for the reconstruction of the limnological properties of the lake in earlier times. The expedition of Lieutenant William Lynch (U.S. Navy) in 1848 reported the presence of a temperature minimum at a depth of ~18 m, and also retrieved a water sample collected close to the bottom for chemical analysis. In 1864, the French Dead Sea exploration by the Duc de Luynes and his crew yielded detailed density and salinity profiles for a number of sampling stations. The results of these pioneering studies are discussed here, as well as the sampling equipment and measuring instruments used by the 1848 and the 1864 expeditions.

  8. Near infrared measuring instrument with sample holder

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, R.D.

    1987-09-08

    A near infrared measuring instrument is described for measuring a constituent of a material. The instrument has a source of near infrared radiation, a detector for near infrared radiation, a means for holding a sample between the source and the detector, and means for data processing connected to the detector to read the detector and measure a constituent in a sample of the material by the amount of near infrared radiation transmitted through the sample. The improvements comprise: (a) means for providing different predetermined uniform thicknesses of samples to be measured; (b) means for moving the cuvette relative to the near infrared radiation source and the detector and for stepwise placing locations of the radiation-transparent portion of the cuvette and at least one predetermined uniform thickness of sample into relative stationary alignment between the source and the detector, (c) means for reading the detector when the cuvette is stationary, and (d) means in the cuvette for measuring the temperature of the sample.

  9. Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Kazuo; Hirose, Masanobu; Otani, Akihito; Mochizuki, Ken; Uchida, Masafumi

    Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, the state of TC-IM (Technical Committee of Instrumentation and Measurement of IEEJ) activities and technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported, mainly referring to over seventy papers presented at the IM Technical Meeting.

  10. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  11. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  12. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  13. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  14. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type. (b)...

  15. Transforming Vectors Measured By Noncoaligned Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritter, James R.; Dahlstrom, Eric L.

    1993-01-01

    Method for computing relationships between coordinate axes of two vector-measuring instruments not aligned with each other, one need only measure two nonparallel vectors u and v simultaneously in both coordinate systems. These measurements provide all data needed to compute transformation of any vector from one coordinate system to other. Particularly useful in computing alignments and transformations between accelerometers, gyroscopes, and instruments mounted on platforms subjected to vibrations, thermal strains, and other distortions causing alignments to vary unpredictably with time.

  16. Conditioning circuit for temperature and strain measurement 

    E-print Network

    Patel, Aashit Mahendra

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop an integrated conditioning circuit for simultaneous measurement of temperature and straining utilizing a technique which uses fewer connecting wires (i.e. wires from sensor to readout instrument) than...

  17. High temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  18. Instrumentation for Structure Measurements on Highly Non-equilibrium Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Richard; Benmore, Chris J; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Wilding, Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Containerless techniques (levitation) completely eliminate contact with the sample. This unique sample environment allows deep supercooling of many liquids and avoids contamination of high temperature melts. Recent experiments at the APS high energy beamline 11 ID-C used aerodynamic levitation with laser beam heating and acoustic levitation with cryogenic cooling. By using these two methods, liquids were studied over much of the temperature range from -40 to +2500 C. This paper briefly describes the instrumentation and its use with an -Si area detector that allows fast, in-situ measurements. Use of the instruments is illustrated with examples of measurements on molten oxides and aqueous materials.

  19. Comparative measurements using different particle size instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the measurement and comparison of particle size and velocity measurements in sprays. The general nature of sprays and the development of standard, consistent research sprays are described. The instruments considered in this paper are: pulsed laser photography, holography, television, and cinematography; laser anemometry and interferometry using visibility, peak amplitude, and intensity ratioing; and laser diffraction. Calibration is by graticule, reticle, powders with known size distributions in liquid cells, monosize sprays, and, eventually, standard sprays. Statistical analyses including spatial and temporal long-time averaging as well as high-frequency response time histories with conditional sampling are examined. Previous attempts at comparing instruments, the making of simultaneous or consecutive measurements with similar types and different types of imaging, interferometric, and diffraction instruments are reviewed. A program of calibration and experiments for comparing and assessing different instruments is presented.

  20. Free Instrument for Movement Measure

    E-print Network

    Peña, Norberto; Corrêa, Lorena Peixoto Nogueira Rodriguez Martinez Salles; França, Lucas Gabriel Souza; Cunha, Marcelo do Vale; de Sousa, Marcos Cavalcanti; Vieira, João Paulo Bomfim Cruz; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the validation of a computational tool that serves to obtain continuous measurements of moving objects. The software uses techniques of computer vision, pattern recognition and optical flow, to enable tracking of objects in videos, generating data trajectory, velocity, acceleration and angular movement. The program was applied to track a ball around a simple pendulum. The methodology used to validate it, taking as a basis to compare the values measured by the program, as well as the theoretical values expected according to the model of a simple pendulum. The experiment is appropriate to the method because it was built within the limits of the linear harmonic oscillator and energy losses due to friction had been minimized, making it the most ideal possible. The results indicate that the tool is sensitive and accurate. Deviations of less than a millimeter to the extent of the trajectory, ensures the applicability of the software on physics, whether in research or in teaching topics.

  1. Noncontact Temperature Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C. (editor)

    1988-01-01

    Noncontact temperature measurement has been identified as one of the eight advanced technology development (ATD) areas to support the effort of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division in developing six Space Station flight experiment facilities. This two-day workshop was an opportunity for all six disciplines to present their requirements on noncontact temperature measurement and to discuss state-of-the-art developments. Multi-color pyrometry, laser pyrometry and radiometric imaging techniques are addressed.

  2. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation. (a) A sound level meter or alternate sound level measurement...., 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018. Table 1—Sound Level Corrections When Using a Type 2 (or S2A... the sound level meter or (2) the manufacturer of the microphone. The choice of both devices must...

  3. Instrument continuously measures density of flowing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, R. B.; Macinko, J.; Miller, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Electromechanical densitometer continuously measures the densities of either single-phase or two-phase flowing cryogenic fluids. Measurement is made on actual flow. The instrument operates on the principle that the mass of any vibrating system is a primary factor in determining the dynamic characteristics of the system.

  4. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; Wallace, Alex; Jastrow, Ulf; Kreis, Svea; Sorokin, Andrey A.; Tiedtke, Kai

    2015-04-14

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of data normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given.

  5. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; et al

    2015-04-14

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of datamore »normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given.« less

  6. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; Wallace, Alex; Jastrow, Ulf; Kreis, Svea; Sorokin, Andrey A.; Tiedtke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000?eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of data normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given. PMID:25931075

  7. Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

  8. Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

    2006-11-14

    This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 ?m) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

  9. Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.

    1986-06-01

    The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  10. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  12. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  15. Rotor instrumentation study for high-temperature superconducting generators

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenterly, S.W.; Wilson, C.T.

    1996-06-01

    In FY 9195, ORNL carried out work on rotor instrumentation systems in support of the General Electric (GE) Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI) on Superconducting Generator Development. The objective was to develop a system for tramsitting data from sensors in the spinning rotor to a stationary data acquisition system. Previous work at ORNL had investigated an optical method of cryogenic temperature measurement using laser-induced fluorescence in certain phosphors. Later follow-up discussions with experts in the ORNL Engineering Technology Division indicated that this method could also be extended to measure strain and magnetic field. Another optical alternative using standard fiber optic transmission modules was also investigated. The equipment is very inexpensive, but needs to be adapted for operation in a high-g-force rotating environment. An optical analog of a commutator or slip ring also needs to be developed to couple the light signals from the rotor to the stationary frame. Sealed mercury-film rotary contacts are manufactured by Meridian Laboratory. Unlike conventional slipring assemblies, these offer low noise and long lifetime, with low costs per channel. Standard units may need some upgrading for 3600-rpm or high-voltage operation. A commercial electronic telemetry system offered by Wireless Data Corporation (WDC) was identified as a viable candidate, and information on this system was presented to GE. GE has since ordered two of these systems from WDC for temperature measurements in their rotating test cryostat.

  16. Measurement of proton momentum distributions using a direct geometry instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senesi, R.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Andreani, C.

    2014-12-01

    We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy Ei= 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO.

  17. Spectral airglow temperature imager (SATI): a ground-based instrument for the monitoring of mesosphere temperature.

    PubMed

    Sargoytchev, Stoyan I; Brown, Stephen; Solheim, Brian H; Cho, Young-Min; Shepherd, Gordon G; López-González, Maria Jose

    2004-10-20

    The spectral airglow temperature imager is a two-channel, Fabry-Perot spectrometer with an annular field of view and a cooled CCD detector. The detected fringe pattern contains spectral information in the radial direction and azimuthal spatial information from the annular field of view. The instrument measures the rotational temperature from the O2 atmospheric (0,1) nightglow emission layer at 94 km and from the Q branch of the OH Meinel (6,2) band emission layer at 87 km. The method for temperature derivation is based on the temperature dependence of the line-emission rates. This dependence allows a determination of the temperature by a least-squares fit of the measured spectrum to a set of synthetic spectra, an approach that minimizes the effect of noise from the sky background and the detector. The spectral airglow temperature imager was developed to meet a need for monitoring the role of the mesosphere in climate variability through long-term observation of the mean temperature and the gravity waves from a single station, as well as large-scale wave perturbations through the use of multiple stations. PMID:15535003

  18. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature measuring devices. 154.1340 Section 154.1340... Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the temperature: (1) At the bottom of the tank; and (2) Near the top of the tank and below the maximum...

  3. Nulling Infrared Radiometer for Measuring Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2003-01-01

    A nulling, self-calibrating infrared radiometer is being developed for use in noncontact measurement of temperature in any of a variety of industrial and scientific applications. This instrument is expected to be especially well-suited to measurement of ambient or near-ambient temperature and, even more specifically, for measuring the surface temperature of a natural body of water. Although this radiometer would utilize the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) portion of the spectrum (wavelengths of 8 to 12 m), its basic principle of operation could also be applied to other spectral bands (corresponding to other temperature ranges) in which the atmosphere is transparent and in which design requirements for sensitivity and temperature-measurement accuracy could be satisfied.

  4. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 034704 (2012) Low temperature laser scanning microscopy of a superconducting

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    2012-01-01

    based on carbon resistors, to measure the local temperature while increasing the RF power in the cavity magnetic field, Hc1. The most powerful diagnostic technique which has been applied so far to studyREVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 034704 (2012) Low temperature laser scanning microscopy

  5. NEUTRON SCATTERING INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASUREMENT OF MELT STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Weber, Christopher Benmore

    2004-10-21

    This Phase II research project was focused on constructing and testing a facility for the measurement of the structure of hot solid and liquid materials under extreme conditions using neutron diffraction. The work resulted in measurements at temperatures of 3300 K, the highest ever performed in a neutron beam. Work was performed jointly by Containerless Research, Inc. and Argonne National Laboratory with significant interactions with engineers and scientists at the under construction-SNS facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The work comprised four main activities: Design and construct an advanced instrument for structural studies of liquids and hot solids using neutron scattering. Develop and test a software package for instrument control, data acquisition and analysis. Test and demonstrate the instrument in experiments at the GLAD beamline at IPNS. Evaluate requirements for performing experiments at the SNS. Develop interest from the potential user base and identify potential support for Phase III. The objectives of the research were met. A second-generation instrument was developed and constructed. The instrument design drew on the results of a formal design review which was held at Argonne National Laboratory during the Phase I research [1]. The review included discussion with potential instrument users, SNS scientists and engineers and various scientists involved with materials, glass, ceramics, and geological sciences. The instrument combines aerodynamic levitation with pulsed neutron diffraction in a controlled atmosphere. An important innovation was the use of pure vanadium levitation nozzles that effectively eliminated contributions from the sample environment to the measured data. The instrument employed a 250 Watt CO2 laser that was configured for Class I laser operation. The use of Class I laser configuration meant that operators could work with the equipment with minimal restrictions and so concentrate on the research activities. Instrument control and data acquisition software was developed and implemented. As part of a larger initiative at IPNS, PC-based programs are being developed for acquisition and processing of neutron data. The PC-based beamline data handling system will enable compatibility with the levitator software. The instrument was bench tested at CRI and operated in three campaigns at the GLAD beamline at IPNS. Samples approximately 3.5 mm in diameter were levitated for periods up to 6 hours and at temperatures up to 3300 K. Structure factors were obtained for liquid oxide materials and hot solids. Details are given in this report and in published or submitted papers. During the course of the Phase I and Phase II projects, technical presentations were made at the Materials Research Society meeting in Boston, November, 2001, the American Conference on Neutron Scattering in Knoxville, TN, June, 2002, the Gordon Research Conference on High Temperature Chemistry (poster) in Waterville, ME, August 2002, the ACNS meeting in Baltimore, MD, June, 2004 and the Non-crystalline Materials-9 meeting in Corning NY, July, 2004. Two manuscripts were prepared, one is published, one is in review. The presentations have resulted in contact with the user community and we have received several requests to use the instrument. As a result, we are seeking support for collaborative research and plan to offer beamline instruments for commercial sale.

  6. Whistle Gauge Measures Flow And Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Kwack, Eug Y.

    1989-01-01

    Simple, rugged gauge used to measure speed of flow and temperature of steam or other gas flowing through pipes of arbitrary diameter, from 1 to 28 in. or larger. Specially designed, instrumented whistle - has no moving parts, small, nonobstruction, operates at high temperature and pressure, and cleans itself. Does not operate at zero flow, but at moderate flows (tens of meters per second) generates intense sound for use in measurements. Consists of slanted ring groove of depth D and pressure taps in wall of pipe carrying flow to be measured. Resonant wavelength of sound generated by ring groove depends primarily on size and shape of groove and approximately equal to 4D.

  7. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154...Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154...Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154...Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154...Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154...Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked...

  12. Line spread instrumentation for propagation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A line spread device capable of yielding direct measure of a laser beam's line spread function (LSF) was developed and employed in propagation tests conducted in a wind tunnel to examine optimal acoustical suppression techniques for laser cavities exposed to simulated aircraft aerodynamic environments. Measurements were made on various aerodynamic fences and cavity air injection techniques that effect the LSF of a propagating laser. Using the quiescent tunnel as a control, the relative effect of each technique on laser beam quality was determined. The optical instrument employed enabled the comparison of relative beam intensity for each fence or mass injection. It was found that fence height had little effect on beam quality but fence porosity had a marked effect, i.e., 58% porosity alleviated cavity resonance and degraded the beam the least. Mass injection had little effect on the beam LSF. The use of a direct LSF measuring device proved to be a viable means of determining aerodynamic seeing qualities of flow fields.

  13. Models of Solar Irradiance Variability and the Instrumental Temperature Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, S. L.; Ghil, M.; Ide, K.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of decade-to-century (Dec-Cen) variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on global mean surface temperature Ts during the pre-Pinatubo instrumental era (1854-1991) are studied by using two different proxies for TSI and a simplified version of the IPCC climate model.

  14. Measuring Soil Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil temperature is a critical factor in the germination and early growth of many crops including corn, cotton, small grains, and vegetable crops. Soil temperature strongly influences the rate of critical biological reactions in the soil such as the rates of nitrification and microbial respiration. ...

  15. Hydrazine engine plume contamination mapping. [measuring instruments for rocket exhaust from liquid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirivella, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Instrumentation for the measurement of plume exhaust specie deposition rates were developed and demonstrated. The instruments, two sets of quartz crystal microbalances, were designed for low temperature operation in the back flow and variable temperature operation in the core flow regions of an exhaust plume. These quartz crystal microbalances performed nominally, and measurements of exhaust specie deposition rates for 8400 number of pulses for a 0.1-lb monopropellant thruster are reported.

  16. Sourcebook on high-temperature electronics and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Veneruso, A.F.

    1981-10-01

    This sourcebook summarizes the high-temperature characteristics of a number of commercially available electronic components and materials required in geothermal well-logging instruments that must operate to 275/sup 0/C. The sourcebook is written to provide a starting place for instrument designers, who need to know the high-temperature electronic products that are available and the design and performance limitations of these products. The electronic component information given includes the standard repertoire of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors, and magnetics; the active devices and integrated circuits sections emphasize silicon semiconductor JFETs and CMOS circuits; and, to complete the electronics, interconnections and packaging of hybrid microelectronics are described. Thermal insulation and refrigeration alternatives are also presented in the sourcebook. Finally, instrument housing materials and high-temperature cables and cablehead connectors are listed. This information was compiled as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program that Sandia National Laboratories conducted for the US Department of Energy's Divison of Geothermal Energy from 1976 to 1981.

  17. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  18. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-12-31

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with super-heated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200{degrees}C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220{degrees}C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: (1) At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. (2) There is no significant temperature effect. (3) Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. (4) Pores smaller than 15 {Angstrom} do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  19. Instrumentation for measuring energy inputs to implements

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, F.D.; Wilhelm, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    A microcomputer-based instrumentation system for monitoring tractor operating parameters and energy inputs to implements was developed and mounted on a 75-power-takeoff-KW tractor. The instrumentation system, including sensors and data handling equipment, is discussed. 10 refs.

  20. Measuring Temperature: The Thermometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamoun, Mirvette

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses the historical development of the thermometer with the view of helping children understand the role that mathematics plays in society. A model thermometer that is divided into three sections, each displaying one of the three temperature scales used today (Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin) is highlighted as a project to allow…

  1. High-Sensitivity Temperature Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadstone, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a method of measuring small temperature differences that amount to a .01K, using an arrangement of a copper-constantan thermocouple, a microamplifier and a galvanometer, as an indirect way of measuring heat energy. (GA)

  2. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the undulators to {+-}0.01 C. This note describes the temperature measurement system under construction.

  3. Impact of instrument response variations on health physics measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Armantrout, G.A.

    1984-10-01

    Uncertainties in estimating the potential health impact of a given radiation exposure include instrument measurement error in determining exposure and difficulty in relating this exposure to an effective dose value. Instrument error can be due to design or manufacturing deficiencies, limitations of the sensing element used, and calibration and maintenance of the instrument. This paper evaluates the errors which can be introduced by design deficiencies and limitations of the sensing element for a wide variety of commonly used survey instruments. The results indicate little difference among sensing element choice for general survey work, with variations among specific instrument designs being the major factor. Ion chamber instruments tend to be the best for all around use, while scintillator-based units should not be used where accurate measurements are required. The need to properly calibrate and maintain an instrument appears to be the most important factor in instrument accuracy. 8 references, 6 tables.

  4. Acoustical Measurement Of Furnace Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, Shakkottai; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Simple probes withstand severe conditions, yet give spatially-resolved temperature readings. Prototype acoustical system developed to measure temperatures from ambient to 1,800 degree F in such structures as large industrial lime kilns and recovery-boiler furnaces. Pulses of sound reflected from obstructions in sensing tube. Speed of sound and temperature in each segment deduced from travel times of pulses.

  5. Instrumentation of sampling aircraft for measurement of launch vehicle effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Tyson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obtaining valid airborne measurements. Discussions of the data acquisition system used, the instrument power system, and operational sampling procedures are included. Representative measurements obtained from an actual rocket launch monitoring activity are also presented.

  6. Guide to measurement of winds with instrumented aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Walter; Paige, Terry S.; Nelius, Andrew E.

    1991-01-01

    Aircraft measurement techniques are reviewed. Review of past and present applications of instrument aircraft to atmospheric observations is presented. Questions to be answered relative to measuring mean wind profiles as contrasted to turbulence measurements are then addressed. Requirements of instrumentation and accuracy, data reduction, data acquisition, and theoretical and certainty analysis are considered.

  7. [An instrument for estimating human body composition using impedance measurement].

    PubMed

    Yin, J; Peng, C

    1997-03-01

    According to the impedance feature of biological tissue, the instrument was designed at 1, 5, 10, 50, 100kHz to measure human impedance, and then to calculate human FAT, FFM, FAT%, TBW, ECW, ICW and so on. A 8031 singlechip microprocessor contacuting used as a control center in the instrument. The part of electric circuit contacuting human body in the instrument was unreally earthing. The instrument was safty, effective, repeatable, and easily manpulative. Prelimintary clinical experiment showed the results measured with the instrument could effectively reflect practical, status of human composition. PMID:9647623

  8. High-temperature-measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-27

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2000/sup 0/C) is described. The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensonally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  9. Development of a Binary Mixture Gas Composition Instrument for Use in a Confined High Temperature Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadell, Seth R.

    With recent advancements in material science, industrial operations are being conducted at higher and higher temperatures. This is apparent in the nuclear industry where a division of the field is working to develop the High Temperature Gas Reactor and the Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concurrently. Both of these facilities will have outlet gas temperatures that are at significantly higher temperatures than the typical water cooled reactor. These increased temperatures provide improved efficiency for the production of hydrogen, provide direct heating for oil refineries, or more efficient electricity generation. As high temperature operations are being developed, instruments capable of measuring the operating parameters must be developed concurrently. Within the gas reactor community there is a need to measure the impurities within the primary coolant. Current devices will not survive the temperature and radiation environments of a nuclear reactor. An instrument is needed to measure the impurities within the coolant while living inside the reactor, where this instrument would measure the amount of the impurity within the coolant. There are many industrial applications that need to measure the ratio of two components, whether it be the amount of particulate in air that is typical to pneumatic pumping, or the liquid to gas ratio in natural gas as it flows through a pipeline. All of the measurements in these applications can be met using a capacitance sensor. Current capacitance sensors are built to operate at ambient temperatures with only one company producing a product that will handle a temperature of up to 400 °C. This maximum operating temperature is much too low to measure the gas characteristics in the High Temperature Gas Reactor. If this measurement technique were to be improved to operate at the expected temperatures, the coolant within the primary loop could be monitored for water leaks in the steam generator, carbon dust buildup entrained in the flow, or used to measure the purity of the coolant itself. This work details the efforts conducted to develop such an instrument. While the concept of designing a capacitance sensor to measure a gas mixture is not unique, the application of using a capacitance sensor within a nuclear reactor is a new application. This application requires the development of an instrument that will survive a high temperature nuclear reactor environment and operate at a sensitivity not found in current applications. To prove this technique, instrument prototypes were built and tested in confined environments and at high temperatures. This work discusses the proof of concept testing and outlines an application in the High Temperature Test Facility to increase the operational understanding of the instrument. This work is the first step toward the ultimate outcome of this work, which is to provide a new tool to the gas reactor community allowing real-time measurements of coolant properties within the core.

  10. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stereopsis measuring instrument. 886.1460 Section 886.1460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1460 Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stereopsis measuring instrument. 886.1460 Section 886.1460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1460 Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis...

  12. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stereopsis measuring instrument. 886.1460 Section 886.1460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1460 Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stereopsis measuring instrument. 886.1460 Section 886.1460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1460 Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis...

  14. The Development of an Instrument To Measure Organizational Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Dunlop, Korynne; Lester, Paula E.

    An instrument to measure organizational trust was developed, and a pilot study was conducted to evaluate the instrument and make appropriate revisions. The 23-item Organizational Trust Measure (OTM) was developed based on the perceptions of 42 doctoral students regarding trust and its role in educational leadership. Content analysis procedures and…

  15. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stereopsis measuring instrument. 886.1460 Section 886.1460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1460 Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance specifications for measurement instruments. 1065.205 Section 1065.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205...

  20. Long-term Passive Mode Data Measured by the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) Instrument onboard Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and Comparison to REMS Surface Pressure and Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, I.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Martín-Torres, J.; Zorzano, M. P.; Boynton, W. V.; Fedosov, F.; Golovin, D.; Hardgrove, C. J.; Harshman, K.; Kozyrev, A.; Kuzmin, R.; Malakhov, A. V.; Mischna, M. A.; Moersch, J.; Mokrousov, M.; Nikiforov, S.; Tate, C. G.

    2014-12-01

    Since the landing in August 2012, DAN has provided a wealth of scientific data from the successful surface operation in both Active mode and Passive mode. While the main DAN science investigation so far has focused in estimating the contents of water-equivalent-hydrogen (WEH) and chlorine-equivalent-neutron-absorption in the surface, here we will provide/discuss low energy (less than about 1 keV) background neutron environment at the Martian surface as measured by DAN Passive mode operation. Passive mode measurements have been done on almost every sols with durations ranging from 1 hour to ~9 hour, covering different times of a day. Neutrons from the onboard power source Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermonuclear Generator (MMRTG) and induced by Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR)/Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) interactions with the Martian atmosphere and the surface material contribute to the DAN passive data. An approach to separate out the respective contributions from the DAN total count rates was developed previously (Jun et al., 2013) using the data collected at Rocknest (where the rover stayed from sol 60 to sol 100). The main goal of this paper is to extend the same analysis to other locations encountered during the rover traverse especially to understand the long-term (through Sol 800, covering more than 1 Martian year) behavior of the neutron environment at the Martian surface as measured by DAN in response to variation of the free space GCR/SEP environment. Extensive Monte Carlo transport simulations using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) have been performed to support the analysis and to aid interpretation of the DAN passive data. In addition, the DAN passive data are compared to the long-term surface temperature and pressure data (both measured and modeled) from Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) to investigate possible correlation of the DAN data with ambient environmental conditions.

  1. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

  6. Device for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-08-03

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  7. Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

    2003-01-01

    A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. These types of measurements are used in computer models to relate remotely sensed water-surface temperature to bulkwater temperature. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured.

  8. Noncontact temperature pattern measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D. (inventor); Allen, J. L. (inventor); Lee, M. C. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a noncontact imagine pyrometer system for obtaining the true temperature image of a given substance in a contactless fashion without making assumptions about localized emissivity of the substance or the uniformity of the temperature distribution. Such a contactless temperature imaging system has particular application in the study and production of many materials where the physical contact required to make a conventional temperature measurement drastically effects or contaminates the physical process being observed. Two examples where accurate temperature profiles are of critical interest are: (1) the solid-liquid phase change interface in the production of electronic materials and (2) metastable materials in the undercooling region. The apparent novelty resides in the recognition that an active pyrometer system may be advantageously adapted to perform contactless temperature imaging so that an accurate temperature profile can be obtained.

  9. Instrument for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Haskel, D; Tseng, Y C; Lang, J C; Sinogeikin, S

    2007-08-01

    An instrument has been developed for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at high pressures and low temperatures. This instrument couples a nonmagnetic copper-beryllium diamond anvil cell featuring perforated diamonds with a helium flow cryostat and an electromagnet. The applied pressure can be controlled in situ using a gas membrane and calibrated using Cu K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The performance of this instrument was tested by measuring the XMCD spectra of the Gd(5)Si(2)Ge(2) giant magnetocaloric material. PMID:17764332

  10. Instrument for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Haskel, D.; Tseng, Y. C.; Lang, J. C.; Sinogeikin, S.

    2007-08-15

    An instrument has been developed for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at high pressures and low temperatures. This instrument couples a nonmagnetic copper-beryllium diamond anvil cell featuring perforated diamonds with a helium flow cryostat and an electromagnet. The applied pressure can be controlled in situ using a gas membrane and calibrated using Cu K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The performance of this instrument was tested by measuring the XMCD spectra of the Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} giant magnetocaloric material.

  11. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOEpatents

    Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  12. Containerless high temperature property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Anderson, Collin D.

    1991-01-01

    Containerless processing in the low gravity environment of space provides the opportunity to increase the temperature at which well controlled processing of and property measurements on materials is possible. This project was directed towards advancing containerless processing and property measurement techniques for application to materials research at high temperatures in space. Containerless high temperature material property studies include measurements of the vapor pressure, melting temperature, optical properties, and spectral emissivities of solid boron. The reaction of boron with nitrogen was also studied by laser polarimetric measurement of boron nitride film growth. The optical properties and spectral emissivities were measured for solid and liquid silicon, niobium, and zirconium; liquid aluminum and titanium; and liquid Ti-Al alloys of 5 to 60 atomic pct. titanium. Alternative means for noncontact temperature measurement in the absence of material emissivity data were evaluated. Also, the application of laser induced fluorescence for component activity measurements in electromagnetic levitated liquids was studied, along with the feasibility of a hybrid aerodynamic electromagnetic levitation technique.

  13. [Development of opened instrument for generating and measuring physiological signal].

    PubMed

    Chen, Longcong; Hu, Guohu; Gao, Bin

    2004-12-01

    An opened instrument with liquid crystal display (LCD) for generating and measuring physiological signal is introduced in this paper. Based on a single-chip microcomputer. the instrument uses the technique of LCD screen to display signal wave and information, and it realizes man-machine interaction by keyboard. This instrument can produce not only defined signal in common use by utilizing important saved data and relevant arithmetic, but also user-defined signal. Therefore, it is open to produce signal. In addition, this instrument has strong extension because of its modularized design as computer, which has much function such as displaying, measuring and saving physiological signal, and many features such as low power consumption, small volume, low cost and portability. Hence this instrument is convenient for experiment teaching, clinic examining, maintaining of medical instrument. PMID:15646340

  14. Ion Composition Measurements from the RBSP/HOPE Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoug, R. M.; MacDonald, E.; Funsten, H. O.; Guthrie, A.; Larsen, B. A.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    The twin Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instruments are due to launch on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) satellites and orbit within the Earth's radiation belts. Each HOPE instrument consists of a top-hat electrostatic analyzer followed by a time of flight mass spectrometer with CEM detectors. The thermal plasma measured by the HOPE instruments contributes significantly to wave-particle interactions with high-energy radiation belt particles. This presentation will focus on an initial survey of the HOPE plasma data and instrument response. Particular attention will be paid to the penetrating radiation background rates observed as a function of geomagnetic activity and orbit location. We will also present a preliminary survey of the ion composition characteristics measured during the mission, including the variations of H+, He+, and O+ ion density with radial distance, spacecraft separation, and solar activity. In flight calibration of the instrument response and any differences between the two HOPE instruments will be presented.

  15. Instruments Measuring Blunted Affect in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Sanja; Asmal, Laila; Goosen, Anneke; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Phahladira, Lebogang; Emsley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Blunted affect, also referred to as emotional blunting, is a prominent symptom of schizophrenia. Patients with blunted affect have difficulty in expressing their emotions. The work of Abrams and Taylor and their development of the Rating Scale for Emotional Blunting in the late 1970’s was an early indicator that blunted affect could indeed be assessed reliably. Since then, several new instruments assessing negative symptoms with subscales measuring blunted affect have been developed. In light of this, we aim to provide researchers and clinicians with a systematic review of the different instruments used to assess blunted affect by providing a comparison of the type, characteristics, administration and psychometric properties of these instruments. Studies reporting on the psychometric properties of instruments assessing blunted affect in patients with schizophrenia were included. Reviews and case studies were excluded. We reviewed 30 full-text articles and included 15 articles and 10 instruments in this systematic review. On average the instruments take 15–30 minutes to administer. We found that blunted affect items common across all instruments assess: gestures, facial expressions and vocal expressions. The CAINS Self-report Expression Subscale, had a low internal consistency score. This suggests that this sub-scale does not reliably assess patients’ self-reported blunted affect symptoms and is likely due to the nature of blunted affect. Instruments correlated minimally with instruments measuring positive symptoms and more importantly with depression suggesting that the instruments distinguish between seemingly similar symptoms. PMID:26035179

  16. Instruments for measuring the amount of moisture in the air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A summarization and discussion of the many systems available for measuring moisture in the atmosphere is presented. Conventional methods used in the field of meteorology and methods used in the laboratory are discussed. Performance accuracies, and response of the instruments were reviewed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. Methods of measuring humidity aloft by instrumentation onboard aircraft and balloons are given, in addition to the methods used to measure moisture at the Earth's surface.

  17. Accuracy of Temperature Measurement in the Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Newland, Richard F.; Sanderson, Andrew J.; Baker, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Oxygenator arterial outlet blood temperature is routinely measured in the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit as a surrogate for the temperature of the arterial blood delivered to sensitive organs such as the brain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the temperature thermistors used in the Terumo Capiox® SX25 oxygenator and to compare the temperature measured at the outlet of the oxygenator using the Capiox® CX*TL Luer Thermistor with temperatures measured at distal sites. Five experimental stages were performed in vitro to achieve this aim. Under our experimental conditions, the luer thermistors accurately measured the temperature as referenced by a precision thermometer. In the CPB circuit, the difference between arterial outlet and reference thermometer temperature varied with outlet temperature over-reading at low temperatures and under reading at high temperatures. There was negligible heat loss (?0.4 ± 0.1°C) measured at 4.5 m from the arterial outlet. The Terumo Capiox® CX*TL Luer Thermistor is an accurate and reliable instrument for measuring temperature when incorporated into the Capiox Oxygenator. The accuracy in the measurement of temperature using these thermistors is affected by the thermistor immersion depth. Under reading of the arterial blood temperature by approximately 0.5°C should be considered at normothermic temperatures, to avoid exceeding the maximum arterial blood temperature as described by institutional protocols. The accuracy of blood temperature measurements should be considered for all oxygenator arterial outlet temperature probes. PMID:15804154

  18. INSTRUMENTAL and OPERATIONAL IMPACTS on SPECTROPHOTOMETER COLOR MEASUREMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color measurements for the classing of U.S. cottons have been performed on the Uster® High Volume Instrumentation (HVI) instrument for several years. Two color parameters specific to cotton—Rd (reflectance) and +b (yellowness)—are used to express the color of cotton. Since Rd and +b do not readily...

  19. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Political Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.; Napier, John D.

    The Opinionnaire on Political Institutions and Participation (OPIP) was designed to measure six dimensions of the overall construct of political attitude. Three studies were undertaken to determine the validity and reliability of the instrument, and the OPIP was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for research and evaluations using…

  20. An Analysis of Several Instruments Measuring "Nature of Science" Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Rodney L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is an investigation of the relationship among three selected instruments based on the responses of a sample of high school students. The instruments were the Nature of Science Scale (NOSS), the Science Support Scale (SSS), and the Test on the Social Aspects of Science (TSAS). All purport to measure "nature of science" objectives. (PEB)

  1. Instrumented remotely operated vehicle for measuring inherent and apparent optical properties of the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, Robert A.; Dana, David R.; Voss, Jeffrey M.; Frysinger, Glenn S.

    1993-12-01

    A deeper understanding of radiative transfer in the ocean will require accurate measurements of inherent optical properties (IOPs) and apparent optical properties (AOPs) simultaneously or near simultaneously in the same water. Toward this goal, we have instrumented a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) with state-of-the-art instruments that measure the beam attenuation, volume absorption, backscattering coefficients, vector and scalar irradiances, temperature, salinity, and undisturbed particle-size distributions and concentrations. The ROV and its instruments are described and data are presented from deployments at Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho; Tongue-of-the-Ocean, Bahamas; and Monterey Bay, California.

  2. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  3. Microcomputer control soft tube measuring-testing instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanzhou; Jiang, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Wen-Yi

    1993-09-01

    Soft tube are key and easily spoiled parts used by the vehicles in the transportation with large numbers. Measuring and testing of the tubes were made by hands for a long time. Cooperating with Harbin Railway Bureau recently we have developed a new kind of automatical measuring and testing instrument In the paper the instrument structure property and measuring principle are presented in details. Centre of the system is a singlechip processor INTEL 80C31 . It can collect deal with data and display the results on LED. Furthermore it brings electromagnetic valves and motors under control. Five soft tubes are measured and tested in the same time all the process is finished automatically. On the hardware and software counter-electromagnetic disturbance methods is adopted efficiently so the performance of the instrument is improved significantly. In the long run the instrument is reliable and practical It solves a quite difficult problem in the railway transportation.

  4. 6 FIELD MEASUREMENT METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION 6.1 Introduction

    E-print Network

    of instruments appropriate for the radiation measurements described in this manual. These firms can provide of such a condition would be 230 Th surface contamination, covered by paint, dust, oil, or moisture. NRC report NUREG

  5. Automatic Continuous Commissioning of Measurement Instruments in Air Handling Units 

    E-print Network

    Xiao, F.; Wang, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a robust strategy based on a condition-based adaptive statistical method for automatic commissioning of measurement instruments typically employed in air-handling units (AHU). The multivariate statistic ...

  6. An Instrument to Measure Self-Righteousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni; Belk, Sharyn S.

    A seven item Likert-type scale was developed to measure self-righteousness, defined as the conviction that one's beliefs and actions are correct, especially in contrast to the beliefs and actions of others. The Self Righteousness Questionnaire (SRQ) measures three components of self-righteousness: belittlement, acceptance, and uncertainty. The…

  7. Quantum interferometric measurements of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarzyna, Marcin; Zwierz, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    We provide a detailed description of the quantum interferometric thermometer, which is a device that estimates the temperature of a sample from the measurements of the optical phase. We rigorously analyze the operation of such a device by studying the interaction of the optical probe system prepared in a single-mode Gaussian state with a heated sample modeled as a dissipative thermal reservoir. We find that this approach to thermometry is capable of measuring the temperature of a sample in the nanokelvin regime. Furthermore, we compare the fundamental precision of quantum interferometric thermometers with the theoretical precision offered by the classical idealized pyrometers, which infer the temperature from a measurement of the total thermal radiation emitted by the sample. We find that the interferometric thermometer provides a superior performance in temperature sensing even when compared with this idealized pyrometer. We predict that interferometric thermometers will prove useful for ultraprecise temperature sensing and stabilization of quantum optical experiments based on the nonlinear crystals and atomic vapors.

  8. Instrument for Aircraft-Icing and Cloud-Physics Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilie, Lyle; Bouley, Dan; Sivo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data acquired by this system and that are used to quantify the severity of icing conditions include sizes of cloud water drops, cloud liquid water content (LWC), cloud ice water content (IWC), and cloud total water content (TWC). The sensor head is mounted on the outside of an aircraft, positioned and oriented to intercept the ambient airflow. The sensor head consists of an open housing that is heated in a controlled manner to keep it free of ice and that contains four hot-wire elements. The hot-wire sensing elements have different shapes and sizes and, therefore, exhibit different measurement efficiencies with respect to droplet size and water phase (liquid, frozen, or mixed). Three of the hot-wire sensing elements are oriented across the airflow so as to intercept incoming cloud water. For each of these elements, the LWC or TWC affects the power required to maintain a constant temperature in the presence of cloud water.

  9. Optical Fiber Strain Instrumentation for High Temperature Aerospace Structural Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the program is the development and laboratory demonstration of sensors based on silica optical fibers for measurement of high temperature strain for aerospace materials evaluations. A complete fiber strain sensor system based on white-light interferometry was designed and implemented. An experiment set-up was constructed to permit testing of strain measurement up to 850 C. The strain is created by bending an alumina cantilever beam to which is the fiber sensor is attached. The strain calibration is provided by the application of known beam deflections. To ensure the high temperature operation capability of the sensor, gold-coated single-mode fiber is used. Moreover, a new method of sensor surface attachment which permits accurate sensor gage length determination is also developed. Excellent results were obtained at temperatures up to 800-850 C.

  10. Development of a magnetic field measurement instrument for compact cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong-No; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Oh, Jin-Hwan; Park, Ki-Hyeon; Chai, Jong-seo

    2012-07-01

    A magnetic field measurement instrument for compact cyclotrons has been developed. Forty-eight Hall sensors are used for magnetic measurements, and a set of four Hall sensors is allocated to each channel. The magnetic field and the offset are tabulated with a permanent 4,500-G magnet. The measurement device is made to be thin, long, and rectangular, to overcome the narrow gap between upper and lower hills in a compact cyclotron (2 ˜ 3 cm). This instrument measures a magnetic field signal in the unit of Tesla and transforms it to a voltage signal as an output. The instrument has a 0.1-percent field-measurement stability margin and can be used to measure the magnetic field produced by a 9-MeV cyclotron magnet.

  11. Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.

    1997-04-01

    The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

  12. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...locomotive 0 1 Amount of correction to be subtracted from measured level (dB). (b) A microphone windscreen and an acoustic calibrator of the coupler type must be used as recommended by: (1) the manufacturer of the sound level meter or (2) the...

  13. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...locomotive 0 1 Amount of correction to be subtracted from measured level (dB). (b) A microphone windscreen and an acoustic calibrator of the coupler type must be used as recommended by: (1) the manufacturer of the sound level meter or (2) the...

  14. IMTC 2005 Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference

    E-print Network

    Adler, Andy

    Eddy Current Based Flexible Sensor for Contactless Measurement of Breathing Alex Richer, Andy Adler of critical clinical conditions or for monitoring sleeping subjects for apnea. Apnea in infants is associated with sudden infant death syndrome, while adult apnea causes significant difficulties with sleep. While large

  15. Mid-Latitude Temperatures at 87 km: Results From Multi-Instrument Fourier Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drob, Douglas P.; Picone, J. M.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; She, C . Y.; Kafkalidis, J. F.; Ortland, D. A.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Killeen, T. L.

    2000-01-01

    Using a novel Fourier fitting method we combine two years of mid-latitude temperature measurements at 87 km from the High Resolution Doppler Imager, the Colorado State University lidar, and the Peach Mountain Interferometer. After accounting for calibration bias, significant local-time variations on the order of 10 K were observed. Stationary planetary waves with amplitudes up to 10 K were observed during winter, with weaker wave amplitudes occurring during other seasons. Because of calibration biases among these instruments, we could estimate the annual mean temperature to no better than 193.5 plus or minus 8.5 K.

  16. Holdup Measures on an SRNL Mossbauer Spectroscopy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.; Brown, T.; Salaymeh, S.

    2010-05-05

    Gamma-ray holdup measurements of a Mossbauer spectroscopy instrument are described and modeled. In the qualitative acquisitions obtained in a low background area of Savannah River National Laboratory, only Am-241 and Np-237 activity were observed. The Am-241 was known to be the instrumental activation source, while the Np-237 is clearly observed as a source of contamination internal to the instrument. The two sources of activity are modeled separately in two acquisition configurations using two separate modeling tools. The results agree well, demonstrating a content of (1980 {+-} 150) {mu}Ci Am-241 and (110 {+-} 50) {mu}Ci of Np-237.

  17. Third-generation FAGE instrument for tropospheric hydroxyl radical measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. Y.; Hard, T. M.; Mehrabzadeh, A. A.; George, L. A.; O'Brien, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    A single-stage, frequency-doubled, copper vapor laser-pumped dye laser has been constructed to be used in the measurement of atmospheric hydroxyl radical concentrations. A new photon counting instrument is used for HO fluorescence detection. Theoretical and experimental studies of instrument performance show better sensitivities and reduced photolytic interferences than have been possible with previous systems based upon Nd:YAG pumping.

  18. Midinfrared Temperature Measurement Technique Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santosuosso, George R.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared thermography is the measuring of the temperature of an object by examining the spectral quantities of light emission. The microgravity combustion experiment Solid Inflammability Boundary at Low-Speeds (SIBAL) calls for full-field temperature measurements of a thin sheet of cellulosic fuel as a flame front moves across the fuel, and infrared thermography is the only technique that can accomplish this task. The thermography is accomplished by imaging the fuel with a midinfrared camera that is sensitive in the 3.0- to 5.0-microns wavelength region in conjunction with a 3.7 - to 4.1-microns bandpass filter to eliminate unwanted infrared radiation from components other than the fuel.

  19. Temperature measurement during microwave cooking.

    PubMed

    Mullin, J; Bows, J

    1993-01-01

    Product development of microwavable foods originally suffered from a high degree of non-uniform heating which is generic in microwave heating. Typically, foods have suffered from either overheated edges or under heated centres. This was compounded by short reheat times which allowed little opportunity for temperature equilibration. A crucial step in overcoming this problem has been the understanding provided from time-temperature data. Conventional temperature measurements by thermocouple, etc. are inappropriate in microwave cooking due to the high electric fields which are present (ca 15 kV/m). The result is either very significant interference, or even failure of the sensor. Therefore, alternative methods were developed to meet the need, some of which are discussed in this paper. One such measurement system is the now commonplace fibre optic probe, originally from Luxtron. The discrete data provided from this system are compared with the surface imaging data delivered by thermal imaging. These techniques are discussed in the context of microwave packaging materials heated in situ in a microwave oven and the need for temperature data as a basis for establishing testing regimes. PMID:8288010

  20. An Assessment Instrument to Measure Geospatial Thinking Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Niem Tu; Sharpe, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Spatial thinking is fundamental to the practice and theory of geography, however there are few valid and reliable assessment methods in geography to measure student performance in spatial thinking. This article presents the development and evaluation of a geospatial thinking assessment instrument to measure participant understanding of spatial…

  1. Measuring Service Quality In Higher Education: Three Instruments Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Firdaus

    2006-01-01

    Measuring the quality of service in higher education is increasingly important, particularly as fees introduce a more consumerist ethic amongst students. This paper aims to test and compare the relative efficacy of three measuring instruments of service quality (namely HEdPERF, SERVPERF and the moderating scale of HEdPERF-SERVPERF ) within a…

  2. An Instrument to Measure Chickering's Vector of Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, T. Dary; Delworth, Ursula

    1980-01-01

    Describes the construction of an instrument to measure identity, primarily based on Chickering's approach, i.e., the Erwin Identity Scale (EIS), designed to measure the three main concepts comprising identity: confidence, sexual identity, and conceptions about body and appearance. (Author)

  3. Comparison of asphere measurements by tactile and optical metrological instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmans, R. H.; Nieuwenkamp, H. J.; Kok, G. J. P.; Blobel, G.; Nouira, H.; Küng, A.; Baas, M.; Tevoert, M.; Baer, G.; Stuerwald, S.

    2015-10-01

    A comparison of topography measurements of aspherical surfaces was carried out by European metrology institutes, other research institutes and a company as part of an European metrology research project. In this paper the results of this comparison are presented. Two artefacts were circulated, a small polymer coated aspherical lens with a clear aperture of about 12?mm, and a large conical convex lens with a clear aperture of 300?mm developed for the ESO Very Large Telescope. The participating laboratories were allowed to follow their own measurement strategies. Both tactile and optical measuring instruments were used, as well as single point and imaging techniques. The measured data were compared with respect to the root-mean-square (RMS), peak-to-valley and Zernike polynomial representations of the measured deviations from the nominal shape. The comparison shows for five out of eight measuring instruments/methods a very good agreement of the measured topographies within 14?nm (RMS).

  4. A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries

    E-print Network

    Gardner, Alan T.

    An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry ...

  5. The display of portable infrared measuring temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yitao; Gu, Guohua; Sui, Xiubao

    2014-11-01

    In recent years based on security, quality supervision, inspection and medical for the urgent need of infrared temperature measurement and infrared display technology, coupled with embedded system to achieve rapid development, which is widely used in the electronic products and the field of intelligent instruments and industrial control, this paper has designed a kind of more comprehensive, more efficient and more intuitive infrared thermometer. Unlike previous handheld infrared thermometer, we regard an embedded Linux system as the system, with its open source code, support most mainstream hardware platforms, unified peripheral interface and can be customized, to build an embedded infrared system that has provided strong system support; the pseudocolor techniques and Qt interface display technology make the image more colorful and the picture function more diverse; With ARM microprocessor as the display and temperature measuring platform, it costs reduction and reduce volume and power consumption; the FrameBuffer interface technology and multithreading technology realize the smooth real-time display. And ultimately the display size of real-time infrared image is 640 * 480 at a speed of 25 frames / sec. What is more, display is equipped with the menu option so that thermometer can be required to complete the operation through the button. The temperature display system aims at small volume, easy to use and flexible. I believe this thermometer will have a good application prospect.

  6. Optimizing a remote sensing instrument to measure atmospheric surface pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peckham, G. E.; Gatley, C.; Flower, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric surface pressure can be remotely sensed from a satellite by an active instrument which measures return echoes from the ocean at frequencies near the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band. The instrument is optimized by selecting its frequencies of operation, transmitter powers and antenna size through a new procedure baesd on numerical simulation which maximizes the retrieval accuracy. The predicted standard deviation error in the retrieved surface pressure is 1 mb. In addition the measurements can be used to retrieve water vapor, cloud liquid water and sea state, which is related to wind speed.

  7. Instrumentation for chemical species measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, C.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Instrument advances made during 1987-1990 for atmospheric trace species measurements are reviewed. Problems discussed include types of measurement strategies, oxidant species, reductant species, and flux measurement. Particular attention is given to odd oxygen species, hydrogen oxides, hydrocarbon oxy and peroxy radicals, halogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, reduced sulfur compounds, ammonia, cyanide compounds, water vapor, nitrous oxide, hydrogen halides, fully halogenated carbon compounds, fully halogenated carbonyl compounds, and sulfur hexafluoride. 195 refs.

  8. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 6: Flow measurement instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    A summary is provided of information available on liquid and gaseous oxygen flowmetering including an evaluation of commercial meters. The instrument types, physical principles of measurement, and performance characteristics are described. Problems concerning flow measurements of less than plus or minus two percent uncertainty are reviewed. Recommendations concerning work on flow reference systems, the use of surrogate fluids, and standard tests for oxygen flow measurements are also presented.

  9. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  10. Reference instruments based on spectrometric measurement with Lucas Cells.

    PubMed

    Butterweck, G; Schmidt, V; Buchröder, H; Hugi, R; Hohmann, E; Foerster, E; Mayer, S

    2015-11-01

    The Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (Berlin, Germany) and the Paul Scherrer Institute (Villigen, Switzerland) both operate accredited calibration laboratories for radon gas activity concentration. Both the institutions use Lucas Cells as detector in their reference instrumentation due to the low dependence of this detector type on variations in environmental conditions. As a further measure to improve the quality of the reference activity concentration, a spectrometric method of data evaluation has been applied. The electric pulses from the photomultiplier tube coupled to the Lucas Cells are subjected to a pulse height analysis. The stored pulse height spectra are analysed retrospectively to compensate for fluctuations in the electric parameters of the instrumentation during a measurement. The reference instrumentation of both the laboratories is described with the respective spectrum evaluation procedures. The methods of obtaining traceability to the primary calibration laboratories of Germany and Switzerland and data of performance tests are presented. PMID:25948825

  11. An Automated Instrument for the Measurement of Bark Microrelief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Stan, J. T.; Jarvis, M.; Levia, D. F.

    2009-05-01

    Bark microrelief is of importance to the physiological ecology of forested ecosystems because it has been documented to influence the distribution of corticolous lichens, stemflow generation, and forest biogeochemical cycles. Hitherto no instrument existed to characterize the inherent variability of bark microrelief with high spatial resolution. Our newly-designed bark microrelief instrument, the LaserBarkTM, consists of a hinged ring, laser rangefinder, and motor linked to a standard laptop. The LaserBarkTM produces trunk cross- sections at a 0.33 degree horizontal resolution and detects bark ridge-to furrow heights at < 1 mm resolution. The LaserBarkTM was validated by comparing measurements of bark microrelief between the instrument and digital calipers. The mean absolute error of the instrument was 0.83 mm. Our bark microrelief instrument can supply critical requisite information of bark microstructure that be used by researchers to interpret the distribution of lichens and bryophytes on tree surfaces, relate stemflow yield and chemistry to bark microrelief, and provide detailed measurements of the changes of bark microrelief with stem dehydration. In short, the LaserBarkTM can be used to gain a more holistic understanding of the functional ecology of forest ecosystems.

  12. Semiconductor laser-based ranging instrument for earth gravity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Millar, Pamela S.; Sun, Xiaoli

    1995-01-01

    A laser ranging instrument is being developed to measure the spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field. It will range in space to a cube corner on a passive co-orbiting sub-satellite with a velocity accuracy of 20 to 50 microns/sec by using AlGaAs lasers intensity modulated at 2 GHz.

  13. Improved Measurement of Coherence in Presence of Instrument Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis J.

    2003-01-01

    A method for correcting measured coherence spectra for the effect of incoherent instrument noise has been developed and demonstrated. Coherence measurements are widely used in engineering and science to determine the extent to which two signals are alike. The signals may come from two different sources or from the same source at different times. The coherence of time-lagged signals from a single source is an excellent indication of the effective lifetime of the signal components as a function of their frequency. Unfortunately, incoherent instrument noise will bias the measurement to lower values and may lead the user of the data to false conclusions about the longevity of significant features. The new method may be used whenever both the signal and noise power spectra are known and the noise is incoherent both with the signal and with itself at the applicable time delays. It provides a corrected coherence spectrum given the measured coherence and power spectra. For powerlaw signal spectra and instrumental white noise, the correction formula takes a particularly simple and explicit form. Since many geophysical signals exhibit powerlaw behavior and most instrument noise spectra approach white noise, the simplified form should be widely applicable in meteorology, oceanography, geology, and planetary geophysics.

  14. Optical aberrations measurement with a low cost optometric instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, Walter D.; Muñoz-Escrivá, L.; Pons, A.; Martínez-Corral, M.

    2002-08-01

    A simple experimental method for measuring optical aberrations of a single lens is proposed. The technique is based on the use of an optometric instrument employed for the assessment of the refractive state of the eye: the retinoscope. Experimental results for spherical aberration and astigmatism are obtained.

  15. Evaluation of an Instrument for Measuring Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Francis; And Others

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the use of multiple intelligence assessment instruments as predictor measurements of achievement. The sample included 51 male and female students enrolled in two sections of an introductory psychology course. They were asked to complete the Multiple Intelligences Challenge (MIC) and the Self…

  16. AN INSTRUMENT TO MEASURE VISUAL DISCRIMINATION OF YOUNG CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOMBARD, AVIMA; STERN, CAROLYN

    AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING VISUAL DISCRIMINATION ABILITY WITHOUT CONFOUNDING VARIABLES OF MOTOR SKILLS HAS BEEN CONSTRUCTED. TO AVOID THE EYE-HAND COORDINATION USUALLY REQUIRED ON THESE TESTS, A SELECTION, RATHER THAN A DRAWING, RESPONSE WAS DEVELOPED. THIS TEST, THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT LOS ANGELES DISCRIMINATION INVENTORY (VDI), CONSISTS…

  17. Fine resolution 3D temperature fields off Kerguelen from instrumented penguins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrassin, Jean-Benoît; Park, Young-Hyang; Le Maho, Yvon; Bost, Charles-André

    2004-12-01

    The use of diving animals as autonomous vectors of oceanographic instruments is rapidly increasing, because this approach yields cost-efficient new information and can be used in previously poorly sampled areas. However, methods for analyzing the collected data are still under development. In particular, difficulties may arise from the heterogeneous data distribution linked to animals' behavior. Here we show how raw temperature data collected by penguin-borne loggers were transformed to a regular gridded dataset that provided new information on the local circulation off Kerguelen. A total of 16 king penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus) were equipped with satellite-positioning transmitters and with temperature-time-depth recorders (TTDRs) to record dive depth and sea temperature. The penguins' foraging trips recorded during five summers ranged from 140 to 600 km from the colony and 11,000 dives >100 m were recorded. Temperature measurements recorded during diving were used to produce detailed 3D temperature fields of the area (0-200 m). The data treatment included dive location, determination of the vertical profile for each dive, averaging and gridding of those profiles onto 0.1°×0.1° cells, and optimal interpolation in both the horizontal and vertical using an objective analysis. Horizontal fields of temperature at the surface and 100 m are presented, as well as a vertical section along the main foraging direction of the penguins. Compared to conventional temperature databases (Levitus World Ocean Atlas and historical stations available in the area), the 3D temperature fields collected from penguins are extremely finely resolved, by one order finer. Although TTDRs were less accurate than conventional instruments, such a high spatial resolution of penguin-derived data provided unprecedented detailed information on the upper level circulation pattern east of Kerguelen, as well as the iron-enrichment mechanism leading to a high primary production over the Kerguelen Plateau.

  18. Mass measuring instrument for use under microgravity conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yusaku; Yokota, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Seiji; Sugita, Yoichi; Ito, Hitomi; Shimada, Kazuhito

    2008-05-15

    A prototype instrument for measuring astronaut body mass under microgravity conditions has been developed and its performance was evaluated by parabolic flight tests. The instrument, which is the space scale, is applied as follows. Connect the subject astronaut to the space scale with a rubber cord. Use a force transducer to measure the force acting on the subject and an optical interferometer to measure the velocity of the subject. The subject's mass is calculated as the impulse divided by the velocity change, i.e., M={integral}Fdt/{delta}v. Parabolic flight by using a jet aircraft produces a zero-gravity condition lasting approximately 20 s. The performance of the prototype space scale was evaluated during such a flight by measuring the mass of a sample object.

  19. An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Figurski, J.D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J.R.; Denny, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

  20. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  1. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  2. Measuring Stakeholder Participation in Evaluation: An Empirical Validation of the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument (PEMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneault, Pierre-Marc; Jacob, Steve; Tremblay, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Stakeholder participation is an important trend in the field of program evaluation. Although a few measurement instruments have been proposed, they either have not been empirically validated or do not cover the full content of the concept. Objectives: This study consists of a first empirical validation of a measurement instrument that…

  3. Measuring the Knowledge and Attitudes of Health Care Staff toward Older People: Sensitivity of Measurement Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, David T.; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M.; Roberts, Julia D.; While, Alison E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the sensitivity of instruments used to measure knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Existing standardized measurement instruments are reviewed, including a detailed examination of Palmore's Facts on Ageing Quiz (FAQ). A recent study conducted by the research team into the knowledge and attitudes of support workers…

  4. Measuring the Knowledge and Attitudes of Health Care Staff toward Older People: Sensitivity of Measurement Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, David T.; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M.; Roberts, Julia D.; While, Alison E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the sensitivity of instruments used to measure knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Existing standardized measurement instruments are reviewed, including a detailed examination of Palmore's Facts on Ageing Quiz (FAQ). A recent study conducted by the research team into the knowledge and attitudes of support workers (n =…

  5. Flame Arrival Measurement By Instrumented Spark Plug or Head Gasket

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-04-10

    PLUGBIN was developed to support Sandia technologies involving instrumented head gaskets and spark plugs for engine research and development. It acquires and processes measurements of flame arrival and pressure from a spark ignition. Flame arrival is determined from analog ionization-probe or visible-emission signals, and/or digitial signals from a dedicated flame arrival measurement processor. The pressure measurements are analyzed to determine the time of peak pressure and the time to burn 10 and 90 percent ofmore »the charge. Histograms are then calculated and displayed for each measurement.« less

  6. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with...

  11. Satisfaction measurement instruments for healthcare service users: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Renato Santos de; Bourliataux-Lajoinie, Stephane; Martins, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction surveys can be an interesting way to improve quality and discuss the concept of patient-centered care. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the validated patient satisfaction measurement instruments applied in healthcare. The systematic review searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. The search strategy used the terms: "Patient Satisfaction" AND "Patient centered care" AND "Healthcare survey OR Satisfaction questionnaire" AND "Psychometric properties". 37 studies were included and almost all studies showed that satisfaction is a multidimensional construct. In these studies, 34 different instruments were used and most surveys contained the dimension patient-healthcare professional interactions, physical environment and management process. The COSMIN score for methodological quality showed that most of them scored a good or fair average. We can conclude that there is not a gold standard instrument for patient satisfaction assessment but some dimensions are essential for this construct. PMID:25715288

  12. Attitudes to teaching mathematics: Further development of a measurement instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relich, Joe; Way, Jenni; Martin, Andrew

    1994-07-01

    The evidence that a relationship exists between attitudes to teaching mathematics and the formation of positive attitudes to mathematics among pupils is somewhat tenuous. Nevertheless, there is a strong belief among pre-service teacher educators that positive attitudes need to be fostered in teacher education students, particularly for prospective primary school teachers. Unfortunately, the research evidence suggests that high proportions of pre-service teachers hold negative attitudes towards mathematics. Although many instruments measuring affect in areas such as self-concept, anxiety, etc. have appeared in the literature over the years, no comprehensive instrument on attitudes is available to help teacher educators monitor attitudinal changes among their pre-service student teachers to the teaching of mathematics. This research re-examines an earlier attempt to develop such an instrument in Australia (Nisbet, 1991) and posits an alternative and refined version.

  13. Cavity-enhanced quantum-cascade laser-based instrument for carbon monoxide measurements.

    PubMed

    Provencal, Robert; Gupta, Manish; Owano, Thomas G; Baer, Douglas S; Ricci, Kenneth N; O'Keefe, Anthony; Podolske, James R

    2005-11-01

    An autonomous instrument based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy has been developed and successfully deployed for measurements of carbon monoxide in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument (Carbon Monoxide Gas Analyzer) consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high-reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data-acquisition electronics, and data-analysis software. CO measurements were determined from high-resolution CO absorption line shapes obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the R(7) transition of the fundamental vibration band near 2172.8 cm(-1). The instrument reports CO mixing ratio (mole fraction) at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature, and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May-June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41,000 ft (12.5 km), the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time) and an accuracy limited by the reference CO gas cylinder (uncertainty < 1.0%). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights. PMID:16270560

  14. Sea Surface Temperatures (SST): Significance and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, S. F.

    2006-05-01

    Oceans cover 71 percent of Earth's surface and control the global climate. Quoted global mean temperature values and trends, largely based on land thermometers, differ substantially -" mainly because of uncertainties about SST. The ongoing controversy about the relative importance of natural climate changes and Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) revolves mainly around disparities between temperature trends of the atmosphere and surface (in the tropics and SH, i.e. mostly SST). Accurate measurement of SST is difficult. Geographic coverage is poor and there are many different techniques, each with its own problems and uncertainties: Water temperatures from buckets and ship-engine inlets; fixed and floating buoys; air temperatures from shipboard and island stations; and remote sensing from satellites using IR and microwaves. As is evident, each technique refers to a different level below the air-water interface. Drifter buoys (at around 50 cm) measure temperatures in the euphotic layers that are generally warmer than the bulk mixed layer sampled by ships (typically around 10 m). The IR emission arises from a 10-micron-thick skin that interacts dynamically with the underlying "mixed layer." The microwave data depend also on emissivity and therefore on surface roughness and sea state. SST data derived from corals provide some support for instrumental data but are not conclusive. The majority of corals show a warming trend since 1979; others show cooling or are ambiguous. There are different ways of interpreting this result. Physical optics dictates that the downwelling IR radiation from atmospheric greenhouse gases is absorbed in the first instance within the skin. Only direct measurements can establish how much of this energy is shared with the bulk mixed layer (to which the usual SST values refer.). SST controls evaporation and therefore global precipitation. SST influences tropical cyclones and sea-level rise; but there is lively debate on those issues. Changes in SST are also responsible for changes in deep- ocean temperatures and ocean heat storage. But recent claims that an increase in heat storage is a "smoking gun" for AGW are without merit.

  15. Instrument for measuring the misalignments of ocular surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabernero, Juan; Benito, Antonio; Nourrit, Vincent; Artal, Pablo

    2006-10-01

    A compact and robust instrument for measuring the alignment of ocular surfaces has been designed and used in living eyes. It is based on recording Purkinje images (reflections of light at the ocular surfaces) at nine different angular fixations. A complete analysis on the causes of misalignments of Purkinje images and its relations with those physical variables to be measured (global eye tilt, lens decentration and lens tilt) is presented. A research prototype based on these ideas was built and tested in normal and pseudophakic eyes (after cataract surgery). The new analysis techniques, together with the semicircular extended source and multiple fixation tests that we used, are significant improvements towards a robust approach to measuring the misalignments of the ocular surfaces in vivo. This instrument will be of use in both basic studies of the eye’s optics and clinical ophthalmology.

  16. Smartphone measurement engineering - Innovative challenges for science & education, instrumentation & training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Dittrich, P.-G.; Duentsch, E.

    2010-07-01

    Smartphones have an enormous conceptual and structural influence on measurement science & education, instrumentation & training. Smartphones are matured. They became convenient, reliable and affordable. In 2009 worldwide 174 million Smartphones has been delivered. Measurement with Smartphones is ready for the future. In only 10 years the German vision industry tripled its global sales volume to one Billion Euro/Year. Machine vision is used for mobile object identification, contactless industrial quality control, personalized health care, remote facility and transport management, safety critical surveillance and all tasks which are too complex for the human eye or too monotonous for the human brain. Aim of the paper is to describe selected success stories for the application of Smartphones for measurement engineering in science and education, instrumentation and training.

  17. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 4: Low temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Information is presented on temperature measurement between the triple point and critical point of liquid oxygen. The criterion selected is that all transducers which may reasonably be employed in the liquid oxygen (LO2) temperature range are considered. The temperature range for each transducer is the appropriate full range for the particular thermometer. The discussion of each thermometer or type of thermometer includes the following information: (1) useful temperature range, (2) general and particular methods of construction and the advantages of each type, (3) specifications (accuracy, reproducibility, response time, etc.), (4) associated instrumentation, (5) calibrations and procedures, and (6) analytical representations.

  18. Measurement of shared decision making - a review of instruments.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Isabelle; Koelewijn-van Loon, Marije; Sepucha, Karen; Elwyn, Glyn; Légaré, France; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    The last years have seen a clear move towards shared decision making (SDM) and increased patient involvement in many countries. However, as the field of SDM research is still relatively young, new instruments for the measurement of (shared) decision making (process, outcome and surrounding elements) are constantly being developed. Thus, the aims of this structured review were to give an update on current developments regarding the measurement in the field of SDM, as well as to give a short overview of published and unpublished instruments. We conducted an electronic literature search in PubMed and the Web of Science database, performed hand searches of relevant journals and contacted key authors in the field. We found eight scales that have been subjected to further psychometric testing, eleven new and psychometrically tested instruments and nine developments that are still in the publishing process. The results show that there is a trend towards measuring SDM processes from a dyadic approach (assessing both the patient's and the clinician's perspective). More and more scales have been developed and tested in languages other than English, which indicates the growing research efforts in various countries. While reliability of most scales is good, they differ in their extent of validation. Further psychometric testing is needed, as well as the development of a theoretical measurement framework in order to improve consistency of measured constructs across research groups. PMID:21620327

  19. Atmospheric temperature measurements by Raman laser scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masica, W. J.; Salzman, J. A.; Coney, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    System makes continuous synoptic measurement of air temperatures and temperature profiles from the ground in real time. Development is based on principle that intensity distribution of Raman scattered laser light is a function of temperature and it is theoretically possible to measure air temperature by analyzing its Raman spectrum.

  20. 121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York, New York County, NY

  1. Measurements Verifying the Optics of the Electron Drift Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Vanessa; Kletzing, Craig; Bounds, Scott; Sigsbee, Kristine M.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection is the process of breaking and reconnecting of opposing magnetic field lines, and is often associated with tremendous energy transfer. The energy transferred by reconnection directly affects people through its influence on geospace weather and technological systems - such as telecommunication networks, GPS, and power grids. However, the mechanisms that cause magnetic reconnection are not well understood. The Magnetospheric Multi-Scale Mission (MMS) will use four spacecraft in a pyramid formation to make three-dimensional measurements of the structures in magnetic reconnection occurring in the Earth's magnetosphere.The spacecraft will repeatedly sample these regions for a prolonged period of time to gather data in more detail than has been previously possible. MMS is scheduled to be launched in March of 2015. The Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) will be used on MMS to measure the electric fields associated with magnetic reconnection. The EDI is a device used on spacecraft to measure electric fields by emitting an electron beam and measuring the E x B drift of the returning electrons after one gyration. This paper concentrates on measurements of the EDI’s optics system. The testing process includes measuring the optics response to a uni-directional electron beam. These measurements are used to verify the response of the EDI's optics and to allow for the optimization of the desired optics state. The measurements agree well with simulations and we are confident in the performance of the EDI instrument.

  2. A passive DOAS instrument for trace gas measurements on medium sized UAS: Instrumental design and first measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Lange, Manfred A.; Lelieveld, Jos; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on UAS. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). We present a new developed passive DOAS instrument for the APAESO Platform of the Cyprus Institute, a medium size UAS. It is equipped with two telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction, respectively. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the horizontal distribution of trace gases. This is accomplished by analyzing the radiation collected by the telescopes with compact spectrometers, which cover the UV-blue spectral range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) as well as aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a VIS-NIR spectrometer. It is used to measure reflection spectra of different types of vegetation. These will serve as references for satellite measurements to create global maps. First measurements on the APAESO platform were performed in October 2012 on Cyprus in a rural area south of Nicosia. The instrument is shown to work reliably and was able to detect NO2, H2O and O4 at atmospheric column densities. The instrumental design and first measurements will be presented and discussed.

  3. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil. PMID:25953787

  4. Accelerated measurement of perikymata by an optical instrument

    PubMed Central

    Elhechmi, Imen; Braga, José; Dasgupta, Gautam; Gharbi, Tijani

    2013-01-01

    The proposed device considerably reduces the measuring time of important microscopic features of tooth crown surfaces. The instrumentation is accompanied by a computer program to analyse the results. Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which demonstrate daily secretory rhythms developing tissue-specific structures known as cross striations, and longer period markings that are referred as striae of Retzius. These striae correspond to linear structures on the enamel surface. This newly developed optical measuring instrument can automatically, precisely and accurately record the number and periodicity of perikymata on the dental crown. Furthermore it can characterize the variability in periodicity of perikymata in hominids. The depth of field can be extended as desired by taking several images with different focus positions and combining them into a single composite image that contains all regions fully focused. PMID:24156069

  5. The Space Scale: An Instrument for Astronaut Mass Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yusaku; Shimada, Kazuhito

    A practical, high-precision method for measuring the mass of an astronaut under microgravity conditions is proposed. Using an instrument called the “Space Scale”, the velocities of a target object and a reference mass are measured with high accuracy by optical interferometry. The two are connected by a linear ball bearing and have separate linear-motion states, with some acceleration due to friction in the linear ball bearing. For this paper, a ground instrument was developed in which linear motion of the whole mechanical system is achieved with negligible external force by means of a pneumatic linear bearing. The effect of linear ball bearing friction that involves the target object and the reference mass is theoretically negligible, as we proved experimentally in this study. We conclude that an operational model for in-orbit use, which takes advantage of an optical interferometer, would be extremely compact and accurate.

  6. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments § 1065.205 Performance... or 0.2% of max K 0.2% of pt. K or 0.1% of max K 0.1% of max. Dewpoint sensor for intake air, PM.... Dilution air, inlet air, exhaust, and sample flow meters c n 1 s 1 Hz means of 5 Hz samples 2.5% of pt....

  7. Equipment and Experimental Technique For Temperature Measurements In Deep Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforov, A.

    The technique of temperature measurements is highly informative since any dynami- cal processes in the boreholes and in the vicinities are accompanied by thermal effects. Electronics and equipment for remote measurements in the boreholes are briefly dis- cussed in the report. It includes a deep instrument, cable winch and surface recording unit placed onboard a car. The temperature dependent frequency modulated signal is used in deep instrument. A cable of original construction was developed for chute-lift operations. It has a signal and power channel at the same time and play the depth me- ter. The surface recording unit includes power supply for deep instruments, receiver, frequency meter and indicator. A personal computer is used for the measurement nu- merical control. Energy for the electronics is supplied by a car battery. Self sufficiency and high accuracy are specialities of the equipment. Using the technique and equip- ment we made the experimental study of temperature in the boreholes of the East European platform, Middle Asia, West Siberia, Kamchatka and other regions. Most of our temperatures and temperature gradients have been used for mapping.

  8. 77 FR 37409 - Request for Domains, Instruments, and Measures for Development of a Standardized Instrument for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ...descriptions of question domain and specific purpose...extent available: Name of the instrument...available languages. Domains included in the instrument...submission, including: ++ Name ++ Title ++ Organization... Indication that the domain, instrument or...

  9. Issues in selection of instruments to measure negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Daniel, David Gordon

    2013-11-01

    Guidance for selection of instruments for measurement of negative symptoms is rapidly evolving. As there are continuing advances in the description of negative symptoms, new instruments are under development, and new data on the performance of instruments emerge from clinical trials. The Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Marder Negative Factor and the Negative Symptom Assessment-16 (NSA-16) are considered to be reliable and valid measures for negative symptom trials but differ with respect to their domain coverage, use of informants, integration of global scores, administration time and comprehensiveness of their structured interviews. In response to the 2005 NIMH-MATRICS consensus statement, work groups are field testing and refining two new measures, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS). Both address the five currently recognized domains of negative symptoms, differentiate appetitive from consummatory aspects of anhedonia and address desire for social relationships. Thus far, both have exhibited promising psychometric properties. PMID:23899996

  10. Evaluating and testing thermographic phosphors for turbine-engine temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Allison, S.W.; Beshears, D.L.; Cates, M.R.; Borella, H.M.; Franks, L.A.; Iverson, C.E.; Dowell, L.J.; Gillies, G.T.; Lutz, W.N.

    1987-01-01

    A technique developed earlier for measuring the temperature of inaccessible surfaces in low-temperature rotating machines is being adapted to measure the temperature of surfaces at the higher temperatures and in the erosive environment inside operating turbine engines. The method uses the temperature dependence of the characteristic decay time of the laser-induced-fluorescence of thermographic phosphors to measure the temperature. This paper summarizes recent work in four areas: phosphor characterization and calibration, instrumentation development, bonding, and field tests. By using improved instrumentation and data-analysis techniques, calibration curves for several phosphors are measured with greater accuracy and extended to higher temperatures than before. Phosphors are evaluated that were attached to sample surfaces by high-temperature bonding materials, electron-beam deposition, flame spraying, and plasma spraying. A burner rig test was performed on some phosphor-coated samples and the instrumentation required for an upcoming spin-pit test was designed, built, and calibrated.

  11. Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brohan, P.

    2012-12-01

    The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations - notable differences include large differences in multi-decadal variability between proxy reconstructions, and big uncertainties in the effect of volcanic eruptions. Because the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. By constraining key aspects of the reconstructions and simulations, instrumental observations, inevitably from a limited period, can reduce reconstruction uncertainty throughout the millennium. A considerable quantity of early instrumental observations are preserved in the world's archives. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East-India Company (EEIC), and 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure have been preserved in the British Library. Similar records from voyages of exploration and scientific investigation are preserved in published literature and the records in National Archives. Some of these records have been extracted and digitised, providing hundreds of thousands of new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5C). This provides a powerful out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions --- supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this --- such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

  12. Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. Coherent Laser Instrument Would Measure Range and Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Daniel; Cardell, Greg; San Martin, Alejandro; Spiers, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A proposed instrument would project a narrow laser beam that would be frequency-modulated with a pseudorandom noise (PN) code for simultaneous measurement of range and velocity along the beam. The instrument performs these functions in a low mass, power, and volume package using a novel combination of established techniques. Originally intended as a low resource- footprint guidance sensor for descent and landing of small spacecraft onto Mars or small bodies (e.g., asteroids), the basic instrument concept also lends itself well to a similar application guiding aircraft (especially, small unmanned aircraft), and to such other applications as ranging of topographical features and measuring velocities of airborne light-scattering particles as wind indicators. Several key features of the instrument s design contribute to its favorable performance and resource-consumption characteristics. A laser beam is intrinsically much narrower (for the same exit aperture telescope or antenna) than a radar beam, eliminating the need to correct for the effect of sloping terrain over the beam width, as is the case with radar. Furthermore, the use of continuous-wave (CW), erbium-doped fiber lasers with excellent spectral purity (narrow line width) permits greater velocity resolution, while reducing the laser s power requirement compared to a more typical pulsed solid-state laser. The use of CW also takes proper advantage of the increased sensitivity of coherent detection, necessary in the first place for direct measurement of velocity using the Doppler effect. However, measuring range with a CW beam requires modulation to "tag" portions of it for time-of-flight determination; typically, the modulation consists of a PN code. A novel element of the instrument s design is the use of frequency modulation (FM) to accomplish both the PN-modulation and the Doppler-bias frequency shift necessary for signed velocity measurements. This permits the use of a single low-power waveguide electrooptic phase modulator, while simultaneously mitigating the effects of speckle as a noise source in the coherent detection.

  15. Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brohan, P.; Allan, R.; Freeman, E.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, F.

    2012-10-01

    The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores, etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East India Company (EEIC), and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C). This provides an out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions - supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this - such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

  16. Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brohan, P.; Allan, R.; Freeman, E.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, F.

    2012-05-01

    The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East-India Company (EEIC), and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C). This provides a powerful out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions - supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this - such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

  17. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.

    2013-09-11

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  18. Surface Temperature Measurement Using Hematite Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods that are capable of measuring temperature via spectrophotometry principles are discussed herein. These systems and methods are based on the temperature dependence of the reflection spectrum of hematite. Light reflected from these sensors can be measured to determine a temperature, based on changes in the reflection spectrum discussed herein.

  19. Temperature and Heat Transfer Measurements Cengiz Camci

    E-print Network

    Camci, Cengiz

    EAE077 Chapter 11 Temperature and Heat Transfer Measurements Cengiz Camci Turbomachinery Aero Resistive Temperature Transducers 2 3 Thermocouples 3 4 Bi-Metallic Temperature Sensors 7 5 Diode-Based Temperature Sensors 7 6 Liquid Crystal Thermometry 7 7 Infrared Thermometry and Pyrometer 9 8 Heat Transfer

  20. Measurement of the Coolant Channel Temperatures and Pressures of a Cooled Radial-Inflow Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicicco, L. Danielle; Nowlin, Brent C.; Tirres, Lizet

    1994-01-01

    Instrumentation has been installed on the surface of a cooled radial-inflow turbine. Thermocouples and miniature integrated sensor pressure transducers were installed to measure steady state coolant temperatures, blade wall temperatures, and coolant pressures. These measurements will eventually be used to determine the heat transfer characteristics of the rotor. This paper will describe the procedures used to install and calibrate the instrumentation and the testing methods followed. A limited amount of data will compare the measured values to the predicted values.

  1. Catalytic considerations in temperature measurement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.; Crossman, G. R.; Chitnis, R. V.

    1972-01-01

    Literature discussing catalytic activity in platinum group temperature sensors is surveyed. Methods for the determination and/or elimination of catalytic activity are reported. A particular application of the literature is discussed in which it is possible to infer that a shielded platinum total temperature probe does not experience significant catalytic activity in the wake of a supersonic hydrogen burner, while a bare iridium plus rhodium, iridium thermocouple does. It is concluded that catalytic data corrections are restricted and that it is preferable to coat the temperature sensor with a noncatalytic coating. Furthermore, the desirability of transparent coatings is discussed.

  2. Measurements of the Ice Water Content of Cirrus in the Tropics and Subtropics. I; Instrument Details and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Sayres, D.; Pittman, J. V.; Allen, N.; Demusz, J.; Greenberg, M.; Rivero, M.; Anderson, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an instrument mounted in a pallet on the NASA WB-57 aircraft that is designed to measure the sum of gas phase and solid phase water, or total water, in cirrus clouds. Using an isokinetic inlet, a 600-watt heater mounted directly in the flow, and Lyman-alpha photofragment fluorescence technique for detection, accurate measurements of total water have been made over almost three orders of magnitude. Isokinetic flow is achieved with an actively controlled roots pump by referencing aircraft pressure, temperature, and true air speed, together with instrument flow velocity, temperature, and pressure. During CRYSTAL FACE, the instrument operated at duct temperatures sufficiently warm to completely evaporate particles up to 150 microns diameter. In flight diagnostics, intercomparison with water measured by absorption in flight, as well as intercomparisons in clear air with water vapor measured by the Harvard water vapor instrument and the JPL infrared tunable diode laser hygrometer validate the detection sensitivity of the instrument and illustrate minimal hysteresis from instrument surfaces. The simultaneous measurement of total water and water vapor in cirrus clouds yields their ice water content.

  3. Optical sensing techniques for temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B Rami; Kamma, Indumathi; Kommidi, Praveena

    2013-02-01

    Temperature is an important parameter that needs accurate measurement. Theoretical descriptions of the fluorescence ratio method, fluorescence lifetime sensing, and interferometric methods for temperature measurement are given. Fluorescence lifetime sensing calibration plots have been developed for temperature measurement from 20°C to 600°C using Er(3+)-doped glass, and from 20°C to 90°C using Sm(3+)-doped CaF(2). Lifetime sensing results of Pr(3+)-doped YAG and Ho(3+)-doped fluoride crystals for temperature measurement are also summarized. Mach-Zehnder interferometer measurements revealed that the passage of a 300 mW laser beam of 915 nm changed the temperature of the Yb(3+)-doped YAG crystal by 7.1°C. The interferometer technique is useful for measuring absolute temperature changes in laser cooling studies. PMID:23385939

  4. Measuring parent food practices: a systematic review of existing measures and examination of instruments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in development of instruments to measure parent food practices. Because these instruments often measure different constructs, or define common constructs differently, an evaluation of these instruments is needed. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify existing measures of parent food practices and to assess the quality of their development. The initial search used terms capturing home environment, parenting behaviors, feeding practices and eating behaviors, and was performed in October of 2009 using PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, Web of knowledge (ISI), and ERIC, and updated in July of 2012. A review of titles and abstracts was used to narrow results, after which full articles were retrieved and reviewed. Only articles describing development of measures of parenting food practices designed for families with children 2-12 years old were retained for the current review. For each article, two reviewers extracted data and appraised the quality of processes used for instrument development and evaluation. The initial search yielded 28,378 unique titles; review of titles and abstracts narrowed the pool to 1,352 articles; from which 57 unique instruments were identified. The review update yielded 1,772 new titles from which14 additional instruments were identified. The extraction and appraisal process found that 49% of instruments clearly identified and defined concepts to be measured, and 46% used theory to guide instrument development. Most instruments (80%) had some reliability testing, with internal consistency being the most common (79%). Test-retest or inter-rater reliability was reported for less than half the instruments. Some form of validity evidence was reported for 84% of instruments. Construct validity was most commonly presented (86%), usually with analysis of associations with child diet or weight/BMI. While many measures of food parenting practices have emerged, particularly in recent years, few have demonstrated solid development methods. Substantial variation in items across different scales/constructs makes comparison between instruments extremely difficult. Future efforts should be directed toward consensus development of food parenting practices constructs and measures. PMID:23688157

  5. Temperature measurements of laser trapped rubidium

    SciTech Connect

    Dinneen, T.P.; Wallace, C.D.; Tan, K.Y.N.; Kumarakrishnan, A.; Gould, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    Temperatures of rubidium atoms confined in a magneto-optical trap have been measured using time-of-flight. By varying the parameters of the trap, we find that lower temperatures are obtained with lower laser intensities, larger laser detunings, lower atomic densities, and with the 85 vs. the 87 isotope. Temperatures are below the Doppler limit (140 {mu}K for Rb) in most cases. By measuring the size of the trapped cloud as well as the temperature, we can infer the spring constant of the trap. For comparison purposes, we can measure temperatures in optical molasses by turning off the magnetic field of the trap.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...of measurement; light measuring instruments...measuring luminous intensity (surface brightness...receive reflected light from a field of...feet. The luminous intensity of each such field...receive reflected light from a field having...feet, luminous intensity shall be...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...of measurement; light measuring instruments...measuring luminous intensity (surface brightness...receive reflected light from a field of...feet. The luminous intensity of each such field...receive reflected light from a field having...feet, luminous intensity shall be...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...of measurement; light measuring instruments...measuring luminous intensity (surface brightness...receive reflected light from a field of...feet. The luminous intensity of each such field...receive reflected light from a field having...feet, luminous intensity shall be...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...of measurement; light measuring instruments...measuring luminous intensity (surface brightness...receive reflected light from a field of...feet. The luminous intensity of each such field...receive reflected light from a field having...feet, luminous intensity shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...of measurement; light measuring instruments...measuring luminous intensity (surface brightness...receive reflected light from a field of...feet. The luminous intensity of each such field...receive reflected light from a field having...feet, luminous intensity shall be...

  11. Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, A.; Peyvan, K.; Danley, D.; Ricco, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate astrobiological studies on the survival and adaptation of microorganisms and mixed microbial cultures to space environment, we have been developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring their gene expression on small spacecraft. This low-cost, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement in our ability to study the impact of the space environment on biological systems by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation orders of magnitude richer than what is currently available. The system supports growth of the organism, lyse it to release the expressed RNA, label the RNA, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis of labeled RNA and transmit the measurements to Earth. To measure gene expression we use microarray technology developed by CombiMatrix, which is based on electrochemical reactions on arrays of electrodes on a semiconductor substrate. Since the electrical integrity of the microarray remains intact after probe synthesis, the circuitry can be employed to sense nucleic acid binding at each electrode. CombiMatrix arrays can be sectored to allow multiple samples per chip. In addition, a single array can be used for several assays. The array has been integrated into an automated microfluidic cartridge that uses flexible reagent blisters and pinch pumping to move liquid reagents between chambers. The proposed instrument will help to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration. The instrument is suitable for small satellite platforms, which provide frequent, low cost access to space. It can be also used on any other platform in space, including the ISS. It can be replicated and used with only small modifications in multiple biological experiments with a broad range of goals in mind.

  12. Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing

    SciTech Connect

    Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

    2011-04-20

    Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra.

  13. Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing.

    PubMed

    Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

    2011-04-20

    Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra. PMID:21509063

  14. Monitoring of Refractory Wall recession using high temperature impact echo instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    University of Dayton

    2004-04-30

    Regression of refractory linings of furnaces occurs due to a variety of mechanisms. The specific mechanism selected for investigation during this program is the regression of refractories which are in direct contact with a liquid corrodant. Examples include the melting of glass, the production of pig iron and steel, and the melting of aluminum. The rates of regression to a wall thickness which requires reline or extensive reconstruction vary widely, from less than a year to over ten years depending on the specific service environment. This program investigated the feasibility of measuring refractory wall thickness with an impact-echo method while at operating temperature (wall temperatures exceeding 500 C). The impact-echo method uses the impact of a small sphere with the surface of the test object to send a stress wave into the object. In a plate-like structure, the stress wave reflects back to the front surface, reverberating in the structure and causing a periodic surface displacement whose frequency is inversely proportional to the thickness of the test object. Impact-echo testing was chosen because it requires access to only one side of the test object and could be performed during the operation of a refractory structure. Commercially-available impact-echo instrumentation is available for room temperature use for a variety of tests on concrete. The enabling technology for this work was to use a high-temperature piezoelectric material, aluminum nitride, as the receiving sensor for the stress waves, allowing its use on refractories during furnace operation.

  15. An FPGA-based Instrumentation Platform for use at Deep Cryogenic Temperatures

    E-print Network

    I. D. Conway Lamb; J. I. Colless; J. M. Hornibrook; S. J. Pauka; S. J. Waddy; M. K. Frechtling; D. J. Reilly

    2015-09-29

    We describe a cryogenic instrumentation platform incorporating commercially-available field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) configured to operate well beyond their specified temperature range. The instrument enables signal routing, multiplexing, and complex digital signal processing at temperatures approaching 4 kelvin and in close proximity to cooled devices or detectors within the cryostat. The cryogenic performance of the system is evaluated, including clock speed, error rates, and power consumption. Although constructed for the purpose of controlling and reading out quantum computing devices with low latency, the instrument is generic enough to be of broad use in a range of cryogenic applications.

  16. APS DPP, Dallas 2008 FRC Ion Temperature Measurements

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    System 0.5-m spectrometer with 512 x 512 Princeton Instruments ICCD camera Velocity Resolution: 0.022 nm/pixel 1 pixel ~ 10 km/s (CIII x3) Temperature Resolution: FWHM = 3.5 pixels Tinstrument ~ 25 eV (CIII x3 shell: 6561.2 A Fiber 6 at ~-3.4 cm shell: 6560.6 A Velocity change from outer to inner measurement

  17. Instrument to Measure Psychological Contract Violation in Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Wilkin, Noel E.; Bentley, John P.; Bouldin, Alicia S.; Wilson, Marvin C.; Holmes, Erin R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To adapt and evaluate an instrument that measures perceived psychological contract violations in pharmacy students by schools and colleges of pharmacy. Design A psychological contract violations measure was developed from existing literature and the 1997 ACPE Guidelines and pilot-tested with second-year pharmacy students at 2 schools of pharmacy. A revised measure then was administered to second-year pharmacy students at 6 schools of pharmacy. Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, participants were asked to indicate the level of obligations they received compared to what was promised by the school of pharmacy. Results Exploratory factor analysis on the psychological contract violations measure was conducted using principal components analysis resulting in 7 factors, which led to a revised measure with 26 items. Using a sample of 339 students, the proposed 7-factor measurement model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. In general, the results supported the hypothesized model. The final 23-item scale demonstrated both reliability and validity. Some students perceived certain aspects of the psychological contract that exists with their school of pharmacy were being violated. Conclusion The psychological contract violations measure may serve as a valuable tool in helping to identify areas where their students believe that schools/colleges of pharmacy have not fulfilled promised obligations. PMID:21045949

  18. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1986-04-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illiminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature. 3 figs.

  19. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illuminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature.

  20. An instrument for high-throughput measurements of fiber mechanical properties

    E-print Network

    Kristofek, Grant William, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, an instrument is designed and constructed for the purpose of measuring the mechanical properties of single fibers. The instrument is intended to provide high throughput measurement of single fiber geometric ...

  1. Microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions; algorithms for digital processing of the measurement signal and an estimate of the errors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, M.Ya.; Chinkov, V.N.

    1995-09-01

    Rational algorithms for measuring the harmonic coefficient in microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions based on digital processing of the codes of the instantaneous values of the signal being investigated are described and the errors of such instruments are obtained.

  2. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1994-09-20

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

  3. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

  4. Positional Repeatability Measurements Of Stepper Motors At Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Hall, Michael S.; Bartko, Frank; Houck, James R.

    1983-08-01

    Stepper motors operating at liquid helium temperature have multiple applications in cryogenically-cooled telescopes such as the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). These SIRTF applications include driving cryogen flow valves, operating the Multiple Instrument Chamber (MIC) beam splitter mechanism, and operating filters and grating wheel mechanisms in the scientific instruments. The positional repeatability of the beam splitter drive mechanism is especially critical since it feeds the optical beam to the scien-tific instruments. Despite these important applications, no significant data on the positional repeatability of stepper motors at cryogenic temperatures has been available. Therefore, we conducted a series of measurements to determine the positional repeatability of a modified, off-the-shelf Berger/Lahr stepper motor (model RDM 253/25, step angle 3.6°) which had demonstrated excellent performance in previous endurance testing at LHe temperature. These test results indicated that the positional repeatability of the motor was excellent at all temperatures, with somewhat better performance at cryogenic temperatures. Another important result was that the motor could be repeatedly turned off and on while still accurately retaining its rotor position.

  5. Measuring Moduli Of Elasticity At High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfenden, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Shorter, squatter specimens and higher frequencies used in ultrasonic measurement technique. Improved version of piezo-electric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique used to measure moduli of elasticity of solid materials at high temperatures.

  6. Temperature measurement through wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuai; Zhong, Xianxin; Chen, Lingling; Liao, Xiaowei

    2006-11-01

    Wireless sensor network is a novel network with a large of nodes through wireless communication for information measurement in distributing area. The temperature measurement through wireless sensor network can get temperature in distributing area without costly infrastructure. In order to realize temperature measurement in wireless communication, the wireless sensor network technology is utilized in the measurement. The wireless sensor node with Atmega128L is introduced. The sensor ERT-J1VR103J is used to induce temperature. The performance of temperature sensor is analyzed. The temperature is gotten by the microprocessor Atmega128L, and then is sent through radio chip CC2420. The wireless sensor network operation system TinyOS is used in the application. The wireless gateway node based on GPRS is utilized in the remote wireless temperature measurement system through Internet network. The user node receives data from gateway to acquire temperature. The experimental result is gotten and the accuracy of temperature is 0.1 Celsius degree with relative accuracy is 0.1 percent. The result indicates that the temperature measurement system through wireless sensor network is reliable, convenient, and low cost.

  7. Validation of low-cost ozone measurement instruments suitable for use in an air-quality monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David E.; Henshaw, Geoff S.; Bart, Mark; Laing, Greer; Wagner, John; Naisbitt, Simon; Salmond, Jennifer A.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a novel low-cost instrument that uses a sensor based on conductivity changes of heated tungstic oxide, which is capable of accurately measuring ambient concentrations of ozone. A combination of temperature steps and air flow-rate steps is used to continually reset and re-zero the sensor. A two-stage calibration procedure is presented, in which a nonlinear transformation converts sensor resistance to a signal linear in ozone concentration, then a linear correlation is used to align the calibration with a reference instrument. The required calibration functions specific for the sensor, and control system for air flow rate and sensor temperature, are housed with the sensor in a compact, simple-to-exchange assembly. The instrument can be operated on solar power and uses cell phone technology to enable monitoring in remote locations. Data from field trials are presented here to demonstrate that both the accuracy and the stability of the instrument over periods of months are within a few parts-per-billion by volume. We show that common failure modes can be detected through measurement of signals available from the instrument. The combination of long-term stability, self-diagnosis, and simple, inexpensive repair means that the cost of operation and calibration of the instruments is significantly reduced in comparison with traditional reference instrumentation. These instruments enable the economical construction and operation of ozone monitoring networks of accuracy, time resolution and spatial density sufficient to resolve the local gradients that are characteristic of urban air pollution.

  8. Compact Instrument for Measuring Profile of a Light Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanyan, Valeri

    2004-01-01

    The beamviewer is an optical device designed to be attached to a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector for measuring the spatial distribution of intensity of a beam of light (the beam profile ) at a designated plane intersecting the beam. The beamviewer-and-CCD combination is particularly well suited for measuring the radiant- power profile (for a steady beam) or the radiant-energy profile (for a pulsed beam) impinging on the input face or emerging from the output face of a bundle of optical fibers. The beamviewer and-CCD combination could also be used as a general laboratory instrument for profiling light beams, including beams emerging through small holes and laser beams in free space.

  9. Field evaluation of boat-mounted acoustic Doppler instruments used to measure streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, D.S.

    2003-01-01

    The use of instruments based on the Doppler principle for measuring water velocity and computing discharge is common within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The instruments and software have changed appreciably during the last 5 years; therefore, the USGS has begun field validation of the instruments used to make discharge measurements from a moving boat. Instruments manufactured by SonTek/YSI and RD Instruments, Inc. were used to collect discharge data at five different sites. One or more traditional discharge measurements were made using a Price AA current meter and standard USGS procedures concurrent with the acoustic instruments at each site. Discharges measured with the acoustic instruments were compared with discharges measured with Price AA current meters and the USGS stage-discharge rating for each site. The mean discharges measured by each acoustic instrument were within 5 percent of the Price AA-based measurement and (or) discharge from the stage-discharge rating.

  10. Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graaff, Reindert; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Lutgers, Helen L.; Baptist, Rene; de Jong, Ed D.; Zijp, Jaap R.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    A setup to measure skin autofluorescence was developed to assess accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in patients noninvasively. The method applies direct blacklight tube illumination of the skin of the lower arm, and spectrometry. The setup displays skin autofluorescence (AF) as a ratio of mean intensities detected from the skin between 420-600 nm and 300-420 nm, respectively. In an early clinical application in 46 and control subjects matched for age and gender, AF was significantly increased in the patients (p = 0.015), and highly correlated with skin AGE's that were determined from skin biopsies in both groups. A large follow-up study on type 2 diabetes mellitus, ongoing since 2001 with more than 1000 subjects, aims to assess the value of the instrument in predicting chronic complications of diabetes. At baseline, a relation with age, glycemic status and with complications present was found. In a study in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis AF was a strong and independent predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality. A commercial version of this AGE-reader is now under development and becomes available early 2005 (DiagnOptics B.V., Groningen, The Netherlands). One of the remaining questions, that will be answered by measuring so-called Exciation-Emission Matrices (EEM's) of the skin tissue in vivo, is whether a more selective choice of wavelengths is more strongly related to clinical characteristics. An experimental instrument to measure these EEM's was, therefore, developed as well. Clinical measurements are underway of EEM's in patient groups with diabetes mellitus and in healthy volunteers.

  11. Temperature Correction in Probe Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsev, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    This work is devoted to experimental investigations of a decaying plasma using Langmuir probes. The gas pressure, the discharge current, and the moment of afterglow were selected to obtain probe characteristics in collisionless, intermediate, and drifting regimes of motion of charged particles. The manner in which the shape of the volt- ampere characteristics changes on passage from the collisionless motion to diffusion motion has been shown. A detailed analysis has been made of the source of errors arising when orbital-motion formulas or the logarithmic-operation method are applied to processing of the probe curves. It has been shown that neglect of collisions of charged particles in the probe layer leads to an ion-density value overstated more than three times, an electron-temperature value overstated two times, and an ion temperature overstated three to nine times. A model of interaction of charged particles in the probe layer has been proposed for correction of the procedure of determining temperature. Such an approach makes it possible to determine the space-charge layer in the probe, and also the value of the self-consistent field. The use of the developed procedures gives good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  12. Alignment Measurements of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Instrument in a Thermal/Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Michael D.; Herrera, Acey A.; Crane, J. Allen; Packard, Edward A.; Aviado, Carlos; Sampler, Henry P.

    2000-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory, scheduled for a fall 2000 launch, is designed to measure temperature fluctuations (anisotropy) and produce a high sensitivity and high spatial resolution (approximately 0.2 degree) map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation over the entire sky between 22 and 90 GHz. MAP utilizes back-to-back Gregorian telescopes to focus the microwave signals into 10 differential microwave receivers, via 20 feed horns. Proper alignment of the telescope reflectors and the feed horns at the operating temperature of 90 K is a critical element to ensure mission success. We describe the hardware and methods used to validate the displacement/deformation predictions of the reflectors and the microwave feed horns during thermal/vacuum testing of the reflectors and the microwave instrument. The smallest deformation predictions to be measured were on the order of +/- 0.030 inches (+/- 0.762 mm). Performance of these alignment measurements inside a thermal/vacuum chamber with conventional alignment equipment posed several limitations. The most troublesome limitation was the inability to send personnel into the chamber to perform the measurements during the test due to vacuum and the temperature extremes. The photogrammetry (PG) system was chosen to perform the measurements since it is a non- contact measurement system, the measurements can be made relatively quickly and accurately, and the photogrammetric camera can be operated remotely. The hardware and methods developed to perform the MAP alignment measurements using PG proved to be highly successful. The measurements met the desired requirements, for the metal structures enabling the desired distortions to be measured resolving deformations an order of magnitude smaller than the imposed requirements. Viable data were provided to the MAP Project for a full analysis of the on-orbit performance of the Instrument's microwave system.

  13. Quantitative shearography in axisymmetric gas temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanDerWege, Brad A.; O'Brien, Christopher J.; Hochgreb, Simone

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the use of shearing interferometry (shearography) for the quantitative measurement of gas temperatures in axisymmetric systems in which vibration and shock are substantial, and measurement time is limited. The setup and principle of operation of the interferometer are described, as well as Fourier-transform-based fringe pattern analysis, Abel transform, and sensitivity of the phase lead to temperature calculation. A helium jet and a Bunsen burner flame are shown as verification of the diagnostic. The accuracy of the measured temperature profile is shown to be limited by the Abel transform and is critically dependent on the reference temperature used.

  14. Temperature measurement systems in wearable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, S.; Go?ebiowski, J.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the concept of temperature measurement system, adapted to wearable electronics applications. Temperature is one of the most commonly monitored factor in smart textiles, especially in sportswear, medical and rescue products. Depending on the application, measured temperature could be used as an initial value of alert, heating, lifesaving or analysis system. The concept of the temperature measurement multi-point system, which consists of flexible screen-printed resistive sensors, placed on the T-shirt connected with the central unit and the power supply is elaborated in the paper.

  15. Simultaneous temperature and velocity Lagrangian measurements in turbulent thermal convection

    E-print Network

    Liot, O; Zonta, F; Chibbaro, S; Coudarchet, T; Gasteuil, Y; Pinton, J -F; Salort, J; Chillà, F

    2015-01-01

    We report joint Lagrangian velocity and temperature measurements in turbulent thermal convection. Measurements are performed using an improved version (extended autonomy) of the neutrally-buoyant instrumented particle that was used by to performed experiments in a parallelepipedic Rayleigh-Benard cell. The temperature signal is obtained from a RFtransmitter. Simultaneously, we determine particle's position and velocity with one camera, which grants access to the Lagrangian heat flux. Due to the extended autonomy of the present particle, we obtain well converged temperature and velocity statistics, as well as pseudo-eulerian maps of velocity and heat flux. Present experimental results have also been compared with the results obtained by a corresponding campaign of Direct Numerical Simulations and Lagrangian Tracking of massless tracers. The comparison between experimental and numerical results show the accuracy and reliability of our experimental measurements. Finally, the analysis of lagrangian velocity and t...

  16. Temperature and heat flux measurements: Challenges for high temperature aerospace application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of high temperatures and the influence of heat transfer data is not strictly a problem of either the high temperatures involved or the level of the heating rates to be measured at those high temperatures. It is a problem of duration during which measurements are made and the nature of the materials in which the measurements are made. Thermal measurement techniques for each application must respect and work with the unique features of that application. Six challenges in the development of measurement technology are discussed: (1) to capture the character and localized peak values within highly nonuniform heating regions; (2) to manage large volumes of thermal instrumentation in order to efficiently derive critical information; (3) to accommodate thermal sensors into practical flight structures; (4) to broaden the capabilities of thermal survey techniques to replace discrete gages in flight and on the ground; (5) to provide supporting instrumentation conduits which connect the measurement points to the thermally controlled data acquisition system; and (6) to develop a class of 'vehicle tending' thermal sensors to assure the integrity of flight vehicles in an efficient manner.

  17. Positional repeatability measurements of stepper motors at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompea, S. M.; Hall, M. S.; Bartko, F.; Houck, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    For cryogenically-cooled infrared instruments and telescopes employed in space, reliable and predictable motor operations at 4 K in vacuum are in most cases necessary. For the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), stepper motors may be employed in a number of applications. A test facility was designed and built for measuring stepper motor positional repeatability, in vacuum, over a temperature range from ambient to liquid helium temperature. Tests regarding positional repeatability were conducted at different motor speeds, directions of motor rotation, step sizes, and power conditions. In addition, tests were performed with respect to the ability of the motor to remain in a position with no power applied to the motor.

  18. Brazing Refractory Metals Used In High-Temperature Nuclear Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Palmer; C. J. Woolstenhulme

    2009-06-01

    As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR 1) experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed.

  19. Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Danley, David; Payvan, Kia; Ricco, Antonio

    To facilitate astrobiological studies on the survival and adaptation of microorganisms and mixed microbial cultures to space environment, we have been developing a fully automated, minia-turized system for measuring their gene expression on small spacecraft. This low-cost, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement in our ability to study the impact of the space environment on biological systems by providing data on cel-lular metabolism and regulation orders of magnitude richer than what is currently available. The system supports growth of the organism, lyse it to release the expressed RNA, label the RNA, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis of labeled RNA and transmit the measurements to Earth. To measure gene expression we use microarray technology developed by CombiMatrix, which is based on electrochemical reactions on arrays of electrodes on a semiconductor substrate. Since the electrical integrity of the microarray re-mains intact after probe synthesis, the circuitry can be employed to sense nucleic acid binding at each electrode. CombiMatrix arrays can be sectored to allow multiple samples per chip. In addition, a single array can be used for several assays. The array has been integrated into an automated microfluidic cartridge that uses flexible reagent blisters and pinch pumping to move liquid reagents between chambers. The proposed instrument will help to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions be-yond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and test our ability to sustain and grow in space organ-isms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration. The instrument is suitable for small satellite platforms, which provide frequent, low cost access to space. It can be also used on any other platform in space, including the ISS. It can be replicated and used with only small modifications in multiple biological experiments with a broad range of goals in mind.

  20. Interplanetary dust fluxes measurements using the Waves instrument on STEREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaslavsky, A.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Mann, I.; Czechowski, A.; Issautier, K.; Le Chat, G.; Maksimovic, M.; Kasper, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Dust particles provide an important fraction of the matter composing the interplanetary medium, their mass density at 1 A.U. being comparable to the one of the solar wind. The impact of a dust particle on a spacecraft produces a plasma cloud whose associated electric field is detected by the on-board electric antennas. The signal measured by the wave instruments thus reveals the dust properties. We analyse the dust particle impacts on the STEREO spacecraft during the 2007-2010 period. We use the TDS waveform sampler of the STEREO/WAVES instrument, which enables us to deduce considerably more informations than in a previous study based on the LFR spectral analyzer [Meyer-Vernet et al., 2009]. We observe two distinct populations of dust that we infer to be nano and micron sized dust particles and we derive their fluxes at 1 AU and the evolution of these fluxes with time (and solar longitude). The observations are also in accord with the dynamics of nanometer-sized and micrometer-sized dust particles in the interplanetary medium.

  1. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN); Fine, H. Alan (Lexington, KY)

    1995-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head.

  2. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    SciTech Connect

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1995-04-18

    An instrument is disclosed for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head. 4 figs.

  3. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    SciTech Connect

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Thacker, Louis H.; Fine, H. Alan

    1993-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head 18 to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum Within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A packet production line model is also described.

  4. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1993-10-05

    An instrument is described for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A packet production line model is also described. 3 figures.

  5. Does an instrumented treadmill correctly measure the ground reaction forces?

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Patrick A.; Gosseye, Thierry P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Since the 1990s, treadmills have been equipped with multi-axis force transducers to measure the three components of the ground reaction forces during walking and running. These measurements are correctly performed if the whole treadmill (including the motor) is mounted on the transducers. In this case, the acceleration of the treadmill centre of mass relative to the reference frame of the laboratory is nil. The external forces exerted on one side of the treadmill are thus equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the external forces exerted on the other side. However, uncertainty exists about the accuracy of these measures: due to friction between the belt and the tread-surface, due to the motor pulling the belt, some believe that it is not possible to correctly measure the horizontal components of the forces exerted by the feet on the belt. Here, we propose a simple model of an instrumented treadmill and we demonstrate (1) that the forces exerted by the subject moving on the upper part of the treadmill are accurately transmitted to the transducers placed under it and (2) that all internal forces – including friction – between the parts of the treadmill are cancelling each other. PMID:24285705

  6. Integrated instrument for dynamic light scattering and natural fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovati, Luigi; Pollonini, Luca; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2001-06-01

    Over the past two decades, great efforts have been made in ophthalmology to use optical techniques based on dynamic light scattering and tissue natural fluorescence for early (at molecular level) diagnosis of ocular pathologies. In our previous studies, the relationship between the corneal AF and DLS decay widths of ocular tissues were established by performing measurements on diabetes mellitus patients. In those studies, corneal AF mean intensities were significantly correlated with DLS decay width measurements for each diabetic retinopathy grade in the vitreous and in the cornea. This suggested that the quality of the diagnosis could be significantly improved by properly combining these two powerful techniques into a single instrument. Our approach is based on modifying a commercial scanning ocular fluorometer (Fluorotron Master, Ocumetrics Inc., CA, USA) to include both techniques in the same scanning unit. This configuration provides both DLS and AF real time measurements from the same ocular volume: they can be located in each section of the optical axis of the eye from the cornea to the retina. In this paper, the optical setup of the new system is described and preliminary in-vitro and in-vivo measurements are presented.

  7. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions...chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears...

  8. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions...chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears...

  9. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions...chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears...

  10. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions...chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears...

  11. Instrumentation development for magnetic and structural studies under extremes of pressure and temperature 

    E-print Network

    Giriat, Gaetan

    2012-06-25

    The study of the magnetic and structural properties of matter under extreme conditions is a fast developing field. With the emergence of new techniques and innovative instruments for measuring physical properties, the ...

  12. Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selinsky, T.; Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

    2002-01-01

    A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (approx. = 71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in. (approx. = 1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (approx. = 6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger. This work was done by Randy

  13. Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

    2002-01-01

    A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (=71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in.(=1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (=6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger.

  14. [Temperature Measurement with Bluetooth under Android Platform].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Shen, Hao; Luo, Changze

    2015-03-01

    To realize the real-time transmission of temperature data and display using the platform of intelligent mobile phone and bluetooth. Application of Arduino Uno R3 in temperature data acquisition of digital temperature sensor DS18B20 acquisition, through the HC-05 bluetooth transmits the data to the intelligent smart phone Android system, realizes transmission of temperature data. Using Java language to write applications program under Android development environment, can achieve real-time temperature data display, storage and drawing temperature fluctuations drawn graphics. Temperature sensor is experimentally tested to meet the body temperature measurement precision and accuracy. This paper can provide a reference for other smart phone mobile medical product development. PMID:26524781

  15. Atmospheric temperature measurements, using Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzman, J. A.; Coney, T. A.

    1974-01-01

    The Raman-shifted return of a lidar system had been used to make atmospheric temperature measurements. The measurements were made along a horizontal path at temperatures ranging from -30 to 30 C and at ranges of about 100 meters. The temperature data were acquired by recording the intensity ratio of two portions of the rotational Raman spectrum, which were simultaneously sampled from a preset range. These tests verified that the theoretical predictions formulated in the design of the system were adequate. Measurements were made to an accuracy of + or - 4 C with 1-minute temporal resolution.

  16. 77 FR 37409 - Request for Domains, Instruments, and Measures for Development of a Standardized Instrument for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... 156.200(b)(5) (77 FR 18310, at 18469 (Mar. 27, 2012)) requires implementation of the enrollee... question domain and specific purpose. Sample questions, in all available languages. Relevant peer-reviewed... available: Name of the instrument. Copies of the full instrument in all available languages....

  17. VXIbus for biomedical applications: temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Horan, R T; al-Tayyan, H

    1993-01-01

    Medical technology must keep pace with the demands of health care to deliver cost-effective solutions. Automated test equipment can have an important role in medical technology just as it does in manufacturing test. The VXIbus architecture can field a wide range of instruments that could support many traditional biomedical instruments. For example, a patient monitoring system that possesses multiple channels of isolation, data acquisition, digital signal processing, storage, display, and networking could be integrated in a VXIbus system. Results could be displayed locally as well as networked as part of a larger hospital administration system. This article describes a project performed to demonstrate capabilities of VXIbus in biomedical applications. A simple temperature sensor is hosted on a B-size register based VXIbus card. PMID:8329633

  18. The measurement of radiant temperature in neonatal thermal environments.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, A

    1992-01-01

    Heat exchange through radiation is recognized as the dominant mode of heat transfer for an infant nursed in an incubator or warmer. A radiometer was constructed to measure the planar radiant temperature experienced by the infant. Two heat-flow sensors of different emissivities were mounted onto a heat sink such that one measured principally convective heat exchange while the other measured convective and radiant heat exchange. The radiant heat exchange was obtained from the difference between these values, from which the planar radiant temperature could be calculated. The spatial variation in planar radiant temperatures within an incubator and warmer was determined by orienting the instrument towards the five orthogonal hemispheres sensed by the infant abdomen, sides, head, and feet. In the incubator, the spatial variation in radiant temperatures exceeded 2 degrees C, or four times the spatial variation in air temperatures (0.5 degrees C). The radiant warmer had a spatial variation of 18 degrees C in radiant temperature at three-fourths of maximum power, corresponding to a variation in heat flux over the infant's surface of 100 W/m2. This thermal asymmetry would be expected to influence the variation in surface skin temperature, and thus the thermal stimuli to the infant thermoregulatory system. Further research is needed to understand the clinical significance of this asymmetry. Furthermore, the precise control over air temperature in modern incubators provides a false sense of thermal control and stability. Radiant temperature needs to be measured in addition to air temperature if the thermal performances of incubators and warmers are to be fully understood. PMID:1393209

  19. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, %5CDynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors%22. The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  20. High-resolution measurements of humidity and temperature with lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Spaeth, Florian; Hammann, Eva; Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    3-dimensional thermodynamic fields of temperature and moisture including their turbulent fluctuations have been observed with the two scanning lidar systems of University of Hohenheim in three field campaigns in 2013 and 2014. In this contribution, we will introduce these two self-developed instruments and illustrate their performance with measurement examples. Finally, an outlook to envisioned future research activities with the new data sets of the instruments is given. Our temperature lidar is based on the rotational Raman technique. The scanning rotational Raman lidar (RRL) uses a seeded frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm. A two-mirror scanner with a 40-cm telescope collects the atmospheric backscatter signals. Humidity measurements are made with a scanning water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) which uses a titanium sapphire laser at 820 nm as transmitter. This laser is pumped with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and injection-seeded for switching between the online and offline wavelengths. The DIAL receiver consists of a scanning 80-cm telescope. The measured temperature and humidity profiles of both instruments have typical resolutions of only a few seconds and 100 m in the atmospheric boundary layer both in day- and night-time. Recent field experiments with the RRL and the DIAL of University of Hohenheim were (1) the HD(CP)2 Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in spring 2013 in western Germany - this activity is embedded in the project HD(CP)2 (High-definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction); (2) a measurement campaign in Hohenheim in autumn 2013; (3) the campaign SABLE (Surface Atmospheric Boundary Layer Exchange) in south-western Germany in summer 2014. The collected moisture and temperature data will serve as initial thermodynamic fields for forecast experiments related to the formation of clouds and precipitation. Due to their high resolution and high precision, the systems are capable of resolving turbulent fluctuations of moisture and temperature in the convective boundary layer (CBL) from the surface to the entrainment zone, profiles of stability variables such as buoyancy as well as the CBL height, aerosol backscatter fields and cloud boundaries. The combination of these water vapor and temperature lidar instruments with Doppler lidar allows for deriving co-variances such as latent and sensible heat fluxes. The resulting new data sets are especially interesting for the validation and improvement of model parameterizations.

  1. Device and method for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cannon, Collins P. (Kearney, MO); Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-10-29

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  2. Human body temperature - Its measurement and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Houdas, Y.; Ring, E.F.J.

    1982-01-01

    The terminology used in thermal physiology is examined, and principles of heat transfer are discussed, taking into account heat quantity, heat flux, temperature, pressure, quantities used in physiology, a number of common definitions, the equivalence between different forms of energy, the release of potential energy in living tissues, heat transfer without change of state, and heat transfer with change of state. Temperature and humidity measurement are considered along with man and his environment, the temperature distribution in the systems and tracts of the human body, physiological changes affecting the temperature distribution, problems of temperature regulation, questions of heat loss and conservation, acclimatization to heat and cold, and disorders of thermoregulation. Attention is given to possible thermal imaging applications, causes of temperature irregularities in the head and neck, common causes of increased temperatures of upper limbs, and thermography in disease. 193 references.

  3. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  5. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  7. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  9. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  10. 40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

  12. The rhesus measurement system: A new instrument for space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, Julie E.; Hines, John W.

    1993-01-01

    The Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) is a research environment designed to study the effects of microgravity using rhesus primates as human surrogates. This experimental model allows investigators to study numerous aspects of microgravity exposure without compromising crew member activities. Currently, the RRF is slated for two missions to collect its data, the first mission is SLS-3, due to fly in late 1995. The RRF is a joint effort between the United States and France. The science and hardware portions of the project are being shared between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and France's Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The RRF is composed of many different subsystems in order to acquire data, provide life support, environmental enrichment, computer facilities and measurement capabilities for two rhesus primates aboard a nominal sixteen day mission. One of these subsystems is the Rhesus Measurement System (RMS). The RMS is designed to obtain in-flight physiological measurements from sensors interfaced with the subject. The RMS will acquire, preprocess, and transfer the physiologic data to the Flight Data System (FDS) for relay to the ground during flight. The measurements which will be taken by the RMS during the first flight will be respiration, measured at two different sites; electromyogram (EMG) at three different sites; electroencephalogram (EEG); electrocardiogram (ECG); and body temperature. These measurements taken by the RMS will assist the research team in meeting the science objectives of the RRF project.

  13. Method and instrumentation for the precise measurement of satellite transponder saturation point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, R.; Steinert, W.; Wuerscher, W.

    1985-12-01

    An instrument has been developed to measure the saturation point of satellite traveling wave tubes. The measuring principle involves modulating the amplitude of the carrier transmitted to the earth-station and measuring the loss in amplitude modulation. By integrating the instrument in a power level control loop, the saturation is maintainable with a high level of accuracy. The operating modes and the circuitry of the instrument are described and test results on the measurements voltage vs modulation frequency are presented.

  14. Measuring Communicative Participation: A Review of Self-Report Instruments in Speech-Language Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Eadie, Tanya L.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Deitz, Jean C.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To assess the adequacy of self-report instruments in speech-language pathology for measuring a construct called communicative participation. Method Six instruments were evaluated relative to (a) the construct measured, (b) the relevance of individual items to communicative participation, and (c) their psychometric properties. Results No instrument exclusively measured communicative participation. Twenty-six percent (n = 34) of all items (N = 132) across the reviewed instruments were consistent with communicative participation. The majority (76%) of the 34 items were associated with general communication, while the remaining 24% of the items were associated with communication at work, during leisure, or for establishing relationships. Instruments varied relative to psychometric properties. Conclusions No existing self-report instruments in speech-language pathology were found to be solely dedicated to measuring communicative participation. Developing an instrument for measuring communicative participation is essential for meeting the requirements of our scope of practice. PMID:17102143

  15. Measuring Contact Thermal Conductances at Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Brooks, Walter; Spivak, Alan L.; Marks, William G., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Instrument measures thermal conductance of pressed contacts in liquid helium. Makes measurements automatically as function of force on pairs of brass samples having various surface finishes. Developed as part of effort to determine heat-transfer characteristics of bolted joints on cryogenically cooled focal planes in infrared equipment. Cylindrical chamber hangs from cover plate in bath of liquid helium. Inside chamber rocker arm applies controlled force to samples. Upper sample made slightly wider than lower one so two samples remain in complete contact even under slight lateral misalignment.

  16. Asteroid Bennu Temperature Maps for OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft and Instrument Thermal Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.; Emery, Josh; Delbo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A thermophysical model has been developed to generate asteroid Bennu surface temperature maps for OSIRIS-REx spacecraft and instrument thermal design and analyses at the Critical Design Review (CDR). Two-dimensional temperature maps for worst hot and worst cold cases are used in Thermal Desktop to assure adequate thermal design margins. To minimize the complexity of the Bennu geometry in Thermal Desktop, it is modeled as a sphere instead of the radar shape. The post-CDR updated thermal inertia and a modified approach show that the new surface temperature predictions are more benign. Therefore the CDR Bennu surface temperature predictions are conservative.

  17. MISSE 1 and 2 Tray Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.

    2006-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE 1 & 2) was deployed August 10,2001 and retrieved July 30,2005. This experiment is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC. NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, NASA-JSC, the Materials Laboratory at the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Boeing Phantom Works. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate performance, stability, and long term survivability of materials and components planned for use by NASA and DOD on future LEO, synchronous orbit, and interplanetary space missions. Temperature is an important parameter in the evaluation of space environmental effects on materials. The MISSE 1 & 2 had autonomous temperature data loggers to measure the temperature of each of the four experiment trays. The MISSE tray-temperature data loggers have one external thermistor data channel, and a 12 bit digital converter. The MISSE experiment trays were exposed to the ISS space environment for nearly four times the nominal design lifetime for this experiment. Nevertheless, all of the data loggers provided useful temperature measurements of MISSE. The temperature measurement system has been discussed in a previous paper. This paper presents temperature measurements of MISSE payload experiment carriers (PECs) 1 and 2 experiment trays.

  18. Towards consistent Land Surface Temperature products from multiple satellite instruments: Validation Results from WACMOS-ET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Martins, Joao; Pires, Ana; Trigo, Isabel; Jimenez, Carlos; Prigent, Catherine; Prata, Fred; Göttsche, Frank; Hook, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter for a wide variety of earth surface processes and in particular for evapotranspiration. The ESA-funded project WACMOS-ET aims at advancing the development of evapotranspiration estimates at global and regional scales using various earth observations products. As part of this project, LST is computed globally using a consistent retrieval algorithm for satellite data from both low-earth orbit and geostationary instruments. These instruments include the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), and the Multi-functional Transport Satellites (MTSAT). In order to evaluate the quality of the resulting LST products, a comprehensive global validation study was carried out. The validation was performed by comparing satellite-derived LST against a) in situ observations acquired at stations located in various land cover types and b) the independent observations of the well-validated MOD11 LST product, which is generated from data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument onboard of the Terra platform. A direct comparison of AATSR-derived LST against in situ observations indicated a mean nighttime bias of 0.3 °C and a mean daytime bias of 1.4 °C. The standard deviations were found to be 1.3 °C and 2.5 °C, respectively. The root mean squared error (RMSE) as a measure of overall product accuracy was found to be 1.4 °C and 3.2 °C for nighttime and daytime data, respectively. LST derived from AATSR was found to be negatively affected by insufficient cloud masking during nighttime observations. However, the WACMOS-ET AATSR product was found to provide slightly more accurate retrievals than those of the GlobTemperature AATSR product when the same cloud mask is used. No suitable in situ sites were available for validating MTSAT LST but inter-comparisons with MODIS and AATSR LST showed a good correspondence. LST retrievals from GOES-E showed a good agreement with the ground-based in situ observations. The average bias over seven stations was found to be 0.37 °C for daytime data and as low as 0.21 °C for nighttime data. The standard deviations were found to be 2.9 °C and 2.4 °C, respectively. The RMSE for daytime data was 3.2 °C and for nighttime data 2.6 °C. Overall, the LST retrievals evaluated here show good to very good performance within the limits of what is currently achievable for LST products. The study indicates that applying a consistent retrieval algorithm for multiple instruments is feasible and provides promising results. The results from this study can be seen as an important first step towards producing merged LST products with high spatial and temporal resolution by combining data from both geostationary and low-earth orbit instruments.

  19. Comparison Measurements of Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

    2010-06-01

    As part of the efforts initiated through the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) program to make Silicon Carbide (SiC) temperature monitors available, a capability was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. INL selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. To demonstrate this new capability, comparison measurements were completed by INL and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on identical samples subjected to identical irradiation conditions. Results reported in this paper indicate that the resistance measurement approach can yield similar peak irradiation temperatures if appropriate equipment is used and appropriate procedures are followed.

  20. Containerless measurements on liquids at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The application of containerless techniques for measurements of the thermophysical properties of high temperature liquids is reviewed. Recent results obtained in the materials research laboratories at Intersonics are also presented. Work to measure high temperature liquid properties is motivated by both the need for reliable property data for modeling of industrial processes involving molten materials and generation of data form basic modeling of materials behavior. The motivation for this work and examples of variations in thermophysical property values from the literature are presented. The variations may be attributed to changes in the specimen properties caused by chemical changes in the specimen and/or to measurement errors. The two methods used to achieve containerless conditions were aeroacoustic levitation and electromagnetic levitation. Their qualities are presented. The accompanying slides show the layout of levitation equipment and present examples of levitated metallic and ceramic specimens. Containerless techniques provide a high degree of control over specimen chemistry, nucleation and allow precise control of liquid composition to be achieved. Effects of minor additions can thus be measured in a systematic way. Operation in reduced gravity enables enhanced control of liquid motion which can allow measurement of liquid transport properties. Examples of nucleation control, the thermodynamics of oxide contamination removal, and control of the chromium content of liquid aluminum oxide by high temperature containerless processes are presented. The feasibility of measuring temperature, emissivity, liquidus temperature, enthalpy, surface tension, density, viscosity, and thermal diffusivity are discussed in the final section of the paper.

  1. Cross-Validation of an Instrument for Measuring Professionalism Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Stanke, Luke D.; Rabi, Suzanne M.; Kuba, Sarah E.; Janke, Kristin K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To cross-validate an instrument to measure behavioral aspects of professionalism in pharmacy students using a rating scale that minimizes ceiling effects. Methods. Seven institutions collaborated to create a 33-item assessment tool that included 5 domains of professionalism: (1) Reliability, Responsibility and Accountability; (2) Lifelong Learning and Adaptability; (3) Relationships with Others; (4) Upholding Principles of Integrity and Respect; and (5) Citizenship and Professional Engagement. Each item was rated based on 5 levels of competency which were aligned with a modified Miller's Taxonomy (Knows, Knows How, Shows, Shows How and Does, and Teaches). Results. Factor analyses confirmed the presence of 5 domains for professionalism. The factor analyses from the 7-school pilot study demonstrated that professionalism items were good fits within each of the 5 domains. Conclusions. Based on a multi-institutional pilot study, data from the Professionalism Assessment Tool (PAT), provide evidence for internal validity and reliability. Use of the tool by external evaluators should be explored in future research. PMID:22171107

  2. Verifax: Biometric instruments measuring neuromuscular disorders/performance impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    VeriFax, founded in 1990 by Dr. Ruth Shrairman and Mr. Alex Landau, began operations with the aim of developing a biometric tool for the verification of signatures from a distance. In the course of developing this VeriFax Autograph technology, two other related applications for the technologies under development at VeriFax became apparent. The first application was in the use of biometric measurements as clinical monitoring tools for physicians investigating neuromuscular diseases (embodied in VeriFax's Neuroskill technology). The second application was to evaluate persons with critical skills (e.g., airline pilots, bus drivers) for physical and mental performance impairments caused by stress, physiological disorders, alcohol, drug abuse, etc. (represented by VeriFax's Impairoscope prototype instrument). This last application raised the possibility of using a space-qualified Impairoscope variant to evaluate astronaut performance with respect to the impacts of stress, fatigue, excessive workload, build-up of toxic chemicals within the space habitat, etc. The three applications of VeriFax's patented technology are accomplished by application-specific modifications of the customized VeriFax software. Strong commercial market potentials exist for all three VeriFax technology applications, and market progress will be presented in more detail below.

  3. An improved measurement of Vickers indentation behaviour through enhanced instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, N. H.; Reuben, R. L.; Ahmed, R.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an enhanced instrumented Vickers indentation technique capable of recording force, displacement and acoustic emission (AE) during loading condition. Four materials were chosen for examination; copper, aluminium, steel and as-sprayed HVOF WC-12%Co coating. Results indicate that force-displacement (P-h) profiles are essentially bilinear with two characteristic slopes separated by a distinct displacement arrest for all loads above 98 N. The P-h curve indicates three distinct loading stages (I, II and III) and the stage III mechanical energy increases with loads. About 66% of the hardened steel indentations but only about 18% of the as-sprayed HVOF WC-12%Co coating indentations exhibited an AE record that could be separated into three distinct zones (A, B and C). Where zoning was possible the AE corresponding to a zone correlated well with the AE associated with a loading stage. It is concluded that plastic deformation in soft metals produced little AE, whereas brittle fracture in hardened steel and as-sprayed HVOF WC-12%Co coating produced significant AE. AE may or may not be focused onto particular stages of the indentation and a full measure of crack prevalence would require fractal dimension analysis, which is time consuming, offering a motivation for AE-based indentation testing.

  4. Combined temperature lidar for measurements in the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Andreas; Nakamura, Takuji; Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2004-05-10

    We describe the performance of a combined Raman lidar. The temperature is measured with the rotational Raman technique and with the integration technique simultaneously. Additionally measured parameters are particle extinction and backscatter coefficients and water vapor mixing ratio. In a previous stage of the system, instrumental problems restricted the performance. We describe how we rebuilt the instrument and overcame these restrictions. As a result, the measurement time for the same spatial resolution and accuracy of the rotational Raman temperature measurements is reduced by a factor of approximately 4.3, and their range could be extended for the first time to the upper stratosphere. PMID:15143820

  5. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 82, 027102 (2011) Response to "Comment on `A versatile thermoelectric temperature

    E-print Network

    Libbrecht, Kenneth G.

    2011-01-01

    REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 82, 027102 (2011) Response to "Comment on `A versatile resistance. During these tests, the thermistor was potted into a temperature-controlled aluminum block us switch- ing to a different precision voltage source). This brings the deposited power down by a factor

  6. High Accuracy Temperature Measurements Using RTDs with Current Loop Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald M.

    1997-01-01

    To measure temperatures with a greater degree of accuracy than is possible with thermocouples, RTDs (Resistive Temperature Detectors) are typically used. Calibration standards use specialized high precision RTD probes with accuracies approaching 0.001 F. These are extremely delicate devices, and far too costly to be used in test facility instrumentation. Less costly sensors which are designed for aeronautical wind tunnel testing are available and can be readily adapted to probes, rakes, and test rigs. With proper signal conditioning of the sensor, temperature accuracies of 0.1 F is obtainable. For reasons that will be explored in this paper, the Anderson current loop is the preferred method used for signal conditioning. This scheme has been used in NASA Lewis Research Center's 9 x 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel, and is detailed.

  7. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

  8. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

  9. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

  10. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

  11. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

  12. Fast Cycled Magnet demonstrator program at CERN: Instrumentation and measurement campaign

    E-print Network

    Willering, G; Borgnolutti, F; Bottura, L; Datskov, V; Deferne, G; Feuvrier, J; Fiscarelli, L; Giloux, C; Guinchard, M; Roger, V

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to develop economical magnets for an upgrade of the LHC injector complex, CERN started an R&D program on superconducting Fast Cycled Magnets (FCM) in 2009. One of the challenges in this program was to develop a test station, which started working in summer 2012 when the FCM dipole demonstrator was tested. The magnet contains several important features, like forced-flow cooling of supercritical He and it has a protection scheme based direct voltage measurement with co-wound voltage tap wires. In this paper we report on the cryogenic and powering requirements and operation, the quench protection system, the temperature and mechanical measurements. The functioning of the test station and instrumentation are evaluated and we will discuss the measurements on a detailed level.

  13. Development of an Instrument to Measure Medical Students' Attitudes toward People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Andrew B.; Fish, Reva; McGuigan, Denise; Fox, Jeffery; Akl, Elie A.

    2012-01-01

    As curricula to improve medical students' attitudes toward people with disabilities are developed, instruments are needed to guide the process and evaluate effectiveness. The authors developed an instrument to measure medical students' attitudes toward people with disabilities. A pilot instrument with 30 items in four sections was administered to…

  14. Exploration of Instruments Measuring Concepts of Graduateness in a Research University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steur, J. M.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Hofman, W. H. A.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the appropriateness of international instruments to measure the separate concepts of graduateness for a research university context. The four concepts of graduateness--reflective thinking, scholarship, moral citizenship and lifelong learning--are operationalized using five existing instruments. These instruments were…

  15. Trends in instrumentation for environmental radiation measurements at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hiebert, R.D.; Wolf, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent instruments developed to fulfill radiation monitoring needs at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are described. Laboratory instruments that measure tritium gas effluents alone, or in the presence of activated air from D-T fusion reactors are discussed. Fully portable systems for gamma, x-ray, and alpha analyses in the field are described. Also included are descriptions of survey instruments that measure low levels of transuranic contaminants and that measure pulsed-neutron dose rates.

  16. James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Calibration and Verification of High-Accuracy Instrumentation to Measure Heat Flow in Cryogenic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comber, Brian; Glazer, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an upcoming flagship observatory mission scheduled to be launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. The requirement for multiple thermal zoned results in the instruments being thermally connected to five external radiators via individual high purity aluminum heat straps. Thermal-vacuum and thermal balance testing of the flight instruments at the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element level will take place within a newly constructed shroud cooled by gaseous helium inside Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Space environment Simulator (SES). The flight external radiators are not available during ISIM-level thermal vacuum/thermal testing, so they will be replaced in test with stable and adjustable thermal boundaries with identical physical interfaces to the flight radiators. Those boundaries are provided by specially designed test hardware which also measures the heat flow within each of the five heat straps to an accuracy of less than 2 mW, which is less than 5% of the minimum predicted heat flow values. Measurement of the heat loads to this accuracy is essential to ISIM thermal model correlation, since thermal models are more accurately correlated when temperature data is supplemented by accurate knowledge of heat flows. It also provides direct verification by test of several high-level thermal requirements. Devices that measure heat flow in this manner have historically been referred to a "Q-meters". Perhaps the most important feature of the design of the JWST Q-meters is that it does not depend on the absolute accuracy of its temperature sensors, but rather on knowledge of precise heater power required to maintain a constant temperature difference between sensors on two stages, for which a table is empirically developed during a calibration campaign in a small chamber at GSFC. This paper provides a brief review of Q-meter design, and discusses the Q-meter calibration procedure including calibration chamber modifications and accommodations, handling of differing conditions between calibration and usage, the calibration process itself, and the results of the tests used to determine if the calibration is successful.

  17. Quantitative measurements of sliding friction coefficients of tribological interfaces with a new differential infrared radiometric instrument

    E-print Network

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Quantitative measurements of sliding friction coefficients of tribological interfaces with a new sliding friction coefficient SFC measurements using a mechanical friction rig and infrared radiometric. INSTRUMENTAL DESIGN FOR SLIDING FRICTION COEFFICIENT MEASUREMENTS Figure 1 is an overview of the differential

  18. Laser weld penetration estimation using temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lankalapalli, K.N.; Tu, J.F.; Leong, K.H.; Gartner, M.

    1997-10-01

    Penetration depth is an important factor critical to the quality of a laser weld. This paper examines the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the bottom surface of the work-piece to estimate weld penetration. A three-dimensional analytical model relating penetration depth, weld bead width and welding speed to temperature distribution at the bottom surface of the workpiece is developed. Temperatures on the bottom surface of the workpiece are measured using infrared thermocouples located behind the laser beam. Experimental results from bead-on-plate welds on low carbon steel plates of varying thickness at different levels of laser power and speeds validate the model and show that the temperature on the bottom surface is a sensitive indicator of penetration depth. The proposed model is computationally efficient and is suitable for on-line process monitoring application.

  19. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  20. Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2010-12-15

    The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma.

  1. Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma.

    PubMed

    Golingo, R P; Shumlak, U; Den Hartog, D J

    2010-12-01

    The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma. PMID:21198059

  2. Using and Developing Measurement Instruments in Science Education: A Rasch Modeling Approach. Science & Engineering Education Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    This book meets a demand in the science education community for a comprehensive and introductory measurement book in science education. It describes measurement instruments reported in refereed science education research journals, and introduces the Rasch modeling approach to developing measurement instruments in common science assessment domains,…

  3. Cosmic Background dipole measurements with Planck-High Frequency Instrument

    E-print Network

    M. Piat; G. Lagache; J. P. Bernard; M. Giard; J. L. Puget

    2001-10-30

    This paper discusses the Cosmic Background (CB) dipoles observations in the framework of the Planck mission. Dipoles observations can be used in three ways: (i) It gives a measurement of the peculiar velocity of our Galaxy which is an important observation in large scale structures formation model. (ii) Measuring the dipole can give unprecedent information on the monopole (that can be in some cases hard to obtain due to large foreground contaminations). (iii) The dipole can be an ideal absolute calibrator, easily detectable in cosmological experiments. Following the last two objectives, the main goal of the work presented here is twofold. First, we study the accuracy of the Planck-HFI calibration using the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) dipole measured by COBE as well as the Earth orbital motion dipole. We show that we can reach for HFI, a relative calibration between rings of about 1% and an absolute calibration better than 0.4% for the CMB channels (in the end, the absolute calibration will be limited by the uncertainties on the CMB temperature). We also show that Planck will be able to measure the CMB dipole direction at better than 1.7 arcmin and improve on the amplitude. Second, we investigate the detection of the Cosmic Far-Infrared Background (FIRB) dipole. Measuring this dipole could give a new and independent determination of the FIRB for which a direct determination is quite difficult due to Galactic dust emission contamination. We show that such a detection would require a Galactic dust emission removal at better than 1%, which will be very hard to achieve.

  4. Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Balasubramaniam, Krishnan (Mississippi State, MS); Shah, Vimal (Houston, TX); Costley, R. Daniel (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Mississippi State, MS)

    2001-01-01

    A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

  5. Cosmic microwave background dipole spectrum measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Isaacman, R. B.; Mather, J. C.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.; Shafer, R. A.; Weiss, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) has determined the dipole spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) from 2 to 20/cm. For each frequency the signal is decomposed by fitting to a monopole, a dipole, and a Galactic template for approximately 60% of the sky. The overall dipole spectrum fits the derivative of a Planck function with an amplitude of 3.343 +/- 0.016 mK (95% confidence level), a temperature of 2.714 +/- 0.022 K (95% confidence level), and an rms deviation of 6 x 10(exp -9) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm limited by a detector and cosmic-ray noise. The monopole temperature is consistent with that determined by direct measurement in the accompanying article by Mather et al.

  6. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions or graduations of... hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears to be in error, the...

  7. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions or graduations of... hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears to be in error, the...

  8. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions or graduations of... hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears to be in error, the...

  9. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions or graduations of... hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears to be in error, the...

  10. Portable instruments for measuring tailpipe diesel particulate in underground mines

    PubMed Central

    Noll, J.; Volkwein, J.; Janisko, S.; Patts, L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for direct tailpipe sampling of diesel vehicles in mines in order to determine the effects of an emissions-based maintenance program, evaluate control technologies such as diesel particulate filters and identify the worst diesel particulate matter (DPM) emitters in a fleet of vehicles. Therefore, this study examined the performance of three portable instruments: a personal dust monitor (PDM) manufactured by Thermo Scientific, a prototype elemental carbon monitor (Airtec) manufactured by FLIR and a prototype AE91 instrument from Magee Scientific. These instruments were evaluated on the basis of their ability to provide direct reading tailpipe analysis for DPM. It was determined that the average bias of the tailpipe results from the PDM and the Airtec were 3±12% and 4±20%, respectively, when compared to the standard method of determining tailpipe particulate concentrations from a diluted exhaust. It was also determined that the AE91 instrument correlated with the standard method. PMID:26190861

  11. 27 CFR 19.277 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...their own use accurate hydrometers, thermometers, and other necessary equipment to...b) Instruments. Hydrometers and thermometers used by proprietors to gauge spirits...frequent tests of their hydrometers and thermometers, and, if they appear to be...

  12. Instrument for precision long-term ?-decay rate measurements.

    PubMed

    Ware, M J; Bergeson, S D; Ellsworth, J E; Groesbeck, M; Hansen, J E; Pace, D; Peatross, J

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative ?-decay rates of (22)Na, (36)Cl, (54)Mn, (60)Co, (90)Sr, (133)Ba, (137)Cs, (152)Eu, and (154)Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate. PMID:26233381

  13. Instrument for precision long-term ?-decay rate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, M. J.; Bergeson, S. D.; Ellsworth, J. E.; Groesbeck, M.; Hansen, J. E.; Pace, D.; Peatross, J.

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative ?-decay rates of 22Na, 36Cl, 54Mn, 60Co, 90Sr, 133Ba, 137Cs, 152Eu, and 154Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate.

  14. An FPGA-based Instrumentation Platform for use at Deep Cryogenic Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Lamb, I D Conway; Hornibrook, J M; Pauka, S J; Waddy, S J; Frechtling, M K; Reilly, D J

    2015-01-01

    We describe the operation of a cryogenic instrumentation platform incorporating commercially- available field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The functionality of the FPGAs at temperatures approaching 4 kelvin enables signal routing, multiplexing, and complex digital signal processing in close proximity to cooled devices or detectors within the cryostat. The performance of the FPGAs in a cryogenic environment is evaluated, including clock speed, error rates, and power consumption. Although constructed for the purpose of controlling and reading out quantum computing devices with low latency, the instrument is generic enough to be of broad use in a range of cryogenic applications.

  15. A Method of Measuring Piston Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Mangniello, Eugene J

    1940-01-01

    A method that makes use of thermocouples has been developed to measure the temperature of engine pistons operating at high speeds. The thermocouples installed on the moving piston are connected with a potentiometer outside the engine by means of pneumatically operated plungers, which make contact with the piston thermocouples for about 10 crankshaft degrees at the bottom of the piston stroke. The equipment is operated satisfactory at engine speeds of 2,400 r.p.m. and shows promise of successful operation at higher engine speeds. Measurements of piston temperatures in a liquid-cooled compression-ignition engine and in an air-cooled spark-ignition are presented.

  16. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

    1994-10-04

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

  17. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN); McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

  18. Turbulence measurements using tethered balloon instrumentation during FIRE 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hignett, Phillip

    1990-01-01

    As part of the surface-based observations conducted on San Nicolas Island, the U.K. Meteorological Office operated a set of turbulence probes attached to a balloon tether cable. Typically six probes were used, each capable of measuring momentum, heat, and humidity fluxes. Two probes were fitted with net radiometers, one positioned above cloud and the other below; a third probe carried a Lyman-alpha hygrometer fitted with a pre-heater for the measurement of total water content. Some preliminary results are presented from the 14th July describing the variation in structure of the cloudy boundary layer during the daytime. This day was characterized by a complete cloud cover, an inversion height of approximately 600 m. and north-westerly winds of approximately 6 m.s(-1). As an illustration the equivalent potential temperature derived from a profile ascent made between approximately 0830 and 0930 (PDT) is shown. The data has been smoothed to a height resolution of about 4 metres. At this time the cloud base was approximately 200 m. and very light drizzle was reaching the surface. The vertical velocity variance and potential temperature flux for two periods are shown; the first (shown by full lines) immediately follows the profile and the second (shown by dashed lines) is central around 1400 (PDT). The data have been normalized by their maximum values in the first period. Cloud base has now risen to approximately 300 m. There is a marked variation during the morning, particularly in sigma w. The net radiative flux above cloud top has by now reached its maximum value.

  19. The spectrometer for ice nuclei (SPIN): An instrument for continuous measurements of ice nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMeeking, Gavin; Sagan, Frank; Kok, Greg

    2013-05-01

    Ice in clouds has major impacts on precipitation formation and cloud characteristics including cloud dynamics and radiation. Primary nucleation of ice crystals at temperatures warmer than about -38 C occurs through heterogeneous nucleation by aerosol particles via several possible mechanisms. Droplet Measurement Technologies is producing a commercial ice nuclei (IN) counter sensitive to deposition and immersion/condensation freezing that features a parallel plate diffusion chamber. A high efficiency refrigeration system allows control of the cold wall to temperatures as low as approximately -70 C and the warm wall to temperatures as low as approximately -40 C, allowing measurements of IN activity over a wide range of atmospherically-relevant temperatures and water/ice saturations. Newly formed ice crystals are detected using an optical particle counter that features detection of polarized scattered light to identify ice crystals and distinguish them from liquid droplets. An actively controlled evaporation section can be operated to remove liquid droplets from the chamber output to further aid discrimination between ice and water. The instrument's data system and electronics allow for binning of the data as well as particle-by-particle recording of the forward scattered signal intensity and the backward scattered P and S polarization intensities. Particle sizing is from 0.4 to 10 ?m.

  20. Ground truth data for test sites (SL-4). [thermal radiation brightness temperature and solar radiation measurments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Field measurements performed simultaneous with Skylab overpass in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. Wavelength region covered include: solar radiation (400 to 1300 nanometer), and thermal radiation (8 to 14 micrometer). Measurements consisted of general conditions and near surface meteorology, atmospheric temperature and humidity vs altitude, the thermal brightness temperature, total and diffuse solar radiation, direct solar radiation (subsequently analyzed for optical depth/transmittance), and target reflectivity/radiance. The particular instruments used are discussed along with analyses performed. Detailed instrument operation, calibrations, techniques, and errors are given.

  1. Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

  2. Electro optical system to measure strains at high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    1991-01-01

    The measurement of strains at temperatures of the order of 1000 C has become a very important field of research. Technological advances in areas such as the analysis of high speed aircraft structures and high efficiency thermal engines require operational temperatures of this order of magnitude. Current techniques for the measurement of strains, such as electrical strain gages, are at the limit of their useful range and new methods need to be developed. Optical techniques are very attractive in this type of application because of their noncontacting nature. Holography is of particular interest because a minimal preparation of the surfaces is required. Optoelectronics holography is specially suited for this type of application, from the point of view of industrial use. There are a number of technical problems that need to be overcome to measure strains using holographic interferometry at high temperatures. Some of these problems are discussed, and solutions are given. A specimen instrumented with high temperature strains gages is used to compare the results of both technologies.

  3. On quantum interferometric measurements of temperature

    E-print Network

    Marcin Jarzyna; Marcin Zwierz

    2015-09-14

    We provide a detailed description of the quantum interferometric thermometer, which is a device that estimates the temperature of a sample from the measurements of the optical phase. For the first time, we rigorously analyze the operation of such a device by studying the interaction of the optical probe system prepared in a single-mode Gaussian state with a heated sample modeled as a dissipative thermal reservoir. We find that this approach to thermometry is capable of measuring the temperature of a sample in the nanokelvin regime. Furthermore, we compare the fundamental precision of quantum interferometric thermometers with the theoretical precision offered by the classical idealized pyrometers, which infer the temperature from a measurement of the total thermal radiation emitted by the sample. We find that the interferometric thermometer provides a superior performance in temperature sensing even when compared with this idealized pyrometer. We predict that interferometric thermometers will prove useful for ultraprecise temperature sensing and stabilization of quantum optical experiments based on the nonlinear crystals and atomic vapors.

  4. Ion temperature measurements in the Maryland Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Gauvreau, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    Initial spectroscopic data from MS showed evidence of ion heating as deduced from the line widths of different ion species. Detailed measurements of OIV spectral emission line profiles in space and time revealed that heating takes place at early time, before spheromak formation and is occurring within the current discharge. The measured ion temperature is several times the electron temperature and cannot be explained by classical (Spitzer) resistivity. Classically, ions are expected to have lower temperatures than the electrons and therefore, lower temperatures than observed. High ion temperatures have been observed in different RFP`s and Spheromaks but are usually associated with relaxation to the Taylor state and occur in the sustainment phase. During formation, the current delivered to start the discharge is not axisymmetric and as a consequence, X-points appear in the magnetic flux. A two dimensional analysis predicts that magnetic reconnection occurring at an X-point can give rise to high ion heating rates. A simple 0-dimensional calculation showed that within the first 20 {mu}s, a conversion of mass flow kinetic energy into ion temperature could take place due to viscosity.

  5. Instrument-free exothermic heating with phase change temperature control for paper microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Jered; Zentner, Chris; Buser, Josh; Yager, Paul; LaBarre, Paul; Weigl, Bernhard H.

    2014-01-01

    Many infectious diseases, as well as some cancers, that affect global health are most accurately diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification and detection. There is a great need to simplify nucleic acid-based assay systems for use in global health in low-resource settings as well as in settings that do not have convenient access to laboratory staff and equipment such as doctors' offices and home care settings. In developing countries, unreliable electric power, inadequate supply chains, and lack of maintenance for complex diagnostic instruments are all common infrastructure shortfalls. Many elements of instrument-free, disposable, nucleic acid amplification assays have been demonstrated in recent years. However, the problem of instrument-free,1 low-cost, temperature-controlled chemical heating remains unsolved. In this paper we present the current status and results of work towards developing disposable, low-cost, temperature-controlled heaters designed to support isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays that are integrated with a two-dimensional paper network. Our approach utilizes the heat generated through exothermic chemical reactions and controls the heat through use of engineered phase change materials to enable sustained temperatures required for nucleic acid amplification. By selecting appropriate exothermic and phase change materials, temperatures can be controlled over a wide range, suitable for various isothermal amplification methods, and maintained for over an hour at an accuracy of +/- 1°C. PMID:25426269

  6. A direct instrument comparison for measurement of total dissolved nitrogen in seawater

    E-print Network

    Seitzinger, Sybil

    It was suggested almost 2 decades ago (Suzuki et al., 1985) that high temperature combustion (HTC) analysis gave temperature combustion (HTC) instruments. A side-by-side comparison in one laboratory (Lewes exercise combustion temperatures, gave considerably more scatter and more divergent values than the set of HTC

  7. Post-Shock Temperature Measurements of Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifter, A.; Stewart, S. T.; Furlanetto, M. R.; Kennedy, G. B.; Payton, J. R.; Obst, A. W.

    2006-07-01

    Post-shock temperature is an important quantity in shock physics experiments for constraining the dynamic equations of state of materials. A high-speed, infrared, multi-wavelength pyrometer has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for measurements in the temperature range from 400 to 1200 K. With customized front end optics, permitting concurrent VISAR measurements in the same optical path, validation experiments on aluminum have been conducted at the new Shock Compression Laboratory at Harvard University. Under <1 millitorr vacuum, a post-shock temperature of 495 K ± 30 K was recorded from a polished free surface of aluminum 2024-T4 subject to a peak shock pressure of 34.8±0.8 GPa, in excellent agreement with the equation of state and previous experiments.

  8. Ultrasonic probes for high temperature immersion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, A.-U.; Jen, C.-K.; Ihara, I.

    2001-03-01

    Ultrasonic probes for high temperature measurements in immersion are presented. These probes consist of piezoelectric transducers and buffer rods, and may be operated in the pulse echo mode. The probes can operate to temperatures as high as 215 °C without requiring a cooling system. For imaging purposes, one end of the clad buffer rod is machined into a semi-spherical concave shape, of which the purpose is to focus the ultrasound. The operating frequency is between 5 and 9 MHz. Ultrasonic images, produced using a mechanical raster scan with the probes fully immersed in silicone oil at elevated temperatures, are presented. The importance of the signal-to-noise ratio in the pulse-echo measurement is discussed.

  9. Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noel, G. T.; Sliemers, F. A.; Deringer, G. C.; Wood, V. E.; Wilkes, K. E.; Gaines, G. B.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories - chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and other physicals. Using specified evaluation criteria, the most promising techniques and instruments for use in life prediction tests of arrays were selected.

  10. SOLAR-BLIND PYROMETRIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT UNDER CONCENTRATED SOLAR

    E-print Network

    SOLAR-BLIND PYROMETRIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT UNDER CONCENTRATED SOLAR IRRADIATION Markus Pfänder1 temperature, pyrometric temperature measurement, solar-blind ------------------------------------ 1 #12-called solar-blind spectral measurement ranges, where the contribution of reflected solar radiation

  11. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  12. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  13. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  14. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  15. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  16. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  17. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  18. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  19. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  20. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

  1. Bulk electron temperature measurements using Asymmetric Triple

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angles, University of

    Bulk electron temperature measurements using Asymmetric Triple Langmuir probes Nevena Rakuljic electrons, and that another type of probe needs to be designed that would sample more dominant, bulk, electrons in the plasma. My project this summer has been to make an asymmetric triple probe that would allow

  2. Dynamic gas temperature measurement system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, D. L.; Robinson, W. W.; Watkins, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    A gas temperature measurement system with compensated frequency response of 1 kHz and capability to operate in the exhaust of a gas turbine engine combustor was developed. A review of available technologies which could attain this objective was done. The most promising method was identified as a two wire thermocouple, with a compensation method based on the responses of the two different diameter thermocouples to the fluctuating gas temperature field. In a detailed design of the probe, transient conduction effects were identified as significant. A compensation scheme was derived to include the effects of gas convection and wire conduction. The two wire thermocouple concept was tested in a laboratory burner exhaust to temperatures of about 3000 F and in a gas turbine engine to combustor exhaust temperatures of about 2400 F. Uncompensated and compensated waveforms and compensation spectra are presented.

  3. Study on Groundwater Quality Parameter Variation Due to Temperature Change in Calibration Solution and Instrumentation

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    1. Title Study on Groundwater Quality Parameter Variation Due to Temperature Change in Calibration of Florida, Gainesville, FL 4. Abstract Measurement of groundwater quality parameters is essential shown that there is some variation in measured groundwater quality parameters when

  4. An instrument to measure job satisfaction of nursing home administrators

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Nicholas G

    2006-01-01

    Background The psychometric properties of the nursing home administrator job satisfaction questionnaire (NHA-JSQ) are presented, and the steps used to develop this instrument. Methods The NHA-JSQ subscales were developed from pilot survey activities with 93 administrators, content analysis, and a research panel. The resulting survey was sent to 1,000 nursing home administrators. Factor analyses were used to determine the psychometric properties of the instrument. Results Of the 1,000 surveys mailed, 721 usable surveys were returned (72 percent response rate). The factor analyses show that the items were representative of six underlying factors (i.e., coworkers, work demands, work content, work load, work skills, and rewards). Conclusion The NHA-JSQ represents a short, psychometrically sound job satisfaction instrument for use in nursing homes. PMID:17029644

  5. A primer on lower extremity outcome measurement instruments.

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, C. L.; Mueller, C.; Zwior-Maron, K.; Hoffman, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Tracing the roots of lower extremity outcome scales is an interesting and somewhat bemusing journey. A large number of different grading methods can be found with limited reliability and/or validity testing. The usefulness of these instruments in the assessment of patient outcomes after lower extremity interventions is worrisome. This article focuses on the most commonly used scales and demonstrates an alarming and incestuous pattern of cross-validation with moderate to weak associations between potentially unreliable and crudely validated original instruments. PMID:9807715

  6. The Development, Validity, and Reliability of a Psychometric Instrument Measuring Competencies in Student Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriram, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The study of competencies in student affairs began more than 4 decades ago, but no instrument currently exists to measure competencies broadly. This study builds upon previous research by developing an instrument to measure student affairs competencies. Results not only validate the competencies espoused by NASPA and ACPA, but also suggest adding…

  7. Investigations of the Impacts of Instrumental and Operational Variables on Color Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color measurements for the classing of U.S. cottons have been performed on the Uster™ High Volume Instrumentation (HVI) instrument for several years. Two color parameters specific to cotton—Rd (reflectance) and +b (yellowness)—are used in the color measurement of cotton. Since Rd and +b do not rea...

  8. Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS), a Standards-Based test, provides educators and the public with valuable information regarding the progress of Arizona's students toward mastering Arizona's reading, writing and mathematics Standards. This specific test, Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is…

  9. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam.

    PubMed

    Falk, K; McCoy, C A; Fryer, C L; Greeff, C W; Hungerford, A L; Montgomery, D S; Schmidt, D W; Sheppard, D G; Williams, J R; Boehly, T R; Benage, J F

    2014-09-01

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO_{2}) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1-15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding to shock pressures of 0.3-2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. Simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements. PMID:25314547

  10. Temperature control analysis and flight results for the Viking Orbiter 1975 Mars atmospheric water detection instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavanagh, H. M.; Murphy, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    The Mars atmospheric water detector (MAWD) instrument required a temperature of -70 C at the detector. The monochromator housing required +20 C + or - 1 C. This instrument was located on the scan platform, and slewed across two solar panels. The thermal design for the detector was an open flat plate radiator thermally isolated on four 1-in. tubes, with a flexible strap to the detector. MAWD radiator view factors and heat loads from the spacecraft were determined for the Lander on and off, for all angular positions of the scan platform. Subsystem and system tests were performed using the 25-ft diameter solar simulator. In-flight results have shown no anomalies, and no degradation has been observed. Servo-controlled heaters are used to control the temperature.

  11. 27 CFR 19.277 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... those prescribed in 27 CFR part 30. Proprietors shall make frequent tests of their hydrometers and... provide for their own use accurate hydrometers, thermometers, and other necessary equipment to determine proof or volume. (b) Instruments. Hydrometers and thermometers used by proprietors to gauge...

  12. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: FLOW MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow meter devices are the most widely used process monitoring instruments in wastewater treatment. Careful consideration must be exercised during selection of flow meters to avoid equipment misapplication that can result in operation problems and equipment failure. It is the res...

  13. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  14. Temperature Coefficient of the Modulus of Rigidity of Aircraft Instrument Diaphragm and Spring Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Melton, E R

    1931-01-01

    Experimental data are presented on the variation of the modulus of rigidity in the temperature range -20 to +50 degrees C. of a number of metals which are of possible use for elastic elements for aircraft and other instruments. The methods of the torsional pendulum was used to determine the modulus of rigidity and its temperature coefficient for aluminum, duralumin, monel metal, brass, phosphor bronze, coin silver, nickel silver, three high carbon steels, and three alloy steels. It was observed that tensile stress affected the values of the modulus by amounts of 1 per cent or less.

  15. Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

  16. Attachment of Free Filament Thermocouples for Temperature Measurements on CMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Cuy, Michael D.; Wnuk, Stephen P.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) are being developed for use as enabling materials for advanced aeropropulsion engine and high speed civil transport applications. The characterization and testing of these advanced materials in hostile, high-temperature environments require accurate measurement of the material temperatures. Commonly used wire Thermo-Couples (TC) can not be attached to this ceramic based material via conventional spot-welding techniques. Attachment of wire TC's with commercially available ceramic cements fail to provide sufficient adhesion at high temperatures. While advanced thin film TC technology provides minimally intrusive surface temperature measurement and has good adhesion on the CMC, its fabrication requires sophisticated and expensive facilities and is very time consuming. In addition, the durability of lead wire attachments to both thin film TC's and the substrate materials requires further improvement. This paper presents a newly developed attachment technique for installation of free filament wire TC's with a unique convoluted design on ceramic based materials such as CMC's. Three CMC's (SiC/SiC CMC and alumina/alumina CMC) instrumented with type IC, R or S wire TC's were tested in a Mach 0.3 burner rig. The CMC temperatures measured from these wire TC's were compared to that from the facility pyrometer and thin film TC's. There was no sign of TC delamination even after several hours exposure to 1200 C. The test results proved that this new technique can successfully attach wire TC's on CMC's and provide temperature data in hostile environments. The sensor fabrication process is less expensive and requires very little time compared to that of the thin film TC's. The same installation technique/process can also be applied to attach lead wires for thin film sensor systems.

  17. Thermal diffusion probe and instrument system for tissue blood flow measurements: validation in phantoms and in vivo organs.

    PubMed

    Delhomme, G; Newman, W H; Roussel, B; Jouvet, M; Bowman, H F; Dittmar, A

    1994-07-01

    A minimally invasive probe and instrument system for real-time measurements of temperature, thermal conductivity and tissue blood flow has been designed for research and clinical use. The essence of the probe is a thermistor, located at the tip of catheters or glass and steel needles, and operating in transient self-heated mode at constant temperature increment. Thermal conductivity and tissue blood flow are determined by use of a coupled tissue-probe thermal model. The effects of temporal baseline temperature shifts are minimized by a novel, automatic, analog compensation circuit. Very short heating periods (3 s) and cooling periods (12 s) provided near-continuous measurements (4/min). Calibration experiments performed in media of known thermal conductivity exhibit a linear response with respect to thermal conductivity. In vitro experiments performed in isolated perfused dog liver preparations are presented to evaluate this instrument system. In vivo experiments performed in cat brain, dog liver, and human tumor demonstrate the ability of this instrument system to perform physiologically valid measurements (comparison inter-subjects and intra-subjects). The minimally invasive probes (0.8 mm OD) are capable of long term measurements (several months), with minimal tissue reactions (0.3 mm around the probe). PMID:7927386

  18. Field measurements and interpretation of TMI-2 instrumentation: CF-2-LT4

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.E.; Smith, J.T.; Mathis, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the measurements and results of the Core Flood Tank 1B level monitor CF-2-LT4. This instrument consists of a Bailey Type BY Process Computer Transmitter connected to a readout module by approximately 500 feet of cable through a penetration junction and an instrument mounting junction. The status of this instrument is uncertain, but it was producing a reasonable output reading which implied it had not failed. As a result, measurements on this instrument were designed to determine if it was properly functioning.

  19. The Aeroclipper: A new instrument for quasi-Lagrangian measurements at the air-sea interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvel, J. P.; Reverdin, G.; Pichon, T.; Vargas, A.

    The Aeroclipper is a new balloon developed by CNES. The Aeroclipper is a balloon equipped with a cable extended by a guide-rope in contact with the surface of the ocean. The balloon is vertically stabilised at a given height (currently 40 to 60m above the sea surface) and move on quasi-Lagrangian trajectories depending on the surface wind. LMD (Laboratoire de Méteorologie Dynamique), LodyC (Laboratoire d'océanographie physique et de Climatologie) and ENSTA (Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées) developed an instrumentation adapted to this new measurement system. This instrumentation is distributed on one atmospheric gondola and one oceanic gondola. The aim is to measure surface physical parameters (Air and sea surface temperatures, sea surface salinity, wind, pressure and humidity) and to derive turbulent fluxes of moisture, heat and momentum. The Aeroclippers will give legs of the different parameters at a relatively high spatial resolution and thus information on the perturbation of these parameters at mesoscale. A first test of the full system will be performed from Banyuls (France) during spring 2004. The first scientific use of the Aeroclipper is planned in February 2005 in the Indian Ocean South of the Equator in link with the pilot phase of the Vasco (Variability of the Atmosphere at the intra-Seasonal time scale and Coupling with the Ocean) experiment.

  20. Mobile CARS - IRS Instrument for Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurement of Multiple Properties in Gaseous Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivolaru, Daniel; Lee, Joseph W.; Jones, Stephen B.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Weikl, M. C.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement system based on the dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) methods. The IRS measurement is performed simultaneously with the CARS measurement using a common green laser beam as a narrow-band light source. The mobile CARS-IRS instrument is designed for the use both in laboratories as well as in ground-based combustion test facilities. Furthermore, it is designed to be easily transported between laboratory and test facility. It performs single-point spatially and temporally resolved simultaneous measurements of temperature, species mole fraction of N2, O2, and H2, and two-components of velocity. A mobile laser system can be placed inside or outside the test facility, while a beam receiving and monitoring system is placed near the measurement location. Measurements in a laboratory small-scale Mach 1.6 H2-air combustion-heated supersonic jet were performed to test the capability of the system. Final setup and pretests of a larger scale reacting jet are ongoing at NASA Langley Research Center s Direct Connect Supersonic Combustor Test Facility (DCSCTF).

  1. Mars Exospheric Temperature Trends as Revealed by MAVEN NGIMS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, Stephen W.; Olsen, Kirk; Roeten, Kali; Bell, Jared; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Elrod, Meredith; Jakosky, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    The Martian dayside upper thermosphere and exosphere temperatures (Texo) have been the subject of considerable debate and study since the first Mariner ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) measurements (1969–1972), up to recent Mars Express SPICAM UVS measurements (2004–present) (e.g., see reviews by Stewart 1987; Bougher et al. 2000, 2014; Müeller-Wodarg et al. 2008; Stiepen et al. 2014). Prior to MAVEN, the Martian upper atmosphere thermal structure was poorly constrained by a limited number of both in-situ and remote sensing measurements at selected locations, seasons, and periods scattered throughout the solar cycle. Nevertheless, it is recognized that the Mars orbit eccentricity determines that both the solar cycle and seasonal variations in upper atmosphere temperatures must be considered together. The MAVEN NGIMS instrument measures the neutral composition of the major gas species (e.g. He, N, O, CO, N2, O2, NO, Ar and CO2) and their major isotopes, with a vertical resolution of ~5 km for targeted species and a target accuracy of <25% for most of these species (Mahaffy et al. 2014; 2015). Corresponding temperatures can now be derived from the neutral scale heights (especially CO2, Ar, and N2) (e.g. Mahaffy et al. 2015; Bougher et al. 2015). Texo mean temperatures spanning ~200 to 300 km are examined for both Deep Dip and Science orbits over 11-February 2015 (Ls ~ 290) to 14-July 2015 (Ls ~ 12). During these times, dayside sampling below 300 km occurred from the dusk terminator, across the dayside, and approaching the dawn terminator. NGIMS temperatures are investigated to extract spatial (e.g. SZA) and temporal (e.g. orbit-to-orbit, seasonal, solar rotational) variability and trends over this sampling period. Solar and seasonal driven trends in Texo are clearly visible, but orbit-to-orbit variability is significant, and demands further investigation to uncover the major drivers that are responsible.

  2. Using Temperature Fluctuation Measurements for Equilibrium Reconstruction and Dynamo Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, D. J.; Parke, E.; Anderson, J. K.; Johnson, C. A.

    2014-10-01

    The high-repetition-rate Thomson scattering system on MST, in combination with advanced Bayesian statistical methods, enables determination of tearing-mode-correlated temperature fluctuations as small as a few percent of the equilibrium temperature. Tearing mode rational surface locations are determined from the characteristic phase flip observed in temperature fluctuation structures, providing a strong constraint for equilibrium reconstruction. Recent experiments in neutral beam heated plasmas indicate an inward shift of the m = 1, n = 6 rational surface of approximately 1 cm relative to non-beam heated plasmas. The measured shift of the rational surface enables diagnosis of current redistribution and safety factor modification due to the fast ion population. Additionally, from the phase of correlated temperature fluctuations, the product < ?Te ?br > is determined. This term is part of < ?pe ?br > , the divergence of which is often called the kinetic dynamo. The kinetic dynamo emf depends on an imbalance of the radial transport of field-aligned current. Previous measurements of the density fluctuation term < ?ne ?br > suggest that the kinetic dynamo plays a role in the RFP dynamo process. These measurements of temperature-fluctuation-driven current transport indicate that both terms are needed for a complete picture of the kinetic dynamo. This work is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  3. Precision measurements of the Casimir force at Low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Garza, Rodrigo; Mohideen, Umar

    2011-03-01

    We will present research involving the precision measurement of the Casimir force at low temperatures. The role of material losses in this force and its incorporation into the Lifshitz theory remains unresolved. The Casimir force results from the modification of the zero point photon spectrum due to the presence of boundaries. The problem arises when the Casimir force is calculated at non zero temperature, where the role of thermal photons have to be included to that of the zero point photons. We plan to address this problem by measuring the Casimir force for different materials as a function of the temperature. Currently we are involved in making precision measurements of the Casmir force at 6K, 77K, and 300K with a micro cantilever based system that we have designed and built at UC-Riverside. The high sensitivity of this instrument will provide us with the resolution to advance our understanding of the interactions of both virtual photons and real photons when confined to a semi-infinite cavity made out of real metals. The constructed apparatus will also provide a deeper understanding of the role vacuum fluctuations play when the cavity constituents are made of a combination of dielectric, superconductor, and metal surfaces. The support of UCMEXUS, NSF and DOE is acknowledged.

  4. Azimuthal Signature of Coincidental Brightness Temperature and Normalized Radar Cross-Section Obtained Using Airborne PALS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Kim, Seungbum; Yueh, Simon; Cosh, Mike; Jackson, Tom; Njoku, Eni

    2010-01-01

    Coincidental airborne brightness temperature (TB) and normalized radar-cross section (NRCS) measurements were carried out with the PALS (Passive and Active L- and S-band) instrument in the SMAPVEX08 (SMAP Validation Experiment 2008) field campaign. This paper describes results obtained from a set of flights which measured a field in 45(sup o) steps over the azimuth angle. The field contained mature soy beans with distinct row structure. The measurement shows that both TB and NRCS experience modulation effects over the azimuth as expected based on the theory. The result is useful in development and validation of land surface parameter forward models and retrieval algorithms, such as the soil moisture algorithm for NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) mission. Although the footprint of the SMAP will not be sensitive to the small resolution scale effects as the one presented in this paper, it is nevertheless important to understand the effects at smaller scale.

  5. Improved Refractometer for Measuring Temperatures of Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqwi, Amir A.

    2004-01-01

    The Dual Rainbow refractometer is an enhanced version of the Rainbow refractometer, which is added to, and extends the capabilities of, a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A PDPA utilizes pairs of laser beams to measure individual components of velocity and sizes of drops in a spray. The Rainbow-refractometer addition measures the temperatures of individual drops. The designs of prior versions of the Rainbow refractometer have required substantial modifications of PDPA transmitting optics, plus dedicated lasers as sources of illumination separate from, and in addition to, those needed for PDPA measurements. The enhancement embodied in the Dual Rainbow refractometer eliminates the need for a dedicated laser and confers other advantages as described below. A dedicated laser is no longer needed because the Dual Rainbow refractometer utilizes one of the pairs of laser beams already present in a PDPA. Hence, the design of the Dual Rainbow refractometer simplifies the task of upgrading PDPA hardware to enable measurement of temperature. Furthermore, in a PDPA/Dual Rainbow refractometer system, a single argon-ion laser with three main wavelengths can be used to measure the temperatures, sizes, and all three components of velocity (in contradistinction to only two components of velocity in a prior PDPA/Rainbow refractometer system). In order to enable the Dual Rainbow refractometer to utilize a pair of PDPA laser beams, it was necessary to (1) find a location for the refractometer receiver, such that the combined rainbow patterns of two laser beams amount to a pattern identical to that of a single beam, (2) adjust the polarization of the two beams to obtain the strongest rainbow pattern, and (3) find a location for the PDPA receiver to obtain a linear relationship between the measured phase shift and drop size.

  6. Wireless sensor for temperature and humidity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Svasta, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Temperature and humidity sensors have a broad range of applications, from heating and ventilation of houses to controlled drying of fruits, vegetables or meat in food industry. Modern sensors are integrated devices, usually MEMS, factory-calibrated and with digital output of measured parameters. They can have power down modes for reduced energy consumption. Such an integrated device allows the implementation of a battery powered wireless sensor when coupled with a low power microcontroller and a radio subsystem. A radio sensor can work independently or together with others in a radio network. Presented paper focuses mainly on measurement and construction aspects of sensors for temperature and humidity designed and implemented by authors; network aspects (communication between two or more sensors) are not analyzed.

  7. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: a pyrometer for measuring ground temperature on Mars.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor's main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405

  8. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    PubMed Central

    Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P.; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405

  9. Ultra Low Temperature Ultra Low Power Instrument Packages for Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Yeh, P. S.; Cooper, L.; Feng, S.; Young, E.

    2010-01-01

    Achievement of solar system exploration roadmap goals will involve robotic or human deployment and long-term operation of surface science packages remote from human presence, thus requiring autonomous, self-powered operation. The major challenge such packages face will be operating during long periods of darkness in extreme cold potentially without the Pu238 based power and thermal systems available to Apollo era packages (ALSEP). Development of such science payloads will thus require considerable optimization of instrument and subsystem design, packaging and integration for a variety of planetary surface environments in order to support solar system exploration fully. Our work supports this process through the incorporation of low temperature operational components and design strategies which radically minimize power, mass, and cost while maximizing the performance under extreme surface conditions that are in many cases more demanding than those routinely experienced by spacecraft in deep space. Chief instruments/instrument package candidates include those which could provide long-term monitoring of the surface and subsurface environments for fundamental science and human crew safety. The initial attempt to design a 10 instrument environmental monitoring package with a solar/battery based power system led to a package with a unacceptably large mass (500 kg) of which over half was battery mass. In phase 1, a factor of 5 reduction in mass was achieved, first through the introduction of high performance electronics capable of operating at far lower temperature and then through the use of innovative thermal balance strategies involving the use of multi-layer thin materials and gravity-assisted heat pipes. In phase 2, reported here, involves strategies such as universal incorporation of ULT/ULP digital and analog electronics, and distributed or non-conventionally packaged power systems. These strategies will be required to meet the far more challenging thermal requirements of operating through a normal 28 day diurnal cycle. The limited temperature range of efficient battery operation remains the largest obstacle.

  10. Long-Term Instrumental and Reconstructed Temperature Records Contradict Anthropogenic Global Warming

    E-print Network

    Horst-Joachim Lüdecke

    2011-10-09

    Monthly instrumental temperature records from 5 stations in the northern hemisphere are analyzed, each of which is local and over 200 years in length, as well as two reconstructed long-range yearly records - from a stalagmite and from tree rings that are about 2000 years long. In the instrumental records, the steepest 100-year temperature fall happened in the 19th century and the steepest rise in the 20th century, both events being of about the same magnitude. Evaluation by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) yields Hurst exponents that are in good agreement with the literature. DFA, Monte Carlo simulations, and synthetic records reveal that both 100-year events were caused by external trends. In contrast to this, the reconstructed records show stronger 100-year rises and falls as quite common during the last 2000 years. These results contradict the hypothesis of an unusual (anthropogenic) global warming during the 20th century. As a hypothesis, the sun's magnetic field, which is correlated with sunspot numbers, is put forward as an explanation. The long-term low-frequency fluctuations in sunspot numbers are not detectable by the DFA in the monthly instrumental records, resulting in the common low Hurst exponents. The same does not hold true for the 2000-year-long reconstructed records, which explains both their higher Hurst exponents and the higher probabilities of strong 100-year temperature fluctuations. A long-term synthetic record that embodies the reconstructed sunspot number fluctuations includes the different Hurst exponents of both the instrumental and the reconstructed records and, therefore, corroborates the conjecture.

  11. Ultra Low Temperature Ultra Low Power Instrument Packages for Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Yeh, P. S.; Cooper, L.; Feng, S.; Young, E.

    2010-01-01

    Achievement of solar system exploration roadmap goals will involve robotic or human deployment and longterm operation of surface science packages remote from human presence, thus requiring autonomous, self-powered operation. The major challenge such packages face will be operating during long periods of darkness in extreme cold potentially without the Pu238 based power and thermal systems available to Apollo era packages (ALSEP). Development of such science payloads will thus require considerable optimization of instrument and subsystem design, packaging and integration for a variety of planetary surface environments in order to support solar system exploration fully. Our work supports this process through the incorporation of low temperature operational components and design strategies which radically minimize power, mass, and cost while maximizing the performance under extreme surface conditions that are in many cases more demanding than those routinely experienced by spacecraft in deep space. Chief instruments/instrument package candidates include those which could provide long-term monitoring of the surface and subsurface environments for fundamental science and human crew safety. The initial attempt to design a 10 instrument environmental monitoring package with a solar/battery based power system led to a package with a unacceptably large mass (500 kg) of which over half was battery mass. In phase 1, a factor of 5 reduction in mass was achieved, first through the introduction of high performance electronics capable of operating at far lower temperature and then through the use of innovative thermal balance strategies involving the use of multi-layer thin materials and gravity-assisted heat pipes. In phase 2, reported here, involves strategies such as universal incorporation of ULT/ULP digital and analog electronics, and distributed or non-conventionally packaged power systems. These strategies will be required to meet the far more challenging thermal requirements of operating through a normal 28 day diurnal cycle. The limited temperature range of efficient battery operation remains the largest obstacle.

  12. Temperature and turbulence measurements during the ECOMA sounding rocket campaign 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelnikov, Boris; Rapp, Markus; Singer, Werner; Baumgarten, Gerd; Williams, Bifford

    Two instrumented rockets were launched at Andøya (69 ° N) during the ECOMA sounding rocket campaign in September 2006. A comprehensive set of different data was measured insitu and by ground-based instruments. Temperature measurements were done by rocketborne instruments (ionization gauge and two Pirani gauges on each payload) and the ALOMAR RMR- and Weber Na-lidars. Simultaneously, turbulence measurements were done both in-situ using ionization gauges and using remote soundings with the SAURA MF radar. Measurements show a pronounced temperature inversion of about 30 K in the region from 80 to 100 km which coincides with a broad layer of neutral turbulence. From the morphology of the turbulence layer it can be attributed as likely originating from a wind shear.

  13. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - a fully automated, miniaturized instrument for measuring gene expression in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio; Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kianoosh

    2012-07-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecrafts opens the doors to a large number of experiments on the influence of space environment on biological systems that will profoundly impact our ability to conduct safe and effective space travel, and might also shed light on terrestrial physiology or biological function and human disease and aging processes. Measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, determine metabolic basis of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance, test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration, and monitor both the spacecraft environment and crew health. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology and medicine. Accordingly, supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measuring microbial expression of thousands of genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing bacterial cell walls, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing it on a microarray and (4) providing electrochemical readout, all in a microfluidics cartridge. The prototype under development is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by the NASA Small Spacecraft Office. The first target application is to cultivate and measure gene expression of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, i.e. a cyanobacterium known to exhibit remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions, under light and dark cycles exposed to polar orbit for a period of 6 months. The integration and end-to-end technology validation of this instrument will be discussed. In particular, preliminary results demonstrating that the instrument properly carries out cellular lysis, nucleic acid extraction and its purification is being assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real time PCR, in addition to microarray analysis of selected genes. Once developed, the system can be used with minor modifications for multiple experiments on different platforms in space, including extensions to higher organisms and microbial monitoring. A proposed version of GEMM that is capable of handing both microbial and tissue samples on the International Space Station will be briefly reviewed.

  14. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - A Fully Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kia; Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecraft opens the door to a large number of high-value experiments on the influence of the space environment on biological systems. For example, measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and determine the metabolic bases of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology, and medicine. Supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measurement of expression of several hundreds of microbial genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing cell walls of bacteria sampled from cultures grown in space, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing the RNA on a microarray and (4) providing readout of the microarray signal, all in a single microfluidics cartridge. The device is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by NASA Ames' Small Spacecraft Division. To meet space and other technical constraints imposed by these platforms, a number of technical innovations are being implemented. The integration and end-to-end technological and biological validation of the instrument are carried out using as a model the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, known for its remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions. Each step in the measurement process-lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification, and hybridization to an array-is assessed through comparison of the results obtained using the instrument with those from standard laboratory protocols. Once developed, the system can be used with minor modifications for multiple experiments on different platforms in space, including extension to higher organisms and microbial monitoring. A proposed version of GEMM that is capable of handling both microbial and tissue samples on the International Space Station will be briefly summarized.

  15. Development of an Instrument to Measure Undergraduates' Nanotechnology Awareness, Exposure, Motivation, and Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyehouse, Melissa A.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Bennett, Deborah E.; Imbrie, P. K.

    2008-10-01

    There are many educational interventions being implemented to address workforce issues in the field of nanotechnology. However, there is no instrument to assess the impact of these interventions on student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. To address this need, the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument was conceptualized. This paper is a progress report of the instrument development process. Version 1 of the instrument was administered to 335 first-year students majoring in food and agriculture fields in a pre-post fashion relative to a brief exposure to nanotechnology in the classroom. Following item analysis of Version 1 responses, a revision of the instrument was completed. Version 2 was administered to 1,426 first-year engineering students for the purpose of conducting item and factor analyses. Results indicate that the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument shows potential to provide valid information about student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. The instrument is not a valid measure of nano-knowledge and this subscale was dropped from the final version of the instrument. Implications include the use of the instrument to evaluate programs, interventions, or courses that attempt to increase student awareness of nanotechnology. Further study is necessary to determine how the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument functions as a pre-post measure.

  16. Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1992-09-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

  17. Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

  18. Instrumentation of broadband frequency domain thermoreflectance for measuring thermal conductivity accumulation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regner, K. T.; Majumdar, S.; Malen, J. A.

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the instrumentation for broadband frequency domain thermoreflectance (BB-FDTR), a novel, continuous wave laser technique for measuring the thermal conductivity accumulation function. The thermal conductivity accumulation function describes cumulative contributions to the bulk thermal conductivity of a material from energy carriers with different mean free paths. It can be used to map reductions in thermal conductivity in nano-devices, which arise when the dimensions of the device are commensurate to the mean free path of energy carriers. BB-FDTR uses high frequency surface temperature modulation to generate non-diffusive phonon transport realized through a reduction in the perceived thermal conductivity. By controlling the modulation frequency it is possible to reconstruct the thermal conductivity accumulation function. A unique heterodyning technique is used to down-convert the signal, therein improving our signal to noise ratio and enabling results over a broader range of modulation frequencies (200 kHz-200 MHz) and hence mean free paths.

  19. Measurement of the cosmic microwave background spectrum by the COBE FIRAS instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Fixsen, D. J.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Jensen, K. A.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) has a blackbody spectrum within 3.4 x 10(exp -8) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm over the frequency range from 2 to 20/cm (5-0.5 mm). These measurements, derived from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotomer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, imply stringent limits on energy release in the early universe after t approximately 1 year and redshift z approximately 3 x 10(exp 6). The deviations are less than 0.30% of the peak brightness, with an rms value of 0.01%, and the dimensionless cosmological distortion parameters are limited to the absolute value of y is less than 2.5 x 10(exp -5) and the absolute value of mu is less than 3.3 x 10(exp -4) (95% confidence level). The temperature of the CMBR is 2.726 +/- 0.010 K (95% confidence level systematic).

  20. Detection of gas hydrates by the measurement of instantaneous temperature 

    E-print Network

    Dinakaran, Srikanth

    1994-01-01

    methods used to measure sediment temperature were studied. A new method to detect hydrates was developed based on sediment temperature and its effectiveness was tested. This method involves the measurement of instantaneous temperature as a probe is pushed...

  1. Recent lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and temperature within the network for the detection of stratospheric change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Thomas J.; Ferrare, Richard; Butler, James J.; Frost, Robert L.; Gross, Michael; Margitan, James

    1991-01-01

    The Goddard mobile lidar was deployed at Cannon Air Force Base near Clovis, New Mexico during the Spring of 1990. Measurements of stratospheric ozone and temperature were made over a period of six weeks. Data from the lidar system is compared with data from a balloon-borne, ultraviolet instrument launched from nearby Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. Along with several improvements to this instrument which are now underway, a second lidar dedicated to temperature and aerosol measurements is now being developed.

  2. A portable instrument for 3-D dynamic robot measurements using triangulation and laser tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.R.R. . Mechanical Engineering Dept.); Parker, G.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-08-01

    The paper describes the development and validation of a 3-D measurement instrument capable of determining the static and dynamic performance of industrial robots to ISO standards. Using two laser beams to track an optical target attached to the robot end-effector, the target position coordinates may be estimated, relative to the instrument coordinate frame, to a high accuracy using triangulation principles. The effect of variations in the instrument geometry from the nominal model is evaluated through a kinematic model of the tracking head. Significant improvements of the measurement accuracy are then obtained by a simple adjustment of the main parameters. Extensive experimental test results are included to demonstrate the instrument performance. Finally typical static and dynamic measurement results for an industrial robot are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the instrument.

  3. Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e.g. in mofettes and diffuse degassing areas). The occurrence of thermal anomalies at the surface often reveals that a process of steam condensation is occurring below the ground and that CO2 fluxes are being released on the surface. A thermal map of steam heated grounds therefore highlights boundaries of underground steam advection and also the more suitable sites for geochemical monitoring. Pirogips has been assembled for the quick acquisition of surface parameters related to the exhaling activity of volcanic systems. It has been formerly tested in a controlled environment, after in the well known fumaroles areas of Vulcano island, and then in the volcanic system El Machin (Colombia) for the field survey preliminary to the installation of new monitoring stations. The preliminary test and the first field experiences confirmed that pirogips acquires the surface temperatures quickly and with good detail. The combination of sensors supplies the advantage of in situ methods (i.e. accuracy of the direct measurement by thermocouple) and those of ground-based remote sensing techniques (i.e. quickness of measurement process), at the same time reducing the main disadvantages of each method. A home-made data-logger combines the acquired parameters and returns a data-string allowing an easy visualization of acquired data on geo-referenced maps. The string of data returns the position of acquisition (lat, long, WGS84), surface temperature (either derived by the pyrometer and by thermocouple), ambient temperature, barometric pressure and air moisture. -References -Diliberto I.S., Gurrieri S., Valenza M. (2002) Relationships between diffuse CO2 emissions and volcanic activity on the island of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) during the period 1984-1994 Bulletin of Volcanology vol 64: 219-228. -Diliberto I.S., (2013) Time series analysis of high temperature fumaroles monitored on the island of Vulcano (Aeolian Archipelago, italy). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research Manuscript Number: doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.08.003. Inguaggiato, S., Mazot, A., Diliberto, I.S.,

  4. TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED DESORPTION: PRINCIPLES, INSTRUMENT DESIGN, AND DEMONSTRATION WITH NAALH4

    SciTech Connect

    Stowe, A; Ragaiy Zidan, R

    2006-11-07

    This article is a brief introduction to temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), an analytical technique devised to analyze, in this case, materials for their potential as hydrogen storage materials. The principles and requirements of TPD are explained and the different components of a generic TPD apparatus are described. The construction of a modified TPD instrument from commercially available components is reported together with the control and acquisition technique used to create a TPD spectrum. The chemical and instrumental parameters to be considered in a typical TPD experiment and the analytical utility of the technique are demonstrated by the dehydrogenation of titanium-doped NaAlH{sub 4} by means of thermally programmed desorption.

  5. Land Surface Temperature Measurements form EOS MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zhengming

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a physics-based land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm for simultaneously retrieving surface band-averaged emissivities and temperatures from day/night pairs of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in seven thermal infrared bands. The set of 14 nonlinear equations in the algorithm is solved with the statistical regression method and the least-squares fit method. This new LST algorithm was tested with simulated MODIS data for 80 sets of band-averaged emissivities calculated from published spectral data of terrestrial materials in wide ranges of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions. Comprehensive sensitivity and error analysis has been made to evaluate the performance of the new LST algorithm and its dependence on variations in surface emissivity and temperature, upon atmospheric conditions, as well as the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE(Delta)T) and calibration accuracy specifications of the MODIS instrument. In cases with a systematic calibration error of 0.5%, the standard deviations of errors in retrieved surface daytime and nighttime temperatures fall between 0.4-0.5 K over a wide range of surface temperatures for mid-latitude summer conditions. The standard deviations of errors in retrieved emissivities in bands 31 and 32 (in the 10-12.5 micrometer IR spectral window region) are 0.009, and the maximum error in retrieved LST values falls between 2-3 K. Several issues related to the day/night LST algorithm (uncertainties in the day/night registration and in surface emissivity changes caused by dew occurrence, and the cloud cover) have been investigated. The LST algorithms have been validated with MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) dada and ground-based measurement data in two field campaigns conducted in Railroad Valley playa, NV in 1995 and 1996. The MODIS LST version 1 software has been delivered.

  6. Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

  7. Development of an Instrument for the Measurement of Leadership Commitment to Organizational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to create a new instrument designed to examine the commitment of an organization's leadership to following organizational processes, as measured by stakeholder perceptions. This instrument was designed to aid in closure of a gap in the field of leadership studies relative to the impact that a leader's…

  8. Development of an Instrument to Measure Student Use of Academic Success Skills: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Harrington, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills instrument including item development and exploratory factor analysis. The instrument was developed to measure student use of the skills and strategies identified as most critical for long-term school success that are typically taught by school counselors.

  9. Measuring the Computer Classroom Environment: Lessons Learned from Using a New Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Keri A.; Crump, Barbara J.; Rennie, Leonie J.

    2006-01-01

    Research over the last four decades has shown that the classroom learning environment impacts on students' cognitive and affective outcomes. Different approaches have been taken to measure students' perceptions of their learning environment, and this has led to the development of a large number of survey instruments. One such instrument is the…

  10. Reliability of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument with University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument was initially designed to assess high school biology teachers' acceptance of evolutionary theory. To determine if the MATE instrument is reliable with university students, it was administered to students in a non-majors biology course (n = 61) twice over a 3-week period.…

  11. Measuring health literacy: a pilot study of a new skills-based instrument.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Lauren; Bann, Carla; Squiers, Linda; Berkman, Nancy D; Squire, Claudia; Schillinger, Dean; Ohene-Frempong, Janet; Hibbard, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Although a number of instruments have been used to measure health literacy, a key limitation of the leading instruments is that they only measure reading ability or print literacy and, to a limited extent, numeracy. Consequently, the present study aimed to develop a new instrument to measure an individual's health literacy using a more comprehensive and skills-based approach. First, we identified a set of skills to demonstrate and tasks to perform. Next, we selected real-world health-related stimuli to enable measurement of these skills, and then we developed survey items. After a series of cognitive interviews, the survey items were revised, developed into a 38-item instrument, and pilot tested using a Web-based panel. Based on the psychometric properties, we removed items that did not perform as well, resulting in a 25-item instrument named the Health Literacy Skills Instrument. Based on confirmatory factor analysis, the items were grouped into five subscales representing prose, document, quantitative, oral, and Internet-based information seeking skills. Construct validity was supported by correlations with the short form of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults and self-reported skills. The overall instrument demonstrated good internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.86. Additional analyses are planned, with the goal of creating a short form of the instrument. PMID:20845193

  12. Readiness and Expectations Questionnaire: A Cross-Cultural Measurement Instrument for First-Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Ellen; Andre, Stefanie; Suhre, Cor

    2013-01-01

    The readiness and expectations questionnaire (REQ) assesses first-year students' expectations and preparedness for their first year in university. This measurement instrument is useful for educational policy and curriculum development; it can also be used to predict the outcomes of the first year of college. This instrument was initially developed…

  13. Designing Chemistry Practice Exams for Enhanced Benefits: An Instrument for Comparing Performance and Mental Effort Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Karen J.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The design and use of a chemistry practice exam instrument that includes a measure for student mental effort is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument can beneficial to chemistry students and chemistry educators as well as chemical education researchers from both a content and cognitive science perspective. The method for calculating…

  14. Development of an Instrument to Measure Consumer Satisfaction in Vocational Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capella, Michele E.; Turner, Ronna C.

    2004-01-01

    Although state agencies are required by law to assess their consumers' satisfaction with vocational rehabilitation (VR), each state uses its own instrument to measure satisfaction. This not only makes comparisons across states impossible but also means that the quality of these instruments varies widely from state to state. As with other…

  15. Instrumentation for measurement of the effectiveness of vapor corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.G.; Miksic, B.

    1995-12-01

    Corrosion damage to process instrumentation, computer systems and electrical switch gear due to corrosive environments is frequently being controlled by the use of vapor corrosion inhibitors (VCI). Additionally, these inhibitors are used to protect products that are being packaged for storage and/or shipment, and for lay-up of major equipment systems. Typically, the evaluation of their effectiveness has been by utilizing weight loss coupons or by direct observation of the protected surfaces. Neither technique provides a timely indication loss of protection due to consumption of the VCI or is amenable to remote monitoring. A more serviceable technique utilizing thin-film electrical resistance corrosion sensors with relatively low cost instrumentation has been developed. This technology offers the advantages of continuous monitoring of the potentially corrosive environment as well as the capability to forecast the need for additional VCI without risking damage or deterioration of the protected products or equipment. Results are presented from operational experience within a chemical laboratory environment as well as test results obtained within a test chamber where different corrosive gases and VCIs were evaluated.

  16. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-12-31

    Many DOE applications would significantly benefit from the availability of robust and convenient instrumentation for trace-level actinide monitoring and analysis. This project focuses on developing new instrumentation for on-line or at-line monitoring for actinides with isotopic analysis capability. In addition, analytical protocols for a novel concentration method for actinides are being investigated. These efforts focus on demonstrating these techniques using uranium. In addition to its value in the analytical laboratory, the combination of a simple concentration technique with a robust isotopic monitor could provide a powerful method for addressing a number of outstanding DOE needs. Potential applications include monitors for waste water and sewage treatment systems influent and effluent, and the ability to determine the isotopic content of transuranic species in low-activity waste fractions for waste classification and product acceptance. For example, the need for improved monitoring for uranium, plutonium, and americium in treatment plant influent is clearly identified in need RF-ER11. With some additional sample pretreatment, such technology could also impact materials characterization needs by providing on-site isotopic analyses in a system that is smaller and significantly less complex than inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

  17. The BEAR program NRL plasma physics instrumentation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.N.; Baumback, M.M.; Haas, D.G.; Rodriguez, P.; Siefring, C.L.; Doggett, R.A.

    1989-11-15

    The BEAR program was a joint effort to launch, and demonstrate the feasibility of operating, a 1 MeV 10 ma Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) accelerator from a space platform. The accelerator design and manufacture were the responsibility of Los Alamos National Lab (LANL); diagnostics associated with accelerator operation and beam-plasma effects were also to be undertaken by LANL and NRL. Payload Integration and Telemetry was provided by the Air Force Geophysical Lab (AFGL) and Northeastern University (NEU). Beam effects on the local plasma in addition to accelerator produced vehicle effects (e.g., charging) were the responsibility of NRL as outlined herein. The BEAR rocket was launched successfully during the early morning hours of July 13 from White Sands Missile Range, White Sands, N.M. The NRL contribution to this effort included three instrument packages designed to diagnose beam-plasma and vehicle-plasma interactions. The instruments included: (1) Langmuir probe (LP) design consisting of 4 separate sensors; (2) High voltage (HIV) Langmuir Probe designed to monitor vehicle charging through current polarity changes; and (3) Plasma Wave Receive (PWR) designed to characterize the plasma wave emissions covering a broad frequency range from near DC to 50 MHz.

  18. Results from a new multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instrument for UV and visible irradiance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoiskar, Britt A. K.; Edvardsen, Kare; Kylling, Arve; Dahlback, Arne; Blumthaler, Mario; Danielsen, T.; Haugen, R.

    2003-11-01

    NILU has developed an accurate, reliable and robust filter instrument for measuring irradiances at ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelengths. The NILU-UV instrument has been thoroughly tested through comparisons with well calibrated spectral radiometers over extended time periods with significant variations in ozone and cloud cover. The objective of this work is to present the instrument and to derive UV doses, total ozone abundances and cloud effects from the NILU-UV instrument, and compare the results with similar results from a double monochromator Bentham spectroradiometer and a Brewer ozone spectrophotometer.

  19. Two-laser optical distance-measuring instrument that corrects for the atmospheric index of refraction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earnshaw, K. B.; Hernandez, E. N.

    1972-01-01

    The Wave Propagation Laboratory of the Environmental Research Laboratories of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has been engaged in the development of dual-wavelength, optical distance-measuring instruments. Recently a new generation of this type of high-accuracy instrument has been completed. Preliminary testing of the new instrument indicates that the original goal of the project, accuracy of better than one part in a million over distances of 5-10 km using averaging times of less than 1 min, is being met. This paper describes the instrument and preliminary test results.

  20. A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Alan T; Karam, Hanan N; Mulligan, Ann E; Harvey, Charles F; Hammar, Terence R; Hemond, Harold F

    2009-01-01

    An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry system provides data on shore in real time if desired. The immediate purpose of measurements by this device is to continuously infer fluxes of water across the sediment-water interface in a complex estuarine system; however, direct application to assessment of sediment-water fluxes in rivers, lakes, and other systems is also possible. Key objectives of the design include both low cost, and accuracy of the order of ±0.5 mm H(2)O in measured head difference between the instrument's two pressure ports. These objectives have been met, although a revision to the design of one component was found to be necessary. Deployments of up to nine months, and wireless range in excess of 300 m have been demonstrated. PMID:22389608

  1. A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Alan T.; Karam, Hanan N.; Mulligan, Ann E.; Harvey, Charles F.; Hammar, Terence R.; Hemond, Harold F.

    2009-01-01

    An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry system provides data on shore in real time if desired. The immediate purpose of measurements by this device is to continuously infer fluxes of water across the sediment-water interface in a complex estuarine system; however, direct application to assessment of sediment-water fluxes in rivers, lakes, and other systems is also possible. Key objectives of the design include both low cost, and accuracy of the order of ±0.5 mm H2O in measured head difference between the instrument's two pressure ports. These objectives have been met, although a revision to the design of one component was found to be necessary. Deployments of up to nine months, and wireless range in excess of 300 m have been demonstrated. PMID:22389608

  2. High Data Density Temperature Measurement for Quasi Steady-State Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, C. R.; Rashidnia, N.; Creath, K.

    1996-01-01

    A new optical instrument, the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI), is used to measure the temperature distribution across a heated chamber filled with silicone oil. Data taken using the LCPDI are compared to equivalent measurements made with a traversing thermo-couple and the two data sets show excellent agreement. This instrument maintains the compact, robust design of Linniks point diffraction interferometer and adds to it phase stepping capability for quantitative interferogram analysis. The result is a compact, simple to align, environmentally insensitive interferometer capable of accurately measuring optical wave-fronts with very high data density and with automated data reduction.

  3. High data density temperature measurement for quasi steady-state flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Rashidnia, Nasser; Creath, Katherine

    1995-01-01

    A new optical instrument, the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI), is used to measure the temperature distribution across a heated chamber filled with silicone oil. Data taken using the LCPDI are compared to equivalent measurements made with a traversing thermocouple and the two data sets show excellent agreement This instrument maintains the compact, robust design of Linnik's point diffraction interferometer and adds to it phase stepping capability for quantitative interferogram analysis. The result is a compact, simple to align, environmentally insensitive interferometer capable of accurately measuring optical wavefronts with very high data density and with automated data reduction.

  4. A Regularized Neural Net Approach for Retrieval of Atmospheric and Surface Temperatures with the IASI Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aires, F.; Chedin, A.; Scott, N. A.; Rossow, W. B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, a fast atmospheric and surface temperature retrieval algorithm is developed for the high resolution Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) space-borne instrument. This algorithm is constructed on the basis of a neural network technique that has been regularized by introduction of a priori information. The performance of the resulting fast and accurate inverse radiative transfer model is presented for a large divE:rsified dataset of radiosonde atmospheres including rare events. Two configurations are considered: a tropical-airmass specialized scheme and an all-air-masses scheme.

  5. Unified Instrumentation: Examining the Simultaneous Application of Advanced Measurement Techniques for Increased Wind Tunnel Testing Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Editor); Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Joseph W.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Meyers, James F.; South, Bruce W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2002-01-01

    A Unified Instrumentation Test examining the combined application of Pressure Sensitive Paint, Projection Moire Interferometry, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry, Doppler Global Velocimetry, and Acoustic Microphone Array has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The fundamental purposes of conducting the test were to: (a) identify and solve compatibility issues among the techniques that would inhibit their simultaneous application in a wind tunnel, and (b) demonstrate that simultaneous use of advanced instrumentation techniques is feasible for increasing tunnel efficiency and identifying control surface actuation / aerodynamic reaction phenomena. This paper provides summary descriptions of each measurement technique used during the Unified Instrumentation Test, their implementation for testing in a unified fashion, and example results identifying areas of instrument compatibility and incompatibility. Conclusions are drawn regarding the conditions under which the measurement techniques can be operated simultaneously on a non-interference basis. Finally, areas requiring improvement for successfully applying unified instrumentation in future wind tunnel tests are addressed.

  6. The Hospice Environmental Survey (HES): Pilot Test of a New Measurement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jean H.; Perrill, Norman K.

    1988-01-01

    Describes development of the Hospice Environmental Survey (HES) to measure user's perception of the homelike atmosphere provided by a hospital inpatient unit called Hospice House. Presents the HES instrument, methodology, and pilot study data. (Author/NB)

  7. [A heart function measuring and analyzing instrument based on single-chip microcomputer].

    PubMed

    Rong, Z; Liang, H; Wang, S

    1999-05-01

    An Introduction a measuring and analyzing instrument, based on the single-chip microcomputer, which provides sample gathering, processing, controlling, adjusting, keyboard and printing. All informations are provided and displayed in Chinese. PMID:12583055

  8. In Situ, Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    E-print Network

    Cziczo, Daniel James

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that ...

  9. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. D.

    1985-06-25

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/ C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  10. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  11. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  12. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  13. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  14. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  15. Laser-Based Instrument Measures Propagation Of Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Rupert U.; Cox, Robert B.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Sentz, John T.; Rose, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes use of commerical laser displacement meter to measure propagation of cracks in stainless-steel specimens in stress tests in corrosive (salt-spray) environment. Measurements directed toward determining time from beginning of each test until onset of propagation of crack.

  16. Prairie grassland bidirectional reflectances measured by different instruments at the FIFE site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deering, D. W.; Middleton, E. M.; Irons, J. R.; Blad, B. L.; Walter-Shea, E. A.; Hays, C. J.; Walthall, C.; Eck, T. F.; Ahmad, S. P.; Banerjee, B. P.

    1992-01-01

    Land surface reflectance measurements were obtained during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) field campaigns utilizing a variety of airborne and ground-based spectral radiometers. To study the validity of the assumption that the values obtained by the several different teams and instruments were interchangeable, the surface radiation measurement teams converged on a common site for one day during the fifth intensive field campaign in 1989. The bidirectional reflectances from the various instruments were basically found to be comparable.

  17. Specifying and calibrating instrumentations for wideband electronic power measurements. [in switching circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesco, D. J.; Weikle, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    The wideband electric power measurement related topics of electronic wattmeter calibration and specification are discussed. Tested calibration techniques are described in detail. Analytical methods used to determine the bandwidth requirements of instrumentation for switching circuit waveforms are presented and illustrated with examples from electric vehicle type applications. Analog multiplier wattmeters, digital wattmeters and calculating digital oscilloscopes are compared. The instrumentation characteristics which are critical to accurate wideband power measurement are described.

  18. Application of the hybrid x-ray instrument for measurement of thorium-plutonium mixed solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Eberle, H.

    1987-07-01

    The hybrid K-edge densitometry/K-x-ray fluorescence instrument constructed by Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany, is used to measure Th/Pu mixed solutions. We found that the optimal accelerating voltage for measuring these mixed solutions is 130 kV. At optimum operating conditions, the detection limit for thorium is about 25 mg/l. The minimum Th/Pu ratio that can be assayed by the instrument is about 1/1000.

  19. Portable Instrument to Measure CDOM Light Absorption in Aquatic Systems: WPI Success Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    World Precision Instruments, Inc. (WPI), of Sarasota, FL, in collaboration with NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, has developed an innovative instrument to accurately measure Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) absorption in the field. This successful collaboration has culminated in an exciting new device, called the UltraPath, now commercially available through WPI. Traditional methods of measuring absorption of dissolved materials require special handling and storage prior to measurement. Use of laboratory spectrophotometers as the measuring devices have proven time consuming, cumbersome, and delicate to handle. The UltraPath provides a low-cost, highly sensitive, rugged, portable system that is capable of high sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters.

  20. Experimental technique and new temperature and heat flow measurements in the deep boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforova, M.

    2003-04-01

    One of the outstanding problems for the modern prospect geophysics is the following, whether permeable zones and commercial petroleum concentrations exist in deep crystalline basement. Temperature measurements allow us to more accurately determine the permeable layers and reservoirs in the basement. Electronics and equipment for remote measurements in the boreholes include a set of deep instruments, cable winch and surface recording unit placed onboard a car. We made temperature measurements by the specially developed measurement technique that gives high accuracy and validity. The temperatures were measured downwards into the borehole, precluding additional fluid mixing in the hole. The thermometer lowering rate was minimised with 200 meter per hour. Measurements were made in deep and superdeep boreholes having steady-state temperature regime. Temperature was measured up to a depth of 5800 m with a sampling interval of 10 cm to 5 m. Measurements were made in the open hole and in the drill string. Temperature measurements give evidence for the existence of anomalous zones potentially corresponding to permeable layers. Unconsolidated zones occur at great depths in the granite-gneiss layer and their thickness and magnitude increase with increasing depth. The studies indicate that fluid injection anomalies, gas anomalies, sheet flow and overflow zones can be detected by temperature measurements. The drilling in the hole revealed heavily shattered rocks (fault breccia) at these depths. New temperature measurements in the deep boreholes that stood idle for 3 to 9 years after the drilling suggest permanent migration of gas from greater depths.

  1. Measurement of Sticky Point Temperature of Coffee Powder with a Rheometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sticky point temperature (Ts) measurement for hygroscopic food and biomaterial powders is traditionally performed with complex glass instruments. This property is used to characterize material stickiness, which substantially affects the flow and physical behavior of powders. In this research study w...

  2. Development and characterization of a new instrument for the traceable measurement of areal surface texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Richard K.; Giusca, Claudiu L.; Naoi, Kazuya

    2009-12-01

    Modern manufacturing industry is beginning to benefit greatly from the ability to control the three-dimensional, or areal, structure of a surface. To underpin areal surface manufacturing, a traceable measurement infrastructure is required. In this paper, the development of a new traceable instrument for the measurement of areal surface texture is presented. The instrument uses a two-axis coplanar air-bearing slideway to move the measured surface beneath a stylus probe. The motion of the slideway is measured using linear and angular interferometers. The key to the new instrument is a novel probing system incorporating a cylindrical air-bearing guideway and an electromagnetic system to maintain a constant stylus force on the surface. The deflection of the stylus is measured using a differential plane mirror interferometer thereby minimizing the effect of any error motion in the metrology frame. The uncertainties of the instrument are calculated using a Monte Carlo approach and are evaluated to be 5 nm in the z axis and 16 nm in the x and y axes (all at k = 2). The results are given for the instrument and are compared to results from a traceable profile measuring instrument and a coherence scanning interferometer.

  3. Development of a portable instrument for automated measurements of the detective quantum efficiency of x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, I. A.; Lazarev, S.; Sattarivand, M.; Jankovic, N. D.

    2007-03-01

    The scientific community has generally adopted use of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as primary measures of performance of radiographic detectors. However, measurement of these parameters is generally restricted to experts in laboratory environments due to the required x-ray physics knowledge, specialized instrumentation and computational analyses. We have developed a prototype instrument that automates both the physical measurement and subsequent image analysis to determine the MTF, noise power spectrum (NPS) and DQE of radiographic and mammographic systems. The instrument is placed in the x-ray path directly in front of the detector. A series of images are acquired, saved in "raw" DICOM format and then used to determine the MTF (using the slanted-edge method) and NPS. The number of incident quanta is calculated from measurements of the incident exposure including corrections for air temperature and pressure and ionization chamber spectral response. The primary sources of error are backscatter from the detector and scatter generated within the instrument. These have been minimized to achieve an incident exposure measurement within 2% of a calibrated electrometer and chamber in free space. The MTF and DQE of a commercial CsI-based flat-panel detector were measured over a range of incident exposures from 20 uR to 20 mR per image. Results agreed with both our own laboratory measurements and previously published measurements performed elsewhere with a similar detector within 2% for the MTF and 5% for the DQE. A complete DQE analysis of a clinical digital flat-panel detector is completed in 30 minutes and requires no system modifications.

  4. In vitro evaluation of a compact metabolic measurement instrument.

    PubMed

    Weissman, C; Sardar, A; Kemper, M

    1990-01-01

    The ability of the Datex Deltatrac (Sensor-Medics, Anaheim, CA) to accurately measure oxygen consumption (VO2v) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) was examined in vitro using the carbon dioxide addition and nitrogen dilution methods. The accuracy of respiratory quotient (RQ = VCO2/VO2) measurements was assessed using methanol combustion (RQ = 0.67). Both in the canopy (blow-by) and respirator (FiO2: 0.21-0.6, PEEP: 0-12 cm H2O) modes the Deltatrac's measurements of VO2 and VCO2 were within +/- 7% of values predicted from CO2 and N2 simulations. Similar results were obtained with methanol combustion. In vitro testing revealed that the Deltatrac accurately measures VO2 and VCO2 under a variety of simulated clinical conditions. PMID:2112632

  5. Ultra-high Temperature Emittance Measurements for Space and Missile Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan; Crandall, David

    2009-01-01

    Advanced modeling and design efforts for many aerospace components require high temperature emittance data. Applications requiring emittance data include propulsion systems, radiators, aeroshells, heatshields/thermal protection systems, and leading edge surfaces. The objective of this work is to provide emittance data at ultra-high temperatures. MSFC has a new instrument for the measurement of emittance at ultra-high temperatures, the Ultra-High Temperature Emissometer System (Ultra-HITEMS). AZ Technology Inc. developed the instrument, designed to provide emittance measurements over the temperature range 700-3500K. The Ultra-HITEMS instrument measures the emittance of samples, heated by lasers, in vacuum, using a blackbody source and a Fourier Transform Spectrometer. Detectors in a Nicolet 6700 FT-IR spectrometer measure emittance over the spectral range of 0.4-25 microns. Emitted energy from the specimen and output from a Mikron M390S blackbody source at the same temperature with matched collection geometry are measured. Integrating emittance over the spectral range yields the total emittance. The ratio provides a direct measure of total hemispherical emittance. Samples are heated using lasers. Optical pyrometry provides temperature data. Optical filters prevent interference from the heating lasers. Data for Inconel 718 show excellent agreement with results from literature and ASTM 835. Measurements taken from levitated spherical specimens provide total hemispherical emittance data; measurements taken from flat specimens mounted in the chamber provide near-normal emittance data. Data from selected characterization studies will be presented. The Ultra-HITEMS technique could advance space and missile technologies by advancing the knowledge base and the technology readiness level for ultra-high temperature materials.

  6. Development of a canopy Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurement instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G.; Wang, X.; Niu, Zh; Chen, F.

    2014-02-01

    A portable solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence detecting instrument based on Fraunhofer line principle was designed and tested. The instrument has a valid survey area of 1.3 × 1.3 meter when the height was fixed to 1.3 meter. The instrument uses sunlight as its light source. The instrument is quipped with two sets of special photoelectrical detectors with the centre wavelength at 760 nm and 771 nm respectively and bandwidth less than 1nm. Both sets of detectors are composed of an upper detector which are used for detecting incidence sunlight and a bottom detector which are used for detecting reflex light from the canopy of crop. This instrument includes photoelectric detector module, signal process module, A/D convert module, the data storage and upload module and human-machine interface module. The microprocessor calculates solar-induced fluorescence value based on the A/D values get from detectors. And the value can be displayed on the instrument's LCD, stored in the flash memory of instrument and can also be uploaded to PC through the PC's serial interface. The prototype was tested in the crop field and the results demonstrate that the instrument can measure the solar-induced chlorophyll value exactly with the correlation coefficients was 0.9 compared to the values got from Analytical Spectral Devices FieldSpec Pro spectrometer. This instrument can diagnose the plant growth status by the acquired spectral response.

  7. Development of an instrument to measure student attitudes toward science fairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddleston, Claudia A.

    Science fairs are woven into the very fabric of science instruction in the United States and in other countries. Even though thousands of students participate in science fairs every year, no instrument to measure student attitudes toward partaking in this hands-on learning experience has been fully developed and available for school administrators and teachers to assess the perceived value that current students attribute to participation in science fairs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to continue the development and refinement of an instrument that measured student attitudes towards science fairs based on an unpublished instrument created by Michael (2005). The instrument developed and tested using 110 students at two different middle schools in southwest Virginia. The instrument consisted of 45 questions. After applying a principal component factor analysis, the instrument was reduced to two domains, enjoyment and value. The internal consistency of the instrument was calculated using Cronbach's alpha and showed good internal consistency of .89 between the two domains. Further analysis was conducted using a Pearson product-moment test and showed a significant positive correlation between enjoyment and value (r = .78). Demographic information was explored concerning the domains using a series of statistical tests, and results revealed no significant differences among race and science fair category. However, a significant difference was found among gender and students who won awards and those who did not. The conclusion was that further development and refinement of the instrument should be conducted.

  8. Development and Application of a new DACOM Airborne Trace Gas Instrument based on Room-Temperature Laser and Detector Technology and all-Digital Control and Data Processin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; DiGangi, J. P.; Pusede, S. E.; Slate, T. A.; Rana, M.

    2014-12-01

    The DACOM (Differential Absorption Carbon monOxide Measurements) instrument has been used for airborne measurements of carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrous oxide for nearly four decades. Over the years, the instrument has undergone a nearly continuous series of modifications, taking advantage of improvements in available technology and the benefits of experience, but always utilizing cryogenically cooled lasers and detectors. More recently, though, the availability of room-temperature, higher-power single-mode lasers at the mid-infrared wavelengths used by DACOM has made it possible to replace both the cryogenic lasers and detectors with thermoelectrically cooled versions. And the relative stability of these lasers has allowed us to incorporate an all-digital wavelength stabilization technique developed previously for the Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH) instrument. The new DACOM flew first in the summer 2013 SEAC4RS campaign, measuring CO from the DC-8 aircraft, and more recently measuring all three gases from the NASA P-3B aircraft in support of the summer 2014 DISCOVER-AQ campaign. We will present relevant aspects of the new instrument design and operation as well as selected data from recent campaigns illustrating instrument performance and some preliminary science.

  9. Instrument for the measurement of retinal vessel oxygen saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, Jonathan J.; Smith, Matthew H.; Denninghoff, Kurt R.; Hillman, Lloyd W.

    1999-06-01

    Retinal vessel oxygen saturation has been suggested as a parameter for monitoring a wide range of conditions including occult blood los and a variety of ophthalmic diseases. We have developed an Eye Oximeter (EOX), that noninvasively measures the oxygen saturation of the blood in individual large retinal vessels using scanning lasers. 1D vessel extinction profiles are obtained at four wavelengths (629, 678, 821 and 899 nm), and the vessel transmittances computed. The oxygen saturation of blood within the vessel is then calculated from the transmittance data. We have performed an in vitro experiment on human blood which demonstrates the calibration of the EOX measurements and validates our oximetry equations. Retinal vessel oxygen saturation was measured in a human subject and found to be 65%O2Sat and 101 - 102%O2Sat in the veins and arteries on the optic disk. Irregularities in the background measured away from the optic disk resulted in a large variance in the calculated saturation when compared to measurements made on the disk.

  10. Air temperature profile and air/sea temperature difference measurements by infrared and microwave scanning radiometers

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Air temperature profile and air/sea temperature difference measurements by infrared and microwave air temperature profile and air/sea temperature difference. The main advantage of this technique techniques to estimate air temperature profiles from upward looking measurements, based on an a priori data

  11. Instrumentation for Measurement of Gas Permeability of Polymeric Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Burns, Karen S.

    1993-01-01

    A mass spectrometric 'Dynamic Delta' method for the measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes has been developed. The method is universally applicable for measurement of the permeability of any gas through polymeric membrane materials. The usual large sample size of more than 100 square centimeters required for other methods is not necessary for this new method which requires a size less than one square centimeter. The new method should fulfill requirements and find applicability for industrial materials such as food packaging, contact lenses and other commercial materials where gas permeability or permselectivity properties are important.

  12. In situ observation and measurement of composites subjected to extremely high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xufei; Yu, Helong; Zhang, Guobing; Su, Hengqiang; Tang, Hongxiang; Feng, Xue

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we develop an instrument to study the ablation and oxidation process of materials such as C/SiC (carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites) and ultra-high temperature ceramic in extremely high temperature environment. The instrument is integrated with high speed cameras with filtering lens, infrared thermometers and water vapor generator for image capture, temperature measurement, and humid atmosphere, respectively. The ablation process and thermal shock as well as the temperature on both sides of the specimen can be in situ monitored. The results show clearly the dynamic ablation and liquid oxide flowing. In addition, we develop an algorithm for the post-processing of the captured images to obtain the deformation of the specimens, in order to better understand the behavior of the specimen subjected to high temperature.

  13. Developing an Instrument to Measure Bias in CME

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takhar, Jatinder; Dixon, Dave; Donahue, Jill; Marlow, Bernard; Campbell, Craig; Silver, Ivan; Eadie, Jason; Monette, Celine; Rohan, Ivan; Sriharan, Abi; Raymond, Kathryn; Macnab, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The pharmaceutical industry, by funding over 60% of programs in the United States and Canada, plays a major role in continuing medical education (CME), but there are concerns about bias in such CME programs. Bias is difficult to define, and currently no tool is available to measure it. Methods: Representatives from industry and…

  14. An Instrument for the Measurement of Parental Authority Prototypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, John R.

    Baumrind (1971) proposed three distinct patterns of parental authority (permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness) and measured these parenting styles through interviews with parents and their children and through observations of parents interacting with their children. This study was undertaken to develop a readily-accessible,…

  15. Measuring Student Learning Outcomes Using the SALG Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Kathleen; Olsen, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    U.S. higher education institutions are being called to question their central nature, priorities, and functions, with prominent and unprecedented attention being given to accountability and the measurement of student learning outcomes. As higher education evolves in how it assesses student learning and leisure studies and recreation departments…

  16. Improvement of the operation rate of medical temperature measuring devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotra, O.; Boyko, O.; Zyska, T.

    2014-08-01

    A method of reducing measuring time of temperature measurements of biological objects based on preheating the resistance temperature detector (RTD) up to the temperature close to the temperature to be measured, is proposed. It has been found that at the same measuring time, the preheating allows to decrease the measurement error by a factor of 5 to 45 over the temperature range of 35-41°?. The measurement time is reduced by 1.6-4 times over this range, keeping the same value of the measurement error.

  17. DEFINING THE 'BLIND SPOT' OF HINODE EIS AND XRT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Mulu-Moore, Fana; Warren, Harry P.; Schmelz, Joan T.; Golub, Leon; Kobayashi, Ken

    2012-02-20

    Observing high-temperature, low emission measure plasma is key to unlocking the coronal heating problem. With current instrumentation, a combination of EUV spectral data from Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS; sensitive to temperatures up to 4 MK) and broadband filter data from Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT; sensitive to higher temperatures) is typically used to diagnose the temperature structure of the observed plasma. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a 'blind spot' exists in temperature-emission measure space for combined Hinode EIS and XRT observations. For a typical active region core with significant emission at 3-4 MK, Hinode EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with temperatures greater than {approx}6 MK and emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 27} cm{sup -5}. We then demonstrate that the temperature and emission measure limits of this blind spot depend upon the temperature distribution of the plasma along the line of sight by considering a hypothetical emission measure distribution sharply peaked at 1 MK. For this emission measure distribution, we find that EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 26} cm{sup -5}. We suggest that a spatially and spectrally resolved 6-24 Angstrom-Sign spectrum would improve the sensitivity to these high-temperature, low emission measure plasma.

  18. New method of noncontact temperature measurement in on-line textile production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xianping; Song, Xing-Li; Deng, Xing-Zhong

    1993-09-01

    Based on the condition of textile production the method of infrared non-contact temperature measurement is adcpted in the heat-setting and drying heat-treatment process . This method is used to monitor the moving cloth. The temperature of the cloth is displayed rapidly and exactly. The principle of the temperature measurement is analysed theoretically in this paper. Mathematical analysis and calculation are used for introducing signal transmitting method. Adopted method of combining software with hardware the temperature is corrected and compensated with the aid of a single-chip microcomputer. The results of test indicate that the application of temperature measurement instrument provides reliable parameters in the quality control. And it is an important measure on improving the quality of products.

  19. Time-resolved characterization of diesel particulate emissions. 2. Instruments for elemental and organic carbon measurements.

    PubMed

    Moosmüller, H; Arnott, W P; Rogers, C F; Bowen, J L; Gillies, J A; Pierson, W R; Collins, J F; Durbin, T D; Norbeck, J M

    2001-05-15

    The measurement of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) mass for particles emitted by diesel vehicles is currently accomplished using particle collection on filters, followed by analysis using the thermal/optical reflectance carbon analysis method (TOR) or one of its variations. Such filter methods limit time resolution to a minimum of several minutes, making it impossible to study emissions during transient operating conditions. Testing of five different measurement methods has demonstrated that fast response measurement of diesel exhaust particulate EC and OC concentrations, consistent with TOR filter measurements, is feasible using existing technology. EC mass concentrations are best measured through determination of particulate light absorption with a photoacoustic instrument or determination of light extinction with a smoke meter. The photoacoustic instrument has the better dynamic range and sensitivity, whereas the smoke meter is a simpler instrument. Fast response OC measurements cannot be made with any single instrument tested. However, a combination of real time weighing as implemented in the tapered element oscillating microbalance with the photoacoustic instrument has been shown to be capable of determining OC concentrations with good time response. The addition of a nephelometer to the OC measurement could potentially improve time resolution, freedom from interferences, and sensitivity. PMID:11393971

  20. Measurements of Low Temperature Dielectronic Recombination in L-Shell

    E-print Network

    Savin, Daniel Wolf

    . In a photoionized plasma, low temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) is the dominant recombination processMeasurements of Low Temperature Dielectronic Recombination in L-Shell Iron for Modeling X uncertainties in the theoretical low temperature dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients

  1. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 6 of 6: Temperature Measurement of Galvanneal Steel

    SciTech Connect

    S.W. Allison; D.L. Beshears; W.W. Manges

    1999-06-30

    This report describes the successful completion of the development of an accurate in-process measurement instrument for galvanneal steel surface temperatures. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is a part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S> Department of Energy and fifteen North American Steelmakers. This three-year project entitled ''Temperature Measurement of Galvanneal Steel'' uses phosphor thermography, and outgrowth of Uranium enrichment research at Oak Ridge facilities. Temperature is the controlling factor regarding the distribution of iron and zinc in the galvanneal strip coating, which in turn determines the desired product properties

  2. Temperature Measurement in PV Facilities on a Per-Panel Scale

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Miguel A.; Andújar, José M.; Enrique, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, construction and testing of an instrumentation system for temperature measurement in PV facilities on a per-panel scale (i.e., one or more temperature measurements per panel). Its main characteristics are: precision, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote operation, easy scaling; and all of this at a very low cost. The paper discusses the advantages of temperature measurements in PV facilities on a per-panel scale. The paper presents the whole development to implementation of a real system that is being tested in an actual facility. This has enabled the authors to provide the readers with practical guidelines, which would be very difficult to achieve if the developments were implemented by just simulation or in a theoretical way. The instrumentation system is fully developed, from the temperature sensing to its presentation in a virtual instrument. The developed instrumentation system is able to work both locally and remotely connected to both wired and wireless network. PMID:25061834

  3. Tropospheric Formaldehyde Measurements from the ESA GOME Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Kurosu, T. P.; Palmer, P. I.; Martin, R. V.; Fiore, A.; Li, Q.; Jacob, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) was launched on the European Space Agency's ERS-2 satellite on April 20, 1995. GOME measures the Earth's atmosphere in the nadir geometry, using a set of spectrometers that cover the UV and visible (240-790 nm) at moderate resolution (0.2 nm in the UV, 0.4 nm in the visible), employing silicon diode array detectors. GOME takes some 30,000 spectra per day, obtaining full global coverage in three days. We directly fit GOME radiance spectra using nonlinear least-squares analysis to obtain column amounts of several trace species with significant tropospheric concentrations, including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and formaldehyde (HCHO). Measurements of HCHO due to biogenic activity in the troposphere are presented here.

  4. Instrumentation for measuring the dynamic pressure on rotating compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Lanati, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    To establish the capability for measurement of oscillatory pressure on rotating blades, miniature fast response semiconductor strain gage pressure transducers (2mm x 0.33mm) were mounted in several configurations on thin titanium and steel compressor blades and subjected to pressure cycles from 1 to 310 kPa during static tests and spin tests. Static test conditions included 20 C to 150 C, 0 to 3000 tensile microstrain, -1000 to +1000 bending microstrain and + or - 650G vibration. The spin test conditions included 20 C to 82 C at 0 to 90,000G. Durability was excellent. Pressure transducer sensitivity changed by only a few percent over this range of environmental conditions. Noise signal due to oscillatory acceleration normal to the diaphragm was acceptable (0.33Pa/G). Noise signal due to oscillatory strain was acceptable (0.5 Pa/microstrain) when the transducer was mounted on a 0.05mm rubber pad, with a total buildup of 0.38mm on the measure surface. Back mounting or partial recessing to eliminate buildup, increased the strain effect to 1.2 Pa/microstrain. Flush mounting within the blade to eliminate buildup reduced the strain effect, but required development of a special transducer shape. This transducer was not available in time for spin tests. Unpredictable zero drift + or - 14 kPa ruled out the use of these mounting arrangements for accurate steady-state (D.C.) measurements on rotating blades. The two best configurations fully developed and spin tested were then successfully applied in the NAS3-20606 rotating fan flutter program for quantitative measurement of oscillatory pressure amplitudes.

  5. Modern method and instrument for measuring psychic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hideg, Janos; Remes, Peter; Bognar, Laszlo; Agoston, Mihaly

    This paper shows that cortical processing of information quantity can be given in bits, while speed of information processing can be given in bit/sec; therefore the information processing ability can be denoted in algebraical expression. Changes of emotional tension can be objectified by galvanic skin reflex and pulse reaction. This method and device is suitable to measure psychic state of space station personnel and to predict psychic activity.

  6. High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkun, Isil

    A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor [1]. Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non-toxic thermoelectric materials made from abundant elements and are suited for power generation application in the intermediate temperature range of (600 K - 800 K). In this work the thermoelectric materials were synthesized by a solid-state reac- tion using a molten-salt sealing method. The ingots produced were then powder processed, followed by pulsed electric sintering (PECS) densification. A set of Mg2.08Si0.4--x Sn0.6Sbx (0 ? x ? 0.072) compounds were investigated and a peak ZT of 1.50 was obtained at 716 K in Mg2.08Si 0.364Sn0.6Sb0.036 [2]. The high ZT value is related to a high electrical conductivity in these samples, which are possibly caused by a magnesium deficiency in the final prod- uct. Analysis of the measured results using LabVIEW and MATLAB developed programs showed good agreement with expected results and gave insight on mixed carrier dopant concentrations. [1] I. Berkun, S. N. Demlow, N. Suwanmonkha, T. P. Hogan, and T. A. Grotjohn, "Hall Effect Measurement System for Characterization of Doped Single Crystal Diamond," in MRS Proceedings, vol. 1511, Cambridge Univ Press, 2013. [2] P. Gao, I. Berkun, R. D. Schmidt, M. F. Luzenski, X. Lu, P. B. Sarac, E. D. Case, and T. P. Hogan, "Transport and Mechanical Properties of High-ZT Mg2. 08si0. 4- x Sn0. 6sb x Thermoelectric Materials," Journal of Electronic Materials, pp. 1--14, 2013.

  7. Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: Probing atomic structure in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Fanelli, Victor R.; Reiche, Helmut M.; Larson, Eric; Taylor, Mark A.; Xu, Hongwu; Zhu, Jinlong; Siewenie, Joan; Page, Katharine

    2014-12-01

    This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO2 measurements. The new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO2 sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H2 and natural gas uptake/storage.

  8. Asymmetric trends in seasonal temperature variability based on long instrumental records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matiu, Michael; Ankerst, Donna; Menzel, Annette

    2015-04-01

    While the increase in global mean temperature over the past several decades is widely accepted, the issue as to whether and to what extent temperature variability is changing has not been solved yet. Temperature variability as the width of the temperature distribution measures the likelihood of temperature extremes. Those changes can amplify, nullify or reduce the effect a gradual warming has on extremes. Since climatic extremes exert large impacts on society and ecology, effects of altered temperature variability must be considered in tandem with effects of a gradually increasing temperature mean. Previous studies of trends in mean temperature and its associated variability have produced conflicting results. Here we investigate 10 selected long-term climate records of minimum, mean and maximum temperatures in Switzerland, Germany and the UK. In detail, we analysed trends in seasonal, annual and decadal measures of variability (standard deviation and various quantile ranges) as well as asymmetries in the trends of extreme vs mean temperatures via quantile regression. Besides accelerated mean warming during 1864-2012, we found higher trends for Tmax than for Tmin in the last 40 years (1973-2012), amounting to up to 0.08°C yr-1 in spring. In contrast, variability trends were not as uniform: significant changes occurred in opposing directions depending on the season, as well as when comparing 1864-2012 trends to those of 1973-2012. Often, variability changed asymmetrically and consequently, trends in high and low extremes differed. More patterns were detected for spatial and seasonal variation in these changes of variability.

  9. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section...Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length...typical portion of its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65...

  10. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section...Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length...typical portion of its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65...

  11. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section...Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length...typical portion of its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65...

  12. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section...Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length...typical portion of its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65...

  13. 7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section...Staple § 28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length...typical portion of its fibers under a relative humidity of the atmosphere of 65...

  14. Instrumentation in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takashima, K.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements in designing instrumentation systems and measurements of various physical quantities in wind tunnels are surveyed. Emphasis is given to sensors used for measuring pressure, temperature, and angle, and the measurements of air turbulence and boundary layers. Instrumentation in wind tunnels require accuracy, fast response, diversity and operational simplicity. Measurements of force, pressure, attitude angle, free flow, pressure distribution, and temperature are illustrated by a table, and a block diagram. The LDV (laser Doppler velocimeter) method for measuring air turbulence and flow velocity and measurement of skin friction and flow fields using laser holograms are discussed. The future potential of these techniques is studied.

  15. An instrument to measure the heat convection coefficient on the endocardial surface.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Icaro; Shah, Jignesh; Ferreira da Rocha, Adson; Webster, John G; Valvano, Jonathan W

    2003-05-01

    This work describes the fundamentals and calibration procedure of an instrument for in vivo evaluation of the heat convection coefficient between the endocardium and the circulating blood flow. The instrument is to be used immediately before radio-frequency cardiac ablation is performed. Thus, this instrument provides researchers with a valuable parameter to predict lesion size to be achieved by the procedure. The probe is a thermistor mounted in a Swan-Ganz catheter, and it is driven by a constant-temperature anemometer circuit. A 1D model of the sensor behaviour in a convective medium, the calibration procedure and the apparatus are explained in detail. Finally, a performance analysis of the instrument in the range of 200-3500 W m(-2) K(-1) shows that the average absolute error of full scale is 7.4%. PMID:12812418

  16. A Novel Low-Cost Instrumentation System for Measuring the Water Content and Apparent Electrical Conductivity of Soils.

    PubMed

    Rêgo Segundo, Alan Kardek; Martins, José Helvecio; Monteiro, Paulo Marcos de Barros; de Oliveira, Rubens Alves; Freitas, Gustavo Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    The scarcity of drinking water affects various regions of the planet. Although climate change is responsible for the water availability, humanity plays an important role in preserving this precious natural resource. In case of negligence, the likely trend is to increase the demand and the depletion of water resources due to the increasing world population. This paper addresses the development, design and construction of a low cost system for measuring soil volumetric water content (?), electrical conductivity (?) and temperature (T), in order to optimize the use of water, energy and fertilizer in food production. Different from the existing measurement instruments commonly deployed in these applications, the proposed system uses an auto-balancing bridge circuit as measurement method. The proposed models to estimate ? and ? and correct them in function of T are compared to the ones reported in literature. The final prototype corresponds to a simple circuit connected to a pair of electrode probes, and presents high accuracy, high signal to noise ratio, fast response, and immunity to stray capacitance. The instrument calibration is based on salt solutions with known dielectric constant and electrical conductivity as reference. Experiments measuring clay and sandy soils demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the instrument. PMID:26445049

  17. A Novel Low-Cost Instrumentation System for Measuring the Water Content and Apparent Electrical Conductivity of Soils

    PubMed Central

    Rêgo Segundo, Alan Kardek; Martins, José Helvecio; Monteiro, Paulo Marcos de Barros; de Oliveira, Rubens Alves; Freitas, Gustavo Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    The scarcity of drinking water affects various regions of the planet. Although climate change is responsible for the water availability, humanity plays an important role in preserving this precious natural resource. In case of negligence, the likely trend is to increase the demand and the depletion of water resources due to the increasing world population. This paper addresses the development, design and construction of a low cost system for measuring soil volumetric water content (?), electrical conductivity (?) and temperature (T), in order to optimize the use of water, energy and fertilizer in food production. Different from the existing measurement instruments commonly deployed in these applications, the proposed system uses an auto-balancing bridge circuit as measurement method. The proposed models to estimate ? and ? and correct them in function of T are compared to the ones reported in literature. The final prototype corresponds to a simple circuit connected to a pair of electrode probes, and presents high accuracy, high signal to noise ratio, fast response, and immunity to stray capacitance. The instrument calibration is based on salt solutions with known dielectric constant and electrical conductivity as reference. Experiments measuring clay and sandy soils demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the instrument. PMID:26445049

  18. Nonintrusive Measurement Of Temperature Of LED Junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidecker, Henning; Powers, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Temperature inferred from spectrum of emitted light. Method of determining temperature of junction based on two relevant characteristics of LED. Gap between valence and conduction electron-energy bands in LED material decreases with increasing temperature, causing wavelength of emitted photon to increase with temperature. Other, as temperature increases, non-radiative processes dissipate more of input electrical energy as heat and less as photons in band-gap wavelenth region; optical and quantum efficiencies decrease with increasing temperature. In principal, either characteristic alone used to determine temperature. However, desirable to use both to obtain indication of uncertainty.

  19. Two Instruments for Measuring Distributions of Low-Energy Charged Particles in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bader, Michel; Fryer, Thomas B.; Witteborn, Fred C.

    1961-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that the bulk of interplanetary gas consists of protons with energies between 0 and 20 kev and concentrations of 1 to 105 particles/cu cm. Methods and instrumentation for measuring the energy and density distribution of such a gas are considered from the standpoint of suitability for space vehicle payloads. It is concluded that electrostatic analysis of the energy distribution can provide sufficient information in initial experiments. Both magnetic and electrostatic analyzers should eventually be used. Several instruments designed and constructed at the Ames Research Center for space plasma measurements, and the methods of calibration and data reduction are described. In particular, the instrument designed for operation on solar cell power has the following characteristics: weight, 1.1 pounds; size, 2 by 3 by 4 inches; and power consumption, 145 mw. The instrument is designed to yield information on the concentration, energy distribution, and the anisotropy of ion trajectories in the 0.2 to 20 kev range.

  20. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure University Students' Biotechnology Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Özel, Murat; U?ak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-06-01

    The impact of biotechnologies on peoples' everyday lives continuously increases. Measuring young peoples' attitudes toward biotechnologies is therefore very important and its results are useful not only for science curriculum developers and policy makers, but also for producers and distributors of genetically modified products. Despite of substantial number of instruments which focused on measuring student attitudes toward biotechnology, a majority of them were not rigorously validated. This study deals with the development and validation of an attitude questionnaire toward biotechnology. Detailed information on development and validation process of the instrument is provided. Data gathered from 326 university students provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the new instrument which consists of 28 attitude items on a five point likert type scale. It is believed that the instrument will serve as a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers in science education to assess students' biotechnology attitudes.