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1

Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pseudo-Brewster-angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster-angle radiometer would exploit the spectral-emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation. The relevant emissivity and polarization characteristics are the following: . The Brewster angle is the angle at which light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence on a purely dielectric material is not reflected. The pseudo-Brewster angle, defined for a lossy dielectric (somewhat electrically conductive) material, is the angle for which the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is minimized. For pure water, the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is only 2.2 x 10(exp -4) at its pseudo- Brewster angle of 51deg. The reflectivity remains near zero, several degrees off from the 51deg optimum, allowing this angle of incidence requirement to be easily achieved. . The wavelength range of interest for measuring water temperatures is 8 to 12 microns. The emissivity of water for parallel- polarized light at the pseudo-Brewster angle is greater than 0.999 in this wavelength range. The radiometer would be sensitive in the wavelength range of 8 to 12 microns, would be equipped with a polarizer to discriminate against infrared light polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and would be aimed toward a body of water at the pseudo- Brewster angle (see figure). Because the infrared radiation entering the radiometer would be polarized parallel to the plane of incidence and because very little downwelling parallel-polarized radiation would be reflected into the radiometer on account of the pseudo-Brewster arrangement, the radiation received by the radiometer would consist almost entirely of thermal emission from the surface of the water. Because the emissivity of the water would be very close to 1, the water could be regarded as a close approximation of a blackbody for the purpose of computing its surface temperature from the radiometer measurements by use of the Planck radiation law.

Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

2003-01-01

2

An intelligent instrument for measuring exhaust temperature of marine engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhaust temperature of the marine engine is commonly measured through thermocouple. Measure deviation will occur after using the thermocouple for some time due to nonlinearity of thermocouple itself, high temperature and chemical corrosion of measure point. Frequent replacement of thermocouple will increase the operating cost. This paper designs a new intelligent instrument for solving the above-mentioned problems of the marine engine temperature measurement, which combines the conventional thermocouple temperature measurement technology and SCM(single chip microcomputer). The reading of the thermocouple is simple and precise and the calibration can be made automatically and manually.

Ma, Nan-Qi; Su, Hua; Liu, Jun

2006-12-01

3

Optical Instrumentation for Temperature and Velocity Measurements in Rig Turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Non-intrusive optical measurement techniques have been examined in the context of developing robust instruments which can routinely yield data of engineering utility in high speed turbomachinery test rigs. The engineering requirements of such a measurement are presented. Of particular interest were approaches that provide both velocity and state-variable information in order to be able to completely characterize transonic flowfields. Consideration of all of the requirements lead to the selection of particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the approach to velocity measurement while laser induced fluorescence of oxygen (O2 LIF) appeared to offer the most promise for gas temperature measurement. A PIV system was developed and demonstrated on a transonic turbine stage in the MIT blowdown turbine facility. A comprehensive data set has been taken at one flow condition. Extensive calibration established the absolute accuracy of the velocity measurements to be 3-5 %. The O2 LIF proved less successful. Although accurate for low speed flows, vibrational freezing of O2 prevented useful measurements in the transonic, 300-600 K operating range of interest here.

Ceyhan, I.; dHoop, E. M.; Guenette, G. R.; Epstein, A. H.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.

1998-01-01

4

REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 074902 (2012) 2-and 3-temperature measurement of a heated microcantilever  

E-print Network

REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 074902 (2012) 2- and 3- temperature measurement of a heated; published online 11 July 2012) This article describes temperature measurement of a heated atomic force. This article reports AFM cantilever tem- perature measurement and calibration under periodic heating. Many

King, William P.

5

A Fibre-Optic Based Laser Absorption Radiation Thermometry (LART) Instrument for Surface Temperature Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser Absorption Radiation Thermometry (LART) is a non-contact technique based on photothermal radiometry that, in principle, enables temperature to be measured independently of target emissivity, reflected radiation from the surroundings and gaseous absorptions. A new LART instrument has been developed at NPL that utilises a fibre optic bundle and a concave mirror for imaging. The instrument is compact, robust, and

Andrew LEVICK; Gordon EDWARDS

6

An Instrument to Measure the Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation at Centimeter Wavelengths  

E-print Network

The Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the temperature of the cosmic microwave background at centimeter wavelengths. ARCADE uses narrow-band cryogenic radiometers to compare the sky to an external full-aperture calibrator. To minimize potential sources of systematic error, ARCADE uses a novel open-aperture design which maintains the antennas and calibrator at temperatures near 3 K at the mouth of an open bucket Dewar, without windows or other warm objects between the antennas and the sky. We discuss the design and performance of the ARCADE instrument from its 2001 and 2003 flights.

A. Kogut; D. J. Fixsen; S. Levin; M. Limon; P. M. Lubin; P. Mirel; M. Seiffert; E. Wollack

2004-02-24

7

Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project during this semi-annual reporting period are to test the effects of coating layer of the thermal couple on the temperature measurement and to screen out the significant factors affecting the temperature reading under different operational conditions. The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray coated thermal couples were completed in this reporting period. The comparison tests of coated and uncoated thermal couples were conducted under various operational conditions. The temperature changes were recorded and the temperature differences were calculated to describe the thermal spray coating effect on the thermal couples. To record the temperature data accurately, the computerized data acquisition system (DAS) was adopted to the temperature reading. The DAS could record the data with the accuracy of 0.1 C and the recording parameters are configurable. In these experiments, DAS was set as reading one data for every one (1) minute. The operational conditions are the combination of three parameters: air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and the amount of fine dust particles. The results from the temperature readings show the temperature of uncoated thermal couple is uniformly higher than that of coated thermal couple for each operational condition. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was computed based on the results from systematic tests to screen out the significant factors and/or interactions. The temperature difference was used as dependent variable and three operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and amount of fine dust particle) were used as independent factors. The ANOVA results show that the operational parameters are not the statistically significant factors affecting the temperature readings which indicate that the coated thermal couple could be applied to temperature measurement in gasifier. The actual temperature reading with the coated thermal couple in the gasification could be calibrated by a constant of temperature difference.

Seong W. Lee

2005-10-01

8

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the clean thermocouple were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the clean thermocouple, five (5) factors were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition and high/low frequency device (electric motor). The fractional factorial design method was used in the experiment design with sixteen (16) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the un-balanced motor vibration frequency did not have the significant impact on the temperature changes in the gasifier simulator. For the fine dust particles testing, the amount of fine dust particles has significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The effects of the air and water on the temperature measurements show the same results as reported in the previous report. The ammonia concentration was included as an experimental parameter for the reducing environment in this reporting period. The ammonia concentration does not seem to be a significant factor on the temperature changes. The linear regression analysis was applied to the temperature reading with five (5) factors. The accuracy of the linear regression is relatively low, which is less than 10% accuracy. Nonlinear regression was also conducted to the temperature reading with the same factors. Since the experiments were designed in two (2) levels, the nonlinear regression is not very effective with the dataset (16 readings). An extra central point test was conducted. With the data of the center point testing, the accuracy of the nonlinear regression is much better than the linear regression.

Seong W. Lee

2004-10-01

9

Feasibility of miniaturized instrumentation of the inflatable sphere for temperature, pressure and acceleration measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of instrumenting the inflatable passive sphere (presently used to provide upper atmosphere density measurements) with miniaturized thermistors, pressure transducers, and accelerometers was analyzed. Data from the sensors must be transmitted by an onboard telemetry system to a ground receiving station. To assure a sufficiently slow fall velocity for the sphere the additional mass of the sensor and telemetry hardware must be less than 100 grams. Other constraints that must be satisfied by the sensor and telemetry systems include the ability to withstand a 150 g launch acceleration, the ability to function in both high and low temperature and pressure environments and be sufficiently small to be packaged within the body of a 3.81 cm diameter dart. A differential transducer that will measure the difference between ambient and internal sphere pressures is recommended. The application of each type of measurement relative to its ability to monitor sphere malfunction and to provide additional meteorological data is considered.

Luers, J. K.

1975-01-01

10

Self-heating probe instrument and method for measuring high temperature melting volume change rate of material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The castings defects are affected by the melting volume change rate of material. The change rate has an important effect on running safety of the high temperature thermal storage chamber, too. But the characteristics of existing measuring installations are complex structure, troublesome operation and low precision. In order to measure the melting volume change rate of material accurately and conveniently, a self-designed measuring instrument, self-heating probe instrument, and measuring method are described. Temperature in heating cavity is controlled by PID temperature controller; melting volume change rate ? and molten density are calculated based on the melt volume which is measured by the instrument. Positive and negative ? represent expansion and shrinkage of the sample volume after melting, respectively. Taking eutectic LiF+CaF2 for example, its melting volume change rate and melting density at 1 123 K are -20.6% and 2 651 kg·m-3 measured by this instrument, which is only 0.71% smaller than literature value. Density and melting volume change rate of industry pure aluminum at 973 K and analysis pure NaCl at 1 123 K are detected by the instrument too. The measure results are agreed with report values. Measuring error sources are analyzed and several improving measures are proposed. In theory, the measuring errors of the change rate and molten density which are measured by the self-designed instrument is nearly 1/20-1/50 of that measured by the refitted mandril thermal expansion instrument. The self-designed instrument and method have the advantages of simple structure, being easy to operate, extensive applicability for material, relatively high accuracy, and most importantly, temperature and sample vapor pressure have little effect on the measurement accuracy. The presented instrument and method solve the problems of complicated structure and procedures, and large measuring errors for the samples with high vapor pressure by existing installations.

Wang, Junwei; Wang, Zhiping; Lu, Yang; Cheng, Bo

2013-03-01

11

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the ultrasonic vibration application for cleaning method were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the ultrasonic vibration application, the ambient temperature and high temperature status condition were tested separately. The sticky dirt on the thermocouple tip was simulated by the cement-covered layer on the thermocouple tip. At the ambient temperature status, four (4) factors were considered as the input factors affecting the response variable of peeling off rate. The input factors include the shape of the cement-covered layer (thickness and length), the ultrasonic vibration output power, and application time. At the high temperature tests, four (4) different environments were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow supply, water and air supply environment, water/air/fine dust particle supply, and air/water/ammonia/fine dust particle supply environment. The factorial design method was used in the experiment design with twelve (12) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the thickness and length of the cement-covered layer have the significant impact on the peeling off rate of ultrasonic vibration application at the ambient temperature environment. For the high temperature tests, the different environments do not seem to have significant impact on the temperature changes. These results may indicate that the ultrasonic vibration is one of best cleaning methods for the thermocouple tip.

Seong W. Lee

2005-04-01

12

Temperature and precipitation fluctuations in the Czech Republic during the period of instrumental measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of early meteorological observations using instruments in the Czech Lands is described (the longest temperature series for Prague-Klementinum starts in 1775, precipitation series for Brno in 1803). Using the PRODIGE method, long-term monthly temperature and precipitation series from selected secular stations were homogenized (for 10 and 12 stations, respectively). All the seasonal and annual temperature series for the common period 1882-2010 show a significant positive linear trend with accelerated warming from the 1970s onwards. No significant linear trends were disclosed in the series of seasonal and annual precipitation totals. Correlation coefficients between the Czech series analysed decrease as distances between measuring stations increase. A sharper decrease of correlations for precipitation totals displays much weaker spatial relationships than those for mean temperatures. The highest correlations between all stations appeared in 1921-1950, the lowest in 1891-1920 (temperature) and 1981-2010 (precipitation). Wavelet analysis reveals that very distinct annual cycles, as well as the slightly weaker semi-annual ones, are better expressed for temperature series than for precipitation. Statistically significant cycles longer than one year are temporally unstable and sporadic for precipitation while in the temperature series cycles of 7.4-7.7a (a = year) and 17.9-18.4a were recorded as significant by all stations in 1882-2010 (quasi-biennial cycle of 2.1-2.2a for half the stations). Czech homogenous temperature series correlate best with those of the Northern Hemisphere for annual, spring and summer values (with significant correlation coefficients between 0.60 and 0.70), but this relation is temporally unstable. Circulation indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) and the Central European Zonal Index (CEZI) may explain the greater part of Czech temperature variability, especially from December to March and for the winter; however this relationship is much weaker, or even random, for precipitation series. Further, relationships with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) are weak and random. Relatively weak coincidences exist between statistically significant cycles in the Czech series and those detected in NAOI, CEZI and SOI series.

Brázdil, R.; Zahradní?ek, P.; Pišoft, P.; Št?pánek, P.; B?línová, M.; Dobrovolný, P.

2012-04-01

13

Temperature and precipitation fluctuations in the Czech Republic during the period of instrumental measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of early meteorological observations using instruments in the Czech Lands is described (the longest temperature series for Prague-Klementinum starts in 1775, precipitation series for Brno in 1803). Using the PRODIGE method, long-term monthly temperature and precipitation series from selected secular stations were homogenised (for 10 and 12 stations, respectively). All the seasonal and annual temperature series for the common period 1882-2010 show a significant positive linear trend with accelerated warming from the 1970s onwards. No significant linear trends were disclosed in the series of seasonal and annual precipitation totals. Correlation coefficients between the Czech series analysed decrease as distances between measuring stations increase. A sharper decrease of correlations for precipitation totals displays much weaker spatial relationships than those for mean temperatures. The highest correlations between all stations appeared in 1921-1950, the lowest in 1891-1920 (temperature) and 1981-2010 (precipitation). Wavelet analysis reveals that very distinct annual cycles as well as the slightly weaker semi-annual ones are better expressed for temperature series than for precipitation. Statistically significant cycles longer than 1 year are temporally unstable and sporadic for precipitation, while in the temperature series cycles of 7.4-7.7 and 17.9-18.4 years were recorded as significant by all stations in 1882-2010 (quasi-biennial cycle of 2.1-2.2 years for half the stations). Czech homogenous temperature series correlate best with those of the Northern Hemisphere for annual, spring and summer values (with significant correlation coefficients between 0.60 and 0.70), but this relation is temporally unstable. Circulation indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) and the Central European Zonal Index (CEZI), may explain the greater part of Czech temperature variability, especially from December to March and for the winter; however, this relationship is much weaker, or even random, for precipitation series. Further, relationships with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) are weak and random. Relatively weak coincidences exist between statistically significant cycles in the Czech series and those detected in NAOI, CEZI and SOI series.

Brázdil, Rudolf; Zahradní?ek, Pavel; Pišoft, Petr; Št?pánek, Petr; B?línová, Monika; Dobrovolný, Petr

2012-10-01

14

Flight Instrument for Measurement of Liquid-Water Content in Clouds at Temperatures Above and Below Freezing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A principle formerly used in an instrument for cloud detection was further investigated to provide a simple and rapid means for measuring the liquid-water content of clouds at temperatures above and below freezing. The instrument consists of a small cylindrical element so operated at high surface temperatures that the impingement of cloud droplets creates a significant drop in the surface temperature. ? The instrument is sensitive to a wide range of liquid-water content and was calibrated at one set of fixed conditions against rotating multicylinder measurements. The limited conditions of the calibration Included an air temperature of 20 F, an air velocity of 175 miles per hour, and a surface temperature in clear air of 475 F. The results obtained from experiments conducted with the instrument indicate that the principle can be used for measurements in clouds at temperatures above and below freezing. Calibrations for ranges of airspeed, air temperature, and air density will be necessary to adapt the Instrument for general flight use.

Perkins, Porter J.

1951-01-01

15

The 500-year temperature and precipitation fluctuations in the Czech Lands derived from documentary evidence and instrumental measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Series of temperature and precipitation indices (in ordinal scale) based on interpretation of various sources of documentary evidence (e.g. narrative written reports, visual daily weather records, personal correspondence, special prints, official economic records, etc.) are used as predictors in the reconstruction of mean seasonal temperatures and seasonal precipitation totals for the Czech Lands from A.D. 1500. Long instrumental measurements from

Petr Dobrovolný; Rudolf Brázdil; Oldrich Kotyza; Hubert Valásek

2010-01-01

16

Review of modern instrumentation for magnetic measurements at high pressure and low temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-pressure magnetic susceptibility experiments can provide insights into the changes in magnetic behavior and electric properties which can accompany extreme compressions of material. Instrumentation plays an important role in the experimental work in this field since 1990s. Here we present a comprehensive review of the high-pressure instrumentation development for magnetic measurement from the engineering perspective in the last 20 years. Suitable nonmagnetic materials for high pressure cell are introduced initially. Then we focus on the existing cells developed for magnetic property measurement system (MPMS®) SQUID magnetometer from Quantum Design (USA). Two categories of high pressure cells for this system are discussed in detail respectively. Some high pressure cells with built-in magnetic measurement system are also reviewed.

Wang, X.; Kamenev, K. V.

2014-08-01

17

Evaluation of thermocouple and thermal radiation instrumentation for measuring gas turbine combustor liner temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature measurement techniques for a practical combustion chamber liner wall were investigated. Fourteen ways of sheathed thermocouple installations on thin stainless steel plated simulating a combustor liner wall were tested by flowing a hot gas on one side and cold air on the other side under atmospheric conditions. The temperature range of the hot gas and the cold air were 542 to 612 K and 317 to approximately 326 K, respectively. The tested stream velocities were in the ranges of 70 to approximately 87 m/s for the hot gas and 14 to approximately 70 m/s for the cold gas. Reynolds numbers of the hot and cold streams have no significant effects on the magnitude of the error and only the method of installation determines the accuracy of the measurements. Radiation measurements of the black coated wall surface may cause significant error because there is a big temperature gradient across the coating layer.

18

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

2001-08-01

19

An Ion Doppler Spectrometer Instrument for Ion Temperature and Flow Measurements on SSPX  

SciTech Connect

A high-resolution ion Doppler spectrometer has been installed on the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment to measure ion temperatures and plasma flow. The system is composed of a 1 meter focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer with diffraction grating line density of 2400 lines/mm, which allows for first order spectra between 300 and 600 nm. A 16-channel photomultiplier tube detection assembly combined with output coupling optics provides a spectral resolution of 0.0126 nm per channel. We calculate in some detail the mapping of curved slit images onto the linear detector array elements. This is important in determining wavelength resolution and setting the optimum vertical extent of the slit. Also, because of the small wavelength window of the IDS, a miniature fiber optic survey spectrometer sensitive to a wavelength range 200 to 1100 nm and having resolution 0.2 nm, is used to obtain a time-integrated spectrum for each shot to verify specific impurity line radiation. Several measurements validate the systems operation. Doppler broadening of C III 464.72 nm line in the plasma shows time-resolved ion temperatures up to 250 eV for hydrogen discharges, which is consistent with neutral particle energy analyzer measurements. Flow measurements show a sub-Alfvenic plasma flow ranging from 5 to 45 km/s for helium discharges.

King, J D; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Romero-Talamas, C A; Moller, J M; Morse, E C

2008-05-19

20

An ion Doppler spectrometer instrument for ion temperature and flow measurements on SSPX.  

PubMed

A high-resolution ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS) has been installed on the sustained spheromak plasma experiment to measure ion temperatures and plasma flow. The system is composed of a 1 m focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer with a diffraction grating line density of 2400 lines/mm, which allows for first order spectra between 300 and 600 nm. A 16-channel photomultiplier tube detection assembly combined with output coupling optics provides a spectral resolution of 0.0126 nm/channel. We calculate in some detail the mapping of curved slit images onto the linear detector array elements. This is important in determining the wavelength resolution and setting the optimum vertical extent of the slit. Also, because of the small wavelength window of the IDS, a miniature fiber-optic survey spectrometer sensitive to a wavelength range 200-1100 nm and having a resolution of 0.2 nm is used to obtain a time-integrated spectrum for each shot to verify specific impurity line radiation. Several measurements validate the systems operation. Doppler broadening of C III 464.72 nm line in the plasma shows time-resolved ion temperatures up to 250 eV for hydrogen discharges, which is consistent with neutral particle energy analyzer measurements. Flow measurements show a sub-Alfvenic plasma flow ranging from 5 to 45 kms for helium discharges. PMID:19044677

King, J D; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Romero-Talamás, C A; Moller, J M; Morse, E C

2008-10-01

21

A DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION FOR GASIFICATION PROCESS CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This progress report covers continuing work to develop a temperature probe for a coal gasifier. A workable probe design requires finding answers to crucial questions involving the probe materials. We report on attempts to answer those questions. We attempted to measure the laser-input power at a wavelength of 355 nm that would damage the ends of sapphire fiber optics. We were surprised and pleased to learn that they survived an input power density of about 3 x 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, which greatly exceeds the best that fused-silica fibers can do. During a run of our new simulator to obtain an upgraded calibration curve for the improved YAG:Dy phosphors, we found that the phosphor appeared to form a eutectic, with the fused-silica cuvette used to hold the phosphor, when the temperature exceeded 1450 C. This result could have substantial ramifications in this and other high-temperature applications. Our new proprietary detector package that replaced the original photomultiplier tube gave excellent results, with much better signal-to-noise ratio at a given temperature than the old package. Our new plasma-spraying operation has succeeded in spraying YAG, which we think may be a technological breakthrough.

Bruce W. Noel

2001-04-15

22

Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

Kounaves, Sam

2011-01-01

23

High-temperature borehole instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

A new method of extracting natural heat from the earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320/sup 0/C (610/sup 0/F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resource to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules. 60 refs., 11 figs.

Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.P.; Stephani, E.L.

1985-10-01

24

HTGR Measurements and Instrumentation Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an integrated overview of measurements and instrumentation for near-term future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Instrumentation technology has undergone revolutionary improvements since the last HTGR was constructed in the United States. This report briefly describes the measurement and communications needs of HTGRs for normal operations, maintenance and inspection, fuel fabrication, and accident response. The report includes a description of modern communications technologies and also provides a potential instrumentation communications architecture designed for deployment at an HTGR. A principal focus for the report is describing new and emerging measurement technologies with high potential to improve operations, maintenance, and accident response for the next generation of HTGRs, known as modular HTGRs, which are designed with passive safety features. Special focus is devoted toward describing the failure modes of the measurement technologies and assessing the technology maturity.

Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL

2012-05-01

25

AC resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

Hof, P.J.

1983-10-04

26

AC Resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

Hof, Peter J. (Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

27

ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress October 2004-March 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang; Yizheng Zhu

2005-04-01

28

Instrumentation and measurement of airflow and temperature in attics fitted with ridge and soffit vents  

SciTech Connect

This study established a research facility where airflow velocities, temperature, and differential pressures could be measured at the ridge of an attic. Following the construction of a test building, sensors were constructed, calibrated, and installed inside the attic. Paired tests were performed for three different ridge vent treatments; two were rolled type vents and one was a baffled vent. When both attics were fitted with the same ridge vent, the airspeed and differential pressure profiles at the ridge were very similar for both attics, indicating that any observed differences in airspeed and differential pressure were caused by the ridge vent treatment used. The baffled vent and rolled vents were then installed on the ridge of the west and east attics, respectively. The data demonstrated that the baffled ridge vent provided a minimum of twice the ridge airspeed of the rolled vents, when all wind conditions were considered. On the day selected to study the direction of the airflows at the ridge, the baffled vent had airflow speeds at the ridge similar to the rolled vent without fabric backing. The baffled vent allowed air to come out of the attic through both sides of the ridge (negative differential pressures on both sides), while the rolled vent without fabric backing caused air to enter through the south side of the ridge and exit through the north side (positive differential pressure on the south side and negative differential pressure on the north), in effect short-circuiting the vent. The fabric-backed rolled vent allowed attic air to come out of the attic through both sides of the ridge, as did the baffled vent, but the airspeed was slower. The baffled vent was the one with the highest airspeed at the ridge and also had both sides of the vent under negative differential pressure, providing the most effective ventilation.

Romero, M.I.; Brenner, R.J. [USDA-ARS, Gainesville, FL (United States). Center for Medical Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

1998-12-31

29

Spectroscopy-based photonic instrumentation for the manufacturing industry: contactless measurements of distances, temperatures, and chemical composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steady progress in photonic components in terms of cost-to-performance ratio, maturity and robustness opens new avenues for the commercial deployment of photonic sensor systems in a wide range of industrial applications. Advanced sensing can be used to optimize complex processes and thereby enable significant savings in energy consumption. Three cases of robust photonic instrumentation for process optimization and quality control in manufacturing industries are presented: improved metal recycling with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, quality control in precision machining by white-light interferometry with optical fiber probes embedded in machining tools, and process optimization in steel foundries by stand-off temperature measurements in blast furnaces with optical fiber lances and spectral analysis techniques. Each of these methods utilizes a low-cost spectrometer, and requires dedicated calibration and signal processing methods to guarantee robust operation in industrial environments with varying conditions. Experimental results are presented, including on-line steel alloy analysis with correct classification rates in excess of 95%, distance measurements with axial resolution of +/- 2nm over a 75?m range, and continuous temperature monitoring of molten steel in oxygen blast furnaces with temperature measurement accuracy better than 1%.

Noharet, B.; Zetterlund, E.; Tarasenko, O.; Lindblom, M.; Gurell, J.; Bengtson, A.; Lundin, P.

2014-03-01

30

ON-LINE SELF-CALIBRATING SINGLE CRYSTAL SAPPHIRE OPTICAL SENSOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR ACCURATE AND RELIABLE COAL GASIFIER TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress over the third six month period of the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the BPDI sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Research efforts were focused on sensor probe design and machining, sensor electronics design, software algorithm design, sensor field installation procedures, and sensor remote data access and control. Field testing will begin in the next several weeks.

Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang; Zhengyu Huang

2004-04-01

31

The 500-year temperature and precipitation fluctuations in the Czech Lands derived from documentary evidence and instrumental measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Series of temperature and precipitation indices (in ordinal scale) based on interpretation of various sources of documentary evidence (e.g. narrative written reports, visual daily weather records, personal correspondence, special prints, official economic records, etc.) are used as predictors in the reconstruction of mean seasonal temperatures and seasonal precipitation totals for the Czech Lands from A.D. 1500. Long instrumental measurements from 1771 (temperatures) and 1805 (precipitation) are used as a target values to calibrate and verify documentary-based index series. Reconstruction is based on linear regression with variance and mean adjustments. Reconstructed series were compared with similar European documentary-based reconstructions as well as with reconstructions based on different natural proxies. Reconstructed series were analyzed with respect to trends on different time-scales and occurrence of extreme values. We discuss uncertainties typical for documentary evidence from historical archives. Besides the fact that reports on weather and climate in documentary archives cover all seasons, our reconstructions provide the best results for winter temperatures and summer precipitation. However, explained variance for these seasons is comparable to other existing reconstructions for Central Europe.

Dobrovolný, Petr; Brázdil, Rudolf; Kotyza, Old?ich; Valášek, Hubert

2010-05-01

32

A DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION FOR GASIFICATION PROCESS CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This progress report covers continuing work to develop a temperature probe for a coal gasifier. A workable probe design requires finding answers to crucial questions involving the probe materials. We report on attempts to answer those questions. We received and studied new samples of an important thermographic phosphor, YAG:Dy. We studied the brightness as a function of dopant concentration and the relative brightnesses of the pertinent thermographic emission lines, both with respect to each other and among the phosphors. With the previously reported failure of the binder method for coatings, we are setting up a plasma-spray facility in cooperation with a subcontractor. We have been forming a network of people and organizations that may help us with various aspects of the problems at hand. This period, we approached a company with commercially successful probes, met with Tennessee Valley Authority staff (codes and coatings), and added a new faculty member to the team with materials expertise.

Bruce W. Noel

2000-10-15

33

Optical distance measuring instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.

Abshire, J. B. (inventor)

1986-01-01

34

Instruments for Water Quality Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

1975-01-01

35

Rating Scale Instruments and Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines theoretical issues associated with measurement in the human sciences and ensuring data from rating scale instruments are measures. An argument is made that using raw scores from rating scale instruments for subsequent arithmetic operations and applying linear statistics is less preferable than using measures. These theoretical…

Cavanagh, Robert F.; Romanoski, Joseph T.

2006-01-01

36

Measuring Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about measuring temperature. Learners will apply their knowledge of how temperature affects matter to understand how a thermometer works. They then read about the history of the thermometer and the temperature scales that make the information from the thermometer meaningful. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 6 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

37

Radiant Power Measuring Instrument (RPMI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The radiant power measuring instrument is a rugged, hand-carried instrument which provides an ERTS investigator with a capability of obtaining radiometric measurements needed to determine solar and atmospheric parameters that affect the ERTS radiance measurements. With these parameters, ERTS data can be transformed into absolute target reflectance signatures, making accurate unambiguous interpretations possible.

Rogers, R. H. (principal investigator)

1973-01-01

38

Temperature measuring device  

SciTech Connect

Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Sohns, C.W.

1999-10-19

39

Temperature measurement  

MedlinePLUS

... whether or not treatment is working. A high temperature is a fever . ... recommends against using glass thermometers with mercury. The glass can ... The temperature is displayed on an easy-to-read panel. ...

40

MACS, An Instrument, and a Methodology for Simulations and Global Measurements of the Coronal Electron Temperature and the Solar Wind Velocity on the Solar Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The determination of the radial and latitudinal temperature and wind profiles of the solar corona is of great importance in understanding the coronal heating mechanism and the dynamics of coronal expansion. Cram presented the theory for the formation of the K-coronal spectrum and identified two important observations. He observed the existence of temperature sensitive anti-nodes at certain wavelengths in the theoretical K-coronal spectra. The anti-nodes are separated by temperature-insensitive nodes. Remarkably, Cram showed that the wavelengths of the nodes and anti-nodes are almost independent of altitude above the solar limb. Because of these features, Cram suggested that the intensity ratios at two anti-nodes could be used as a diagnostic of the electron temperature in the K-corona. Based on this temperature diagnostic technique prescribed by Cram a slit-based spectroscopic study was performed by Ichimoto et al. on the solar corona in conjunction with the total solar eclipse of 3 Nov 1994 in Putre, Chile to determine the temperature profile of the solar corona. In this thesis Cram's theory has been extended to incorporate the role of the solar wind in the formation of the K-corona, and we have identified both temperature and wind sensitive intensity ratios. The instrument, MACS, for Multi Aperture Coronal Spectrometer, a fiber optic based spectrograph, was designed for global and simultaneous measurement of the thermal electron temperature and the solar wind velocity in the solar corona. The first ever experiment of this nature was conducted in conjunction with the total solar eclipse of 11 Aug 1999 in Elazig, Turkey. In this instrument one end of each of twenty fiber optic tips were positioned in the focal plane of the telescope in such a way that we could observe conditions simultaneously at many different latitudes and two different radial distances in the solar corona. The other ends of the fibers were vertically aligned and placed at the primary focus of the collimating lens of the spectrograph to obtain simultaneous and global spectra on the solar corona. By isolating the K-coronal spectrum from the spectrum recorded by each fiber the temperature and the wind sensitive intensity ratios were calculated to obtain simultaneous and global measurements of the thermal electron temperature and the solar wind velocity. We were successful in obtaining reliable estimates of the coronal temperature at many positions in the corona. This is the first time that simultaneous measurements of coronal temperatures have been obtained at so many points. However due to instrumental scattering encountered during observations, reliable estimates of the wind velocity turned out to be impossible to obtain. Although remedial measures were taken prior to observation, this task proved to be difficult owing to the inability to replicate the conditions expected during an eclipse in the laboratory. The full extent of the instrumental scattering was apparent only when we analyzed the observational sequence. Nevertheless the experience obtained from this very first attempt to simultaneously and globally measure both the wind velocity and the temperature on the solar corona have provided valuable information to conduct any future observations successfully.

Reginald, Nelson L.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

41

Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

2009-01-01

42

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOEpatents

A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

1999-03-30

43

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOEpatents

A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

Sanders, Scott T. (Valparaiso, IN); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1999-01-01

44

Space-borne remote sensing with active optical instruments for the measurement of temperature, pressure, ozone and the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lidar Light Detection and Ranging is regarded as an innovative component of the global observing system It offers the possibility to directly sample the four-dimensional variability of the atmosphere with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution In Europe space-borne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations since mid 1970 s resulting in mission and instrument concepts such as ATLID a backscatter lidar for aerosol and clouds for the EarthCARE mission or ALADIN a Doppler wind lidar considered for the ADM Aeolus mission Major advances particularly in humidity profiling are expected from the space-borne Differential Absorption Lidar DIAL being the Core instrument of the WALES Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space mission which was studied up to a level of Phase A In this presentation we report on the background definition of a future lidar system capable of monitoring the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide CO 2 methane CH 4 and nitrous oxide N 2 O stratospheric and tropospheric ozone O 3 and the meteorological parameter pressure p and temperature T The idea of this study which was initiated by the European Space Agency ESA was to select one or two candidate instruments for follow-on activities on sensor and mission level For each parameter appropriate performance models of active optical instruments either for range-resolved or for total column measurements were defined and implemented as computer codes for parametric analysis The sampling strategy and error characteristics for the

Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Wirth, M.

45

Dual physiological rate measurement instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

Cooper, Tommy G. (inventor)

1990-01-01

46

Compact Instruments Measure Helium-Leak Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, lightweight instruments have been developed for measuring small flows of helium and/or detecting helium leaks in solenoid valves when the valves are nominally closed. These instruments do not impede the flows when the valves are nominally open. They can be integrated into newly fabricated valves or retrofitted to previously fabricated valves. Each instrument includes an upstream and a downstream thermistor separated by a heater, plus associated analog and digital heater-control, signal- conditioning, and data-processing circuits. The thermistors and heater are off-the-shelf surface mount components mounted on a circuit board in the flow path. The operation of the instrument is based on a well-established thermal mass-flow-measurement technique: Convection by the flow that one seeks to measure gives rise to transfer of heat from the heater to the downstream thermistor. The temperature difference measured by the thermistors is directly related to the rate of flow. The calibration curve from temperature gradient to helium flow is closely approximated via fifth-order polynomial. A microprocessor that is part of the electronic circuitry implements the calibration curve to compute the flow rate from the thermistor readings.

Stout, Stephen; Immer, Christopher

2003-01-01

47

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 58, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009 2503 Temperature Dependence of Fixed Pattern Noise in  

E-print Network

on temperature, to help predict the FPN in the light response, which depends on temperature and illuminance/or illuminance sensitivity will lead to fixed pattern noise (FPN) in acquired images. For example, the response-mail: collins@robots.ox.ac.uk). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIM.2009.2014618 publication in a peer

Joseph, Dileepan

48

Advanced high-temperature instrumentation for hot section researchapplications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programs to develop research instrumentation for use in turbine engine hot sections are described. These programs were initiated to provide improved measurement capability as support for a multidisciplinary effort to establish technology leading to improved hot section durability. Specific measurement systems described here include heat flux sensors, a dynamic gas temperature measuring system, laser anemometry for hot section applications, an

D. R. Englund; R. G. Seasholtz

1989-01-01

49

Biomagnetic Measurements Using SQUID Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomagnetic measurements involve the detection of the magnetic fields generated by physiological activity in living organisms. Because magnetic fields are sensed remotely, no physical contact with the subject is required, making the technique totally non-invasive Furthermore, only the magnetic fields originating within the body are measured. No external field is applied and it can therefore be confidently stated that the technique is completely safe. These characteristics make biomagnetometry an ideal tool for the investigation of physiological processes. The only magnetic field detector capable of measuring these extremely weak biomagnetic signals is the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). In the last thirty years SQUID-based ultrasensitive magnetometers have been widely used in the investigation of physiologically produced magnetic fields for diagnostic purposes. Owing to the numerous sources of noise and interference typical of an urban environment, it has until recently been considered almost impossible to operate a SQUID magnetometer in such a location without magnetic shielding. We have overcome these technical problems and have successfully used our specially developed unshielded SQUID systems in laboratory and hospital environments. This instrumentation is suitable for recording the biomagnetic fields in adults, neonates and fetuses, and has been applied in a number of clinical studies including fetal magnetocardiography.

Rassi, D.; Zhuravlev, Y.

2000-09-01

50

10.3 High-temperature Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes high temperature instrumentation development from 1960-1970, 1980-1990 and 2000-present. The contents include: 1) Background; 2) Objective; 3) Application and Sensor; 4) Attachment Techniques; 5) Evaluation/Characterization Testing; and 6) Future testing.

Piazza, Anthony

2008-01-01

51

Are reconstructed pre-instrumental hemispheric temperatures consistent with instrumental hemispheric temperatures?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructions of Northern Hemisphere near-surface temperatures from climate `proxy' data such as tree rings, ice cores, and corals, suggest that late 20th century Northern Hemisphere mean warmth is anomalous in the context of the past several centuries and likely at least the past two millennia. Though substantial uncertainties in the paleoclimate reconstructions exist, these findings add to the evidence for a discernible human influence on climate. Here we use our simple climate model with six radiative-forcing reconstructions and climate sensitivity determined from instrumental temperatures over 1861 to 1997 to simulate the forced pre-instrumental hemispheric-average temperatures from 1500 to 1895. The model-simulated pre-instrumental temperatures indicate that the proxy temperature reconstructions are consistent with the instrumental temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere, but are too warm in the Southern Hemisphere.

Andronova, N. G.; Schlesinger, M. E.; Mann, M. E.

2004-06-01

52

Temperature Measurement Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Ames Research Center has designed a simple but medically important device--one which holds temperature probes, called thermistors, to a person's skin without affecting the characteristics of the skin segment being measured. The device improves the accuracy of skin surface temperature measurements, valuable data in health evaluation. The need for such a device was recognized in the course of life science experiments at Ames. In earlier methods, the sensing head of the temperature probe was affixed to the patient's skin by tape or elastic bands. This created a heat variance which altered skin temperature readings. The Ames-developed thermistor holder is a plastic ring with tab extensions, shown in the upper photo on the chest, arm and leg of the patient undergoing examination. The ring holds the sensing head of the temperature probe and provides firm, constant pressure between the skin and the probe. The tabs help stabilize the ring and provide attachment points for the fastening tape or bands, which do not directly touch the sensor. With this new tool, it is possible to determine more accurately the physiological effects of strenuous exercise, particularly on the treadmill. The holder is commercially available from Yellow Springs Instrument Company, Inc., Yellow Springs, Ohio, which is producing the device under a NASA patent license.

1979-01-01

53

Advances in instrumentation for atmospheric aerosol measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instruments for airborne particle sampling and measurement are important tools for the study of particulate air contaminants. As such they are important in air quality, air pollution and industrial hygiene studies. Particle measuring instruments are important also for various industrial processes, such as clean room monitoring and contaminant measurement in clean process gases used in semiconductor manufacturing. This paper reviews

David Y H Pui; Benjamin Y H Liu

1988-01-01

54

Temperature control system for optical elements in astronomical instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremely low temperatures may damage the optical components assembled inside of an astronomical instrument due to the crack in the resin or glue used to attach lenses and mirrors. The environment, very cold and dry, in most of the astronomical observatories contributes to this problem. This paper describes the solution implemented at SOAR for remotely monitoring and controlling temperatures inside of a spectrograph, in order to prevent a possible damage of the optical parts. The system automatically switches on and off some heat dissipation elements, located near the optics, as the measured temperature reaches a trigger value. This value is set to a temperature at which the instrument is not operational to prevent malfunction and only to protect the optics. The software was developed with LabVIEWTM and based on an object-oriented design that offers flexibility and ease of maintenance. As result, the system is able to keep the internal temperature of the instrument above a chosen limit, except perhaps during the response time, due to inertia of the temperature. This inertia can be controlled and even avoided by choosing the correct amount of heat dissipation and location of the thermal elements. A log file records the measured temperature values by the system for operation analysis.

Verducci, Orlando; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Flávio F.; Vital de Arruda, Márcio; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Fraga, Luciano

2014-07-01

55

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

...NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.22 Measurement instrumentation...section Source Decibels 1 201.24 Locomotives 0 Rail cars 0 Locomotive load cell test stand 0 201.26...

2014-07-01

56

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL...Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments....

2010-07-01

57

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

...2014-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL...Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments....

2014-07-01

58

The adaptation of iButtons® for near-surface rock temperature and thermal offset measurements in a high alpine environment - Instrumentation and first results, Kitzsteinhorn (3203 m), Hohe Tauern, Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High alpine regions are very rough terrains influenced by extreme weather conditions. Steep and inaccessible terrain complicates the installation and maintenance of monitoring instruments. Among other hazards lightning stroke, low temperatures and mass movements have a strong impact on permanently installed instruments. Therefore technical challenges include the development of robust measuring instruments to resist harsh environmental conditions. The presented work is part of the MOREXPERT ('Monitoring Expert System for Hazardous Rock Walls') project. One of the project's main objectives is the development of an easy to use and maintainable monitoring system with respect to cost and benefit. The assessment of rock permafrost distribution across the whole summit pyramid (300 meters in height, 3.5 ha) and the consideration of the heterogeneous topography requires a large number of temperature loggers. To meet these requirements iButtons® were used. The iButton® is a computer chip enclosed in a 16mm thick stainless steel can. The used DS1922L/T temperature logger iButtons® are rugged, self-sufficient systems that measure temperature and record the result in a protected memory section with an accuracy of ±0.5°C from -10°C to +65°C and a resolution of 0.0625°C. In contrast to conventionally used temperature loggers, iButtons® are cheap, end-user friendly and easily replaceable in case of damage. For this reason a large number of measurement sites can easily be equipped for the measurement of near-surface rock temperatures and thermal offset. A special instrumentation workflow for the installation of iButtons® in depths of 10 and 80 cm was developed. All iButtons® were attached to polyethylene rods and placed in previously drilled holes. First results show a good applicability of iButtons® for rock temperature measurements.

Keuschnig, M.; Hartmeyer, I.; Schmidjell, A.; Schrott, L.

2012-04-01

59

Measurement hardware emulator: synthetic instrumentation and CASS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic Instrumentation is a class of test devices, including measurers and stimulators, implemented primarily with software and supported with minimal hardware conditioning for the test signals. This philosophy permits frequent reuse of the hardware elements (processors, A\\/Ds, D\\/As, signal conditioners and switches) when commanding different instrument functions. Substantially lower purchase cost and life cycle cost per function are therefore achieved.

Leslie A. Orlidge; Eric D. Stoll

1999-01-01

60

Isotopic CO2 Instrumentation for UAV Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide is the largest component of anthroprogenic green house gas emissions. Knowing atmospheric 13CO2/12CO2 ratios precisely is important for understanding biogenic and anthroprogenic sources and sinks for carbon. Instrumentation mounted on UAV aircraft would enable important spatial isotopic CO2 information. However, current isotopic CO2 instrumentation have unfavorable attributes for UAV use, such as high power requirements, high cost, high weight, and large size. Here we present the early development of a compact isotopic CO2 instrument that is designed to nullify effects of pressure, temperature and moisture, and will ultimately be suitable for UAV deployment.

Gomez, A.; Silver, J.

2013-12-01

61

Instrumentation for Structure Measurements on Highly Non-equilibrium Materials  

SciTech Connect

Containerless techniques (levitation) completely eliminate contact with the sample. This unique sample environment allows deep supercooling of many liquids and avoids contamination of high temperature melts. Recent experiments at the APS high energy beamline 11 ID-C used aerodynamic levitation with laser beam heating and acoustic levitation with cryogenic cooling. By using these two methods, liquids were studied over much of the temperature range from -40 to +2500 C. This paper briefly describes the instrumentation and its use with an -Si area detector that allows fast, in-situ measurements. Use of the instruments is illustrated with examples of measurements on molten oxides and aqueous materials.

Weber, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Benmore, Chris J [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Wilding, Martin C [ORNL

2011-01-01

62

Evaluation of the use of an integration-type laser-Doppler flowmeter with a temperature-loading instrument for measuring skin blood flow in elderly subjects during cooling load: comparison with younger subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integration-type laser-Doppler flowmeter, equipped with a temperature-load instrument, for measuring skin blood flow (ILD-T), and analytical parameters developed in a previous study were used to compare changes in the skin blood flow in the forehead and cheek in elderly subjects (in their 60s and 70s) with those in younger subjects (in their teens to 50s). Age-related differences in skin

Yoshinao Nagashima; Yukihiro Yada; Toshiyuki Suzuki; Akio Sakai

2003-01-01

63

Tory reactor temperature measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declassified 26 Nov 1973. The basic problem to be dealt with was how to ; continuously measure temperatures in the active core of a reactor that was to be ; operated as a high-temperature heat exchanger with compressed air used as the ; cooling medium. Some 345 to 375 measurements were made on the Tory IIA and IIC ; reactors.

1965-01-01

64

IMTC 2005 Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference  

E-print Network

IMTC 2005 ­ Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference Ottawa, Canada, 17-19 May 2005 and mobile care; several studies have shown that such care improves the patient's quality of life or implanted sensors to measure the electrical and optical properties of the body. These sensors

Adler, Andy

65

Space weather instruments and measurement platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather is a phenomenon affecting near-Earth space. It manifests itself in numerous different ways, the best known being the Aurora. Space weather causes numerous problems to several critical infrastructures, such as power grids and satellites. This poster shows current space weather instrumentation and systems to analyze their capabilities and possibly existing gaps in measurements. Analysis of magnetospheric, ionospheric, solar and solar wind instruments and instrument platforms is conducted. Our results show that currently existing instrumentation is able to measure essentially all space weather phenomena. Magnetometer coverage in auroral regions is not sufficient for detailed space weather analysis e.g. due to the lack of capability for measuring magnetic field at the sea. Ionospheric measurements have similar problems with coverage, but they also have rather short time series. Solar and solar wind observations are concentrated on a small number of orbital observatories that are difficult to replace and expensive. In conclusion, testing of CubeSat mounted fluxgate magnetometers, adoption of underwater magnetometers and improvements in coverage of ionospheric and magnetospheric measurements are suggested. Maintenance of the ability to conduct in situ measurements of solar wind and solar observations are recommended.

Peitso, Pyry; Tanskanen, Eija

66

21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered...

2011-04-01

67

21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered...

2010-04-01

68

Standard Of Measurement For Student Evaluation Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

For colleges and universities, the expectation for excellence in teaching and learning has made development of a system for measuring teaching effectiveness critical. Teaching effectiveness is generally assessed with a comprehensive review of skills including instructional design, instructional delivery and course management. This requires student feedback usually in the form of Student Evaluation Instruments (SEIs). Since SEIs are an important

Kathleen Simione; Angela Mattie

2008-01-01

69

IMTC 2006 Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference  

E-print Network

IMTC 2006 ­ Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference Sorrento, Italy 24-27 April 2006, Imaging, Video and Autonomous Systems Research Laboratory School of Information Technology and Engineering for iterative algorithms to perform properly. The method presented in this paper does not require an initial

Payeur, Pierre

70

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference  

E-print Network

, electronic system suppliers, and re- search and technology partners, in order to develop intelligent systemsIEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference Budapest, Hungary, May 21-23, 2001. A multi-sensor approach for the protection of vulnerable traffic participants - the PROTECTOR project

Gavrila, Dariu M.

71

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference  

E-print Network

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference Budapest, Hungary, May 21-23, 2001-aided support and partial automation of the creative task of process modeling. Recent reviews give a comprehen simulators and physical property packages are the target of initiatives such as Global CAPE-OPEN [13

Linninger, Andreas A.

72

AC instrumentation amplifier for bioimpedance measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The input impedance and common-mode rejection ratio requirements for an amplifier for bioimpedance measurements are analyzed, considering the capacitive components of the electrode-skin contact impedance. An AC-coupled instrumentation amplifier that fulfills those requirements, and provides both interference and noise reduction and a zero phase shift over a wide frequency band without using broadband operational amplifiers, is described.

R. Pallas-Areny; J. G. Webster

1993-01-01

73

Derivation of molecular species profiles, atmospheric temperature profile, and instrumental pointing from SMILES instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in sub-millimeter wave receiver technology gives the possibility to drastically improve the quality of limb sounding data by use of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer element. This receiver will detect molecular spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio one order of magnitude better than the conventional ambient--temperature Schottky receiver. SMILES (Superconductor Submillimeter-wave Limb-emission Sounder) is proposed by the Communications Research Laboratory and the National Space Agency of Japan, with technical support from the National Astronomical Observatory, and with scientific support from the University of Bremen, in order to demonstrate the new sub-millimeter wave technology in space, and to conduct the measurements of limb-emission sounding for a group of molecular species profiles. In order to anticipate the performance of the instrument, retrieval simulations are carried out. Synthetic measurements, as will be recorded by the SMILES instrument, are generated by the use of a forward model. These are then inverted, using an inversion model, in order to derive the variables of interest, such as molecular species profiles (e.g., O3, ClO, HCl), atmospheric temperature profile, or a first order instrumental pointing correction (i.e., a pointing offset). The applied inversion algorithm is the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM). The advantage of the OEM is that it allows a formal error analysis needed for a general error characterization of retrieval performance. The error analysis takes into consideration the total statistical error, the measurement error, the vertical altitude resolution, and the correlation between the retrieved quantities. The altitude domain of a good measurement sensibility is defined by the measurement response.

Verdes, Carmen; Buehler, Stefan; Kuenzi, Klaus

2003-04-01

74

Input impedance of brass instruments from velocity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A velocity sensor known as the Microflown measures particle velocity from a difference in temperature between two MEMS-scale wires. With a small precision microphone in a package the size of a matchstick, simultaneous measurement of particle velocity and pressure can be accomplished in a tiny space such as the mouthpiece of a brass instrument. Traditional measurements of input impedance rely on a constant flow provided by a capillary tube or feedback loop control of the driver. This velocity sensor eliminates these technical requirements. The apparatus and calibration procedures will be described, and results of measurements of several instruments will be presented. In an easily used device, this approach could benefit instrument designers, makers, and repair technicians.

Ludwigsen, Daniel O.

2005-09-01

75

Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 ?m) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

2006-11-14

76

Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

Hagopian, John G.

2010-01-01

77

Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

Dennis, B.R. (comp.)

1986-06-01

78

Large Area Lunar Dust Flux Measurement Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrument under development is designed to characterize the flux and size distribution of the lunar micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta environment. When deployed on the lunar surface, the data collected will benefit fundamental lunar science as well as enabling more reliable impact risk assessments for human lunar exploration activities. To perform this task, the instrument requirements are demanding. It must have as large a surface area as possible to sample the very sparse population of the larger potentially damage-inducing micrometeorites. It must also have very high sensitivity to enable it to measure the flux of small (<10 micron) micrometeorite and secondary ejecta dust particles. To be delivered to the lunar surface, it must also be very low mass, rugged and stow compactly. The instrument designed to meet these requirements is called FOMIS. It is a large-area thin film under tension (i.e. a drum) with multiple fiber optic displacement (FOD) sensors to monitor displacements of the film. This sensor was chosen since it can measure displacements over a wide dynamic range: 1 cm to sub-Angstrom. A prototype system was successfully demonstrated using the hypervelocity impact test facility at the University of Kent (Canterbury, UK). Based on these results, the prototype system can detect hypervelocity (approx.5 km/s) impacts by particles as small as 2 microns diameter. Additional tests using slow speeds find that it can detect secondary ejecta particles (which do not penetrate the film) with momentums as small as 15 pico-gram 100m/s, or nominally 5 microns diameter at 100 m/s.

Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burchell, M.; Stansbery, Eugene; Lagakos, N.

2009-01-01

79

Instrumentation for measuring speech privacy in rooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federal legislation pertaining to oral privacy in healthcare and financial services industries has increased the need for a convenient and economical way to document speech privacy conditions in offices, medical examination rooms, and certain other workspaces. This legislation is embodied in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA). Both laws require that reasonable measures be put in place to safeguard the oral privacy of patients and clients. While techniques for privacy documentation are known within the acoustical consulting community, it is unlikely that community alone has the capacity to provide the surveys needed to evaluate acoustical conditions and demonstrate compliance with the legislation. A portable computer with integrated soundboard and a suitable amplified loudspeaker and test microphone are all that are needed to perform in situ measurements of articulation index or other accepted indices of speech privacy. Along with modest training, such instrumentation allows technicians to survey a large number of sites economically. Cost-effective components are shown that can meet the requirements for testing in most common environments where oral privacy is likely to be required. Example cases are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of such instrumentation.

Horrall, Thomas; Pirn, Rein; Markham, Ben

2003-10-01

80

BOOK REVIEW: Temperature Measurement, 2nd edn  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book covers a very wide range of temperature measurement apparatus and techniques including those relevant to industry, and it deals with some of the corrections that are needed in non-ideal situations. As well as dealing with all the standard instruments, e.g. thermocouples, it also deals with newer instruments, e.g. fibre optic thermometers, thermal imagers or many types of semiconductor

L. Michalski; K. Eckersdorf; J. Kucharski; J. McGhee

2002-01-01

81

Small mass measurement instrument for measuring weight under weightless conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small mass measurement instrument (SMMI), developed for NASA experiments conducted in the near zero environment is described. The SMMI is based on the principle of an oscillating spring-mass system, for which a period of oscillation is a function of the system's mass. It has the capacity of weighing specimens in the weight range of below 1 g to over 10,000 g, with an accuracy of 0.05 percent. The instrument has a keyboard, liquid crystal display, and microprocessor, which provide capabilities for entering and deleting data, display of messages, prompts, and specimen weight values, memory, and self-calibration features. The SMMI is scheduled for use beginning with Spacelab 4. Included in the description are the SMMI block diagram, detailed descriptions of the principles involved in the construction of the assemblies of the instrument, and photographs of its various parts.

Solberg, R. F., Jr.

1984-05-01

82

NEUTRON SCATTERING INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASUREMENT OF MELT STRUCTURE  

SciTech Connect

This Phase II research project was focused on constructing and testing a facility for the measurement of the structure of hot solid and liquid materials under extreme conditions using neutron diffraction. The work resulted in measurements at temperatures of 3300 K, the highest ever performed in a neutron beam. Work was performed jointly by Containerless Research, Inc. and Argonne National Laboratory with significant interactions with engineers and scientists at the under construction-SNS facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The work comprised four main activities: Design and construct an advanced instrument for structural studies of liquids and hot solids using neutron scattering. Develop and test a software package for instrument control, data acquisition and analysis. Test and demonstrate the instrument in experiments at the GLAD beamline at IPNS. Evaluate requirements for performing experiments at the SNS. Develop interest from the potential user base and identify potential support for Phase III. The objectives of the research were met. A second-generation instrument was developed and constructed. The instrument design drew on the results of a formal design review which was held at Argonne National Laboratory during the Phase I research [1]. The review included discussion with potential instrument users, SNS scientists and engineers and various scientists involved with materials, glass, ceramics, and geological sciences. The instrument combines aerodynamic levitation with pulsed neutron diffraction in a controlled atmosphere. An important innovation was the use of pure vanadium levitation nozzles that effectively eliminated contributions from the sample environment to the measured data. The instrument employed a 250 Watt CO2 laser that was configured for Class I laser operation. The use of Class I laser configuration meant that operators could work with the equipment with minimal restrictions and so concentrate on the research activities. Instrument control and data acquisition software was developed and implemented. As part of a larger initiative at IPNS, PC-based programs are being developed for acquisition and processing of neutron data. The PC-based beamline data handling system will enable compatibility with the levitator software. The instrument was bench tested at CRI and operated in three campaigns at the GLAD beamline at IPNS. Samples approximately 3.5 mm in diameter were levitated for periods up to 6 hours and at temperatures up to 3300 K. Structure factors were obtained for liquid oxide materials and hot solids. Details are given in this report and in published or submitted papers. During the course of the Phase I and Phase II projects, technical presentations were made at the Materials Research Society meeting in Boston, November, 2001, the American Conference on Neutron Scattering in Knoxville, TN, June, 2002, the Gordon Research Conference on High Temperature Chemistry (poster) in Waterville, ME, August 2002, the ACNS meeting in Baltimore, MD, June, 2004 and the Non-crystalline Materials-9 meeting in Corning NY, July, 2004. Two manuscripts were prepared, one is published, one is in review. The presentations have resulted in contact with the user community and we have received several requests to use the instrument. As a result, we are seeking support for collaborative research and plan to offer beamline instruments for commercial sale.

Richard Weber, Christopher Benmore

2004-10-21

83

Infrared radiometric technique in temperature measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One class of commercially available imaging infrared radiometers using cooled detectors is sensitive to radiation over the 3 to 12 micron wavelength band. Spectral filters can tailor instrument sensitivity to specific regions where the target exhibits optimum radiance. The broadband spectral response coupled with real time two-dimensional imaging and emittance/background temperature corrections make the instruments useful for remote measurement of surface temperatures from -20 C to +1500 C. Commonly used radiometric techniques and assumptions are discussed, and performance specifications for a typical modern commercial instrument are presented. The potential usefulness of an imaging infrared radiometer in space laboratories is highlighted through examples of research, nondestructive evaluation, safety, and routine maintenance applications. Future improvements in instrument design and application of the radiometric technique are discussed.

Glazer, S.; Madding, R.

1988-01-01

84

Instrumented Bolts Would Measure Shear Forces In Joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bolts instrumented with strain gauges used to measure shear forces. Bolts installed in multiple-bolt lap joints to obtain data on distribution of stresses and deformations in and around joints. Strain gauges indicate share of applied load borne by each individual bolt. In original application, bolted panels made of advanced refractory composite materials designed to withstand use at temperatures up to 4,000 degrees F. Also applicable to other joint materials and measurement of shear loads in other connections such as, shear loads on shafts in pulleys or gears.

Sawyer, James Wayne; Mcwithey, Robert R.

1994-01-01

85

Introducing Temperature Measurement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn how to read a Celsius-scale thermometer, associate weather conditions and seasons with Celsius temperature ranges, and keep a record of temperature. Students will read the Celsius temperature each day and discuss how given temperatures "feel". They record the temperature by using a string of beads and a chart.

86

NCTM workshop splinter session, IR thermal measurement instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The splinter session dealing with commercial industrial thermal measurement state-of-the-hardware had a total attendance of 15. Two papers were presented in the splinter session as follows: (1) Development of an Infrared Imaging System for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment, Alexander D. Pline, NASA LeRC; (2) A Space-qualified PtSi Thermal Imaging System, Robert W. Astheimer, Barnes Engineering Div., EDO Corp. In addition a brief description of SPRITE detector technology was presented by Richard F. Leftwich of Magnovox. As anticipated, the discussions were concerned mainly with thermal imaging figures of merit rather than those for point measurement instruments. The need for uniform guidelines whereby infrared thermal imaging instruments could be specified and evaluated was identified as most important, particularly where temperature measurements are required. Presently there are differences in the way different manufacturers present significant performance parameters in their instrument data sheets. Furthermore, the prospective user has difficulty relating these parameters to actual measurement needs, and procedures by which performance can be verified are poorly defined. The current availability of powerful thermal imaging diagnostic software was discussed.

Kaplan, Herbert

1989-01-01

87

A Multiwavelength Distance-Measuring Instrument for Geophysical Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiwavelength distance-measuring (MWDM) instrument that utilizes the dispersive nature of the atmosphere has been developed and tested. With this instrument there is no need for the usual mete- orological observations and corrections. This MWDM instrument simultaneously measures the optical path length at three wavek\\/ngths, two in the optical region of the spectrum and one in the microwave region. The

L. E. Slater; G. R. Huggett

1976-01-01

88

Verification of steady-state temperature predictions in an instrumented LMFBR driver subassembly  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this paper is to compare the predicted steady-state coolant temperatures obtained by a thermal-hydraulic computer code with the measured coolant temperatures obtained from the instrumented LMFBR subassembly XX09 during reactor run 129C while the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) was essentially at full power and flow conditions.

Betten, P.R.; Feldman, E.E.; Chang, L.K.; Mohr, D.; Planchon, H.P.

1985-01-01

89

Instrumentation for measuring energy inputs to implements  

SciTech Connect

A microcomputer-based instrumentation system for monitoring tractor operating parameters and energy inputs to implements was developed and mounted on a 75-power-takeoff-KW tractor. The instrumentation system, including sensors and data handling equipment, is discussed. 10 refs.

Tompkins, F.D.; Wilhelm, L.R.

1981-01-01

90

Nulling Infrared Radiometer for Measuring Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nulling, self-calibrating infrared radiometer is being developed for use in noncontact measurement of temperature in any of a variety of industrial and scientific applications. This instrument is expected to be especially well-suited to measurement of ambient or near-ambient temperature and, even more specifically, for measuring the surface temperature of a natural body of water. Although this radiometer would utilize the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) portion of the spectrum (wavelengths of 8 to 12 m), its basic principle of operation could also be applied to other spectral bands (corresponding to other temperature ranges) in which the atmosphere is transparent and in which design requirements for sensitivity and temperature-measurement accuracy could be satisfied.

Ryan, Robert

2003-01-01

91

Models of Solar Irradiance Variability and the Instrumental Temperature Record  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of decade-to-century (Dec-Cen) variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) on global mean surface temperature Ts during the pre-Pinatubo instrumental era (1854-1991) are studied by using two different proxies for TSI and a simplified version of the IPCC climate model.

Marcus, S. L.; Ghil, M.; Ide, K.

1998-01-01

92

Conditioning circuit for temperature and strain measurement  

E-print Network

application is import, ant. A thermocouple is made up of two dissimilar tnetal conductors joined at one end, usually called the hot or detecting junction, and connected to some emf measuring instrument such as a, millivoltmeter at the cold encl... of the conductors. The mcasurcd emf is normally compared to some reference such as the ice point. A typical system is shown schematically in Fig. 2. The basic circuit contains all the essential elements for making a temperature measurement. The thermocouple...

Patel, Aashit Mahendra

2012-06-07

93

Sourcebook on high-temperature electronics and instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

This sourcebook summarizes the high-temperature characteristics of a number of commercially available electronic components and materials required in geothermal well-logging instruments that must operate to 275/sup 0/C. The sourcebook is written to provide a starting place for instrument designers, who need to know the high-temperature electronic products that are available and the design and performance limitations of these products. The electronic component information given includes the standard repertoire of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors, and magnetics; the active devices and integrated circuits sections emphasize silicon semiconductor JFETs and CMOS circuits; and, to complete the electronics, interconnections and packaging of hybrid microelectronics are described. Thermal insulation and refrigeration alternatives are also presented in the sourcebook. Finally, instrument housing materials and high-temperature cables and cablehead connectors are listed. This information was compiled as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program that Sandia National Laboratories conducted for the US Department of Energy's Divison of Geothermal Energy from 1976 to 1981.

Veneruso, A.F. (ed.)

1981-10-01

94

Instrumentation of sampling aircraft for measurement of launch vehicle effluents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obtaining valid airborne measurements. Discussions of the data acquisition system used, the instrument power system, and operational sampling procedures are included. Representative measurements obtained from an actual rocket launch monitoring activity are also presented.

Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Tyson, R. W.

1977-01-01

95

Guide to measurement of winds with instrumented aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft measurement techniques are reviewed. Review of past and present applications of instrument aircraft to atmospheric observations is presented. Questions to be answered relative to measuring mean wind profiles as contrasted to turbulence measurements are then addressed. Requirements of instrumentation and accuracy, data reduction, data acquisition, and theoretical and certainty analysis are considered.

Frost, Walter; Paige, Terry S.; Nelius, Andrew E.

1991-01-01

96

Development of a portable ambient temperature radiometric assaying instrument  

SciTech Connect

There is a strong need for portable radiometric instrumentation that can accurately confirm the presence of nuclear materials and allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. To fulfill this need we are developing a hand-held, non-cryogenic, low-power gamma- and x-ray measurement and analysis instrument that can both search and then accurately verify the presence of nuclear materials. We report on the use of cadmium zinc telluride detectors, signal processing electronics, and the new field-portable instrument based on the MicroNOMAD Multichannel Analyzer from EG&G ORTBC. We also describe the isotopic analysis that allows uranium enrichment measurements to be made accurately in the field.

Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Ruhter, W.D.

1994-10-01

97

A New Instrument for Measuring Teacher Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 24-item Q-sort faculty evaluation instrument based on Spady's model of teacher competency was constructed and piloted. Following the second pilot and factor analysis of the data, the items were reduced to 16. Test-retest reliability was .81. High correlations between items and their subscale total and low interitem correlations indicate…

O'Tuel, Frances S.; Terry, B. Diane

98

VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT BASED PC PARALLEL LPT PORT COMPATIBLE TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-cost user-friendly programmable temperature controller compatible with the PCs LPT port has been designed based on a Virtual Instrument (VI) program with minimum hardware and maximum support of software written in LabVIEW 6.0. This design consists of a MAXIM 12-bit serial ADC, thermocouple read-out circuit, fabricated in a miniature PCB. The PC's LPT port is used for PC bus

J. Jayapandian; Usharani Ravi; R. Mallika; O. K. Sheela; B. Purniah

99

Air temperature measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coupled pair of identical film-mounted spherical bead thermistors serve as air temperature sensors aboard both Balloons 8-a and 8-b. The 8-a payload was reeled downward approximately 200 m beneath the balloon. The thermistor mounts were arranged in such a way so that when solar radiation was incident in a direction which was perpendicular to one film, then the direction of the incident solar ray was parallel to the second film. As the payload rotated during the flight (its rotation rate relative to the earth's magnetic field was sensed by a magnetometer), the temperature of each sensor varied depending on the orientation of the film surfaces with respect to the sun.

Ballard, H. N.

1978-01-01

100

Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility  

SciTech Connect

Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the undulators to {+-}0.01 C. This note describes the temperature measurement system under construction.

Wolf, Zachary

2010-12-13

101

High-Sensitivity Temperature Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method of measuring small temperature differences that amount to a .01K, using an arrangement of a copper-constantan thermocouple, a microamplifier and a galvanometer, as an indirect way of measuring heat energy. (GA)

Leadstone, G. S.

1978-01-01

102

Air temperature and differential temperature measurement using IC temperature sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Portable Automated Mesonet (PAM) was developed for use as an automatic meteorological measurement system that collects data from an area up to 160 km in diameter by using a surface array of remote sampling stations. The desire arose in this connection to conduct also temperature profile measurements (differential temperature) for use in determining vertical heat flux in turbulent boundary

H. L. Cole

1978-01-01

103

On Estimating Precision of Measuring Instruments and Product Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measurement or observed value is discussed as the sum of two components—one the absolute value of the characteristic measured and the other an error of measurement. The variation in absolute values of the characteristic or items measured is termed product variability, whereas the variation in errors of measurement of an instrument is called the precision or reproducibility of measurement.

Frank E. Grubbs

1948-01-01

104

New Instrumentation for Measurement of Man's Stability of Stance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An instrumentation system for measurement of postural equilibrium in man was developed. The device consists of an electronic platform which continuously measures the location of the physiologic gravicenter in the horizontal plane and a circuit which reduc...

E. D. Grassman, Y. V. Terekhov

1973-01-01

105

Measuring electron temperature in the extended corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for measuring electron temperature in the extended corona from the line profile of the electron scattered component of coronal H I Ly alpha produced by Thomson scattering of chromospheric Ly alpha emission is discussed. Because of the high thermal velocity of electrons at coronal temperatures (approximately 6800 km/s at T(sub e) = 1,500,000 K) the effect of nonthermal velocities and solar wind flows on the electron velocity distribution are negligible. However, the low electron mass which is responsible for the high thermal velocity also results in a very wide profile (approximately equal to 50 A). This wide profile, together with an intensity that is three orders of magnitude weaker than the resonantly scattered component of Ly alpha makes the direct measurement of T(sub e) a challenging observational problem. An evaluation of this technique based on simulated measurements is presented and the subsequent instrumental requirements necessary to make a meaningful determination of the electron temperature are discussed. Estimates of uncertainties in the measured electron temperature are related to critical instrument parameters such as grating stray light suppression.

Hassler, Donald M.; Gardner, L. D.; Kohl, John L.

1992-01-01

106

[Development of opened instrument for generating and measuring physiological signal].  

PubMed

An opened instrument with liquid crystal display (LCD) for generating and measuring physiological signal is introduced in this paper. Based on a single-chip microcomputer. the instrument uses the technique of LCD screen to display signal wave and information, and it realizes man-machine interaction by keyboard. This instrument can produce not only defined signal in common use by utilizing important saved data and relevant arithmetic, but also user-defined signal. Therefore, it is open to produce signal. In addition, this instrument has strong extension because of its modularized design as computer, which has much function such as displaying, measuring and saving physiological signal, and many features such as low power consumption, small volume, low cost and portability. Hence this instrument is convenient for experiment teaching, clinic examining, maintaining of medical instrument. PMID:15646340

Chen, Longcong; Hu, Guohu; Gao, Bin

2004-12-01

107

MHTGR core temperature measurement trade study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this task was to assess the need for core non-nuclear instrumentation. The focus of this study was the evaluation of core investment risk events. Three categories of events were considered: (1) unanticipated primary loop flow leakages and core bypass flows, (2) core coolant channel flow blockages and (3) off-design core power distributions. The measurements that were considered include column average coolant exit temperatures, core average coolant exit temperature, core pressure drop and core flow rate. The findings are summarized. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Kapernick, R.; Howard, W.

1989-09-29

108

Noncontact true temperature measurement, 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser pyrometer was developed for acquiring the true temperature of a levitated sample. The reflectivity is measured by first expanding the laser beam to cover the entire cross-sectional surface of the diffuse target. The reflectivity calibration of this system is determined from the surface emissivity of a target with a blackbody cavity. The emissivity of the real target can then be calculated. The overall system constant is obtained by passively measuring the radiance of the blackbody cavity (emissivity = 1.0) at a known, arbitrary temperature. Since the photosensor used is highly linear over the entire operating temperature range, the true temperature of the target can then be computed. The latest results available from this on-going research indicate that true temperatures thus obtained are in very good quantitative agreement with thermocouple measured temperatures.

Lee, Mark C.; Allen, James L.

1988-01-01

109

Measured Spacecraft Dynamic Effects on Atmospheric Science Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On September 1991, NASA launched the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. In addition to its atmospheric science mission, spacecraft dynamic effects on science measurements were analyzed. The investigation included two in-flight experiments to determine how each on-board instrument, subsystem and environmental disturbance contributed to the spacecraft dynamic response and how these disturbances affected science measurements. Three case studies are presented which show the impact of spacecraft dynamic response on science measurements. In the first case, correlation of independent atmospheric meridional wind measurements taken by two instruments with the spacecraft dynamic response demonstrated that excessive vibration (exceeding instrument pointing requirements) resulted in wind measurement disagreement. In the second case, solar array disturbances produced a spacecraft response signature on radiometer measurements. The signature explicitly demonstrated that if an instrument has sufficient spatial and temporal resolution, spacecraft dynamic response could impact measurements. In the final case, correlation of an instrument's fine sun sensor data and CO2 measurements demonstrated the effect of temporal and spatial sampling resolution and active pointing control on science measurements. The sun sensor had a frequency modulated characteristic due to spacecraft vibration and the periodic scanning of another instrument which was not present on the CO2 measurements.

Woodard, Stanley E.; Gell, David A.; Lay, Richard R.

1997-01-01

110

Instruments for measuring the amount of moisture in the air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summarization and discussion of the many systems available for measuring moisture in the atmosphere is presented. Conventional methods used in the field of meteorology and methods used in the laboratory are discussed. Performance accuracies, and response of the instruments were reviewed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. Methods of measuring humidity aloft by instrumentation onboard aircraft and balloons are given, in addition to the methods used to measure moisture at the Earth's surface.

Johnson, D. L.

1978-01-01

111

Aeronautic instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of aeronautic instruments. Vibrations, rapid changes of the conditions of flight and of atmospheric conditions, influence of the air stream all call for particular design and construction of the individual instruments. This is shown by certain examples of individual instruments and of various classes of instruments for measuring pressure, change of altitude, temperature, velocity, inclination and turning or combinations of these.

Everling, E; Koppe, H

1924-01-01

112

An Instrument to Measure Self-Righteousness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A seven item Likert-type scale was developed to measure self-righteousness, defined as the conviction that one's beliefs and actions are correct, especially in contrast to the beliefs and actions of others. The Self Righteousness Questionnaire (SRQ) measures three components of self-righteousness: belittlement, acceptance, and uncertainty. The…

Falbo, Toni; Belk, Sharyn S.

113

IMTC 2005 -Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference  

E-print Network

in the dark, based on [9], using a high-quality digital video camera without an infrared filter (which Video-Based Rodent Activity Measurement Using Near-Infrared Illumination J. Brooks Zurn1, 2 Xianhua for measurement of rodent behavioral activity under near- infrared (NIR) illumination. This novel method allows

Motai, Yuichi

114

An Analysis of Several Instruments Measuring "Nature of Science" Objectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is an investigation of the relationship among three selected instruments based on the responses of a sample of high school students. The instruments were the Nature of Science Scale (NOSS), the Science Support Scale (SSS), and the Test on the Social Aspects of Science (TSAS). All purport to measure "nature of science" objectives. (PEB)

Doran, Rodney L.; And Others

1974-01-01

115

Evaluation of a new instrument for measuring optical turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past 6 years, the Ft. Belvoir Meteorological Team has used the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory developed and Lockheed built path integrated optical scintillometer. This instrument has and continues to serve us well. Through research funding by the Army Test and Evaluation Command we were able to procure a new instrument for the measurement of Cn2 which is based

Robert W. Smith; Ted Corbin

1993-01-01

116

Method and system to check an electronic metrological measurement instrument  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Control system of an electronic instrument for metrological measurements, comprising an electronic local processing unit including a handling application of said instrument. The system includes a control application for said handling application, which can be associated with said local processing unit, said control application being suitable for generating a univocal certification code for the application.

2011-07-05

117

LEDA beam diagnostics instrumentation: Beam current measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7 MeV and current of 100 mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Two types of current measurements are used. The first is an AC or pulsed-current measurement which uses three LANL built toroids. They are placed in the beamline in such a way as to measure important transmission parameters and act as a differential current-loss machine protection system. The second system is a DC current measurement used to measure cw beam characteristics and uses toroids from Bergoz Inc. There are two of these systems, so they can also be used for transmission measurements. The AC system uses custom processing electronics whereas the DC system uses a modified Bergoz® electronics system. Both systems feature data acquisition via a series of custom TMS320C40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of these systems, the calibration technique, the differential current loss measurements and fast-protection processing, current droop characteristics for the AC system, and existing system noise levels. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

Barr, D.; Day, L.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Kasemir, K.-U.; Martinez, D.; Power, J. F.; Shurter, R.; Stettler, M.

2000-11-01

118

LEDA beam diagnostics instrumentation: Beam current measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7 MeV and current of 100 mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Two types of current measurements are used. The first is an AC or pulsed-current measurement which uses three LANL built toroids. They are placed in

D. Barr; L. Day; J. D. Gilpatrick; K.-U. Kasemir; D. Martinez; J. F. Power; R. Shurter; M. Stettler

2000-01-01

119

Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.

Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

1986-01-01

120

Global trends of measured surface air temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the results of surface air temperature measurements from available meteorological stations for the period of 1880-1985. It is shown that the network of meteorological stations is sufficient to yield reliable long-term, decadal, and interannual temperature changes for both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, despite the fact that most stations are located on the continents. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7 C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. Selected graphs of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones are included.

Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

1987-01-01

121

Noncontact temperature pattern measuring device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a noncontact imagine pyrometer system for obtaining the true temperature image of a given substance in a contactless fashion without making assumptions about localized emissivity of the substance or the uniformity of the temperature distribution. Such a contactless temperature imaging system has particular application in the study and production of many materials where the physical contact required to make a conventional temperature measurement drastically effects or contaminates the physical process being observed. Two examples where accurate temperature profiles are of critical interest are: (1) the solid-liquid phase change interface in the production of electronic materials and (2) metastable materials in the undercooling region. The apparent novelty resides in the recognition that an active pyrometer system may be advantageously adapted to perform contactless temperature imaging so that an accurate temperature profile can be obtained.

Elleman, D. D. (inventor); Allen, J. L. (inventor); Lee, M. C. (inventor)

1987-01-01

122

Containerless high temperature property measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Containerless processing in the low gravity environment of space provides the opportunity to increase the temperature at which well controlled processing of and property measurements on materials is possible. This project was directed towards advancing containerless processing and property measurement techniques for application to materials research at high temperatures in space. Containerless high temperature material property studies include measurements of the vapor pressure, melting temperature, optical properties, and spectral emissivities of solid boron. The reaction of boron with nitrogen was also studied by laser polarimetric measurement of boron nitride film growth. The optical properties and spectral emissivities were measured for solid and liquid silicon, niobium, and zirconium; liquid aluminum and titanium; and liquid Ti-Al alloys of 5 to 60 atomic pct. titanium. Alternative means for noncontact temperature measurement in the absence of material emissivity data were evaluated. Also, the application of laser induced fluorescence for component activity measurements in electromagnetic levitated liquids was studied, along with the feasibility of a hybrid aerodynamic electromagnetic levitation technique.

Nordine, Paul C.; Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Anderson, Collin D.

1991-01-01

123

An intelligent radiological instrument for field samples and contamination measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new intelligent radiological instrument for fast and accurate measurements of mass ? and ? activities of samples of human and animal food and other materials and for the detection of surface contamination of different objects have been developed. The original concept of an iterative dialogue operator-instrument, based on the built-in intelligence into the instrument—has reduced to a minimum the chance of obtaining an erroneous result. The built-in intelligence specifies: the sequence of the measurements, the subsequence of selecting the necessary absorber for mass ? activity measurement, the algorithms for all necessary calculations. Minimum detectable ? activity of measured samples (40K) is 0.17 Bq/g with an error not exceeding ±30% and measurement time 1000 s. The sensitivity of ? activity measurement is related to the method of sample preparation; it ranges from 0.04 up to 10 Bq/g, with a selectivity with respect to ? activity exceeding 104.

Drndarevic, Vujo R.; Djuric, Danko J.

1993-09-01

124

Workplace Discrimination, Prejudice, and Diversity Measurement: A Review of Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a review of five instruments designed to measure workplace discrimination, prejudice, and attitudes toward diversity. Each measure is critically reviewed based on item development, the current psychometric evidence, and the practical utility for career counseling and organizational development efforts. The Discussion section explores future research directions for validation studies, expansion of theory and measurement development, and recommendations for

Alan W. Burkard; Michael A. Boticki; Michael B. Madson

2002-01-01

125

Balloon Ring: A High-Performance Low-Cost Instrumentation Platform for Measuring Atmospheric Turbulence Profiles (Postprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Balloons, similar to those used for meteorological observations, are commonly used to carry a small instrumentation package for measuring optical turbulence in the atmosphere as a function of altitude. Two temperature sensors, one meter apart, measure a s...

A. Black, D. G. Black, D. T. Kyrazis, F. D. Eaton, W. Black

2009-01-01

126

An Instrument for the Objective Measurement of Light Flicker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of light flicker with a low cost digital device, based on light intensity measurements, is proposed. Unlike current standard instrument based on IEC EN 61000-4-15, which determines flicker severity by filtering powering voltage measurements with a standard lamp model (230V\\/60W), the presented methodology measures directly the disturbances caused by light intensity variations including the lamp itself in the measurement

Daniele Gallo; Carmine Landi; Nicola Pasquino

2005-01-01

127

Allowable systematic difference between two instruments measuring the same analyte.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. If a laboratory has two analytical instruments for measuring the concentration of the same analyte and samples from the patients are randomly allocated to either of the two, then an allowable systematic difference between the two instruments should be defined. We present a solution to this problem, based on the traditional criterion that the total analytical standard deviation (SD) shall be less than half the within-subject biological SD. Methods. We derived a formula for estimating the SD of the distribution of analytical results that may stem from two instruments with different means and SDs and different probabilities of being used. The formula was used to estimate the allowable systematic difference between the two instruments. Results. The allowable systematic difference depends on the within-subject biological SD, the SDs of the two instruments, and the probability that a sample is analyzed with a certain instrument. When this probability is 0.5, the allowable systematic difference approaches the magnitude of the within-subject biological SD as the analytical SDs approach zero, while no systematic difference is allowed when the two analytical SDs are equal to their maximum allowable value of half the within-subject biological SD. Conclusions. In a monitoring situation, the allowable systematic difference between two analytical instruments depends on the probability that a sample is allocated to each of the instruments as well as the analytical SDs and the within-subject biological SD. PMID:24909157

Asberg, Arne; Solem, Kristine B; Mikkelsen, Gustav

2014-10-01

128

Temperature evaluation of an instrumented capsule after material irradiation tests in HANARO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrumented capsule has been used for an irradiation test of various nuclear materials in the research reactor, HANARO. The capsule is designed to have a standard 4-hole structure for the economical test of an RPV material at 290 ± 10 °C. The temperature of the specimens for the reactor powers, 0-24 MW, is measured by 12 thermocouples, and finite element (FE) analyses are also performed to compare and verify the irradiation test results. As a result of the tests and analyses, the maximum temperature at the reactor power of 24 MW is 256 °C for an irradiation test and 202.6 °C for an FE analysis at Stage 3 of the capsule. Also, for each stage of the capsule, the temperature difference of the specimen in the axial direction is very small to within 10 °C. It is expected that the results presented in this paper will be useful when designing the instrumented capsules for an irradiation test.

Choi, M. H.; Choo, K. N.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, B. G.

2007-05-01

129

Method for measuring surface temperature  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-07-28

130

An instrument for measuring respiratory rates and volumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluctuating flow-rates, total flow volumes and the frequency of an alternating flow are measured by an instrument which has been used in respiration studies on the calf. The instrument consists of three units, one, a flow-sensing unit in the form of a fine mesh gauze used under laminar flow conditions; two, a magnetic induction manometer associated with an amplifier-detector and

W. Nisbet

1956-01-01

131

An instrumented sample holder for time-lapse microtomography measurements of snow under advective airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrumented sample holder was developed for time-lapse microtomography of snow samples to enable in situ nondestructive spatial and temporal measurements under controlled advective airflows, temperature gradients, and air humidities. The design was aided by computational fluid dynamics simulations to evaluate the airflow uniformity across the snow sample. Morphological and mass transport properties were evaluated during a 4-day test run. This instrument allows the experimental characterization of metamorphism of snow undergoing structural changes with time.

Ebner, P. P.; Grimm, S. A.; Schneebeli, M.; Steinfeld, A.

2014-09-01

132

Room-temperature phosphorescence fiber-optic instrumentation for simultaneous multiposition analysis of dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and analytical characterization of a fiber-optic instrument for simultaneous multiposition water-dissolved oxygen monitoring by room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) measurements is presented. The sensing principle is based on the RTP quenching by oxygen of the phosphorescent light emitted by the metal chelate formed by Al with 8-hydroxy-7-iodo-5-quinolinesulfonic acid (Al-ferron) trapped in a sol–gel solid support. Four RTP oxygen sensor flow-cells

Juan D??az-Garc??a; José M Costa-Fernández; Nerea Bordel-Garc??a; Alfredo Sanz-Medel

2001-01-01

133

BETA GAUGE INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF AEROSOL MASS  

EPA Science Inventory

An instrument developed by LBL for the routine measurement of aerosol mass using the beta-gauge particle attenuation method is described and evaluated. Factors affecting the precision and accuracy of the measurement are discussed in detail. Results of intercomparison studies betw...

134

Separation of temperature and emittance in remotely sensed radiance measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The remote determination of surface temperature and surface spectral emittance by use of airborne or satellite-borne thermal infrared instruments is not straightforward. The radiance measured is a function of surface temperature, the unknown surface spectral emittance, and absorption and emission in the intervening atmosphere. With a single measurement, the solution for temperature and spectral emittance is undedetermined. This article reviews two of the early approximate methods which have been fairly widely used to approach this problem.

Kahle, Anne B.; Alley, Ronald E.

1992-01-01

135

Temperature measurement system for optical-fiber preform fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system has been developed to measure the temperature profile across the growing surface of a soot preform in an axial vapor deposition process for optical-fiber preform fabrication. The system assembled at a fraction of the cost of commercially available instrumentation, makes use of an infrared pyrometer driven by a computer-controlled stepping motor. The pyrometer used has a temperature range

G. E. Bodeep

1984-01-01

136

Design and validation of guarded hot plate instruments for measuring heat flow between evacuated plane-parallel glass surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the design and construction of guarded hot plate instruments for measuring the heat flow through an evacuated space between plane-parallel glass surfaces. In this structure, the insulating region is surrounded by two pieces of relatively highly conducting material. High resolution measurements of heat flow using these instruments therefore requires the detection of quite small temperature differences (10-4

C. J. Dey; T. M. Simko; R. E. Collins; Q.-C. Zhang

1998-01-01

137

Design and validation of guarded hot plate instruments for measuring heat flow between evacuated plane-parallel glass surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the design and construction of guarded hot plate instruments for measuring the heat flow through an evacuated space between plane-parallel glass surfaces. In this structure, the insulating region is surrounded by two pieces of relatively highly conducting material. High resolution measurements of heat flow using these instruments therefore requires the detection of quite small temperature differences (10?4

C. J. Dey; T. M. Simko; R. E. Collins; Q.-C. Zhang

1998-01-01

138

Measuring auroral precipitation parameters without in situ microchannel plate instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in groundbased detector technology have resulted in accurate, high-sensitivity, emission-line filtered images of aurora with sub- to a few- km resolution over a few 100 km region collected at a few second to a few Hz cadence. By combining these images with information from other groundbased instrumentation (ISR, remote photometers, and FPIs) and using well-documented empirical relationships between intensity and precipitating electron characteristics, these images hold the potential for providing an accurate, mesoscale, 2-D time history of the key parameters (characteristic energy and energy flux) of the precipitating electrons that caused the optical aurora within the imager's field of view. In situ measurements can be more accurate, but they are limited to highly localized 1-D line trajectories and are of limited use for meso-scale modeling. However, a limitation of the groundbased technique is that subvisual (low energy) precipitation is not captured. Onboard measurements of total number flux provide low resource measurements capturing specific boundary crossings and gradients as well as net precipitation including the portion not observed optically. The combination of minimal onboard instrumentation supplementing rigorous groundbased inversions can provide an optimal set of inputs for ionospheric modelling tools. Thus we are investigating the capabilities and limitations of using inversions of groundbased observations in the place of in situ precipitation monitors. While several inversion techniques are possible we will discuss two methods used in the analysis of recent rocket experiments. The first, used for the Cascades2 rocket, compares measured altitude profiles of auroral emissions to those from a 1-D electron transport code to confirm optically that two arcs transited by the rocket were produced by significantly different electron spectra. The second method, for the MICA rocket, uses the 2-D temperature maps from the Scanning Doppler Imager to estimate the altitude of the peak emission height of the auroral green line emission and thereby the precipitating electron characteristic energy. For MICA we will also show how the first (C2) method was used to validate the 2-D regional precipitation maps. We will also discuss the limitations and expected error sources of these techniques. The use of minimal onboard observations (for instance, integrated number flux) for detailed boundaries and calibration, supporting 2d-with-time groundbased inversions, can provide better overall ionospheric model input than higher-resource detailed instrumentation on a single 1-d trajectory. The groundbased information provides 2-d and continuous-time context, which can be usefully supplemented by limited onboard measurements providing local gradient and boundary information. The groundbased data provide additional valuable information of auroral morphology in a qualitative way and we build on what we already know from decades of auroral observations to provide an optimal set of input to ionospheric modelling tools.

Lynch, K. A.; Hampton, D. L.; Zettergren, M. D.; Conde, M.; Lessard, M.; Michell, R.; Samara, M.

2013-12-01

139

Cloud Physics Lidar: Instrument Description and Initial Measurement Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) is a new custom-built instrument for the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The CPL can provide multiwavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. Its state-of-the-art technology gives it a high repetition rate, and photon-counting detection, and includes a low-pulse-energy laser. The CPL was first deployed at the Southern African Regional Science Initiative's 2000 field campaign during August and September 2000. This paper provides an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Scott, V. Stanley; Spinhirne, James; Schmid, Beat

2002-01-01

140

ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 6: Flow measurement instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary is provided of information available on liquid and gaseous oxygen flowmetering including an evaluation of commercial meters. The instrument types, physical principles of measurement, and performance characteristics are described. Problems concerning flow measurements of less than plus or minus two percent uncertainty are reviewed. Recommendations concerning work on flow reference systems, the use of surrogate fluids, and standard tests for oxygen flow measurements are also presented.

Mann, D. B.

1974-01-01

141

Nuclear Instrumentation for Lunar Surface and Subsurface Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrumentation package is described that will perform five types of nuclear measurements in support of the Apollo Extensions System (AES) manned mission. The measurements will be used for the geochemical and geophysical exploration of the lunar surface and subsurface. They consist of 1) natural gamma ray, 2) spectral gamma ray, 3) gamma-gamma, 4) neutron-gamma and 5)neutron-neutron measurements.

D. B. Ebeoglu

1966-01-01

142

Characterization of a traceable profiler instrument for areal roughness measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional profiler instrument was designed and realized at the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt). The main function of the instrument is to provide traceable results in the field of roughness measurement. It is equipped with a linear moving stylus which is guided by precision air bearings. The moving part of the stylus has weight around 1 g and is carried by a magnetic field. The contacting force of the tip onto the surface under test is controlled by a small voice coil actuator in a closed control loop. Vertical movements of the stylus are captured by two different, completely independent measurement systems, covering a range of 100 µm. The first one is an interferometer, which provides a traceable signal, and the second one is an inductive measurement system. The signal from the inductive measurement system is calibrated by the interferometer. The sample under test is carried within the x-y-plane by a linear guided table with low noise air bearings. These air bearings are preloaded by vacuum and a constant gap is achieved by gas pressure controllers. Both axes of the table are driven by linear voice coil actuators and their movement in the plane is measured by linear encoders. The sample carrier is equipped with two axes tilt compensation, by which the sample under test can be levelled automatically using the measurement system of the stylus. Real-time data acquisition, manual handling and automated procedures are managed by a programmable controller and proprietary software written in LabVIEW. After measurement, data from the system can be directly transferred into the smd- or sdf-format. Results of measurements on different samples to characterize the metrological behaviour of the instrument will be reported. To characterize the uncertainty of the instrument, a model is applied, which is in accordance with approved rules for contact stylus instruments.

Thomsen-Schmidt, P.

2011-09-01

143

Towards a measurement instrument for determinants of innovations  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop a short instrument to measure determinants of innovations that may affect its implementation. Design We pooled the original data from eight empirical studies of the implementation of evidence-based innovations. The studies used a list of 60 potentially relevant determinants based on a systematic review of empirical studies and a Delphi study among implementation experts. Each study used similar methods to measure both the implementation of the innovation and determinants. Missing values in the final data set were replaced by plausible values using multiple imputation. We assessed which determinants predicted completeness of use of the innovation (% of recommendations applied). In addition, 22 implementation experts were consulted about the results and about implications for designing a short instrument. Setting Eight innovations introduced in Preventive Child Health Care or schools in the Netherlands. Participants Doctors, nurses, doctor's assistants and teachers; 1977 respondents in total. Results The initial list of 60 determinants could be reduced to 29. Twenty-one determinants were based on the pooled analysis of the eight studies, seven on the theoretical expectations of the experts consulted and one new determinant was added on the basis of the experts' practical experience. Conclusions The instrument is promising and should be further validated. We invite researchers to use and explore the instrument in multiple settings. The instrument describes how each determinant should preferably be measured (questions and response scales). It can be used both before and after the introduction of an innovation to gain an understanding of the critical change objectives. PMID:24951511

Fleuren, Margot A.H.; Paulussen, Theo G.W.M.; Van Dommelen, Paula; Van Buuren, Stef

2014-01-01

144

Noncontact temperature pattern measuring device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser pyrometer techniques are utilized to accurately image a true temperature distribution on a given target without touching the target and without knowing the localized emissivity of the target. The pyrometer utilizes a very high definition laser beam and photodetector, both having a very narrow focus. The pyrometer is mounted in a mechanism designed to permit the pyrometer to be aimed and focused at precise localized points on the target surface. The pyrometer is swept over the surface area to be imaged, temperature measurements being taken at each point of focus.

Elleman, Daniel D. (inventor); Allen, James L. (inventor); Lee, Mark C. (inventor)

1989-01-01

145

AZ State Profile. Arizona: Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides information about the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). The purpose of the test is to determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum and to meet a state mandate. [For the main report, "State High School Tests: Exit Exams and Other Assessments", see ED514155.

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

146

Wind-instrument reflection function measurements in the time domain.  

PubMed

Theoretical and computational analyses of wind-instrument sound production in the time domain have emerged as useful tools for understanding musical instrument acoustics, yet there exist few experimental measurements of the air-column response directly in the time domain. A new experimental, time-domain technique is proposed to measure the reflection function response of woodwind and brass-instrument air columns. This response is defined at the location of sound regeneration in the mouthpiece or double reed. A probe assembly comprised of an acoustic source and microphone is inserted directly into the air column entryway using a foam plug to ensure a leak-free fit. An initial calibration phase involves measurements on a single cylindrical tube of known dimensions. Measurements are presented on an alto saxophone and euphonium. The technique has promise for testing any musical instrument air columns using a single probe assembly and foam plugs over a range of diameters typical of air-column entryways. PMID:8730084

Keefe, D H

1996-04-01

147

Evaluation of an Instrument for Measuring Multiple Intelligences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to assess the use of multiple intelligence assessment instruments as predictor measurements of achievement. The sample included 51 male and female students enrolled in two sections of an introductory psychology course. They were asked to complete the Multiple Intelligences Challenge (MIC) and the Self…

Osborne, Francis; And Others

148

Improved Measurement of Coherence in Presence of Instrument Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for correcting measured coherence spectra for the effect of incoherent instrument noise has been developed and demonstrated. Coherence measurements are widely used in engineering and science to determine the extent to which two signals are alike. The signals may come from two different sources or from the same source at different times. The coherence of time-lagged signals from a single source is an excellent indication of the effective lifetime of the signal components as a function of their frequency. Unfortunately, incoherent instrument noise will bias the measurement to lower values and may lead the user of the data to false conclusions about the longevity of significant features. The new method may be used whenever both the signal and noise power spectra are known and the noise is incoherent both with the signal and with itself at the applicable time delays. It provides a corrected coherence spectrum given the measured coherence and power spectra. For powerlaw signal spectra and instrumental white noise, the correction formula takes a particularly simple and explicit form. Since many geophysical signals exhibit powerlaw behavior and most instrument noise spectra approach white noise, the simplified form should be widely applicable in meteorology, oceanography, geology, and planetary geophysics.

Merceret, Francis J.

2003-01-01

149

Semiconductor laser-based ranging instrument for earth gravity measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser ranging instrument is being developed to measure the spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field. It will range in space to a cube corner on a passive co-orbiting sub-satellite with a velocity accuracy of 20 to 50 microns/sec by using AlGaAs lasers intensity modulated at 2 GHz.

Abshire, James B.; Millar, Pamela S.; Sun, Xiaoli

1995-01-01

150

Offshore wind profile measurements from remote sensing instruments  

E-print Network

Offshore wind profile measurements from remote sensing instruments Ioannis Antoniou (1) , Hans E) , Mats Hurtig (3) , (1): Wind Energy Department, Risø National Laboratory, Frederiksborgvej 399, Postboks): AQSystem Sweden. Summary Two SODARs (SOund Detection And Ranging) and a LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging

151

Cavity-Enhanced Quantum-Cascade Laser-Based Instrument for Trace gas Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An autonomous instrument based on Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy has been successfully deployed for measurements of CO in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data acquisition electronics, and data analysis software. The instrument reports CO mixing ratio at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May-June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41000 ft, the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights. We will also present recent development efforts to extend the instrument's capabilities for the measurements of CH4, N2O and CO in real time.

Provencal, R.; Gupta, M.; Owano, T.; Baer, D.; Ricci, K.; O'Keefe, A.

2005-12-01

152

An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

Figurski, J. D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J. R.; Denny, M.

2011-01-01

153

A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries  

E-print Network

An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry ...

Gardner, Alan T.

154

Measurement of acceleration using an instrumented railgun projectile  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrumented package has been accelerated in a railgun projectile to measure the inbore acceleration as a function of time. Direct, continuous acceleration profiles have been repeatedly obtained with this package during electromagnetic launch and downrange soft catch. These proof-of-principle experiments were conducted using a square bore railgun and off-the-shelf components for the in situ measurement, digitization, and storage of

Donald M. Littrell; Keith A. Jamison; Roger D. Hudson; Michael J. Fernandez; Scott A. Ager

1992-01-01

155

Two-phase flow measurements with advanced instrumented spool pieces  

SciTech Connect

A series of two-phase, air-water and steam-water tests performed with instrumented piping spool pieces is described. The behavior of the three-beam densitometer, turbine meter, and drag flowmeter is discussed in terms of two-phase models. Results from application of some two-phase mass flow models to the recorded spool piece data are shown. Results of the study are used to make recommendations regarding spool piece design, instrument selection, and data reduction methods to obtain more accurate measurements of two-phase flow parameters. 13 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

Turnage, K.C.

1980-09-01

156

Compact optical integration instrument to measure intraocular straylight  

PubMed Central

Optical measurement of straylight in the human eye is a challenging task. Issues such as illumination geometry, detector sensitivity and dynamic range as well as various inherent artifacts must be addressed. We developed a novel instrument based on the principle of double-pass optical integration adapted for fast measurements in a clinical setting. The experimental setup was validated using four different diffusers introduced in front of the eyes of ten subjects. Measurement limitations and future implications of rapid optical measurement of straylight in ophthalmic diagnosis are discussed. PMID:25401017

Ginis, Harilaos; Sahin, Onurcan; Pennos, Alexandros; Artal, Pablo

2014-01-01

157

A passive DOAS instrument for trace gas measurements on medium sized UAS: Instrumental design and first measurements.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on UAS. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). We present a new developed passive DOAS instrument for the APAESO Platform of the Cyprus Institute, a medium size UAS. It is equipped with two telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction, respectively. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the horizontal distribution of trace gases. This is accomplished by analyzing the radiation collected by the telescopes with compact spectrometers, which cover the UV-blue spectral range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) as well as aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a VIS-NIR spectrometer. It is used to measure reflection spectra of different types of vegetation. These will serve as references for satellite measurements to create global maps. First measurements on the APAESO platform were performed in October 2012 on Cyprus in a rural area south of Nicosia. The instrument is shown to work reliably and was able to detect NO2, H2O and O4 at atmospheric column densities. The instrumental design and first measurements will be presented and discussed.

Horbanski, Martin; Pöhler, Denis; Mahr, Tobias; Wagner, Thomas; Keleshis, Christos; Ioannou, Stelios; Lange, Manfred A.; Lelieveld, Jos; Platt, Ulrich

2013-04-01

158

Accelerated measurement of perikymata by an optical instrument  

PubMed Central

The proposed device considerably reduces the measuring time of important microscopic features of tooth crown surfaces. The instrumentation is accompanied by a computer program to analyse the results. Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which demonstrate daily secretory rhythms developing tissue-specific structures known as cross striations, and longer period markings that are referred as striae of Retzius. These striae correspond to linear structures on the enamel surface. This newly developed optical measuring instrument can automatically, precisely and accurately record the number and periodicity of perikymata on the dental crown. Furthermore it can characterize the variability in periodicity of perikymata in hominids. The depth of field can be extended as desired by taking several images with different focus positions and combining them into a single composite image that contains all regions fully focused. PMID:24156069

Elhechmi, Imen; Braga, Jose; Dasgupta, Gautam; Gharbi, Tijani

2013-01-01

159

Cavity-enhanced quantum-cascade laser-based instrument for carbon monoxide measurements.  

PubMed

An autonomous instrument based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy has been developed and successfully deployed for measurements of carbon monoxide in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument (Carbon Monoxide Gas Analyzer) consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high-reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data-acquisition electronics, and data-analysis software. CO measurements were determined from high-resolution CO absorption line shapes obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the R(7) transition of the fundamental vibration band near 2172.8 cm(-1). The instrument reports CO mixing ratio (mole fraction) at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature, and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May-June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41,000 ft (12.5 km), the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time) and an accuracy limited by the reference CO gas cylinder (uncertainty < 1.0%). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights. PMID:16270560

Provencal, Robert; Gupta, Manish; Owano, Thomas G; Baer, Douglas S; Ricci, Kenneth N; O'Keefe, Anthony; Podolske, James R

2005-11-01

160

Cavity-enhanced quantum-cascade laser-based instrument for carbon monoxide measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An autonomous instrument based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy has been developed and successfully deployed for measurements of carbon monoxide in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument (Carbon Monoxide Gas Analyzer) consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high-reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data-acquisition electronics, and data-analysis software. CO measurements were determined from high-resolution CO absorption line shapes obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the R(7) transition of the fundamental vibration band near 2172.8 cm-1. The instrument reports CO mixing ratio (mole fraction) at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature, and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41,000 ft (12.5 km), the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time) and an accuracy limited by the reference CO gas cylinder (uncertainty <1.0%). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights.

Provencal, Robert; Gupta, Manish; Owano, Thomas G.; Baer, Douglas S.; Ricci, Kenneth N.; O'Keefe, Anthony; Podolske, James R.

2005-11-01

161

Instrumentation for measuring aircraft noise and sonic boom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved instrumentation suitable for measuring aircraft noise and sonic booms is described. An electric current proportional to the sound pressure level at a condenser microphone is produced and transmitted over a cable and amplified by a zero drive amplifier. The converter consists of a local oscillator, a dual-gate field-effect transistor mixer, and a voltage regulator/impedance translator. The improvements include automatic tuning compensation against changes in static microphone capacitance and means for providing a remote electrical calibration capability.

Zuckerwar, A. J. (inventor)

1976-01-01

162

An Instrument for the Measurement of Auroral Electrons and Protons  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrument to measure the energy spectrum of auroral electrons and protons has been developed and is operational in orbit aboard ATS-5. It uses cylindrical coordinate electrostatic analyzers for detection of electrons and protons in the range of 50 eV to 50 keV. The analyzers focus these particles onto channel electron multipliers, which are followed by special-purpose amplifier-discriminator electronics. These

Dennis O. Lawrence; Timothy M. Harrington; James L. Lawrence; Conrad S. Josias

1971-01-01

163

Spectral Measurements of PMCs from SBUV/2 Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SBUV/2 (Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet, model 2) instrument is designed to monitor ozone stratospheric profile and total column ozone using measurements of the Earth's backscattered ultraviolet albedo. We have previously demonstrated that the normal radiance measurements from SBUV/2 instruments, which sample 12 discrete wavelengths between 252 and 340 nm during each scan, can be used to identify polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). Some SBUV/2 instruments also periodically view the earth in continuous scan mode, covering the wavelength range 160-400 nm with 0.15 nm sampling. Analysis of these data show PMC occurrence rates similar to the normal discrete scan results, although the observation technique reduces the number of daily measurements by a factor of six. PMC observed by SBUV/2 instruments show a monotonic variation in the residual spectral albedo over the wavelength range 250 300 nm, with maximum enhancements of 10 15% at 250 nm. This result is consistent with microphysical model predictions from Jensen [1989. A numerical model of polar mesospheric cloud formation and evolution, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Colorado]. We find no evidence for a systematic localized increase in PMC residual albedo for wavelengths near 260 nm, in contrast to the recently reported results from the MSX UVISI instrument [Carbary J.F., et al., 2004. Evidence for bimodal particle distribution from the spectra of polar mesospheric clouds. Geophysics Research. Letters 31, L13108]. This result is observed for three different SBUV/2 instruments in both Northern and Southern Hemisphere data over a 13-year span. Our Mie scattering calculations show that the location and magnitude of the 260 nm hump feature is dependent upon the specific scattering angles appropriate to the MSX measurements. Although it explains the MSX spectrum, the bimodal size distribution proposed by Carbary et al. (2004), cannot explain the lack of scattering angle dependence of the SBUV/2 spectral shapes. The spectral signature of the SBUV/2 continuous scan PMC data is thus inconsistent with the bimodal particle size distribution suggested by Carbary et al. (2004).

DeLand, Matthew T.; Shettle, Eric P.; Thomas, Gary E.; Olivero, John J.

2006-01-01

164

High temperature permeameter for measuring magnetic properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument for measuring magnetic permeability of materials undergoing heat treatment as method for monitoring stress relief and tempering is described. Procedure is based on magnetic potentiometer principle with yoke compensating coils to cancel effects of reluctance of yoke and joint gaps. Instrument is heated with specimen being heat treated.

Barranger, J. P.

1972-01-01

165

Multi-periodic climate dynamics: spectral analysis of long-term instrumental and proxy temperature records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The longest six instrumental temperature records of monthly means reach back maximally to 1757 AD and were recorded in Europe. All six show a V-shape, with temperature drop in the 19th and rise in the 20th century. Proxy temperature time series of Antarctic ice cores show this same characteristic shape, indicating this pattern as a global phenomenon. We used the mean of the 6 instrumental records for analysis by discrete Fourier transformation (DFT), wavelets, and the detrended fluctuation method (DFA). For comparison, a stalagmite record was also analyzed by DFT. The harmonic decomposition of the mean shows only 6 significant frequencies above periods over 30 yr. The Pearson correlation between the mean, smoothed by a 15 yr running average (boxcar) and the reconstruction using the 6 significant frequencies yields r = 0.961. This good agreement has a > 99.9% confidence level confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. Assumption of additional forcing by anthropogenic green house gases would therefore not improve the agreement between measurement and temperature construction from the 6 documented periodicities. We find indications that the observed periodicities result from intrinsic system dynamics.

Lüdecke, H.-J.; Hempelmann, A.; Weiss, C. O.

2012-09-01

166

Calibration and experimental research of a multiple-wavelength flame temperature instrumentation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study on a novel instrumentation system for the measurement of temperature distribution of combustion flames. This system operates upon the three-color principle combining advanced optical sensing and digital image processing techniques. It comprises an endoscope, a light splitter assembly, a CCD camera, a frame-grabber and associated software. This system was calibrated using a blackbody furnace as standard temperature source. The relationship between flame temperatures and grey-level of the images was established through image processing and function correlation. Experimental results obtained on a gas-fired combustion rig provide flame images and temperature distributions on three different wavelengths. Based on the flame temperature distribution the combustion conditions can be analyzed. Experimental results also reveal that this system is capable of online measurement of temperature distribution in a combustion zone. This system can potentially be applied to many areas such as power generation, metallurgy, chemical engineering. It is also a powerful tool for improving the control of combustion process.

Li, Zhihong; Liu, Shi; Mu, Huaiping; Jiang, Fan; Guo, Jianmin

2004-11-01

167

Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

168

Thermal conductivity measurement below 40 K of the CFRP tubes for the Mid-Infrared Instrument mounting struts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) is one of four instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope observatory, scheduled for launch in 2013. It must be cooled to about 7 K and is supported within the telescope’s 40 K instrument module by a hexapod of carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) tubing. This article describes the measurement of cryogenic thermal conductivity of the candidate CFRP. Measured thermal conductivities were about 0.05 W/m K at a mean temperature of 10 K increasing to about 0.20 W/m K at a mean temperature of 40 K.

Shaughnessy, B. M.; Eccleston, P.; Fereday, K. J.; Canfer, S. J.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Jessen, N. C.

2007-05-01

169

Coherent Laser Instrument Would Measure Range and Velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed instrument would project a narrow laser beam that would be frequency-modulated with a pseudorandom noise (PN) code for simultaneous measurement of range and velocity along the beam. The instrument performs these functions in a low mass, power, and volume package using a novel combination of established techniques. Originally intended as a low resource- footprint guidance sensor for descent and landing of small spacecraft onto Mars or small bodies (e.g., asteroids), the basic instrument concept also lends itself well to a similar application guiding aircraft (especially, small unmanned aircraft), and to such other applications as ranging of topographical features and measuring velocities of airborne light-scattering particles as wind indicators. Several key features of the instrument s design contribute to its favorable performance and resource-consumption characteristics. A laser beam is intrinsically much narrower (for the same exit aperture telescope or antenna) than a radar beam, eliminating the need to correct for the effect of sloping terrain over the beam width, as is the case with radar. Furthermore, the use of continuous-wave (CW), erbium-doped fiber lasers with excellent spectral purity (narrow line width) permits greater velocity resolution, while reducing the laser s power requirement compared to a more typical pulsed solid-state laser. The use of CW also takes proper advantage of the increased sensitivity of coherent detection, necessary in the first place for direct measurement of velocity using the Doppler effect. However, measuring range with a CW beam requires modulation to "tag" portions of it for time-of-flight determination; typically, the modulation consists of a PN code. A novel element of the instrument s design is the use of frequency modulation (FM) to accomplish both the PN-modulation and the Doppler-bias frequency shift necessary for signed velocity measurements. This permits the use of a single low-power waveguide electrooptic phase modulator, while simultaneously mitigating the effects of speckle as a noise source in the coherent detection.

Chang, Daniel; Cardell, Greg; San Martin, Alejandro; Spiers, Gary

2005-01-01

170

The Cloud Physics Lidar: Instrument Description and Initial Measurement Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multi-wavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low pulse energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. We provide here an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, V. Stanley; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

171

Measurements with the new PHE neutron survey instrument.  

PubMed

A novel design of survey instrument has been developed to accurately estimate ambient dose equivalent from neutrons with energies in the range from thermal to 20 MeV. The device features moderating and attenuating layers to ease measurement of fast and intermediate energy neutrons, combined with guides that channel low-energy neutrons to the single, central detector. A prototype of this device has been constructed and exposed to a set of calibration fields: the resulting measured responses are presented and discussed here, and compared against Monte Carlo data. A simple simulated workplace neutron field has also been developed to test the device. PMID:24126484

Eakins, J S; Tanner, R J; Hager, L G

2014-10-01

172

Thermoplug measurement of wheel tread temperature during operational testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High speed tread braking on certain commuter rail cars led to localized shallow tread cracking. Measurement of the temperature gradient into the wheel tread under service conditions was required to confirm the cause and to evaluate potential solutions. This paper describes the tests conducted and the unique instrumentation for measuring the thermal gradient within the wheel tread and is based on a report by Cameron Stuart entitled 'Thermal Measurements of Commuter Rail Wheel Under Revenue Service Conditions'.

Kesler, J. Kevin

1995-06-01

173

Precise topographic surface measurements of warm and cold large image detectors for astronomical instrumentations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes ESO's surface measurement device for large image detectors in astronomy. The machine was equipped with a sub-micrometer laser displacement sensor and is fully automated with LabView. On the example of newly developed curved CCDs, which are envisaged for future astronomical instruments, it was demonstrated that this machine can exactly determine the topographic surfaces of detectors. This works even at cryogenic temperatures through a dewar window. Included is the calculation of curvature radii from these cold curved CCDs after spherical fitting with MATLAB. In addition (and interesting for calibration of instruments) the micro-movements of the detector inside the cryostat are mapped.

Deiries, Sebastian; Iwert, Olaf; Stroebele, Stefan

2014-07-01

174

Sea Surface Temperatures (SST): Significance and Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceans cover 71 percent of Earth's surface and control the global climate. Quoted global mean temperature values and trends, largely based on land thermometers, differ substantially -" mainly because of uncertainties about SST. The ongoing controversy about the relative importance of natural climate changes and Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) revolves mainly around disparities between temperature trends of the atmosphere and surface (in the tropics and SH, i.e. mostly SST). Accurate measurement of SST is difficult. Geographic coverage is poor and there are many different techniques, each with its own problems and uncertainties: Water temperatures from buckets and ship-engine inlets; fixed and floating buoys; air temperatures from shipboard and island stations; and remote sensing from satellites using IR and microwaves. As is evident, each technique refers to a different level below the air-water interface. Drifter buoys (at around 50 cm) measure temperatures in the euphotic layers that are generally warmer than the bulk mixed layer sampled by ships (typically around 10 m). The IR emission arises from a 10-micron-thick skin that interacts dynamically with the underlying "mixed layer." The microwave data depend also on emissivity and therefore on surface roughness and sea state. SST data derived from corals provide some support for instrumental data but are not conclusive. The majority of corals show a warming trend since 1979; others show cooling or are ambiguous. There are different ways of interpreting this result. Physical optics dictates that the downwelling IR radiation from atmospheric greenhouse gases is absorbed in the first instance within the skin. Only direct measurements can establish how much of this energy is shared with the bulk mixed layer (to which the usual SST values refer.). SST controls evaporation and therefore global precipitation. SST influences tropical cyclones and sea-level rise; but there is lively debate on those issues. Changes in SST are also responsible for changes in deep- ocean temperatures and ocean heat storage. But recent claims that an increase in heat storage is a "smoking gun" for AGW are without merit.

Singer, S. F.

2006-05-01

175

Higher-accuracy measuring instruments with rotating thermoreceivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

When temperatures are measured with the aid of rotating thermoreceivers in the system, it is necessary to ensure a reliable coupling between the sensor and the stationary components. One uses for this purpose sliprings of various designs and these largely determine the measurement accuracy. The authors propose here a contactless transformer-type slipring shown schematically in Fig. 1. Both halves 1

O. N. Rudnev; V. G. Lebedev

1975-01-01

176

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-01-30

177

The role of fiberoptics in remote temperature measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of optical fibers in conjunction with infrared detectors and signal processing electronics represents the latest advance in the field of non-contact temperature measurement and control. The operating principles and design of fiber-optic radiometric systems are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of using optical fibers are addressed. Signal processing requirements and various infrared detector types are also described. Several areas in which infrared fiber-optic instrumentation is used for temperature monitoring and control are discussed.

Vanzetti, Riccardo

1988-01-01

178

Pyrometric Gas and Surface Temperature Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multiwavelength pyrometer possessing advantages over the one- and two-wavelength designs is described. Results of its application to surface temperature measurements of ceramics is presented. Also described is a probe suitable for gas temperature measur...

G. Fralick, D. Ng

1999-01-01

179

Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations - notable differences include large differences in multi-decadal variability between proxy reconstructions, and big uncertainties in the effect of volcanic eruptions. Because the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. By constraining key aspects of the reconstructions and simulations, instrumental observations, inevitably from a limited period, can reduce reconstruction uncertainty throughout the millennium. A considerable quantity of early instrumental observations are preserved in the world's archives. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East-India Company (EEIC), and 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure have been preserved in the British Library. Similar records from voyages of exploration and scientific investigation are preserved in published literature and the records in National Archives. Some of these records have been extracted and digitised, providing hundreds of thousands of new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5C). This provides a powerful out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions --- supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this --- such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

Brohan, P.

2012-12-01

180

121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York, New York County, NY

181

Multi-measuring probe intelligent instrument for auto-measuring geometrical accuracy of a cam spindle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a system of multi-measuring probes intelligent instrument for automeasuring the geometrical accuracy of the cam spindle is described. This system is cornposed of mechanic apparatus, circle grating encoders of high precision, grating displacement sensor, interface circuit of control and sample, and computer. The measuring principle, determination of the measuring start-point measured and the error evaluation of lift are described in detail in this paper. This instrument can carry out auto-measurement of the geometrical accuracy of the cain spindle quickly, and displaying, printing and recording the error curve of the lift and the shape of the cain automatically.

Chen, Yong-Le; Min, Qing-Dong; Fu, Pan; Liao, Hai-Yang; Jiang, Guo-Qing

1993-09-01

182

Gas-Temperature Measurement With Minimal Perturbation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method for measuring temperature of hot turbulent gases uses three heatflux calorimeters. One calorimeter measures radiative heat flux, while other two measure total heat flux (convective and radiative), at two different temperatures. Adapted for commercial uses in such operations as monitoring temperatures of flue gases, piped liquid or gaseous products, internal-combustion or jet engine exhausts.

Fu, T. S.; Quan, M.

1983-01-01

183

Measuring parent food practices: a systematic review of existing measures and examination of instruments  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in development of instruments to measure parent food practices. Because these instruments often measure different constructs, or define common constructs differently, an evaluation of these instruments is needed. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify existing measures of parent food practices and to assess the quality of their development. The initial search used terms capturing home environment, parenting behaviors, feeding practices and eating behaviors, and was performed in October of 2009 using PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, Web of knowledge (ISI), and ERIC, and updated in July of 2012. A review of titles and abstracts was used to narrow results, after which full articles were retrieved and reviewed. Only articles describing development of measures of parenting food practices designed for families with children 2-12 years old were retained for the current review. For each article, two reviewers extracted data and appraised the quality of processes used for instrument development and evaluation. The initial search yielded 28,378 unique titles; review of titles and abstracts narrowed the pool to 1,352 articles; from which 57 unique instruments were identified. The review update yielded 1,772 new titles from which14 additional instruments were identified. The extraction and appraisal process found that 49% of instruments clearly identified and defined concepts to be measured, and 46% used theory to guide instrument development. Most instruments (80%) had some reliability testing, with internal consistency being the most common (79%). Test-retest or inter-rater reliability was reported for less than half the instruments. Some form of validity evidence was reported for 84% of instruments. Construct validity was most commonly presented (86%), usually with analysis of associations with child diet or weight/BMI. While many measures of food parenting practices have emerged, particularly in recent years, few have demonstrated solid development methods. Substantial variation in items across different scales/constructs makes comparison between instruments extremely difficult. Future efforts should be directed toward consensus development of food parenting practices constructs and measures. PMID:23688157

2013-01-01

184

Instrument to Measure Psychological Contract Violation in Pharmacy Students  

PubMed Central

Objectives To adapt and evaluate an instrument that measures perceived psychological contract violations in pharmacy students by schools and colleges of pharmacy. Design A psychological contract violations measure was developed from existing literature and the 1997 ACPE Guidelines and pilot-tested with second-year pharmacy students at 2 schools of pharmacy. A revised measure then was administered to second-year pharmacy students at 6 schools of pharmacy. Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, participants were asked to indicate the level of obligations they received compared to what was promised by the school of pharmacy. Results Exploratory factor analysis on the psychological contract violations measure was conducted using principal components analysis resulting in 7 factors, which led to a revised measure with 26 items. Using a sample of 339 students, the proposed 7-factor measurement model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. In general, the results supported the hypothesized model. The final 23-item scale demonstrated both reliability and validity. Some students perceived certain aspects of the psychological contract that exists with their school of pharmacy were being violated. Conclusion The psychological contract violations measure may serve as a valuable tool in helping to identify areas where their students believe that schools/colleges of pharmacy have not fulfilled promised obligations. PMID:21045949

Wilkin, Noel E.; Bentley, John P.; Bouldin, Alicia S.; Wilson, Marvin C.; Holmes, Erin R.

2010-01-01

185

A new ultrasonographic instrument for measuring vessel wall shear stress.  

PubMed

A new ultrasonographic machine (FRP II) has been developed to measure vessel wall shear stress. A multigate ultrasound probe sends an ultrasound beam simultaneously focused in subsequent points 0.2 mm from each other along the transverse axis of a blood vessel. Blood velocity is measured by cross-correlation technique, which allows a rapid and economical analysis. Thus, the instantaneous (every 5 msec) blood velocity profile is reconstructed for the duration of the entire cardiac cycle. In order to verify the precision and sensitivity of the FRP II in measuring shear stress, 36 measurements were performed on the common carotid artery in 9 hypertensive subjects in different hemodynamic conditions. The FRP II-measured shear stress (the product of the shear rate and blood viscosity) was compared to that calculated by the Womersley's mathematical model (Y = 2K.Vcl/D, where Y = shear rate, Vcl = vessel center line blood velocity, D = vessel diameter). A good correlation (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001) was found between the peak systolic shear stresses measured by FRP II and that calculated by the Womersley's mathematical model, although an underestimation for higher values was observed with the latter method. In conclusion, we propose a new ultrasonographic instrument to measure "in vivo" the vessel wall shear stress. PMID:8086161

Bardelli, M; Carretta, R; Dotti, D; Fabris, B; Fischetti, F; Cominotto, F; Ussi, D; Calci, M; Candido, R

1994-04-01

186

Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East-India Company (EEIC), and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C). This provides a powerful out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions - supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this - such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

Brohan, P.; Allan, R.; Freeman, E.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, F.

2012-05-01

187

Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores, etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East India Company (EEIC), and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C). This provides an out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions - supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this - such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

Brohan, P.; Allan, R.; Freeman, E.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, F.

2012-10-01

188

Measuring Specific Heats at High Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flash apparatus for measuring thermal diffusivities at temperatures from 300 to 1,000 degrees C modified; measures specific heats of samples to accuracy of 4 to 5 percent. Specific heat and thermal diffusivity of sample measured. Xenon flash emits pulse of radiation, absorbed by sputtered graphite coating on sample. Sample temperature measured with thermocouple, and temperature rise due to pulse measured by InSb detector.

Vandersande, Jan W.; Zoltan, Andrew; Wood, Charles

1987-01-01

189

Monitoramento da temperatura de estufas odontológicas empregadas para a esterilização do instrumental* Temperature verification of odontologic sterilizer employed to instrumental sterilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate, in odontologic sterilizers, the routinely use of some kind of sterilization process monitorship; the compliance to time and temperature recommended to dental instrument sterilization; the correlation between the temperature indicated on the odontologic sterilizer thermometer and the temperature shown on the auxiliary thermometer; and the dental instrument packaging procedure. Twenty seven (27)

Fabiana Vieira Vier; Ângela Serrano Lopes; Karine Sommer; Elias Pandonor; Motcy de Oliveira; Orlando Limongi

190

High-pressure-temperature gradient instrument: use for determining the temperature and pressure limits of bacterial growth.  

PubMed Central

A pressurized temperature gradient instrument allowed a synoptic determination of the effects of temperature and pressure on the reproduction of bacteria. The instrument consisted of eight pressure vessels housed parallel to each other in an insulated aluminum block in which a linear temperature gradient was supported. For a given experiment, eight pressures between 1 and 1,100 bars were chosen; the linear temperature gradient was established over an interval within -20 to 100 degrees C. Pure cultures and natural populations were studied in liquid or solid medium either in short (ca. 2-cm) culture tubes or in long (76.2-cm) glass capillaries. In the case of a pure culture, experiments with the pressurized temperature gradient instrument determined values of temperature and pressure that bounded its growth. Feasibility experiments with mixed populations of bacteria from water samples from a shallow depth of the sea showed that the instrument may be useful in identifying the extent to which a natural population is adapted to the temperatures and pressures at the locale of origin of the sample. Additional conceived uses of the instrument included synoptic determinations of cell functions other than reproduction and of biochemical activities. Images PMID:6391378

Yayanos, A A; van Boxtel, R; Dietz, A S

1984-01-01

191

Temperature control analysis and flight results for the Viking Orbiter 1975 Mars atmospheric water detection instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars atmospheric water detector (MAWD) instrument required a temperature of -70 C at the detector. The monochromator housing required +20 C + or - 1 C. This instrument was located on the scan platform, and slewed across two solar panels. The thermal design for the detector was an open flat plate radiator thermally isolated on four 1-in. tubes, with

H. M. Kavanagh; F. L. Murphy

1978-01-01

192

Seasonal and Regional Variation of Pan-Arctic Surface Air Temperature Over the Instrumental Record  

E-print Network

Seasonal and Regional Variation of Pan-Arctic Surface Air Temperature Over the Instrumental Record surface air temperature (SAT) records from 59 Arctic stations north of 64°N show monthly anomalies we further the analysis of Arctic variability by reexamination of the surface air temperature (SAT

Percival, Don

193

Apparatus Would Measure Temperatures Of Ball Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rig for testing ball bearings under radial and axial loads and measuring surface temperatures undergoing development. Includes extensible thermocouples: by means of bellows as longitudinal positioners, thermocouples driven into contact with bearing balls to sense temperatures immediately after test run. Not necessary to disassemble rig or to section balls to obtain indirect indications of maximum temperatures reached. Thermocouple measurements indicate temperatures better than temperature-sensitive paints.

Gibson, John C.; Fredricks, Thomas H.

1995-01-01

194

Equipment and Experimental Technique For Temperature Measurements In Deep Boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of temperature measurements is highly informative since any dynami- cal processes in the boreholes and in the vicinities are accompanied by thermal effects. Electronics and equipment for remote measurements in the boreholes are briefly dis- cussed in the report. It includes a deep instrument, cable winch and surface recording unit placed onboard a car. The temperature dependent frequency modulated signal is used in deep instrument. A cable of original construction was developed for chute-lift operations. It has a signal and power channel at the same time and play the depth me- ter. The surface recording unit includes power supply for deep instruments, receiver, frequency meter and indicator. A personal computer is used for the measurement nu- merical control. Energy for the electronics is supplied by a car battery. Self sufficiency and high accuracy are specialities of the equipment. Using the technique and equip- ment we made the experimental study of temperature in the boreholes of the East European platform, Middle Asia, West Siberia, Kamchatka and other regions. Most of our temperatures and temperature gradients have been used for mapping.

Khristoforov, A.

195

Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A setup to measure skin autofluorescence was developed to assess accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in patients noninvasively. The method applies direct blacklight tube illumination of the skin of the lower arm, and spectrometry. The setup displays skin autofluorescence (AF) as a ratio of mean intensities detected from the skin between 420-600 nm and 300-420 nm, respectively. In an early clinical application in 46 and control subjects matched for age and gender, AF was significantly increased in the patients (p = 0.015), and highly correlated with skin AGE's that were determined from skin biopsies in both groups. A large follow-up study on type 2 diabetes mellitus, ongoing since 2001 with more than 1000 subjects, aims to assess the value of the instrument in predicting chronic complications of diabetes. At baseline, a relation with age, glycemic status and with complications present was found. In a study in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis AF was a strong and independent predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality. A commercial version of this AGE-reader is now under development and becomes available early 2005 (DiagnOptics B.V., Groningen, The Netherlands). One of the remaining questions, that will be answered by measuring so-called Exciation-Emission Matrices (EEM's) of the skin tissue in vivo, is whether a more selective choice of wavelengths is more strongly related to clinical characteristics. An experimental instrument to measure these EEM's was, therefore, developed as well. Clinical measurements are underway of EEM's in patient groups with diabetes mellitus and in healthy volunteers.

Graaff, Reindert; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Lutgers, Helen L.; Baptist, Rene; de Jong, Ed D.; Zijp, Jaap R.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard

2005-04-01

196

Low-frequency noise measurements: applications, methodologies and instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low frequency noise measurements (f<10Hz) are a powerful tool for the investigation of the quality and reliability of electron devices and material. In most cases, however, the application of this technique is made quite difficult both because of the effect of external interferences (temperature fluctuations, EMI, mechanical vibrations, etc.) and because of the high level of flicker noise of the

Carmine Ciofi; Bruno Neri

2003-01-01

197

Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing.  

PubMed

Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra. PMID:21509063

Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

2011-04-20

198

An Instrument to Monitor the WBand Temperature of the Sky  

E-print Network

and understanding. #12; 3 1. Introduction The precise Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy matter and radiation decoupled in the early universe, repeated scattering of the radiation would have scattering of radiation from charged particles produces linear polarization dependent on their velocity

199

Caffeine expectancy: instrument development in the Rasch measurement framework.  

PubMed

Although caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world, the mechanisms associated with consumption are not well understood. Nonetheless, outcome expectancies for caffeine use are thought to underlie caffeine's reinforcing properties. To date, however, there is no available, sufficient measure by which to assess caffeine expectancy. Therefore, the current study sought to develop such a measure employing Rasch measurement models. Unlike traditional measurement development techniques, Rasch analyses afford dynamic and interactive control of the analysis process and generate helpful information to guide instrument construction. A 5-stage developmental process is described, ultimately yielding a 37-item Caffeine Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) comprised of 4 factors representing "withdrawal symptoms," "positive effects," "acute negative effects," and "mood effects." Initial evaluation of the CEQ yielded sufficient evidence for various aspects of validity. Although additional research with more heterogeneous samples is required to further assess the measure's reliability and validity, the CEQ demonstrates potential with regard to its utility in experimental laboratory research and clinical application. PMID:19769434

Heinz, Adrienne J; Kassel, Jon D; Smith, Everett V

2009-09-01

200

TRISO fuel compact thermal conductivity measurement instrument development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal conductivity is an important thermophysical property needed for effectively predicting fuel performance. As part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program, the thermal conductivity of tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel needs to be measured over a temperature range characteristic of its usage. The composite nature of TRISO fuel requires that measurement be performed over the entire length of the compact in a non-destructive manner. No existing measurement system is capable of performing such a measurement. A measurement system has been designed based on the steady-state, guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow technique. The system as currently designed is capable of measuring cylindrical samples with diameters ˜12.3-mm (˜0.5?) with lengths ˜25-mm (˜1?). The system is currently operable in a temperature range of 400 K to 1100 K for materials with thermal conductivities on the order of 10 W/m/K to 70 W/m/K. The system has been designed, built, and tested. An uncertainty analysis for the determinate errors of the system has been performed finding a result of 5.5%. Finite element modeling of the system measurement method has also been accomplished demonstrating optimal design, operating conditions, and associated bias error. Measurements have been performed on three calibration/validation materials: SS304, 99.95% pure iron, and inconel 625. In addition, NGNP graphite with ZrO2 particles and NGNP AGR-2 graphite matrix only, both in compact form, have been measured. Results from the SS304 sample show agreement of better than 3% for a 300--600°C temperature range. For iron between 100--600°C, the difference with published values is <8% for all temperatures. The maximum difference from published data for inconel 625 is 5.8%, near 600°C. Both NGNP samples were measured from 100--800°C. All results are presented and discussed. Finally, a discussion of ongoing work is included as well as a brief discussion of implementation under other operating conditions, including higher temperatures and adaptation for use in a glovebox or hot cell.

Jensen, Colby

201

Measurement of small temperature fluctuations at high average temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both absolute and differential temperature measurements were simultaneously performed as a function of time for a pixel on a high-temperature, multi-spectral, spatially and temporally varying infrared target simulator. A scanning laser beam was used to maintain a pixel at an on-the-average constant temperature of 520 K. The laser refresh rate of up to 1 kHz resulted in small-amplitude temperature fluctuations with a peak-to-peak amplitude of less than 1 K. The experimental setup to accurately measure the differential and the absolute temperature as a function of time is described.

Scholl, James W.; Scholl, Marija S.

1988-01-01

202

An instrument for high-throughput measurements of fiber mechanical properties  

E-print Network

In this thesis, an instrument is designed and constructed for the purpose of measuring the mechanical properties of single fibers. The instrument is intended to provide high throughput measurement of single fiber geometric ...

Kristofek, Grant William, 1980-

2005-01-01

203

Influence of Resistance Method on Motor Winding Temperature Rise Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this article is presentation of influences when measuring the motor winding temperature rise in the scope of safety testing of electrical appliances, with respect to conformity assessment. The temperature measurement in testing is one of the most defined fields of measurement, but it is very important how the measurement is performed. Standards only describe that the resistance method shall be used for determination of the temperature rise (heating) of the winding. The temperature rise is defined as the average temperature rise of the windings above the ambient (surrounding) temperature, at the specified load of the unit under test. It is not explicitly defined how to approach this measurement when using cooling characteristics of the winding for determination of the temperature rise. Since the extrapolation curve is used, the procedure is also very important to obtain a result as accurate as possible. It is important that measurement results and their associated uncertainties are correctly evaluated, and on that basis, appropriate conclusions of conformity of the product with specifications are made. The resistance method influence on the motor winding temperature rise measurement is a case study in this article. The article focuses on the measurement of the temperature rise of electrical motors used in electrical appliances according to the standard EN 60335-1, clause 11 (2002) (identical as standard IEC 60335-1, 2001). In this article, the influencing parameters are analyzed when measuring the temperature rise of electromotor winding. As a case study, concrete measurements are presented. The optimal time after which the performer has to start measurement of the cooling characteristics is analyzed, since the motors are typically mounted deep into appliances. Especially for a collector motor winding, it takes some time for a performer to be able to connect the measuring instrument to collector's lamellas because this contact has an important influence on extrapolation results.

Beges, G.

2011-12-01

204

Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points  

SciTech Connect

The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)] [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)

2013-09-11

205

Temperature Measurements of Flames containing Incandescent Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour temperatures measured on photoflash powders are higher than expected from theoretical calculations Determinations of the true temperature of stationary flames of aluminium flakes suspended in air have been made (a) by a line reversal method and (b) by measuring the absolute light intensity. The experimental values obtained were very close to the theoretical flame temperature of about 3,000° C.,

H G Wolfhard; W G Parker

1949-01-01

206

Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets  

DOEpatents

An instrument is described for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A packet production line model is also described. 3 figures.

Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

1993-10-05

207

Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets  

DOEpatents

An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head.

Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN); Fine, H. Alan (Lexington, KY)

1995-01-01

208

Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets  

DOEpatents

An instrument is disclosed for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head. 4 figs.

Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

1995-04-18

209

Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To facilitate astrobiological studies on the survival and adaptation of microorganisms and mixed microbial cultures to space environment, we have been developing a fully automated, minia-turized system for measuring their gene expression on small spacecraft. This low-cost, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement in our ability to study the impact of the space environment on biological systems by providing data on cel-lular metabolism and regulation orders of magnitude richer than what is currently available. The system supports growth of the organism, lyse it to release the expressed RNA, label the RNA, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis of labeled RNA and transmit the measurements to Earth. To measure gene expression we use microarray technology developed by CombiMatrix, which is based on electrochemical reactions on arrays of electrodes on a semiconductor substrate. Since the electrical integrity of the microarray re-mains intact after probe synthesis, the circuitry can be employed to sense nucleic acid binding at each electrode. CombiMatrix arrays can be sectored to allow multiple samples per chip. In addition, a single array can be used for several assays. The array has been integrated into an automated microfluidic cartridge that uses flexible reagent blisters and pinch pumping to move liquid reagents between chambers. The proposed instrument will help to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions be-yond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and test our ability to sustain and grow in space organ-isms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration. The instrument is suitable for small satellite platforms, which provide frequent, low cost access to space. It can be also used on any other platform in space, including the ISS. It can be replicated and used with only small modifications in multiple biological experiments with a broad range of goals in mind.

Pohorille, Andrew; Danley, David; Payvan, Kia; Ricco, Antonio

210

Evaluating and testing thermographic phosphors for turbine-engine temperature measurements  

SciTech Connect

A technique developed earlier for measuring the temperature of inaccessible surfaces in low-temperature rotating machines is being adapted to measure the temperature of surfaces at the higher temperatures and in the erosive environment inside operating turbine engines. The method uses the temperature dependence of the characteristic decay time of the laser-induced-fluorescence of thermographic phosphors to measure the temperature. This paper summarizes recent work in four areas: phosphor characterization and calibration, instrumentation development, bonding, and field tests. By using improved instrumentation and data-analysis techniques, calibration curves for several phosphors are measured with greater accuracy and extended to higher temperatures than before. Phosphors are evaluated that were attached to sample surfaces by high-temperature bonding materials, electron-beam deposition, flame spraying, and plasma spraying. A burner rig test was performed on some phosphor-coated samples and the instrumentation required for an upcoming spin-pit test was designed, built, and calibrated.

Noel, B.W.; Allison, S.W.; Beshears, D.L.; Cates, M.R.; Borella, H.M.; Franks, L.A.; Iverson, C.E.; Dowell, L.J.; Gillies, G.T.; Lutz, W.N.

1987-01-01

211

Does an instrumented treadmill correctly measure the ground reaction forces?  

PubMed Central

Summary Since the 1990s, treadmills have been equipped with multi-axis force transducers to measure the three components of the ground reaction forces during walking and running. These measurements are correctly performed if the whole treadmill (including the motor) is mounted on the transducers. In this case, the acceleration of the treadmill centre of mass relative to the reference frame of the laboratory is nil. The external forces exerted on one side of the treadmill are thus equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the external forces exerted on the other side. However, uncertainty exists about the accuracy of these measures: due to friction between the belt and the tread-surface, due to the motor pulling the belt, some believe that it is not possible to correctly measure the horizontal components of the forces exerted by the feet on the belt. Here, we propose a simple model of an instrumented treadmill and we demonstrate (1) that the forces exerted by the subject moving on the upper part of the treadmill are accurately transmitted to the transducers placed under it and (2) that all internal forces – including friction – between the parts of the treadmill are cancelling each other. PMID:24285705

Willems, Patrick A.; Gosseye, Thierry P.

2013-01-01

212

Integrated instrument for dynamic light scattering and natural fluorescence measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, great efforts have been made in ophthalmology to use optical techniques based on dynamic light scattering and tissue natural fluorescence for early (at molecular level) diagnosis of ocular pathologies. In our previous studies, the relationship between the corneal AF and DLS decay widths of ocular tissues were established by performing measurements on diabetes mellitus patients. In those studies, corneal AF mean intensities were significantly correlated with DLS decay width measurements for each diabetic retinopathy grade in the vitreous and in the cornea. This suggested that the quality of the diagnosis could be significantly improved by properly combining these two powerful techniques into a single instrument. Our approach is based on modifying a commercial scanning ocular fluorometer (Fluorotron Master, Ocumetrics Inc., CA, USA) to include both techniques in the same scanning unit. This configuration provides both DLS and AF real time measurements from the same ocular volume: they can be located in each section of the optical axis of the eye from the cornea to the retina. In this paper, the optical setup of the new system is described and preliminary in-vitro and in-vivo measurements are presented.

Rovati, Luigi; Pollonini, Luca; Ansari, Rafat R.

2001-06-01

213

A discussion of some proposed measurement techniques for hypersonic flight and instrumentation research experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensors, instrumentation, and test techniques proposed for the Hypersonic Flight Instrumentation and Research Experiment are discussed. The project is concerned with Mach 4 to 16 flight at pressure altitudes of 50,000 to 150,000 feet. The developmental instrumentation for the program includes angle-of-attack sensors, transition sensors, skin-friction sensors, particle sensors, species-concentration sensors, and temperature and heat flux sensors. Support instrumentation (required to monitor basic flight parameters and to supply data from which the performance of the developmental instruments may be evaluated) considered include surface pressure sensors, inertial instrumentation, magnetic attitude sensors, and signal conditioning and data transmission instrumentation.

Hellbaum, R. F.; Garner, H. Douglas

1988-01-01

214

IMTC 2008 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference  

E-print Network

, Vancouver Island, Canada, May 12­15, 2008 Human-Instrument Symbiotic Partnership for Multimodal Environment issues of the symbiotic human-instrument partnership as a next evolutionary stage of the instrumentation, the world model is analyzed to infer relationships between different objects and to asses the consequences

Petriu, Emil M.

215

Automated measuring instrument of the surface electric potential and potential distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated measuring instrument of the surface electric potential and its distribution was presented. The schematic instrument diagram, metrological assessment, the relation of measured voltage with the sample electrophysical parameters are discussed. Possibilities of measuring instruments are demonstrated by some physical investigations.

Sakalauskas, S.; Sodeika, A.

1998-02-01

216

Spectroscopic Temperature Measurements in Interior Ballistic Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spectroscopic temperature measurements during the interior ballistic cycle of a 20 mm test fixture gun and inside the muzzle flash of a 7.62 mm rifle are described. The investigation yields information on temperature distribution in the burning propellant...

G. Klingenberg, H. Mach

1984-01-01

217

Microparticles temperature measurements in a plasma jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high spatial resolution spectroscopic technique was developed for temperature measurements of micro-particles heated in a plasma jet. The knowledge of the particles temperature distribution was used to optimize the plasma spraying process.

D Oliver; R Enikov

2000-01-01

218

Brazing Refractory Metals Used In High-Temperature Nuclear Instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR 1) experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed.

A. J. Palmer; C. J. Woolstenhulme

2009-06-01

219

Development and application of an instrument for spatially resolved Seebeck coefficient measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seebeck coefficient is a key indicator of the majority carrier type (electrons or holes) in a material. The recent trend toward the development of combinatorial materials research methods has necessitated the development of a new high-throughput approach to measuring the Seebeck coefficient at spatially distinct points across any sample. The overall strategy of the high-throughput experiments is to quickly identify the region of interest on the sample at some expense of accuracy, and then study this region by more conventional techniques. The instrument for spatially resolved Seebeck coefficient measurements reported here relies on establishing a temperature difference across the entire compositionally graded thin-film and consecutive mapping of the resulting voltage as a function of position, which facilitates the temperature-dependent measurements up to 400 °C. The results of the designed instrument are verified at ambient temperature to be repeatable over 10 identical samples and accurate to within 10% versus conventional Seebeck coefficient measurements over the -100 to +150 ?V/K range using both n-type and p-type conductive oxides as test cases. The developed instrument was used to determine the sign of electrical carriers of compositionally graded Zn-Co-O and Ni-Co-O libraries prepared by combinatorial sputtering. As a result of this study, both cobalt-based materials were determined to have p-type conduction over a broad single-phase region of chemical compositions and small variation of the Seebeck coefficient over the entire investigated range of compositions and temperature.

Zakutayev, Andriy; Luciano, Frank J.; Bollinger, Vincent P.; Sigdel, Ajaya K.; Ndione, Paul F.; Perkins, John D.; Berry, Joseph J.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S.

2013-05-01

220

Optical sensing techniques for temperature measurement.  

PubMed

Temperature is an important parameter that needs accurate measurement. Theoretical descriptions of the fluorescence ratio method, fluorescence lifetime sensing, and interferometric methods for temperature measurement are given. Fluorescence lifetime sensing calibration plots have been developed for temperature measurement from 20°C to 600°C using Er(3+)-doped glass, and from 20°C to 90°C using Sm(3+)-doped CaF(2). Lifetime sensing results of Pr(3+)-doped YAG and Ho(3+)-doped fluoride crystals for temperature measurement are also summarized. Mach-Zehnder interferometer measurements revealed that the passage of a 300 mW laser beam of 915 nm changed the temperature of the Yb(3+)-doped YAG crystal by 7.1°C. The interferometer technique is useful for measuring absolute temperature changes in laser cooling studies. PMID:23385939

Reddy, B Rami; Kamma, Indumathi; Kommidi, Praveena

2013-02-01

221

Validation of low-cost ozone measurement instruments suitable for use in an air-quality monitoring network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel low-cost instrument that uses a sensor based on conductivity changes of heated tungstic oxide, which is capable of accurately measuring ambient concentrations of ozone. A combination of temperature steps and air flow-rate steps is used to continually reset and re-zero the sensor. A two-stage calibration procedure is presented, in which a nonlinear transformation converts sensor resistance to a signal linear in ozone concentration, then a linear correlation is used to align the calibration with a reference instrument. The required calibration functions specific for the sensor, and control system for air flow rate and sensor temperature, are housed with the sensor in a compact, simple-to-exchange assembly. The instrument can be operated on solar power and uses cell phone technology to enable monitoring in remote locations. Data from field trials are presented here to demonstrate that both the accuracy and the stability of the instrument over periods of months are within a few parts-per-billion by volume. We show that common failure modes can be detected through measurement of signals available from the instrument. The combination of long-term stability, self-diagnosis, and simple, inexpensive repair means that the cost of operation and calibration of the instruments is significantly reduced in comparison with traditional reference instrumentation. These instruments enable the economical construction and operation of ozone monitoring networks of accuracy, time resolution and spatial density sufficient to resolve the local gradients that are characteristic of urban air pollution.

Williams, David E.; Henshaw, Geoff S.; Bart, Mark; Laing, Greer; Wagner, John; Naisbitt, Simon; Salmond, Jennifer A.

2013-06-01

222

Alignment Measurements of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Instrument in a Thermal/Vacuum Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory, scheduled for a fall 2000 launch, is designed to measure temperature fluctuations (anisotropy) and produce a high sensitivity and high spatial resolution (approximately 0.2 degree) map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation over the entire sky between 22 and 90 GHz. MAP utilizes back-to-back Gregorian telescopes to focus the microwave signals into 10 differential microwave receivers, via 20 feed horns. Proper alignment of the telescope reflectors and the feed horns at the operating temperature of 90 K is a critical element to ensure mission success. We describe the hardware and methods used to validate the displacement/deformation predictions of the reflectors and the microwave feed horns during thermal/vacuum testing of the reflectors and the microwave instrument. The smallest deformation predictions to be measured were on the order of +/- 0.030 inches (+/- 0.762 mm). Performance of these alignment measurements inside a thermal/vacuum chamber with conventional alignment equipment posed several limitations. The most troublesome limitation was the inability to send personnel into the chamber to perform the measurements during the test due to vacuum and the temperature extremes. The photogrammetry (PG) system was chosen to perform the measurements since it is a non- contact measurement system, the measurements can be made relatively quickly and accurately, and the photogrammetric camera can be operated remotely. The hardware and methods developed to perform the MAP alignment measurements using PG proved to be highly successful. The measurements met the desired requirements, for the metal structures enabling the desired distortions to be measured resolving deformations an order of magnitude smaller than the imposed requirements. Viable data were provided to the MAP Project for a full analysis of the on-orbit performance of the Instrument's microwave system.

Hill, Michael D.; Herrera, Acey A.; Crane, J. Allen; Packard, Edward A.; Aviado, Carlos; Sampler, Henry P.

2000-01-01

223

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illiminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature. 3 figs.

Angel, S.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

1986-04-22

224

Regional temperature variability in the European Alps: 1760-1998 from homogenized instrumental time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates temperature variability in the Alps and their surroundings based on 97 instrumental series of monthly mean temperatures. A discussion of the initial homogenizing procedure illustrates its advantages and risks. A comparison of the homogenized series with the original series clearly shows the necessity to homogenize. Each of the original series had breaks (an average of five per

Reinhard Böhm; Ingeborg Auer; Michele Brunetti; Maurizio Maugeri; Teresa Nanni; Wolfgang Schöner

2001-01-01

225

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement  

DOEpatents

A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

1994-09-20

226

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement  

DOEpatents

A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01

227

Measuring the Acoustic Impedance of Pipes and Musical Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a small electret microphone and a piezo-buzzer we have constructed a simple impedance transducer to measure the input impedance of air columns, such as cylindrical pipes, as well as musical instruments. The input impedance of an air column is given as the ratio of the pressure to the volume flow of air at the input of the air column. The microphone serves as the pressure transducer, while the piezo-buzzer is controlled to provide a constant velocity amplitude. Therefore the microphone signal is proportional to the acoustical impedance and, if required, can be calibrated using a simple air column for which the impedance can be calculated. This impedance transducer is currently in use as demonstration equipment for a physical acoustics class. It is simple to use and robust, so that it is well-suited for an undergraduate introductory laboratory environment. This talk will discuss the function of the impedance transducer and show examples of the type of measurements that can be performed. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.C1.1

Jaeger, Herbert

2007-05-01

228

Spectroscopic temperature measurements in interior ballistic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopic temperature measurements during the interior ballistic cycle of a 20 mm test fixture gun and inside the muzzle flash of a 7.62 mm rifle are described. The investigation yields information on temperature distribution in the burning propellant charge of the 20 mm test fixture and on radial temperature profiles in the 7.62 mm muzzle flash region. A technique to

G. Klingenberg; H. Mach

1984-01-01

229

Specific Heat and Second Sound Measurements with the DYNAMIX Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to its primary role of studying non-linear heat transport effects near the lambda transition of He-4, the DYNAMX apparatus is suitable for measurements of the specific heat and the velocity of second sound. We plan to take advantage of available time on orbit to make measurements in these areas near to the lambda transition. The specific heat work would be similar to LPE, aimed at improving our knowledge of the singularity in the bulk heat capacity at the transition, but would provide more accurate results close to the transition. It would focus roughly equally on each side of the transition and would be synergistic with the CQ experiment, providing wider-range data at Q = 0. The second sound measurements are made possible by the fast time constant and high resolution of the DYNAMX thermometers, which allow accurate time-of-flight measurements of second sound pulses. It appears possible to measure the second sound velocity to about 1% at a reduced temperature of t = 5x10(exp -8) by averaging over a moderate number of pulses. The data would complement and extend earlier ground-based measurements, leading to improved tests of the theory of static critical phenomena at the lambda transition.

Nissen, Joel

2003-01-01

230

The rhesus measurement system: A new instrument for space research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) is a research environment designed to study the effects of microgravity using rhesus primates as human surrogates. This experimental model allows investigators to study numerous aspects of microgravity exposure without compromising crew member activities. Currently, the RRF is slated for two missions to collect its data, the first mission is SLS-3, due to fly in late 1995. The RRF is a joint effort between the United States and France. The science and hardware portions of the project are being shared between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and France's Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The RRF is composed of many different subsystems in order to acquire data, provide life support, environmental enrichment, computer facilities and measurement capabilities for two rhesus primates aboard a nominal sixteen day mission. One of these subsystems is the Rhesus Measurement System (RMS). The RMS is designed to obtain in-flight physiological measurements from sensors interfaced with the subject. The RMS will acquire, preprocess, and transfer the physiologic data to the Flight Data System (FDS) for relay to the ground during flight. The measurements which will be taken by the RMS during the first flight will be respiration, measured at two different sites; electromyogram (EMG) at three different sites; electroencephalogram (EEG); electrocardiogram (ECG); and body temperature. These measurements taken by the RMS will assist the research team in meeting the science objectives of the RRF project.

Schonfeld, Julie E.; Hines, John W.

1993-01-01

231

Temperature measurement systems in wearable electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to present the concept of temperature measurement system, adapted to wearable electronics applications. Temperature is one of the most commonly monitored factor in smart textiles, especially in sportswear, medical and rescue products. Depending on the application, measured temperature could be used as an initial value of alert, heating, lifesaving or analysis system. The concept of the temperature measurement multi-point system, which consists of flexible screen-printed resistive sensors, placed on the T-shirt connected with the central unit and the power supply is elaborated in the paper.

Walczak, S.; Go?ebiowski, J.

2014-08-01

232

Laser Spectroscopic Measurement Of Temperature And Density  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses research on use of laser-induced fluorescence in oxygen and Raman scattering in air for simultaneous measurement of temperature and density of air. Major application of laser spectroscopic techniques, measurement of fluctuations of temperature and density in hypersonic flows in wind tunnels.

Mckenzie, Robert L.; Laufer, Gabriel

1991-01-01

233

Satellite observations and instrumentation for measuring energetic neutral atoms  

SciTech Connect

Direct measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) and ions have been obtained with the cooled solid state detectors on the low-altitude (220 km) three-axis stabilized S81-1/ stimulated emissions of energetic particles (SEEP) satellite and on the spinning 400 km [times] 5.5 R[sub e] (where R[sub e] is Earth radii) Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). During magnetic storms ENA and ion precipitation (E > 10 keV) are evident over the low-altitude equatorial region based on data from the SEEP (ONR 804) spectrometers and CRRES ion mass spectrometer (IMS-HI) (ONR 307-8-3) ion composition and ENA instrument. The IMS-HI neutral atom spectrometer covers the energy range from 20 to 1,500 keV with a geometrical factor of 10[sub [minus]3] cm[sup 2] sr and uses a 7-kG magnetic field to screen out protons less than about 50 MeV. During the strong magnetic storm of 24 March 1991 the first ENA and ion mass composition measurements were obtained of ring current particles below the inner belt and these fluxes are compared to the IMS-HI flux measurements in the ring current. Recently, an advanced spectrometer, the Source/Loss-cone Energetic Particle Spectrometer (SEPS), has been developed to image electrons, ions, and neutrals on the despun platform of the POLAR satellite ([approximately]1.8 [times] 9 R[sub e]) for launch in the mid 1990s as part of NASA's International Solar Terrestrial Physics/Global Geospace Science (ISTP/GGS) program.

Voss, H.D.; Mobilia, J.; Collin, H.L.; Imhof, W.L. (Lockheed Palo Alto Research Lab., CA (United States). Space Sciences Lab.)

1993-12-01

234

Nuclear temperature measurement for central collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear temperatures from double isotope yield ratios and excited state populations were measured for central ^86Kr + ^93Nb collision at 35 70 100 and 120 AMeV. Temperatures based on ^3He\\/^4He isotope ratio increase with beam energy while temperatures from excited state populations remain nearly constant around 4-5 MeV. Temperatures from the double isotope yield based on ^11C\\/^12C ratio are consistent

H. Xi; G. J. Kunde; R. Shomin; O. Bjarki; S. Fritze; C. K. Gelbke; C. Gross; J. Imme; R. C. Lemmon; W. G. Lynch; A. Nadason; C. Nociforo; V. Maddalena; D. Magestro; T. Odeh; R. Popescu; G. Raciti; G. Riccobene; P. Romano; A. Saija; C. Schwarz; C. Sfienti; M. B. Tsang; A. M. Vandermolen; G. D. Westfall; L. W. Weathers

1998-01-01

235

Measurements of musical instruments with surrounding spherical arrays  

E-print Network

if the sound field is already highly diffuse at that time [2]. Musical instruments owe a part, Nantes, France 761 #12;The directivities of natural sound sources such as musical instruments are often of the sound sources are often neglected and thus implicitly as- sumed to be of omnidirectional type

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

Instrument for measuring thin-film belt lengths  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrument consists of base, vernier height gauge, sliding block, and balance-beam assembly with tension weight. Pulley bracket is provided with three pulley mounting holes, 4 inches apart, to accommodate widely different belt lengths. Instrument is accurate to within 0.001 inch and is suitable for commercial production.

Casad, T. A.; Piggott, H.; Hoffman, J. K.

1974-01-01

237

Feminist Identity Development Measures: Comparing the Psychometrics of Three Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reliability and validity of three current instruments (Feminist Identity Scale [FIS], Feminist Identity Development Scale [FIDS]J Feminist Identity Composite [FIC]) used to operationalize Downing and Roush's model of feminist identity development were compared. A sample of 245 women completed all three instruments, and a separate sample of 35…

Moradi, Bonnie; Subich, Linda Mezydlo

2002-01-01

238

Feminist Identity Development Measures: Comparing the Psychometrics of Three Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability and validity of three current instruments (Feminist Identity Scale (FIS), Femi- nist Identity Development Scale (FIDS), Feminist Identity Composite (FIC)) used to operationalize Downing and Roush's model of feminist identity development were com- pared. A sample of 245 women completed all three instruments, and a separate sample of 35 women repeated them over a 2-week interval. Only the FIC

Bonnie Moradi; L. M. Subich

2002-01-01

239

A simple method for accurate temperature measurement.  

PubMed

A simple method, employing thermocouples, was developed for measurement of temperature with an accuracy of 0.05 degrees C. The method is based on the principle of a compensatory measurement of the thermocouple voltage, with application of an additional amplifier. The temperature level of the reference thermocouple was shifted from 0 degrees to 37 degrees C, using a compensating voltage. Within a smaller range (37 degrees -- 43 degrees C) the voltage of the measuring thermocouple was additionally amplified, which resulted in an increase in sensitivity and accuracy of the temperature measurement in animal tissues. The electronic circuit and calibration procedure are presented in detail. PMID:7446155

Grucza, R; Boruta, E

1980-01-01

240

Temperature Sensitive Particle for Velocity and Temperature Measurement.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorescence and fluorescence are often applied to measure the temperature and the concentration of oxygen. The intensity and the lifetime of phosphor depend on the temperature and the oxygen concentration, due to the quenching effect of the phosphor. The present study clarified the effects of temperature on the lifetime of phosphorescence of Porphyrins, Ru(bpy)3^2+ and the europium complex. The phosphorescence lifetime of oil solution / water solution / painted wall were measured with changing temperature and oxygen concentration. In addition, the optical property of the small particles incorporated with the europium complex was investigated in the oil/water. The lifetime was strongly affected by temperature. Then, the temperature sensitive particle (TSParticle) with metal complex was applied to measure temperature in Silicone oil (10cSt) two-dimensionally. Present study is the result of ?High speed three-dimensional direct measurement technology development for the evaluation of heat flux and flow of liquid metal? entrusted to the University of Tokyo by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan(MEXT).

Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji; Iida, Masao

2007-11-01

241

Temperature and heat flux measurements: Challenges for high temperature aerospace application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measurement of high temperatures and the influence of heat transfer data is not strictly a problem of either the high temperatures involved or the level of the heating rates to be measured at those high temperatures. It is a problem of duration during which measurements are made and the nature of the materials in which the measurements are made. Thermal measurement techniques for each application must respect and work with the unique features of that application. Six challenges in the development of measurement technology are discussed: (1) to capture the character and localized peak values within highly nonuniform heating regions; (2) to manage large volumes of thermal instrumentation in order to efficiently derive critical information; (3) to accommodate thermal sensors into practical flight structures; (4) to broaden the capabilities of thermal survey techniques to replace discrete gages in flight and on the ground; (5) to provide supporting instrumentation conduits which connect the measurement points to the thermally controlled data acquisition system; and (6) to develop a class of 'vehicle tending' thermal sensors to assure the integrity of flight vehicles in an efficient manner.

Neumann, Richard D.

1992-01-01

242

Measuring Communicative Participation: A Review of Self-Report Instruments in Speech-Language Pathology  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the adequacy of self-report instruments in speech-language pathology for measuring a construct called communicative participation. Method Six instruments were evaluated relative to (a) the construct measured, (b) the relevance of individual items to communicative participation, and (c) their psychometric properties. Results No instrument exclusively measured communicative participation. Twenty-six percent (n = 34) of all items (N = 132) across the reviewed instruments were consistent with communicative participation. The majority (76%) of the 34 items were associated with general communication, while the remaining 24% of the items were associated with communication at work, during leisure, or for establishing relationships. Instruments varied relative to psychometric properties. Conclusions No existing self-report instruments in speech-language pathology were found to be solely dedicated to measuring communicative participation. Developing an instrument for measuring communicative participation is essential for meeting the requirements of our scope of practice. PMID:17102143

Eadie, Tanya L.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Deitz, Jean C.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

2009-01-01

243

Nonintrusive temperature measurements on advanced turbomachinery components  

SciTech Connect

A nonintrusive, noncontacting method we developed for temperature measurements in hostile environments is well-suited for measurements on advanced turbine components. The method is not only superior to thermocouples in sufficiently difficult environments, but also is the only known method for making measurements in situations where no form of pyrometry works. We demonstrated the method, which uses laser-induced fluorescence of thermographic phosphors bonded to the component surfaces, on turbine blades and vanes in developmental turbine engines. The method is extendable to the much-higher temperatures expected inside advanced turbomachinery. Of particular note is the adaptability of the method to surface-temperature measurements on ceramics operating at high temperatures. In this temperature range, the ceramics become translucent, and surface emissivity becomes meaningless. We shall discuss the method, its advantages and limitations, recent test results on operating turbine engines, and the extension to ceramic components.

Noel, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turley, W.D.; Lewis, W. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States)

1992-12-31

244

Troposphere-thermosphere tidal coupling as measured by the SABER instrument on TIMED during July-September 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupling between the troposphere and lower thermosphere due to upward propagating tides is investigated using temperatures measured from the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite. The data analyzed here are confined to 20-120 km altitude and +\\/-40° latitude during 20 July to 20 September 2002. Apart from the migrating (Sun-synchronous) tidal components, the predominant feature seen (from the satellite frame)

J. M. Forbes; J. Russell; S. Miyahara; X. Zhang; S. Palo; M. Mlynczak; C. J. Mertens

2006-01-01

245

Troposphere-thermosphere tidal coupling as measured by the SABER instrument on TIMED during July–September 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupling between the troposphere and lower thermosphere due to upward propagating tides is investigated using temperatures measured from the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite. The data analyzed here are confined to 20–120 km altitude and ±40° latitude during 20 July to 20 September 2002. Apart from the migrating (Sun-synchronous) tidal components, the predominant feature seen (from the satellite frame)

J. M. Forbes; J. Russell; S. Miyahara; X. Zhang; S. Palo; M. Mlynczak; C. J. Mertens; M. E. Hagan

2006-01-01

246

Measuring Instruments The Vernier Caliper and the Micrometer Caliper,  

E-print Network

are delicate instruments and should never be overloaded. 4,000 g is the operating limit. The Lab Counter. As long as light can travel from the lamp to the detector, an electronic circuit is kept closed; when

Engel, Jonathan

247

Spectroscopic temperature measurements in a ? microwave discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report temperature measurements in a low-pressure hydrogen microwave plasma. Translational temperatures both of H and of 0022-3727\\/29\\/4\\/010\\/img2 (using Doppler broadening), as well as the rotational temperature of 0022-3727\\/29\\/4\\/010\\/img2, are simultaneously determined. It is first shown that the rotational temperature of the 0022-3727\\/29\\/4\\/010\\/img2 excited 0022-3727\\/29\\/4\\/010\\/img5 state is not in equilibrium with the translational temperatures of the neutral particles. Then, using

L. Tomasini; A. Rousseau; G. Gousset; P. Leprince

1996-01-01

248

Atmospheric temperature measurements, using Raman lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Raman-shifted return of a lidar system had been used to make atmospheric temperature measurements. The measurements were made along a horizontal path at temperatures ranging from -30 to 30 C and at ranges of about 100 meters. The temperature data were acquired by recording the intensity ratio of two portions of the rotational Raman spectrum, which were simultaneously sampled from a preset range. These tests verified that the theoretical predictions formulated in the design of the system were adequate. Measurements were made to an accuracy of + or - 4 C with 1-minute temporal resolution.

Salzman, J. A.; Coney, T. A.

1974-01-01

249

Fine Wire Thermocouple Measurements of Fluctuating Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for the measurement of the statistics of the temperature fluctuation, notably probability density function and power spectrum, in turbulent diffusion flames which employs fine wire thermocouples, compensated for the effects of thermal inertia, is assessed. Measurements made in an open turbulent methane diffusion flame are reported and compared, from the standpoint of identifying the interaction between measurement technique

A. BALLANTYNE; J. B. MOSS

1977-01-01

250

Solar absorber material reflectivity measurements at temperature  

SciTech Connect

Assessment of absorber shell material properties at high operating temperatures is essential to the full understanding of the solar energy absorption process in a solar thermal rocket. A review of these properties, their application and a new experimental methodology to measure them at high temperatures is presented. The direct application for the research is absorber cavity development for a Solar Thermal Upper Stage (STUS). High temperature measurements, greater than 1,000 Kelvin, are difficult to obtain for incident radiation upon a solid surface that forms an absorber cavity in a solar thermal engine. The basic material properties determine the amount of solar energy that is absorbed, transmitted or reflected and are dependent upon the material's temperature. This investigation developed a new approach to evaluate the material properties (i.e., reflectivity, absorptive) of the absorber wall and experimentally determined them for rhenium and niobium sample coupons. The secular reflectivity was measured both at room temperature and at temperatures near 1,000 Kelvin over a range of angles from 0 to 90 degrees. The same experimental measurements were used to calculate the total reflectivity of the sample by integrating the recorded intensities over a hemisphere. The test methodology used the incident solar energy as the heating source while directly measuring the reflected light (an integrated value over all visible wavelengths). Temperature dependence on total reflectivity was found to follow an inverse power function of the material's temperature.

Bonometti, J.A.; Hawk, C.W.

1999-07-01

251

Validation of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder Temperature and Pressure Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy and precision of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) atmospheric temperature and tangent-point pressure measurements are described. Temperatures and tangent- point pressure (atmospheric pressure at the tangent height of the field of view boresight) are retrieved from a 15-channel 63-GHz radiometer measuring O2 microwave emissions from the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Version 3 data (first public release) contains scientifically useful temperatures from 22 to 0.46 hPa. Accuracy estimates are based on instrument performance, spectroscopic uncertainty and retrieval numerics, and range from 2.1 K at 22 hPa to 4.8 K at 0.46 hPa for temperature and from 200 m (equivalent log pressure) at 10 hPa to 300 m at 0.1 hPa. Temperature accuracy is limited mainly by uncertainty in instrument characterization, and tangent-point pressure accuracy is limited mainly by the accuracy of spectroscopic parameters. Precisions are around 1 K and 100 m. Comparisons are presented among temperatures from MLS, the National Meteorological Center (NMC) stratospheric analysis and lidar stations at Table Mountain, California, Observatory of Haute Provence (OHP), France, and Goddard Spaceflight Center, Maryland. MLS temperatures tend to be 1-2 K lower than NMC and lidar, but MLS is often 5 - 10 K lower than NMC in the winter at high latitudes, especially within the northern hemisphere vortex. Winter MLS and OHP (44 deg N) lidar temperatures generally agree and tend to be lower than NMC. Problems with Version 3 MLS temperatures and tangent-point pressures are identified, but the high precision of MLS radiances will allow improvements with better algorithms planned for the future.

Fishbein, E. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Lungu, T.; Read, W. G.; Shippony, Z.; Waters, J. W.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Singh, U.; Gross, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Keckhut, P.; Gelman, M. E.; Nagatani, R. M.

1996-01-01

252

High-temperature emission spectroscopy in support of the MERTIS instrument on BepiColombo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyzing the surface composition of Mercury's regolith from remote-sensing measurements is a challenging task. In preparation for the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spec-trometer (MERTIS) instrument on the BepiColombo mission of the European Space Agency and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, Geochemistry, and Ranging (MESSEN-GER) mission, we have completely refurbished the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) at Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Berlin. MERTIS is a mapping thermal infrared spectrometer covering the wavelength range 7-14 m with an integrated radiometer extending the wavelength coverage out to 40 m. MERTIS will globally map the mineralogy of Mercury with a spatial resolution of 500 m in a spectral range not covered by MESSENGER. To facilitate the data analysis of MERTIS, the PEL has been upgraded to allow measure-ment of the emissivity of Mercury-analogue materials at grain sizes smaller than 25 m and at temperatures of more than 400C, typical for Mercury's low-latitude dayside. The PEL develop-ment follows a multi-step approach. We have already obtained emissivity data at mid-infrared wavelengths that show significant changes in spectral behavior with temperature indicative of changes in the crystal structure of the samples. We have tested new calibration targets that will allow the acquisition of emissivity data over the full wavelength range from 1 to 50 m with good signal-to-noise ratio. Currently we are in the final verification steps of the full setup. In parallel with the laboratory work with are developing and testing data analysis techniques to deal with the wealth of data to be returned by MERTIS. We are currently focusing on approaches using clustering and neural network techniques. These approaches are being tested on our laboratory data as well as on visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance data returned by the MESSENGER spacecraft.

Helbert, Jorn; Maturilli, Alessandro; D'Amore, Mario; Hiesinger, Harald; Solomon, Sean C.

253

Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, %5CDynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors%22. The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

2013-10-01

254

Sodium Line Reversal Plasma Temperature Measurement System. Topical report No. 8  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Line Reversal System is one of the advanced optical diagnostic instruments developed at DIAL to measure temperatures in the coal combustion environments of large scale facilities. The principles of operation, a description of the system and its capabilities, and the operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

Philip, T.; Bauman, L.; Benton, R.

1993-09-01

255

Asteroid Bennu Temperature Maps for OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft and Instrument Thermal Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermophysical model has been developed to generate asteroid Bennu surface temperature maps for OSIRIS-REx spacecraft and instrument thermal design and analyses at the Critical Design Review (CDR). Two-dimensional temperature maps for worst hot and worst cold cases are used in Thermal Desktop to assure adequate thermal design margins. To minimize the complexity of the Bennu geometry in Thermal Desktop, it is modeled as a sphere instead of the radar shape. The post-CDR updated thermal inertia and a modified approach show that the new surface temperature predictions are more benign. Therefore the CDR Bennu surface temperature predictions are conservative.

Choi, Michael K.; Emery, Josh; Delbo, Marco

2014-01-01

256

Exploration of Instruments Measuring Concepts of Graduateness in a Research University Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the appropriateness of international instruments to measure the separate concepts of graduateness for a research university context. The four concepts of graduateness--reflective thinking, scholarship, moral citizenship and lifelong learning--are operationalized using five existing instruments. These instruments were…

Steur, J. M.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Hofman, W. H. A.

2011-01-01

257

Review of measurement instruments in clinical and research ethics, 1999–2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every field of practice has the responsibility to evaluate its outcomes and to test its theories. Evidence of the underdevelopment of measurement instruments in bioethics suggests that attending to strengthening existing instruments and developing new ones will facilitate the interpretation of accumulating bodies of research as well as the making of clinical judgements. A review of 65 instruments reported in

B K Redman

2006-01-01

258

Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (=71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in.(=1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (=6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger.

Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

2002-01-01

259

Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (approx. = 71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in. (approx. = 1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (approx. = 6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger. This work was done by Randy

Selinsky, T.; Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

2002-01-01

260

Spectroscopic temperature measurements in oxygen discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rotational temperature of the excited state O2 (b1 Sigma g+, v=0) in an oxygen glow discharge is measured from the intensity distribution of the atmospheric A-band O2 (b1 Sigma g+, v=0) to O2(X3 Sigma g-, v=0) at lambda =760 nm. The kinetic temperature, often called the gas temperature is also deduced using vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy in the same

M. Touzeau; M. Vialle; A. Zellagui; G. Gousset; M. Lefebvre; M. Pealat

1991-01-01

261

Remote IR temperature measurement for microgravity experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A remote temperature sensor has been developed to measure the temperature of a metal alloy in microgravity conditions, on board an automatic and sealed experimental station in the Space Shuttle. The device is composed of an optical system, that allows thermal radiation from the hot body to pass through an orifice in the oven, and focus onto an infrared detector

Ricardo Peralta-Fabi; Javier Mendieta-Jimenez

1987-01-01

262

Transient temperature measurement using embedded thermocouples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response time of thermocouples is generally considered to be a limiting factor when transient temperature changes need to be assessed in solids. As an example, transient temperature changes which develop during dynamic straining of materials, adiabatic shear band formation, dynamic fracture and related fields are often investigated using sophisticated noncontact measurement techniques such as infrared detectors. In these phenomena,

D. Rittel

1998-01-01

263

Trends in instrumentation for environmental radiation measurements at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Recent instruments developed to fulfill radiation monitoring needs at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are described. Laboratory instruments that measure tritium gas effluents alone, or in the presence of activated air from D-T fusion reactors are discussed. Fully portable systems for gamma, x-ray, and alpha analyses in the field are described. Also included are descriptions of survey instruments that measure low levels of transuranic contaminants and that measure pulsed-neutron dose rates.

Hiebert, R.D.; Wolf, M.A.

1980-01-01

264

Design principles of the LVT2 model laser instrument for the measurement of visual characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As far as the LVT-2 model laser visual acuity measuring instrument, after its model improvement, is concerned, it not only is capable of measuring the visual acuity of retina (LVA), but also capable of measuring the MTF of retina. The light path system of the instrument has three sections. One is a double light bundle common path interference system making

Wende Sun

1989-01-01

265

RayleighMie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation,  

E-print Network

Rayleigh­Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation used an incoherent Doppler lidar technique for wind measurements in the atmosphere. A new of measuring stratospheric horizontal winds with an direct-detection Doppler lidar. The instrument, relying

Cambridge, University of

266

NASA-6 atmospheric measuring station. [calibration, functional checks, and operation of measuring instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information required to calibrate, functionally check, and operate the Instrumentation Branch equipment on the NASA-6 aircraft is provided. All procedures required for preflight checks and in-flight operation of the NASA-6 atmospheric measuring station are given. The calibration section is intended for only that portion of the system maintained and calibrated by IN-MSD-12 Systems Operation contractor personnel. Maintenance is not included.

1973-01-01

267

An instrument to measure job satisfaction of nursing home administrators  

PubMed Central

Background The psychometric properties of the nursing home administrator job satisfaction questionnaire (NHA-JSQ) are presented, and the steps used to develop this instrument. Methods The NHA-JSQ subscales were developed from pilot survey activities with 93 administrators, content analysis, and a research panel. The resulting survey was sent to 1,000 nursing home administrators. Factor analyses were used to determine the psychometric properties of the instrument. Results Of the 1,000 surveys mailed, 721 usable surveys were returned (72 percent response rate). The factor analyses show that the items were representative of six underlying factors (i.e., coworkers, work demands, work content, work load, work skills, and rewards). Conclusion The NHA-JSQ represents a short, psychometrically sound job satisfaction instrument for use in nursing homes. PMID:17029644

Castle, Nicholas G

2006-01-01

268

Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature Dependent Thermophysical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new evaluation method for a transient measurement of thermophysical properties is presented in this paper. The aim of the research was to couple a new automatic evaluation procedure to the BICOND thermophysical property measurement method to enhance the simultaneous determination of the temperature dependent thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. The thermophysical properties of two different polymers were measured and compared with the literature data and with the measurement results that were done by well-known, traditional methods. The BICOND method involves a step-down cooling, recording the temperature histories of the inner and the outer surfaces of a hollow cylindrical sample and the thermophysical properties are evaluated from the solution of the corresponding inverse heat conduction using a genetic algorithm-based method (BIGEN) developed by the authors. The BIGEN is able to find the material properties with any kind of temperature dependency, that is illustrated through the measurement results of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and polyamide (PA) samples.

Czél, Balázs; Gróf, Gyula; Kiss, László

2011-11-01

269

Precision temperature gradient measurements on window glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface temperature gradients were measured with miniature thermocouples installed in a 58.5 cm (23-inch) square window. Test measurements at 25 locations were made under vacuum and with the window operating in radiant heat transfer mode. The analysis of thermocouple design and installation is presented along with a lead wire routing scheme to allow for both differential and absolute temperature measurements while using a minimum number of signal feedthru paths through the test chamber wall. Typical test data and operational precautions are presented along with the accuracy analysis for installation effects and measurement effects to support differential temperature measurement precision values of + or - 0.06 C RMS + or - 0.1 F RMS).

Mikk, G.; Petrie, W.

1977-01-01

270

James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Calibration and Verification of High-Accuracy Instrumentation to Measure Heat Flow in Cryogenic Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an upcoming flagship observatory mission scheduled to be launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. The requirement for multiple thermal zoned results in the instruments being thermally connected to five external radiators via individual high purity aluminum heat straps. Thermal-vacuum and thermal balance testing of the flight instruments at the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element level will take place within a newly constructed shroud cooled by gaseous helium inside Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Space environment Simulator (SES). The flight external radiators are not available during ISIM-level thermal vacuum/thermal testing, so they will be replaced in test with stable and adjustable thermal boundaries with identical physical interfaces to the flight radiators. Those boundaries are provided by specially designed test hardware which also measures the heat flow within each of the five heat straps to an accuracy of less than 2 mW, which is less than 5% of the minimum predicted heat flow values. Measurement of the heat loads to this accuracy is essential to ISIM thermal model correlation, since thermal models are more accurately correlated when temperature data is supplemented by accurate knowledge of heat flows. It also provides direct verification by test of several high-level thermal requirements. Devices that measure heat flow in this manner have historically been referred to a "Q-meters". Perhaps the most important feature of the design of the JWST Q-meters is that it does not depend on the absolute accuracy of its temperature sensors, but rather on knowledge of precise heater power required to maintain a constant temperature difference between sensors on two stages, for which a table is empirically developed during a calibration campaign in a small chamber at GSFC. This paper provides a brief review of Q-meter design, and discusses the Q-meter calibration procedure including calibration chamber modifications and accommodations, handling of differing conditions between calibration and usage, the calibration process itself, and the results of the tests used to determine if the calibration is successful.

Comber, Brian; Glazer, Stuart

2012-01-01

271

An instrument for measuring the complex permittivity of the Martian top soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This permittivity measuring instrument measures the resistivity rho and the relative dielectric constant epsilon sub r of the Martian top soil along the path of a rover. This aim is achieved by measuring the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity epsilon = epsilon sub r - j epsilon sub i where epsilon sub i = omega epsilon sub o rho/1; epsilon sub 1 is the permittivity of vacuum and omega is a variable angular working frequency. The experimental technique consists in evaluating the mutual, or transfer, impedance of a quadrupolar probe, i.e., in quantifying the influence of the Martian ground on the electrical coupling of two Hertz dipoles. The horizontal and vertical spatial resolutions are of the order of the length and separation of the dipoles, typically 1 to 2 metres. The four-electrode method for measuring the ground resistivity on earth was first applied by Wenner and Schlumberger, but the proposed investigation bears closer resemblance to a similar instrument developed for ground surveying at shallow depth, in connection with archaelogical and pedological research. A quadrupolar probe will provide essential information about the electric properties of the Martian ground and will contribute usefully to the identification of the soil structure and composition in association with other experimental equipment (camera, infra-red detector, gamma and X-ray spectrometers, chemical analyzers, ground temperature probes).

Grard, R.

1988-01-01

272

Junction temperature measurement of light emitting diode by electroluminescence.  

PubMed

Junction temperature (JT) is a key parameter of the performance and lifetime of light emitting diodes (LEDs). In this paper, a mobile instrument system has been developed for the non-contact measurement of JTs of LED under LabVIEW control. The electroluminescence (EL) peak shift of the LED is explored to measure the JT. Commercially available high power blue LEDs are measured. A linear relation between emission peak shift and JT is found. The accuracy of the JT is about 1 °C determined by the precision of the emission peak shift, ±0.03 nm, at 3? standard deviation for blue LED. Using this system, on-line temperature rise curves of LED lamps are determined. PMID:22225193

He, S M; Luo, X D; Zhang, B; Fu, L; Cheng, L W; Wang, J B; Lu, W

2011-12-01

273

Cosmic microwave background dipole spectrum measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) has determined the dipole spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) from 2 to 20/cm. For each frequency the signal is decomposed by fitting to a monopole, a dipole, and a Galactic template for approximately 60% of the sky. The overall dipole spectrum fits the derivative of a Planck function with an amplitude of 3.343 +/- 0.016 mK (95% confidence level), a temperature of 2.714 +/- 0.022 K (95% confidence level), and an rms deviation of 6 x 10(exp -9) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm limited by a detector and cosmic-ray noise. The monopole temperature is consistent with that determined by direct measurement in the accompanying article by Mather et al.

Fixsen, D. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Isaacman, R. B.; Mather, J. C.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.; Shafer, R. A.; Weiss, R.

1994-01-01

274

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: FLOW MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow meter devices are the most widely used process monitoring instruments in wastewater treatment. Careful consideration must be exercised during selection of flow meters to avoid equipment misapplication that can result in operation problems and equipment failure. It is the res...

275

Art therapy assessments and rating instruments: Do they measure up?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many benefits to justify the use of art therapy assessment techniques and rating instruments. However, methodological, theoretical and philosophical problems abound. These problems are explored, in relation to art therapy assessments and their corresponding rating tools. Information about the various types of rating scales is provided, including a comparison of the Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS) rating system and

Donna J. Betts

2006-01-01

276

Measurement of Environmental Constructs in Disability Assessment Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assumes a biopsychosocial basis for disability and provides a framework for understanding how environmental factors contribute to the experience of disability. To determine the utility of prevalent disability assessment instruments, the authors examined the extent to…

Guscia, Roma; Ekberg, Stuart; Harries, Julia; Kirby, Neil

2006-01-01

277

INFRARED TECHNIQUES FOR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT IN PLASMAJETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of monochromatic radiation pyrometry to measurement of ; plasma temperatures was investigated. Infrared emission and absorption spectra ; of N, Ar, and He plasmajets, with vantuus admixtures, were measured. Strong ; infrared emission was observed in various lines and bands in the plasma spectra, ; extending from the visible region to 7.0 mu . The observed infrared absorption

Tourin

1962-01-01

278

Retrieval of stratospheric temperatures from spaceborne microwave limb sounding measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave limb sounding is a well-suited technique for the observation of the composition and temperature of the middle atmosphere. The Shuttle-borne millimeter-wave atmospheric sounder (MAS) measures three oxygen lines in the 61-64 GHz region. Since oxygen is uniformly mixed in the lower and middle atmosphere, the amplitude and shape of the emission lines depend only on temperature and pressure. From these oxygen emission lines, vertical temperature profiles are retrieved with a vertical resolution of 5km in the altitude region of 15-45 km (127-1.5 hPa). The estimated total error is 1.5 K at altitudes of 25-35 km (24.5-5.7 hPa) and up to 5 K above and below this region. Simultaneously with the temperature profile, certain instrument parameters are retrieved. We present the first MAS temperature retrieval results taken at three different locations from measurements of March 31, 1992, during the ATLAS 1 mission. The temperature retrieval results are basically in good agreement with National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) analysis data, but the MAS retrievals have a tendency to low temperatures in the lower stratosphere.

Wehr, T.; Bühler, S.; von Engeln, A.; Künzi, K.; Langen, J.

1998-10-01

279

Instrument calibration and lineshape modeling for ultraspectral imagery measurements of industrial smokestack emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Telops Hyper-Cam midwave (InSb 1.5-5.?m) imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer observed the plume from a coal-burning power plant smokestack. From a distance of 600 meters, the plume was captured on a 128×64 pixel sub-window of the focal-plane array with each pixel imaging a 19.5×19.5cm2 region. Asymmetric interferograms were collected with long side and short side maximal optical path differences of 2.4cm and 0.9cm, respectively. Interferograms were recorded for each scan direction. The plume was strongly emissive across 1800-3000cm-1, and raw spectra revealed emissions from CO2, CO, H2O, NO, SO2, and HCl. A complete description of the instrument calibration and lineshape modeling is presented, including a simple and computationally efficient method of averaging spectra from forward- and reverse-scan interferograms that avoids the need to model a complex instrument lineshape. A simple radiative transfer model is developed to interpret the spectrum between 2565 <= ~? <= 3000cm-1. Examination of the HCl spectrum demonstrates exceptional agreement between the data and an ideal instrument lineshape. For a pixel immediately above the stack exit, the plume temperature is estimated to be 399.6+/-0.6K with an SO2 concentration of 376+/-10ppmv, and these values agree well with in situ measurements of 407.0+/-0.2K and 383+/-2ppmv, respectively.

Gross, Kevin C.; Tremblay, Pierre; Bradley, Kenneth C.; Chamberland, Martin; Farley, Vincent; Perram, Glen P.

2010-04-01

280

Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use.

Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

2011-05-01

281

The spectrometer for ice nuclei (SPIN): An instrument for continuous measurements of ice nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice in clouds has major impacts on precipitation formation and cloud characteristics including cloud dynamics and radiation. Primary nucleation of ice crystals at temperatures warmer than about -38 C occurs through heterogeneous nucleation by aerosol particles via several possible mechanisms. Droplet Measurement Technologies is producing a commercial ice nuclei (IN) counter sensitive to deposition and immersion/condensation freezing that features a parallel plate diffusion chamber. A high efficiency refrigeration system allows control of the cold wall to temperatures as low as approximately -70 C and the warm wall to temperatures as low as approximately -40 C, allowing measurements of IN activity over a wide range of atmospherically-relevant temperatures and water/ice saturations. Newly formed ice crystals are detected using an optical particle counter that features detection of polarized scattered light to identify ice crystals and distinguish them from liquid droplets. An actively controlled evaporation section can be operated to remove liquid droplets from the chamber output to further aid discrimination between ice and water. The instrument's data system and electronics allow for binning of the data as well as particle-by-particle recording of the forward scattered signal intensity and the backward scattered P and S polarization intensities. Particle sizing is from 0.4 to 10 ?m.

McMeeking, Gavin; Sagan, Frank; Kok, Greg

2013-05-01

282

High temperature optical strain measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high temperature strain measurement system being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center utilizes laser speckle shift relations to measure strain components on the surface of a hot specimen in near real time. Features of this system include a totally noncontacting measurement capability and a rotatable gauge axis, allowing an optical rosette to be implemented and principal strains to be determined. Preliminary results and background work are presented.

Lant, Christian T.

1988-01-01

283

Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories - chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and other physicals. Using specified evaluation criteria, the most promising techniques and instruments for use in life prediction tests of arrays were selected.

Noel, G. T.; Sliemers, F. A.; Deringer, G. C.; Wood, V. E.; Wilkes, K. E.; Gaines, G. B.; Carmichael, D. C.

1978-01-01

284

INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU), in accordance with Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40395, will undertake four tasks for DOE EM during the period April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2001. (1) Characterization of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides and Organics in Heterogeneous Media; (2) Environmental Control Device Testing; (3) Waste Treatment and D&D Support: Process Monitoring and Control; and (4) Diagnostic Field Applications Coordination and Testing Support (DFACTS).

Dr. John Plodinec

2001-04-01

285

COMPASS: an instrument for measuring the polarization of the CMB on intermediate angular scales  

E-print Network

COMPASS: an instrument for measuring the polarization of the CMB on intermediate angular scales 44106, USA Abstract COMPASS is an on-axis 2.6-m telescope coupled to a correlation polarimeter 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Instrument design COMPASS was designed to measure the po

Timbie, Peter

286

A Systematic Review of Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments Measuring Sleep Dysfunction in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep dysfunction can manifest in several ways, ranging from insomnia to somnolence, and from disrupted sleep to lack of restful sleep. Measuring sleep dysfunction is an area of active research and there exist a number of patient-reported outcome instruments that measure various aspects of sleep dysfunction. However, these instruments have not been evaluated systematically. We used a conceptual model of

Emily Beth Devine; Zafar Hakim; Jesse Green

2005-01-01

287

Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories - chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and other physicals. Using specified evaluation

G. T. Noel; F. A. Sliemers; G. C. Deringer; V. E. Wood; K. E. Wilkes; G. B. Gaines; D. C. Carmichael

1978-01-01

288

A Single Chip Microcomputer Based Instrument for Automated Cell Potential Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a scheme using an Intel MCS-51 single chip microcomputer to control an instrument for automated cell potential measurement is presented. The system hardware and control software are discussed in detail. The sampling of solutions, the measurement of samples, and the acquisition of data are controlled by a single chip microcomputer. This fully digitally controlled instrument is small

Chen Guang-Dong; Lu Xiao-Hua

1989-01-01

289

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide, Grade 8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS), a Standards-Based test, provides educators and the public with valuable information regarding the progress of Arizona's students toward mastering Arizona's reading, writing and mathematics Standards. This specific test, Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is…

Arizona Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

290

Transmission level instrument transformers and transient event recorders characterization for harmonic measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a technique for laboratory characterization of instrument transformers designed for transmission level voltage and current measurements. The technique is also extended to Transient Event Recorders (TERs). The objective of the method is to determine the suitability of existing substation instrument transformers for harmonic measurements, particularly in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz covering the first

A. P. S. Meliopoulos; Fan Zhang; G. J. Cokkinides; L. Coffeen; R. Burnett; J. McBride; S. Zelingher; G. Stillman

1993-01-01

291

Instrument-free exothermic heating with phase change temperature control for paper microfluidic devices  

PubMed Central

Many infectious diseases, as well as some cancers, that affect global health are most accurately diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification and detection. There is a great need to simplify nucleic acid-based assay systems for use in global health in low-resource settings as well as in settings that do not have convenient access to laboratory staff and equipment such as doctors' offices and home care settings. In developing countries, unreliable electric power, inadequate supply chains, and lack of maintenance for complex diagnostic instruments are all common infrastructure shortfalls. Many elements of instrument-free, disposable, nucleic acid amplification assays have been demonstrated in recent years. However, the problem of instrument-free,1 low-cost, temperature-controlled chemical heating remains unsolved. In this paper we present the current status and results of work towards developing disposable, low-cost, temperature-controlled heaters designed to support isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays that are integrated with a two-dimensional paper network. Our approach utilizes the heat generated through exothermic chemical reactions and controls the heat through use of engineered phase change materials to enable sustained temperatures required for nucleic acid amplification. By selecting appropriate exothermic and phase change materials, temperatures can be controlled over a wide range, suitable for various isothermal amplification methods, and maintained for over an hour at an accuracy of +/- 1°C.

Singleton, Jered; Zentner, Chris; Buser, Josh; Yager, Paul; LaBarre, Paul; Weigl, Bernhard H.

2014-01-01

292

Spectroscopic temperature measurements in oxygen discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rotational temperature values for the excited state O2 (b1Sigma(+) sub g, v = 0) were deduced from spectroscopic measurements made of the excited state of O2 in the positive column of an oxygen glow discharge at pressures between 0.5 and 5 torr and discharge current up to 100 mA. The rotational temperature of the excited state O2 was deduced

M. Touzeau; M. Vialle; A. Zellagui; G. Gousset; M. Lefebvre; M. Pealat

1992-01-01

293

An Instrument to Measure Engagement in Life: Factor Analysis and Associations with Sociodemographic, Health and Cognition Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It has been proposed that active engagement with life may protect against cognitive decline. However, existing instruments for measuring life engagement have covered limited domains. Objective: To present a new instrument to measure engagement with life; the RIASEC Activities List draws on activities categorised according to interest categories previously developed by Holland: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional

Ruth A. Parslow; Anthony F. Jorm; Helen Christensen; Andrew Mackinnon

2006-01-01

294

Rapid Measurements of Snow Stratigraphy Using A Portable Penetration Field Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new field-portable tool for avalanche forecasting and hydrology that can rapidly generate stratigraphic profiles of density, permittivity and temperature through the snow pack. This penetration instrument consists of a wedged capacitance tip mounted at the end of a pole and a mechanical depth gauge. By appropriate place- ment of its reference, guard and sensor conductive surfaces, the instrument sheds hor- izontal electric field lines resolving horizontal snow layers of 2.5mm thickness. The probe was tested under realistically cold conditions at the mountain resort of Alta near Salt Lake City, Utah. There, it recorded the stratigraphy of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant at 3.9kHz and the temperature through a typical winter snow pack. The portable electronics was carried in a small backpack and the depth was recorded using a rotary digital encoder in frictional contact with the pole. The profiles were automatically acquired on a hand-held Personal Digital Assistant. Using independent calibrations, measurements of the real part provided an accurate profile of density later confirmed by the conventional excavation of a detailed snow cover profile. The ratio of the imaginary and real permittivities also revealed the signature of individual snow layers that could be identified in the excavation.

Foster, Robert; Louge, Michel; Clifford, Kelly; Decker, Rand

295

Thin film thermocouples for high temperature measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin film thermocouples have unique capabilities for measuring surface temperatures at high temperatures (above 800 K) under harsh conditions. Their low mass, approximately 2 x 10(-5) g/mm permits very rapid response and very little disturbance of heat transfer to the surface being measured. This has led to applications inside gas turbine engines and diesel engines measuring the surface temperature of first stage turbine blades and vanes and ceramic liners in diesel cylinders. The most successful high temperature (up to 1300 K) thin film thermocouples are sputter deposited from platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium targets although results using base metal alloys, gold, and platinel will also be presented. The fabrication techniques used to form the thermocouples, approaches used to solve the high temperature insulation and adherence problems, current applications, and test results using the thin film thermocouples are reviewed. In addition a discussion will be presented on the current problems and future trends related to applications of thin film thermocouples at higher temperatures up to 1900 K.

Kreider, Kenneth G.

1989-05-01

296

Temperature measurements of shock-compressed deuterium  

SciTech Connect

The authors measured the temperatures of single and double-shocked D{sub 2} and H{sub 2} up to 85 GPa (0.85 Mbar) and 5,200 K. While single shock temperatures, at pressures to 23 GPa, agree well with previous models, the double shock temperatures are as much as 40% lower than predicted. This is believed to be caused by molecular dissociation, and a new model of the hydrogen EOS at extreme conditions has been developed which correctly predicts their observations. These data and model have important implications for programs which use condensed-phase hydrogen in implosion systems.

Holmes, N.C.; Ross, M.; Nellis, W.J.

1994-11-01

297

IMTC 2007 IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference  

E-print Network

Phone: +44 1865 273151, Fax: +44 1865 273905 Email: collins@robots.ox.ac.uk Abstract ­ This paper, which depends only on temperature, to help predict FPN in the light response, which depends of device parameters related to temperature and/or illuminance sensitivity will lead to a fixed pattern

Joseph, Dileepan

298

Non-contact temperature measurement requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center is involved with levitation experiments for Spacelab, Space Station, and drop tube/tower operations. These experiments have temperature measurement requirements, that of course must be non-contact in nature. The experiment modules involved are the Acoustic Levitator Furnace (ALF), and the Modular Electromagnetic Levitator (MEL). User requirements of the ALF and drop tube are presented. The center also has temperature measurement needs that are not microgravity experiment oriented, but rather are related to the propulsion system for the STS. This requirement will also be discussed.

Higgins, D. B.; Witherow, W. K.

1989-01-01

299

Study Skills Measurement: Choosing the Most Appropriate Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Choosing an appropriate measure of study skills is a requisite in high-quality educational programming, but the information about such tools is limited. This paper compares selected study skills measures in terms of standard psychometric properties to determine salient features of each measure. Three categories of study skills measures are…

Turnbough, Rose M.; Christenberry, Nola J.

300

Temperature control analysis and flight results for the Viking Orbiter 1975 Mars atmospheric water detection instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars atmospheric water detector (MAWD) instrument required a temperature of -70 C at the detector. The monochromator housing required +20 C + or - 1 C. This instrument was located on the scan platform, and slewed across two solar panels. The thermal design for the detector was an open flat plate radiator thermally isolated on four 1-in. tubes, with a flexible strap to the detector. MAWD radiator view factors and heat loads from the spacecraft were determined for the Lander on and off, for all angular positions of the scan platform. Subsystem and system tests were performed using the 25-ft diameter solar simulator. In-flight results have shown no anomalies, and no degradation has been observed. Servo-controlled heaters are used to control the temperature.

Kavanagh, H. M.; Murphy, F. L.

1978-01-01

301

Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

1987-01-01

302

Photobleaching-based flow measurement in a commercial capillary electrophoresis chip instrument.  

PubMed

For microfluidic analytical instruments, a facile, fast, and accurate instrument test is highly demanded. The test includes the quantitative verification of the relationship between pressure drop and flow velocity for the hydrodynamic pump, between the electric voltage and electroosmotic flow (EOF) for the high-voltage supply, and the chip quality. The key point for the test is the measurement of the flow velocity. However, most currently available velocimetries cannot be directly used without any instrumental modification or adding extra instruments. We applied a recently developed Laser Induced Fluorescence Photobleaching Anemometer (LIFPA) for the instrument test through measuring fluid flow velocity in a microfluidic instrument with optical measurement without any modification and extra instrument. We have successfully used the method to test Caliper HTS 250 System from Caliper Life Sciences (Hopkinton, MA) with its own light source and detector. The experimental result demonstrates that this single-point method of measuring flow velocity can be easily used for accurate test of a microfluidic instrument in less than 10 min at extremely low cost without any modification and extra instrument. PMID:18297657

Wang, Guiren R; Sas, Ian; Jiang, Hong; Janzen, William P; Hodge, C Nicholas

2008-03-01

303

INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Many DOE applications would significantly benefit from the availability of robust and convenient instrumentation for trace-level actinide monitoring and analysis. This project focuses on developing new instrumentation for on-line or at-line monitoring for actinides with isotopic analysis capability. In addition, analytical protocols for a novel concentration method for actinides are being investigated. These efforts focus on demonstrating these techniques using uranium. In addition to its value in the analytical laboratory, the combination of a simple concentration technique with a robust isotopic monitor could provide a powerful method for addressing a number of outstanding DOE needs. Potential applications include monitors for waste water and sewage treatment systems influent and effluent, and the ability to determine the isotopic content of transuranic species in low-activity waste fractions for waste classification and product acceptance. For example, the need for improved monitoring for uranium, plutonium, and americium in treatment plant influent is clearly identified in need RF-ER11. With some additional sample pretreatment, such technology could also impact materials characterization needs by providing on-site isotopic analyses in a system that is smaller and significantly less complex than inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

Unknown

2001-12-31

304

The BEAR program NRL plasma physics instrumentation measurements  

SciTech Connect

The BEAR program was a joint effort to launch, and demonstrate the feasibility of operating, a 1 MeV 10 ma Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) accelerator from a space platform. The accelerator design and manufacture were the responsibility of Los Alamos National Lab (LANL); diagnostics associated with accelerator operation and beam-plasma effects were also to be undertaken by LANL and NRL. Payload Integration and Telemetry was provided by the Air Force Geophysical Lab (AFGL) and Northeastern University (NEU). Beam effects on the local plasma in addition to accelerator produced vehicle effects (e.g., charging) were the responsibility of NRL as outlined herein. The BEAR rocket was launched successfully during the early morning hours of July 13 from White Sands Missile Range, White Sands, N.M. The NRL contribution to this effort included three instrument packages designed to diagnose beam-plasma and vehicle-plasma interactions. The instruments included: (1) Langmuir probe (LP) design consisting of 4 separate sensors; (2) High voltage (HIV) Langmuir Probe designed to monitor vehicle charging through current polarity changes; and (3) Plasma Wave Receive (PWR) designed to characterize the plasma wave emissions covering a broad frequency range from near DC to 50 MHz.

Walker, D.N.; Baumback, M.M.; Haas, D.G.; Rodriguez, P.; Siefring, C.L.; Doggett, R.A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1989-11-15

305

Ion temperature measurements in the Maryland Spheromak  

SciTech Connect

Initial spectroscopic data from MS showed evidence of ion heating as deduced from the line widths of different ion species. Detailed measurements of OIV spectral emission line profiles in space and time revealed that heating takes place at early time, before spheromak formation and is occurring within the current discharge. The measured ion temperature is several times the electron temperature and cannot be explained by classical (Spitzer) resistivity. Classically, ions are expected to have lower temperatures than the electrons and therefore, lower temperatures than observed. High ion temperatures have been observed in different RFP`s and Spheromaks but are usually associated with relaxation to the Taylor state and occur in the sustainment phase. During formation, the current delivered to start the discharge is not axisymmetric and as a consequence, X-points appear in the magnetic flux. A two dimensional analysis predicts that magnetic reconnection occurring at an X-point can give rise to high ion heating rates. A simple 0-dimensional calculation showed that within the first 20 {mu}s, a conversion of mass flow kinetic energy into ion temperature could take place due to viscosity.

Gauvreau, J.L.

1992-12-31

306

In Situ and Satellite Measured Temperature Comparability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the International Geophysical Year in the late 1950's, small meteorological rockets caught the interest of scientists as a potentially inexpensive method to obtain meteorological information (density, temperature, wind) above balloon-borne radiosonde altitudes. These small rocketsondes have served many important observational roles in terms of studies conducted of atmospheric structure and processes, enabling many new ideas about the atmosphere to emerge. Although no longer manufactured a small residual inventory of meteorological rocketsondes exist for specific research projects. The value of data from meteorological rocketsondes is without question but with their disappearance data from many different satellites are filling the need, some able to resolve high-altitude temperatures quite well. However, the rocketsonde vertical profile is more localized to the launch site whereas satellites move several kilometers per second. The objective of this presentation is to compare in situ temperature data with remotely measured/retrieved temperature data. There have been a number of U.S. conducted missions utilizing the passive falling sphere data that we use to verify the comparability of retrieved temperatures from these satellites. Missions, some as early as 1991, were conducted in polar, equatorial, and mid-latitude locations. An important aspect is that a single satellite profile compared to a falling sphere profile often does not agree while high density satellite measurements when averaged over an area near the rocketsonde data area seems to be in better agreement. Radiosonde temperature data are used in the analysis when appropriate

Schmidlin, F. J.; Goldberg, R. A.; Bedrick, Mary; Rose, R. Lynn

2011-01-01

307

Mobile CARS - IRS Instrument for Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurement of Multiple Properties in Gaseous Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a measurement system based on the dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) methods. The IRS measurement is performed simultaneously with the CARS measurement using a common green laser beam as a narrow-band light source. The mobile CARS-IRS instrument is designed for the use both in laboratories as well as in ground-based combustion test facilities. Furthermore, it is designed to be easily transported between laboratory and test facility. It performs single-point spatially and temporally resolved simultaneous measurements of temperature, species mole fraction of N2, O2, and H2, and two-components of velocity. A mobile laser system can be placed inside or outside the test facility, while a beam receiving and monitoring system is placed near the measurement location. Measurements in a laboratory small-scale Mach 1.6 H2-air combustion-heated supersonic jet were performed to test the capability of the system. Final setup and pretests of a larger scale reacting jet are ongoing at NASA Langley Research Center s Direct Connect Supersonic Combustor Test Facility (DCSCTF).

Bivolaru, Daniel; Lee, Joseph W.; Jones, Stephen B.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Weikl, M. C.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, Andrew D.

2007-01-01

308

Temperature Coefficient of the Modulus of Rigidity of Aircraft Instrument Diaphragm and Spring Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data are presented on the variation of the modulus of rigidity in the temperature range -20 to +50 degrees C. of a number of metals which are of possible use for elastic elements for aircraft and other instruments. The methods of the torsional pendulum was used to determine the modulus of rigidity and its temperature coefficient for aluminum, duralumin, monel metal, brass, phosphor bronze, coin silver, nickel silver, three high carbon steels, and three alloy steels. It was observed that tensile stress affected the values of the modulus by amounts of 1 per cent or less.

Brombacher, W G; Melton, E R

1931-01-01

309

Fuel Centerline Temperature Measurements in NSRR Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fuel centerline temperatures of NSRR standard fuel rods in pulse irradiations were measured with W-5% Re/W-26% Re thermocouples inserted in a centerline hole of the fuel pellets. Three different fuel rods were individually subjected to repeated energy...

T. Hoshi, T. Iwamura, S. Yanagihara, Y. Orita, T. Hosokawa

1978-01-01

310

Temperature measurement in an argon jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short review is given of spectroscopic temperature measurements in ; argon plasma jets. Two regions were observed in the jet, a bright core and a far ; less radiating outer zone. In the spectrum of the core, continuous radiation and ; neutral argon lines are present. The broadening of the lines decreases rapidly ; in the passage to the

Slechta

1973-01-01

311

Dynamic gas temperature measurement system, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas temperature measurement system with compensated frequency response of 1 kHz and capability to operate in the exhaust of a gas turbine engine combustor was developed. A review of available technologies which could attain this objective was done. The most promising method was identified as a two wire thermocouple, with a compensation method based on the responses of the two different diameter thermocouples to the fluctuating gas temperature field. In a detailed design of the probe, transient conduction effects were identified as significant. A compensation scheme was derived to include the effects of gas convection and wire conduction. The two wire thermocouple concept was tested in a laboratory burner exhaust to temperatures of about 3000 F and in a gas turbine engine to combustor exhaust temperatures of about 2400 F. Uncompensated and compensated waveforms and compensation spectra are presented.

Elmore, D. L.; Robinson, W. W.; Watkins, W. B.

1983-01-01

312

A multiprobe miniature thermistor system for the measurement of temperature profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new instrument for the determination of fine temperature profiles in hot, corrosive, electrically conductive, unsteady two-phase fluid systems under vacuum or pressure is described. It features simultaneous measurement of temperatures at close locations, by a column of miniature (0.25 mm diam) thermistors mounted at the tips of supporting hypodermic tubes, and streamlined design that minimizes hydrodynamic and thermal disturbances

Noam Lior; Jacques Leibovitz; Alan D. K. Laird

1974-01-01

313

Concurrent measurements of temperature and soot concentration of pulverised coal flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel instrumentation system for the concurrent measurements of temperature and soot concentration of pulverised coal flames. The system operates on the two-colour principle combining advanced optical sensing and digital image processing techniques. The temperature of a flame is calculated from the ratio between the grey-levels of corresponding pixels within two images captured at two different wavelengths.

G. Lu; H. C. Bheemul; Y. Yan

2001-01-01

314

Development of the Temperature Sensor for Measuring Heat Based on the Difference between the Specific Enthalpy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing energy consumption, improving the heat efficiency is one of the key work of energy conservation and emission reduction. The measuring heat instrument take the principle of the difference between specific enthalpy and use Pt resistance as temperature sensor, the curve of two temperature sensors do matching pairs. This new technology and new technique can solve some difficult problems in

Shenghua Bao; Shufen Wang

2010-01-01

315

Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO2) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1-15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding to shock pressures of 0.3-2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. Simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements.

Falk, K.; McCoy, C. A.; Fryer, C. L.; Greeff, C. W.; Hungerford, A. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Sheppard, D. G.; Williams, J. R.; Boehly, T. R.; Benage, J. F.

2014-09-01

316

Long-Term Instrumental and Reconstructed Temperature Records Contradict Anthropogenic Global Warming  

E-print Network

Monthly instrumental temperature records from 5 stations in the northern hemisphere are analyzed, each of which is local and over 200 years in length, as well as two reconstructed long-range yearly records - from a stalagmite and from tree rings that are about 2000 years long. In the instrumental records, the steepest 100-year temperature fall happened in the 19th century and the steepest rise in the 20th century, both events being of about the same magnitude. Evaluation by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) yields Hurst exponents that are in good agreement with the literature. DFA, Monte Carlo simulations, and synthetic records reveal that both 100-year events were caused by external trends. In contrast to this, the reconstructed records show stronger 100-year rises and falls as quite common during the last 2000 years. These results contradict the hypothesis of an unusual (anthropogenic) global warming during the 20th century. As a hypothesis, the sun's magnetic field, which is correlated with sunspot numbers, is put forward as an explanation. The long-term low-frequency fluctuations in sunspot numbers are not detectable by the DFA in the monthly instrumental records, resulting in the common low Hurst exponents. The same does not hold true for the 2000-year-long reconstructed records, which explains both their higher Hurst exponents and the higher probabilities of strong 100-year temperature fluctuations. A long-term synthetic record that embodies the reconstructed sunspot number fluctuations includes the different Hurst exponents of both the instrumental and the reconstructed records and, therefore, corroborates the conjecture.

Horst-Joachim Lüdecke

2011-10-09

317

High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

1985-01-01

318

Temperature measurement on and inside lamps  

SciTech Connect

The use of thermography within the lamp manufacturing industry can improve the quality of many types of lamps ranging from normal incandescent lamps to highly specialized lamps for sports arenas, airports or small lamps for cars. There is a strong demand for more light for the same energy input. Specialized lamps for all possible purposes are developed. But it also forces the lamp manufacturers to utilize the available materials to their extremes. The exact control of the temperatures inside or on the lamp shell has therefore become increasingly necessary as temperatures in lamps can be rather extreme. In plasma lamps for example, the plasma can have a temperature of 6,000 C, the bulk around 700 C and the electrodes inside the bulb can have temperatures in excess of 2,000 C. Thermographic methods have shown their applicability for a large number of measurement cases. Some of these methods and measurement cases are described. As these applications put very special demands on the measurement equipment, these demands are explained in more detail.

Wallin, B. [AGEMA Infrared Systems AB, Danderyd (Sweden)

1994-12-31

319

Temperature measurement on and inside lamps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of thermography within the lamp manufacturing industry can improve the quality of many types of lamps ranging from normal incandescent lamps to highly specialized lamps for sports arenas, airports or small lamps for cars. There is a strong demand for more light for the same energy input. Specialized lamps for all possible purposes are developed. But it also forces the lamp manufacturers to utilize the available materials to their extremes. The exact control of the temperatures inside or on the lamp shell has therefore become increasingly necessary as temperatures in lamps can be rather extreme. In plasma lamps for example, the plasma can have a temperature of 6000 C, the bulb around 700 C and the electrodes inside the bulb can have temperatures in excess of 2000 C. Thermographic methods have shown their applicability for a large number of measurement cases. Some of these methods and measurement cases are described. As these applications put very special demands on the measurement equipment, these demands are explained in more detail.

Wallin, Bo

1994-03-01

320

Ground truth data for test sites (SL-4). [thermal radiation brightness temperature and solar radiation measurments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Field measurements performed simultaneous with Skylab overpass in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. Wavelength region covered include: solar radiation (400 to 1300 nanometer), and thermal radiation (8 to 14 micrometer). Measurements consisted of general conditions and near surface meteorology, atmospheric temperature and humidity vs altitude, the thermal brightness temperature, total and diffuse solar radiation, direct solar radiation (subsequently analyzed for optical depth/transmittance), and target reflectivity/radiance. The particular instruments used are discussed along with analyses performed. Detailed instrument operation, calibrations, techniques, and errors are given.

1974-01-01

321

Development of an Instrument to Measure Consumer Satisfaction in Vocational Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although state agencies are required by law to assess their consumers' satisfaction with vocational rehabilitation (VR), each state uses its own instrument to measure satisfaction. This not only makes comparisons across states impossible but also means that the quality of these instruments varies widely from state to state. As with other…

Capella, Michele E.; Turner, Ronna C.

2004-01-01

322

Assessment Instruments for Measuring Young Children's Social-Emotional Behavioral Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early identification of social-emotional behavioral problems in infants and preschoolers is critical. Nine parent-report and caregiver/teacher-report instruments measuring preschool social-emotional behavioral problems and strengths are reviewed. Advantages to the use of parent-report and caregiver/teacher-report instruments are that they are easy…

Caselman, Tonia D.; Self, Patricia A.

2008-01-01

323

Wind-instrument reflection function measurements in the time Douglas H. Keefe  

E-print Network

of swept-sine wave imped- ance measurement techniques as well as the refinement of theoretical tools December 1995; accepted 22 December 1995 Theoretical and computational analyses of wind-instrument sound of woodwind and brass-instrument air columns. This response is defined at the location of sound regeneration

Allen, Jont

324

Development of an Instrument to Measure Student Use of Academic Success Skills: An Exploratory Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills instrument including item development and exploratory factor analysis. The instrument was developed to measure student use of the skills and strategies identified as most critical for long-term school success that are typically taught by school counselors.

Carey, John; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Harrington, Karen

2014-01-01

325

A Instrument based on Fuzzy Modeling for Fouling Measuring in Steam Condenser  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrument based on fuzzy modeling for online measurement of fouling in steam condenser is proposed in this paper. In the instrument, condensation pressure is chosen to reflect fouling state, fuzzy modeling is applied to separate the influence imposed by fouling on condensation pressure from other factors. During fuzzy modeling, T-S model is employed to approximate off-design condition condensation pressure,

Shaosheng Fan; Tao Yang

2006-01-01

326

Readiness and Expectations Questionnaire: A Cross-Cultural Measurement Instrument for First-Year University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The readiness and expectations questionnaire (REQ) assesses first-year students' expectations and preparedness for their first year in university. This measurement instrument is useful for educational policy and curriculum development; it can also be used to predict the outcomes of the first year of college. This instrument was initially developed…

Jansen, Ellen; Andre, Stefanie; Suhre, Cor

2013-01-01

327

Improved Instrument for the Measurement of Linear Pyrolysis Rates of Solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved instrument has been designed and constructed for the measurement of the linear decomposition and sublimation rates of solid substances. This instrument, which is provided with automatic recording devices, eliminates many of the shortcomings of the earlier prototypes and makes possible the determination of linear rates with a precision of 1%. Important new features include (1) an integral heating

M. K. Barsh; W. H. Andersen; K. W. Bills; G. Moe; R. D. Schultz

1958-01-01

328

Developing an Instrument to Measure School Community Engagement with Implementation of Information Literacy Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable survey instrument to be used by librarians and other educational leaders to measure implementation of a school's information literacy program. The goal was to create an instrument that would consider implementation of a library-centered program within the context and culture of the…

Aiani, Candace Wexler

2008-01-01

329

Study of two assessment methods for multi-parameter measurement instrument precision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How to comprehensively assess precision of the Multi-parameter measurement instruments is becoming a hot research topic in academy. In this paper, the precision of the multi-parameter measurement instruments is assessed using the methods of MTS (Mahalanobis-Taguchi System) and grey incidence degree analysis through practice case study. The study illustrates that both methods are applicable in the assessment of the Multi-parameter measurement instrument precision. Through the comparison and contrast analysis, this paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods, which provides good references or guidelines to properly apply the methods under different situations.

Zhong, Xiao-fang; Liu, Si-feng

2008-10-01

330

Future instrumentation and missions for measurements of tropospheric trace species from space: Workshop recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was recommended that gas filter correlation radiometry and high-resolution interferometry be exploited and expanded for measurements of the distribution of tropospheric trace gases. Instruments and missions were identified and discussed. Several instrument/measurement/mission feasibility studies were recommended, including: a three-layer measurement of carbon monoxide, using a nadir-viewing gas filter correlation radiometer; a lower or middle tropospheric measurement of methane, using a nadir-viewing gas filter correlation radiometer; and a survey of lower, middle, and upper tropospheric trace gases using a nadir-viewing high-resolution interferometer operating in the thermal emission mode. It was also concluded that lidar systems appear to have the potential of obtaining measurments of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols from space. In addition to the specific instrument/mission recommendations, the panels made several general recommendations that may lead to future spaceborne instruments, techniques, and missions for tropospheric research.

1987-01-01

331

European temperature records of the past five centuries based on documentary\\/instrumental information compared to climate simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two European temperature reconstructions for the past half-millennium, January-to-April air temperature for Stockholm (Sweden)\\u000a and seasonal temperature for a Central European region, both derived from the analysis of documentary sources and long instrumental\\u000a records, are compared with the output of climate simulations with the model ECHO-G. The analysis is complemented by comparisons\\u000a with the long (early)-instrumental record of Central England

Eduardo Zorita; Anders Moberg; Lotta Leijonhufvud; Rob Wilson; Rudolf Brázdil; Petr Dobrovolný; Jürg Luterbacher; Reinhard Böhm; Christian Pfister; Dirk Riemann; Rüdiger Glaser; Johan Söderberg; Fidel González-Rouco

2010-01-01

332

The Quantitative Measurement of Organizational Culture in Health Care: A Review of the Available Instruments  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the quantitative instruments available to health service researchers who want to measure culture and cultural change. Data Sources A literature search was conducted using Medline, Cinahl, Helmis, Psychlit, Dhdata, and the database of the King's Fund in London for articles published up to June 2001, using the phrase “organizational culture.” In addition, all citations and the gray literature were reviewed and advice was sought from experts in the field to identify instruments not found on the electronic databases. The search focused on instruments used to quantify culture with a track record, or potential for use, in health care settings. Data Extraction For each instrument we examined the cultural dimensions addressed, the number of items for each questionnaire, the measurement scale adopted, examples of studies that had used the tool, the scientific properties of the instrument, and its strengths and limitations. Principal Findings Thirteen instruments were found that satisfied our inclusion criteria, of which nine have a track record in studies involving health care organizations. The instruments varied considerably in terms of their grounding in theory, format, length, scope, and scientific properties. Conclusions A range of instruments with differing characteristics are available to researchers interested in organizational culture, all of which have limitations in terms of their scope, ease of use, or scientific properties. The choice of instrument should be determined by how organizational culture is conceptualized by the research team, the purpose of the investigation, intended use of the results, and availability of resources. PMID:12822919

Scott, Tim; Mannion, Russell; Davies, Huw; Marshall, Martin

2003-01-01

333

A Multi-Instrument Measurement of a Mesospheric Bore at the Equator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have made a comprehensive measurement of mesospheric bore phenomenon at the equator at Kototabang, Indonesia (0.2 deg S, 100.3 deg E), using an airglow imager, an airglow temperature photometer, a meteor radar, and the SABER instrument on board the TIMED satellite. The bore was detected in airglow images of both OH-band (peak emission altitude: 87 km) and 557.7-nm (96 km) emissions, as east-west front-like structure propagating northward with a velocity of 52-58 m/s. Wave trains with a horizontal wavelength of 30-70 km are observed behind the bore front. The airglow intensity decreases for all the mesospheric emissions of OI (557.7 nm), OH-band, O2-band (altitude: 94 km), and Na (589.3 nm) (90 km) after the bore passage. The rotational temperatures of both OH-band and O2-band also decrease approximately 10 K after the bore passage. An intense shear in northward wind velocity of 80m/s was observed at altitudes of 84-90 km by the meteor radar. Kinetic temperature profile at altitudes of 20-120 km was observed near Kototabang by TIMED/SABER. On the basis of these observations, we discuss generation and ducting of the observed mesospheric bore.

Shiokawa, K.; Suzuki, S.; Otsuka, Y.; Ogawa, T.; Nakamura, T.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M., III

2005-01-01

334

TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED DESORPTION: PRINCIPLES, INSTRUMENT DESIGN, AND DEMONSTRATION WITH NAALH4  

SciTech Connect

This article is a brief introduction to temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), an analytical technique devised to analyze, in this case, materials for their potential as hydrogen storage materials. The principles and requirements of TPD are explained and the different components of a generic TPD apparatus are described. The construction of a modified TPD instrument from commercially available components is reported together with the control and acquisition technique used to create a TPD spectrum. The chemical and instrumental parameters to be considered in a typical TPD experiment and the analytical utility of the technique are demonstrated by the dehydrogenation of titanium-doped NaAlH{sub 4} by means of thermally programmed desorption.

Stowe, A; Ragaiy Zidan, R

2006-11-07

335

Improved Refractometer for Measuring Temperatures of Drops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Dual Rainbow refractometer is an enhanced version of the Rainbow refractometer, which is added to, and extends the capabilities of, a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A PDPA utilizes pairs of laser beams to measure individual components of velocity and sizes of drops in a spray. The Rainbow-refractometer addition measures the temperatures of individual drops. The designs of prior versions of the Rainbow refractometer have required substantial modifications of PDPA transmitting optics, plus dedicated lasers as sources of illumination separate from, and in addition to, those needed for PDPA measurements. The enhancement embodied in the Dual Rainbow refractometer eliminates the need for a dedicated laser and confers other advantages as described below. A dedicated laser is no longer needed because the Dual Rainbow refractometer utilizes one of the pairs of laser beams already present in a PDPA. Hence, the design of the Dual Rainbow refractometer simplifies the task of upgrading PDPA hardware to enable measurement of temperature. Furthermore, in a PDPA/Dual Rainbow refractometer system, a single argon-ion laser with three main wavelengths can be used to measure the temperatures, sizes, and all three components of velocity (in contradistinction to only two components of velocity in a prior PDPA/Rainbow refractometer system). In order to enable the Dual Rainbow refractometer to utilize a pair of PDPA laser beams, it was necessary to (1) find a location for the refractometer receiver, such that the combined rainbow patterns of two laser beams amount to a pattern identical to that of a single beam, (2) adjust the polarization of the two beams to obtain the strongest rainbow pattern, and (3) find a location for the PDPA receiver to obtain a linear relationship between the measured phase shift and drop size.

Naqwi, Amir A.

2004-01-01

336

794 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 46, NO. 4, AUGUST 1997 A New Instrument to Measure the Shape of the  

E-print Network

. Ophthalmologists have recognized the role of the cornea in the refraction process. A modern technique to improve reconstruction of the cornea. It is demonstrated that the new technique contributes to a very robust measurement. Available instruments employing this technique are known not to work ideally [1]. In pathological cases

van Stokkum, Ivo

337

Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient ?, close to 10-3 K-1 versus 10-5 K-1 for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

Pradere, C.; Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Pernot, G.; Palomo, E.; Dilhaire, S.; Batsale, J.-C.

2014-06-01

338

Direct Temperature Measurements during Netlander Descent on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design for a platinum thermoresistance temperature sensor has been developed and tested in Earth's atmosphere and stratosphere. It will be one of the sensors equipping the scientific package ATMIS (Atmospheric and Meteorology Instrument System), which will be devoted to the measurement of the meteorological parameters during both the entry/descent phase and the surface phase, aboard the Netlanders. In particular vertical profiles of temperature, density and pressure will allow the resolution of vertical gradients to investigate the atmospheric structure and dynamics. In view of the future missions to Mars, Netlander represents a unique chance to increase significantly the climate record both in time and in space, doubling the current knowledge of the atmospheric parameters. Furthermore is the only opportunity to conduct direct measurement of temperature and pressure (outside the boundary layer of the airbags used for the landing). The temperature sensor proposed is a platinum thermoresistance, enhancement of HASI TEM (Cassini/Huygens Mission); a substantial improvement of the performances, i.e. a faster dynamic response, has been obtained. Two different prototypes of new design sensor have been built, laboratory test are proceeding and the second one has been already flown aboard a stratospheric balloon.

Colombatti, G.; Angrilli, F.; Ferri, F.; Francesconi, A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Lion Stoppato, P. F.; Saggi, B.

1999-09-01

339

Global High-Accuracy Intercomparison of Slope Measuring Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upcoming generation of high accuracy synchrotron radiation (SR) optics will be characterized by a slope deviation from ideal shape in the range of some 0.05?rad rms at a sampling interval of about 1mm. To certify and improve the measurement capabilities of metrology tools to inspect these stringent specifications, an essential step is a worldwide intercomparison of these measurements based on a set of transfer standards. It is the aim of these cross measurements to verify the "absolute" correctness and comparability of the measurement results obtained by the cooperating partners when measuring the topography of specific reference optics (ROs) using their latest metrology tools and methods. Organized by members of the SR-optics community, new national and international cross measurement comparisons of typical synchrotron radiation mirrors have been realized during the last few years: A round robin test by the European COST-program (BESSY, Elettra, ESRF, Soleil) during the years 2004-2005 and a similar cooperation realized by the APS, ESRF and Spring-8 have proceeded. The first results of both projects were presented at the "Optics & Photonics" conference in San Diego in August 2005. This work build upon earlier work. The participants of both groups and representatives of other SR-laboratories agreed to start a global cooperation bringing together the two round-robin projects and open these activities to other partners from the SR-community, optical manufacturers and other interested parties. This initiative is intended to start an extensive comparison of various measurement principles and tools and will help to push the frontiers in metrology, and hence production, to a precision well below the current state-of-the-art limit of 0.5?rad rms for slope errors.

Siewert, Frank; Assoufid, Lahsen; Cocco, Daniele; Hignette, Olivier; Irick, Steve; Lammert, Heiner; McKinney, Wayne; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Polack, Francois; Qian, Shinan; Rah, Seungyu; Rommeveaux, Amparo; Schönherr, Veit; Sostero, Giovani; Takacs, Peter; Thomasset, Muriel; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Zeschke, Thomas

2007-01-01

340

Global High-Accuracy Intercomparison of Slope Measuring Instruments  

SciTech Connect

The upcoming generation of high accuracy synchrotron radiation (SR) optics will be characterized by a slope deviation from ideal shape in the range of some 0.05{mu}rad rms at a sampling interval of about 1mm. To certify and improve the measurement capabilities of metrology tools to inspect these stringent specifications, an essential step is a worldwide intercomparison of these measurements based on a set of transfer standards. It is the aim of these cross measurements to verify the ''absolute'' correctness and comparability of the measurement results obtained by the cooperating partners when measuring the topography of specific reference optics (ROs) using their latest metrology tools and methods. Organized by members of the SR-optics community, new national and international cross measurement comparisons of typical synchrotron radiation mirrors have been realized during the last few years: A round robin test by the European COST-program (BESSY, Elettra, ESRF, Soleil) during the years 2004-2005 and a similar cooperation realized by the APS, ESRF and Spring-8 have proceeded. The first results of both projects were presented at the ''Optics and Photonics'' conference in San Diego in August 2005. This work build upon earlier work. The participants of both groups and representatives of other SR-laboratories agreed to start a global cooperation bringing together the two round-robin projects and open these activities to other partners from the SR-community, optical manufacturers and other interested parties. This initiative is intended to start an extensive comparison of various measurement principles and tools and will help to push the frontiers in metrology, and hence production, to a precision well below the current state-of-the-art limit of 0.5{mu}rad rms for slope errors.

Siewert, Frank; Lammert, Heiner; Zeschke, Thomas [BESSY mbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Assoufid, Lahsen [APS, Argone National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argone 60439, IL (United States); Cocco, Daniele; Sostero, Giovani [Elettra, Sinchrotrone Trieste, SS14 Km163.5 in Area Science Park, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Hignette, Olivier; Rommeveaux, Amparo [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220. 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Irick, Steve; McKinney, Wayne; Yashchuk, Valeriy [ALS, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720-8199 (United States); Ohashi, Haruhiko [SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Polack, Francois; Thomasset, Muriel [Synchrotron Soleil, BP 34 -Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Qian, Shinan; Takacs, Peter [BNL, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rah, Seungyu [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory/POSTECH, Hyoja-Dong San 31, Namku, Pohang, 790-390, Rep. of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Schoenherr, Veit [SLS, WSLA 119, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villingen (Switzerland); Yamauchi, Kazuto [Departement of Precision Science and Technology, Graduated School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

2007-01-19

341

NMR measurement of bitumen at different temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy oil (bitumen) is characterized by its high viscosity and density, which is a major obstacle to both well logging and recovery. Due to the lost information of T2 relaxation time shorter than echo spacing ( TE) and interference of water signal, estimation of heavy oil properties from NMR T2 measurements is usually problematic. In this work, a new method has been developed to overcome the echo spacing restriction of NMR spectrometer during the application to heavy oil (bitumen). A FID measurement supplemented the start of CPMG. Constrained by its initial magnetization ( M0) estimated from the FID and assuming log normal distribution for bitumen, the corrected T2 relaxation time of bitumen sample can be obtained from the interpretation of CPMG data. This new method successfully overcomes the TE restriction of the NMR spectrometer and is nearly independent on the TE applied in the measurement. This method was applied to the measurement at elevated temperatures (8-90 °C). Due to the significant signal-loss within the dead time of FID, the directly extrapolated M0 of bitumen at relatively lower temperatures (<60 °C) was found to be underestimated. However, resulting from the remarkably lowered viscosity, the extrapolated M0 of bitumen at over 60 °C can be reasonably assumed to be the real value. In this manner, based on the extrapolation at higher temperatures (?60 °C), the M0 value of bitumen at lower temperatures (<60 °C) can be corrected by Curie's Law. Consequently, some important petrophysical properties of bitumen, such as hydrogen index ( HI), fluid content and viscosity were evaluated by using corrected T2.

Yang, Zheng; Hirasaki, George J.

2008-06-01

342

NMR measurement of bitumen at different temperatures.  

PubMed

Heavy oil (bitumen) is characterized by its high viscosity and density, which is a major obstacle to both well logging and recovery. Due to the lost information of T2 relaxation time shorter than echo spacing (TE) and interference of water signal, estimation of heavy oil properties from NMR T2 measurements is usually problematic. In this work, a new method has been developed to overcome the echo spacing restriction of NMR spectrometer during the application to heavy oil (bitumen). A FID measurement supplemented the start of CPMG. Constrained by its initial magnetization (M0) estimated from the FID and assuming log normal distribution for bitumen, the corrected T2 relaxation time of bitumen sample can be obtained from the interpretation of CPMG data. This new method successfully overcomes the TE restriction of the NMR spectrometer and is nearly independent on the TE applied in the measurement. This method was applied to the measurement at elevated temperatures (8-90 degrees C). Due to the significant signal-loss within the dead time of FID, the directly extrapolated M0 of bitumen at relatively lower temperatures (<60 degrees C) was found to be underestimated. However, resulting from the remarkably lowered viscosity, the extrapolated M0 of bitumen at over 60 degrees C can be reasonably assumed to be the real value. In this manner, based on the extrapolation at higher temperatures (> or = 60 degrees C), the M0 value of bitumen at lower temperatures (<60 degrees C) can be corrected by Curie's Law. Consequently, some important petrophysical properties of bitumen, such as hydrogen index (HI), fluid content and viscosity were evaluated by using corrected T2. PMID:18387325

Yang, Zheng; Hirasaki, George J

2008-06-01

343

Temperature measurements at an implosion focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopic temperature measurements are made at the focal point of imploding shock waves in the UTIAS implosion chamber, which has a hemispherical cavity 20 cm in diameter. The chamber is filled with a stoichiometric H2-O2 gas mixture at different initial pressures (1.4-6.9 MPa). The mixture is ignited at the origin by an exploding wire generating an outgoing detonation wave, which

T. Saito; I. I. Glass

1982-01-01

344

Attachment of Free Filament Thermocouples for Temperature Measurements on CMC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) are being developed for use as enabling materials for advanced aeropropulsion engine and high speed civil transport applications. The characterization and testing of these advanced materials in hostile, high-temperature environments require accurate measurement of the material temperatures. Commonly used wire Thermo-Couples (TC) can not be attached to this ceramic based material via conventional spot-welding techniques. Attachment of wire TC's with commercially available ceramic cements fail to provide sufficient adhesion at high temperatures. While advanced thin film TC technology provides minimally intrusive surface temperature measurement and has good adhesion on the CMC, its fabrication requires sophisticated and expensive facilities and is very time consuming. In addition, the durability of lead wire attachments to both thin film TC's and the substrate materials requires further improvement. This paper presents a newly developed attachment technique for installation of free filament wire TC's with a unique convoluted design on ceramic based materials such as CMC's. Three CMC's (SiC/SiC CMC and alumina/alumina CMC) instrumented with type IC, R or S wire TC's were tested in a Mach 0.3 burner rig. The CMC temperatures measured from these wire TC's were compared to that from the facility pyrometer and thin film TC's. There was no sign of TC delamination even after several hours exposure to 1200 C. The test results proved that this new technique can successfully attach wire TC's on CMC's and provide temperature data in hostile environments. The sensor fabrication process is less expensive and requires very little time compared to that of the thin film TC's. The same installation technique/process can also be applied to attach lead wires for thin film sensor systems.

Lei, Jih-Fen; Cuy, Michael D.; Wnuk, Stephen P.

1997-01-01

345

Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e.g. in mofettes and diffuse degassing areas). The occurrence of thermal anomalies at the surface often reveals that a process of steam condensation is occurring below the ground and that CO2 fluxes are being released on the surface. A thermal map of steam heated grounds therefore highlights boundaries of underground steam advection and also the more suitable sites for geochemical monitoring. Pirogips has been assembled for the quick acquisition of surface parameters related to the exhaling activity of volcanic systems. It has been formerly tested in a controlled environment, after in the well known fumaroles areas of Vulcano island, and then in the volcanic system El Machin (Colombia) for the field survey preliminary to the installation of new monitoring stations. The preliminary test and the first field experiences confirmed that pirogips acquires the surface temperatures quickly and with good detail. The combination of sensors supplies the advantage of in situ methods (i.e. accuracy of the direct measurement by thermocouple) and those of ground-based remote sensing techniques (i.e. quickness of measurement process), at the same time reducing the main disadvantages of each method. A home-made data-logger combines the acquired parameters and returns a data-string allowing an easy visualization of acquired data on geo-referenced maps. The string of data returns the position of acquisition (lat, long, WGS84), surface temperature (either derived by the pyrometer and by thermocouple), ambient temperature, barometric pressure and air moisture. -References -Diliberto I.S., Gurrieri S., Valenza M. (2002) Relationships between diffuse CO2 emissions and volcanic activity on the island of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) during the period 1984-1994 Bulletin of Volcanology vol 64: 219-228. -Diliberto I.S., (2013) Time series analysis of high temperature fumaroles monitored on the island of Vulcano (Aeolian Archipelago, italy). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research Manuscript Number: doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.08.003. Inguaggiato, S., Mazot, A., Diliberto, I.S.,

Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

2014-05-01

346

Unified Instrumentation: Examining the Simultaneous Application of Advanced Measurement Techniques for Increased Wind Tunnel Testing Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Unified Instrumentation Test examining the combined application of Pressure Sensitive Paint, Projection Moire Interferometry, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry, Doppler Global Velocimetry, and Acoustic Microphone Array has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The fundamental purposes of conducting the test were to: (a) identify and solve compatibility issues among the techniques that would inhibit their simultaneous application in a wind tunnel, and (b) demonstrate that simultaneous use of advanced instrumentation techniques is feasible for increasing tunnel efficiency and identifying control surface actuation / aerodynamic reaction phenomena. This paper provides summary descriptions of each measurement technique used during the Unified Instrumentation Test, their implementation for testing in a unified fashion, and example results identifying areas of instrument compatibility and incompatibility. Conclusions are drawn regarding the conditions under which the measurement techniques can be operated simultaneously on a non-interference basis. Finally, areas requiring improvement for successfully applying unified instrumentation in future wind tunnel tests are addressed.

Fleming, Gary A. (Editor); Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Joseph W.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Meyers, James F.; South, Bruce W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

2002-01-01

347

Experimental technique and new temperature and heat flow measurements in the deep boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the outstanding problems for the modern prospect geophysics is the following, whether permeable zones and commercial petroleum concentrations exist in deep crystalline basement. Temperature measurements allow us to more accurately determine the permeable layers and reservoirs in the basement. Electronics and equipment for remote measurements in the boreholes include a set of deep instruments, cable winch and surface

M. Khristoforova

2003-01-01

348

Instrumentation for Measurement of Gas Permeability of Polymeric Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass spectrometric 'Dynamic Delta' method for the measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes has been developed. The method is universally applicable for measurement of the permeability of any gas through polymeric membrane materials. The usual large sample size of more than 100 square centimeters required for other methods is not necessary for this new method which requires a size less than one square centimeter. The new method should fulfill requirements and find applicability for industrial materials such as food packaging, contact lenses and other commercial materials where gas permeability or permselectivity properties are important.

Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Burns, Karen S.

1993-01-01

349

A Laser Based Instrument for MWPC Wire Tension Measurement  

E-print Network

A fast and simple method for the measurement of the mechanical tension of wires of Multi Wires Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) is described. The system is based on commercial components and does not require any electrical connection to the wires or electric or magnetic field. It has been developed for the quality control of MWPCs of the Muon Detector of the LHCb experiment in construction at CERN. The system allows a measurement of the wire tension with a precision better than 0.5% within 3-4 seconds per wire

Baldini, W; Evangelisti, F; Germani, S; Landi, L; Savrié, M; Graziani, G; Lenti, M; Lenzi, M; Passaleva, G; Carboni, G; De Capua, S; Kachtchouk, A

2007-01-01

350

Direct measurement of skin friction with a new instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and performance of a small belt-type skin-friction gage to measure wall shear-stress coefficients in wind-tunnel testing are described, summarizing the report of Vakili and Wu (1982). The sensor employs a flexible belt of variable surface characteristics; this belt, wrapped tightly around two cylinders mounted on frictionless flexures, is equipped with strain gages to estimate the deflection of the belt by the flow. An alternative approach uses IR illumination, optical fibers, and a photosensitive transistor, permitting direct measurement of the belt deflection. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of sample data are provided.

Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

1986-01-01

351

In Situ, Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds  

E-print Network

A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that ...

Cziczo, Daniel James

352

[A heart function measuring and analyzing instrument based on single-chip microcomputer].  

PubMed

An Introduction a measuring and analyzing instrument, based on the single-chip microcomputer, which provides sample gathering, processing, controlling, adjusting, keyboard and printing. All informations are provided and displayed in Chinese. PMID:12583055

Rong, Z; Liang, H; Wang, S

1999-05-01

353

The Hospice Environmental Survey (HES): Pilot Test of a New Measurement Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes development of the Hospice Environmental Survey (HES) to measure user's perception of the homelike atmosphere provided by a hospital inpatient unit called Hospice House. Presents the HES instrument, methodology, and pilot study data. (Author/NB)

Taylor, Jean H.; Perrill, Norman K.

1988-01-01

354

ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Does measurement instrument moderate the  

E-print Network

accepted that a substantial proportion of variability in human personality is attributable to genetic with neuroticism as measured using the class of personality questionnaires derived from Costa and McCrae's7 five using the class of questionnaires derived from Cloninger's8 tridimen- sional theory of personality (TCI

355

Workplace Discrimination, Prejudice, and Diversity Measurement: A Review of Instrumentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critically reviews diversity measures in terms of item development, psychometric evidence, and utility for counseling and development: Workplace Prejudice/Discrimination Inventory, Attitudes toward Diversity Scale; Organizational Diversity Inventory, Workforce Diversity Questionnaire, Perceived Occupational Opportunity Scale-Form B, and Perceived…

Burkard, Alan W.; Boticki, Michael A.; Madson, Michael B.

2002-01-01

356

Comparing Alternative Instruments to Measure Service Quality in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of five alternative measures of service quality in the high education sector--service quality (SERVQUAL), importance-weighted SERVQUAL, service performance (SERVPERF), importance-weighted SERVPERF, and higher education performance (HEdPERF). Design/methodology/approach: Data were…

Brochado, Ana

2009-01-01

357

A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries  

PubMed Central

An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry system provides data on shore in real time if desired. The immediate purpose of measurements by this device is to continuously infer fluxes of water across the sediment-water interface in a complex estuarine system; however, direct application to assessment of sediment-water fluxes in rivers, lakes, and other systems is also possible. Key objectives of the design include both low cost, and accuracy of the order of ±0.5 mm H2O in measured head difference between the instrument's two pressure ports. These objectives have been met, although a revision to the design of one component was found to be necessary. Deployments of up to nine months, and wireless range in excess of 300 m have been demonstrated. PMID:22389608

Gardner, Alan T.; Karam, Hanan N.; Mulligan, Ann E.; Harvey, Charles F.; Hammar, Terence R.; Hemond, Harold F.

2009-01-01

358

Measuring outcomes of midwifery care: development of an instrument to assess optimality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the outcomes of midwifery care is hampered by the lack of appropriate instruments that measure both process and outcomes of care in lower risk women. This article describes an effort to adapt an existing measurement instrument focused on the optimal outcomes of care (The Optimality Index—US) to reflect the contemporary style of U.S.-based nurse-midwifery practice. Evidence for content

Patricia Aikins Murphy; Judith T Fullerton

2001-01-01

359

Prairie grassland bidirectional reflectances measured by different instruments at the FIFE site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Land surface reflectance measurements were obtained during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) field campaigns utilizing a variety of airborne and ground-based spectral radiometers. To study the validity of the assumption that the values obtained by the several different teams and instruments were interchangeable, the surface radiation measurement teams converged on a common site for one day during the fifth intensive field campaign in 1989. The bidirectional reflectances from the various instruments were basically found to be comparable.

Deering, D. W.; Middleton, E. M.; Irons, J. R.; Blad, B. L.; Walter-Shea, E. A.; Hays, C. J.; Walthall, C.; Eck, T. F.; Ahmad, S. P.; Banerjee, B. P.

1992-01-01

360

AirDyn: an instrumented model-scale helicopter for measuring unsteady aerodynamic loading in airwakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, calibration and application of an instrument that measures the effects of unsteady air flow (airwake) on a helicopter in flight. The instrument is a 1\\/54th-scale model helicopter that is mounted on a six-component dynamic force balance to measure the forces and moments that an airwake imposes onto the helicopter; it is therefore an 'Airwake Dynamometer'

Y. Wang; J. Curran; G. D. Padfield; I. Owen

2011-01-01

361

A photophonic instrument concept to measure atmospheric aerosol absorption. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory model of an instrument to measure the absorption of atmospheric aerosols was designed, built, and tested. The design was based on the photophonic phenomenon discovered by Bell and an acoustic resonator developed by Helmholtz. Experiments were done to show ways the signal amplitude could be improved and the noise reduced and to confirm the instrument was sensitive enough to be practical. The research was undertaken to develop concepts which show promise of being improvements on the instruments that are presently used to measure the absorption of the Sun's radiation by the Earth's atmospheric aerosols.

Engle, C. D.

1982-01-01

362

The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars  

PubMed Central

We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405

Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P.; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

2010-01-01

363

Robust calibration transfer in noninvasive ethanol measurements, Part II: Modification of instrument measurements by incorporation of expert knowledge (MIMIK).  

PubMed

Several calibration transfer methods require measurement of a subset of the calibration samples on each future instrument, which is impractical in some applications. Another consideration is that these methods model inter-instrument spectral differences implicitly rather than explicitly. The present work argues that explicit knowledge of the origins of inter-instrument spectral distortions can benefit calibration transfer during the fabrication and assembly of instrumentation, the formation of the multivariate regression, and its subsequent transfer to future instruments. In Part I of this work, a Fourier transform near-infrared system designed to perform noninvasive ethanol measurements was discussed and equations describing the optical distortions caused by self-apodization, retroreflector misalignment, and off-axis detector field of view were provided and examined using laboratory measurements. The spectral distortions were shown to be nonlinear in the amplitude and wavenumber domains, and thus cannot be compensated by simple wavenumber calibration procedures or background correction. Part II presents a calibration transfer method that combines in vivo data with controlled amounts of optical distortions in order to develop a multivariate regression model that is robust to instrument variation. Evaluation of the method using clinical data showed improved measurement accuracy, outlier detection, and generalization to future instruments relative to simple background correction. PMID:25061788

Ridder, Trent D; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J; Laaksonen, Bentley D; Radigan, William T

2014-08-01

364

Testing measurement equivalence in a patient satisfaction instrument.  

PubMed

The purpose of this methodological study was to examine five sources of measurement equivalence (configural invariance, metric invariance, scalar invariance, invariant uniquenesses, and invariant factor variances) in perceptions of patient satisfaction for two groups of patients, whose satisfaction was measured at different times, for men compared with women, and for minority populations compared with Whites. The sample consisted of a total sample of 1,897 patients of whom 1,070 were females, and 1,228 were White. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling, we found that the 10-item Likert-type scale performed well across time but required additional attention if it is to be used to compare satisfaction between genders and racial groups. PMID:16157947

Mark, Barbara A; Wan, Thomas T H

2005-10-01

365

NCTM workshop splinter session, IR thermal measurement instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The splinter session dealing with commercial industrial thermal measurement state-of-the-hardware had a total attendance of 15. Two papers were presented in the splinter session as follows: (1) Development of an Infrared Imaging System for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment, Alexander D. Pline, NASA LeRC; (2) A Space-qualified PtSi Thermal Imaging System, Robert W. Astheimer, Barnes Engineering Div., EDO Corp.

Herbert Kaplan

1989-01-01

366

Cloud Physics Lidar: instrument description and initial measurement results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multiwavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low-pulse-energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the

Matthew McGill; Dennis Hlavka; William Hart; V. Stanley Scott; James Spinhirne; Beat Schmid

2002-01-01

367

A Regularized Neural Net Approach for Retrieval of Atmospheric and Surface Temperatures with the IASI Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstract In this paper, a fast atmospheric and surface temperature retrieval algorithm is developed for the high resolution Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) space-borne instrument. This algorithm is constructed on the basis of a neural network technique that has been regularized by introduction of a priori information. The performance of the resulting fast and accurate inverse radiative transfer model is presented for a large divE:rsified dataset of radiosonde atmospheres including rare events. Two configurations are considered: a tropical-airmass specialized scheme and an all-air-masses scheme.

Aires, F.; Chedin, A.; Scott, N. A.; Rossow, W. B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

368

Development of a canopy Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurement instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence detecting instrument based on Fraunhofer line principle was designed and tested. The instrument has a valid survey area of 1.3 × 1.3 meter when the height was fixed to 1.3 meter. The instrument uses sunlight as its light source. The instrument is quipped with two sets of special photoelectrical detectors with the centre wavelength at 760 nm and 771 nm respectively and bandwidth less than 1nm. Both sets of detectors are composed of an upper detector which are used for detecting incidence sunlight and a bottom detector which are used for detecting reflex light from the canopy of crop. This instrument includes photoelectric detector module, signal process module, A/D convert module, the data storage and upload module and human-machine interface module. The microprocessor calculates solar-induced fluorescence value based on the A/D values get from detectors. And the value can be displayed on the instrument's LCD, stored in the flash memory of instrument and can also be uploaded to PC through the PC's serial interface. The prototype was tested in the crop field and the results demonstrate that the instrument can measure the solar-induced chlorophyll value exactly with the correlation coefficients was 0.9 compared to the values got from Analytical Spectral Devices FieldSpec Pro spectrometer. This instrument can diagnose the plant growth status by the acquired spectral response.

Sun, G.; Wang, X.; Niu, Zh; Chen, F.

2014-02-01

369

Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma R. P. Golingo, U. Shumlak, and D. J. Den Hartog  

E-print Network

Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma R. P. Golingo, U. Shumlak, and D OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 81, 126104 (2010) Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma R online 27 December 2010) The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

370

Development of a Multi-Point Pyrometer System (MPPS) for measuring surface temperature and emissivity  

SciTech Connect

In support of the US DOE MHD research program, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) has been actively engaged in developing and applying advanced optical diagnostic techniques and instrumentation systems to high temperature coal-fired gas streams for over a decade. One of the earliest diagnostic systems developed by DIAL was a two color pyrometer (TCP). In this system, two commercial single-color pyrometers and a microprocessor system were used to form a TCP which can make accurate measurements of surfaces of unknown emissivity and temperature. This system has been used extensively to make measurements in support of the national MHD program. This report describes this system.

Benton, R.D.; Jang, Ping-Rey

1993-06-01

371

Use of acoustic temperature measurements in the cement manufacturing pyroprocess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic pyrometry enables accurate, reliable gas temperature measurements for use in combustion and emission control systems. This paper reviews traditional temperature measurement techniques, then focuses on two practical applications in the cement manufacturing pyroprocess that have utilized acoustic pyrometry for monitoring of gas temperatures. Progress in acoustic pyrometer technology has enabled the reliable measurement of gas temperatures, providing instantaneous temperature

George Kychakoff; Andrew F. Hollingshead; Stewart P. Boyd

2005-01-01

372

Temperature and turbulence measurements during the ECOMA sounding rocket campaign 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two instrumented rockets were launched at Andøya (69 ° N) during the ECOMA sounding rocket campaign in September 2006. A comprehensive set of different data was measured insitu and by ground-based instruments. Temperature measurements were done by rocketborne instruments (ionization gauge and two Pirani gauges on each payload) and the ALOMAR RMR- and Weber Na-lidars. Simultaneously, turbulence measurements were done both in-situ using ionization gauges and using remote soundings with the SAURA MF radar. Measurements show a pronounced temperature inversion of about 30 K in the region from 80 to 100 km which coincides with a broad layer of neutral turbulence. From the morphology of the turbulence layer it can be attributed as likely originating from a wind shear.

Strelnikov, Boris; Rapp, Markus; Singer, Werner; Baumgarten, Gerd; Williams, Bifford

373

Model Engine Performance Measurement From Force Balance Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large scale model representative of a low-noise, high bypass ratio turbofan engine was tested for acoustics and performance in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. This test was part of NASA's continuing Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. The low tip speed fan, nacelle, and an un-powered core passage (with core inlet guide vanes) were simulated. The fan blades and hub are mounted on a rotating thrust and torque balance. The nacelle, bypass duct stators, and core passage are attached to a six component force balance. The two balance forces, when corrected for internal pressure tares, measure the total thrust-minus-drag of the engine simulator. Corrected for scaling and other effects, it is basically the same force that the engine supports would feel, operating at similar conditions. A control volume is shown and discussed, identifying the various force components of the engine simulator thrust and definitions of net thrust. Several wind tunnel runs with nearly the same hardware installed are compared, to identify the repeatability of the measured thrust-minus-drag. Other wind tunnel runs, with hardware changes that affected fan performance, are compared to the baseline configuration, and the thrust and torque effects are shown. Finally, a thrust comparison between the force balance and nozzle gross thrust methods is shown, and both yield very similar results.

Jeracki, Robert J.

1998-01-01

374

Parched elasto hydrodynamic lubrication film thickness measurement in an instrument ball bearing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parched Elasto Hydrodynamic Lubricant (PEHL) film thickness in a large instrument ball bearing is measured by electrical capacitance across its ball set. Correlation is shown between changes in film thickness and changes in Basic Speed Ratio (BSR) measured at the same time. BSR is confirmed as a sensitive, non-intrusive measure of transients in film thickness in a real bearing.

Kingsbury, E.; Schritz, B.; Prahl, J.

1988-01-01

375

Instrumentation for measurement of aircraft noise and sonic boom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A jet aircraft noise and sonic boom measuring device which converts sound pressure into electric current is described. An electric current proportional to the sound pressure level at a condenser microphone is produced and transmitted over a cable, amplified by a zero drive amplifier and recorded on magnetic tape. The converter is comprised of a local oscillator, a dual-gate field-effect transistor (FET) mixer and a voltage regulator/impedance translator. A carrier voltage that is applied to one of the gates of the FET mixer is generated by the local oscillator. The microphone signal is mixed with the carrier to produce an electrical current at the frequency of vibration of the microphone diaphragm by the FET mixer. The voltage of the local oscillator and mixer stages is regulated, the carrier at the output is eliminated, and a low output impedance at the cable terminals is provided by the voltage regulator/impedance translator.

Zuckerwar, A. J. (inventor)

1975-01-01

376

Experimental study on measurement of flame temperature distribution using the two-color method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel optical instrumentation system for flame characterization was developed and tested. The two-color system is capable\\u000a of performing on-line measurement of flame and temperature distribution, providing temporal and spatial characterization of\\u000a the combustion process. In addition, the system has the advantage of being non-intrusive. The on-line measurement of temperature\\u000a distribution on a methane-air combustor revealed some interesting characteristics. When

Fan Jiang; Shi Liu; Gang Lu; Yong Yan; Haigang Wang; Yanmin Song; Renxiong Ma; Zhonggang Pan

2002-01-01

377

Land Surface Temperature Measurements form EOS MODIS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a physics-based land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm for simultaneously retrieving surface band-averaged emissivities and temperatures from day/night pairs of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in seven thermal infrared bands. The set of 14 nonlinear equations in the algorithm is solved with the statistical regression method and the least-squares fit method. This new LST algorithm was tested with simulated MODIS data for 80 sets of band-averaged emissivities calculated from published spectral data of terrestrial materials in wide ranges of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions. Comprehensive sensitivity and error analysis has been made to evaluate the performance of the new LST algorithm and its dependence on variations in surface emissivity and temperature, upon atmospheric conditions, as well as the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE(Delta)T) and calibration accuracy specifications of the MODIS instrument. In cases with a systematic calibration error of 0.5%, the standard deviations of errors in retrieved surface daytime and nighttime temperatures fall between 0.4-0.5 K over a wide range of surface temperatures for mid-latitude summer conditions. The standard deviations of errors in retrieved emissivities in bands 31 and 32 (in the 10-12.5 micrometer IR spectral window region) are 0.009, and the maximum error in retrieved LST values falls between 2-3 K. Several issues related to the day/night LST algorithm (uncertainties in the day/night registration and in surface emissivity changes caused by dew occurrence, and the cloud cover) have been investigated. The LST algorithms have been validated with MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) dada and ground-based measurement data in two field campaigns conducted in Railroad Valley playa, NV in 1995 and 1996. The MODIS LST version 1 software has been delivered.

Wan, Zhengming

1996-01-01

378

Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures  

E-print Network

Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T and cold sides, respectively. Surface temperature maps were compiled using an infrared thermographic system techniques allow detailed, non-intrusive mapping of surface temperatures. Surface temperature data

379

Monthly, seasonal and annual temperature reconstructions for Central Europe derived from documentary evidence and instrumental records since AD 1500  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly temperature series for Central Europe back to AD 1500 are developed from documentary index series from Germany, Switzerland\\u000a and the Czech Republic (1500–1854) and 11 instrumental temperature records (1760–2007). Documentary evidence from the Low\\u000a Countries, the Carpathian Basin and Poland are used for cross-checking for earlier centuries. The instrumental station records\\u000a are corrected for inhomogeneities, including insufficient radiation protection

Petr Dobrovolný; Anders Moberg; Rudolf Brázdil; Christian Pfister; Rüdiger Glaser; Rob Wilson; Aryan van Engelen; Danuta Limanówka; Andrea Kiss; Monika Halí?ková; Jarmila Macková; Dirk Riemann; Jürg Luterbacher; Reinhard Böhm

2010-01-01

380

Development and Use of an Instrument to Measure Retail Foodservice Employees' Motivation for Following Food Safety Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A foodborne illness outbreak can be costly to a retail foodservice operation. This research incorporated a mixed-methods approach to develop an instrument for measuring retail foodservice employees' motivational factors related to following food safety practices. Using an exploratory design for instrument development, a sequential data collection and analysis approach was taken. Instrument pilot testing revealed a reliable instrument with three

Susan W. Arendt; Jason D. Ellis; Catherine Strohbehn; Paola Paez

2011-01-01

381

An instrument to measure the heat convection coefficient on the endocardial surface.  

PubMed

This work describes the fundamentals and calibration procedure of an instrument for in vivo evaluation of the heat convection coefficient between the endocardium and the circulating blood flow. The instrument is to be used immediately before radio-frequency cardiac ablation is performed. Thus, this instrument provides researchers with a valuable parameter to predict lesion size to be achieved by the procedure. The probe is a thermistor mounted in a Swan-Ganz catheter, and it is driven by a constant-temperature anemometer circuit. A 1D model of the sensor behaviour in a convective medium, the calibration procedure and the apparatus are explained in detail. Finally, a performance analysis of the instrument in the range of 200-3500 W m(-2) K(-1) shows that the average absolute error of full scale is 7.4%. PMID:12812418

dos Santos, Icaro; Shah, Jignesh; Ferreira da Rocha, Adson; Webster, John G; Valvano, Jonathan W

2003-05-01

382

Recent lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and temperature within the network for the detection of stratospheric change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goddard mobile lidar was deployed at Cannon Air Force Base near Clovis, New Mexico during the Spring of 1990. Measurements of stratospheric ozone and temperature were made over a period of six weeks. Data from the lidar system is compared with data from a balloon-borne, ultraviolet instrument launched from nearby Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. Along with several improvements to this instrument which are now underway, a second lidar dedicated to temperature and aerosol measurements is now being developed.

Mcgee, Thomas J.; Ferrare, Richard; Butler, James J.; Frost, Robert L.; Gross, Michael; Margitan, James

1991-01-01

383

Evaluation of instruments developed to measure the clinical learning environment: an integrative review.  

PubMed

The nature of the clinical learning environment has a huge impact on student learning. This article reviews current methods available for evaluating the clinical learning environment. Five instruments were identified that measure the clinical learning environment. All of these instruments focus solely on the student perspective of the clinical learning environment. Although gaining student input is important, there are other perspectives that offer valuable insights on the nature of the clinical learning environment. The findings from this integrative review indicate the need for future development and testing of an instrument to evaluate the clinical learning environment from the staff nurse and nurse faculty perspective. PMID:25127081

Hooven, Katie

2014-01-01

384

DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES TO DETECT AND MEASURE PARTICULATES  

SciTech Connect

In this quarter, we have constructed the first field deployable PM measurement system. This system is retrofit from the system that we designed and tested in the lab, and by adding light blocking covers and rugged electronic boxes, we are now ready to test the instrument in our industrial collaborator's site with real engines. We have also collected tons of data on standard PM particles with our lab instrument.

Sheng Wu; Steve Palm; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard III

2004-07-31

385

Optical Performance of Breadboard Amon-Ra Imaging Channel Instrument for Deep Space Albedo Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AmonRa instrument, the primary payload of the international EARTHSHINE mission, is designed for measurement of deep space albedo from L1 halo orbit. We report the optical design, tolerance analysis and the optical performance of the breadborad AmonRa imaging channel instrument optimized for the mission science requirements. In particular, an advanced wavefront feedback process control technique was used for the

Won Hyun Park; Seonghui Kim; Hanshin Lee; Hyun-Su Yi; Jae-Min Lee; Sun-Jung Ham; Jeeyeon Yoon; Sug-Whan Kim; Ho Soon Yang; Ki-Hyuk Choi; Zeen Chul Kim; Mike Lockwood; Nigel Morris; Ian Tosh

2007-01-01

386

High Data Density Temperature Measurement for Quasi Steady-State Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new optical instrument, the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI), is used to measure the temperature distribution across a heated chamber filled with silicone oil. Data taken using the LCPDI are compared to equivalent measurements made with a traversing thermo-couple and the two data sets show excellent agreement. This instrument maintains the compact, robust design of Linniks point diffraction interferometer and adds to it phase stepping capability for quantitative interferogram analysis. The result is a compact, simple to align, environmentally insensitive interferometer capable of accurately measuring optical wave-fronts with very high data density and with automated data reduction.

Mercer, C. R.; Rashidnia, N.; Creath, K.

1996-01-01

387

High data density temperature measurement for quasi steady-state flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new optical instrument, the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI), is used to measure the temperature distribution across a heated chamber filled with silicone oil. Data taken using the LCPDI are compared to equivalent measurements made with a traversing thermocouple and the two data sets show excellent agreement This instrument maintains the compact, robust design of Linnik's point diffraction interferometer and adds to it phase stepping capability for quantitative interferogram analysis. The result is a compact, simple to align, environmentally insensitive interferometer capable of accurately measuring optical wavefronts with very high data density and with automated data reduction.

Mercer, Carolyn R.; Rashidnia, Nasser; Creath, Katherine

1995-01-01

388

Comparison between UV index measurements performed by research-grade and consumer-products instruments.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, skin cancer and other related diseases are not just subjects of scientific literature. Nowadays, these themes are also discussed on television, newspapers and magazines for the general public. Consequently, the interest in prevention of sun overexposure is increasing, as the knowledge of photoprotection methods and UVR levels. The ultraviolet index (UVI) is a well-known tool recommended by the World Health Organization to avoid harmful effects of UV sunlight. UVI forecasts are provided by many national meteorological services, but local UVI measurements can provide a more realistic and appropriate evaluation of UVR levels. Indeed, as scientific instruments are very expensive and difficult to manipulate, several manufacturers and retail shops offer cheap and simple non-scientific instruments for UVI measurements, sometimes included in objects of everyday life, such as watches, outfits and hand-held instruments. In this work, we compare measurements provided by several commercial non-scientific instruments with data provided by a Bentham spectrometer, a very accurate sensor used for UV measurements. Results show that only a few of the instruments analyzed provide trustworthy UVI measurements. PMID:20354638

Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haeffelin, Martial; Brogniez, Colette; Verschaeve, Franck; Saiag, Philippe; Pazmiño, Andrea; Mahé, Emmanuel

2010-04-01

389

A Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Dimensionality Assessment for Measurement Instruments Modeled by Multidimensional Item Response Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The statistical assessment of dimensionality provides evidence of the underlying constructs measured by a survey or test instrument. This study focuses on educational measurement, specifically tests comprised of items described as multidimensional. That is, items that require examinee proficiency in multiple content areas and/or multiple cognitive…

Toro, Maritsa

2011-01-01

390

Development and Testing of a New Instrument for Measuring Concerns about Dying in Health Care Providers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new measure of concerns about dying was investigated in this psychometric study. The Concerns About Dying instrument (CAD) was administered to medical students, nursing students, hospice nurses, and life sciences graduate students ( N = 207) on two occasions; on one occasion they also completed three related measures. Analyses included…

Mazor, Kathleen M.; Schwartz, Carolyn E.; Rogers, H. Jane

2004-01-01

391

Instrumenting V8 to Measure the Efficacy of Dynamic Optimizations on Production Code  

E-print Network

Instrumenting V8 to Measure the Efficacy of Dynamic Optimizations on Production Code Michael MaassScript, virtual machine, dynamic optimization, measurement, instru- mentation #12;Abstract As JavaScript has risen of compilers designed to optimize JavaScript speed. Public one-upmanship has played out between these browsers

392

A Conceptual Model and Set of Instruments for Measuring Student Engagement in Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work has its origins with research into the effects of pedagogy on student engagement and learning outcomes. It summarises the development of self-report and observation instruments for measuring student engagement suitable for early years to senior secondary. The measures are sensitive to the context and experience of learning rather than,…

Goldspink, Christopher; Foster, Margot

2013-01-01

393

Interval Estimation of Optimal Scores from Multiple-Component Measuring Instruments via SEM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A structural equation modeling based method is outlined that accomplishes interval estimation of individual optimal scores resulting from multiple-component measuring instruments evaluating single underlying latent dimensions. The procedure capitalizes on the linear combination of a prespecified set of measures that is associated with maximal…

Raykov, Tenko

2006-01-01

394

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide. Grade 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is a combination of two separate tests. One test is AIMS, which measures how well the student knows the reading, writing , and mathematics content that all Arizona students at the third grade level are expected to know and be able to do. AIMS includes multiple-choice…

Arizona Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

395

Arizona?s Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide. Grade 5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is a combination of two separate tests. One test is AIMS, which measures how well the student knows the reading, writing, and mathematics content that all Arizona students in the student's grade level are expected to know and be able to do. AIMS DPA includes…

Arizona Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

396

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide. Grade 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is a combination of two separate tests. One test is AIMS, which measures how well the student knows the reading, writing, and mathematics content that all Arizona students in the student's grade level are expected to know and be able to do. AIMS DPA includes…

Arizona Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

397

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide. Grade 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is a combination of two separate tests. One test is AIMS, which measures how well students know the reading, writing, and mathematics content that all Arizona students at the sixth grade level are expected to know and be able to do. AIMS DPA includes multiple-choice…

Arizona Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

398

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide. Grade 7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is a combination of two separate tests. One test is AIMS, which measures how well the student knows the reading, writing, and mathematics content that all Arizona students in the student's grade level are expected to know and be able to do. AIMS DPA includes…

Arizona Department of Education, 2006

2006-01-01

399

A PC-based instrument for harmonics and interharmonics measurement in power supply systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing interest on power quality has led international working groups to define new standards for testing and measurement techniques to apply to power systems. Special attention has been paid to harmonic and interharmonic measurements. Here, the authors introduce a PC-based instrument capable of synchronising sampling frequency with fundamental frequency in order to perform on-line voltage or current distortion analysis. The

Massimo Aiello; Antonio Cataliotti; Salvatore Nuccio

2004-01-01

400

Instrument Development Procedures for Maze Measures. Technical Report # 08-06  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to document the instrument development of maze measures for grades 3-8. Each maze passage contained twelve omitted words that students filled in by choosing the best-fit word from among the provided options. In this technical report, we describe the process of creating, reviewing, and pilot testing the maze measures.…

Liu, Kimy; Sundstrom-Hebert, Krystal; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Tindal, Gerald

2008-01-01

401

Depth capabilities of neutron and synchrotron diffraction strain measurement instruments. I. The maximum feasible path length  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an algorithm is presented for estimating the maximum feasible penetration path length for neutron and synchrotron X-ray strain measurement instruments. This reflects the attenuation and scattering capability of the material under examination, the incident flux and detector arrangement, the likely background signal, the required strain measurement accuracy, the sampling volume and the diffracting geometry. Its validity and

Philip John Withers

2004-01-01

402

Development of an Instrument to Measure Enjoyment of Computer Game Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the development of an instrument designed to measure the enjoyment of computer game play. Despite the enormous technological progress in the field of computer games, enjoyment of computer game play is still not a well-defined construct. Based on Nabi and Krcmar's (2004) tripartite model of media enjoyment, a survey questionnaire was developed to measure computer game

Xiaowen Fang; Susy S. Chan; Jacek Brzezinski; Chitra Nair

2010-01-01

403

Fiber Bragg grating sensors for temperature measurement using phase retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) sensor for measuring temperature and temperature distribution is presented. We have used a phase retrieval algorithm for the temperature measurement. There is presented a method for obtaining the distributed temperature distribution along a fiber Bragg grating by measuring the reflectivity spectrum. We have also a priori knowledge about the complex coupling coefficient's

Waldemar Wojcik; Piotr Kisala; Slawomir Cieszczyk

2005-01-01

404

A simple instrument and technique for measuring columnar water vapor via near-IR differential solar transmission measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple two-channel solar radiometer and data retrieval technique is described for sensing the columnar content of atmospheric water vapor via differential solar transmission measurements in and adjacent to the 940-nm water vapor absorption band. The instrument features two parallel channels for simultaneous measurements in and out of the absorption band to eliminate temporal variability effects in the differential comparison

J. A. Reagan; K. J. Thome; B. M. Herman

1992-01-01

405

Systematic measurements of temperature dependences of ASCA archival galaxy clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilizing ASCA archival data of about 300 objects of elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters of galaxies, we performed systematic measurements of X-ray properties of hot gas in their systems, and compiled them in this paper. Our results are free from systematic uncertainties due to different instruments and different analysis procedures. In the temperature-luminosity relation, we find two breaks around the ICM temperature of 1 keV and 4 keV; the steepness ? is 2.34±0.29 above 4 keV, 3.74±0.32 in 1.5--5 keV, and 4.03±1.07 below 1.5 keV. Such two breaks are also evident in the temperature and size relation. The steepness in the LT relation at kT>4 keV is consistent with the scale-relation derived from the CDM model, indicating that gravitational effect is dominant in richer clusters while poorer clusters sufferred from non-gravity effects. The steep LT relation below 1 keV is almost attributed to X-ray faint elliptical galaxies. Considering the similar position in the LT plot, X-ray faint galaxy groups are thought to be the same class of objects as X-ray faint elliptical galaxies; their X-ray emitting hot gas is not the intragroup but interstellar medium of the central X-ray faint ellipitcal galaxy.

Fukazawa, Y.; Makishima, K.; Ohashi, T.

406

Temperature measurements of a Martian local dust storm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for estimating the ground and near-ground atmospheric temperatures within a Martian local dust storm is presented. It is applied to soundings taken by the Viking orbiter infrared thermal mapper (IRTM) instrument at four times-of-day for one storm. Essentially, a comparison is made between infrared radiances emerging from the storm interior and those from the region surrounding the storm. Particle extinction properties are assumed to be independent of position in the storm region, and scattering properties must be selected arbitrarily. For the storm studied here, the ground temperature in the interior is at least 6 K cooler, whereas the near-ground atmospheric temperature may be less than or comparable to, those of the surroundings. The thermal structure of the storm interior did not change measurably between 11.5 and 16.6 hours local time. These observations favor theories of dust storm development in which regional winds rather than local, dust-driven convection initiate the mobilization of dust from the surface. It is also concluded that the optical properties of dust particles in this local storm differ from those observed by Mariner 9 during the 1971-1972 global dust storm.

Kahn, Ralph

1995-01-01

407

STP Temperature Measurement Ideal Gas Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The STP DemonIdealGas program displays a histogram of the energy of a demon that exchanges energy with an ideal gas of particles. The purpose of this simulation is to understand why the demon acts as a perfect thermometer and why its mean energy is a measure of the temperature of the gas. The default system is a one-dimensional ideal gas of N=40 particles. Additional states and parameters can be specified using the Display|Switch GUI menu item. STP DemonIdealGas is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP). The program is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the stp_DemonIdealGas.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Additional programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, STP, or Statistical and Thermal Physics.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan; Christian, Wolfgang; Cox, Anne

2008-05-28

408

10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the... Records § 35.2060 Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the...shall maintain a record of instrument calibrations required by § 35.60 for 3...

2010-01-01

409

A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 {mu}N. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2009-05-15

410

A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5mN with a resolution of 15?N. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.

2009-05-01

411

A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas.  

PubMed

A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 microN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments. PMID:19485509

West, Michael D; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W

2009-05-01

412

An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of 'potential' uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Beltz, Nobert; Bandy, Alan R.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Thornton, Donald C.

1993-01-01

413

Instrument Cross-Comparisons and Automated Quality Control of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data  

SciTech Connect

Within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) instrument network, several different systems often measure the same quantity at the same site. For example, several ARM instruments measure time-series profiles of the atmosphere that were previously available only from balloon-borne radiosonde systems. These instruments include the Radar Wind Profilers (RWP) with Radio-Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS), the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), the Microwave Radiometer Profiler (MWRP), and the Raman Lidar (RL). ARM researchers have described methods for direct cross-comparison of time-series profiles (Coulter and Lesht 1996; Turner et al. 1996) and we have extended this concept to the development of methods for automated quality control (QC) of ARM datastreams.

Moore, S.; Hughes, G.

2005-03-18

414

The Solar Oblateness Measured On Board The PICARD Spacecraft, and The Solar Disk Sextant Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PICARD Spacecraft was launched on 15 June 2010. It carries four instruments. One of them, SODISM is an imaging telescope with a 2K x 2K CCD detector, dedicated to the measurement of the solar diameter and the limb shape. Although the data processing is still in a validation phase, we can already present some preliminary results concerning the solar oblateness. These measurements are obtained during a special operation in which the spacecraft turns around the Sun direction. The rotation, made by 300 angular increments, allows us to determine the instrument optical distortion and the solar oblateness. The method used to extract this information will be described. We shall present the preliminary results as a function of wavelength, and compare them with measurements obtained with the SDS instrument, and with the predictions from theoretical modeling.

Thuillier, G. O.; Hauchecorne, A.; Sofia, S.; Girard, T.; Hochedez, J.; Irbah, A.; Marcovici, J.; Meissonnier, M.; Meftah, M.; Sofia, U. J.

2011-12-01

415

A cryogenically cooled photofragment fluorescence instrument for measuring stratospheric water vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrument developed for high-resolution daytime measurements of water vapor in the stratosphere using the technique of photofragment fluorescence is examined. A detailed description of all aspects of the instrument, as well as the results of its first two flights, are presented. The main areas of concern were optical baffling, cryogen transfer, water vapor measurement without contamination, and a dual path absorption measurement. Results of the second flight test indicate that the problems of instrument and gondola contamination, identified in the first flight test, were solved. A signal-to-noise ratio of about 50:1 for 10 sec of averaging throughout the stratosphere is achieved, as well as an altitude resolution of better than 100 m.

Weinstock, Elliot M.; Schwab, James J.; Nee, Jan Bai; Schwab, M. J.; Anderson, James G.

1990-01-01

416

Development of optical near-infrared spectroscopy instruments for human skin sebum measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many techniques and instruments that are currently available to give better results for measuring the quality of human skin. In this study, two non-invasive spectroscopy instruments have been used namely NIRQuest spectrometer and ASD FieldSpec® 3 Spectroradiometer. Both of these spectroscopy instruments were used to find the correlation technique with the commercial instruments (DermaLab® USB Sebum Module). Initially an experiment was conducted to find intensities peak of the absorption of oleic acid as a part of sebum composition. From the spectra peak of the absorbance, the wavelength will be determined. Next step was to measure the reflectance of human skin sebum by using two spectroscopic instruments. The analysis will carry on at the wavelength that have been chosen from the previous study and also from the wavelength of the fatty acid to find the best wavelength that contribute in sebum composition. From several analyses, the wavelengths that contribute in sebum were 1208, 1414, 1726, and 1758 nm that obtained the value of R2 0.8444 for NIRQuest Spectrometer and 0.8532 for ASD FieldSpec® 3 Spectroradiometer. For future research this non- invasive techniques can be used in dermatology field for the use of various skin analysis. Besides that, the less wavelength used is an advantage to develop instruments with less amount of wavelength sensor. It can reduce the cost of development.

Msabbri, A. R.; Mohamad, M.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Omar, A. F.

2014-05-01

417

Non-coincident Inter-instrument Comparisons of Ozone Measurements Using Quasi-conservative Coordinates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ozone measurements from ozonesondes, AROTAL, DIAL, and POAM III instruments during the SOLVE-2/VINTERSOL period are composited in a time-varying, flow-following quasi-conservative (PV-6) coordinate space; the resulting composites from each instrument are mapped onto the other instruments locations and times. The mapped data are then used to intercompare data from the different instruments. Overall, the four data sets are found to be in good agreement. AROTAL shows somewhat lower values below 16 km, and DIAL has a positive bias at the upper limits of its altitude range. These intercomparisons are consistent with those obtained from more conventional near-coincident profiles, where available. Although the PV-theta mapping technique entails larger uncertainties of individual profile differences compared to direct near-coincident comparisons, the ability to include much larger numbers of comparisons can make this technique advantageous.

Lait, L. R.; Newman, P. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; McGee, T.; Twigg, T.; Browell, E.; Bevilacqua, R.; Andersen, S. B.; DeBacker, H.; Benesova, A.

2004-01-01

418

Operation Manual for the TA Instruments DSC Q-100 and Q-20: Temperature Range: -90C 400C  

E-print Network

Operation Manual for the TA Instruments DSC Q-100 and Q-20: Temperature Range: -90°C ­ 400°C Sample and the temperature range that is used are dependent upon the limits of the DSC (-90°C ­ 400°C) and the sample

Alpay, S. Pamir

419

Thermal band selection for the PRISM instrument: 1. Analysis of emissivity-temperature separation algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the missions being planned by the European Space Agency (ESA) within the framework of its Earth Observation Programme is the Processes Research by Imaging Space Mission (PRISM). The PRISM instrument consists of a thermal sensor whose main objective is to retrieve accurate land surface temperatures (LST) and whose band positions are 3.5-4.1 ?m, 8.1-9.5 ?m, 10.3-11.3 ?m, and 11.5-12.5 ?m. We have studied the optimal design of this instrument to retrieve accurate LSTs. First, we have analyzed several emissivity-temperature separation methods (part 1) and atmospheric and emissivity correction algorithms (part 2). Finally, we have identified the optimal band configuration (part 3). This paper is the first of a series of three and addresses the question of the emissivity-temperature separability. Among all the existing algorithms, we have studied the "absolute methods," which are able to estimate the absolute value of emissivity at satellite scale and can yield better results in the emissivity estimate. These methods are the algorithm based on the temperature-independent thermal infrared spectral index (TISI), the alpha coefficients method, and the algorithms which use visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared data to estimate the thermal emissivity (vegetation cover method (VCM)). The study consisted of an analysis of both random and systematic errors of each method. The results indicate that emissivity can be obtained with an error of ±1.7-5% using the alpha coefficients, ±1.7-3% using the TISIs, and ±0.5-1.4% using the VCM, depending on the spectral region. In all cases the error decreases with wavelength, and the lowest errors are achieved in the 10-12 ?m spectral region, due to small variability of emissivity. It is necessary that the two first methods use radiosondes simultaneous with the satellite overpass to perform the atmospheric corrections on the thermal data; in addition, they show important sources of systematic errors, which will increase the uncertainty in the emissivity estimate (even in the best possible case). The VCM does not use radiosondes and does not present important sources of systematic error. It appears to be the procedure with the most favorable error propagation characteristics. Thus the VCM could be the most adequate method for retrieving the land surface emissivity (LSE), within the framework of this work.

Caselles, Vicente; Valor, Enric; Coll, CéSar; Rubio, Eva

1997-05-01

420

Experimental technique and new temperature and heat flow measurements in the deep boreholes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the outstanding problems for the modern prospect geophysics is the following, whether permeable zones and commercial petroleum concentrations exist in deep crystalline basement. Temperature measurements allow us to more accurately determine the permeable layers and reservoirs in the basement. Electronics and equipment for remote measurements in the boreholes include a set of deep instruments, cable winch and surface recording unit placed onboard a car. We made temperature measurements by the specially developed measurement technique that gives high accuracy and validity. The temperatures were measured downwards into the borehole, precluding additional fluid mixing in the hole. The thermometer lowering rate was minimised with 200 meter per hour. Measurements were made in deep and superdeep boreholes having steady-state temperature regime. Temperature was measured up to a depth of 5800 m with a sampling interval of 10 cm to 5 m. Measurements were made in the open hole and in the drill string. Temperature measurements give evidence for the existence of anomalous zones potentially corresponding to permeable layers. Unconsolidated zones occur at great depths in the granite-gneiss layer and their thickness and magnitude increase with increasing depth. The studies indicate that fluid injection anomalies, gas anomalies, sheet flow and overflow zones can be detected by temperature measurements. The drilling in the hole revealed heavily shattered rocks (fault breccia) at these depths. New temperature measurements in the deep boreholes that stood idle for 3 to 9 years after the drilling suggest permanent migration of gas from greater depths.

Khristoforova, M.

2003-04-01

421

Ultra-high Temperature Emittance Measurements for Space and Missile Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced modeling and design efforts for many aerospace components require high temperature emittance data. Applications requiring emittance data include propulsion systems, radiators, aeroshells, heatshields/thermal protection systems, and leading edge surfaces. The objective of this work is to provide emittance data at ultra-high temperatures. MSFC has a new instrument for the measurement of emittance at ultra-high temperatures, the Ultra-High Temperature Emissometer System (Ultra-HITEMS). AZ Technology Inc. developed the instrument, designed to provide emittance measurements over the temperature range 700-3500K. The Ultra-HITEMS instrument measures the emittance of samples, heated by lasers, in vacuum, using a blackbody source and a Fourier Transform Spectrometer. Detectors in a Nicolet 6700 FT-IR spectrometer measure emittance over the spectral range of 0.4-25 microns. Emitted energy from the specimen and output from a Mikron M390S blackbody source at the same temperature with matched collection geometry are measured. Integrating emittance over the spectral range yields the total emittance. The ratio provides a direct measure of total hemispherical emittance. Samples are heated using lasers. Optical pyrometry provides temperature data. Optical filters prevent interference from the heating lasers. Data for Inconel 718 show excellent agreement with results from literature and ASTM 835. Measurements taken from levitated spherical specimens provide total hemispherical emittance data; measurements taken from flat specimens mounted in the chamber provide near-normal emittance data. Data from selected characterization studies will be presented. The Ultra-HITEMS technique could advance space and missile technologies by advancing the knowledge base and the technology readiness level for ultra-high temperature materials.

Rogers, Jan; Crandall, David

2009-01-01

422

Measurement of the polarization effects of an instrument using partially polarized light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accuracy of a radiometer is adversely affected by scene polarization if the receiving optical system is sensitive to polarization. It is therefore necessary to specify and measure the sensitivity of the system to polarized light. The Mueller-Stokes matrix of an instrument may be determined experimentally and used to predict the effects of the instrument on any beam. The specification of a maximum polarization sensitivity stated in terms of the degree of polarization produced in an unpolarized beam can be experimentally verified even though an unpolarized beam is not available in the laboratory for direct measurement.

Howell, B. J.

1979-01-01

423

Design of a surface deformation measuring instrument for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE-2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This final technical report covers the work accomplished (under NAG3-1300) from 1 October 1991 to 1 October 1993. The grant is a direct result of Dr. H. Philip Stahl's (of Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology) participation in the NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program at NASA Lewis Research Center sponsored by Case Western Reserve University and the Ohio Aerospace Institute. The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a fundamental fluid physics experiment designed to provide quantitative data on the thermocapillary flow of fluid under the influence of an increased localized surface temperature. STDCE flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia in the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) in June 1992. The second flight of this experiment (STDCE-2) is scheduled for 1995. The specific science objectives of STDCE-2 are to determine the extent and nature of thermocapillary flows, the effect of heating mode and level, the effect of the liquid free-surface shape, and the onset conditions for and nature of oscillatory flows. In order to satisfy one of these objectives, an instrument for measuring the shape of an air/oil free surface must be developed.

Stahl, H. Philip

1993-12-01

424

Improvement of the operation rate of medical temperature measuring devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of reducing measuring time of temperature measurements of biological objects based on preheating the resistance temperature detector (RTD) up to the temperature close to the temperature to be measured, is proposed. It has been found that at the same measuring time, the preheating allows to decrease the measurement error by a factor of 5 to 45 over the temperature range of 35-41°?. The measurement time is reduced by 1.6-4 times over this range, keeping the same value of the measurement error.

Hotra, O.; Boyko, O.; Zyska, T.

2014-08-01

425

The SUPERTIGER Instrument: Measurement of Elemental Abundances of Ultra-Heavy Galactic Cosmic Rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SuperTIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument was developed to measure the abundances of galactic cosmic-ray elements from 10Ne to 40Zr with individual element resolution and the high statistics needed to test models of cosmic-ray origins. SuperTIGER also makes exploratory measurements of the abundances of elements with 40 < Z <= 60 and measures the energy spectra of the more abundant elements for Z <= 30 from about 0.8 to 10 GeV/nucleon. This instrument is an enlarged and higher resolution version of the earlier TIGER instrument. It was designed to provide the largest geometric acceptance possible and to reach as high an altitude as possible, flying on a standard long-duration 1.11 million m3 balloon. SuperTIGER was launched from Williams Field, McMurdo Station, Antarctica, on 2012 December 8, and made about 2.7 revolutions around the South Pole in 55 days of flight, returning data on over 50 × 106 cosmic-ray nuclei with Z >= 10, including ~1300 with Z > 29 and ~60 with Z > 49. Here, we describe the instrument, the methods of charge identification employed, the SuperTIGER balloon flight, and the instrument performance.

Binns, W. R.; Bose, R. G.; Braun, D. L.; Brandt, T. J.; Daniels, W. M.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Fitzsimmons, S. P.; Hahne, D. J.; Hams, T.; Israel, M. H.; Klemic, J.; Labrador, A. W.; Link, J. T.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Moore, P.; Murphy, R. P.; Olevitch, M. A.; Rauch, B. F.; Sakai, K.; San Sebastian, F.; Sasaki, M.; Simburger, G. E.; Stone, E. C.; Waddington, C. J.; Ward, J. E.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

2014-06-01

426

Alignment Measurements of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Instrument in a Thermal/Vacuum Chamber Using Photogrammetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory, scheduled for a late 2000 launch, is designed to measure temperature fluctuations (anisotropy) and produce a high sensitivity and high spatial resolution (< 0.3 deg at 90 GHz.) map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation over the entire sky between 22 and 90 GHz. MAP utilizes back-to-back Gregorian telescopes to focus the microwave signals into 10 differential microwave receivers, via 20 feed horns. Proper alignment of the telescope reflectors and the feed horns at the operating temperature of 90 K is a critical element to ensure mission success. We describe the hardware and methods used to validate the displacement/deformation predictions of the reflectors and the microwave feed horns during thermal/vacuum testing of the reflectors and the microwave instrument. The smallest deformations to be resolved by the measurement system were on the order of +/- 0.030 inches (0.762 mm). Performance of these alignment measurements inside a thermal/vacuum chamber with conventional alignment equipment posed several limitations. A photogrammetry (PG) system was chosen to perform the measurements since it is a non-contact measurement system, the measurements can be made relatively quickly and accurately, and the photogrammetric camera can be operated remotely. The hardware and methods developed to perform the MAP alignment measurements using PG proved to be highly successful. The PG measurements met the desired requirements, enabling the desired deformations to be measured and even resolved to an order of magnitude smaller than the imposed requirements. Viable data were provided to the MAP Project for a full analysis of the on-orbit performance of the Instrument's microwave system.

Hill, Michael D.; Herrera, Acey A.; Crane, J. Allen; Packard, Edward A.; Aviado, Carlos; Sampler, Henry P.; Obenschain, Arthur (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

427

Dualex: A New Instrument for Field Measurements of Epidermal Ultraviolet Absorbance by Chlorophyll Fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dualex (dual excitation) is a field-portable instrument, hereby described, for the assessment of polyphenolic compounds in leaves from the measurement of UV absorbance of the leaf epidermis by double excitation of chlorophyll fluorescence. The instrument takes advantage of a feedback loop that equalizes the fluorescence level induced by a reference red light to the UV-light-induced fluorescence level. This allows quick measurement from attached leaves even under field conditions. The use of light-emitting diodes and of a leaf-clip configuration makes Dualex a user-friendly instrument with potential applications in ecophysiological research, light climate analysis, agriculture, forestry, horticulture, pest management, selection of medicinal plants, and wherever accumulation of leaf polyphenolics is involved in plant responses to the environment.

Goulas, Yves; Cerovic, Zoran G.; Cartelat, Aurélie; Moya, Ismaël

2004-08-01

428

ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 5: Density and liquid level measurement instrumentation for the cryogenic fluids oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is presented on instrumentation for density measurement, liquid level measurement, quantity gauging, and phase measurement. Coverage of existing information directly concerned with oxygen was given primary emphasis. A description of the physical principle of measurement for each instrumentation type is included. The basic materials of construction are listed if available from the source document for each instrument discussed. Cleaning requirements, procedures, and verification techniques are included.

Roder, H. M.

1974-01-01

429

Temperature Measurement in PV Facilities on a Per-Panel Scale  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the design, construction and testing of an instrumentation system for temperature measurement in PV facilities on a per-panel scale (i.e., one or more temperature measurements per panel). Its main characteristics are: precision, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote operation, easy scaling; and all of this at a very low cost. The paper discusses the advantages of temperature measurements in PV facilities on a per-panel scale. The paper presents the whole development to implementation of a real system that is being tested in an actual facility. This has enabled the authors to provide the readers with practical guidelines, which would be very difficult to achieve if the developments were implemented by just simulation or in a theoretical way. The instrumentation system is fully developed, from the temperature sensing to its presentation in a virtual instrument. The developed instrumentation system is able to work both locally and remotely connected to both wired and wireless network. PMID:25061834

Martinez, Miguel A.; Andujar, Jose M.; Enrique, Juan M.

2014-01-01

430

Measurement Corner: Volume, Temperature and Pressure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boyle's Law and basic relationships between volume and pressure of a gas at constant temperature are presented. Suggests two laboratory activities for demonstrating the effect of temperature on the volume of a gas or liquid. (CS)

Teates, Thomas G.

1977-01-01

431

Design of Temperature Measurement System Based On Intelligent Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molten steel temperature is an important processing target for steel-making. Because of high temperature and strong erosion from steel and slag at present, the continuous steel temperature information can not be obtained by existing measurement method. In view o