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1

Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pseudo-Brewster-angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster-angle radiometer would exploit the spectral-emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation. The relevant emissivity and polarization characteristics are the following: . The Brewster angle is the angle at which light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence on a purely dielectric material is not reflected. The pseudo-Brewster angle, defined for a lossy dielectric (somewhat electrically conductive) material, is the angle for which the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is minimized. For pure water, the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is only 2.2 x 10(exp -4) at its pseudo- Brewster angle of 51deg. The reflectivity remains near zero, several degrees off from the 51deg optimum, allowing this angle of incidence requirement to be easily achieved. . The wavelength range of interest for measuring water temperatures is 8 to 12 microns. The emissivity of water for parallel- polarized light at the pseudo-Brewster angle is greater than 0.999 in this wavelength range. The radiometer would be sensitive in the wavelength range of 8 to 12 microns, would be equipped with a polarizer to discriminate against infrared light polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and would be aimed toward a body of water at the pseudo- Brewster angle (see figure). Because the infrared radiation entering the radiometer would be polarized parallel to the plane of incidence and because very little downwelling parallel-polarized radiation would be reflected into the radiometer on account of the pseudo-Brewster arrangement, the radiation received by the radiometer would consist almost entirely of thermal emission from the surface of the water. Because the emissivity of the water would be very close to 1, the water could be regarded as a close approximation of a blackbody for the purpose of computing its surface temperature from the radiometer measurements by use of the Planck radiation law.

Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

2003-01-01

2

An intelligent instrument for measuring exhaust temperature of marine engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhaust temperature of the marine engine is commonly measured through thermocouple. Measure deviation will occur after using the thermocouple for some time due to nonlinearity of thermocouple itself, high temperature and chemical corrosion of measure point. Frequent replacement of thermocouple will increase the operating cost. This paper designs a new intelligent instrument for solving the above-mentioned problems of the marine engine temperature measurement, which combines the conventional thermocouple temperature measurement technology and SCM(single chip microcomputer). The reading of the thermocouple is simple and precise and the calibration can be made automatically and manually.

Ma, Nan-Qi; Su, Hua; Liu, Jun

2006-12-01

3

Optical Instrumentation for Temperature and Velocity Measurements in Rig Turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Non-intrusive optical measurement techniques have been examined in the context of developing robust instruments which can routinely yield data of engineering utility in high speed turbomachinery test rigs. The engineering requirements of such a measurement are presented. Of particular interest were approaches that provide both velocity and state-variable information in order to be able to completely characterize transonic flowfields. Consideration of all of the requirements lead to the selection of particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the approach to velocity measurement while laser induced fluorescence of oxygen (O2 LIF) appeared to offer the most promise for gas temperature measurement. A PIV system was developed and demonstrated on a transonic turbine stage in the MIT blowdown turbine facility. A comprehensive data set has been taken at one flow condition. Extensive calibration established the absolute accuracy of the velocity measurements to be 3-5 %. The O2 LIF proved less successful. Although accurate for low speed flows, vibrational freezing of O2 prevented useful measurements in the transonic, 300-600 K operating range of interest here.

Ceyhan, I.; dHoop, E. M.; Guenette, G. R.; Epstein, A. H.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.

1998-01-01

4

Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating materials were tested/applied on the thermocouple cleaning according to the proposed approach. Different frequency, application time and power of the ultrasonic/subsonic output were tested. The results show that the ultrasonic approach is one of the best methods to clean the thermocouple tips during the routine operation of the gasifier. In addition, the real time data acquisition system was also designed and applied in the experiments. This advanced instrumentation provided the efficient and accurate data acquisition for this project. In summary, the accomplishment of the project provided useful information of the ultrasonic cleaning method applied in thermocouple tip cleaning. The temperature measurement could be much improved both in accuracy and duration provided that the proposed approach is widely used in the gasification facilities.

Seong W. Lee

2006-09-30

5

Instrument for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Materials at Low Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the advance of polymer and other non-metallic material sciences, whole new series of polymeric materials and composites are being created. These materials are being optimized for many different applications including cryogenic and low-temperature industrial processes. Engineers need these data to perform detailed system designs and enable new design possibilities for improved control, reliability, and efficiency in specific applications. One main area of interest is cryogenic structural elements and fluid handling components and other parts, films, and coatings for low-temperature application. An important thermal property of these new materials is the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value).

Fesmire, James; Sass, Jared; Johnson, Wesley

2010-01-01

6

Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project during this semi-annual reporting period are to test the effects of coating layer of the thermal couple on the temperature measurement and to screen out the significant factors affecting the temperature reading under different operational conditions. The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray coated thermal couples were completed in this reporting period. The comparison tests of coated and uncoated thermal couples were conducted under various operational conditions. The temperature changes were recorded and the temperature differences were calculated to describe the thermal spray coating effect on the thermal couples. To record the temperature data accurately, the computerized data acquisition system (DAS) was adopted to the temperature reading. The DAS could record the data with the accuracy of 0.1 C and the recording parameters are configurable. In these experiments, DAS was set as reading one data for every one (1) minute. The operational conditions are the combination of three parameters: air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and the amount of fine dust particles. The results from the temperature readings show the temperature of uncoated thermal couple is uniformly higher than that of coated thermal couple for each operational condition. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was computed based on the results from systematic tests to screen out the significant factors and/or interactions. The temperature difference was used as dependent variable and three operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water/ammonia flow rate and amount of fine dust particle) were used as independent factors. The ANOVA results show that the operational parameters are not the statistically significant factors affecting the temperature readings which indicate that the coated thermal couple could be applied to temperature measurement in gasifier. The actual temperature reading with the coated thermal couple in the gasification could be calibrated by a constant of temperature difference.

Seong W. Lee

2005-10-01

7

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator were conducted in this reporting period. In the systematic test, two (2) factors were considered as the experimental parameters, including air injection rate and water injection rate. Each experimental factor had two (2) levels, respectively. A special water-feeding device was designed and installed to the gasifier simulator. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results of the systematic tests. The ANOVA shows that the air injection rate did have the significant impact to the temperature measurement in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA also shows that the water injection rate did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA analysis also proves that the thermocouple assembly we proposed was immune to the moisture environment, the temperature measurement remained accurate in moisture environment. Within this reporting period, the vibration application for cleaning purpose was explored. Both ultrasonic and sub-sonic vibrations were considered. A feasibility test was conducted to prove that the thermocouple vibration did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. This feasibility test was a 2{sup 2} factorial design. Two factors including temperature levels and motor speeds were set to two levels respectively. The sub-sonic vibration tests were applied to the thermocouple to remove the concrete cover layer (used to simulate the solid condensate in gasifiers) on the thermocouple tip. It was found that both frequency and amplitude had significant impacts on removal performance of the concrete cover layer.

Seong W. Lee

2004-04-01

8

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

Seong W. Lee

2003-09-01

9

Remote temperature-measurement instrumentation for a heated rotating turbine disk  

SciTech Connect

Thermographic-phosphor (TP) remote temperature sensors were installed on a turbine disk and subjected to thermal and centrifugal stresses in a spin-pit test. The sensors were placed at three different radii on the disk, which was run at 6600, 9330, 11400, and 13200 rpm at nominal temperatures of ambient, 300) degree)F, 600)degree)F, 900)degree)F, and 1250)degree)F (149)degree)C, 316)degree)C, 482)degree)C, and 677)degree)C, respectively). The paper gives details of the TP temperature-measurement method, phosphor bonding to the disk, calibration, optical-system design, and electronics instrumentation. The temperatures measured by the TP sensors were compared with those measured by thermocouples mounted on the disk. A number of the thermocouples behaved erratically after we operated the disk at 677)degree)C for an extended period. Nevertheless, for those cases where they could be compared with confidence, the agreement between the TP sensors and the thermocouples was good. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Lutz, S.S.; Turley, W.D.; Borella, H.M.; Noel, B.W.; Cates, M.R.; Probert, M.R.

1988-01-01

10

Self-heating probe instrument and method for measuring high temperature melting volume change rate of material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The castings defects are affected by the melting volume change rate of material. The change rate has an important effect on running safety of the high temperature thermal storage chamber, too. But the characteristics of existing measuring installations are complex structure, troublesome operation and low precision. In order to measure the melting volume change rate of material accurately and conveniently, a self-designed measuring instrument, self-heating probe instrument, and measuring method are described. Temperature in heating cavity is controlled by PID temperature controller; melting volume change rate ? and molten density are calculated based on the melt volume which is measured by the instrument. Positive and negative ? represent expansion and shrinkage of the sample volume after melting, respectively. Taking eutectic LiF+CaF2 for example, its melting volume change rate and melting density at 1 123 K are -20.6% and 2 651 kg·m-3 measured by this instrument, which is only 0.71% smaller than literature value. Density and melting volume change rate of industry pure aluminum at 973 K and analysis pure NaCl at 1 123 K are detected by the instrument too. The measure results are agreed with report values. Measuring error sources are analyzed and several improving measures are proposed. In theory, the measuring errors of the change rate and molten density which are measured by the self-designed instrument is nearly 1/20-1/50 of that measured by the refitted mandril thermal expansion instrument. The self-designed instrument and method have the advantages of simple structure, being easy to operate, extensive applicability for material, relatively high accuracy, and most importantly, temperature and sample vapor pressure have little effect on the measurement accuracy. The presented instrument and method solve the problems of complicated structure and procedures, and large measuring errors for the samples with high vapor pressure by existing installations.

Wang, Junwei; Wang, Zhiping; Lu, Yang; Cheng, Bo

2013-03-01

11

The Application Of Infrared Thermography To Solar Central Receiver Temperature Measurements Part I. Instrument Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes the instrumentation system, the calibration theory, and the error analysis of an experiment designed to measure front surface temperatures of the Barstow Solar Central Receiver panels. The instrumentation system uses an infrared detector, imaging peripherals, a collimator, and a 30 power telescope. The unique feature of this application is the large distance (200 m) between the detector and the target (1.27 cm diameter tubes). Sources of thermal radiation other than the target are found to contribute heavily to the input signal. Thus, the calibration scheme must specifically account for these background or environmental effects. During the data acquisition, two blackbody radiators at known temperatures are referenced periodically, and their output signals are used to define the calibration curves. These curves are valid as long as the environmental effects remain unchanged. The error analysis uses the Root-Sum-Square (RSS) technique for evaluating random errors. The biased errors are assumed to stem from spatial resolution problems, and are addressed using the optical transfer functions of the system. Data analysis and interpretation are covered in Part II, Receiver Evaluation.

Bergan, Nina E.; Stoddard, Mary Clare

1985-03-01

12

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the ultrasonic vibration application for cleaning method were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the ultrasonic vibration application, the ambient temperature and high temperature status condition were tested separately. The sticky dirt on the thermocouple tip was simulated by the cement-covered layer on the thermocouple tip. At the ambient temperature status, four (4) factors were considered as the input factors affecting the response variable of peeling off rate. The input factors include the shape of the cement-covered layer (thickness and length), the ultrasonic vibration output power, and application time. At the high temperature tests, four (4) different environments were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow supply, water and air supply environment, water/air/fine dust particle supply, and air/water/ammonia/fine dust particle supply environment. The factorial design method was used in the experiment design with twelve (12) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the thickness and length of the cement-covered layer have the significant impact on the peeling off rate of ultrasonic vibration application at the ambient temperature environment. For the high temperature tests, the different environments do not seem to have significant impact on the temperature changes. These results may indicate that the ultrasonic vibration is one of best cleaning methods for the thermocouple tip.

Seong W. Lee

2005-04-01

13

Nuclear plant temperature instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most critical process temperatures in nuclear power plants are measured using resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) and thermocouples. In addition to excellent reliability and accident survivability, nuclear safety-related RTDs are expected to have good calibration and fast dynamic response time, as these characteristics are important to plant safety and economy. In plants where RTDs are installed in thermowells in the primary

H. M. Hashemian; Jin Jiang

2009-01-01

14

Virtual instrument based measurement system for analysis of static and dynamic characteristics of temperature transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work shows the structure of a measurement system dedicated to examine static and dynamic characteristics of sensors used to measure temperature. The measurement system was built on the basis of a set of signal conditioners connected with a data acquisition card built in a PC. The data acquisition was completed with the use of a virtual measurement device developed in the LabVIEW environment. A was used as the source of reference temperature. During the experiments, the sensors were submersed in water of given temperature with the use of a computer controlled arm. The article also presents the results of the calibration procedure which was carried out, as well as selected application schemes.

Walendziuk, Wojciech; Baczewski, Micha?

2014-11-01

15

Development of techniques and associated instrumentation for high temperature emissivity measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies were made to develop a test apparatus for the measurement of total emittance of materials under repeated exposure to simulated earth entry conditions. As no existing test facility met the emittance measurement and entry simulation goals, a new apparatus was designed, fabricated and checked out. This apparatus has the capability of performing total and spectral emittance measurements during cyclic temperature and pressure exposure under sonic and supersonic flow conditions. Emittance measurements were performed on a series of oxidized superalloys, silicide coated columbium alloys and ceramic coatings.

Cunnington, G. R.; Funaa, A. I.; Cassady, P. E.

1973-01-01

16

Geothermal high temperature instrumentation applications  

SciTech Connect

A quick look at the geothermal industry shows a small industry producing about $1 billion in electric sales annually. The industry is becoming older and in need of new innovative solutions to instrumentation problems. A quick look at problem areas is given along with basic instrumentation requirements. The focus of instrumentation is on high temperature electronics.

Normann, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants (United States)

1998-06-11

17

Development of techniques and associated instrumentation for high temperature emissivity measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The progress during the sixth quarterly period is reported on construction and assembly of a test facility to determine the high temperature emittance properties of candidate thermal protection system materials for the space shuttle. This facility will provide simulation of such reentry environment parameters as temperature, pressure, and gas flow rate to permit studies of the effects of these parameters on the emittance stability of the materials. Also reported are the completed results for emittance tests on a set of eight Rene 41 samples and one anodized titanium alloy sample which were tested at temperatures up to 1600 F in vacuum. The data includes calorimetric determinations of total hemispherical emittance, radiometric determinations of total and spectral normal emittance, and pre- and post-test room temperature reflectance measurements.

Cunnington, G. R.; Funai, A. I.

1972-01-01

18

Development of techniques and associated instrumentation for high temperature emissivity measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The calibrating and testing procedures for the radiometric emittance measurement apparatus are described. Test results are given for the NBS platinum-rhodium standard (SRM No. 1409), the NBS oxidized Kanthal standard, and the oxidized Rene 41 materials. Results indicate that with the platinum-rhodium standard the measurement system compared with the NBS data to within 0.02 for both total and spectral normal emitttance. Data from the Kanthal strip was consistently higher than NBS values. For oxidized Rene 41, no significant changes in as prepared emittance was observed. The emittance was stable for temperatures up to 1150 K.

Cunnington, G. R.; Funai, A. I.

1972-01-01

19

Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

Kounaves, Sam

2011-01-01

20

High-temperature borehole instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of extracting natural heat from the Earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320(0)C (610(0)F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resources to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules.

Dennis, B. R.; Koczan, S. P.; Stephani, E. L.

1985-10-01

21

AC resistance measuring instrument  

DOEpatents

An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

Hof, P.J.

1983-10-04

22

Water Vapor, Temperature, and Ice Particles in Polar Mesosphere as Measured by SABER/TIMED and OSIRIS/Odin Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although many new details on the properties of mesospheric ice particles that farm Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) and also cause polar mesospheric summer echoes have been recently revealed, certain aspects of mesospheric ice microphysics and dynamics still remain open. The detailed relation between PMC parameters and properties of their environment, as well as interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in PMC properties that are possibly related to global change, are among those open questions. In this work, mesospheric temperature and water vapor concentration measured by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite are used to study the properties of PMCs with respect to the surrounding atmosphere. The cloud parameters, namely location, brightness, and altitude, are obtained from the observations made by the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) on the Odin satellite. About a thousand of simultaneous common volume measurements made by SABER and OSIRIS in both hemispheres from 2002 until 2008 are used. The correlation between PMC brightness (and occurrence rate) and temperatures at PMC altitudes and at the mesopause is analysed. The relation between PMC parameters, frost point temperature, and gaseous water vapor content in and below the cloud is also discussed. Interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in the above parameters, as well as in PMC peak altitudes and mesopause altitudes are evaluated.

Feofilov, A. G.; Petelina, S. V.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

2009-01-01

23

REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 074902 (2012) 2-and 3-temperature measurement of a heated microcantilever  

E-print Network

, nanometer-scale thermal analysis uses periodic heating to sense local temperature-induced transitions frequencies, it is possible to mea- sure substrate thermomechanical properties at the nanometer- scale.7 When thermomechanical actuation also allows nanometer-scale to- pography imaging.10 Several published articles report

King, William P.

2012-01-01

24

Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide from Broadband Infrared Limb Emission Measurements Taken from the TIMED/SABER Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment is one of four instruments on NASA's Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER measures broadband infrared limb emission and derives vertical profiles of kinetic temperature (Tk) from the lower stratosphere to approximately 120 km, and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) volume mixing ratio (vmr) from approximately 70 km to 120 km. In this paper we report on SABER Tk/CO2 data in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region from the version 1.06 dataset. The continuous SABER measurements provide an excellent dataset to understand the evolution and mechanisms responsible for the global two-level structure of the mesopause altitude. SABER MLT Tk comparisons with ground-based sodium lidar and rocket falling sphere Tk measurements are generally in good agreement. However, SABER CO2 data differs significantly from TIME-GCM model simulations. Indirect CO2 validation through SABER-lidar MLT Tk comparisons and SABER-radiation transfer comparisons of nighttime 4.3 micron limb emission suggest the SABER-derived CO2 data is a better representation of the true atmospheric MLT CO2 abundance compared to model simulations of CO2 vmr.

Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell III, James M.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; She, Chiao-Yao; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Xu, Xiaojing

2008-01-01

25

Optical distance measuring instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.

Abshire, J. B. (inventor)

1986-01-01

26

Temperature measurement.  

PubMed

For many decades the measurement of body core temperature has been ubiquitously established in medical and non-medical applications, e.g., in hospitals, occupational medicine, sports medicine, military and other settings. However, there are still numerous challenges, such as the precise definition of the body core temperature, establishing the clinical importance of the measured temperature and the lack of a reliable, non-invasive and fast measurement method for body core temperature. After an introduction to the topic, the medical aspects from a user point of view are presented, i.e., the needs for temperature measurements, as well as possible measurement sites and clinical specifications and needs are highlighted. Subsequently, technical methods are presented which are used for temperature measurement. The analysis of the technical methods is divided into two sections: the first deals with the standard methods, which are currently used and the second describes methods, which are currently under development. Although temperature measurement appears very easy and is very common in daily use, it has many constraints, which are considered later. The need for further research is deduced from the above-mentioned sections and is finally followed by the conclusions section. PMID:21988157

Wartzek, Tobias; Mühlsteff, Jens; Imhoff, Michael

2011-10-01

27

Viscosity measuring instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and apparatus are provided for enabling the measurement of the viscosity of substances, especially those containing volatiles at elevated temperatures, with greater accuracy and at less cost than before. The apparatus includes a cylinder with a narrow exit opening at one end and a piston which closely slides within the cylinder to apply force against a sample in the cylinder to force the sample through the exit opening. In order to more rapidly heat a sample the ends of the cylinder and piston are tapered and the sample is correspondingly tapered, to provide a large surface to volume ratio. A corresponding coal sample is formed by compressing particles of coal under high pressure in a mold of appropriate shape.

Feinstein, S. P. (inventor)

1980-01-01

28

Measuring Temperature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about measuring temperature. Learners will apply their knowledge of how temperature affects matter to understand how a thermometer works. They then read about the history of the thermometer and the temperature scales that make the information from the thermometer meaningful. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 6 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

29

Foundations of measurement and instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The user of instrumentation has provided an understanding of the factors that influence instrument performance, selection, and application, and of the methods of interpreting and presenting the results of measurements. Such understanding is prerequisite to the successful attainment of the best compromise among reliability, accuracy, speed, cost, and importance of the measurement operation in achieving the ultimate goal of a project. Some subjects covered are dimensions; units; sources of measurement error; methods of describing and estimating accuracy; deduction and presentation of results through empirical equations, including the method of least squares; experimental and analytical methods of determining the static and dynamic behavior of instrumentation systems, including the use of analogs.

Warshawsky, Isidore

1990-01-01

30

Comparison of Temperature and Ozone Measured by the AROTEL Instrument on DC8 Overflights of Ny Aalesund during the SOLVE Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AROTEL instrument, deployed on the NASA DC-8 at Kiruna, Sweden for the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), flew over the NDSC station operated by the Alfred Wegner Institute at Ny Aalesund, Spitsbergen. AROTEL ozone and temperature measurements made during near overflights of Ny Aalesund are compared with sonde ozone and temperature, and lidar ozone measurements from the NDSC station. Nine of the seventeen science flights during the December through March measurement period overflew near Ny Aalesund. Agreement of AROTEL with the ground-based temperature and ozone values at altitudes from just above the aircraft to about 30 km gives strong confidence in using AROTEL temperature and ozone mixing ratio to study the mechanisms of ozone loss in the winter arctic polar region.

Hoegy, Walter R.; McGee, Thomas J.; Burris, John F.; Heaps, William; Silbert, Donald; Sumnicht, Grant; Twigg, Laurence; Neuber, Roland

2000-01-01

31

Temperature measuring device  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01

32

Moiré pointer for measurement instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In measurement instruments where measured values are indicated with a mechanical pointer and a graduated scale, the observation precision is increased often by adding an auxiliary mechanical pointer (needle) with a sub graduated scale. The auxiliary pointer moves in synchronization with the main pointer but at a higher speed. A constant velocity ratio between the auxiliary pointer and the main

Emin Gabrielyan

2007-01-01

33

Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

2009-01-01

34

Space-borne remote sensing with active optical instruments for the measurement of temperature, pressure, ozone and the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lidar Light Detection and Ranging is regarded as an innovative component of the global observing system It offers the possibility to directly sample the four-dimensional variability of the atmosphere with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution In Europe space-borne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations since mid 1970 s resulting in mission and instrument concepts such as ATLID a backscatter lidar for aerosol and clouds for the EarthCARE mission or ALADIN a Doppler wind lidar considered for the ADM Aeolus mission Major advances particularly in humidity profiling are expected from the space-borne Differential Absorption Lidar DIAL being the Core instrument of the WALES Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space mission which was studied up to a level of Phase A In this presentation we report on the background definition of a future lidar system capable of monitoring the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide CO 2 methane CH 4 and nitrous oxide N 2 O stratospheric and tropospheric ozone O 3 and the meteorological parameter pressure p and temperature T The idea of this study which was initiated by the European Space Agency ESA was to select one or two candidate instruments for follow-on activities on sensor and mission level For each parameter appropriate performance models of active optical instruments either for range-resolved or for total column measurements were defined and implemented as computer codes for parametric analysis The sampling strategy and error characteristics for the

Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Wirth, M.

35

Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

1982-01-01

36

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOEpatents

A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

1999-03-30

37

Temperature measurement  

MedlinePLUS

... Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends against using glass thermometers with mercury. The glass can break, and mercury is a poison. Electronic thermometers are most often recommended. The temperature is displayed ...

38

Measuring Temperature Reading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two requirements for taking a measurement of something. The first is a tool for taking a measurement. The second is scale for making sense of the numbers of the measurement. For example, a ruler is often used to measure short lengths. It is the tool for measurement. On the ruler are one or more number scales with equally spaced numbers. These numbers can be compared with numbers from any other ruler that is accurately set to the same scale. Measuring length is far simpler than measuring temperature. While there is evidence of tools for measuring length at various times in human history, tools and scales for measuring temperature do not appear until more recent human history. Early thermometers, called thermoscopes, first appear in the 1500's. They were crude instruments that were not at all accurate. Most did not even have a number scale associated with them. This made them useless for most practical purposes. Gabriel Fahrenheit created the first accurate thermometer in 1714, and the Fahrenheit temperature scale followed it in 1724. The thermometer s accuracy was based on its use of mercury, a silver colored substance that remains liquid over a wide range of temperatures but expands or contracts in a standard, predictable way with changes in temperature. To set the scale, Fahrenheit created the coldest temperature that he could. He mixed equal parts of ice, water, and salt, and then used this as the zero point, 0 degrees, of his scale. He intended to make 30 degrees the freezing point of water and 90 degrees the temperature of the human body, but he had to later revise these temperatures to be 32 degrees and 96 degrees. In the final version of the scale, the temperature of the human body became 98.6 degrees. 19th century thermoscope

2003-01-01

39

Compact Instruments Measure Heat Potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based in Huntsville, Alabama, AZ Technology Inc. is a woman- and veteran-owned business that offers expertise in electromechanical-optical design and advanced coatings. AZ Technology has received eight Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center for the development of spectral reflectometers and the measurement of surface thermal properties. The company uses a variety of measurement services and instruments, including the Spectrafire, a portable spectral emissometer it used to assist General Electric with the design of its award-winning Giraffe Warmer for neonatal intensive care units.

2009-01-01

40

MACS, An Instrument and a Methodology for Simultaneous and Global Measurements of the Coronal Electron Temperature and the Solar Wind Velocity on the Solar Corona  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Cram's theory for the formation of the K-coronal spectrum he observed the existence of temperature sensitive anti-nodes, which were separated by temperature insensitive nodes, at certain wave-lengths in the K-coronal spectrum. Cram also showed these properties were remarkably independent of altitude above the solar limb. In this thesis Cram's theory has been extended to incorporate the role of the solar wind in the formation of the K-corona, and we have identified both temperature and wind sensitive intensity ratios. The instrument, MACS, for Multi Aperture Coronal Spectrometer, a fiber optic based spectrograph, was designed for global and simultaneous measurements of the thermal electron temperature and the solar wind velocity in the solar corona. The first ever experiment of this nature was conducted in conjunction with the total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 in Elazig, Turkey. Here twenty fiber optic tips were positioned in the focal plane of the telescope to observe simultaneously at many different latitudes and two different radial distances in the solar corona. The other ends were vertically stacked and placed at the primary focus of the spectrograph. By isolating the K-coronal spectrum from each fiber the temperature and the wind sensitive intensity ratios were calculated.

Reginald, Nelson L.

2000-01-01

41

Instrumentation for Sensitive Gas Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved instrument for optical absorption spectroscopy utilizes off-axis paths in an optical cavity in order to increase detection sensitivity while suppressing resonance effects. The instrument is well suited for use in either cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) [in which one pulses an incident light beam and measures the rate of decay of light in the cavity] or integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) [in which one uses a continuous-wave incident light beam and measures the power of light in the cavity as a function of wavelength]. Typically, in optical absorption spectroscopy, one seeks to measure absorption of a beam of light in a substance (usually a gas or liquid) in a sample cell. In CRDS or ICOS, the sample cell is placed in (or consists of) an optical cavity, so that one can utilize multiple reflections of the beam to increase the effective optical path length through the absorbing substance and thereby increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption. If an absorbing substance is not present in the optical cavity, one can utilize the multiple passes of the light beam to increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption and scattering by components of the optical cavity itself. It is desirable to suppress the effects of resonances in the cavity in order to make the spectral response of the cavity itself as nearly constant as possible over the entire wavelength range of interest. In the present instrument, the desired flattening of the spectral response is accomplished by utilizing an off-axis beam geometry to effectively decrease the frequency interval between longitudinal electromagnetic modes of the cavity, such that the resulting transmission spectrum of the cavity is nearly continuous: in other words, the cavity becomes a broad-band optical device.

OKeefe, Anthony

2005-01-01

42

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2011-07-01

43

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2010-07-01

44

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2012-07-01

45

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2013-07-01

46

30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Automatic temperature control instruments. 77.314 Section...Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments. (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal...

2014-07-01

47

Recent advances in high temperature instrumentation for hot section applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Programs to develop research instrumentation for use in turbine engine hot sections are described. These programs were initiated to provide improved measurements capability as support for a multidisciplinary effort to establish technolgy leading to improved hot section durability. Specific measurement systems described here include heat flux sensors, a dynamic gas temperature measuring system, laser anemometry for hot section applications, an optical system for viewing the interior of a combustor during operation, thin film sensors for surface temperature and strain measurements, and high temperature strain measuring systems. The paper describes the state of the development of these sensors and measuring systems and, in some cases, will show examples of measurements made with this instrumentation.The paper covers work done at the NASA Lewis Research Center and at various contract and grant facilities.

Englund, David R.; Seasholtz, Richard G.

1988-01-01

48

10.3 High-temperature Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes high temperature instrumentation development from 1960-1970, 1980-1990 and 2000-present. The contents include: 1) Background; 2) Objective; 3) Application and Sensor; 4) Attachment Techniques; 5) Evaluation/Characterization Testing; and 6) Future testing.

Piazza, Anthony

2008-01-01

49

Instrumentation for trace emission measurements  

SciTech Connect

Rising concerns about the potential release of harmful elements into the environment from coal utilization have driven the development of new analytical capabilities. And recent environmental regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and Amendments, demand superior performance from new coal-based technologies as regards their pollution emission potential. Currently available instrumentation for fossil fuel process and combustion monitoring requires sample extraction and remote analysis in a laboratory. This type of monitoring is not adequate for commercialization of many of the advanced technologies under development at METC. Especially challenging is the task of sampling and characterizing systems at high temperature and pressure. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometer has the potential to perform elemental composition analysis for the purpose of continuous emissions monitoring. The shortcomings of conventional ICP systems plumbed directly to high-temperature and high-pressure process systems have been previously discussed. In brief, these systems cannot sustain a plasma in a gas stream containing a large proportion of molecular gases, they cannot be connected to hot, pressurized sample lines, and the plasma emission spectrum contains strong interfering molecular bands. The ICP system the authors are developing addresses all these difficulties.

Chisholm, W.P.

1994-10-01

50

Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer. respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

51

Biomagnetic Measurements Using SQUID Instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomagnetic measurements involve the detection of the magnetic fields generated by physiological activity in living organisms. Because magnetic fields are sensed remotely, no physical contact with the subject is required, making the technique totally non-invasive Furthermore, only the magnetic fields originating within the body are measured. No external field is applied and it can therefore be confidently stated that the technique is completely safe. These characteristics make biomagnetometry an ideal tool for the investigation of physiological processes. The only magnetic field detector capable of measuring these extremely weak biomagnetic signals is the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). In the last thirty years SQUID-based ultrasensitive magnetometers have been widely used in the investigation of physiologically produced magnetic fields for diagnostic purposes. Owing to the numerous sources of noise and interference typical of an urban environment, it has until recently been considered almost impossible to operate a SQUID magnetometer in such a location without magnetic shielding. We have overcome these technical problems and have successfully used our specially developed unshielded SQUID systems in laboratory and hospital environments. This instrumentation is suitable for recording the biomagnetic fields in adults, neonates and fetuses, and has been applied in a number of clinical studies including fetal magnetocardiography.

Rassi, D.; Zhuravlev, Y.

2000-09-01

52

Bubble measuring instrument and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

53

Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting, distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receives the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

54

Bubble Measuring Instrument and Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method and apparatus are provided for a non-invasive bubble measuring instrument operable for detecting. distinguishing, and counting gaseous embolisms such as bubbles over a selectable range of bubble sizes of interest. A selected measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected is insonified by two distinct frequencies from a pump transducer and an image transducer, respectively. The image transducer frequency is much higher than the pump transducer frequency. The relatively low-frequency pump signal is used to excite bubbles to resonate at a frequency related to their diameter. The image transducer is operated in a pulse-echo mode at a controllable repetition rate that transmits bursts of high-frequency ultrasonic signal to the measurement volume in which bubbles may be detected and then receive, the echo. From the echo or received signal, a beat signal related to the repetition rate may be extracted and used to indicate the presence or absence of a resonant bubble. In a preferred embodiment, software control maintains the beat signal at a preselected frequency while varying the pump transducer frequency to excite bubbles of different diameters to resonate depending on the range of bubble diameters selected for investigation.

Kline-Schoder, Robert (Inventor); Magari, Patrick J. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

55

Instrumentation for detailed bridge-scour measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A portable instrumentation system is being developed to obtain channel bathymetry during floods for detailed bridge-scour measurements. Portable scour measuring systems have four components: sounding instrument, horizontal positioning instrument, deployment mechanisms, and data storage device. The sounding instrument will be a digital fathometer. Horizontal position will be measured using a range-azimuth based hydrographic survey system. The deployment mechanism designed for this system is a remote-controlled boat using a small waterplane area, twin-hull design. An on-board computer and radio will monitor the vessel instrumentation, record measured data, and telemeter data to shore.

Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.; Trent, Roy E.

1993-01-01

56

Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, recent technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported.

Tanabe, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Arakawa, Satoru; Sayama, Shuji

57

Advances in instrumentation for atmospheric aerosol measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instruments for airborne particle sampling and measurement are important tools for the study of particulate air contaminants. As such they are important in air quality, air pollution and industrial hygiene studies. Particle measuring instruments are important also for various industrial processes, such as clean room monitoring and contaminant measurement in clean process gases used in semiconductor manufacturing. This paper reviews

David Y H Pui; Benjamin Y H Liu

1988-01-01

58

The measurement accuracy of passive radon instruments.  

PubMed

This paper analyses the data having been gathered from interlaboratory comparisons of passive radon instruments over 10 y with respect to the measurement accuracy. The measurement accuracy is discussed in terms of the systematic and the random measurement error. The analysis shows that the systematic measurement error of the most instruments issued by professional laboratory services can be within a range of ±10 % from the true value. A single radon measurement has an additional random measurement error, which is in the range of up to ±15 % for high exposures to radon (>2000 kBq h m(-3)). The random measurement error increases for lower exposures. The analysis especially applies to instruments with solid-state nuclear track detectors and results in proposing criteria for testing the measurement accuracy. Instruments with electrets and charcoal have also been considered, but the low stock of data enables only a qualitative discussion. PMID:23878346

Beck, T R; Foerster, E; Buchröder, H; Schmidt, V; Döring, J

2014-01-01

59

The adaptation of iButtons® for near-surface rock temperature and thermal offset measurements in a high alpine environment - Instrumentation and first results, Kitzsteinhorn (3203 m), Hohe Tauern, Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High alpine regions are very rough terrains influenced by extreme weather conditions. Steep and inaccessible terrain complicates the installation and maintenance of monitoring instruments. Among other hazards lightning stroke, low temperatures and mass movements have a strong impact on permanently installed instruments. Therefore technical challenges include the development of robust measuring instruments to resist harsh environmental conditions. The presented work is part of the MOREXPERT ('Monitoring Expert System for Hazardous Rock Walls') project. One of the project's main objectives is the development of an easy to use and maintainable monitoring system with respect to cost and benefit. The assessment of rock permafrost distribution across the whole summit pyramid (300 meters in height, 3.5 ha) and the consideration of the heterogeneous topography requires a large number of temperature loggers. To meet these requirements iButtons® were used. The iButton® is a computer chip enclosed in a 16mm thick stainless steel can. The used DS1922L/T temperature logger iButtons® are rugged, self-sufficient systems that measure temperature and record the result in a protected memory section with an accuracy of ±0.5°C from -10°C to +65°C and a resolution of 0.0625°C. In contrast to conventionally used temperature loggers, iButtons® are cheap, end-user friendly and easily replaceable in case of damage. For this reason a large number of measurement sites can easily be equipped for the measurement of near-surface rock temperatures and thermal offset. A special instrumentation workflow for the installation of iButtons® in depths of 10 and 80 cm was developed. All iButtons® were attached to polyethylene rods and placed in previously drilled holes. First results show a good applicability of iButtons® for rock temperature measurements.

Keuschnig, M.; Hartmeyer, I.; Schmidjell, A.; Schrott, L.

2012-04-01

60

Alienation as Measured by Three Different Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three instruments—namely, the Gould Manifest Alienation Measure, Rotter's Internal-External scale, and Dean's Alienation Measure—were administered to 41 male and 69 female students because they reflected different traditions and conceptualizations of the alienation syndrome. It was found that the three instruments intercorrelated significantly for both sexes and therefore seemed to measure much in common. However, the three subscales on the Dean

Alexander Tolor

1974-01-01

61

Instrument accurately measures weld angle and offset  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weld angle is measured to the nearest arc minute and offset to one thousandth of an inch by an instrument designed to use a reference plane at two locations on a test coupon. A special table for computation has been prepared for use with the instrument.

Boyd, W. G.

1967-01-01

62

Instrumentation, Data Acquisition and Controls for Temperature Measurement of Cold Surfaces at 4.5 K and 80 K of SST-1 Machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-temperature regimes have been envisaged for the SST-1 machine, 80 K on the thermal shield and 4.5 K on the superconducting magnet system. The aim of temperature measurement is two folds (i) to monitor the temperature distribution as well as process parameters (ii) to achieve controlled cool down from 300 K to 4.5 K and 80 K. Temperature sensors have been mounted on cold surfaces at required locations to ease the operation during cool down and steady state. Techniques employed for temperature measurement and controls are based on continuous resistance measurement. Cernox™ sensors (Lakeshore made) and PT-102 have been used for the temperature measurement at 4.5 K and 80 K surfaces respectively. The data acquisition system (DAS) has been indigenously developed using 4-20 mA current loop temperature transmitter, which provided better functioning in terms of flexibility. The control functioning has been designed and developed using programmable logic controller with direct interfacing of the transmitter. The temperature data is obtained at the supervisory control and data acquisition of dedicated node. The developed DAS has been found to be very reliable and satisfactory.

Panchal, P.; Sonara, D.; Sarkar, B.; Bhattacharya, R.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.; Tank, J.; Singh, M.; Sahu, A. K.; Saxena, Y. C.

2008-03-01

63

Simulation of Thermal Behavior in High-Precision Measurement Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a way to modularize complex finite-element models is described. The modularization is done with temperature fields that appear in high-precision measurement instruments. There, the temperature negatively impacts the achievable uncertainty of measurement. To correct for this uncertainty, the temperature must be known at every point. This cannot be achieved just by measuring temperatures at specific locations. Therefore, a numerical treatment is necessary. As the system of interest is very complex, modularization is unavoidable to obtain good numerical results.

Weis, Hanna Sophie; Augustin, Silke

2008-06-01

64

Instrumentation for Structure Measurements on Highly Non-equilibrium Materials  

SciTech Connect

Containerless techniques (levitation) completely eliminate contact with the sample. This unique sample environment allows deep supercooling of many liquids and avoids contamination of high temperature melts. Recent experiments at the APS high energy beamline 11 ID-C used aerodynamic levitation with laser beam heating and acoustic levitation with cryogenic cooling. By using these two methods, liquids were studied over much of the temperature range from -40 to +2500 C. This paper briefly describes the instrumentation and its use with an -Si area detector that allows fast, in-situ measurements. Use of the instruments is illustrated with examples of measurements on molten oxides and aqueous materials.

Weber, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Benmore, Chris J [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Wilding, Martin C [ORNL

2011-01-01

65

MultiKron: performance measurement instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of our instrumentation work at NIST is to provide hardware support in obtaining performance measurement data of parallel computers, as well as uniprocessors, with tolerable perturbation to both the executing processes and the architecture on which they are executing. Tracing events and counting are two basic concepts of performance measurement-both should be controlled from within the code. The

A. Mink; R. Carpenter; G. Nacht; J. Roberts

1996-01-01

66

Ultrasonic temperature measuring device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pulse echo ultrasonic system automatically determines the temperature in the core of a nuclear rocket engine by measuring the transit time of an acoustic pulse in a wire sensor. The measurement is based on the fact that the speed of sound in the sensor material is a function of temperature.

Carnevale, E. H.; Lynnworth, L. C.

1968-01-01

67

Space weather instruments and measurement platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather is a phenomenon affecting near-Earth space. It manifests itself in numerous different ways, the best known being the Aurora. Space weather causes numerous problems to several critical infrastructures, such as power grids and satellites. This poster shows current space weather instrumentation and systems to analyze their capabilities and possibly existing gaps in measurements. Analysis of magnetospheric, ionospheric, solar and solar wind instruments and instrument platforms is conducted. Our results show that currently existing instrumentation is able to measure essentially all space weather phenomena. Magnetometer coverage in auroral regions is not sufficient for detailed space weather analysis e.g. due to the lack of capability for measuring magnetic field at the sea. Ionospheric measurements have similar problems with coverage, but they also have rather short time series. Solar and solar wind observations are concentrated on a small number of orbital observatories that are difficult to replace and expensive. In conclusion, testing of CubeSat mounted fluxgate magnetometers, adoption of underwater magnetometers and improvements in coverage of ionospheric and magnetospheric measurements are suggested. Maintenance of the ability to conduct in situ measurements of solar wind and solar observations are recommended.

Peitso, Pyry; Tanskanen, Eija

68

Study on influencing factors of measuring precision of OTF measurement instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical Transfer Function(OTF) Measurement is well known as the more accurate and more comprehensive method that is used in evaluating the imaging quality of optical systems. Nowadays almost all optical companies and national standard institutes use the OTF measurement instruments as the most reliable image evaluation systems. But in the actually measuring process, it is frequent that the measuring results of the same sample are variable by using different instruments. The reason is that the subsystems of the OTF measurement instrument have inherent errors, which made the different OTF measurement instruments have dissimilar measuring precisions. In addition, temperature and the resulting thermal expansion dynamics of the mechanical set-up become factors limiting the performance of OTF measurement instruments. In this paper, the fundamental theories of OTF measurement instrument were introduced, including its mathematical model, measuring principle, basic structure and so on. Then the influences of inherent errors of subsystems and the thermal expansion dynamics of the mechanical set-up on OTF measurement instrument were also discussed in detail. Based on the analyses of this paper, it is obvious that the OTF value measured by OTF measurement instrument can only be treated as a sort of relative benchmark. However, this relative benchmark can also produces feedback on the performances of optical systems by rule and line in time. And it always has the main effect in guiding the design, machining, assembly, debugging and any other process of production.

Zhao, Kan; Meng, Junhe; Zhang, Zheng; Tao, Yu; Zhang, Chengzhong; Lei, Li; Dun, Xiong; Feng, Litong

2010-10-01

69

Measurement control program for NDA instruments  

SciTech Connect

Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems.

Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

1983-01-01

70

Instrumented Bolt Measures Load In Two Ways  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bolt instrumented to allow both ultrasonic and strain-gauge measurements of tensile load in bolt during installation and use of bolt in structure. Bolt head design allows interface for ultrasonic transducer installed, while shallow chamfered circumferential groove on bolt shank contains four strain gauges at equal angular intervals wired as a full-bridge transducer.

Smith, D. E.; Melvick, G. R.; Klundt, T. J.; Everton, R. L.; Eggett, M.

1995-01-01

71

Noncontact Temperature Measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noncontact temperature measurement has been identified as one of the eight advanced technology development (ATD) areas to support the effort of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division in developing six Space Station flight experiment facilities. This two-day workshop was an opportunity for all six disciplines to present their requirements on noncontact temperature measurement and to discuss state-of-the-art developments. Multi-color pyrometry, laser pyrometry and radiometric imaging techniques are addressed.

Lee, Mark C. (editor)

1988-01-01

72

Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

Hagopian, John G.

2010-01-01

73

Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes technical progress during the program “Optical Fiber High Temperature Sensor Instrumentation for Energy Intensive Industries”, performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The objective of this program was to use technology recently invented at Virginia Tech to develop and demonstrate the application of self-calibrating optical fiber temperature and pressure sensors to several key energy-intensive industries where conventional, commercially available sensors exhibit greatly abbreviated lifetimes due primarily to environmental degradation. A number of significant technologies were developed under this program, including • a laser bonded silica high temperature fiber sensor with a high temperature capability up to 700°C and a frequency response up to 150 kHz, • the world’s smallest fiber Fabry-Perot high temperature pressure sensor (125 x 20 ?m) with 700°C capability, • UV-induced intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors for distributed measurement, • a single crystal sapphire fiber-based sensor with a temperature capability up to 1600°C. These technologies have been well demonstrated and laboratory tested. Our work plan included conducting major field tests of these technologies at EPRI, Corning, Pratt & Whitney, and Global Energy; field validation of the technology is critical to ensuring its usefulness to U.S. industries. Unfortunately, due to budget cuts, DOE was unable to follow through with its funding commitment to support Energy Efficiency Science Initiative projects and this final phase was eliminated.

Cooper, Kristie L.; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary R.

2006-11-14

74

Measuring halocarbons with the MIPAS instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halocarbons, such as CFC-11, CFC-12 and HCFC-22, are important trace constituents in the atmosphere through their role as greenhouse gases and their influence on stratospheric ozone chemistry. Previous stratospheric measurements of CFC-11 and CFC-12 have only been made from a limited number of satellite instruments, for example the Cryogen Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

D. P. Moore; A. M. Waterfall; J. J. Remedios

2004-01-01

75

Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

Dennis, B.R. (comp.)

1986-06-01

76

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2012-04-01

77

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2011-04-01

78

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2010-04-01

79

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2013-04-01

80

21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

2014-04-01

81

Raman temperature measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are examining the experimental trade-offs for the use of the spontaneous Raman Stokes/anti-Stokes intensity ratio as a fundamental temperature measurement at static and dynamic extreme conditions. The trade-off space includes spatial resolution and temperature range versus vibrational frequency, as well as heating of the sample and nonlinear damage caused by the excitation laser. The experiments are being performed under a range of experimental conditions from nanoseconds to seconds and from cryogenic (77 K) to elevated (ca. 1000 K) temperatures. The results are being compared to calculations for transparent metal oxide and polymer materials, with the aim to demonstrate their potential as temperature reporters when used as thin windows on opaque materials.

Moore, D. S.; McGrane, S. D.

2014-05-01

82

Rotor instrumentation study for high-temperature superconducting generators  

SciTech Connect

In FY 9195, ORNL carried out work on rotor instrumentation systems in support of the General Electric (GE) Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI) on Superconducting Generator Development. The objective was to develop a system for tramsitting data from sensors in the spinning rotor to a stationary data acquisition system. Previous work at ORNL had investigated an optical method of cryogenic temperature measurement using laser-induced fluorescence in certain phosphors. Later follow-up discussions with experts in the ORNL Engineering Technology Division indicated that this method could also be extended to measure strain and magnetic field. Another optical alternative using standard fiber optic transmission modules was also investigated. The equipment is very inexpensive, but needs to be adapted for operation in a high-g-force rotating environment. An optical analog of a commutator or slip ring also needs to be developed to couple the light signals from the rotor to the stationary frame. Sealed mercury-film rotary contacts are manufactured by Meridian Laboratory. Unlike conventional slipring assemblies, these offer low noise and long lifetime, with low costs per channel. Standard units may need some upgrading for 3600-rpm or high-voltage operation. A commercial electronic telemetry system offered by Wireless Data Corporation (WDC) was identified as a viable candidate, and information on this system was presented to GE. GE has since ordered two of these systems from WDC for temperature measurements in their rotating test cryostat.

Schwenterly, S.W.; Wilson, C.T.

1996-06-01

83

Measuring halocarbons with the MIPAS instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halocarbons, such as CFC-11, CFC-12 and HCFC-22, are important trace constituents in the atmosphere through their role as greenhouse gases and their influence on stratospheric ozone chemistry. Previous stratospheric measurements of CFC-11 and CFC-12 have only been made from a limited number of satellite instruments, for example the Cryogen Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). For HCFC-22, measurements are restricted to infrequent and sparse balloon and aircraft campaigns, giving poor spatial and temporal coverage. Improvements in the understanding of the vertical distributions of these halocarbons may be gained through the utilisation of the latest satellite remote sensing techniques. By using limb infrared sounding, spectrally resolving, instruments such as a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) it is possible to measure the infrared emission of radiation from trace gases and hence obtain atmospheric concentrations by inversion of the measured spectra. The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) onboard the ENVISAT satellite has been designed to measure spectra in the nominal altitude range (6-68 km) with global coverage every three days. The high spectral resolution of the MIPAS (0.025 cm-1 unapodised) offers the possibility of distinguishing spectral signatures of less abundant trace species from the densely packed spectral lines of the major constituent species such as CO_2 and H_2O. As a consequence, it may be possible to retrieve vertical profile information for these trace gases. The work presented here focuses on an initial study using optimal estimation techniques to retrieve vertical profile concentrations of the important halogen compounds CFC-11, CFC-12 and HCFC-22 from MIPAS level 1b spectral data. Validation of these retrievals has been made internally via tracer-tracer correlations with operational MIPAS data products and externally using datasets from other satellite and in-situ balloon measurements.

Moore, D. P.; Waterfall, A. M.; Remedios, J. J.

84

Measurement of proton momentum distributions using a direct geometry instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy Ei= 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO.

Senesi, R.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Andreani, C.

2014-12-01

85

Large Area Lunar Dust Flux Measurement Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The instrument under development is designed to characterize the flux and size distribution of the lunar micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta environment. When deployed on the lunar surface, the data collected will benefit fundamental lunar science as well as enabling more reliable impact risk assessments for human lunar exploration activities. To perform this task, the instrument requirements are demanding. It must have as large a surface area as possible to sample the very sparse population of the larger potentially damage-inducing micrometeorites. It must also have very high sensitivity to enable it to measure the flux of small (<10 micron) micrometeorite and secondary ejecta dust particles. To be delivered to the lunar surface, it must also be very low mass, rugged and stow compactly. The instrument designed to meet these requirements is called FOMIS. It is a large-area thin film under tension (i.e. a drum) with multiple fiber optic displacement (FOD) sensors to monitor displacements of the film. This sensor was chosen since it can measure displacements over a wide dynamic range: 1 cm to sub-Angstrom. A prototype system was successfully demonstrated using the hypervelocity impact test facility at the University of Kent (Canterbury, UK). Based on these results, the prototype system can detect hypervelocity (approx.5 km/s) impacts by particles as small as 2 microns diameter. Additional tests using slow speeds find that it can detect secondary ejecta particles (which do not penetrate the film) with momentums as small as 15 pico-gram 100m/s, or nominally 5 microns diameter at 100 m/s.

Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Burchell, M.; Stansbery, Eugene; Lagakos, N.

2009-01-01

86

Instrumentation for measuring speech privacy in rooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federal legislation pertaining to oral privacy in healthcare and financial services industries has increased the need for a convenient and economical way to document speech privacy conditions in offices, medical examination rooms, and certain other workspaces. This legislation is embodied in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA). Both laws require that reasonable measures be put in place to safeguard the oral privacy of patients and clients. While techniques for privacy documentation are known within the acoustical consulting community, it is unlikely that community alone has the capacity to provide the surveys needed to evaluate acoustical conditions and demonstrate compliance with the legislation. A portable computer with integrated soundboard and a suitable amplified loudspeaker and test microphone are all that are needed to perform in situ measurements of articulation index or other accepted indices of speech privacy. Along with modest training, such instrumentation allows technicians to survey a large number of sites economically. Cost-effective components are shown that can meet the requirements for testing in most common environments where oral privacy is likely to be required. Example cases are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of such instrumentation.

Horrall, Thomas; Pirn, Rein; Markham, Ben

2003-10-01

87

NCTM workshop splinter session, IR thermal measurement instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The splinter session dealing with commercial industrial thermal measurement state-of-the-hardware had a total attendance of 15. Two papers were presented in the splinter session as follows: (1) Development of an Infrared Imaging System for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment, Alexander D. Pline, NASA LeRC; (2) A Space-qualified PtSi Thermal Imaging System, Robert W. Astheimer, Barnes Engineering Div., EDO Corp. In addition a brief description of SPRITE detector technology was presented by Richard F. Leftwich of Magnovox. As anticipated, the discussions were concerned mainly with thermal imaging figures of merit rather than those for point measurement instruments. The need for uniform guidelines whereby infrared thermal imaging instruments could be specified and evaluated was identified as most important, particularly where temperature measurements are required. Presently there are differences in the way different manufacturers present significant performance parameters in their instrument data sheets. Furthermore, the prospective user has difficulty relating these parameters to actual measurement needs, and procedures by which performance can be verified are poorly defined. The current availability of powerful thermal imaging diagnostic software was discussed.

Kaplan, Herbert

1989-01-01

88

Introducing Temperature Measurement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn how to read a Celsius-scale thermometer, associate weather conditions and seasons with Celsius temperature ranges, and keep a record of temperature. Students will read the Celsius temperature each day and discuss how given temperatures "feel". They record the temperature by using a string of beads and a chart.

89

High Voltage Cathode Temperature Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of making accurate measurement of temperature of a high voltage cathode in an emission microscope is discussed. Temperatures to 1300°C with voltages to 50 kV were measured within approximately ±5°C. Radiation sensing measurement schemes were dismissed, primarily on the basis of limited accuracy due to emissivity variations. In the developed system the entire temperature measurement and control system

R. L. Forgacs; B. A. Parafin; E. Eichen

1965-01-01

90

Nulling Infrared Radiometer for Measuring Temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nulling, self-calibrating infrared radiometer is being developed for use in noncontact measurement of temperature in any of a variety of industrial and scientific applications. This instrument is expected to be especially well-suited to measurement of ambient or near-ambient temperature and, even more specifically, for measuring the surface temperature of a natural body of water. Although this radiometer would utilize the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) portion of the spectrum (wavelengths of 8 to 12 m), its basic principle of operation could also be applied to other spectral bands (corresponding to other temperature ranges) in which the atmosphere is transparent and in which design requirements for sensitivity and temperature-measurement accuracy could be satisfied.

Ryan, Robert

2003-01-01

91

46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring devices. (a) Each cargo tank must have devices that measure the...

2010-10-01

92

Thin film stress measurement by instrumented optical fibre displacement sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual stress can adversely affect the mechanical, electronic, optical and magnetic properties of thin films. This work describes a simple stress measurement instrument based on the bending beam method together with a sensitive non-contact fibre optical displacement sensor. The fibre optical displacement sensor is interfaced to a computer and a Labview programme enables film stress to be determined from changes in the radius of curvature of the film-substrate system. The stress measurement instrument was tested for two different kinds of thin film, hard amorphous carbon nitride (CN) and soft copper (Cu) films on silicon substrates deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. Residual stress developed in 500 nm thick CN thin films deposited at substrate temperatures in the range 50-550 °C was examined and it was found that stress in CN films decreased from 0.83 to 0.44 GPa compressive with increase of substrate temperature. Residual stress was found to be tensile (121 MPa) for Cu films of thickness 1500 nm deposited at room temperature.

Chowdhury, S.; Laugier, M. T.

2007-02-01

93

Sourcebook on high-temperature electronics and instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

This sourcebook summarizes the high-temperature characteristics of a number of commercially available electronic components and materials required in geothermal well-logging instruments that must operate to 275/sup 0/C. The sourcebook is written to provide a starting place for instrument designers, who need to know the high-temperature electronic products that are available and the design and performance limitations of these products. The electronic component information given includes the standard repertoire of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors, and magnetics; the active devices and integrated circuits sections emphasize silicon semiconductor JFETs and CMOS circuits; and, to complete the electronics, interconnections and packaging of hybrid microelectronics are described. Thermal insulation and refrigeration alternatives are also presented in the sourcebook. Finally, instrument housing materials and high-temperature cables and cablehead connectors are listed. This information was compiled as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program that Sandia National Laboratories conducted for the US Department of Energy's Divison of Geothermal Energy from 1976 to 1981.

Veneruso, A.F. (ed.)

1981-10-01

94

Hydrazine engine plume contamination mapping. [measuring instruments for rocket exhaust from liquid propellant rocket engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumentation for the measurement of plume exhaust specie deposition rates were developed and demonstrated. The instruments, two sets of quartz crystal microbalances, were designed for low temperature operation in the back flow and variable temperature operation in the core flow regions of an exhaust plume. These quartz crystal microbalances performed nominally, and measurements of exhaust specie deposition rates for 8400 number of pulses for a 0.1-lb monopropellant thruster are reported.

Chirivella, J. E.

1975-01-01

95

SCATTR: an instrument for measuring shopping centre attractiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focuses upon shopping centre developments through joint venture enterprises. By adapting the process proposed by Churchill to develop measures of marketing constructs, an instrument to assess perceived attractiveness of joint venture shopping centres in China is formulated. The proposed instrument (SCATTR) contains 21 attributes in five dimensions and exhibits high internal consistency and validity. The purpose of this instrument is

Grace Khei Mie Wong; Yu Lu; Lim Lan Yuan

2001-01-01

96

From Room Instrumentation to Device Instrumentation: Assessing an Inertial Measurement Unit for Spatial  

E-print Network

results that suggest measurements provided by an IMU do not provide value over sensor fusion techniques presented, is related to the choice of tracking sensors that can provide spatial awareness in MSEFrom Room Instrumentation to Device Instrumentation: Assessing an Inertial Measurement Unit

Maurer, Frank

97

Instrumentation of sampling aircraft for measurement of launch vehicle effluents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obtaining valid airborne measurements. Discussions of the data acquisition system used, the instrument power system, and operational sampling procedures are included. Representative measurements obtained from an actual rocket launch monitoring activity are also presented.

Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Tyson, R. W.

1977-01-01

98

46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154...Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked...

2012-10-01

99

46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154...Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked...

2011-10-01

100

46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154...Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked...

2013-10-01

101

46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154...Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each...154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked...

2014-10-01

102

Analysis of a precise instrument for measuring reference level involute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reference level involute is used for evaluating other involutes, but it is very difficult to measure reference level involute exactly. Nowadays the available methods for measuring precise involute include single base disc mode, electronic generation mode, and CNC three-coordinate mode. But measurement accuracy of the modes above is not suitable for reference level involute. A precise instrument for measuring reference level involute, double base discs instrument, is introduced. It is consistent with generation principle of the involute entirely. Besides having the advantages of single basic disc instrument, the instrument can remove Abbe error caused by the stylus, and has no pressure deforming. The instrument's structure is described. The main sources of measurement errors are analyzed and methods for compensation are presented. Finally, uncertainty of the instrument is given, which meets reference level involute test specification.

Lou, Zhifeng; Wang, Liding; Wang, Xiaodong; Ma, Yong; Zhang, Yuling

2006-11-01

103

Regression based characterization of color measurement instruments in printing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of print quality and process control colorimetric parameters and tolerance values are clearly defined. Calibration procedures are well defined for color measurement instruments in printing workflows. Still, using more than one color measurement instrument measuring the same color wedge can produce clearly different results due to random and systematic errors of the instruments. In certain situations where one instrument gives values which are just inside the given tolerances and another measurement instrument produces values which exceed the predefined tolerance parameters, the question arises whether the print or proof is approved or not accepted with regards to the standard parameters. The aim of this paper was to determine an appropriate model to characterize color measurement instruments for printing applications in order to improve the colorimetric performance and hence the inter-instrument agreement. The method proposed is derived from color image acquisition device characterization methods which have been applied by performing polynomial regression with a least square technique. Six commercial color measurement instruments were used for measuring color patches of a control color wedge on three different types of paper substrates. The characterization functions were derived using least square polynomial regression, based on the training set of 14 BCRA tiles colorimetric reference values and the corresponding colorimetric measurements obtained by the measurement instruments. The derived functions were then used to correct the colorimetric values of test sets of 46 measurements of the color control wedge patches. The corrected measurement results obtained from the applied regression model was then used as the starting point with which the corrected measurements from other instruments were compared to find the most appropriate polynomial, which results in the least color difference. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed regression method works remarkably well with a range of different color measurement instruments used on three types of substrates. Finally, by extending the training set from 14 samples to 38 samples the obtained results clearly indicate that the model is robust.

Nussbaum, Peter; Hardeberg, Jon Y.; Albregtsen, Fritz

2011-01-01

104

Measuring Soil Temperature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil temperature is a critical factor in the germination and early growth of many crops including corn, cotton, small grains, and vegetable crops. Soil temperature strongly influences the rate of critical biological reactions in the soil such as the rates of nitrification and microbial respiration. ...

105

On Estimating Precision of Measuring Instruments and Product Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measurement or observed value is discussed as the sum of two components—one the absolute value of the characteristic measured and the other an error of measurement. The variation in absolute values of the characteristic or items measured is termed product variability, whereas the variation in errors of measurement of an instrument is called the precision or reproducibility of measurement.

Frank E. Grubbs

1948-01-01

106

21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

2010-04-01

107

21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

2011-04-01

108

21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

2012-04-01

109

21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

2014-04-01

110

21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses, prisms, and their centers (e.g., lensometer). (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is...

2013-04-01

111

High temperature adsorption measurements  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

1996-01-24

112

Measured spacecraft instrument and structural interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of flight data from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite shows that the solar-disk tracking sub- system within the Halogen Occultation Experiment responds to and completely accommodates cyclic disturbances from the spacecraft solar-array vibration and continuous scanning motions by the High-Resolution Doppler Im- ager instrument. A fine sun sensor within the Halogen Occultation Experiment senses the top egde of the

Ansel J. Butterfield

1996-01-01

113

Measuring Temperature: The Thermometer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the historical development of the thermometer with the view of helping children understand the role that mathematics plays in society. A model thermometer that is divided into three sections, each displaying one of the three temperature scales used today (Fahrenheit, Celsius and Kelvin) is highlighted as a project to allow…

Chamoun, Mirvette

2005-01-01

114

Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility  

SciTech Connect

Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the undulators to {+-}0.01 C. This note describes the temperature measurement system under construction.

Wolf, Zachary

2010-12-13

115

Instrument for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at high pressures  

SciTech Connect

An instrument has been developed for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements at high pressures and low temperatures. This instrument couples a nonmagnetic copper-beryllium diamond anvil cell featuring perforated diamonds with a helium flow cryostat and an electromagnet. The applied pressure can be controlled in situ using a gas membrane and calibrated using Cu K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The performance of this instrument was tested by measuring the XMCD spectra of the Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} giant magnetocaloric material.

Haskel, D.; Tseng, Y. C.; Lang, J. C.; Sinogeikin, S. [Magnetic Materials Group, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, lllinois 60439 (United States); HPCAT, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, lllinois 60439 (United States)

2007-08-15

116

Instruments for measuring the amount of moisture in the air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summarization and discussion of the many systems available for measuring moisture in the atmosphere is presented. Conventional methods used in the field of meteorology and methods used in the laboratory are discussed. Performance accuracies, and response of the instruments were reviewed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. Methods of measuring humidity aloft by instrumentation onboard aircraft and balloons are given, in addition to the methods used to measure moisture at the Earth's surface.

Johnson, D. L.

1978-01-01

117

An Analysis of Several Instruments Measuring "Nature of Science" Objectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is an investigation of the relationship among three selected instruments based on the responses of a sample of high school students. The instruments were the Nature of Science Scale (NOSS), the Science Support Scale (SSS), and the Test on the Social Aspects of Science (TSAS). All purport to measure "nature of science" objectives. (PEB)

Doran, Rodney L.; And Others

1974-01-01

118

Measuring transient high temperature thermal phenomena in hostile environment  

SciTech Connect

The design of equipment for measuring temperature and strain in a rapidly heated and pressurized cylinder of stainless steel is discussed. Simultaneous cinematography of the full circumference of the cylinder without interference with temperature and strain measurements is also illustrated. The integrated system uses a reflective chamber for the sample and requires careful consideration of the spectral energy distribution utilized by each instrument.

Brenden, B.B.; Hartman, J.S.; Reich, F.R.

1980-01-01

119

Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments.

Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

2014-04-01

120

Measuring management training. Two new instruments.  

PubMed

Seeks to enhance the measurement of training; describes the development of psychometrically sound and practical measures to assess outcomes relating to in-service management training within a National Health Service District. Develops legitimate measurement tools and demonstrates the positive effects of two specific programmes in relation to behavioural change and participant satisfaction. Further work is required to establish how to monitor the effects of the action learning process in terms of cognitive development. PMID:10131725

Newman, S; Milne, D

1993-01-01

121

Accuracy, Precision, and Resolution in Strain Measurements on Diffraction Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffraction stress analysis is a commonly used technique to evaluate the properties and performance of different classes of materials from engineering materials, such as steels and alloys, to electronic materials like Silicon chips. Often to better understand the performance of these materials at operating conditions they are also commonly subjected to elevated temperatures and different loading conditions. The validity of any measurement under these conditions is only as good as the control of the conditions and the accuracy and precision of the instrument being used to measure the properties. What is the accuracy and precision of a typical diffraction system and what is the best way to evaluate these quantities? Is there a way to remove systematic and random errors in the data that are due to problems with the control system used? With the advent of device engineering employing internal stress as a method for increasing performance the measurement of stress from microelectronic structures has become of enhanced importance. X-ray diffraction provides an ideal method for measuring these small areas without the need for modifying the sample and possibly changing the strain state. Micro and nano diffraction experiments on Silicon-on-Insulator samples revealed changes to the material under investigation and raised significant concerns about the usefulness of these techniques. This damage process and the application of micro and nano diffraction is discussed.

Polvino, Sean M.

122

Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.

Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

1986-01-01

123

Universal interface enables one recorder to serve numerous measuring instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circuit handles data, regardless of polarity and amplitude, in 10-line decimal form or in any form of binary coded decimal. When measuring instruments have common chassis grounds, Zener diodes prevent low-leak circulating currents from unbalancing the circuit.

Donlin, N. E.

1971-01-01

124

LEDA beam diagnostics instrumentation: Beam current measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7 MeV and current of 100 mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Two types of current measurements are used. The first is an AC or pulsed-current measurement which uses three LANL built toroids. They are placed in the beamline in such a way as to measure important transmission parameters and act as a differential current-loss machine protection system. The second system is a DC current measurement used to measure cw beam characteristics and uses toroids from Bergoz Inc. There are two of these systems, so they can also be used for transmission measurements. The AC system uses custom processing electronics whereas the DC system uses a modified Bergoz® electronics system. Both systems feature data acquisition via a series of custom TMS320C40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of these systems, the calibration technique, the differential current loss measurements and fast-protection processing, current droop characteristics for the AC system, and existing system noise levels. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

Barr, D.; Day, L.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Kasemir, K.-U.; Martinez, D.; Power, J. F.; Shurter, R.; Stettler, M.

2000-11-01

125

IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference  

E-print Network

gives an overview of the state-of-the-art measurement solutions for the abovefields. Kevwords - lossy. First of all, TDR is instinctive. While [5] gave the imaginary values of the characteristic impedance

Swaminathan, Madhavan

126

Easy-to-use blood velocity measurement instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new kind of clinical instrument designed to allow non-specialists to quantitatively measure blood velocity. The instrument's design utilizes vector continuous-wave (CW) Doppler. Vector CW Doppler insonates a volume with simultaneous multiple-angle beams that define a measurement region; within that region, the velocity vector of the blood can be measured independently of the probe orientation. By eliminating the need for simultaneous imaging and the specially trained technician required for the complicated instrument needed for such imaging, easy and inexpensive blood velocity measurements becomes possible. A prototype for a CW vector Doppler instrument has been used to measure blood velocity in several clinically important arteries: the radial and ulnar in the arm, the femoral in the leg, and the carotid in the neck. We report here on its first clinical use -- monitoring the flow in dialysis access grafts to prevent graft thrombosis. These early clinical results show accuracy and rapid learning of proper instrument use. The design approach presented shows much promise in creating instruments that will provide simple and low-cost-of-use procedures for measurement of blood velocity.

Vilkomerson, David H. R.; Chilipka, Thomas

2003-05-01

127

Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. These types of measurements are used in computer models to relate remotely sensed water-surface temperature to bulkwater temperature. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured.

Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

2003-01-01

128

Modelling Electrostatic Sheath Effects on Swarm Electric Field Instrument Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electric Field Instrument (EFI) was designed to measure ionospheric ion flow velocities, temperatures and distribution functions at the ram face of the European Space Agency’s Swarm spacecraft. These flow velocities, combined with the known orbital velocity of the satellite and local magnetic field, will be used to infer local electric fields from the relation E=- v× B. EFI is among a class of many particle sensors and flow meters mounted on satellites to monitor in situ plasma conditions. The interpretation of the measurements made with EFI and similar sensors relies on a spacecraft sheath model. A common approach, valid in the relatively cold and dense ionospheric plasma, is to assume a potential drop in a thin sheath through which particle deflection and energisation can be calculated analytically. In such models, sheath effects only depend on the spacecraft floating potential, and on the angle of incidence of particles with respect to the normal to the surface. Corrections to measurements are therefore local as they do not depend on the geometry of nearby objects. In an actual plasma, satellites are surrounded by electrostatic sheaths with a finite thickness. As a result, local corrections to particle distribution functions can only be seen as an approximation. A correct interpretation of measured particle fluxes or particle distribution functions must, at least in principle, account for the extent and shape of the sheath in the vicinity of the measuring instrument. This in turn requires a careful analysis of the interaction of the satellite with the surrounding plasma, while accounting for detailed aspects of the geometry, as well as for several physical effects. In this paper, the validity of the thin sheath model is tested by comparing its predictions with detailed PIC (Particle In Cell) calculations of satellite-plasma interaction. Deviations attributed to sheath finite thickness effects are calculated for EFI measurements, with representative plasma parameters encountered along the planned Swarm orbit. Finite thickness effects of the plasma sheaths are found to induce EFI velocity measurement errors not exceeding 37 m/s, with larger errors occurring in plasmas that are simultaneously tenuous (109 m-3 or lower) and warm (0.5 eV or higher).

Marchand, R.; Burchill, J. K.; Knudsen, D. J.

2010-10-01

129

Device for self-verifying temperature measurement and control  

DOEpatents

A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

2004-08-03

130

Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing  

SciTech Connect

The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

Myers, D.

1997-04-01

131

Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation: Development of a Measurement Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a measurement instrument for individual entrepreneurial orientation to be used to measure the entrepreneurial orientation of students and other individuals. Design/methodology/approach: A measure of Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation (IEO) was generated, validated, and then tested on 1,100…

Bolton, Dawn Langkamp; Lane, Michelle D.

2012-01-01

132

IMTC 2005 Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference  

E-print Network

of an erroneous sensor. The method was tested on simulated and experimental data of Electrical Impedance Detection of unreliable measurements in multi-sensor devices Yednek Asfaw, Andy Adler yasfaw. This paper presents an automatic approach to detect such erroneous sensors. It is based on the assumption

Adler, Andy

133

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...locomotive 0 1 Amount of correction to be subtracted from measured level (dB). (b) A microphone windscreen and an acoustic calibrator of the coupler type must be used as recommended by: (1) the manufacturer of the sound level meter or (2) the...

2010-07-01

134

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...locomotive 0 1 Amount of correction to be subtracted from measured level (dB). (b) A microphone windscreen and an acoustic calibrator of the coupler type must be used as recommended by: (1) the manufacturer of the sound level meter or (2) the...

2011-07-01

135

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...locomotive 0 1 Amount of correction to be subtracted from measured level (dB). (b) A microphone windscreen and an acoustic calibrator of the coupler type must be used as recommended by: (1) the manufacturer of the sound level meter or (2) the...

2012-07-01

136

40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...locomotive 0 1 Amount of correction to be subtracted from measured level (dB). (b) A microphone windscreen and an acoustic calibrator of the coupler type must be used as recommended by: (1) the manufacturer of the sound level meter or (2) the...

2013-07-01

137

METHODOLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION TO MEASURE GASEOUS AMMONIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Methodology for the time integrated collection and analysis of atmospheric ammonia was developed. Ammonia is primarily measured because it can react with SOx to produce ammonium sulfate. Since SOx is one of the principle air pollutants, it is important to determine its atmospheri...

138

Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement  

DOEpatents

A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

2005-11-08

139

An instrumented sample holder for time-lapse microtomography measurements of snow under advective airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrumented sample holder was developed for time-lapse microtomography of snow samples to enable in situ nondestructive spatial and temporal measurements under controlled advective airflows, temperature gradients, and air humidities. The design was aided by computational fluid dynamics simulations to evaluate the airflow uniformity across the snow sample. Morphological and mass transport properties were evaluated during a 4-day test run. This instrument allows the experimental characterization of metamorphism of snow undergoing structural changes with time.

Ebner, P. P.; Grimm, S. A.; Schneebeli, M.; Steinfeld, A.

2014-09-01

140

Room-temperature phosphorescence fiber-optic instrumentation for simultaneous multiposition analysis of dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and analytical characterization of a fiber-optic instrument for simultaneous multiposition water-dissolved oxygen monitoring by room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) measurements is presented. The sensing principle is based on the RTP quenching by oxygen of the phosphorescent light emitted by the metal chelate formed by Al with 8-hydroxy-7-iodo-5-quinolinesulfonic acid (Al-ferron) trapped in a sol–gel solid support. Four RTP oxygen sensor flow-cells

Juan D??az-Garc??a; José M Costa-Fernández; Nerea Bordel-Garc??a; Alfredo Sanz-Medel

2001-01-01

141

Optical Fiber Strain Instrumentation for High Temperature Aerospace Structural Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the program is the development and laboratory demonstration of sensors based on silica optical fibers for measurement of high temperature strain for aerospace materials evaluations. A complete fiber strain sensor system based on white-light interferometry was designed and implemented. An experiment set-up was constructed to permit testing of strain measurement up to 850 C. The strain is created by bending an alumina cantilever beam to which is the fiber sensor is attached. The strain calibration is provided by the application of known beam deflections. To ensure the high temperature operation capability of the sensor, gold-coated single-mode fiber is used. Moreover, a new method of sensor surface attachment which permits accurate sensor gage length determination is also developed. Excellent results were obtained at temperatures up to 800-850 C.

Wang, A.

2002-01-01

142

Microwave radiometer for subsurface temperature measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A UHF radiometer, operating at a frequency of 800 MHz, was modified to provide an integral, three frequency voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) circuit in the radio frequency (RF) head. The VSWR circuit provides readings of power transmission at the antenna-material interface with an accuracy of plus or minus 5 percent. The power transmission readings are numerically equal to the emissivity of the material under observation. Knowledge of material emissivity is useful in the interpretation of subsurface apparent temperatures obtained on phantom models of biological tissue. The emissivities of phantom models consisting of lean beefsteak were found to lie in the range 0.623 to 0.779, depending on moisture content. Radiometric measurements performed on instrumented phantoms showed that the radiometer was capable of sensing small temperature changes occurring at depths of at least 19 to 30 mm. This is consistent with previously generated data which showed that the radiometer could sense temperatures at a depth of 38 mm.

Porter, R. A.; Bechis, K. P.

1976-01-01

143

Supercontiuum laser-based instrument to measure hyperspectral polarized BRDF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments of active imaging and remote sensing systems in security and defence community require comprehensive optical characterizations of man-made targets. Optical signature analysis of various targets implies a better and comprehensive understanding of reflectance properties such as Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR). Measurements and modeling of optical signatures are valuable for target classification and identification. Onera, the French Aerospace Lab, has developed an original optical instrument to measure hyperspectral polarized BRDF. Measurements are carried out on various targets to provide relevant data to simulate actual and future active imaging devices. This paper reviews the design of the instrument and its hyperspectral calibration procedure in details. A new specific tensorial hyperspectral reflectance framework is introduced. Experimental results for reference Lambertian targets and airport targets are presented to illustrate the instrument capacities. A large optical properties database is build from these measurements for defence, security and industrial needs.

Ceolato, Romain; Rivière, Nicolas; Hespel, Laurent; Biscans, Beatrice

2011-11-01

144

Analysis of wind profile measurements from an instrumented aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental program to determine the capability of measuring wind profiles on support of STS operations with an instrumented aircraft are discussed. These results are a compilation of the flight experiments and the statistical data comparing the quality of the aircraft measurements with quasi-simultaneous and quasi-spatial overlapping Jimsphere measurements. An instrumented aircraft was chosen as a potential alternative to the Jimsphere/radar system for expediting the wind profile calculation by virtue of the ability of an aircraft to traverse the altitudes of interest in roughly 10 minutes. The two aircraft which participated in the study were F-104 and ER-2.

Paige, Terry S.; Murphy, Patrick J.

1990-01-01

145

BETA GAUGE INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF AEROSOL MASS  

EPA Science Inventory

An instrument developed by LBL for the routine measurement of aerosol mass using the beta-gauge particle attenuation method is described and evaluated. Factors affecting the precision and accuracy of the measurement are discussed in detail. Results of intercomparison studies betw...

146

An Assessment Instrument to Measure Geospatial Thinking Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spatial thinking is fundamental to the practice and theory of geography, however there are few valid and reliable assessment methods in geography to measure student performance in spatial thinking. This article presents the development and evaluation of a geospatial thinking assessment instrument to measure participant understanding of spatial…

Huynh, Niem Tu; Sharpe, Bob

2013-01-01

147

Direct Three-Dimensional Measurement With The Reflex Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two instruments are described which are used for three dimensional measurement of stationary objects. Available computer software for the equipment is discussed. It is designed to run on an IBM Personal Computer and allows the user to specify his own measuring requirements from a library of standard routines. Applications to research in dentistry, medicine and anthropology are also discussed.

Scott, P. J.

1986-07-01

148

HIGH ACCURACY TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS USING RTD'S WITH CURRENT LOOP CONDITIONING  

Microsoft Academic Search

To measure temperatures with a greater degree of accuracy than is possible with thermocouples, RTD's (resistive temperature detectors) are typically used. Calibration standards use specialized high precision RTD probes with accuracies approaching 0.001 °F. These are extremely delicate devices, and far too costly to be used in test facility instrumentation. Less costly sensors which are designed for aeronautical wind tunnel

Gerald M. Hill

149

Mid-Latitude Temperatures at 87 km: Results From Multi-Instrument Fourier Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a novel Fourier fitting method we combine two years of mid-latitude temperature measurements at 87 km from the High Resolution Doppler Imager, the Colorado State University lidar, and the Peach Mountain Interferometer. After accounting for calibration bias, significant local-time variations on the order of 10 K were observed. Stationary planetary waves with amplitudes up to 10 K were observed during winter, with weaker wave amplitudes occurring during other seasons. Because of calibration biases among these instruments, we could estimate the annual mean temperature to no better than 193.5 plus or minus 8.5 K.

Drob, Douglas P.; Picone, J. M.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; She, C . Y.; Kafkalidis, J. F.; Ortland, D. A.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Killeen, T. L.

2000-01-01

150

Method for measuring surface temperature  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-07-28

151

Laser-induced fluorescence instrument for measuring atmospheric SO 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of a high-sensitive detection system for measuring atmospheric SO 2 using a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique at around 220 nm. Second harmonics of a tunable broad-band optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by the third harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser is used as a fluorescence excitation source. The laser wavelength is alternatively tuned to the peak and the bottom wavelengths in the photoabsorption spectrum of SO 2 at 220.6 and 220.2 nm, respectively, and the difference signal at the two wavelengths is used to extract the SO 2 concentration. This procedure can give a good selectivity for SO 2 and avoid interferences of fluorescent or particulate species other than SO 2 in the sample air. The SO 2 instrument developed has a sensitivity of 5 pptv in 60 s and S/N=2. The practical performance of the detection system is tested in the suburban area. The inter-comparisons between the LIF instrument and a commercial instrument using Xe flash lamp excitation for the fluorescence detection have been performed. The correlation between two instruments is measured up to 70 ppbv. A good linear relationship between the LIF measurements and commercial instrument measurements is obtained.

Matsumi, Yutaka; Shigemori, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kenshi

152

Measuring auroral precipitation parameters without in situ microchannel plate instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in groundbased detector technology have resulted in accurate, high-sensitivity, emission-line filtered images of aurora with sub- to a few- km resolution over a few 100 km region collected at a few second to a few Hz cadence. By combining these images with information from other groundbased instrumentation (ISR, remote photometers, and FPIs) and using well-documented empirical relationships between intensity and precipitating electron characteristics, these images hold the potential for providing an accurate, mesoscale, 2-D time history of the key parameters (characteristic energy and energy flux) of the precipitating electrons that caused the optical aurora within the imager's field of view. In situ measurements can be more accurate, but they are limited to highly localized 1-D line trajectories and are of limited use for meso-scale modeling. However, a limitation of the groundbased technique is that subvisual (low energy) precipitation is not captured. Onboard measurements of total number flux provide low resource measurements capturing specific boundary crossings and gradients as well as net precipitation including the portion not observed optically. The combination of minimal onboard instrumentation supplementing rigorous groundbased inversions can provide an optimal set of inputs for ionospheric modelling tools. Thus we are investigating the capabilities and limitations of using inversions of groundbased observations in the place of in situ precipitation monitors. While several inversion techniques are possible we will discuss two methods used in the analysis of recent rocket experiments. The first, used for the Cascades2 rocket, compares measured altitude profiles of auroral emissions to those from a 1-D electron transport code to confirm optically that two arcs transited by the rocket were produced by significantly different electron spectra. The second method, for the MICA rocket, uses the 2-D temperature maps from the Scanning Doppler Imager to estimate the altitude of the peak emission height of the auroral green line emission and thereby the precipitating electron characteristic energy. For MICA we will also show how the first (C2) method was used to validate the 2-D regional precipitation maps. We will also discuss the limitations and expected error sources of these techniques. The use of minimal onboard observations (for instance, integrated number flux) for detailed boundaries and calibration, supporting 2d-with-time groundbased inversions, can provide better overall ionospheric model input than higher-resource detailed instrumentation on a single 1-d trajectory. The groundbased information provides 2-d and continuous-time context, which can be usefully supplemented by limited onboard measurements providing local gradient and boundary information. The groundbased data provide additional valuable information of auroral morphology in a qualitative way and we build on what we already know from decades of auroral observations to provide an optimal set of input to ionospheric modelling tools.

Lynch, K. A.; Hampton, D. L.; Zettergren, M. D.; Conde, M.; Lessard, M.; Michell, R.; Samara, M.

2013-12-01

153

Use of CRISTA mesopause region temperatures for the intercalibration of ground-based instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most available ground-based (GB) techniques for measuring temperatures in the upper mesosphere to lower thermosphere (or mesopause region) have systematic errors that are comparable to those of orbiting instruments. Determining these unknown biasses would normally require colocated observations that are only seldom feasible. Satellite measurements can be used as a “transfer standard” between GB observations that are not colocated. In this context, even with a reproducible or known bias in the satellite data, the comparison is still meaningful. Since Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) temperatures cover the mesopause region with very good accuracy (statistical errors do not exceed 1.5 K and systematic uncertainties range from about 3 7.5 K), they are quite suitable for this purpose. Because of the nearly constant precision over the height range of interest, also rotational temperatures of airglow emissions from different altitudes like the OH and O2 bands (or the OI 558 nm line) can be successfully compared with each other. In spite of the limited number of overpasses during the relatively short CRISTA missions, the feasibility of such an intercalibration is demonstrated for widely separated GB sites. Here, the results obtained for GB measurements at eight different sites, using CRISTA-1 and CRISTA-2 data, are presented. For OH temperatures, the standard deviation between the different instruments is only 5.4 K, confirming previous estimates.

Scheer, J.; Reisin, E. R.; Gusev, O. A.; French, W. J. R.; Hernandez, G.; Huppi, R.; Ammosov, P.; Gavrilyeva, G. A.; Offermann, D.

2006-10-01

154

Cloud Physics Lidar: Instrument Description and Initial Measurement Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) is a new custom-built instrument for the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The CPL can provide multiwavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. Its state-of-the-art technology gives it a high repetition rate, and photon-counting detection, and includes a low-pulse-energy laser. The CPL was first deployed at the Southern African Regional Science Initiative's 2000 field campaign during August and September 2000. This paper provides an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Scott, V. Stanley; Spinhirne, James; Schmid, Beat

2002-01-01

155

Optimizing a remote sensing instrument to measure atmospheric surface pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric surface pressure can be remotely sensed from a satellite by an active instrument which measures return echoes from the ocean at frequencies near the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band. The instrument is optimized by selecting its frequencies of operation, transmitter powers and antenna size through a new procedure baesd on numerical simulation which maximizes the retrieval accuracy. The predicted standard deviation error in the retrieved surface pressure is 1 mb. In addition the measurements can be used to retrieve water vapor, cloud liquid water and sea state, which is related to wind speed.

Peckham, G. E.; Gatley, C.; Flower, D. A.

1983-01-01

156

Wind measurement systems and wind tunnel evaluation of selected instruments  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has conducted wind tunnel tests of seven relatively inexpensive wind measurement systems as part of a program to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of instruments for use in small wind energy conversion system siting studies. This report discusses wind measurement systems and documents the results of the wind tunnel studies. Documentation consists of graphs and tables relating system and system component performance to wind speed. The results describe instrument system performance under ideal conditions; tests in the atmosphere are required to evaluate performance under realistic conditions.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Wetzel, J.S.

1981-05-01

157

ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 6: Flow measurement instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary is provided of information available on liquid and gaseous oxygen flowmetering including an evaluation of commercial meters. The instrument types, physical principles of measurement, and performance characteristics are described. Problems concerning flow measurements of less than plus or minus two percent uncertainty are reviewed. Recommendations concerning work on flow reference systems, the use of surrogate fluids, and standard tests for oxygen flow measurements are also presented.

Mann, D. B.

1974-01-01

158

Automatic detection computer-based (ADCob) system for temperature measurement calibration of RTD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of the temperature measurement calibration in industry which consume a long process creates a chance that errors in the measurement influence the decision. The need of uncertainty analysis via virtual instrument is to provide a better measurement of that influence and likelihood of presented a wrong decision. Using the temperature calibration instrument, the purpose of this paper is

Najidah Hambali; Shahrizal Saat; Mohd Syakirin Ramli; Mustaqim Hazmi

2011-01-01

159

A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries  

E-print Network

An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry ...

Gardner, Alan T.

160

Optical aberrations measurement with a low cost optometric instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple experimental method for measuring optical aberrations of a single lens is proposed. The technique is based on the use of an optometric instrument employed for the assessment of the refractive state of the eye: the retinoscope. Experimental results for spherical aberration and astigmatism are obtained.

Furlan, Walter D.; Muñoz-Escrivá, L.; Pons, A.; Martínez-Corral, M.

2002-08-01

161

Semiconductor laser-based ranging instrument for earth gravity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser ranging instrument is being developed to measure the spatial variations in the Earth's gravity field. It will range in space to a cube corner on a passive co-orbiting sub-satellite with a velocity accuracy of 20 to 50 microns/sec by using AlGaAs lasers intensity modulated at 2 GHz.

Abshire, James B.; Millar, Pamela S.; Sun, Xiaoli

1995-01-01

162

Measuring Small Changes In Aim Of An Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optoelectronic system measures small changes in direction of line of sight of instrument. Optical point source and lens mounted on x-ray telescope in reverse configuration - as projector. Magnified relative lateral motion of point source and lens imaged on position-sensing photodetector.

Arenberg, Jonathan W.; Texter, Scott C.

1993-01-01

163

Measuring formation properties through well casing with pulsed neutron instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring formation properties through well casing with pulsed neutron instrumentation In the process of developing an oil or gas reservoir, the exploration team first confirms the existence of a potential reservoir with a discovery well. Then the size, content, and character of the reservoir are mapped with roughly six to twelve delineation wells. From this information the development team plans

Darryl Trcka

2010-01-01

164

Concept Acquisition and Confidence Using a Spatial Probability Measure Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional strategies for teaching concepts have long been identified. Less commonly studied is a learner's level of confidence and certitude in their knowledge based upon exposure to these instructional treatments. This experimental research study used an instrument referred to as the Spatial Probability Measure (SPM) to solicit levels of…

Moore, David Richard

2007-01-01

165

Improved Measurement of Coherence in Presence of Instrument Noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for correcting measured coherence spectra for the effect of incoherent instrument noise has been developed and demonstrated. Coherence measurements are widely used in engineering and science to determine the extent to which two signals are alike. The signals may come from two different sources or from the same source at different times. The coherence of time-lagged signals from a single source is an excellent indication of the effective lifetime of the signal components as a function of their frequency. Unfortunately, incoherent instrument noise will bias the measurement to lower values and may lead the user of the data to false conclusions about the longevity of significant features. The new method may be used whenever both the signal and noise power spectra are known and the noise is incoherent both with the signal and with itself at the applicable time delays. It provides a corrected coherence spectrum given the measured coherence and power spectra. For powerlaw signal spectra and instrumental white noise, the correction formula takes a particularly simple and explicit form. Since many geophysical signals exhibit powerlaw behavior and most instrument noise spectra approach white noise, the simplified form should be widely applicable in meteorology, oceanography, geology, and planetary geophysics.

Merceret, Francis J.

2003-01-01

166

Fabrication and Testing of Viscosity Measuring Instrument (Viscometer)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the fabrication and testing of a simple and portable viscometer for the measurement of bulk viscosity of different Newtonian fluids. It is aimed at making available the instrument in local markets and consequently reducing or eliminating the prohibitive cost of importation. The method employed is the use of a D.C motor to rotate a disc having holes

A. B. Hassan; M. S. Abolarin; A. Nasir; S. G. Mshelia

167

The Design of a Chemical Virtual Instrument Based on LabVIEW for Determining Temperatures and Pressures  

PubMed Central

A LabVIEW-based self-constructed chemical virtual instrument (VI) has been developed for determining temperatures and pressures. It can be put together easily and quickly by selecting hardware modules, such as the PCI-DAQ card or serial port method, different kinds of sensors, signal-conditioning circuits or finished chemical instruments, and software modules such as data acquisition, saving, proceeding. The VI system provides individual and extremely flexible solutions for automatic measurements in physical chemistry research. PMID:17671611

Wang, Wen-Bin; Li, Jang-Yuan; Wu, Qi-Jun

2007-01-01

168

Mass measuring instrument for use under microgravity conditions.  

PubMed

A prototype instrument for measuring astronaut body mass under microgravity conditions has been developed and its performance was evaluated by parabolic flight tests. The instrument, which is the space scale, is applied as follows. Connect the subject astronaut to the space scale with a rubber cord. Use a force transducer to measure the force acting on the subject and an optical interferometer to measure the velocity of the subject. The subject's mass is calculated as the impulse divided by the velocity change, i.e., M=integral Fdt/delta v. Parabolic flight by using a jet aircraft produces a zero-gravity condition lasting approximately 20 s. The performance of the prototype space scale was evaluated during such a flight by measuring the mass of a sample object. PMID:18513098

Fujii, Yusaku; Shimada, Kazuhito; Yokota, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Seiji; Sugita, Yoichi; Ito, Hitomi

2008-05-01

169

An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

Figurski, J.D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J.R.; Denny, M.

2011-01-01

170

Instrument for the in situ measurement of depositing particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaminant particles peculiar to a type of equipment emanate inside and around a semiconductor, or thin-film-transistor–liquid-crystal-display device fabrication front-end equipment. To analyze such deposition phenomena and implement contamination control measures, it is necessary to observe in situ deposition behavior over a long period. This article describes a measuring instrument for this purpose. Deposition and tearing off of particles or mist

Masayoshi Tsuchiya; Katsumi Takami

1997-01-01

171

Virtual instrumentation for pH measurements in biological systems.  

PubMed

In the present communication a personal computer control methodology for pH data acquisition and analysis in biological systems is reported. The instrumental control, acquisition, storage, processing and presentation of the experimental data are provided by a data acquisition board, a graphical programming software and numerical analysis/graphics software. The major objective of this work is to improve the performance and flexibility of the personal computer acquisition system compared with traditional approaches depending on potentiometric recorders. In particular, virtual instruments for interfacing pH meters of different brands to a personal computer and for measuring proton changes in lightly buffered solutions during enzymatic reactions are provided. PMID:10430463

Rigobello, M P; Cazzaro, F; Scutari, G; Bindoli, A

1999-07-01

172

Noncontact temperature measurement of aluminized polymer for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An existing fiber-optic/infrared (F-O/IR) temperature measurement system was adapted to measure the surface temperature of a thin-film aluminized polymer. The polymer under study, Kapton by Dupont, is used commonly in the aerospace industry for applications such as solar sails and solar shields. A cold plate was developed and implemented to control environmental effects on infrared data. Spectral characterization of the optical properties of Kapton was conducted to improve measurement accuracy. The instrument provides a non-contact means for accurate temperature measurement of very thin polymer membranes without distorting surface contour.

Pollard, William, Jr.; Hannas, Benjamin

2002-03-01

173

The correlation of organoleptic and instrumental halitosis measurements.  

PubMed

Numerous detection systems are available for measuring halitosis. In order to examine their agreement, a study was conducted comparing four selected measuring methods in 100 subjects (52 females, 48 males; mean age: 25 years). Organoleptic halitosis measurement was carried out by an odor judge, and compared with instrumental halitosis measurement by sulfide monitoring using Halimeter, Fresh Kiss, and Halitox (halitosis linked toxin detection assay), with which both VSC (volatile sulphur compounds) and polyamines can be detected. The results show that the values recorded by the Halimeter correlated best with the organoleptic assessment and the least with the results of Fresh Kiss. PMID:20533102

Brunner, Flavio; Kurmann, Miranda; Filippi, Andreas

2010-01-01

174

Satisfaction measurement instruments for healthcare service users: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Patient satisfaction surveys can be an interesting way to improve quality and discuss the concept of patient-centered care. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the validated patient satisfaction measurement instruments applied in healthcare. The systematic review searched the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge. The search strategy used the terms: "Patient Satisfaction" AND "Patient centered care" AND "Healthcare survey OR Satisfaction questionnaire" AND "Psychometric properties". 37 studies were included and almost all studies showed that satisfaction is a multidimensional construct. In these studies, 34 different instruments were used and most surveys contained the dimension patient-healthcare professional interactions, physical environment and management process. The COSMIN score for methodological quality showed that most of them scored a good or fair average. We can conclude that there is not a gold standard instrument for patient satisfaction assessment but some dimensions are essential for this construct. PMID:25715288

de Almeida, Renato Santos; Bourliataux-Lajoinie, Stephane; Martins, Mônica

2015-01-01

175

Attitudes to teaching mathematics: Further development of a measurement instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evidence that a relationship exists between attitudes to teaching mathematics and the formation of positive attitudes to mathematics among pupils is somewhat tenuous. Nevertheless, there is a strong belief among pre-service teacher educators that positive attitudes need to be fostered in teacher education students, particularly for prospective primary school teachers. Unfortunately, the research evidence suggests that high proportions of pre-service teachers hold negative attitudes towards mathematics. Although many instruments measuring affect in areas such as self-concept, anxiety, etc. have appeared in the literature over the years, no comprehensive instrument on attitudes is available to help teacher educators monitor attitudinal changes among their pre-service student teachers to the teaching of mathematics. This research re-examines an earlier attempt to develop such an instrument in Australia (Nisbet, 1991) and posits an alternative and refined version.

Relich, Joe; Way, Jenni; Martin, Andrew

1994-07-01

176

FUEL ROD PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS AND RE-INSTRUMENTATION CAPABILITIES AT THE HALDEN PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the area of instrumentati on technology, the Halden Project has developed several different types of sensors enabling on-line measurement of fuel rod behaviour such as mechanical deformation of fuel stack and cladding, and fuel rod temperature and pressure. In-core measurements using a linear voltage differential transformer as a base instrument enables on-line monitoring of parameters such as fuel stack

Olav Aarrestad; Helge Thoresen

177

The display of portable infrared measuring temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years based on security, quality supervision, inspection and medical for the urgent need of infrared temperature measurement and infrared display technology, coupled with embedded system to achieve rapid development, which is widely used in the electronic products and the field of intelligent instruments and industrial control, this paper has designed a kind of more comprehensive, more efficient and more intuitive infrared thermometer. Unlike previous handheld infrared thermometer, we regard an embedded Linux system as the system, with its open source code, support most mainstream hardware platforms, unified peripheral interface and can be customized, to build an embedded infrared system that has provided strong system support; the pseudocolor techniques and Qt interface display technology make the image more colorful and the picture function more diverse; With ARM microprocessor as the display and temperature measuring platform, it costs reduction and reduce volume and power consumption; the FrameBuffer interface technology and multithreading technology realize the smooth real-time display. And ultimately the display size of real-time infrared image is 640 * 480 at a speed of 25 frames / sec. What is more, display is equipped with the menu option so that thermometer can be required to complete the operation through the button. The temperature display system aims at small volume, easy to use and flexible. I believe this thermometer will have a good application prospect.

Qian, Yitao; Gu, Guohua; Sui, Xiubao

2014-11-01

178

Measurements Verifying the Optics of the Electron Drift Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection is the process of breaking and reconnecting of opposing magnetic field lines, and is often associated with tremendous energy transfer. The energy transferred by reconnection directly affects people through its influence on geospace weather and technological systems - such as telecommunication networks, GPS, and power grids. However, the mechanisms that cause magnetic reconnection are not well understood. The Magnetospheric Multi-Scale Mission (MMS) will use four spacecraft in a pyramid formation to make three-dimensional measurements of the structures in magnetic reconnection occurring in the Earth's magnetosphere.The spacecraft will repeatedly sample these regions for a prolonged period of time to gather data in more detail than has been previously possible. MMS is scheduled to be launched in March of 2015. The Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) will be used on MMS to measure the electric fields associated with magnetic reconnection. The EDI is a device used on spacecraft to measure electric fields by emitting an electron beam and measuring the E x B drift of the returning electrons after one gyration. This paper concentrates on measurements of the EDI’s optics system. The testing process includes measuring the optics response to a uni-directional electron beam. These measurements are used to verify the response of the EDI's optics and to allow for the optimization of the desired optics state. The measurements agree well with simulations and we are confident in the performance of the EDI instrument.

Kooi, Vanessa; Kletzing, Craig; Bounds, Scott; Sigsbee, Kristine M.

2015-04-01

179

Astronomical Polarimetry : new concepts, new instruments, new measurements & observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All astronomical sources are polarized to some degree. Polarimetry is therefore a powerful astronomical technique. It furnishes unique diagnostics of e.g. magnetic fields and scattering media. This thesis presents new polarimetric concepts, instruments, and measurements targeting astronomical science questions. The first part of the thesis describes three novel polarimetric concepts. -A dedicated passive liquid crystal device known as a theta cell is introduced to enable one-shot observations of astronomical targets exhibiting a centrosymmetric polarization pattern. -A new passive measurement concept for broad-band linear polarization is introduced. It is based on a sinusoidal modulation of the spectrum, and is particularly suitable for instruments for which classical spatial and/or temporal polarization modulation is unfavorable. -Calibration of polarimetric instruments is usually limited by non-ideal effects of the calibration optics themselves. A mathematical frame-work based on Fourier analysis is introduced to tackle various non-ideal effects in polarimetric calibration. The second part of the thesis presents the designs and first results of three very different astronomical polarimeters. -The ultra-stable high-resolution HARPS spectrograph is successfully upgraded with a dual-beam polarimetric module. It furnishes direct observations of magnetic fields on stars. -The Small Synoptic Second Solar Spectrum Telescope (S5T) is designed to accurately monitor the variation of weak, turbulent magnetic fields on the Sun during a solar cycle. Such measurements are crucial for the understanding of local dynamo action in the solar photosphere. The prototype shows the feasibility of the instrument concept. -The Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXpolaration (SPEX) is designed to study a planet's or moon's atmosphere from orbit. The additional information from the polarization measurement of scattered sunlight allows for determination of microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols. The third part of the thesis presents new polarimetric measurements and observations. -A precise ellipsometer was constructed to measure the polarization properties of various optical components. The instrument was employed to measure the complete Mueller matrix of an aluminum mirror at various durations after evaporation. It is concluded that the aluminum oxide layer has a significant effect on the polarization properties, which is constant in time after a day from evaporation. -Next, an aluminized mirror was contaminated with dust. This also has a significant effect on the measured Mueller matrix, for which a linear model is presented as a function of dust absorption. -Observations of solar scattering polarization at high spatial resolution were obtained with the Hinode space telescope. A significant difference of ~10% in scattering polarization was detected between granules and intergranules, which constrains models of quiet Sun magnetoconvection.

Snik, F.

2009-10-01

180

Accelerated measurement of perikymata by an optical instrument  

PubMed Central

The proposed device considerably reduces the measuring time of important microscopic features of tooth crown surfaces. The instrumentation is accompanied by a computer program to analyse the results. Tooth enamel is formed by ameloblasts, which demonstrate daily secretory rhythms developing tissue-specific structures known as cross striations, and longer period markings that are referred as striae of Retzius. These striae correspond to linear structures on the enamel surface. This newly developed optical measuring instrument can automatically, precisely and accurately record the number and periodicity of perikymata on the dental crown. Furthermore it can characterize the variability in periodicity of perikymata in hominids. The depth of field can be extended as desired by taking several images with different focus positions and combining them into a single composite image that contains all regions fully focused. PMID:24156069

Elhechmi, Imen; Braga, José; Dasgupta, Gautam; Gharbi, Tijani

2013-01-01

181

Issues in selection of instruments to measure negative symptoms.  

PubMed

Guidance for selection of instruments for measurement of negative symptoms is rapidly evolving. As there are continuing advances in the description of negative symptoms, new instruments are under development, and new data on the performance of instruments emerge from clinical trials. The Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Marder Negative Factor and the Negative Symptom Assessment-16 (NSA-16) are considered to be reliable and valid measures for negative symptom trials but differ with respect to their domain coverage, use of informants, integration of global scores, administration time and comprehensiveness of their structured interviews. In response to the 2005 NIMH-MATRICS consensus statement, work groups are field testing and refining two new measures, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS). Both address the five currently recognized domains of negative symptoms, differentiate appetitive from consummatory aspects of anhedonia and address desire for social relationships. Thus far, both have exhibited promising psychometric properties. PMID:23899996

Daniel, David Gordon

2013-11-01

182

Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

183

Coherent Laser Instrument Would Measure Range and Velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed instrument would project a narrow laser beam that would be frequency-modulated with a pseudorandom noise (PN) code for simultaneous measurement of range and velocity along the beam. The instrument performs these functions in a low mass, power, and volume package using a novel combination of established techniques. Originally intended as a low resource- footprint guidance sensor for descent and landing of small spacecraft onto Mars or small bodies (e.g., asteroids), the basic instrument concept also lends itself well to a similar application guiding aircraft (especially, small unmanned aircraft), and to such other applications as ranging of topographical features and measuring velocities of airborne light-scattering particles as wind indicators. Several key features of the instrument s design contribute to its favorable performance and resource-consumption characteristics. A laser beam is intrinsically much narrower (for the same exit aperture telescope or antenna) than a radar beam, eliminating the need to correct for the effect of sloping terrain over the beam width, as is the case with radar. Furthermore, the use of continuous-wave (CW), erbium-doped fiber lasers with excellent spectral purity (narrow line width) permits greater velocity resolution, while reducing the laser s power requirement compared to a more typical pulsed solid-state laser. The use of CW also takes proper advantage of the increased sensitivity of coherent detection, necessary in the first place for direct measurement of velocity using the Doppler effect. However, measuring range with a CW beam requires modulation to "tag" portions of it for time-of-flight determination; typically, the modulation consists of a PN code. A novel element of the instrument s design is the use of frequency modulation (FM) to accomplish both the PN-modulation and the Doppler-bias frequency shift necessary for signed velocity measurements. This permits the use of a single low-power waveguide electrooptic phase modulator, while simultaneously mitigating the effects of speckle as a noise source in the coherent detection.

Chang, Daniel; Cardell, Greg; San Martin, Alejandro; Spiers, Gary

2005-01-01

184

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

JW Voyles

2008-01-30

185

The Cloud Physics Lidar: Instrument Description and Initial Measurement Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multi-wavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low pulse energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. We provide here an overview of the instrument and initial data results to illustrate the measurement capability of the CPL.

McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, V. Stanley; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

186

Instrument and methods for surface dilatational rheology measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an instrument combining the advantages of two methods, axisymmetric drop shape analysis for well-deformed drops and capillary pressure tensiometry for spherical drops, both used for measuring the interfacial tension and interfacial rheological parameters. The rheological parameters are the complex interfacial elasticity, and the surface elasticity and viscosity of Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell rheological models. The instrument is applicable for investigation of the effect of different types of surfactants (nonionic, ionic, proteins, and polymers) on the interfacial rheological properties both of air/water and oil/water interfaces, and of interfaces between liquids with equal mass densities. A piezodriven system and a specially designed interface unit, implemented in the instrument, ensure precise control for standard periodic waveforms of surface deformation (sine, square, triangle, and sawtooth) at a fixed frequency, or produce surface deformation at constant rate. The interface unit ensures accurate synchronization between the pressure measurement and the surface control, which is used for real-time data processing and feedback control of drop area in some of the applications.

Russev, Stoyan C.; Alexandrov, Nikola; Marinova, Krastanka G.; Danov, Krassimir D.; Denkov, Nikolai D.; Lyutov, Lyudmil; Vulchev, Vassil; Bilke-Krause, Christine

2008-10-01

187

The role of fiberoptics in remote temperature measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of optical fibers in conjunction with infrared detectors and signal processing electronics represents the latest advance in the field of non-contact temperature measurement and control. The operating principles and design of fiber-optic radiometric systems are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of using optical fibers are addressed. Signal processing requirements and various infrared detector types are also described. Several areas in which infrared fiber-optic instrumentation is used for temperature monitoring and control are discussed.

Vanzetti, Riccardo

1988-01-01

188

Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations - notable differences include large differences in multi-decadal variability between proxy reconstructions, and big uncertainties in the effect of volcanic eruptions. Because the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. By constraining key aspects of the reconstructions and simulations, instrumental observations, inevitably from a limited period, can reduce reconstruction uncertainty throughout the millennium. A considerable quantity of early instrumental observations are preserved in the world's archives. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East-India Company (EEIC), and 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure have been preserved in the British Library. Similar records from voyages of exploration and scientific investigation are preserved in published literature and the records in National Archives. Some of these records have been extracted and digitised, providing hundreds of thousands of new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5C). This provides a powerful out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions --- supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this --- such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

Brohan, P.

2012-12-01

189

Sea Surface Temperatures (SST): Significance and Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceans cover 71 percent of Earth's surface and control the global climate. Quoted global mean temperature values and trends, largely based on land thermometers, differ substantially -" mainly because of uncertainties about SST. The ongoing controversy about the relative importance of natural climate changes and Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) revolves mainly around disparities between temperature trends of the atmosphere and surface (in the tropics and SH, i.e. mostly SST). Accurate measurement of SST is difficult. Geographic coverage is poor and there are many different techniques, each with its own problems and uncertainties: Water temperatures from buckets and ship-engine inlets; fixed and floating buoys; air temperatures from shipboard and island stations; and remote sensing from satellites using IR and microwaves. As is evident, each technique refers to a different level below the air-water interface. Drifter buoys (at around 50 cm) measure temperatures in the euphotic layers that are generally warmer than the bulk mixed layer sampled by ships (typically around 10 m). The IR emission arises from a 10-micron-thick skin that interacts dynamically with the underlying "mixed layer." The microwave data depend also on emissivity and therefore on surface roughness and sea state. SST data derived from corals provide some support for instrumental data but are not conclusive. The majority of corals show a warming trend since 1979; others show cooling or are ambiguous. There are different ways of interpreting this result. Physical optics dictates that the downwelling IR radiation from atmospheric greenhouse gases is absorbed in the first instance within the skin. Only direct measurements can establish how much of this energy is shared with the bulk mixed layer (to which the usual SST values refer.). SST controls evaporation and therefore global precipitation. SST influences tropical cyclones and sea-level rise; but there is lively debate on those issues. Changes in SST are also responsible for changes in deep- ocean temperatures and ocean heat storage. But recent claims that an increase in heat storage is a "smoking gun" for AGW are without merit.

Singer, S. F.

2006-05-01

190

Satellite Instrument Calibration for Measuring Global Climate Change: Report of a Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. The satellite instruments must be capable of observing atmospheric and surface temperature trends as small as 0.1°C decade-1, ozone changes as little as 1% decade-1, and variations in the sun's output as tiny as 0.1% decade-1. To address these problems and recommend directions for

George Ohring; Bruce Wielicki; Roy Spencer; Bill Emery; Raju Datla

2005-01-01

191

ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 4: Low temperature measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is presented on temperature measurement between the triple point and critical point of liquid oxygen. The criterion selected is that all transducers which may reasonably be employed in the liquid oxygen (LO2) temperature range are considered. The temperature range for each transducer is the appropriate full range for the particular thermometer. The discussion of each thermometer or type of thermometer includes the following information: (1) useful temperature range, (2) general and particular methods of construction and the advantages of each type, (3) specifications (accuracy, reproducibility, response time, etc.), (4) associated instrumentation, (5) calibrations and procedures, and (6) analytical representations.

Sparks, L. L.

1974-01-01

192

An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentation developed in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell or battery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. This instrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electronic cards. Software under Hpvee® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout of the impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, like the ambient temperature, the fuel cell temperature, the level of the hydrogen, etc…, were taken with several sensors that enable us to control the measurement. To filter the noise and the influence of the 50Hz, we have implemented a synchronous detection which filters in a very narrow way around the useful signal. The theoretical result obtained by a simulation under Pspice® of the method used consolidates the choice of this method and the possibility of obtaining correct and exploitable results. The experimental results are preliminary results on a 12V vehicle battery, having an inrush current of 330A and a capacity of 40Ah (impedance measurements on a fuel cell are in progress, and will be the subject of a forthcoming paper). The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7V, 10V, 8V and 5V) and with two imposed currents (0.6A and 4A). The Nyquist diagram resulting from the experimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internal impedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the values obtained (both theoretical and practical) enables us to validate our electronic measurement instrumentation. One of the future uses for this instrumentation is to integrate it with several control sensors, on a vehicle as an embedded system to monitor the degradation of fuel cell membranes.

Aglzim, El-Hassane; Rouane, Amar; El-Moznine, Reddad

2007-01-01

193

Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East-India Company (EEIC), and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C). This provides a powerful out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions - supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this - such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

Brohan, P.; Allan, R.; Freeman, E.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, F.

2012-05-01

194

Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores, etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East India Company (EEIC), and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C). This provides an out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions - supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this - such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

Brohan, P.; Allan, R.; Freeman, E.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, F.

2012-10-01

195

Monitoramento da temperatura de estufas odontológicas empregadas para a esterilização do instrumental* Temperature verification of odontologic sterilizer employed to instrumental sterilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate, in odontologic sterilizers, the routinely use of some kind of sterilization process monitorship; the compliance to time and temperature recommended to dental instrument sterilization; the correlation between the temperature indicated on the odontologic sterilizer thermometer and the temperature shown on the auxiliary thermometer; and the dental instrument packaging procedure. Twenty seven (27)

Fabiana Vieira Vier; Ângela Serrano Lopes; Karine Sommer; Elias Pandonor; Motcy de Oliveira; Orlando Limongi

196

High-Sensitivity Instrument for Measuring Atmospheric NO2  

E-print Network

the LIF instrument and a photofragmenta- tion chemiluminescence (PF-CL) instrument have been performed have been developed. The photofragmentation chemiluminescence (PF-CL) technique provides sensitive

Kono, Mitsu

197

Measuring voluntariness of consent to research: an instrument review.  

PubMed

The conceptual complexity of the term voluntariness has resulted in relatively few empirical studies of the voluntariness component of consent to research. As the call for a formal assessment of voluntariness to be incorporated into the consent process intensifies, more researchers are responding to the challenge of developing a valid and reliable measure of voluntariness. The purpose of this article was to summarize and describe the empirical literature on voluntariness of consent. As part of a broader study on the voluntariness of consent to research, existing empirical studies of voluntariness of consent to research were reviewed to establish how voluntariness of consent to research has been assessed to date. Fifteen studies using different voluntariness assessment instruments were identified and included in the review. The review found that little attempt has been made to systematically collect data on the reliability and validity of voluntariness assessment instruments. No two instruments reviewed were found to be based on a shared conceptualization of voluntary consent to research. PMID:25742672

Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas

2015-04-01

198

A new instrument to measure plot-scale runoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate measurement of the amount and timing of surface runoff at multiple scales is needed to understand fundamental hydrological processes. At the plot-scale (i.e., length scales on the order of 1 to 10 m) current methods for direct measurement of runoff either store the water in a collection vessel, which is unconducive to long-term monitoring studies, or utilize expensive installations such as large-scale tipping buckets or flume/weir systems. We developed an alternative low-cost, robust and reliable instrument to measure runoff that we call the "Upwelling Bernoulli Tube" (UBeTube). The UBeTube instrument is a pipe with a slot machined in its side that is installed vertically at the base of a runoff collection system. The flow rate through the slot is inferred by measuring the water height within the pipe. The geometry of the slot can be modified to suit the range of flow rates expected for a given site; we demonstrate a slot geometry which is capable of measuring flow rates across more than three orders of magnitude (up to 300 L min-1) while requiring only 30 cm of hydraulic head. System accuracy is dependent on both the geometry of the slot and the accuracy of the water level measurements. With an off-the-shelf pressure transducer sensor, the mean theoretical error for the demonstrated slot geometry was ~17% (ranging from errors of more than 50% at low flow rates to less than 2% at high flow rates), while the observed error during validation was 1-25%. A simple correction factor reduced this mean error to -14%, and further reductions in error could be achieved through the use of taller, narrower slot dimensions (which requires greater head gradients to drive flow) or through more accurate water level measurements. The UBeTube device has been successfully employed in a long-term rainfall-runoff study, demonstrating the ability of the instrument to measure surface runoff across a range of flows and conditions.

Stewart, R. D.; Liu, Z.; Rupp, D. E.; Higgins, C. W.; Selker, J. S.

2014-11-01

199

A new instrument to measure plot-scale runoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate measurement of the amount and timing of surface runoff at multiple scales is needed to understand fundamental hydrological processes. At the plot scale (i.e., length scales on the order of 1-10 m) current methods for direct measurement of runoff either store the water in a collection vessel, which is not conducive to long-term monitoring studies, or utilize expensive installations such as large-scale tipping buckets or flume/weir systems. We developed an alternative low-cost, robust and reliable instrument to measure runoff that we call the "Upwelling Bernoulli Tube" (UBeTube). The UBeTube instrument is a pipe with a slot machined in its side that is installed vertically at the base of a runoff collection system. The flow rate through the slot is inferred by measuring the water height within the pipe. The geometry of the slot can be modified to suit the range of flow rates expected for a given site; we demonstrate a slot geometry that is capable of measuring flow rates across more than 3 orders of magnitude (up to 300 L min-1) while requiring only 30 cm of hydraulic head. System accuracy is dependent on both the geometry of the slot and the accuracy of the water level measurements. Using a pressure sensor with ±7 mm accuracy, the mean theoretical error for the demonstrated slot geometry was ~17% (ranging from errors of more than 50% at low flow rates to less than 2% at high flow rates), while the observed error during validation was 1-25%. A simple correction factor reduced this mean error to 0-14%, and further reductions in error could be achieved through the use of taller, narrower slot dimensions (which requires greater head gradients to drive flow) or through more accurate water level measurements. The UBeTube device has been successfully employed in a long-term rainfall-runoff study, demonstrating the ability of the instrument to measure surface runoff across a range of flows and conditions.

Stewart, R. D.; Liu, Z.; Rupp, D. E.; Higgins, C. W.; Selker, J. S.

2015-03-01

200

Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To facilitate astrobiological studies on the survival and adaptation of microorganisms and mixed microbial cultures to space environment, we have been developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring their gene expression on small spacecraft. This low-cost, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement in our ability to study the impact of the space environment on biological systems by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation orders of magnitude richer than what is currently available. The system supports growth of the organism, lyse it to release the expressed RNA, label the RNA, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis of labeled RNA and transmit the measurements to Earth. To measure gene expression we use microarray technology developed by CombiMatrix, which is based on electrochemical reactions on arrays of electrodes on a semiconductor substrate. Since the electrical integrity of the microarray remains intact after probe synthesis, the circuitry can be employed to sense nucleic acid binding at each electrode. CombiMatrix arrays can be sectored to allow multiple samples per chip. In addition, a single array can be used for several assays. The array has been integrated into an automated microfluidic cartridge that uses flexible reagent blisters and pinch pumping to move liquid reagents between chambers. The proposed instrument will help to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration. The instrument is suitable for small satellite platforms, which provide frequent, low cost access to space. It can be also used on any other platform in space, including the ISS. It can be replicated and used with only small modifications in multiple biological experiments with a broad range of goals in mind.

Pohorille, A.; Peyvan, K.; Danley, D.; Ricco, A. J.

2010-01-01

201

A New Instrument for Measuring Energetic Radiation From Triggered Lightning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this presentation, we describe a new instrument built at the Florida Institute of Technology for measuring x-rays and gamma-rays from rocket-triggered lightning. During the summer of 2002, the instrument was placed less than 25 m from the 11 m tall launch tower at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. The instrument consists of a 5" by 3" cylinder of NaI(Tl) scintillator attached to a 5" photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector, plus a control detector, identical in every way but with no scintillator attached to the PMT. Great care was taken to reduce false signals from the electrically noisy environment. Both detectors are battery operated and placed inside a thick aluminum, watertight box, sealed to prevent RF noise and light leaks. Data are transmitted to a National Instruments PCI 5102 data acquisition card and PC via fiber optic links. The output signals from the preamplifiers attached to each PMT are digitized with 8 bit resolution every 1 microsecond, and the data acquisition is triggered externally by the current measured (threshold = 4.5 kiloamps) at the launch tower, which usually corresponds to the occurrence of the return strokes. For each trigger, a total of 1 second of data are acquired simultaneously for both PMTs with 0.1 seconds of pre-trigger data. This technique allows individual signals to be analyzed to distinguish real x-rays from noise or other false signals. On 2002 July 20 and 25, 5 rockets were launched from the tower under thunderstorm conditions, resulting in a total of 5 triggered lightning flashes containing at least 24 return strokes terminated on the launch tower. During these lightning events, large amounts of energetic radiation (>>10 keV) in the form of x-rays and gamma-rays and/or energetic electrons were observed just prior to 20 of the 24 recorded return strokes, depositing on average tens of MeV into the detector per stroke. We shall present an overview of the design of the instrument and its performance in the laboratory and field environments.

Al-Dayeh, M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H. K.; Uman, M. A.; Rakov, V. A.; Jerauld, J.; Jordan, D. M.; Rambo, K. J.; Caraway, L.; Corbin, V.; Wright, B.

2002-12-01

202

High-pressure-temperature gradient instrument: use for determining the temperature and pressure limits of bacterial growth.  

PubMed Central

A pressurized temperature gradient instrument allowed a synoptic determination of the effects of temperature and pressure on the reproduction of bacteria. The instrument consisted of eight pressure vessels housed parallel to each other in an insulated aluminum block in which a linear temperature gradient was supported. For a given experiment, eight pressures between 1 and 1,100 bars were chosen; the linear temperature gradient was established over an interval within -20 to 100 degrees C. Pure cultures and natural populations were studied in liquid or solid medium either in short (ca. 2-cm) culture tubes or in long (76.2-cm) glass capillaries. In the case of a pure culture, experiments with the pressurized temperature gradient instrument determined values of temperature and pressure that bounded its growth. Feasibility experiments with mixed populations of bacteria from water samples from a shallow depth of the sea showed that the instrument may be useful in identifying the extent to which a natural population is adapted to the temperatures and pressures at the locale of origin of the sample. Additional conceived uses of the instrument included synoptic determinations of cell functions other than reproduction and of biochemical activities. Images PMID:6391378

Yayanos, A A; van Boxtel, R; Dietz, A S

1984-01-01

203

Methods of resolution enhancement of laser diameter measuring instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the implementation of diffraction and spectral analysis methods allowing 1 ?m resolution enhancement of optical instruments intended for measurements of such round wire materials as cables, wires, cords, etc. with diameters exceeding the wavelength (~0.5 mm and large). The transformation function suggested allows detecting geometrical boundaries of object's shadows that are used to calculate its diameter independently from its location in the gaging zone. The real-time detection algorithm is described for diffraction extreme values in the analog video signal produced by the charge-coupled device sensors. A method of additional improvement of resolution is shown on the basis of spectral analysis.

Chursin, Yury A.; Fedorov, Evgeny M.

2015-04-01

204

Measuring parent food practices: a systematic review of existing measures and examination of instruments  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in development of instruments to measure parent food practices. Because these instruments often measure different constructs, or define common constructs differently, an evaluation of these instruments is needed. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify existing measures of parent food practices and to assess the quality of their development. The initial search used terms capturing home environment, parenting behaviors, feeding practices and eating behaviors, and was performed in October of 2009 using PubMed/Medline, PsychInfo, Web of knowledge (ISI), and ERIC, and updated in July of 2012. A review of titles and abstracts was used to narrow results, after which full articles were retrieved and reviewed. Only articles describing development of measures of parenting food practices designed for families with children 2-12 years old were retained for the current review. For each article, two reviewers extracted data and appraised the quality of processes used for instrument development and evaluation. The initial search yielded 28,378 unique titles; review of titles and abstracts narrowed the pool to 1,352 articles; from which 57 unique instruments were identified. The review update yielded 1,772 new titles from which14 additional instruments were identified. The extraction and appraisal process found that 49% of instruments clearly identified and defined concepts to be measured, and 46% used theory to guide instrument development. Most instruments (80%) had some reliability testing, with internal consistency being the most common (79%). Test-retest or inter-rater reliability was reported for less than half the instruments. Some form of validity evidence was reported for 84% of instruments. Construct validity was most commonly presented (86%), usually with analysis of associations with child diet or weight/BMI. While many measures of food parenting practices have emerged, particularly in recent years, few have demonstrated solid development methods. Substantial variation in items across different scales/constructs makes comparison between instruments extremely difficult. Future efforts should be directed toward consensus development of food parenting practices constructs and measures. PMID:23688157

2013-01-01

205

121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York, New York County, NY

206

The validation of ATSR measurements with in situ sea temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The largest source of uncertainty in the retrieval of SST (sea-surface) temperature from space-borne infrared radiometric measurements is in the correction for the effects of the intervening atmosphere. During a research cruise of the R/V Alliance measurements of sea surface temperature, surface meteorological variables and surface infrared radiances were taken. SST fields were generated from the ATSR data using pre-launch algorithims derived by the ATSR Instrument Team (A.M. Zavody, personal communication), and the initial comparison between ATSR measurements and SST taken along the ship`s track indicate that the dual-angle atmospheric correction is accurate in mid-latitude conditions.

Minnett, P.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Stansfield, K.L. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Marine Sciences Research Center

1993-10-08

207

Gas-Temperature Measurement With Minimal Perturbation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method for measuring temperature of hot turbulent gases uses three heatflux calorimeters. One calorimeter measures radiative heat flux, while other two measure total heat flux (convective and radiative), at two different temperatures. Adapted for commercial uses in such operations as monitoring temperatures of flue gases, piped liquid or gaseous products, internal-combustion or jet engine exhausts.

Fu, T. S.; Quan, M.

1983-01-01

208

Measurements of the Ice Water Content of Cirrus in the Tropics and Subtropics. I; Instrument Details and Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an instrument mounted in a pallet on the NASA WB-57 aircraft that is designed to measure the sum of gas phase and solid phase water, or total water, in cirrus clouds. Using an isokinetic inlet, a 600-watt heater mounted directly in the flow, and Lyman-alpha photofragment fluorescence technique for detection, accurate measurements of total water have been made over almost three orders of magnitude. Isokinetic flow is achieved with an actively controlled roots pump by referencing aircraft pressure, temperature, and true air speed, together with instrument flow velocity, temperature, and pressure. During CRYSTAL FACE, the instrument operated at duct temperatures sufficiently warm to completely evaporate particles up to 150 microns diameter. In flight diagnostics, intercomparison with water measured by absorption in flight, as well as intercomparisons in clear air with water vapor measured by the Harvard water vapor instrument and the JPL infrared tunable diode laser hygrometer validate the detection sensitivity of the instrument and illustrate minimal hysteresis from instrument surfaces. The simultaneous measurement of total water and water vapor in cirrus clouds yields their ice water content.

Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Sayres, D.; Pittman, J. V.; Allen, N.; Demusz, J.; Greenberg, M.; Rivero, M.; Anderson, J. G.

2003-01-01

209

A high dynamic radiation measurements instrument: the Bolometric Oscillation Sensor (BOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bolometric oscillation sensor (BOS) is a broadband radiation measurement instrument onboard the PICARD satellite that has been active between 2010 and 2014. The main detector is a thermistor attached black coated surface, which was permanently exposed to space without any optical and aperture accessories. The temperature measurements are used within a transfer function to determine variations in incoming solar irradiance as well as the terrestrial radiation. In the present article, the measurement principle of BOS and its transfer function are presented. The performance of the instrument is discussed based on laboratory experiments and space observations from the PICARD satellite. The comparison of the short term variation of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) with absolute radiometers such as VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE over the same period of time, suggests that BOS is a relatively much simpler but very effective sensor to monitor electromagnetic radiation variations from visible to infrared wavelengths.

Zhu, P.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Karatekin, Ö.; Noël, J.-P.; Thuillier, G.; Dewitte, S.; Chevalier, A.; Conscience, C.; Janssen, E.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.

2014-12-01

210

Instrumental phase-based method for Fourier transform spectrometer measurements processing  

SciTech Connect

Phase correction is a critical procedure for most space-borne Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) whose accuracy (owing to often poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) can be jeopardized from many uncontrollable environmental conditions. This work considers the phase correction in an FTS working under significant temperature change during the measurement and affected by mechanical disturbances. The implemented method is based on the identification of an instrumental phase that is dependent on the interferometer temperature and on the extraction of a linear phase component through a least-squares approach. The use of an instrumental phase parameterized with the interferometer temperature eases the determination of the linear phase that can be extracted using only a narrow spectral region selected to be immune from disturbances. The procedure, in this way, is made robust against phase errors arising from instrumental effects, a key feature to reduce the disturbances through spectra averaging. The method was specifically developed for the Mars IR Mapper spectrometer, that was designed for operation onboard a rover on the Mars surface; the validation was performed using ground and in-flight measurements of the Fourier transform IR spectrometer planetary Fourier spectrometer, onboard the MarsExpress mission. The symmetrization has been exploited also for the spectra calibration, highlighting the issues deriving from the cases of relevant beamsplitter emission. The applicability of this procedure to other instruments is conditional to the presence in the spectra of at least one spectral region with a large SNR along with a negligible (or known) beamsplitter emission. For the PFS instrument, the processing of data with relevant beamsplitter emission has been performed exploiting the absorption carbon dioxide bands present in Martian spectra.

Saggin, Bortolino; Scaccabarozzi, Diego; Tarabini, Marco

2011-04-20

211

An instrument for high-throughput measurements of fiber mechanical properties  

E-print Network

In this thesis, an instrument is designed and constructed for the purpose of measuring the mechanical properties of single fibers. The instrument is intended to provide high throughput measurement of single fiber geometric ...

Kristofek, Grant William, 1980-

2005-01-01

212

Full vector low-temperature magnetic measurements of geologic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

magnetic properties of geologic materials offer insights into an enormous range of important geophysical phenomena ranging from inner core dynamics to paleoclimate. Often it is the low-temperature behavior (<300 K) of magnetic minerals that provides the most useful and highest sensitivity information for a given problem. Conventional measurements of low-temperature remanence are typically conducted on instruments that are limited to measuring one single-axis component of the magnetization vector and are optimized for measurements in strong fields. These instrumental limitations have prevented fully optimized applications and have motivated the development of a low-temperature probe that can be used for low-temperature remanence measurements between 17 and 300 K along three orthogonal axes using a standard 2G Enterprises SQuID rock magnetometer. In this contribution, we describe the design and implementation of this instrument and present data from five case studies that demonstrate the probe's considerable potential for future research: a polycrystalline hematite sample, a polycrystalline hematite and magnetite mixture, a single crystal of magnetite, a single crystal of pyrrhotite, and samples of Umkondo Large Igneous Province diabase sills.

Feinberg, Joshua M.; Solheid, Peter A.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Jackson, Mike J.; Bowles, Julie A.

2015-01-01

213

Measuring Specific Heats at High Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flash apparatus for measuring thermal diffusivities at temperatures from 300 to 1,000 degrees C modified; measures specific heats of samples to accuracy of 4 to 5 percent. Specific heat and thermal diffusivity of sample measured. Xenon flash emits pulse of radiation, absorbed by sputtered graphite coating on sample. Sample temperature measured with thermocouple, and temperature rise due to pulse measured by InSb detector.

Vandersande, Jan W.; Zoltan, Andrew; Wood, Charles

1987-01-01

214

Multi-instrument comparisons of D-region plasma measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ECOMA (Existence and Charge state Of Meteoric dust grains in the middle Atmosphere) series of sounding rocket flights consisted of nine flights with almost identical payload design and flight characteristics. All flights carried a radio wave propagation experiment together with a variety of plasma probes. Three of these measured electron densities, two ion densities. The rockets were all launched from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, in four campaigns between 2006 and 2010. Emphasis is on the final three flights from 2010 where the payloads were equipped with four instruments capable of measuring plasma densities in situ, among them a novel probe flown for the first time in conjunction with a wave propagation experiment. Deviation factors of all probe data relative to the wave propagation results were derived and revealed that none of the probe data were close to the wave propagation results at all heights, but - more importantly - the instruments showed very different behaviour at different altitudes. The novel multi-needle Langmuir probe exhibits the best correlation to the wave propagation data, as there is minimal influence of the payload potential, but it is still subject to aerodynamics, especially at its location at the rear of the payload. For all other probe types, the deviation factor comes closer to unity with increasing plasma density. No systematic difference of the empirical deviation factor between day and night can be found. The large negative payload potential in the last three flights may be the cause for discrepancies between electron and ion probe data below 85 km.

Friedrich, M.; Torkar, K. M.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Bekkeng, T.-A.; Barjatya, A.; Rapp, M.

2013-01-01

215

Evaluating and testing thermographic phosphors for turbine-engine temperature measurements  

SciTech Connect

A technique developed earlier for measuring the temperature of inaccessible surfaces in low-temperature rotating machines is being adapted to measure the temperature of surfaces at the higher temperatures and in the erosive environment inside operating turbine engines. The method uses the temperature dependence of the characteristic decay time of the laser-induced-fluorescence of thermographic phosphors to measure the temperature. This paper summarizes recent work in four areas: phosphor characterization and calibration, instrumentation development, bonding, and field tests. By using improved instrumentation and data-analysis techniques, calibration curves for several phosphors are measured with greater accuracy and extended to higher temperatures than before. Phosphors are evaluated that were attached to sample surfaces by high-temperature bonding materials, electron-beam deposition, flame spraying, and plasma spraying. A burner rig test was performed on some phosphor-coated samples and the instrumentation required for an upcoming spin-pit test was designed, built, and calibrated.

Noel, B.W.; Allison, S.W.; Beshears, D.L.; Cates, M.R.; Borella, H.M.; Franks, L.A.; Iverson, C.E.; Dowell, L.J.; Gillies, G.T.; Lutz, W.N.

1987-01-01

216

Microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions; algorithms for digital processing of the measurement signal and an estimate of the errors  

SciTech Connect

Rational algorithms for measuring the harmonic coefficient in microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions based on digital processing of the codes of the instantaneous values of the signal being investigated are described and the errors of such instruments are obtained.

Mints, M.Ya.; Chinkov, V.N.

1995-09-01

217

Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A setup to measure skin autofluorescence was developed to assess accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in patients noninvasively. The method applies direct blacklight tube illumination of the skin of the lower arm, and spectrometry. The setup displays skin autofluorescence (AF) as a ratio of mean intensities detected from the skin between 420-600 nm and 300-420 nm, respectively. In an early clinical application in 46 and control subjects matched for age and gender, AF was significantly increased in the patients (p = 0.015), and highly correlated with skin AGE's that were determined from skin biopsies in both groups. A large follow-up study on type 2 diabetes mellitus, ongoing since 2001 with more than 1000 subjects, aims to assess the value of the instrument in predicting chronic complications of diabetes. At baseline, a relation with age, glycemic status and with complications present was found. In a study in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis AF was a strong and independent predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality. A commercial version of this AGE-reader is now under development and becomes available early 2005 (DiagnOptics B.V., Groningen, The Netherlands). One of the remaining questions, that will be answered by measuring so-called Exciation-Emission Matrices (EEM's) of the skin tissue in vivo, is whether a more selective choice of wavelengths is more strongly related to clinical characteristics. An experimental instrument to measure these EEM's was, therefore, developed as well. Clinical measurements are underway of EEM's in patient groups with diabetes mellitus and in healthy volunteers.

Graaff, Reindert; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Lutgers, Helen L.; Baptist, Rene; de Jong, Ed D.; Zijp, Jaap R.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard

2005-04-01

218

Measuring Aerosol Optical Properties with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to the NASA EOS-Aura mission scheduled for launch in January 2004. OM1 is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance between 270 an 500 nm. With its relatively high spatial resolution (13x24 sq km at nadir) and daily global coverage. OM1 will make a major contribution to our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and to climate research. OM1 will provide data continuity with the TOMS instruments. One of the pleasant surprises of the TOMS data record was its information on aerosol properties. First, only the absorbing aerosol index, which is sensitive to elevated lay- ers of aerosols such as desert dust and smoke aerosols, was derived. Recently these methods were further improved to yield aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over land and ocean for 19 years of TOMS data (1979-1992,1997-2002), making it one of the longest and most valuable time series for aerosols presently available. Such long time series are essential to quantify the effect of aerosols on the Earth& climate. The OM1 instrument is better suited to measure aerosols than the TOMS instruments because of the smaller footprint, and better spectral coverage. The better capabilities of OMI will enable us to provide an improved aerosol product, but the knowledge will also be used for further analysis of the aerosol record from TOMS. The OM1 aerosol product that is currently being developed for OM1 combines the TOMS experience and the multi-spectral techniques that are used in the visible and near infrared. The challenge for this new product is to provide aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo from the near ultraviolet to the visible (330-500 nm) over land and ocean. In this presentation the methods for deriving the OM1 aerosol product will be presented. Part of these methods developed for OM1 can already be applied to TOMS data and results of such analysis will be shown.

Veefkind, J. P.; Torres, O.; Syniuk, A.; Decae, R.; deLeeuw, G.

2003-01-01

219

Monitoring of Refractory Wall recession using high temperature impact echo instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Regression of refractory linings of furnaces occurs due to a variety of mechanisms. The specific mechanism selected for investigation during this program is the regression of refractories which are in direct contact with a liquid corrodant. Examples include the melting of glass, the production of pig iron and steel, and the melting of aluminum. The rates of regression to a wall thickness which requires reline or extensive reconstruction vary widely, from less than a year to over ten years depending on the specific service environment. This program investigated the feasibility of measuring refractory wall thickness with an impact-echo method while at operating temperature (wall temperatures exceeding 500 C). The impact-echo method uses the impact of a small sphere with the surface of the test object to send a stress wave into the object. In a plate-like structure, the stress wave reflects back to the front surface, reverberating in the structure and causing a periodic surface displacement whose frequency is inversely proportional to the thickness of the test object. Impact-echo testing was chosen because it requires access to only one side of the test object and could be performed during the operation of a refractory structure. Commercially-available impact-echo instrumentation is available for room temperature use for a variety of tests on concrete. The enabling technology for this work was to use a high-temperature piezoelectric material, aluminum nitride, as the receiving sensor for the stress waves, allowing its use on refractories during furnace operation.

University of Dayton

2004-04-30

220

Validation of low-cost ozone measurement instruments suitable for use in an air-quality monitoring network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel low-cost instrument that uses a sensor based on conductivity changes of heated tungstic oxide, which is capable of accurately measuring ambient concentrations of ozone. A combination of temperature steps and air flow-rate steps is used to continually reset and re-zero the sensor. A two-stage calibration procedure is presented, in which a nonlinear transformation converts sensor resistance to a signal linear in ozone concentration, then a linear correlation is used to align the calibration with a reference instrument. The required calibration functions specific for the sensor, and control system for air flow rate and sensor temperature, are housed with the sensor in a compact, simple-to-exchange assembly. The instrument can be operated on solar power and uses cell phone technology to enable monitoring in remote locations. Data from field trials are presented here to demonstrate that both the accuracy and the stability of the instrument over periods of months are within a few parts-per-billion by volume. We show that common failure modes can be detected through measurement of signals available from the instrument. The combination of long-term stability, self-diagnosis, and simple, inexpensive repair means that the cost of operation and calibration of the instruments is significantly reduced in comparison with traditional reference instrumentation. These instruments enable the economical construction and operation of ozone monitoring networks of accuracy, time resolution and spatial density sufficient to resolve the local gradients that are characteristic of urban air pollution.

Williams, David E.; Henshaw, Geoff S.; Bart, Mark; Laing, Greer; Wagner, John; Naisbitt, Simon; Salmond, Jennifer A.

2013-06-01

221

TRISO fuel compact thermal conductivity measurement instrument development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal conductivity is an important thermophysical property needed for effectively predicting fuel performance. As part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program, the thermal conductivity of tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel needs to be measured over a temperature range characteristic of its usage. The composite nature of TRISO fuel requires that measurement be performed over the entire length of the compact in a non-destructive manner. No existing measurement system is capable of performing such a measurement. A measurement system has been designed based on the steady-state, guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow technique. The system as currently designed is capable of measuring cylindrical samples with diameters ˜12.3-mm (˜0.5?) with lengths ˜25-mm (˜1?). The system is currently operable in a temperature range of 400 K to 1100 K for materials with thermal conductivities on the order of 10 W/m/K to 70 W/m/K. The system has been designed, built, and tested. An uncertainty analysis for the determinate errors of the system has been performed finding a result of 5.5%. Finite element modeling of the system measurement method has also been accomplished demonstrating optimal design, operating conditions, and associated bias error. Measurements have been performed on three calibration/validation materials: SS304, 99.95% pure iron, and inconel 625. In addition, NGNP graphite with ZrO2 particles and NGNP AGR-2 graphite matrix only, both in compact form, have been measured. Results from the SS304 sample show agreement of better than 3% for a 300--600°C temperature range. For iron between 100--600°C, the difference with published values is <8% for all temperatures. The maximum difference from published data for inconel 625 is 5.8%, near 600°C. Both NGNP samples were measured from 100--800°C. All results are presented and discussed. Finally, a discussion of ongoing work is included as well as a brief discussion of implementation under other operating conditions, including higher temperatures and adaptation for use in a glovebox or hot cell.

Jensen, Colby

222

Measurement of the Coolant Channel Temperatures and Pressures of a Cooled Radial-Inflow Turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instrumentation has been installed on the surface of a cooled radial-inflow turbine. Thermocouples and miniature integrated sensor pressure transducers were installed to measure steady state coolant temperatures, blade wall temperatures, and coolant pressures. These measurements will eventually be used to determine the heat transfer characteristics of the rotor. This paper will describe the procedures used to install and calibrate the instrumentation and the testing methods followed. A limited amount of data will compare the measured values to the predicted values.

Dicicco, L. Danielle; Nowlin, Brent C.; Tirres, Lizet

1994-01-01

223

Development and application of an instrument for spatially resolved Seebeck coefficient measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Seebeck coefficient is a key indicator of the majority carrier type (electrons or holes) in a material. The recent trend toward the development of combinatorial materials research methods has necessitated the development of a new high-throughput approach to measuring the Seebeck coefficient at spatially distinct points across any sample. The overall strategy of the high-throughput experiments is to quickly identify the region of interest on the sample at some expense of accuracy, and then study this region by more conventional techniques. The instrument for spatially resolved Seebeck coefficient measurements reported here relies on establishing a temperature difference across the entire compositionally graded thin-film and consecutive mapping of the resulting voltage as a function of position, which facilitates the temperature-dependent measurements up to 400 °C. The results of the designed instrument are verified at ambient temperature to be repeatable over 10 identical samples and accurate to within 10% versus conventional Seebeck coefficient measurements over the -100 to +150 ?V/K range using both n-type and p-type conductive oxides as test cases. The developed instrument was used to determine the sign of electrical carriers of compositionally graded Zn-Co-O and Ni-Co-O libraries prepared by combinatorial sputtering. As a result of this study, both cobalt-based materials were determined to have p-type conduction over a broad single-phase region of chemical compositions and small variation of the Seebeck coefficient over the entire investigated range of compositions and temperature.

Zakutayev, Andriy; Luciano, Frank J.; Bollinger, Vincent P.; Sigdel, Ajaya K.; Ndione, Paul F.; Perkins, John D.; Berry, Joseph J.; Parilla, Philip A.; Ginley, David S.

2013-05-01

224

An instrumented sample holder for time-lapse micro-tomography measurements of snow under advective airflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An instrumented sample holder was developed for time-lapse micro-tomography of snow samples to enable in-situ nondestructive spatial and temporal measurements under controlled advective airflows, temperature gradients, and air humidities. The design was aided by computational fluid dynamics simulations to evaluate the airflow uniformity across the snow sample. Morphological and mass transport properties were evaluated during a 4 day test run. This instrument allows the experimental characterization of metamorphism of snow undergoing structural changes with time.

Ebner, P. P.; Grimm, S. A.; Schneebeli, M.; Steinfeld, A.

2014-06-01

225

Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets  

DOEpatents

An instrument is described for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall sufficiently thin that it can be deformed by the application of an external vacuum to small area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. An abrupt change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the vacuum applied through the head to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum reference plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A packet production line model is also described. 3 figures.

Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

1993-10-05

226

Instrument for the in situ measurement of depositing particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contaminant particles peculiar to a type of equipment emanate inside and around a semiconductor, or thin-film-transistor-liquid-crystal-display device fabrication front-end equipment. To analyze such deposition phenomena and implement contamination control measures, it is necessary to observe in situ deposition behavior over a long period. This article describes a measuring instrument for this purpose. Deposition and tearing off of particles or mist take place on the surface of a transparent plate (of glass or quartz) and Mie scattering occurs when a laser beam is irradiated onto the particles or mist from below. The scattered light is detected in situ while the detection signals are accumulated and kept track of. In this instrument, a semiconductor laser with beam focusing optics and an ellipsoidal mirror are integrated into a small, portable unit. The laser beam is scanned onto the glass surface over a maximum area of 250 by 250 mm in one or two dimensions. It is possible to adjust the scanned area, scanning speed, and laser beam diameter. One-spot, fixed irradiation is also possible for detection of particle flow or tearing on the surface. The minimum detectable particle size was about 0.3-0.4 ?m for polystyrene latex sphere (PSL) particles deposited on the glass surface with a beam diameter of 35 ?m and a scanning speed of 0.3 m/s (0.14 ?m for a silicon wafer surface). Two kinds of experiments were carried out by the use of one glass with PSL particles deposited on the surface and another glass on whose surface PSL particles were spouted so they would roll without deposition. By using this instrument, it became clear that the response curve for the rolling of the particles agreed well with the Mie equation, whereas the curve for the deposited particles deviated from the equation, but only in the range of minute particle sizes. Another phenomenon clarified through in situ measurement was that once deposited, real-world particles were subjected to the influence of the down flow of clean air (0.3 m/s), and some were torn off in a time period on the order of hours. A comparison of the real-world particle deposition rate was made between the grounded and ungrounded states using a glass plate with a transparent conductive thin film. An increase in the deposition rate was observed for the ungrounded state, while a remarkable tearing-off rate was seen for the grounded state.

Tsuchiya, Masayoshi; Takami, Katsumi

1997-08-01

227

Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points  

SciTech Connect

The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)] [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)

2013-09-11

228

Alignment Measurements of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Instrument in a Thermal/Vacuum Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory, scheduled for a fall 2000 launch, is designed to measure temperature fluctuations (anisotropy) and produce a high sensitivity and high spatial resolution (approximately 0.2 degree) map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation over the entire sky between 22 and 90 GHz. MAP utilizes back-to-back Gregorian telescopes to focus the microwave signals into 10 differential microwave receivers, via 20 feed horns. Proper alignment of the telescope reflectors and the feed horns at the operating temperature of 90 K is a critical element to ensure mission success. We describe the hardware and methods used to validate the displacement/deformation predictions of the reflectors and the microwave feed horns during thermal/vacuum testing of the reflectors and the microwave instrument. The smallest deformation predictions to be measured were on the order of +/- 0.030 inches (+/- 0.762 mm). Performance of these alignment measurements inside a thermal/vacuum chamber with conventional alignment equipment posed several limitations. The most troublesome limitation was the inability to send personnel into the chamber to perform the measurements during the test due to vacuum and the temperature extremes. The photogrammetry (PG) system was chosen to perform the measurements since it is a non- contact measurement system, the measurements can be made relatively quickly and accurately, and the photogrammetric camera can be operated remotely. The hardware and methods developed to perform the MAP alignment measurements using PG proved to be highly successful. The measurements met the desired requirements, for the metal structures enabling the desired distortions to be measured resolving deformations an order of magnitude smaller than the imposed requirements. Viable data were provided to the MAP Project for a full analysis of the on-orbit performance of the Instrument's microwave system.

Hill, Michael D.; Herrera, Acey A.; Crane, J. Allen; Packard, Edward A.; Aviado, Carlos; Sampler, Henry P.

2000-01-01

229

Upper ocean variability in west Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf waters as measured using instrumented seals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature profile data for the west Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) continental shelf waters, collected from freely ranging instrumented seals (crabeater, Lobodon carcinophagus and leopard, Hydrurga leptonyx), were used to demonstrate that these platforms can be used to supplement traditional oceanographic sampling methods to investigate the physical properties of the upper water column. The seal-derived profiles were combined with temperature profiles obtained from ship-based CTD measurements and from a numerical circulation model developed for the WAP to describe changes in temperature structure, heat content, and heat flux in the upper ocean waters of the WAP continental shelf. The seal-derived data documented the fall-to-winter transition of the surface waters and the shelf-wide presence of modified Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) below 150-200 m on the WAP continental shelf. The heat content of the upper 200 m calculated from the seal-derived temperature profiles ranged between 1000 and 1500 MJ m -2; similar estimates were obtained from simulated temperature distributions. The seal-derived temperature measurements provided broader space and time resolution than was possible using any other currently available oceanographic sampling method. As such, the seal-derived measurements provided a valuable dataset for evaluation of temperature fields obtained from a numerical circulation model.

Costa, Daniel P.; Klinck, John M.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Burns, Jennifer M.

2008-02-01

230

Surface Temperature Measurement Using Hematite Coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems and methods that are capable of measuring temperature via spectrophotometry principles are discussed herein. These systems and methods are based on the temperature dependence of the reflection spectrum of hematite. Light reflected from these sensors can be measured to determine a temperature, based on changes in the reflection spectrum discussed herein.

Bencic, Timothy J. (Inventor)

2015-01-01

231

Temperature and Heat Transfer Measurements Cengiz Camci  

E-print Network

EAE077 Chapter 11 Temperature and Heat Transfer Measurements Cengiz Camci Turbomachinery Aero Resistive Temperature Transducers 2 3 Thermocouples 3 4 Bi-Metallic Temperature Sensors 7 5 Diode-Based Temperature Sensors 7 6 Liquid Crystal Thermometry 7 7 Infrared Thermometry and Pyrometer 9 8 Heat Transfer

Camci, Cengiz

232

27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions...chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears...

2012-04-01

233

27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions...chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears...

2013-04-01

234

27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions...chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears...

2011-04-01

235

27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits must show subdivisions...chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an instrument appears...

2014-04-01

236

Brazing Refractory Metals Used In High-Temperature Nuclear Instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR 1) experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed.

A. J. Palmer; C. J. Woolstenhulme

2009-06-01

237

Regional temperature variability in the European Alps: 1760-1998 from homogenized instrumental time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates temperature variability in the Alps and their surroundings based on 97 instrumental series of monthly mean temperatures. A discussion of the initial homogenizing procedure illustrates its advantages and risks. A comparison of the homogenized series with the original series clearly shows the necessity to homogenize. Each of the original series had breaks (an average of five per

Reinhard Böhm; Ingeborg Auer; Michele Brunetti; Maurizio Maugeri; Teresa Nanni; Wolfgang Schöner

2001-01-01

238

Catalytic considerations in temperature measurement.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Literature discussing catalytic activity in platinum group temperature sensors is surveyed. Methods for the determination and/or elimination of catalytic activity are reported. A particular application of the literature is discussed in which it is possible to infer that a shielded platinum total temperature probe does not experience significant catalytic activity in the wake of a supersonic hydrogen burner, while a bare iridium plus rhodium, iridium thermocouple does. It is concluded that catalytic data corrections are restricted and that it is preferable to coat the temperature sensor with a noncatalytic coating. Furthermore, the desirability of transparent coatings is discussed.

Ash, R. L.; Crossman, G. R.; Chitnis, R. V.

1972-01-01

239

Radiometric instrumentation for high-altitude balloon atmospheric measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Balloon Altitude Mosaic Measurements (BAMM) radiometer has a lead sulfide 4 x 4 detector array that is designed to collect earth radiation background from an altitude of 30 km. This paper describes some of the solutions to the environmental problems that were to be encountered during a flight. A detailed description is given of the radiometer characteristics and specifications, thermal, radiation and environmental considerations. It was found that the lead sulfide detectors have an enhanced detectivity at 163 K, and the intricate techniques to maintain the temperature are described. The effect of the window temperature on the signal was explored and the control of temperature variations was achieved, minimizing negative contributions. Flight testing indicates that the dewar and electronic boxes operate from sea level atmospheric pressure up to the partial pressure at 30 km. The effectiveness of the design configuration was confirmed by theoretical and experimental data.

Morse, D. E.

1980-01-01

240

Quantifying gravity wave momentum fluxes with Mesosphere Temperature Mappers and correlative instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Advanced Mesosphere Temperature Mapper and other instruments at the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research in Norway (69.3°N) and at Logan and Bear Lake Observatory in Utah (42°N) are used to demonstrate a new method for quantifying gravity wave (GW) pseudo-momentum fluxes accompanying spatially and temporally localized GW packets. The method improves on previous airglow techniques by employing direct characterization of the GW temperature perturbations averaged over the OH airglow layer and correlative wind and temperature measurements to define the intrinsic GW properties with high confidence. These methods are applied to two events, each of which involves superpositions of GWs having various scales and character. In each case, small-scale GWs were found to achieve transient, but very large, momentum fluxes with magnitudes varying from ~60 to 940 m2 s-2, which are ~1-2 decades larger than mean values. Quantification of the spatial and temporal variations of GW amplitudes and pseudo-momentum fluxes may also enable assessments of the total pseudo-momentum accompanying individual GW packets and of the potential for secondary GW generation that arises from GW localization. We expect that the use of this method will yield key insights into the statistical forcing of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere by GWs, the importance of infrequent large-amplitude events, and their effects on GW spectral evolution with altitude.

Fritts, David C.; Pautet, P.-Dominique; Bossert, Katrina; Taylor, Michael J.; Williams, Bifford P.; Iimura, Hiroyuki; Yuan, Tao; Mitchell, Nicholas J.; Stober, Gunter

2014-12-01

241

Instrumentation development for magnetic and structural studies under extremes of pressure and temperature   

E-print Network

The study of the magnetic and structural properties of matter under extreme conditions is a fast developing field. With the emergence of new techniques and innovative instruments for measuring physical properties, the ...

Giriat, Gaetan

2012-06-25

242

Precise Measurement of Process Temperature Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of power in a nuclear reactor system is comparable to measurement of yield in a chemical plant or to measurement of throughput in a paper mill process. In most reactor systems power is determined by measurement of heat transferred to the coolant. In this study reactor coolant heat-rise was determined by the differential-temperature measuring circuitry of a power calculator

Kitchen

2003-01-01

243

46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340...

2010-10-01

244

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illuminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature.

Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

245

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illiminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature. 3 figs.

Angel, S.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

1986-04-22

246

Measurement Error Webinar Series: Combining self-report dietary assessment instruments to reduce the effects of measurement error  

Cancer.gov

Describe methods of combining self-report dietary instruments to reduce measurement error and improve the power to detect diet-health associations. Understand situations in which combining information from various instruments may provide the most benefit.

247

Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement  

DOEpatents

A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

1994-09-20

248

Specific Heat and Second Sound Measurements with the DYNAMIX Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to its primary role of studying non-linear heat transport effects near the lambda transition of He-4, the DYNAMX apparatus is suitable for measurements of the specific heat and the velocity of second sound. We plan to take advantage of available time on orbit to make measurements in these areas near to the lambda transition. The specific heat work would be similar to LPE, aimed at improving our knowledge of the singularity in the bulk heat capacity at the transition, but would provide more accurate results close to the transition. It would focus roughly equally on each side of the transition and would be synergistic with the CQ experiment, providing wider-range data at Q = 0. The second sound measurements are made possible by the fast time constant and high resolution of the DYNAMX thermometers, which allow accurate time-of-flight measurements of second sound pulses. It appears possible to measure the second sound velocity to about 1% at a reduced temperature of t = 5x10(exp -8) by averaging over a moderate number of pulses. The data would complement and extend earlier ground-based measurements, leading to improved tests of the theory of static critical phenomena at the lambda transition.

Nissen, Joel

2003-01-01

249

The rhesus measurement system: A new instrument for space research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) is a research environment designed to study the effects of microgravity using rhesus primates as human surrogates. This experimental model allows investigators to study numerous aspects of microgravity exposure without compromising crew member activities. Currently, the RRF is slated for two missions to collect its data, the first mission is SLS-3, due to fly in late 1995. The RRF is a joint effort between the United States and France. The science and hardware portions of the project are being shared between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and France's Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The RRF is composed of many different subsystems in order to acquire data, provide life support, environmental enrichment, computer facilities and measurement capabilities for two rhesus primates aboard a nominal sixteen day mission. One of these subsystems is the Rhesus Measurement System (RMS). The RMS is designed to obtain in-flight physiological measurements from sensors interfaced with the subject. The RMS will acquire, preprocess, and transfer the physiologic data to the Flight Data System (FDS) for relay to the ground during flight. The measurements which will be taken by the RMS during the first flight will be respiration, measured at two different sites; electromyogram (EMG) at three different sites; electroencephalogram (EEG); electrocardiogram (ECG); and body temperature. These measurements taken by the RMS will assist the research team in meeting the science objectives of the RRF project.

Schonfeld, Julie E.; Hines, John W.

1993-01-01

250

Water bath temperature control and temperature measurement devices for calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-cost water bath temperature control device, and an apparatus designed to monitor temperature variation from a null point both inside a precision calorimeter and in the surrounding bath, are described. Bath control to better than +or-0.002K in the 280-350K region can be achieved. Temperature variations in ranges between +or-2K and +or-0.02K can be measured to better than 5*10-2K and

J. D. B. Featherstone; N. A. Dickinson

1977-01-01

251

40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2012-07-01

252

40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2014-07-01

253

40 CFR 86.1320-90 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol, and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2013-07-01

254

40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2013-07-01

255

40 CFR 86.120-94 - Gas meter or flow instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. 86...instrumentation calibration; particulate, methanol and formaldehyde measurement. (a) Sampling for particulate, methanol and formaldehyde emissions...

2012-07-01

256

Temperature standards, what and where: resources for effective temperature measurements  

SciTech Connect

Many standards have been published to describe devices, methods, and other topics. How they are developed and by whom are briefly described, and an attempt is made to extract most of those relating to temperature measurements. A directory of temperature standards and their sources is provided.

Johnston, W.W. Jr.

1982-01-01

257

MEASURING VARIATIONS IN TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE  

E-print Network

MEASURING VARIATIONS IN TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE A Balloon Experiment by: John Bertinetti and Chip Keating #12;Purpose of the Balloon Experiment Pressure and temperature vary with altitude: pressure;Pressure: P vs. h #12;Temperature: Exponential Curve Fit Note: this is a curve, not a line #12;Our pressure

California at Santa Cruz, University of

258

Temperature and heat flux measurements: Challenges for high temperature aerospace application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measurement of high temperatures and the influence of heat transfer data is not strictly a problem of either the high temperatures involved or the level of the heating rates to be measured at those high temperatures. It is a problem of duration during which measurements are made and the nature of the materials in which the measurements are made. Thermal measurement techniques for each application must respect and work with the unique features of that application. Six challenges in the development of measurement technology are discussed: (1) to capture the character and localized peak values within highly nonuniform heating regions; (2) to manage large volumes of thermal instrumentation in order to efficiently derive critical information; (3) to accommodate thermal sensors into practical flight structures; (4) to broaden the capabilities of thermal survey techniques to replace discrete gages in flight and on the ground; (5) to provide supporting instrumentation conduits which connect the measurement points to the thermally controlled data acquisition system; and (6) to develop a class of 'vehicle tending' thermal sensors to assure the integrity of flight vehicles in an efficient manner.

Neumann, Richard D.

1992-01-01

259

Measuring Communicative Participation: A Review of Self-Report Instruments in Speech-Language Pathology  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the adequacy of self-report instruments in speech-language pathology for measuring a construct called communicative participation. Method Six instruments were evaluated relative to (a) the construct measured, (b) the relevance of individual items to communicative participation, and (c) their psychometric properties. Results No instrument exclusively measured communicative participation. Twenty-six percent (n = 34) of all items (N = 132) across the reviewed instruments were consistent with communicative participation. The majority (76%) of the 34 items were associated with general communication, while the remaining 24% of the items were associated with communication at work, during leisure, or for establishing relationships. Instruments varied relative to psychometric properties. Conclusions No existing self-report instruments in speech-language pathology were found to be solely dedicated to measuring communicative participation. Developing an instrument for measuring communicative participation is essential for meeting the requirements of our scope of practice. PMID:17102143

Eadie, Tanya L.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Deitz, Jean C.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

2009-01-01

260

Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Israel: The Potential of Using Market-Oriented Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented\\u000a instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines\\u000a (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and\\u000a specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution

Liron Amdur; Elke Bertke; Jan Freese; Rainer Marggraf

2011-01-01

261

Precision and accuracy of three alternative instruments for measuring soil water content in two forest soils of the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the accuracy and precision of three devices for measuring soil water content in both natural and repacked soils and evaluated their temperature sensitivity. Calibrations were developed for a capacitance instrument (ECH2O), a time domain reflectometry cable tester (CT), and a water content reflectometer (WCR) in soils collected from the Wind River and H.J. Andrews Experimental Forests. We compared

Nicole M. Czarnomski; Georgianne W. Moore; Tom G. Pypker; Julian Licata; Barbara J. Bond

2005-01-01

262

METHODS OF MEASURING TEMPERATURE IN NUCLEAR REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safe operation of high-power nuclear reactors depends upon the ; accurate measurement of temperatures of their components. Temperature ; measurement devices are affected by nuclear radiation, heat flux, and other ; conditions which exist in nuclear reactors. Thermocouples are used in reactors ; more than other methods because of their small size, remote output and relative ; insensitivity to

W. E. Jr

1963-01-01

263

Cross-Validation of an Instrument for Measuring Professionalism Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Objective. To cross-validate an instrument to measure behavioral aspects of professionalism in pharmacy students using a rating scale that minimizes ceiling effects. Methods. Seven institutions collaborated to create a 33-item assessment tool that included 5 domains of professionalism: (1) Reliability, Responsibility and Accountability; (2) Lifelong Learning and Adaptability; (3) Relationships with Others; (4) Upholding Principles of Integrity and Respect; and (5) Citizenship and Professional Engagement. Each item was rated based on 5 levels of competency which were aligned with a modified Miller's Taxonomy (Knows, Knows How, Shows, Shows How and Does, and Teaches). Results. Factor analyses confirmed the presence of 5 domains for professionalism. The factor analyses from the 7-school pilot study demonstrated that professionalism items were good fits within each of the 5 domains. Conclusions. Based on a multi-institutional pilot study, data from the Professionalism Assessment Tool (PAT), provide evidence for internal validity and reliability. Use of the tool by external evaluators should be explored in future research. PMID:22171107

Stanke, Luke D.; Rabi, Suzanne M.; Kuba, Sarah E.; Janke, Kristin K.

2011-01-01

264

Asteroid Bennu Temperature Maps for OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft and Instrument Thermal Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermophysical model has been developed to generate asteroid Bennu surface temperature maps for OSIRIS-REx spacecraft and instrument thermal design and analyses at the Critical Design Review (CDR). Two-dimensional temperature maps for worst hot and worst cold cases are used in Thermal Desktop to assure adequate thermal design margins. To minimize the complexity of the Bennu geometry in Thermal Desktop, it is modeled as a sphere instead of the radar shape. The post-CDR updated thermal inertia and a modified approach show that the new surface temperature predictions are more benign. Therefore the CDR Bennu surface temperature predictions are conservative.

Choi, Michael K.; Emery, Josh; Delbo, Marco

2014-01-01

265

Review of measurement instruments in clinical and research ethics, 1999–2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every field of practice has the responsibility to evaluate its outcomes and to test its theories. Evidence of the underdevelopment of measurement instruments in bioethics suggests that attending to strengthening existing instruments and developing new ones will facilitate the interpretation of accumulating bodies of research as well as the making of clinical judgements. A review of 65 instruments reported in

B K Redman

2006-01-01

266

Exploration of Instruments Measuring Concepts of Graduateness in a Research University Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the appropriateness of international instruments to measure the separate concepts of graduateness for a research university context. The four concepts of graduateness--reflective thinking, scholarship, moral citizenship and lifelong learning--are operationalized using five existing instruments. These instruments were…

Steur, J. M.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Hofman, W. H. A.

2011-01-01

267

Validation of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder Temperature and Pressure Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy and precision of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) atmospheric temperature and tangent-point pressure measurements are described. Temperatures and tangent- point pressure (atmospheric pressure at the tangent height of the field of view boresight) are retrieved from a 15-channel 63-GHz radiometer measuring O2 microwave emissions from the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Version 3 data (first public release) contains scientifically useful temperatures from 22 to 0.46 hPa. Accuracy estimates are based on instrument performance, spectroscopic uncertainty and retrieval numerics, and range from 2.1 K at 22 hPa to 4.8 K at 0.46 hPa for temperature and from 200 m (equivalent log pressure) at 10 hPa to 300 m at 0.1 hPa. Temperature accuracy is limited mainly by uncertainty in instrument characterization, and tangent-point pressure accuracy is limited mainly by the accuracy of spectroscopic parameters. Precisions are around 1 K and 100 m. Comparisons are presented among temperatures from MLS, the National Meteorological Center (NMC) stratospheric analysis and lidar stations at Table Mountain, California, Observatory of Haute Provence (OHP), France, and Goddard Spaceflight Center, Maryland. MLS temperatures tend to be 1-2 K lower than NMC and lidar, but MLS is often 5 - 10 K lower than NMC in the winter at high latitudes, especially within the northern hemisphere vortex. Winter MLS and OHP (44 deg N) lidar temperatures generally agree and tend to be lower than NMC. Problems with Version 3 MLS temperatures and tangent-point pressures are identified, but the high precision of MLS radiances will allow improvements with better algorithms planned for the future.

Fishbein, E. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Lungu, T.; Read, W. G.; Shippony, Z.; Waters, J. W.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Singh, U.; Gross, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Keckhut, P.; Gelman, M. E.; Nagatani, R. M.

1996-01-01

268

Nonintrusive temperature measurements on advanced turbomachinery components  

SciTech Connect

A nonintrusive, noncontacting method we developed for temperature measurements in hostile environments is well-suited for measurements on advanced turbine components. The method is not only superior to thermocouples in sufficiently difficult environments, but also is the only known method for making measurements in situations where no form of pyrometry works. We demonstrated the method, which uses laser-induced fluorescence of thermographic phosphors bonded to the component surfaces, on turbine blades and vanes in developmental turbine engines. The method is extendable to the much-higher temperatures expected inside advanced turbomachinery. Of particular note is the adaptability of the method to surface-temperature measurements on ceramics operating at high temperatures. In this temperature range, the ceramics become translucent, and surface emissivity becomes meaningless. We shall discuss the method, its advantages and limitations, recent test results on operating turbine engines, and the extension to ceramic components.

Noel, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turley, W.D.; Lewis, W. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States)

1992-12-31

269

Thermodynamic Temperature Measurements Traceable to Photometric Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The replacement of ITS-90 temperature measurements by direct thermodynamic temperature measurements based on radiometric techniques in the temperature range above 1000 °C has been proposed by many national measurement laboratories. This article reports on work at NMIA to develop a simple and robust traceability scheme for thermodynamic temperature, based on the use of photometers and a Thermogage furnace with a graphite tube element modified to improve its temperature uniformity and emissivity. A simple luminance meter was constructed using a commercial photometer and pairs of precision apertures to view the rear of the blackbody cavity. This photometer was calibrated against NMIA reference illuminance lamps, and relative spectral responsivity measurements were used to determine the color-temperature correction between the lamps and the Thermogage blackbody. Thermodynamic temperature determinations made using various combinations of apertures and photometers showed a range of less than 0.2 °C at 1700 °C, consistent with the calculated uncertainty of 0.29 °C ( k = 2). ITS-90 measurements made by NMIA's LP5 and HTSP primary radiation thermometers with an uncertainty of 0.16 °C ( k = 2), are consistent with the thermodynamic measurements. It is suggested that routine thermodynamic temperature determinations can now be made with an effort comparable to that required to realize the ITS-90 above 1000 °C.

Ballico, Mark

2011-12-01

270

Instrument Cross-Comparisons and Automated Quality Control of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) instrument network, several different systems often measure the same quantity at the same site. For example, several ARM instruments measure time-series profiles of the atmosphere that were previously available only from balloon-borne radiosonde systems. These instruments include the Radar Wind Profilers (RWP) with Radio-Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS), the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), the

S. Moore; G. Hughes

2005-01-01

271

The effect of instrument exposure on marine air temperatures: an assessment using VOSClim Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of marine air temperature (MAT) by Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS) are known to contain significant biases due to solar heating of the sensor environment. MAT and humidity observations are usually made using wet- and dry-bulb thermometers housed in Stevenson screens, or with psychrometers. These instruments are typically mounted in the bridge wings or on the wheel-house top. If not sited carefully then the instruments can be poorly exposed to the undisturbed environmental conditions and have inadequate ventilation, leading to biased observations of both MAT and humidity.In this paper we use observations collected as part of the VOS Climate (VOSClim) project to investigate the relationship between instrument exposure and heating errors. The heating errors are estimated as the difference between the observed MAT and the collocated output of a numerical weather prediction model. The instrument exposures are assessed from photographs of the instruments. Currently, photographs of the instruments and sufficient observations exist for 17 VOSClim ships.Two methods of assessing the instrument exposure using the observations are presented. The first method is based on the skewness of the distribution of estimated heating errors for individual ships. The second method is based on a correction developed to correct the heating errors and uses the ratio of the heating to cooling terms in the correction. When ships are ranked both on the skewness and on the ratio of the heating to cooling terms, there is a statistically significant correspondence between the rankings and the visual assessments of instrument exposure. The skewness of the distribution of estimated errors in MAT is proposed as a simple indicator of instrument exposure.

Berry, David I.; Kent, Elizabeth C.

2005-06-01

272

27 CFR 19.277 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...their own use accurate hydrometers, thermometers, and other necessary equipment to...b) Instruments. Hydrometers and thermometers used by proprietors to gauge spirits...frequent tests of their hydrometers and thermometers, and, if they appear to be...

2010-04-01

273

Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (approx. = 71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in. (approx. = 1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (approx. = 6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger. This work was done by Randy

Selinsky, T.; Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

2002-01-01

274

Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (=71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in.(=1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (=6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger.

Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

2002-01-01

275

Simple microcalorimeter for measuring microgram samples at low temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative microcalorimeter has been developed for measuring specific heat of very small microgram samples in the temperature range from 1.5 to 50 K and in magnetic fields up to 11 T. The device is built from a commercial sapphire temperature chip (Cernox), which is modified by means of standard microfabrication techniques and which is used as a sample holder, temperature sensor, and sample heater. Compared to existing microcalorimeters the simple design of our instrument allows a fabrication of the device in a few process steps by using facilities present in a standard laboratory clean room. As an illustrative example for the performance of our device, the specific heat of an underdoped (La1-xSrx)2CuO4 and CaRuO3 single crystal has been measured by means of the relaxation time method as well as the ac method.

Doettinger-Zech, S. G.; Uhl, M.; Sisson, D. L.; Kapitulnik, A.

2001-05-01

276

Multibeam Lidar Instrument Design, Measurement Capabilities, and Technical Readiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-beam Laser Altimeter has been designed and studied at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the critical technologies have developed and tested resulting in a mature and technically ready instrument approach. The instrument consists of three separate beams each providing a near-contiguous profile of 25 m diameter laser footprints. The across-track separation of the beams can be <1 km

B. Blair; J. Ranson; R. Dubayah; B. Coyle; C. Salerno

2007-01-01

277

James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Calibration and Verification of High-Accuracy Instrumentation to Measure Heat Flow in Cryogenic Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an upcoming flagship observatory mission scheduled to be launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. The requirement for multiple thermal zoned results in the instruments being thermally connected to five external radiators via individual high purity aluminum heat straps. Thermal-vacuum and thermal balance testing of the flight instruments at the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element level will take place within a newly constructed shroud cooled by gaseous helium inside Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Space environment Simulator (SES). The flight external radiators are not available during ISIM-level thermal vacuum/thermal testing, so they will be replaced in test with stable and adjustable thermal boundaries with identical physical interfaces to the flight radiators. Those boundaries are provided by specially designed test hardware which also measures the heat flow within each of the five heat straps to an accuracy of less than 2 mW, which is less than 5% of the minimum predicted heat flow values. Measurement of the heat loads to this accuracy is essential to ISIM thermal model correlation, since thermal models are more accurately correlated when temperature data is supplemented by accurate knowledge of heat flows. It also provides direct verification by test of several high-level thermal requirements. Devices that measure heat flow in this manner have historically been referred to a "Q-meters". Perhaps the most important feature of the design of the JWST Q-meters is that it does not depend on the absolute accuracy of its temperature sensors, but rather on knowledge of precise heater power required to maintain a constant temperature difference between sensors on two stages, for which a table is empirically developed during a calibration campaign in a small chamber at GSFC. This paper provides a brief review of Q-meter design, and discusses the Q-meter calibration procedure including calibration chamber modifications and accommodations, handling of differing conditions between calibration and usage, the calibration process itself, and the results of the tests used to determine if the calibration is successful.

Comber, Brian; Glazer, Stuart

2012-01-01

278

MECHANICAL DESIGN OF A PRECISION INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING THE ROUNDNESS PROFILES OF MICRO SHAFTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new instrument for measuring round- ness profiles of axially symmetric micro shafts with diameters below 250 micrometers. The instrument will measure form error in cutting tools used for micro machining, small-hole metrology probes, and other high aspect ratio micro structures. This in- strument operates on the same physical principle as scanning tunneling microscopes, which measure surface

Neil Loychik; Mathieu Barraja; Afzal Khan; R. Ryan Vallance; Eric R. Marsh; Dave A. Arneson

2006-01-01

279

On quantum interferometric measurements of temperature  

E-print Network

We provide a detailed description of the interferometric thermometer, which is a device that estimates the temperature of a sample from measurements of the optical phase. For the first time, we rigorously analyze the operation of such a device by studying the interaction of the optical probe system with a heated sample. We find that this approach to thermometry is capable of measuring the temperature of a sample in the nK regime. Furthermore, we compare the theoretical precision of interferometric thermometers with the precision offered by the idealized pyrometers, which infer the temperature from a measurement of the total thermal radiation emitted by the sample.

Marcin Jarzyna; Marcin Zwierz

2014-12-17

280

Measurement of ozone transmissivity at low temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low temperature medium resolution measurements of the transmissivity of the ozone band have been made in the laboratory. The range of conditions under which the measurements were made are: -48 to -22 C, .0029 U .71 atmo.cm., 680 P 742 mmHg. The apparatus used is described briefly, measurement conditions are summarized and the resulting spectra are shown.

Bartman, F. L.; Loh, L. T.; Kuhn, W. R.

1976-01-01

281

Instrument and Measurement Technology Education - A Case Study: Inexpensive Student-Designed Power Monitoring Instrument for Campus Submetering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an innovative engineering course on Sustainable Design in Engineering, two Rowan University electrical and computer engineering (ECE) students designed a prototype for an inexpensive power measurement instrument. Their motivation was to more economically and conveniently monitor the energy flows on a university campus that currently uses over $7 million of electricity and gas annually. These students continued the development

Peter Mark Jansson; Jeffrey Tisa; William Kim

2007-01-01

282

An instrument for measuring the complex permittivity of the Martian top soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This permittivity measuring instrument measures the resistivity rho and the relative dielectric constant epsilon sub r of the Martian top soil along the path of a rover. This aim is achieved by measuring the real and imaginary parts of the complex permittivity epsilon = epsilon sub r - j epsilon sub i where epsilon sub i = omega epsilon sub o rho/1; epsilon sub 1 is the permittivity of vacuum and omega is a variable angular working frequency. The experimental technique consists in evaluating the mutual, or transfer, impedance of a quadrupolar probe, i.e., in quantifying the influence of the Martian ground on the electrical coupling of two Hertz dipoles. The horizontal and vertical spatial resolutions are of the order of the length and separation of the dipoles, typically 1 to 2 metres. The four-electrode method for measuring the ground resistivity on earth was first applied by Wenner and Schlumberger, but the proposed investigation bears closer resemblance to a similar instrument developed for ground surveying at shallow depth, in connection with archaelogical and pedological research. A quadrupolar probe will provide essential information about the electric properties of the Martian ground and will contribute usefully to the identification of the soil structure and composition in association with other experimental equipment (camera, infra-red detector, gamma and X-ray spectrometers, chemical analyzers, ground temperature probes).

Grard, R.

1988-01-01

283

Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, %5CDynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors%22. The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

2013-10-01

284

Cosmic microwave background dipole spectrum measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) has determined the dipole spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) from 2 to 20/cm. For each frequency the signal is decomposed by fitting to a monopole, a dipole, and a Galactic template for approximately 60% of the sky. The overall dipole spectrum fits the derivative of a Planck function with an amplitude of 3.343 +/- 0.016 mK (95% confidence level), a temperature of 2.714 +/- 0.022 K (95% confidence level), and an rms deviation of 6 x 10(exp -9) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm limited by a detector and cosmic-ray noise. The monopole temperature is consistent with that determined by direct measurement in the accompanying article by Mather et al.

Fixsen, D. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Isaacman, R. B.; Mather, J. C.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.; Shafer, R. A.; Weiss, R.

1994-01-01

285

Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of stratospheric temperature and density were acquired by the NASA/GSFC lidar during the Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC) experiment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Facility (TMF) (34.4°N, 117.7°W) in July and August 1989. Lidar temperatures, obtained on 21 nights preceding and during this experiment, are compared with temperatures derived by radiosondes, datasondes, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) satellite experiment, and National Meteorological Center (NMC) analyses. Radiosondes were flown from the TMF site as well as from San Nicholas Island (33.2°N, 119.5°W) located about 225 km southwest of TMF. Datasondes were deployed from Super-Loki rockets also launched at San Nicholas Island. SAGE II satellite temperature measurements were made within 1000 km of the Table Mountain site. NMC temperature analyses derived from the NOAA satellite measurements were interpolated to coincide in space and time with the lidar measurements. The lidar temperatures, which were derived for altitudes between 30 and 65 km, were within 2-3 K of the temperatures measured by the other sensors in the altitude range 30-45 km. Between 30 and 35 km, lidar temperatures were about 2 K cooler than those obtained from the datasondes and the NMC analyses but were about 1-2 K warmer than those obtained from the radiosonde. These differences may be due to the time difference between the measurements as well as possible nonnegligible aerosol scattering near 30 km. Near and above the stratopause the temperature differences increased to 3-8 K. Lidar temperature profiles also show small-scale variations possibly caused by wave activity.

Ferrare, R. A.; McGee, T. J.; Whiteman, D.; Burris, J.; Owens, M.; Butler, J.; Barnes, R. A.; Schmidlin, F.; Komhyr, W.; Wang, P. H.; McCormick, M. P.; Miller, A. J.

1995-05-01

286

Temperature measurements in sliding elastohydrodynamic point contacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques using the infrared radiation emitted by a sliding elastohydrodynamic (EHD) point contact to measure oil film and surface temperature are discussed. Temperature distributions in the EHD contact are presented for a naphthenic mineral oil at 1.04 GN/sq m (150,000 psi) Hertz pressure and several sliding velocities. Film temperatures as high as 360 C are reported at locations near the points of minimum film thickness in the contact side lobes.

Turchina, V.; Sanborn, D. M.; Winer, W. O.

1973-01-01

287

Land surface temperature measurements from EOS MODIS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A significant progress has been made in TIR instrumentation which is required to establish the spectral BRDF/emissivity knowledge base of land-surface materials and to validate the land-surface temperature (LST) algorithms. The SIBRE (spectral Infrared Bidirectional Reflectance and Emissivity) system and a TIR system for measuring spectral directional-hemispherical emissivity have been completed and tested successfully. Optical properties and performance features of key components (including spectrometer, and TIR source) of these systems have been characterized by integrated use of local standards (blackbody and reference plates). The stabilization of the spectrometer performance was improved by a custom designed and built liquid cooling system. Methods and procedures for measuring spectral TIR BRDF and directional-hemispheric emissivity with these two systems have been verified in sample measurements. These TIR instruments have been used in the laboratory and the field, giving very promising results. The measured spectral emissivities of water surface are very close to the calculated values based on well established water refractive index values in published papers. Preliminary results show that the TIR instruments can be used for validation of the MODIS LST algorithm in homogeneous test sites. The beta-3 version of the MODIS LST software is being prepared for its delivery scheduled in the early second half of this year.

Wan, Zhengming

1995-01-01

288

Measuring a caring culture in hospitals: a systematic review of instruments  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify instruments or components of instruments that aim to measure aspects of a caring culture-shared beliefs, norms and values that direct professionals and managers to act caring in hospitals, and to evaluate their psychometric properties. Design Systematic review. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Web of Science and the International bibliography of the Social Sciences. Study selection Peer-reviewed articles describing (components of) instruments measuring aspects of a caring culture in a hospital setting. Studies had to report psychometric data regarding the reliability or validity of the instrument. Potentially useful instruments that were identified after the title and abstract scan were assessed on relevance by an expert panel (n=12) using the RAND-modified Delphi procedure. Results Of the 6399 references identified, 75 were examined in detail. 7 studies each covering a unique instrument met our inclusion criteria. On average, 24% of the instrument's items were considered relevant for measuring aspects of the hospital's caring culture. Studies showed moderate-to-high validity and reliability scores. Validity was addressed for 6 of the 7 instruments. Face, content (90%) and construct (60%) validity were the most frequently reported psychometric properties described. One study (14%) reported discriminant validity of the instrument. Reliability data were available for all of the instruments. Internal consistency was the most frequently reported psychometric property for the instruments and demonstrated by: a Cronbach's ? coefficient (80%), subscale intercorrelations (60%), and item–total correlations (40%). Conclusions The ultimate standard for measuring a caring culture in hospitals does not exist. Existing instruments provide partial coverage and lack information on discriminant validity, responsiveness and feasibility. Characteristics of the instruments included in this review could provide useful input for the design of a reliable and valid instrument for measuring a caring culture in hospitals. PMID:24065697

Hesselink, G; Kuis, E; Pijnenburg, M; Wollersheim, H

2013-01-01

289

The development of an instrument to measure the compliance of adolescents with a chronic disease.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper was to describe the process of developing an instrument for measuring the compliance of adolescents with a chronic disease. The aim was to develop an instrument that could be used in a clinical setting to evaluate the compliance of young people with a chronic disease and to test a theoretical model of compliance, which had been developed along with the instrument. The instrument was originally developed to measure the compliance of adolescents with diabetes and later adjusted to measure the compliance of adolescents with asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and epilepsy. To test and develop the instrument, face and criterion validity, factor analyses, linear structural relations (LISREL) analyses, correlation coefficients and Cronbach's alpha were used. The instrument has 13 background questions and 41 items to measure compliance and factors connected to it. PMID:11136419

Kyngäs, H A; Skaar-Chandler, C A; Duffy, M E

2000-12-01

290

Agri-environmental policy measures in Israel: the potential of using market-oriented instruments.  

PubMed

This paper examines the possibilities of developing agri-environmental policy measures in Israel, focusing on market-oriented instruments. A conceptual framework for developing agri-environmental policy measures is presented, first in very broad lines (mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures) and subsequently focusing on economic instruments, and specifically, on market-oriented ones. Two criteria of choice between the measures are suggested: their contribution to improving the effectiveness of the policy; and the feasibility of their implementation. This is the framework used for analyzing agri-environmental measures in Israel. Israel currently implements a mix of mandatory regulations, economic instruments and advisory measures to promote the agri-environment. The use of additional economic instruments may improve the effectiveness of the policy. When comparing the effectiveness of various economic measures, we found that the feasibility of implementation of market-oriented instruments is greater, due to the Israeli public's preference for strengthening market orientation in the agricultural sector. Four market-oriented instruments were practiced in a pilot project conducted in an Israeli rural area. We found that in this case study, the institutional feasibility and acceptance by stakeholders were the major parameters influencing the implementation of the market-oriented instruments, whereas the instruments' contribution to enhancing the ecological or economic effectiveness were hardly considered by the stakeholders as arguments in favor of their use. PMID:21431445

Amdur, Liron; Bertke, Elke; Freese, Jan; Marggraf, Rainer

2011-05-01

291

An instrument to measure job satisfaction of nursing home administrators  

PubMed Central

Background The psychometric properties of the nursing home administrator job satisfaction questionnaire (NHA-JSQ) are presented, and the steps used to develop this instrument. Methods The NHA-JSQ subscales were developed from pilot survey activities with 93 administrators, content analysis, and a research panel. The resulting survey was sent to 1,000 nursing home administrators. Factor analyses were used to determine the psychometric properties of the instrument. Results Of the 1,000 surveys mailed, 721 usable surveys were returned (72 percent response rate). The factor analyses show that the items were representative of six underlying factors (i.e., coworkers, work demands, work content, work load, work skills, and rewards). Conclusion The NHA-JSQ represents a short, psychometrically sound job satisfaction instrument for use in nursing homes. PMID:17029644

Castle, Nicholas G

2006-01-01

292

The spectrometer for ice nuclei (SPIN): An instrument for continuous measurements of ice nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice in clouds has major impacts on precipitation formation and cloud characteristics including cloud dynamics and radiation. Primary nucleation of ice crystals at temperatures warmer than about -38 C occurs through heterogeneous nucleation by aerosol particles via several possible mechanisms. Droplet Measurement Technologies is producing a commercial ice nuclei (IN) counter sensitive to deposition and immersion/condensation freezing that features a parallel plate diffusion chamber. A high efficiency refrigeration system allows control of the cold wall to temperatures as low as approximately -70 C and the warm wall to temperatures as low as approximately -40 C, allowing measurements of IN activity over a wide range of atmospherically-relevant temperatures and water/ice saturations. Newly formed ice crystals are detected using an optical particle counter that features detection of polarized scattered light to identify ice crystals and distinguish them from liquid droplets. An actively controlled evaporation section can be operated to remove liquid droplets from the chamber output to further aid discrimination between ice and water. The instrument's data system and electronics allow for binning of the data as well as particle-by-particle recording of the forward scattered signal intensity and the backward scattered P and S polarization intensities. Particle sizing is from 0.4 to 10 ?m.

McMeeking, Gavin; Sagan, Frank; Kok, Greg

2013-05-01

293

Precision temperature gradient measurements on window glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface temperature gradients were measured with miniature thermocouples installed in a 58.5 cm (23-inch) square window. Test measurements at 25 locations were made under vacuum and with the window operating in radiant heat transfer mode. The analysis of thermocouple design and installation is presented along with a lead wire routing scheme to allow for both differential and absolute temperature measurements while using a minimum number of signal feedthru paths through the test chamber wall. Typical test data and operational precautions are presented along with the accuracy analysis for installation effects and measurement effects to support differential temperature measurement precision values of + or - 0.06 C RMS + or - 0.1 F RMS).

Mikk, G.; Petrie, W.

1977-01-01

294

MISSE 1 and 2 Tray Temperature Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE 1 & 2) was deployed August 10,2001 and retrieved July 30,2005. This experiment is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC. NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, NASA-JSC, the Materials Laboratory at the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Boeing Phantom Works. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate performance, stability, and long term survivability of materials and components planned for use by NASA and DOD on future LEO, synchronous orbit, and interplanetary space missions. Temperature is an important parameter in the evaluation of space environmental effects on materials. The MISSE 1 & 2 had autonomous temperature data loggers to measure the temperature of each of the four experiment trays. The MISSE tray-temperature data loggers have one external thermistor data channel, and a 12 bit digital converter. The MISSE experiment trays were exposed to the ISS space environment for nearly four times the nominal design lifetime for this experiment. Nevertheless, all of the data loggers provided useful temperature measurements of MISSE. The temperature measurement system has been discussed in a previous paper. This paper presents temperature measurements of MISSE payload experiment carriers (PECs) 1 and 2 experiment trays.

Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.

2006-01-01

295

Instrument-free exothermic heating with phase change temperature control for paper microfluidic devices  

PubMed Central

Many infectious diseases, as well as some cancers, that affect global health are most accurately diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification and detection. There is a great need to simplify nucleic acid-based assay systems for use in global health in low-resource settings as well as in settings that do not have convenient access to laboratory staff and equipment such as doctors' offices and home care settings. In developing countries, unreliable electric power, inadequate supply chains, and lack of maintenance for complex diagnostic instruments are all common infrastructure shortfalls. Many elements of instrument-free, disposable, nucleic acid amplification assays have been demonstrated in recent years. However, the problem of instrument-free,1 low-cost, temperature-controlled chemical heating remains unsolved. In this paper we present the current status and results of work towards developing disposable, low-cost, temperature-controlled heaters designed to support isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays that are integrated with a two-dimensional paper network. Our approach utilizes the heat generated through exothermic chemical reactions and controls the heat through use of engineered phase change materials to enable sustained temperatures required for nucleic acid amplification. By selecting appropriate exothermic and phase change materials, temperatures can be controlled over a wide range, suitable for various isothermal amplification methods, and maintained for over an hour at an accuracy of +/- 1°C. PMID:25426269

Singleton, Jered; Zentner, Chris; Buser, Josh; Yager, Paul; LaBarre, Paul; Weigl, Bernhard H.

2014-01-01

296

Instrument-free exothermic heating with phase change temperature control for paper microfluidic devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many infectious diseases, as well as some cancers, that affect global health are most accurately diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification and detection. There is a great need to simplify nucleic acid-based assay systems for use in global health in low-resource settings as well as in settings that do not have convenient access to laboratory staff and equipment such as doctors' offices and home care settings. In developing countries, unreliable electric power, inadequate supply chains, and lack of maintenance for complex diagnostic instruments are all common infrastructure shortfalls. Many elements of instrument-free, disposable, nucleic acid amplification assays have been demonstrated in recent years. However, the problem of instrument-free,1 low-cost, temperature-controlled chemical heating remains unsolved. In this paper we present the current status and results of work towards developing disposable, low-cost, temperature-controlled heaters designed to support isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays that are integrated with a two-dimensional paper network. Our approach utilizes the heat generated through exothermic chemical reactions and controls the heat through use of engineered phase change materials to enable sustained temperatures required for nucleic acid amplification. By selecting appropriate exothermic and phase change materials, temperatures can be controlled over a wide range, suitable for various isothermal amplification methods, and maintained for over an hour at an accuracy of +/- 1°C.

Singleton, Jered; Zentner, Chris; Buser, Josh; Yager, Paul; LaBarre, Paul; Weigl, Bernhard H.

2013-03-01

297

Constructing a Consensus-based Prevention Outcome Measurement Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Ohio's Prevention Evaluation Project (PEP), that developed a questionnaire to assess behavioral and attitudinal outcomes in primary drug abuse prevention programs targeting young people aged twelve to seventeen. One of PEP's principal achievements was the inclusion of community prevention program providers in the evaluation instrument

Siegal, Harvey A.; Lane, D. Timothy; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert G.; Rahman, Ahmmed; Chambers, Deborah T.

2001-01-01

298

Art therapy assessments and rating instruments: Do they measure up?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many benefits to justify the use of art therapy assessment techniques and rating instruments. However, methodological, theoretical and philosophical problems abound. These problems are explored, in relation to art therapy assessments and their corresponding rating tools. Information about the various types of rating scales is provided, including a comparison of the Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS) rating system and

Donna J. Betts

2006-01-01

299

Measuring Quality of Life: A New and Practical Survey Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a new, short, self-administered questionnaire that assesses the quality of life in seven areas. Evidence for the reliability and validity of the questionnaire was based on data gathered from 971 clients; results indicate instrument reliability. The questionnaire features low-cost administration and valid psychometric properties. (RJM)

Greenley, James R.; Greenberg, Jan Steven; Brown, Roger

1997-01-01

300

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: FLOW MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Flow meter devices are the most widely used process monitoring instruments in wastewater treatment. Careful consideration must be exercised during selection of flow meters to avoid equipment misapplication that can result in operation problems and equipment failure. It is the res...

301

A Single Chip Microcomputer Based Instrument for Automated Cell Potential Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a scheme using an Intel MCS-51 single chip microcomputer to control an instrument for automated cell potential measurement is presented. The system hardware and control software are discussed in detail. The sampling of solutions, the measurement of samples, and the acquisition of data are controlled by a single chip microcomputer. This fully digitally controlled instrument is small

Chen Guang-Dong; Lu Xiao-Hua

1989-01-01

302

A Systematic Review of Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments Measuring Sleep Dysfunction in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep dysfunction can manifest in several ways, ranging from insomnia to somnolence, and from disrupted sleep to lack of restful sleep. Measuring sleep dysfunction is an area of active research and there exist a number of patient-reported outcome instruments that measure various aspects of sleep dysfunction. However, these instruments have not been evaluated systematically. We used a conceptual model of

Emily Beth Devine; Zafar Hakim; Jesse Green

2005-01-01

303

Measuring Communicative Participation: A Review of Self-Report Instruments in Speech-Language Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To assess the adequacy of self-report instruments in speech-language pathology for measuring a construct called communicative participation. Method: Six instruments were evaluated relative to (a) the construct measured, (b) the relevance of individual items to communicative participation, and (c) their psychometric properties. Results: No…

Eadie, Tanya L.; Yorkston, Kathryn M.; Klasner, Estelle R.; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Deitz, Jean C.; Baylor, Carolyn R.; Miller, Robert M.; Amtmann, Dagmar

2006-01-01

304

Spectroscopic measurements of plasma rotation and ion temperatures in SSPX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550. To better characterize plasma behavior in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX), we measure plasma rotation and ion temperatures through spectroscopy. We measure Doppler broadening of impurity lines and line shift using a high-resolution Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS). The instrument is a Czery-Turner 1m spectrometer, blazed for first order spectra between 300 and 600 nm. Visible line emissions are coupled to the instrument through a fiber optic, pass through the IDS, and are detected by a sixteen-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) which consists of 16, 0.8 mm x 16 mm PMTs in a linear array. A linear CCD-array visible spectrometer is used to measure visible spectra. These spectra are used to tune the IDS to best observe Doppler broadening and/or shifting of intrinsic impurity emissions. Both instruments have a 2 cm collimated view of the plasma at the midplane and can be aligned to view along different radial chords. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

Brabec, C. L.; Wood, R. D.; McLean, H. S.; Sspx Team

2004-11-01

305

Rapid Measurements of Snow Stratigraphy Using A Portable Penetration Field Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new field-portable tool for avalanche forecasting and hydrology that can rapidly generate stratigraphic profiles of density, permittivity and temperature through the snow pack. This penetration instrument consists of a wedged capacitance tip mounted at the end of a pole and a mechanical depth gauge. By appropriate place- ment of its reference, guard and sensor conductive surfaces, the instrument sheds hor- izontal electric field lines resolving horizontal snow layers of 2.5mm thickness. The probe was tested under realistically cold conditions at the mountain resort of Alta near Salt Lake City, Utah. There, it recorded the stratigraphy of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant at 3.9kHz and the temperature through a typical winter snow pack. The portable electronics was carried in a small backpack and the depth was recorded using a rotary digital encoder in frictional contact with the pole. The profiles were automatically acquired on a hand-held Personal Digital Assistant. Using independent calibrations, measurements of the real part provided an accurate profile of density later confirmed by the conventional excavation of a detailed snow cover profile. The ratio of the imaginary and real permittivities also revealed the signature of individual snow layers that could be identified in the excavation.

Foster, Robert; Louge, Michel; Clifford, Kelly; Decker, Rand

306

High Accuracy Temperature Measurements Using RTDs with Current Loop Conditioning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To measure temperatures with a greater degree of accuracy than is possible with thermocouples, RTDs (Resistive Temperature Detectors) are typically used. Calibration standards use specialized high precision RTD probes with accuracies approaching 0.001 F. These are extremely delicate devices, and far too costly to be used in test facility instrumentation. Less costly sensors which are designed for aeronautical wind tunnel testing are available and can be readily adapted to probes, rakes, and test rigs. With proper signal conditioning of the sensor, temperature accuracies of 0.1 F is obtainable. For reasons that will be explored in this paper, the Anderson current loop is the preferred method used for signal conditioning. This scheme has been used in NASA Lewis Research Center's 9 x 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel, and is detailed.

Hill, Gerald M.

1997-01-01

307

Use of the mathematical modelling method for the investigation of dynamic characteristics of acoustical measuring instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The schematic diagram of a noise measuring device is presented that uses pulse expansion modeling according to the peak or any other measured values, to obtain instrument readings at a very low noise error.

Vasilyev, Y. M.; Lagunov, L. F.

1973-01-01

308

Temperature measurement in a turbine stator assembly using an integratable high-temperature ultrasonic sensor network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implementation of an integratable ultrasonic sensor network with associated cable connection for high temperature monitoring applications is demonstrated through application of a three-element ultrasonic sensor network for temperature measurement in a turbine stator assembly. The sensor network is composed of a piezoelectric composite film deposited on a titanium substrate with a sol-gel technique and three top electrodes deposited on the piezoelectric film. The sensor network is glued onto a selected area of the stator assembly in such a way that three subareas with different wall thicknesses are probed individually by each of the sensing elements. The ultrasonically instrumented stator assembly is first heated in a furnace to different temperatures. At each temperature and for each probed location the transit time of ultrasonic waves through assembly wall thickness is measured. Then a relationship between transit time and wall temperature is established. In a subsequent experiment, the stator assembly is heated up to 200 °C and then let cool down while the transit time in the assembly wall is being measured continuously. By using the transit time versus temperature relationship obtained earlier, the heating and cooling rates at the three probed locations are determined and then compared.

Wu, Kuo-Ting; Sun, Zhigang; Kobayashi, Makiko; Galeote, Brian; Mrad, Nezih

2011-04-01

309

Temperature control analysis and flight results for the Viking Orbiter 1975 Mars atmospheric water detection instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars atmospheric water detector (MAWD) instrument required a temperature of -70 C at the detector. The monochromator housing required +20 C + or - 1 C. This instrument was located on the scan platform, and slewed across two solar panels. The thermal design for the detector was an open flat plate radiator thermally isolated on four 1-in. tubes, with a flexible strap to the detector. MAWD radiator view factors and heat loads from the spacecraft were determined for the Lander on and off, for all angular positions of the scan platform. Subsystem and system tests were performed using the 25-ft diameter solar simulator. In-flight results have shown no anomalies, and no degradation has been observed. Servo-controlled heaters are used to control the temperature.

Kavanagh, H. M.; Murphy, F. L.

1978-01-01

310

Assessment of body temperature measurement options.  

PubMed

Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible. Peripheral sites, such as the axillary and the forehead site, are not recommended as an assessment of core body temperature in adults. Frail elderly individuals might have a low normal body temperature and therefore be at risk of being assessed as non-febrile. As the ear site is close to the hypothalamus and quickly responds to changes in the set point temperature, it is a preferable and recommendable site for measurement of body temperature. PMID:24037397

Sund-Levander, Märtha; Grodzinsky, Ewa

311

An instrument to measure job satisfaction of nursing home administrators  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The psychometric properties of the nursing home administrator job satisfaction questionnaire (NHA-JSQ) are presented, and the steps used to develop this instrument. METHODS: The NHA-JSQ subscales were developed from pilot survey activities with 93 administrators, content analysis, and a research panel. The resulting survey was sent to 1,000 nursing home administrators. Factor analyses were used to determine the psychometric

Nicholas G Castle

2006-01-01

312

An instrument to measure job satisfaction of certified nurse assistants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We first presented the steps taken to develop the nursing home certified nurse assistant job satisfaction questionnaire (NH-CNA-JSQ) and, second, the psychometric properties of this instrument. Certified nurse assistants (CNAs) from 22 nursing homes in Pennsylvania were mailed the NH-CNA-JSQ. Of the 726 surveys mailed, 479 usable surveys were returned, giving a 66% response rate. The factor analyses show that

Nicholas G. Castle

2010-01-01

313

INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU), in accordance with Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40395, will undertake four tasks for DOE EM during the period April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2001. (1) Characterization of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides and Organics in Heterogeneous Media; (2) Environmental Control Device Testing; (3) Waste Treatment and D&D Support: Process Monitoring and Control; and (4) Diagnostic Field Applications Coordination and Testing Support (DFACTS).

Dr. John Plodinec

2001-04-01

314

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2012-07-01

315

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2011-07-01

316

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2014-07-01

317

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2013-07-01

318

40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90...Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...cleaner, for most engines.) (b) The temperature measurements must be accurate to...

2010-07-01

319

Instrumented artificial spinal cord for human cervical pressure measurement.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injuries continue to generate large individual and societal costs. The study of spinal cord injury has been undertaken from the perspective of animal studies to understand cord functioning, and from the use of cadaver material to understand ligamentous column failure. The present study was conducted to develop a tool to link results from both these methods of research. An instrumented artificial spinal cord was designed, constructed, and evaluated under different testing scenarios. Properties of the in vivo animal cord were obtained using the dorsal impact method and reproduced in a collagen-encased gelatin physical model. The cord was instrumented in seven places using thin, non-invasive piezo-electric pressure sensors. The instrumented artificial cord was then evaluated in the canal of a human cadaver head-neck column under dynamic loading conditions. A C5 compression fracture correlated to high local pressure changes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using this new tool to understand the mechanisms of spinal cord injury. PMID:8922266

Pintar, F A; Schlick, M B; Yoganandan, N; Maiman, D J

1996-01-01

320

Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma  

SciTech Connect

The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma.

Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Den Hartog, D. J. [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)

2010-12-15

321

Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

1987-01-01

322

Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

Webb, W. L.

1973-01-01

323

Laser weld penetration estimation using temperature measurements  

SciTech Connect

Penetration depth is an important factor critical to the quality of a laser weld. This paper examines the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the bottom surface of the work-piece to estimate weld penetration. A three-dimensional analytical model relating penetration depth, weld bead width and welding speed to temperature distribution at the bottom surface of the workpiece is developed. Temperatures on the bottom surface of the workpiece are measured using infrared thermocouples located behind the laser beam. Experimental results from bead-on-plate welds on low carbon steel plates of varying thickness at different levels of laser power and speeds validate the model and show that the temperature on the bottom surface is a sensitive indicator of penetration depth. The proposed model is computationally efficient and is suitable for on-line process monitoring application.

Lankalapalli, K.N.; Tu, J.F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Industrial Engineering; Leong, K.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gartner, M. [Ford Motor Co., Livonia, MI (United States)

1997-10-01

324

Temperature Coefficient of the Modulus of Rigidity of Aircraft Instrument Diaphragm and Spring Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data are presented on the variation of the modulus of rigidity in the temperature range -20 to +50 degrees C. of a number of metals which are of possible use for elastic elements for aircraft and other instruments. The methods of the torsional pendulum was used to determine the modulus of rigidity and its temperature coefficient for aluminum, duralumin, monel metal, brass, phosphor bronze, coin silver, nickel silver, three high carbon steels, and three alloy steels. It was observed that tensile stress affected the values of the modulus by amounts of 1 per cent or less.

Brombacher, W G; Melton, E R

1931-01-01

325

Calibration of the scales of areal surface topography measuring instruments: part 3. Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration of the scales of areal surface topography measuring instruments requires testing of the resolution. Several designs of artefact that allow testing of the resolution of such instruments are currently available; however, analysis methods need to be developed to provide comparable results. A novel method for determining the lateral resolution of areal surface topography measuring instruments is presented. The method uses a type ASP (star-shaped) material measure. To demonstrate the validity of the method, the resolution of a phase shifting interferometer was determined based on the ISO definition of the lateral period limit. Using the proposed method, the type ASP material measure, which is often used to judge qualitatively an instrument's resolution, can be used to quantitatively estimate the resolution of instruments using the topography data.

Giusca, Claudiu L.; Leach, Richard K.

2013-10-01

326

SBUV observations of polar mesospheric clouds compared with MLS temperature and water vapor measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies have shown that Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC) occur more frequently in the northern hemisphere (NH) than the SH, consistent with colder NH temperatures. Coincident PMC observations with the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet instruments on the NOAA-16 and NOAA-18 satellite and temperature and water vapor measurements with the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Aura satellite support this result. These coincident

Eric P. Shettle; Gerald E. Nedoluha; Matthew T. DeLand; Gary E. Thomas; John J. Olivero

2010-01-01

327

Measuring quality of movement in cerebral palsy: a review of instruments.  

PubMed

There is a lack of appropriate evaluation instruments in the area of quality of movement in cerebral palsy. Ten measures of quality of movement, or gross motor performance, published between 1965 and 1990, were reviewed according to established criteria. These criteria include the purpose of the measure, validity, reliability, responsiveness, range of items, and description of qualitative components. These measures provide a foundation for further instrument development in the area of quality of movement. [Boyce WF, Gowland C, Rosenbaum PL, et al. Measuring quality of movement in cerebral palsy: a review of instruments. PMID:1946619

Boyce, W F; Gowland, C; Rosenbaum, P L; Lane, M; Plews, N; Goldsmith, C; Russell, D J; Wright, V; Zdrobov, S

1991-11-01

328

Mobile CARS - IRS Instrument for Simultaneous Spectroscopic Measurement of Multiple Properties in Gaseous Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a measurement system based on the dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and interferometric Rayleigh scattering (IRS) methods. The IRS measurement is performed simultaneously with the CARS measurement using a common green laser beam as a narrow-band light source. The mobile CARS-IRS instrument is designed for the use both in laboratories as well as in ground-based combustion test facilities. Furthermore, it is designed to be easily transported between laboratory and test facility. It performs single-point spatially and temporally resolved simultaneous measurements of temperature, species mole fraction of N2, O2, and H2, and two-components of velocity. A mobile laser system can be placed inside or outside the test facility, while a beam receiving and monitoring system is placed near the measurement location. Measurements in a laboratory small-scale Mach 1.6 H2-air combustion-heated supersonic jet were performed to test the capability of the system. Final setup and pretests of a larger scale reacting jet are ongoing at NASA Langley Research Center s Direct Connect Supersonic Combustor Test Facility (DCSCTF).

Bivolaru, Daniel; Lee, Joseph W.; Jones, Stephen B.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Weikl, M. C.; Magnotti, G.; Cutler, Andrew D.

2007-01-01

329

Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements  

DOEpatents

A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

Balasubramaniam, Krishnan (Mississippi State, MS); Shah, Vimal (Houston, TX); Costley, R. Daniel (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Mississippi State, MS)

2001-01-01

330

Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - A Fully Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecraft opens the door to a large number of high-value experiments on the influence of the space environment on biological systems. For example, measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and determine the metabolic bases of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology, and medicine. Supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measurement of expression of several hundreds of microbial genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing cell walls of bacteria sampled from cultures grown in space, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing the RNA on a microarray and (4) providing readout of the microarray signal, all in a single microfluidics cartridge. The device is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by NASA Ames' Small Spacecraft Division. To meet space and other technical constraints imposed by these platforms, a number of technical innovations are being implemented. The integration and end-to-end technological and biological validation of the instrument are carried out using as a model the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, known for its remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions. Each step in the measurement process-lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification, and hybridization to an array-is assessed through comparison of the results obtained using the instrument with those from standard laboratory protocols. Once developed, the system can be used with minor modifications for multiple experiments on different platforms in space, including extension to higher organisms and microbial monitoring. A proposed version of GEMM that is capable of handling both microbial and tissue samples on the International Space Station will be briefly summarized.

Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kia; Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio

2012-01-01

331

Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - a fully automated, miniaturized instrument for measuring gene expression in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecrafts opens the doors to a large number of experiments on the influence of space environment on biological systems that will profoundly impact our ability to conduct safe and effective space travel, and might also shed light on terrestrial physiology or biological function and human disease and aging processes. Measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, determine metabolic basis of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance, test our ability to sustain and grow in space organisms that can be used for life support and in situ resource utilization during long-duration space exploration, and monitor both the spacecraft environment and crew health. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology and medicine. Accordingly, supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measuring microbial expression of thousands of genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing bacterial cell walls, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing it on a microarray and (4) providing electrochemical readout, all in a microfluidics cartridge. The prototype under development is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by the NASA Small Spacecraft Office. The first target application is to cultivate and measure gene expression of the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, i.e. a cyanobacterium known to exhibit remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions, under light and dark cycles exposed to polar orbit for a period of 6 months. The integration and end-to-end technology validation of this instrument will be discussed. In particular, preliminary results demonstrating that the instrument properly carries out cellular lysis, nucleic acid extraction and its purification is being assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real time PCR, in addition to microarray analysis of selected genes. Once developed, the system can be used with minor modifications for multiple experiments on different platforms in space, including extensions to higher organisms and microbial monitoring. A proposed version of GEMM that is capable of handing both microbial and tissue samples on the International Space Station will be briefly reviewed.

Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio; Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kianoosh

2012-07-01

332

Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN); McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01

333

Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

1994-10-04

334

Non-contact temperature measurement requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center is involved with levitation experiments for Spacelab, Space Station, and drop tube/tower operations. These experiments have temperature measurement requirements, that of course must be non-contact in nature. The experiment modules involved are the Acoustic Levitator Furnace (ALF), and the Modular Electromagnetic Levitator (MEL). User requirements of the ALF and drop tube are presented. The center also has temperature measurement needs that are not microgravity experiment oriented, but rather are related to the propulsion system for the STS. This requirement will also be discussed.

Higgins, D. B.; Witherow, W. K.

1989-01-01

335

Ultra Low Temperature Ultra Low Power Instrument Packages for Planetary Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Achievement of solar system exploration roadmap goals will involve robotic or human deployment and long-term operation of surface science packages remote from human presence, thus requiring autonomous, self-powered operation. The major challenge such packages face will be operating during long periods of darkness in extreme cold potentially without the Pu238 based power and thermal systems available to Apollo era packages (ALSEP). Development of such science payloads will thus require considerable optimization of instrument and subsystem design, packaging and integration for a variety of planetary surface environments in order to support solar system exploration fully. Our work supports this process through the incorporation of low temperature operational components and design strategies which radically minimize power, mass, and cost while maximizing the performance under extreme surface conditions that are in many cases more demanding than those routinely experienced by spacecraft in deep space. Chief instruments/instrument package candidates include those which could provide long-term monitoring of the surface and subsurface environments for fundamental science and human crew safety. The initial attempt to design a 10 instrument environmental monitoring package with a solar/battery based power system led to a package with a unacceptably large mass (500 kg) of which over half was battery mass. In phase 1, a factor of 5 reduction in mass was achieved, first through the introduction of high performance electronics capable of operating at far lower temperature and then through the use of innovative thermal balance strategies involving the use of multi-layer thin materials and gravity-assisted heat pipes. In phase 2, reported here, involves strategies such as universal incorporation of ULT/ULP digital and analog electronics, and distributed or non-conventionally packaged power systems. These strategies will be required to meet the far more challenging thermal requirements of operating through a normal 28 day diurnal cycle. The limited temperature range of efficient battery operation remains the largest obstacle.

Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Yeh, P. S.; Cooper, L.; Feng, S.; Young, E.

2010-01-01

336

Measuring instrument for radial composite deviations of high-precision master gear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During double flank rolling composite detection, the radial composite deviations of master gears has been existed and transferred to the measured gear by the primary harmonic curve. In order to improve measurement accuracy, a measuring instrument is developed for radial composite deviations of high-precision master gear in the paper. This instrument uses the structure of spring-suspend swing span to overcome the shortcomings of large rotation errors, low sensitivity, low resolution and large measuring force appearing in the traditional combination-type gear inspection instrument. Artificial intelligence technology is used to improve the efficiency and accuracy of this instrument. The result is that the measuring apparatus is able to meet the requirement and improve efficiency through the measuring experiments on master gears of precision grade 2 with modulus 2 mm and 3 mm, respectively.

Ma, Yong; Wang, Tongxiang; Lou, Zhifeng; Wang, Liding; Zhang, Yuling

2010-08-01

337

EDITORIAL: The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011) The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement and instrumentation have long played an important role in production engineering, through supporting both the traditional field of manufacturing and the new field of micro/nanotechnology. Papers published in this special feature were selected and updated from those presented at The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011) held at KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea, on 29 June-2 July 2011. ISMTII 2011 was organized by ICMI (The International Committee on Measurements and Instrumentation), Korean Society for Precision Engineering (KSPE), Japan Society for Precision Engineering (JSPE), Chinese Society for Measurement (CSM) and KAIST. The Symposium was also supported by the Korea BK21 Valufacture Institute of Mechanical Engineering at KAIST. A total of 225 papers, including four keynote papers, were presented at ISMTII 2011, covering a wide range of topics, including micro/nanometrology, precision measurement, online & in-process measurement, surface metrology, optical metrology & image processing, biomeasurement, sensor technology, intelligent measurement & instrumentation, uncertainty, traceability & calibration, and signal processing algorithms. The organizing members recommended publication of updated versions of some of the best ISMTII 2011 papers in this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology. As guest editor, I believe that this special feature presents the newest information on advances in measurement technology and intelligent instruments from basic research to applied systems for production engineering. I would like to thank all the authors for their great contributions to this special feature and the referees for their careful reviews of the papers. I would also like to express our thanks and appreciation to the publishing staff of MST for their dedicated efforts that have made this special feature possible.

Kim, Seung-Woo

2012-05-01

338

Measurement of the cosmic microwave background spectrum by the COBE FIRAS instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) has a blackbody spectrum within 3.4 x 10(exp -8) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm over the frequency range from 2 to 20/cm (5-0.5 mm). These measurements, derived from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotomer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, imply stringent limits on energy release in the early universe after t approximately 1 year and redshift z approximately 3 x 10(exp 6). The deviations are less than 0.30% of the peak brightness, with an rms value of 0.01%, and the dimensionless cosmological distortion parameters are limited to the absolute value of y is less than 2.5 x 10(exp -5) and the absolute value of mu is less than 3.3 x 10(exp -4) (95% confidence level). The temperature of the CMBR is 2.726 +/- 0.010 K (95% confidence level systematic).

Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Fixsen, D. J.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Jensen, K. A.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.

1994-01-01

339

A new automatic system for angular measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments.  

PubMed

This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements. PMID:22319320

Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

2010-01-01

340

INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Many DOE applications would significantly benefit from the availability of robust and convenient instrumentation for trace-level actinide monitoring and analysis. This project focuses on developing new instrumentation for on-line or at-line monitoring for actinides with isotopic analysis capability. In addition, analytical protocols for a novel concentration method for actinides are being investigated. These efforts focus on demonstrating these techniques using uranium. In addition to its value in the analytical laboratory, the combination of a simple concentration technique with a robust isotopic monitor could provide a powerful method for addressing a number of outstanding DOE needs. Potential applications include monitors for waste water and sewage treatment systems influent and effluent, and the ability to determine the isotopic content of transuranic species in low-activity waste fractions for waste classification and product acceptance. For example, the need for improved monitoring for uranium, plutonium, and americium in treatment plant influent is clearly identified in need RF-ER11. With some additional sample pretreatment, such technology could also impact materials characterization needs by providing on-site isotopic analyses in a system that is smaller and significantly less complex than inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

Unknown

2001-12-31

341

An instrument to measure job satisfaction of certified nurse assistants.  

PubMed

We first presented the steps taken to develop the nursing home certified nurse assistant job satisfaction questionnaire (NH-CNA-JSQ) and, second, the psychometric properties of this instrument. Certified nurse assistants (CNAs) from 22 nursing homes in Pennsylvania were mailed the NH-CNA-JSQ. Of the 726 surveys mailed, 479 usable surveys were returned, giving a 66% response rate. The factor analyses show that the items were representative of the underlying factors, representing seven subscales. The percentage of CNAs not providing responses for each question was low (1.5%), and the floor and ceiling effects of the responses for each of the 19 questions were low (i.e., 9.4% and 5.2%, respectively). The item-scale internal consistency analyses determined that the correlation of items within indexes was higher than those of items with other indexes. Cronbach's alpha values for the domains ranged from .72 to .83 and were all higher than the usually recommended levels. Criterion validity was high (.77) as was the index of content validity (p > .05). We believe that we have produced a short psychometrically sound job satisfaction instrument for use in nursing homes. PMID:21035031

Castle, Nicholas G

2010-11-01

342

The BEAR program NRL plasma physics instrumentation measurements  

SciTech Connect

The BEAR program was a joint effort to launch, and demonstrate the feasibility of operating, a 1 MeV 10 ma Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) accelerator from a space platform. The accelerator design and manufacture were the responsibility of Los Alamos National Lab (LANL); diagnostics associated with accelerator operation and beam-plasma effects were also to be undertaken by LANL and NRL. Payload Integration and Telemetry was provided by the Air Force Geophysical Lab (AFGL) and Northeastern University (NEU). Beam effects on the local plasma in addition to accelerator produced vehicle effects (e.g., charging) were the responsibility of NRL as outlined herein. The BEAR rocket was launched successfully during the early morning hours of July 13 from White Sands Missile Range, White Sands, N.M. The NRL contribution to this effort included three instrument packages designed to diagnose beam-plasma and vehicle-plasma interactions. The instruments included: (1) Langmuir probe (LP) design consisting of 4 separate sensors; (2) High voltage (HIV) Langmuir Probe designed to monitor vehicle charging through current polarity changes; and (3) Plasma Wave Receive (PWR) designed to characterize the plasma wave emissions covering a broad frequency range from near DC to 50 MHz.

Walker, D.N.; Baumback, M.M.; Haas, D.G.; Rodriguez, P.; Siefring, C.L.; Doggett, R.A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1989-11-15

343

Electron Temperature and Density Measurements in MRX  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present measurements of electron temperature, T_e, and density, n_e, during co- and counter-helicity reconnection and compact toroid formation in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). A triple Langmuir probe has been used to measure instantaneous T_e, n_e, and floating potential, V_f, in MRX discharges. Initial results from the probes show 5 < Te < 40 eV and 5×10^12 < ne

T. A. Carter; S. C. Hsu; H. Ji; M. Yamada

1996-01-01

344

Ion temperature measurements in the Maryland Spheromak  

SciTech Connect

Initial spectroscopic data from MS showed evidence of ion heating as deduced from the line widths of different ion species. Detailed measurements of OIV spectral emission line profiles in space and time revealed that heating takes place at early time, before spheromak formation and is occurring within the current discharge. The measured ion temperature is several times the electron temperature and cannot be explained by classical (Spitzer) resistivity. Classically, ions are expected to have lower temperatures than the electrons and therefore, lower temperatures than observed. High ion temperatures have been observed in different RFP`s and Spheromaks but are usually associated with relaxation to the Taylor state and occur in the sustainment phase. During formation, the current delivered to start the discharge is not axisymmetric and as a consequence, X-points appear in the magnetic flux. A two dimensional analysis predicts that magnetic reconnection occurring at an X-point can give rise to high ion heating rates. A simple 0-dimensional calculation showed that within the first 20 {mu}s, a conversion of mass flow kinetic energy into ion temperature could take place due to viscosity.

Gauvreau, J.L.

1992-12-31

345

Development and Validation of Scores from an Instrument Measuring Student Test-Taking Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the expectancy-value model of achievement motivation as a basis, this study's purpose is to develop, apply, and validate scores from a self-report instrument measuring student test-taking motivation. Sampled evidence of construct validity for the present sample indicates that a number of the items in the instrument could be used as an…

Eklof, Hanna

2006-01-01

346

Development of an Instrument to Measure Student Use of Academic Success Skills: An Exploratory Factor Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills instrument including item development and exploratory factor analysis. The instrument was developed to measure student use of the skills and strategies identified as most critical for long-term school success that are typically taught by school counselors.

Carey, John; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Villares, Elizabeth; Harrington, Karen

2014-01-01

347

Reliability of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument with University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument was initially designed to assess high school biology teachers' acceptance of evolutionary theory. To determine if the MATE instrument is reliable with university students, it was administered to students in a non-majors biology course (n = 61) twice over a 3-week period.…

Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim C.

2007-01-01

348

Developing an Instrument to Measure School Community Engagement with Implementation of Information Literacy Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable survey instrument to be used by librarians and other educational leaders to measure implementation of a school's information literacy program. The goal was to create an instrument that would consider implementation of a library-centered program within the context and culture of the…

Aiani, Candace Wexler

2008-01-01

349

Readiness and Expectations Questionnaire: A Cross-Cultural Measurement Instrument for First-Year University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The readiness and expectations questionnaire (REQ) assesses first-year students' expectations and preparedness for their first year in university. This measurement instrument is useful for educational policy and curriculum development; it can also be used to predict the outcomes of the first year of college. This instrument was initially developed…

Jansen, Ellen; Andre, Stefanie; Suhre, Cor

2013-01-01

350

Developing and validating an instrument for measuring user-perceived web quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the instruments to measure information and system quality were developed in the context of mainframe and PC-based technologies of yesteryears. With the proliferation of the Internet and World Wide Web applications, users are increasingly interfacing and interacting with web-based applications. It is, therefore, important to develop new instruments and scales, which are directly targeted to these new interfaces

Adel M. Aladwani; Prashant C. Palvia

2002-01-01

351

Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

2010-01-01

352

6 FIELD MEASUREMENT METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION 6.1 Introduction  

E-print Network

of measuring. Three methods are available for collecting radiation data while performing a survey, in relation to the survey or analytical technique, be capable of measuring levels that are less than that can be made at this step is the selection of direct measurements for performing a survey or deciding that

353

BOOK REVIEW: Instrumentation & Measurement Pocket Book, Third Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book is divided into four parts: `Systems', `System Components', `Measurements' and `Microprocessor Based Systems'.The first part of the book introduces Measurement Systems, Performance Terminology, Errors, Dynamic Characteristics, Loading Effects, Noise and Reliability.The `Measurement Systems' subsection is not sufficiently concise, as only a small number of derived units have been listed. The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been publishing posters

W. Bolton

2001-01-01

354

Laser plume temperature measurements in various gases  

SciTech Connect

Nd-YAG laser plume temperatures of 3000--5400K were measured on 304 stainless steel and 1100 Al in various gases using emission spectroscopy. Temperatures were higher in the reactive gases air, 02, and SF6, compared to inert gases. Ionic spectra were not observed, indicating that the plume primarily consists of hot vapors and does not contain a plasma, in contrast to CO/sub 2/ laser processing in which plasmas have been observed. The plume temperature remained constant with changes in laser power and with time during the duration of the laser pulse. Light emissions from the plume and from the cooling weld pool after the laser pulse was off were measured and correlated with melt depth. 7 refs.

Lewis, G.K.; Cremers, D.A.; Dixon, R.D.

1988-01-01

355

Development of An Instrumented, Modular "mole" For In-situ Subsurface Measurements On Planetary Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the Beagle 2 lander of ESA's Mars Express mission in 2003, a small mechanical "Mole" on a tether will be used to achieve percussive penetration into the Martian regolith to a maximum depth of some 1E1.5 m with the main objective of acquiring subsurface soil samples for analysis on the lander. For future planetary missions it is proposed to develop this concept further in order to accommodate a number of instru- ment sensor heads inside the Mole, enabling different measurements to be performed in the regolith as a function of depth. Such an instrumented, and perhaps even modular, Mole could be utilized to probe the regolith of solar system objects such as Mercury, Mars, the Earth's moon or asteroids. Depending on the mission target, different in- struments to be deployed to the subsurface will be of relevance. Candidates include thermal sensors, volatile detection sensors (including water vapor and adsorbed water for Mars applications), a multispectral imaging sensor head (soil texture and spectral reflectance) and a Raman spectrometer optical head (detailed soil mineralogy). Based on applications on various space missions, most of these instruments are already under development and will be small enough that at least their front ends can be accommo- dated inside a compact cylindrical Mole having an expected internal diameter between 20E35 mm. A particular design challenge is going to be the internal electronics and the electrical/optical interface required to pre-process sensor data and transmit them to the lander above the surface. To minimize the overall mass and length of the instrumented Mole, internal electronics should serve common functions among the accommodated instruments. Another area to be closely studied is temperature rise of the Mole due to its internal dissipation while in the subsurface which could jeopardize thermal mea- surements or could even render internal equipment inoperable. Where the physical integration of sensors is concerned, individual instrument compartments are proposed with unified electrical interfaces. To account for the shocks introduced by operation of the Mole hammering mechanism used for soil penetration, some of the sensor heads may need to be protected by appropriate shock attenuation suspensions.

Richter, L.; Kochan, H.; Michaelis, H.; Möhlmann, D.; Neuhaus, D.; Popp, J.; Spohn, T.; Stuffler, T.; Tokano, T.; Wernecke, R.

356

A systematic review of instruments measuring patients' perceptions of patient-centred nursing care.  

PubMed

This systematic review identified and evaluated instruments measuring patients' perceptions of patient-centred nursing care. Of 2629 studies reviewed, 12 were eligible for inclusion. Four instruments were reported: The Individualized Care Scale, the Client-Centred Care Questionnaire, the Oncology patients' Perceptions of the Quality of Nursing Care Scale and the Smoliner scale. These instruments cover themes addressing patient participation and the clinician-patient relationship. Instruments were shown to have satisfactory psychometric properties, although not all were adequately assessed. More research is needed regarding test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, validity with known groups and structural validity using confirmatory factor analysis. PMID:25212960

Köberich, Stefan; Farin, Erik

2014-09-12

357

Positron Annihilation Measurements of High Temperature Superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependence of positron annihilation parameters has been measured for basic YBCO, Dy-doped, and Pr-doped superconducting compounds. The physical properties, such as crystal structure, electrical resistance, and critical temperature, have been studied for all samples. In the basic YBCO and Dy-doped samples, the defect -related lifetime component tau_{2 } was approximately constant from room temperature to above the critical temperature and then showed a step -like decrease in the temperature range 90K { ~} 40K. No significant temperature dependence was found in the short- and long-lifetime components, tau_{1} and tau_{3}. The x-ray diffraction data showed that the crystal structure of these two samples was almost the same. These results indicated that the electronic structure changed below the critical temperature. No transition was observed in the Pr-doped YBCO sample. The advanced computer program "PFPOSFIT" for positron lifetime analysis was modified to run on the UNIX system of the University of Utah. The destruction of superconductivity with Pr doping may be due to mechanisms such as hole filling or hole localization of the charge carriers and may be related to the valence state of the Pr ion. One-parameter analyses like the positron mean lifetime parameter and the Doppler line shape parameter S also have been studied. It was found that a transition in Doppler line shape parameter S was associated with the superconducting transition temperature in basic YBCO, Dy -doped, and 0.5 Pr-doped samples, whereas no transition was observed in the nonsuperconducting Pr-doped sample. The Doppler results indicate that the average electron momentum at the annihilation sites increases as temperature is lowered across the superconducting transition range and that electronic structure change plays an important role in high temperature superconductivity.

Jung, Kang

1995-01-01

358

Practical resolution requirements of measurement instruments for precise characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different ways to evaluate the optical performances of auto-stereoscopic 3D displays are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the crosstalk measurements that can be performed by measuring, either the precise angular emission at one or few locations on the display surface, or the full display surface emission from very specific locations in front of the display. Using measurements made in the two ways with different instruments on different auto-stereoscopic displays, we show that measurement instruments need to match the resolution of the human eye to obtain reliable results in both cases. Practical requirements in terms of angular resolution for viewing angle measurement instruments and in terms of spatial resolution for imaging instruments are derived and verified on practical examples.

Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Collomb-Patton, Véronique; Bignon, Thibault

2014-03-01

359

Dynamic gas temperature measurement system, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas temperature measurement system with compensated frequency response of 1 kHz and capability to operate in the exhaust of a gas turbine engine combustor was developed. A review of available technologies which could attain this objective was done. The most promising method was identified as a two wire thermocouple, with a compensation method based on the responses of the two different diameter thermocouples to the fluctuating gas temperature field. In a detailed design of the probe, transient conduction effects were identified as significant. A compensation scheme was derived to include the effects of gas convection and wire conduction. The two wire thermocouple concept was tested in a laboratory burner exhaust to temperatures of about 3000 F and in a gas turbine engine to combustor exhaust temperatures of about 2400 F. Uncompensated and compensated waveforms and compensation spectra are presented.

Elmore, D. L.; Robinson, W. W.; Watkins, W. B.

1983-01-01

360

TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED DESORPTION: PRINCIPLES, INSTRUMENT DESIGN, AND DEMONSTRATION WITH NAALH4  

SciTech Connect

This article is a brief introduction to temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), an analytical technique devised to analyze, in this case, materials for their potential as hydrogen storage materials. The principles and requirements of TPD are explained and the different components of a generic TPD apparatus are described. The construction of a modified TPD instrument from commercially available components is reported together with the control and acquisition technique used to create a TPD spectrum. The chemical and instrumental parameters to be considered in a typical TPD experiment and the analytical utility of the technique are demonstrated by the dehydrogenation of titanium-doped NaAlH{sub 4} by means of thermally programmed desorption.

Stowe, A; Ragaiy Zidan, R

2006-11-07

361

The Quantitative Measurement of Organizational Culture in Health Care: A Review of the Available Instruments  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the quantitative instruments available to health service researchers who want to measure culture and cultural change. Data Sources A literature search was conducted using Medline, Cinahl, Helmis, Psychlit, Dhdata, and the database of the King's Fund in London for articles published up to June 2001, using the phrase “organizational culture.” In addition, all citations and the gray literature were reviewed and advice was sought from experts in the field to identify instruments not found on the electronic databases. The search focused on instruments used to quantify culture with a track record, or potential for use, in health care settings. Data Extraction For each instrument we examined the cultural dimensions addressed, the number of items for each questionnaire, the measurement scale adopted, examples of studies that had used the tool, the scientific properties of the instrument, and its strengths and limitations. Principal Findings Thirteen instruments were found that satisfied our inclusion criteria, of which nine have a track record in studies involving health care organizations. The instruments varied considerably in terms of their grounding in theory, format, length, scope, and scientific properties. Conclusions A range of instruments with differing characteristics are available to researchers interested in organizational culture, all of which have limitations in terms of their scope, ease of use, or scientific properties. The choice of instrument should be determined by how organizational culture is conceptualized by the research team, the purpose of the investigation, intended use of the results, and availability of resources. PMID:12822919

Scott, Tim; Mannion, Russell; Davies, Huw; Marshall, Martin

2003-01-01

362

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2012-07-01

363

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2011-07-01

364

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2014-07-01

365

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2010-07-01

366

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2014-07-01

367

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2013-07-01

368

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2013-07-01

369

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2010-07-01

370

40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89...Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2012-07-01

371

40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 91.309 Section 91...Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within...

2011-07-01

372

Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO2) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1-15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding to shock pressures of 0.3-2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. Simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements.

Falk, K.; McCoy, C. A.; Fryer, C. L.; Greeff, C. W.; Hungerford, A. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Sheppard, D. G.; Williams, J. R.; Boehly, T. R.; Benage, J. F.

2014-09-01

373

Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam.  

PubMed

We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO_{2}) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1-15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding to shock pressures of 0.3-2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. Simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements. PMID:25314547

Falk, K; McCoy, C A; Fryer, C L; Greeff, C W; Hungerford, A L; Montgomery, D S; Schmidt, D W; Sheppard, D G; Williams, J R; Boehly, T R; Benage, J F

2014-09-01

374

Instrumental system for the quick relief of surface temperatures in fumaroles fields and steam heated soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an instrumental system to measure and to map the space variation of the surface temperature in volcanic fields. The system is called Pirogips, its essential components are a Pyrometer and a Global Position System but also other devices useful to obtain a good performance of the operating system have been included. In the framework of investigation to define and interpret volcanic scenarios, the long-term monitoring of gas geochemistry can improve the resolution of the scientific approaches by other specific disciplines. Indeed the fluid phase is released on a continuous mode from any natural system which produces energy in excess respect to its geological boundaries. This is the case of seismic or magmatic active areas where the long-term geochemical monitoring is able to highlight, and to follow in real time, changes in the rate of energy release and/or in the feeding sources of fluids, thus contributing to define the actual behaviour of the investigated systems (e.g. Paonita el al., 2013; 2002; Taran, 2011; Zettwood and Tazieff, 1973). The demand of pirogips starts from the personal experience in long term monitoring of gas geochemistry (e.g. Diliberto I.S, 2013; 2011; et al., 2002; Inguaggiato et al.,2012a, 2012b). Both space and time variation of surface temperature highlight change of energy and mass release from the deep active system, they reveal the upraise of deep and hot fluid and can be easily detected. Moreover a detailed map of surface temperature can be very useful for establishing a network of sampling points or installing a new site for geochemical monitoring. Water is commonly the main component of magmatic or hydrothermal fluid release and it can reach the ground surface in the form of steam, as in the high and low temperature fumaroles fields, or it can even condense just below the ground surface. In this second case the water disperses in pores or circulates in the permeable layers while the un-condensable gases reach the surface (e.g. in mofettes and diffuse degassing areas). The occurrence of thermal anomalies at the surface often reveals that a process of steam condensation is occurring below the ground and that CO2 fluxes are being released on the surface. A thermal map of steam heated grounds therefore highlights boundaries of underground steam advection and also the more suitable sites for geochemical monitoring. Pirogips has been assembled for the quick acquisition of surface parameters related to the exhaling activity of volcanic systems. It has been formerly tested in a controlled environment, after in the well known fumaroles areas of Vulcano island, and then in the volcanic system El Machin (Colombia) for the field survey preliminary to the installation of new monitoring stations. The preliminary test and the first field experiences confirmed that pirogips acquires the surface temperatures quickly and with good detail. The combination of sensors supplies the advantage of in situ methods (i.e. accuracy of the direct measurement by thermocouple) and those of ground-based remote sensing techniques (i.e. quickness of measurement process), at the same time reducing the main disadvantages of each method. A home-made data-logger combines the acquired parameters and returns a data-string allowing an easy visualization of acquired data on geo-referenced maps. The string of data returns the position of acquisition (lat, long, WGS84), surface temperature (either derived by the pyrometer and by thermocouple), ambient temperature, barometric pressure and air moisture. -References -Diliberto I.S., Gurrieri S., Valenza M. (2002) Relationships between diffuse CO2 emissions and volcanic activity on the island of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) during the period 1984-1994 Bulletin of Volcanology vol 64: 219-228. -Diliberto I.S., (2013) Time series analysis of high temperature fumaroles monitored on the island of Vulcano (Aeolian Archipelago, italy). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research Manuscript Number: doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2013.08.003. Inguaggiato, S., Mazot, A., Diliberto, I.S.,

Diliberto, Iole; Cappuzzo, Santo; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Cosenza, Paolo

2014-05-01

375

A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries  

PubMed Central

An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry system provides data on shore in real time if desired. The immediate purpose of measurements by this device is to continuously infer fluxes of water across the sediment-water interface in a complex estuarine system; however, direct application to assessment of sediment-water fluxes in rivers, lakes, and other systems is also possible. Key objectives of the design include both low cost, and accuracy of the order of ±0.5 mm H2O in measured head difference between the instrument's two pressure ports. These objectives have been met, although a revision to the design of one component was found to be necessary. Deployments of up to nine months, and wireless range in excess of 300 m have been demonstrated. PMID:22389608

Gardner, Alan T.; Karam, Hanan N.; Mulligan, Ann E.; Harvey, Charles F.; Hammar, Terence R.; Hemond, Harold F.

2009-01-01

376

Unified Instrumentation: Examining the Simultaneous Application of Advanced Measurement Techniques for Increased Wind Tunnel Testing Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Unified Instrumentation Test examining the combined application of Pressure Sensitive Paint, Projection Moire Interferometry, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry, Doppler Global Velocimetry, and Acoustic Microphone Array has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The fundamental purposes of conducting the test were to: (a) identify and solve compatibility issues among the techniques that would inhibit their simultaneous application in a wind tunnel, and (b) demonstrate that simultaneous use of advanced instrumentation techniques is feasible for increasing tunnel efficiency and identifying control surface actuation / aerodynamic reaction phenomena. This paper provides summary descriptions of each measurement technique used during the Unified Instrumentation Test, their implementation for testing in a unified fashion, and example results identifying areas of instrument compatibility and incompatibility. Conclusions are drawn regarding the conditions under which the measurement techniques can be operated simultaneously on a non-interference basis. Finally, areas requiring improvement for successfully applying unified instrumentation in future wind tunnel tests are addressed.

Fleming, Gary A. (Editor); Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Joseph W.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Meyers, James F.; South, Bruce W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

2002-01-01

377

Measuring Thermal Conductivity at LH2 Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For many years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) produced reference materials for materials testing. One such reference material was intended for use with a guarded hot plate apparatus designed to meet the requirements of ASTM C177-97, "Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus." This apparatus can be used to test materials in various gaseous environments from atmospheric pressure to a vacuum. It allows the thermal transmission properties of insulating materials to be measured from just above ambient temperature down to temperatures below liquid hydrogen. However, NIST did not generate data below 77 K temperature for the reference material in question. This paper describes a test method used at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to optimize thermal conductivity measurements during the development of thermal protection systems. The test method extends the usability range of this reference material by generating data at temperatures lower than 77 K. Information provided by this test is discussed, as are the capabilities of the MSFC Hydrogen Test Facility, where advanced methods for materials testing are routinely developed and optimized in support of aerospace applications.

Selvidge, Shawn; Watwood, Michael C.

2004-01-01

378

Temperature measurement on and inside lamps  

SciTech Connect

The use of thermography within the lamp manufacturing industry can improve the quality of many types of lamps ranging from normal incandescent lamps to highly specialized lamps for sports arenas, airports or small lamps for cars. There is a strong demand for more light for the same energy input. Specialized lamps for all possible purposes are developed. But it also forces the lamp manufacturers to utilize the available materials to their extremes. The exact control of the temperatures inside or on the lamp shell has therefore become increasingly necessary as temperatures in lamps can be rather extreme. In plasma lamps for example, the plasma can have a temperature of 6,000 C, the bulk around 700 C and the electrodes inside the bulb can have temperatures in excess of 2,000 C. Thermographic methods have shown their applicability for a large number of measurement cases. Some of these methods and measurement cases are described. As these applications put very special demands on the measurement equipment, these demands are explained in more detail.

Wallin, B. [AGEMA Infrared Systems AB, Danderyd (Sweden)

1994-12-31

379

Evaluation of a diode laser based photoacoustic instrument combined with preconcentration sampling for measuring surface-atmosphere exchange of ammonia with the aerodynamic gradient method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a novel instrument for measuring surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of ammonia. The instrument is the upgraded version of a recently developed near-infrared diode laser based photoacoustic ammonia concentration monitoring instrument, i.e. the original instrument is supplemented with two additional sampling lines, an appropriate gas handling system and an advanced software controlling gradient measurements. As a result of these developments, ammonia concentration can be measured simultaneously at three different heights above the ground and ammonia fluxes can be calculated from these data using the aerodynamic gradient method. The instrument operates fully automatically, requires minimal maintenance and has a temperature controlled, waterproof housing which makes it suitable for measurements even under harsh field conditions. Preliminary tests on stability and accuracy were carried out during two two-week field measurement campaigns, with the three sampling inlets being placed at the same height together with the inlet of a reference instrument. The readings of the three channels agreed well (with correlation coefficients above 0.96). Comparison to reference instruments showed good stability of the photoacoustic instrument, there was no measurable zero-drift or change in sensitivity during the tests. Flux measurements were carried out during a three-week field campaign in southern Scotland over fertilized grassland with reference to a wet-chemical AMANDA instrument in gradient configuration. Ammonia fluxes calculated from the data of the two instruments agreed well. Fluxes up to 2500 ng m -2 s -1 were observed after fertilization. The minimum detectable ammonia flux was calculated on the basis of "virtual ammonia fluxes", from measurements carried out with all inlets at the same height and was found to be ±60 ng m -2 s -1 which ensures reliable measurements above intensively managed grasslands or agricultural fields.

Pogány, Andrea; Mohácsi, Árpád; Jones, Stephanie K.; Nemitz, Eiko; Varga, Attila; Bozóki, Zoltán; Galbács, Zoltán; Weidinger, Tamás; Horváth, László; Szabó, Gábor

2010-04-01

380

Combining Radio Occultation Measurements with Other Instruments to Map the Ionospheric Electron  

E-print Network

tomography. Images showing travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) (Pryse et al. [1995]) have beenCombining Radio Occultation Measurements with Other Instruments to Map the Ionospheric Electron imaging program for the atmosphere and ionosphere. This analysis algorithm can routinely use dual

381

In Situ, Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds  

E-print Network

A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that ...

Cziczo, Daniel James

382

Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Tests Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) was a development test performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) East Test Area (ETA) Test Stand 116. The test article included a 5% scale Ares I vehicle model and tower mounted on the Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 200 instruments located throughout the test article. There were four primary ASMAT instrument suites: ignition overpressure (IOP), lift-off acoustics (LOA), ground acoustics (GA), and spatial correlation (SC). Each instrumentation suite incorporated different sensor models which were selected based upon measurement requirements. These requirements included the type of measurement, exposure to the environment, instrumentation check-outs and data acquisition. The sensors were attached to the test article using different mounts and brackets dependent upon the location of the sensor. This presentation addresses the observed effect of the sensors and mounts on the acoustic and pressure measurements.

Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas D.

2011-01-01

383

Attachment of Free Filament Thermocouples for Temperature Measurements on CMC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) are being developed for use as enabling materials for advanced aeropropulsion engine and high speed civil transport applications. The characterization and testing of these advanced materials in hostile, high-temperature environments require accurate measurement of the material temperatures. Commonly used wire Thermo-Couples (TC) can not be attached to this ceramic based material via conventional spot-welding techniques. Attachment of wire TC's with commercially available ceramic cements fail to provide sufficient adhesion at high temperatures. While advanced thin film TC technology provides minimally intrusive surface temperature measurement and has good adhesion on the CMC, its fabrication requires sophisticated and expensive facilities and is very time consuming. In addition, the durability of lead wire attachments to both thin film TC's and the substrate materials requires further improvement. This paper presents a newly developed attachment technique for installation of free filament wire TC's with a unique convoluted design on ceramic based materials such as CMC's. Three CMC's (SiC/SiC CMC and alumina/alumina CMC) instrumented with type IC, R or S wire TC's were tested in a Mach 0.3 burner rig. The CMC temperatures measured from these wire TC's were compared to that from the facility pyrometer and thin film TC's. There was no sign of TC delamination even after several hours exposure to 1200 C. The test results proved that this new technique can successfully attach wire TC's on CMC's and provide temperature data in hostile environments. The sensor fabrication process is less expensive and requires very little time compared to that of the thin film TC's. The same installation technique/process can also be applied to attach lead wires for thin film sensor systems.

Lei, Jih-Fen; Cuy, Michael D.; Wnuk, Stephen P.

1997-01-01

384

REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 045116 (2012) Multi-layer thermoelectric-temperature-mapping microbial incubator  

E-print Network

geo-samples, the temperature on the tube wall is adopted for measurement feedback. The design-temperature-mapping microbial incubator designed for geo-biochemistry applications Jin-Gen Wu,1 Man-Chi Liu,1 Ming-Fei Tsai,1-mapping incubator utilizing eight layers of thermo- electric (TE) modules mounted around a test tube

Lin, Pei-Chun

385

Measuring the effectiveness of marketing information systems : An empirically validated instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To design and empirically validate an instrument for measuring the effectiveness of a marketing intelligence system (MkIS). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A thorough review of the literature of IS in general and MkIS in particular was the foundation for a new conceptualisation of MkIS effectiveness, which was developed into a measuring instrument for experimental application to data collected by a

Spiros P. Gounaris; George G. Panigyrakis; Kalliopi C. Chatzipanagiotou

2007-01-01

386

EDITORIAL: Advances in Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments for Production Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement and instrumentation have long played an important role in Production Engineering, through supporting both the traditional field of manufacturing and the new field of micro\\/nano-technology. Papers published in this special feature were selected and updated from those presented at The 8th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2007) held at Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, on 24-27

Wei Gao; Yasuhiro Takaya; Yongsheng Gao; Michael Krystek

2008-01-01

387

Measurement of routinely encountered neutron field doses using portable survey instruments and a Bonner multisphere system  

E-print Network

MEASUREMENT OF ROUTINELY ENCOUNTERED NEUTRON FIELD DOSES USING PORTABLE SURVEY INSTRUMENTS AND A BONNER MULTISPHERE SYSTEM A Thesis By Donald Reed Davis Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE (May 1981) Major subject: Nuclear Engineering (Health Physics) MEASUREMENT OF ROUTINELY ENCOUNTERED NEUTRON FIELD DOSES USING PORTABLE SURVEY INSTRUMENTS AND A BONNER MULTISPHERE SYSTEM A Thesis By DONALD...

Davis, Donald Reed

1981-01-01

388

Measuring instruments installed in structures of the Zagorsk pumped-storage plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

for installation of instruments and measuring devices in the hydraulic project was revised. At the present time, when 4 out of 6 penstock lines are in operation and the hydraulic development is operating with intermediate filling (in depth and area) of the upper pool over a three-year period, the complex of control-measurement instrumentation in the pumped-storage plant has been basically

I. S. Ronzhin; I. F. Blinov; L. E. Kanygin; V. N. Chernenko

1992-01-01

389

Progress in the specification of optical instruments for the measurement of surface form and texture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specifications for confocal microscopes, optical interferometers and other methods of measuring areal surface topography can be confusing and misleading. The emerging ISO 25178 standards, together with the established international vocabulary of metrology, provide a foundation for improved specifications for 3D surface metrology instrumentation. The approach in this paper links instrument specifications to metrological characteristics that can influence a measurement, using consistent definitions of terms, and reference to verification procedures.

de Groot, Peter J.

2014-05-01

390

Specifying and calibrating instrumentations for wideband electronic power measurements. [in switching circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wideband electric power measurement related topics of electronic wattmeter calibration and specification are discussed. Tested calibration techniques are described in detail. Analytical methods used to determine the bandwidth requirements of instrumentation for switching circuit waveforms are presented and illustrated with examples from electric vehicle type applications. Analog multiplier wattmeters, digital wattmeters and calculating digital oscilloscopes are compared. The instrumentation characteristics which are critical to accurate wideband power measurement are described.

Lesco, D. J.; Weikle, D. H.

1980-01-01

391

A Regularized Neural Net Approach for Retrieval of Atmospheric and Surface Temperatures with the IASI Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstract In this paper, a fast atmospheric and surface temperature retrieval algorithm is developed for the high resolution Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) space-borne instrument. This algorithm is constructed on the basis of a neural network technique that has been regularized by introduction of a priori information. The performance of the resulting fast and accurate inverse radiative transfer model is presented for a large divE:rsified dataset of radiosonde atmospheres including rare events. Two configurations are considered: a tropical-airmass specialized scheme and an all-air-masses scheme.

Aires, F.; Chedin, A.; Scott, N. A.; Rossow, W. B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

392

Plan for the testing of radiation measurement instrumentation intended for use at an excavation site  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes performance tests to be made with ionizing radiation measurement instrumentation designed and built for in-field assay at an excavation site. One instrument measures gross gamma-ray and neutron fields and the other identifies gamma-ray emitting radionuclides and also is capable of assaying for selected hazardous materials. These instruments will be operationally tested to verify that original specifications have been met and performance tested to establish and verify that they have the potential to function as intended at an excavation site.

Gehrke, R.J.

1994-11-01

393

Development of a Multi-Point Pyrometer System (MPPS) for measuring surface temperature and emissivity  

SciTech Connect

In support of the US DOE MHD research program, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) has been actively engaged in developing and applying advanced optical diagnostic techniques and instrumentation systems to high temperature coal-fired gas streams for over a decade. One of the earliest diagnostic systems developed by DIAL was a two color pyrometer (TCP). In this system, two commercial single-color pyrometers and a microprocessor system were used to form a TCP which can make accurate measurements of surfaces of unknown emissivity and temperature. This system has been used extensively to make measurements in support of the national MHD program. This report describes this system.

Benton, R.D.; Jang, Ping-Rey

1993-06-01

394

Instrumented bicycle pedals for dynamic measurement of propulsive cycling loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system was developed for measuring and analyzing the forces placed on a bicycle pedal during operation of a stationary ergometer.\\u000a Forces are measured in the plane parallel to the ergometer in directions normal and tangential to the surface of the pedals,\\u000a encompassing the plane of propulsive forces. The pedals are designed to be structurally and functionally equivalent to standard

R. F. Reiser II; M. L. Peterson; J. P. Broker

2003-01-01

395

Instrument Accuracy and Reproducibility in Measurements of Pulmonary Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

TP (VIASYS Healthcare); and Medical Graphics Profiler DX System (Medical Graphics Corp; St. Paul, MN)) that are associated with spirometry and the measurement of pulmonary diffusing capacity. Methods: In a multifactor, single-center, repeated-measures, full factorial 90-day study, a pulmonary waveform generator and a single-breath simulator of diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were used to perform simulations

Robert L. Jensen; John G. Teeter; Richard D. England; Heather J. White; Eve H. Pickering; Robert O. Crapo

396

The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars  

PubMed Central

We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405

Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P.; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

2010-01-01

397

The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: a pyrometer for measuring ground temperature on Mars.  

PubMed

We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor's main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405

Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

2010-01-01

398

Development of an instrument to measure student attitudes toward science fairs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science fairs are woven into the very fabric of science instruction in the United States and in other countries. Even though thousands of students participate in science fairs every year, no instrument to measure student attitudes toward partaking in this hands-on learning experience has been fully developed and available for school administrators and teachers to assess the perceived value that current students attribute to participation in science fairs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to continue the development and refinement of an instrument that measured student attitudes towards science fairs based on an unpublished instrument created by Michael (2005). The instrument developed and tested using 110 students at two different middle schools in southwest Virginia. The instrument consisted of 45 questions. After applying a principal component factor analysis, the instrument was reduced to two domains, enjoyment and value. The internal consistency of the instrument was calculated using Cronbach's alpha and showed good internal consistency of .89 between the two domains. Further analysis was conducted using a Pearson product-moment test and showed a significant positive correlation between enjoyment and value (r = .78). Demographic information was explored concerning the domains using a series of statistical tests, and results revealed no significant differences among race and science fair category. However, a significant difference was found among gender and students who won awards and those who did not. The conclusion was that further development and refinement of the instrument should be conducted.

Huddleston, Claudia A.

399

Global High-Accuracy Intercomparison of Slope Measuring Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upcoming generation of high accuracy synchrotron radiation (SR) optics will be characterized by a slope deviation from ideal shape in the range of some 0.05?rad rms at a sampling interval of about 1mm. To certify and improve the measurement capabilities of metrology tools to inspect these stringent specifications, an essential step is a worldwide intercomparison of these measurements based on a set of transfer standards. It is the aim of these cross measurements to verify the "absolute" correctness and comparability of the measurement results obtained by the cooperating partners when measuring the topography of specific reference optics (ROs) using their latest metrology tools and methods. Organized by members of the SR-optics community, new national and international cross measurement comparisons of typical synchrotron radiation mirrors have been realized during the last few years: A round robin test by the European COST-program (BESSY, Elettra, ESRF, Soleil) during the years 2004-2005 and a similar cooperation realized by the APS, ESRF and Spring-8 have proceeded. The first results of both projects were presented at the "Optics & Photonics" conference in San Diego in August 2005. This work build upon earlier work. The participants of both groups and representatives of other SR-laboratories agreed to start a global cooperation bringing together the two round-robin projects and open these activities to other partners from the SR-community, optical manufacturers and other interested parties. This initiative is intended to start an extensive comparison of various measurement principles and tools and will help to push the frontiers in metrology, and hence production, to a precision well below the current state-of-the-art limit of 0.5?rad rms for slope errors.

Siewert, Frank; Assoufid, Lahsen; Cocco, Daniele; Hignette, Olivier; Irick, Steve; Lammert, Heiner; McKinney, Wayne; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Polack, Francois; Qian, Shinan; Rah, Seungyu; Rommeveaux, Amparo; Schönherr, Veit; Sostero, Giovani; Takacs, Peter; Thomasset, Muriel; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Zeschke, Thomas

2007-01-01

400

Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave  

SciTech Connect

GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient ?, close to 10{sup ?3} K{sup ?1} versus 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

Pradere, C., E-mail: christophe.pradere@ensam.eu; Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Palomo, E.; Batsale, J.-C. [I2M (Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie de Bordeaux) UMR CNRS 5295, TREFLE Department, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Pernot, G.; Dilhaire, S. [LOMA UMR 5798: CNRS-UB1, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

2014-06-15

401

Infrared line cameras for industrial temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PYROLINE\\/MikroLine cameras provide continuous, non-contact measurement of linear tem- perature distributions. Operation in conjunction with the IR_LINE software provides data recording, real-time graphical analysis, process integration and camera-control capabilities. One system is based on pyroelectric line sensors with either 128 or 256 elements, operating at frame rates of 128 and 544 Hz respectively. Temperatures between 0 and 1300 °C

Peter Drögmöller; Günter Hofmann; Helmut Budzier; Thomas Reichardt; Manfred Zimmerhackl

402

An instrument for measuring the momentum flux from atomic and charged particle jets  

SciTech Connect

We have developed an instrument to measure the momentum flux from an intense plasma stream for which the standard techniques used for low pressure gases (<10 Torr) at room temperature are unsuitable. This device, a Plasma Momentum Meter, can measure forces of 10{sup {minus}5} {minus} 10{sup {minus}3} Newtons with a response time of <50 ms onto surfaces of different materials immersed in dense plasmas (n > 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3}). Such forces are transmitted predominantly by ionic and neutral species, with 10's of eV's of kinetic energy, are accompanied by high heat fluxes, and are pulsed. The momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer, a capacitance-type pressure gauge. This protects the transducer from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering. An absolute force calibration of the PMM to 1% accuracy has been made is described. A flat carbon target has been used in measurements of the momentum flux of He, Ne, Ar, and Kr, plasmas produced in a magnetized linear plasma device. 7 refs., 7 figs.

Cohen, S.A.; Zonca, F.; Timberlake, J.; Bennett, T.; Cuthbertson, J.; Langer, W.; Motley, R.

1990-07-01

403

Instrumentation for Measurement of Gas Permeability of Polymeric Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass spectrometric 'Dynamic Delta' method for the measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes has been developed. The method is universally applicable for measurement of the permeability of any gas through polymeric membrane materials. The usual large sample size of more than 100 square centimeters required for other methods is not necessary for this new method which requires a size less than one square centimeter. The new method should fulfill requirements and find applicability for industrial materials such as food packaging, contact lenses and other commercial materials where gas permeability or permselectivity properties are important.

Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Burns, Karen S.

1993-01-01

404

Ecosar: A P- band digital beamforming Polarimetric Interferometric SAR instrument to measure ecosystem structure and biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ABSTRACT In this paper we describe the EcoSAR concept, an airborne Polarimetric and Interferometric P- band SAR instrument that will provide unprecedented two- and three dimensional fine scale measurements of terrestrial ecosystem structure and biomass. These measurements are directly traceable to upcoming international radar missions and the National Research Council’s Decadal Survey ecosystem measurement requirements.

Temilola Fatoyinbo; Rafael F. Rincon; Guoqing Sun; K. Jon Ranson

2011-01-01

405

Instrument Development and Plasma Measurements on a 200-Watt Hall Thruster Plume  

E-print Network

in order to support ongoing computational plume models. The instruments included a Faraday probe to measure of the experimental data by deducing plasma potential from Faraday and cold emissive probe data and comparing current density, a hot emissive probe to measure plasma potential, and a cold Langmuir probe to measure

406

Instruments and Methods A non-destructive method for measuring the salinity and solid  

E-print Network

Instruments and Methods A non-destructive method for measuring the salinity and solid fraction developed to make in situ measurements of salinity and solid- fraction profiles in growing sea ice with theoretical predictions. In a field test in the Arctic, the bulk salinity of growing sea ice has been measured

Worster, M. Grae

407

Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.

1992-01-01

408

Developing an Instrument to Measure Bias in CME  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The pharmaceutical industry, by funding over 60% of programs in the United States and Canada, plays a major role in continuing medical education (CME), but there are concerns about bias in such CME programs. Bias is difficult to define, and currently no tool is available to measure it. Methods: Representatives from industry and…

Takhar, Jatinder; Dixon, Dave; Donahue, Jill; Marlow, Bernard; Campbell, Craig; Silver, Ivan; Eadie, Jason; Monette, Celine; Rohan, Ivan; Sriharan, Abi; Raymond, Kathryn; Macnab, Jennifer

2007-01-01

409

Instrument measures many optical properties in visible and IR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electro-optical system measures reflectance, reflectance ratio, transmission, absorption, refractive index, and absorption coefficient in both visible and infrared (IR) spectral regions. System effectively combining capabilities of ellisometer, reflectometer, and spectrophotometer is expected to find application in environmental and material composition testing fields.

Batten, C. E.

1979-01-01

410

Long-Term Instrumental and Reconstructed Temperature Records Contradict Anthropogenic Global Warming  

E-print Network

Monthly instrumental temperature records from 5 stations in the northern hemisphere are analyzed, each of which is local and over 200 years in length, as well as two reconstructed long-range yearly records - from a stalagmite and from tree rings that are about 2000 years long. In the instrumental records, the steepest 100-year temperature fall happened in the 19th century and the steepest rise in the 20th century, both events being of about the same magnitude. Evaluation by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) yields Hurst exponents that are in good agreement with the literature. DFA, Monte Carlo simulations, and synthetic records reveal that both 100-year events were caused by external trends. In contrast to this, the reconstructed records show stronger 100-year rises and falls as quite common during the last 2000 years. These results contradict the hypothesis of an unusual (anthropogenic) global warming during the 20th century. As a hypothesis, the sun's magnetic field, which is correlated with sunspot ...

Lüdecke, Horst-Joachim

2011-01-01

411

Measuring an 'active person' with the HMLs emergency response instruments.  

PubMed

The Human Monitoring Laboratory has had a unique opportunity to measure two volunteers who had received (99m)Tc-labelled compounds for routine medical diagnosis to check the performance of its emergency monitoring equipment. The fixed and portable whole-body counters, some hand-held monitors and portal monitors were all used to measure the 'radioactive' persons. This study validated the current emergency calibrations that are being used, and has shown areas for improvement for equipment deployment that had not been previously anticipated. The results obtained suggest, for one individual at least, that the biokinetic model for (99m)Tc-methyl diphosphonate was not a good predictor of that person's metabolism. PMID:21123244

Kramer, Gary H; Hauck, Barry M

2011-03-01

412

Cloud Physics Lidar: instrument description and initial measurement results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The purpose of the CPL is to provide multiwavelength measurements of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and aerosols with high temporal and spatial resolution. The CPL utilizes state-of-the-art technology with a high repetition rate, a low-pulse-energy laser, and photon-counting detection. The first deployment for the

Matthew McGill; Dennis Hlavka; William Hart; V. Stanley Scott; James Spinhirne; Beat Schmid

2002-01-01

413

Instrumentation for measuring the dynamic pressure on rotating compressor blades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To establish the capability for measurement of oscillatory pressure on rotating blades, miniature fast response semiconductor strain gage pressure transducers (2mm x 0.33mm) were mounted in several configurations on thin titanium and steel compressor blades and subjected to pressure cycles from 1 to 310 kPa during static tests and spin tests. Static test conditions included 20 C to 150 C, 0 to 3000 tensile microstrain, -1000 to +1000 bending microstrain and + or - 650G vibration. The spin test conditions included 20 C to 82 C at 0 to 90,000G. Durability was excellent. Pressure transducer sensitivity changed by only a few percent over this range of environmental conditions. Noise signal due to oscillatory acceleration normal to the diaphragm was acceptable (0.33Pa/G). Noise signal due to oscillatory strain was acceptable (0.5 Pa/microstrain) when the transducer was mounted on a 0.05mm rubber pad, with a total buildup of 0.38mm on the measure surface. Back mounting or partial recessing to eliminate buildup, increased the strain effect to 1.2 Pa/microstrain. Flush mounting within the blade to eliminate buildup reduced the strain effect, but required development of a special transducer shape. This transducer was not available in time for spin tests. Unpredictable zero drift + or - 14 kPa ruled out the use of these mounting arrangements for accurate steady-state (D.C.) measurements on rotating blades. The two best configurations fully developed and spin tested were then successfully applied in the NAS3-20606 rotating fan flutter program for quantitative measurement of oscillatory pressure amplitudes.

Grant, H. P.; Lanati, G. A.

1978-01-01

414

A systematic review of instruments that measure attitudes toward homosexual men.  

PubMed

Scientific interest in the measurement of homophobia and internalized homophobia has grown over the past 30 years, and new instruments and terms have emerged. To help researchers with the challenging task of identifying appropriate measures for studies in sexual-minority health, we reviewed measures of homophobia published in the academic literature from 1970 to 2012. Instruments that measured attitudes toward male homosexuals/homosexuality or measured homosexuals' internalized attitudes toward homosexuality were identified using measurement manuals and a systematic review. A total of 23 instruments met criteria for inclusion, and their features were summarized and compared. All 23 instruments met minimal criteria for adequate scale construction, including scale development, sampling, reliability, and evidence of validity. Validity evidence was diverse and was categorized as interaction with gay men, HIV/AIDS variables, mental health, and conservative religious or political beliefs. Homophobia was additionally correlated with authoritarianism and bias, gender ideology, gender differences, and reactions to homosexual stimuli. Internalized homophobia was validated by examining relationships with disclosing one's homosexuality and level of homosexual identity development. We hope this review will make the process of instrument selection more efficient by allowing researchers to easily locate, evaluate, and choose the proper measure based on their research question and population of interest. PMID:23480076

Grey, Jeremy A; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Coleman, Eli; Bockting, Walter O

2013-01-01

415

REMORA 3: The first instrumented fuel experiment with on-line gas composition measurement by acoustic sensor  

SciTech Connect

With the aim to improve the knowledge of nuclear fuel behaviour, the development of advanced instrumentation used during in-pile experiments in Material Testing Reactor (MTR) is necessary. To obtain data on high Burn-Up MOX fuel performance under transient operating conditions, especially in order to differentiate between the kinetics of fission gas and helium releases and to acquire data on the degradation of the fuel conductivity, a highly instrumented in-pile experiment called REMORA 3 has been conducted by CEA and IES (Southern Electronic Inst. - CNRS - Montpellier 2 Univ.). A rodlet extracted from a fuel rod base irradiated for five cycles in a French EDF commercial PWR has been re-instrumented with a fuel centerline thermocouple, a pressure transducer and an advanced acoustic sensor. This latter, patented by CEA and IES, is 1 used in addition to pressure measurement to determine the composition of the gases located in the free volume and the molar fractions of fission gas and helium. This instrumented fuel rodlet has been re-irradiated in a specific rig, GRIFFONOS, located in the periphery of the OSIRIS experimental reactor core at CEA Saclay. First of all, an important design stage and test phases have been performed before the irradiation in order to optimize the response and the accuracy of the sensors: - To control the influence of the temperature on the acoustic sensor behaviour, a thermal mock-up has been built. - To determine the temperature of the gas located in the acoustic cavity as a function of the coolant temperature, and the average temperature of the gases located in the rodlet free volume as a function of the linear heat rate, thermal calculations have been achieved. The former temperature is necessary to calculate the molar fractions of the gases and the latter is used to calculate the total amount of released gas from the internal rod pressure measurements. - At the end of the instrumented rod manufacturing, specific internal free volume and pressure measurements have been carried out. Preliminary calculations of the REMORA 3 experiments have been performed from these measurements, with the aim to determine free volume evolution as a function of linear heat rate history. - A tracer gas has been added to the filling gas in order to optimize the accuracy of the helium balance at the time of the post irradiation examination. The two phases of the REMORA 3 irradiation have been achieved at the end of 2010 in the OSIRIS reactor. Slight acoustic signal degradation, observed during the test under high neutron and gamma flux, has led to an efficiency optimization of the signal processing. The instrumentation ran smoothly and allowed to reach all the experimental objectives. After non destructive examination performed in the Osiris reactor pool, typically gamma spectrometry and neutron radiography, the instrumented rod and the device have been disassembled. Then the instrumented rod has been transported to the LECA facility in Cadarache Centre for post irradiation examination. The internal pressure and volume of the rodlet as well as precise gas composition measurements will be known after puncturing step performed in a hot cell of this facility. That will allow us to qualify the in-pile measurements and to finalize the data which will be used for the validation of the fuel behaviour computer codes. (authors)

Lambert, T.; Muller, E.; Federici, E. [CEA - Nuclear Energy Div., DEN - Fuel Research Dept. - Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Rosenkrantz, E.; Ferrandis, J. Y. [CNRS - Univ. Montpellier 2, Southern Electronic Inst., UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Tiratay, X.; Silva, V. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Div., DEN, Nuclear Reactors and Facilities Dept., F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Machard, D. [EDF, SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France); Trillon, G. [AREVA-NP, F-69456 Lyon (France)

2011-07-01

416

Detection of gas hydrates by the measurement of instantaneous temperature  

E-print Network

methods used to measure sediment temperature were studied. A new method to detect hydrates was developed based on sediment temperature and its effectiveness was tested. This method involves the measurement of instantaneous temperature as a probe is pushed...

Dinakaran, Srikanth

1994-01-01

417

7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28.301 Agriculture...28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any...of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70...

2012-01-01

418

7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28.301 Agriculture...28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any...of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70°...

2010-01-01

419

7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28.301 Agriculture...28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any...of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70...

2014-01-01

420

7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28.301 Agriculture...28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any...of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70...

2011-01-01

421

7 CFR 28.301 - Measurement: humidity; temperature.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Measurement: humidity; temperature. 28.301 Section 28.301 Agriculture...28.301 Measurement: humidity; temperature. The length of staple of any...of the atmosphere of 65 percent and a temperature of 70...

2013-01-01

422

Land Surface Temperature Measurements form EOS MODIS Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a physics-based land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm for simultaneously retrieving surface band-averaged emissivities and temperatures from day/night pairs of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in seven thermal infrared bands. The set of 14 nonlinear equations in the algorithm is solved with the statistical regression method and the least-squares fit method. This new LST algorithm was tested with simulated MODIS data for 80 sets of band-averaged emissivities calculated from published spectral data of terrestrial materials in wide ranges of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions. Comprehensive sensitivity and error analysis has been made to evaluate the performance of the new LST algorithm and its dependence on variations in surface emissivity and temperature, upon atmospheric conditions, as well as the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE(Delta)T) and calibration accuracy specifications of the MODIS instrument. In cases with a systematic calibration error of 0.5%, the standard deviations of errors in retrieved surface daytime and nighttime temperatures fall between 0.4-0.5 K over a wide range of surface temperatures for mid-latitude summer conditions. The standard deviations of errors in retrieved emissivities in bands 31 and 32 (in the 10-12.5 micrometer IR spectral window region) are 0.009, and the maximum error in retrieved LST values falls between 2-3 K. Several issues related to the day/night LST algorithm (uncertainties in the day/night registration and in surface emissivity changes caused by dew occurrence, and the cloud cover) have been investigated. The LST algorithms have been validated with MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) dada and ground-based measurement data in two field campaigns conducted in Railroad Valley playa, NV in 1995 and 1996. The MODIS LST version 1 software has been delivered.

Wan, Zhengming

1996-01-01

423

Multipurpose Spectroradiometer for Satellite Instrument Calibration and Zenith Sky Remote Sensing Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the early 1990s a series of surface-based direct sun and zenith sky measurements of total column ozone were made with SBUV/2 flight models and the SSBUV Space Shuttle instrument in Boulder, Colorado which were compared with NOAA Dobson Instrument direct sun observations and TOMS instrument overpass observations of column ozone. These early measurements led to the investigation of the accuracy of derived total column ozone amounts and aerosol optical depths from zenith sky observations. Following the development and availability of radiometrically stable IAD narrow band interference filter and nitrided silicon photodiodes a simple compact multifilter spectroradiometer was developed which can be used as a calibration transfer standard spectroradiometer (CTSS) or as a surface based instrument remote sensing instruments for measurements of total column ozone and aerosol optical depths. The total column ozone derived from zenith sky observations agrees with Dobson direct sun AD double wavelength pair measurements and with TOMS overpass ozone amounts within uncertainties of about 1%. When used as a calibration transfer standard spectroradiometer the multifilter spectroradiometer appears to be capable of establishing instrument radiometric calibration uncertainties of the order of 1% or less relative to national standards laboratory radiometric standards.

Heath, Donald F.; Ahmad, Zia

2001-01-01

424

Assessment of Customer Service in Academic Health Care Libraries (ACSAHL): an instrument for measuring customer service*†  

PubMed Central

Objectives: In a pilot study, the library had good results using SERVQUAL, a respected and often-used instrument for measuring customer satisfaction. The SERVQUAL instrument itself, however, received some serious and well-founded criticism from the respondents to our survey. The purpose of this study was to test the comparability of the results of SERVQUAL with a revised and shortened instrument modeled on SERVQUAL. The revised instrument, the Assessment of Customer Service in Academic Health Care Libraries (ACSAHL), was designed to better assess customer service in academic health care libraries. Methods: Surveys were sent to clients who had used the document delivery services at three academic medical libraries in Texas over the previous twelve to eighteen months. ACSAHL surveys were sent exclusively to clients at University of Texas (UT) Southwestern, while the client pools at the two other institutions were randomly divided and provided either SERVQUAL or ACSAHL surveys. Results: Results indicated that more respondents preferred the shorter ACSAHL instrument to the longer and more complex SERVQUAL instrument. Also, comparing the scores from both surveys indicated that ACSAHL elicited comparable results. Conclusions: ACSAHL appears to measure the same type of data in similar settings, but additional testing is recommended both to confirm the survey's results through data replication and to investigate whether the instrument applies to different service areas. PMID:11337948

Crossno, Jon E.; Berkins, Brenda; Gotcher, Nancy; Hill, Judith L.; McConoughey, Michelle; Walters, Mitchel

2001-01-01

425

Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure University Students' Biotechnology Attitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of biotechnologies on peoples' everyday lives continuously increases. Measuring young peoples' attitudes toward biotechnologies is therefore very important and its results are useful not only for science curriculum developers and policy makers, but also for producers and distributors of genetically modified products. Despite of substantial number of instruments which focused on measuring student attitudes toward biotechnology, a majority of them were not rigorously validated. This study deals with the development and validation of an attitude questionnaire toward biotechnology. Detailed information on development and validation process of the instrument is provided. Data gathered from 326 university students provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the new instrument which consists of 28 attitude items on a five point likert type scale. It is believed that the instrument will serve as a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers in science education to assess students' biotechnology attitudes.

Erdogan, Mehmet; Özel, Murat; U?ak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

2009-06-01

426

Breadboard model of the SIDRA instrument designed for the measurement of charged particle fluxes in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report delves into the concept of the SIDRA instrument designed for the measurement of energetic fluxes of charged particles in space. It also presents the preliminary laboratory tests results of the breadboard model electronic units. The SIDRA instrument consists of a detector head made of high purity silicon and high performance scintillation detectors, analog and digital signal processing units, and it also includes a secondary power supply module. Preliminary results of Monte Carlo instrument simulation using the CERN GEANT4 tool are presented and the measured key specifications of charge-to-voltage converters, shapers and peak detectors are discussed. Finally, the performance of the digital processing unit with its software and the parameters of the instrument breadboard model, in particular mass, dimensions and power consumption are also presented.

Prieto, M.; Dudnik, O. V.; Sanchez, S.; Kurbatov, E. V.; Timakova, T. G.; Tejedor, J. I. G.; Titov, K. G.

2013-04-01

427

Development of an Instrument for Measuring Clinicians’ Power Perceptions in the Workplace  

PubMed Central

We report on the development of an instrument to measure clinicians’ perceptions of their personal power in the workplace in relation to resistance to computerized physician order entry (CPOE). The instrument is based on French and Raven’s six bases of social power and uses a semantic differential methodology. A measurement study was conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the survey. The survey was administered online and distributed via a URL by email to 19 physicians, nurses, and health unit coordinators from a university hospital. Acceptable reliability was achieved by removing or moving some semantic differential word pairs used to represent the six power bases (alpha range from 0.76–0.89). The Semantic Differential Power Perception (SDPP) survey validity was tested against an already validated instrument and found to be acceptable (correlation range from 0.51–0.81). The SDPP survey instrument was determined to be both reliable and valid. PMID:18375189

Bartos, Christa E.; Fridsma, Douglas B.; Butler, Brian S.; Penrod, Louis E.; Becich, Michael J.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

2008-01-01

428

Two Instruments for Measuring Distributions of Low-Energy Charged Particles in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current estimates indicate that the bulk of interplanetary gas consists of protons with energies between 0 and 20 kev and concentrations of 1 to 105 particles/cu cm. Methods and instrumentation for measuring the energy and density distribution of such a gas are considered from the standpoint of suitability for space vehicle payloads. It is concluded that electrostatic analysis of the energy distribution can provide sufficient information in initial experiments. Both magnetic and electrostatic analyzers should eventually be used. Several instruments designed and constructed at the Ames Research Center for space plasma measurements, and the methods of calibration and data reduction are described. In particular, the instrument designed for operation on solar cell power has the following characteristics: weight, 1.1 pounds; size, 2 by 3 by 4 inches; and power consumption, 145 mw. The instrument is designed to yield information on the concentration, energy distribution, and the anisotropy of ion trajectories in the 0.2 to 20 kev range.

Bader, Michel; Fryer, Thomas B.; Witteborn, Fred C.

1961-01-01

429

Comparative measurements of single event upset and total dose environments using the CREAM instruments  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the Cosmic Radiation Environment and Activation Monitor (CREAM) is taking regular measurements in the upper atmosphere on board the supersonic Concorde, while a further version of the same instrument is currently scheduled for flight on the Space Shuttle during September and November 1991. Meanwhile a sister instrument (CREDO) is continuously monitoring the environment in sun-synchronous orbit on board UOSAT-3. These contemporaneous flights of similar instruments enable intercomparison of environments as well as verification of predictive models and correlation with device behavior. The extensive data set encompasses both quiet-time data and solar-particle events.

Dyer, C.S.; Sims, A.J. (Defense Research Agency, Space Dept., Royal Aerospace Establishment, Famborough, Hampshire GU14 6TD (GB)); Farren, J.; Stephen, J. (Nuclear Physics and Instrumentation Div., Harwell Lab., Oxfordshire (GB)); Underwood, C. (Surrey Satellite Technology, Univ. of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey (GB))

1992-06-01

430

High data density temperature measurement for quasi steady-state flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new optical instrument, the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI), is used to measure the temperature distribution across a heated chamber filled with silicone oil. Data taken using the LCPDI are compared to equivalent measurements made with a traversing thermocouple and the two data sets show excellent agreement This instrument maintains the compact, robust design of Linnik's point diffraction interferometer and adds to it phase stepping capability for quantitative interferogram analysis. The result is a compact, simple to align, environmentally insensitive interferometer capable of accurately measuring optical wavefronts with very high data density and with automated data reduction.

Mercer, Carolyn R.; Rashidnia, Nasser; Creath, Katherine

1995-01-01

431

High Data Density Temperature Measurement for Quasi Steady-State Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new optical instrument, the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI), is used to measure the temperature distribution across a heated chamber filled with silicone oil. Data taken using the LCPDI are compared to equivalent measurements made with a traversing thermo-couple and the two data sets show excellent agreement. This instrument maintains the compact, robust design of Linniks point diffraction interferometer and adds to it phase stepping capability for quantitative interferogram analysis. The result is a compact, simple to align, environmentally insensitive interferometer capable of accurately measuring optical wave-fronts with very high data density and with automated data reduction.

Mercer, C. R.; Rashidnia, N.; Creath, K.

1996-01-01

432

DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES TO DETECT AND MEASURE PARTICULATES  

SciTech Connect

In this quarter, we have constructed the first field deployable PM measurement system. This system is retrofit from the system that we designed and tested in the lab, and by adding light blocking covers and rugged electronic boxes, we are now ready to test the instrument in our industrial collaborator's site with real engines. We have also collected tons of data on standard PM particles with our lab instrument.

Sheng Wu; Steve Palm; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard III

2004-07-31

433

Automated multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer: an instrument for optical depth and radiation measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer is a ground-based instrument that uses independent interference-filter--photodiode detectors and the automated rotating shadow-band technique to make spectrally resolved measurements at seven wavelength passbands (chosen at the time of manufacture between 350 nm and 1.7 [mu]m) of direct-normal, total-horizontal, and diffuse-horizontal irradiances. This instrument achieves an accuracy in direct-normal spectral irradiance comparable with that of

Jerry Berndt; Lee Harrison; Joseph Michalsky

1994-01-01

434

Automated Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer: An Instrument for Optical Depth and Radiation Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is a new ground-based instrument that uses independent interference-filter\\/photodiode detectors and the automated rotating shadowband technique to make spectrally resolved measurements at seven wavelength passbands (chosen at time of manufacture between 350 nm and 1.7 ?m) of the direct-normal, total-horizontal, and diffuse-horizontal irradiances. This instrument achieves an accuracy in direct-normal spectral irradiance comparable to

Lee Harrison; Joseph Michalsky; Jerry Berndt

1994-01-01

435

Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: Probing atomic structure in situ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO2 measurements. The new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO2 sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H2 and natural gas uptake/storage.

Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Fanelli, Victor R.; Reiche, Helmut M.; Larson, Eric; Taylor, Mark A.; Xu, Hongwu; Zhu, Jinlong; Siewenie, Joan; Page, Katharine

2014-12-01

436

Comparison of two scanning instruments to measure peripheral refraction in the human eye.  

PubMed

To better understand how peripheral refraction affects development of myopia in humans, specialized instruments are fundamental for precise and rapid measurements of refraction over the visual field. We compare here two prototype instruments that measure in a few seconds the peripheral refraction in the eye with high angular resolution over a range of about ±45 deg. One instrument is based on the continuous recording of Hartmann-Shack (HS) images (HS scanner) and the other is based on the photorefraction (PR) principle (PR scanner). On average, good correlations were found between the refraction results provided by the two devices, although it varied across subjects. A detailed statistical analysis of the differences between both instruments was performed based on measurements in 35 young subjects. Both instruments have advantages and disadvantages. The HS scanner also provides the high-order aberration data, while the PR scanner is more compact and has a lower cost. Both instruments are current prototypes, and further optimization is possible to make them even more suitable tools for future visual optics and myopia research and also for different ophthalmic applications. PMID:22472755

Jaeken, Bart; Tabernero, Juan; Schaeffel, Frank; Artal, Pablo

2012-03-01

437

Comparison between UV index measurements performed by research-grade and consumer-products instruments.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, skin cancer and other related diseases are not just subjects of scientific literature. Nowadays, these themes are also discussed on television, newspapers and magazines for the general public. Consequently, the interest in prevention of sun overexposure is increasing, as the knowledge of photoprotection methods and UVR levels. The ultraviolet index (UVI) is a well-known tool recommended by the World Health Organization to avoid harmful effects of UV sunlight. UVI forecasts are provided by many national meteorological services, but local UVI measurements can provide a more realistic and appropriate evaluation of UVR levels. Indeed, as scientific instruments are very expensive and difficult to manipulate, several manufacturers and retail shops offer cheap and simple non-scientific instruments for UVI measurements, sometimes included in objects of everyday life, such as watches, outfits and hand-held instruments. In this work, we compare measurements provided by several commercial non-scientific instruments with data provided by a Bentham spectrometer, a very accurate sensor used for UV measurements. Results show that only a few of the instruments analyzed provide trustworthy UVI measurements. PMID:20354638

Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haeffelin, Martial; Brogniez, Colette; Verschaeve, Franck; Saiag, Philippe; Pazmiño, Andrea; Mahé, Emmanuel

2010-04-01

438

10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the... Records § 35.2060 Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the...shall maintain a record of instrument calibrations required by § 35.60 for 3...

2012-01-01

439

10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the... Records § 35.2060 Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the...shall maintain a record of instrument calibrations required by § 35.60 for 3...

2014-01-01

440

10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the... Records § 35.2060 Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the...shall maintain a record of instrument calibrations required by § 35.60 for 3...

2013-01-01

441

10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the... Records § 35.2060 Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the...shall maintain a record of instrument calibrations required by § 35.60 for 3...

2010-01-01

442

10 CFR 35.2060 - Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the activity of unsealed byproduct material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the... Records § 35.2060 Records of calibrations of instruments used to measure the...shall maintain a record of instrument calibrations required by § 35.60 for 3...

2011-01-01

443

Negotiating Measurement: Methodological and Interpersonal Considerations in the Choice and Interpretation of Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sound evaluation planning requires numerous decisions about how constructs in a program theory will be translated into measures and instruments that produce evaluation data. This article, the first in a dialogue exchange, examines how decisions about measurement are (and should be) made, especially in the context of small-scale local program…

Braverman, Marc T.

2013-01-01

444

Development and Testing of a New Instrument for Measuring Concerns about Dying in Health Care Providers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new measure of concerns about dying was investigated in this psychometric study. The Concerns About Dying instrument (CAD) was administered to medical students, nursing students, hospice nurses, and life sciences graduate students ( N = 207) on two occasions; on one occasion they also completed three related measures. Analyses included…

Mazor, Kathleen M.; Schwartz, Carolyn E.; Rogers, H. Jane

2004-01-01

445

A Multidimensional Scaling Approach to Dimensionality Assessment for Measurement Instruments Modeled by Multidimensional Item Response Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The statistical assessment of dimensionality provides evidence of the underlying constructs measured by a survey or test instrument. This study focuses on educational measurement, specifically tests comprised of items described as multidimensional. That is, items that require examinee proficiency in multiple content areas and/or multiple cognitive…

Toro, Maritsa

2011-01-01

446

Design of a high-sensitivity, low-power instrument for chlorophyll a measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of chlorophyll a is important in the protection of marine ecosystem. This paper focused on designing and developing a high-sensitivity, low-power instrument (Named HME Chlometer) for chlorophyll a measurements. Chlorophyll a samples of different concentration were measured, using HME Chlometer and Seapoint Chlorophyll Fluorometer for comparison, and the result showed HME Chlometer was of high sensitivity, great stability, and

Yi-min Yang; Kai-kai Lou; Le-chuan Zhou; Shu-ming Ye

2010-01-01