Sample records for temperature measuring instruments

  1. Instrument for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Nixon, Thomas; Pagnutti, Mary; Zanoni, Vicki

    2003-01-01

    A pseudo-Brewster-angle infrared radiometer has been proposed for use in noncontact measurement of the surface temperature of a large body of water (e.g., a lake or ocean). This radiometer could be situated on a waterborne, airborne, or spaceborne platform. The design of the pseudo-Brewster-angle radiometer would exploit the spectral-emissivity and polarization characteristics of water to minimize errors attributable to the emissivity of water and to the reflection of downwelling (e.g., Solar and cloud-reflected) infrared radiation. The relevant emissivity and polarization characteristics are the following: . The Brewster angle is the angle at which light polarized parallel to the plane of incidence on a purely dielectric material is not reflected. The pseudo-Brewster angle, defined for a lossy dielectric (somewhat electrically conductive) material, is the angle for which the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is minimized. For pure water, the reflectivity for parallel-polarized light is only 2.2 x 10(exp -4) at its pseudo- Brewster angle of 51deg. The reflectivity remains near zero, several degrees off from the 51deg optimum, allowing this angle of incidence requirement to be easily achieved. . The wavelength range of interest for measuring water temperatures is 8 to 12 microns. The emissivity of water for parallel- polarized light at the pseudo-Brewster angle is greater than 0.999 in this wavelength range. The radiometer would be sensitive in the wavelength range of 8 to 12 microns, would be equipped with a polarizer to discriminate against infrared light polarized perpendicular to the plane of incidence, and would be aimed toward a body of water at the pseudo- Brewster angle (see figure). Because the infrared radiation entering the radiometer would be polarized parallel to the plane of incidence and because very little downwelling parallel-polarized radiation would be reflected into the radiometer on account of the pseudo-Brewster arrangement, the radiation received by the radiometer would consist almost entirely of thermal emission from the surface of the water. Because the emissivity of the water would be very close to 1, the water could be regarded as a close approximation of a blackbody for the purpose of computing its surface temperature from the radiometer measurements by use of the Planck radiation law.

  2. Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2006-09-30

    The project entitled, ''Innovative Instrumentation and Analysis of the Temperature Measurement for High Temperature Gasification'', was successfully completed by the Principal Investigator, Dr. S. Lee and his research team in the Center for Advanced Energy Systems and Environmental Control Technologies at Morgan State University. The major results and outcomes were presented in semi-annual progress reports and annual project review meetings/presentations. Specifically, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement, the ultrasonic application in cleaning application, and spray coating process and the gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted during the first year. The results show that four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. Then the gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication as well as the systematic tests on hot model were completed to test the significant factors on temperature measurement in the second year. The advanced Industrial analytic methods such as statistics-based experimental design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression methods were applied in the hot model tests. The results show that operational parameters (i.e. air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition) presented significant impact on the temperature measurement inside the gasifier simulator. The experimental design and ANOVA are very efficient way to design and analyze the experiments. The results show that the air flow rate and fine dust particle amount are statistically significant to the temperature measurement. The regression model provided the functional relation between the temperature and these factors with substantial accuracy. In the last year of the project period, the ultrasonic and subsonic cleaning methods and coating materials were tested/applied on the thermocouple cleaning according to the proposed approach. Different frequency, application time and power of the ultrasonic/subsonic output were tested. The results show that the ultrasonic approach is one of the best methods to clean the thermocouple tips during the routine operation of the gasifier. In addition, the real time data acquisition system was also designed and applied in the experiments. This advanced instrumentation provided the efficient and accurate data acquisition for this project. In summary, the accomplishment of the project provided useful information of the ultrasonic cleaning method applied in thermocouple tip cleaning. The temperature measurement could be much improved both in accuracy and duration provided that the proposed approach is widely used in the gasification facilities.

  3. Bench top Fourier transform infrared based instrument for simultaneously measuring surface spectral emittance and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, James R.; Kinsella, Karen; Carangelo, Robert M.; Brouillette, Carl R.; Carangelo, Martin D.; Best, Philip E.; Solomon, Peter R.

    1993-09-01

    A bench top instrument has been constructed which allows for the measurements of radiance, directional-hemispherical reflection, and directional-hemispherical transmission from materials at elevated temperatures from 100 to over 2000 C. The instrument measures these radiative properties over a wide spectral range, in the near- and mid-IR, from 12,500 to 500/cm (0.8-20 microns). These measurements are then processed to determine the spectral emittance of the material and the temperature at the point of measurement. The instrument has applications for (1) industrial quality control of radiative properties of processed materials; (2) research and development of new materials; (3) temperature measurement by optical techniques in the near and mid-IR; and (4) determination of heat transfer properties of materials. This article describes the instrument and its novel components, and presents measurement results for several materials.

  4. Infrared radiometry-based background-compensated thermometric instrument for noncontact temperature and friction measurements

    E-print Network

    Mandelis, Andreas

    sensitivity minimum temperature rise for the particular thin-film/ceramic material was estimated to be 0Infrared radiometry-based background-compensated thermometric instrument for noncontact temperature to measure small temperature rises caused by frictional heating. A low-power He­Ne heating laser was used

  5. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2004-04-01

    The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator were conducted in this reporting period. In the systematic test, two (2) factors were considered as the experimental parameters, including air injection rate and water injection rate. Each experimental factor had two (2) levels, respectively. A special water-feeding device was designed and installed to the gasifier simulator. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results of the systematic tests. The ANOVA shows that the air injection rate did have the significant impact to the temperature measurement in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA also shows that the water injection rate did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA analysis also proves that the thermocouple assembly we proposed was immune to the moisture environment, the temperature measurement remained accurate in moisture environment. Within this reporting period, the vibration application for cleaning purpose was explored. Both ultrasonic and sub-sonic vibrations were considered. A feasibility test was conducted to prove that the thermocouple vibration did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. This feasibility test was a 2{sup 2} factorial design. Two factors including temperature levels and motor speeds were set to two levels respectively. The sub-sonic vibration tests were applied to the thermocouple to remove the concrete cover layer (used to simulate the solid condensate in gasifiers) on the thermocouple tip. It was found that both frequency and amplitude had significant impacts on removal performance of the concrete cover layer.

  6. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Seong W. Lee

    2003-09-01

    During this reporting period, the literature survey including the gasifier temperature measurement literature, the ultrasonic application and its background study in cleaning application, and spray coating process are completed. The gasifier simulator (cold model) testing has been successfully conducted. Four factors (blower voltage, ultrasonic application, injection time intervals, particle weight) were considered as significant factors that affect the temperature measurement. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the test data. The analysis shows that all four factors are significant to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator (cold model). The regression analysis for the case with the normalized room temperature shows that linear model fits the temperature data with 82% accuracy (18% error). The regression analysis for the case without the normalized room temperature shows 72.5% accuracy (27.5% error). The nonlinear regression analysis indicates a better fit than that of the linear regression. The nonlinear regression model's accuracy is 88.7% (11.3% error) for normalized room temperature case, which is better than the linear regression analysis. The hot model thermocouple sleeve design and fabrication are completed. The gasifier simulator (hot model) design and the fabrication are completed. The system tests of the gasifier simulator (hot model) have been conducted and some modifications have been made. Based on the system tests and results analysis, the gasifier simulator (hot model) has met the proposed design requirement and the ready for system test. The ultrasonic cleaning method is under evaluation and will be further studied for the gasifier simulator (hot model) application. The progress of this project has been on schedule.

  7. Instrument for gas permeation measurements at high pressure and high temperature.

    PubMed

    Perez, Edson V; Balkus, Kenneth J; Ferraris, John P; Musselman, Inga H

    2013-06-01

    An instrument was built for the permeation testing of flat polymer membranes under pressures up to 3.0 MPa and temperatures up to 300 °C. The high pressure, high temperature cell uses aluminum tape and a graphite gasket to minimize the leak from the high pressure side to the low pressure side, making possible the permeability measurements of slow diffusing gases such as N2. A computer program developed on a LabVIEW platform fully controls the instrument and data acquisition. It incorporates algorithms to automatically adjust the downstream volume, repressurize the upstream volume, vent the downstream volume to prevent over pressurization, and change the temperature of the permeation cell. The percent relative standard deviation of the permeability measurements was <5.5%. Flat membranes of VTEC PI-1388 polymer were tested from 0.3 to 3.0 MPa and from 35 to 300 °C. The permeabilities and fluxes of H2, CO2, and N2 increased with increasing temperature, while the H2?CO2 ideal selectivity remained unchanged. The major contribution to increased flux arose from increments in temperature rather than pressure. PMID:23822378

  8. Self-heating probe instrument and method for measuring high temperature melting volume change rate of material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junwei; Wang, Zhiping; Lu, Yang; Cheng, Bo

    2013-03-01

    The castings defects are affected by the melting volume change rate of material. The change rate has an important effect on running safety of the high temperature thermal storage chamber, too. But the characteristics of existing measuring installations are complex structure, troublesome operation and low precision. In order to measure the melting volume change rate of material accurately and conveniently, a self-designed measuring instrument, self-heating probe instrument, and measuring method are described. Temperature in heating cavity is controlled by PID temperature controller; melting volume change rate ? and molten density are calculated based on the melt volume which is measured by the instrument. Positive and negative ? represent expansion and shrinkage of the sample volume after melting, respectively. Taking eutectic LiF+CaF2 for example, its melting volume change rate and melting density at 1 123 K are -20.6% and 2 651 kg·m-3 measured by this instrument, which is only 0.71% smaller than literature value. Density and melting volume change rate of industry pure aluminum at 973 K and analysis pure NaCl at 1 123 K are detected by the instrument too. The measure results are agreed with report values. Measuring error sources are analyzed and several improving measures are proposed. In theory, the measuring errors of the change rate and molten density which are measured by the self-designed instrument is nearly 1/20-1/50 of that measured by the refitted mandril thermal expansion instrument. The self-designed instrument and method have the advantages of simple structure, being easy to operate, extensive applicability for material, relatively high accuracy, and most importantly, temperature and sample vapor pressure have little effect on the measurement accuracy. The presented instrument and method solve the problems of complicated structure and procedures, and large measuring errors for the samples with high vapor pressure by existing installations.

  9. Flight Instrument for Measurement of Liquid-Water Content in Clouds at Temperatures Above and Below Freezing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Porter J.

    1951-01-01

    A principle formerly used in an instrument for cloud detection was further investigated to provide a simple and rapid means for measuring the liquid-water content of clouds at temperatures above and below freezing. The instrument consists of a small cylindrical element so operated at high surface temperatures that the impingement of cloud droplets creates a significant drop in the surface temperature. ? The instrument is sensitive to a wide range of liquid-water content and was calibrated at one set of fixed conditions against rotating multicylinder measurements. The limited conditions of the calibration Included an air temperature of 20 F, an air velocity of 175 miles per hour, and a surface temperature in clear air of 475 F. The results obtained from experiments conducted with the instrument indicate that the principle can be used for measurements in clouds at temperatures above and below freezing. Calibrations for ranges of airspeed, air temperature, and air density will be necessary to adapt the Instrument for general flight use.

  10. A Two-Line Absorption Instrument for Scramjet Temperature and Water Vapor Concentration Measurement in HYPULSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. Y.

    1998-01-01

    A three beam water vapor sensor system has been modified to provide for near simultaneous temperature measurement. The system employs a tunable diode laser to scan spectral line of water vapor. The application to measurements in a scramjet combustor environment of a shock tunnel facility is discussed. This report presents and discusses die initial calibration of the measurement system.

  11. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  12. HTGR Measurements and Instrumentation Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sydney J Ball; David Eugene Holcomb; Mustafa Sacit Cetiner

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an integrated overview of measurements and instrumentation for near-term future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Instrumentation technology has undergone revolutionary improvements since the last HTGR was constructed in the United States. This report briefly describes the measurement and communications needs of HTGRs for normal operations, maintenance and inspection, fuel fabrication, and accident response. The report includes a description

  13. Development of techniques and associated instrumentation for high temperature emissivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnington, G. R.; Funaa, A. I.; Cassady, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    Studies were made to develop a test apparatus for the measurement of total emittance of materials under repeated exposure to simulated earth entry conditions. As no existing test facility met the emittance measurement and entry simulation goals, a new apparatus was designed, fabricated and checked out. This apparatus has the capability of performing total and spectral emittance measurements during cyclic temperature and pressure exposure under sonic and supersonic flow conditions. Emittance measurements were performed on a series of oxidized superalloys, silicide coated columbium alloys and ceramic coatings.

  14. Geothermal high temperature instrumentation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Livesay, B.J. [Livesay Consultants (United States)

    1998-06-11

    A quick look at the geothermal industry shows a small industry producing about $1 billion in electric sales annually. The industry is becoming older and in need of new innovative solutions to instrumentation problems. A quick look at problem areas is given along with basic instrumentation requirements. The focus of instrumentation is on high temperature electronics.

  15. Rocket-Borne Instrumentation to Measure Ionospheric Electron Temperature with Good Spatial Resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Wrenn; J. Blades

    1972-01-01

    An ac Langmuir probe technique has been developed in order to make measurements of electron temperature in the lower ionosphere with good temporal and spatial resolution. The requirement to counter changes in rocket potential led to the incorporation of a servo system on the collector bias voltage and a novel method of sweeping this bias to analyze the electron retardation

  16. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  17. High-temperature borehole instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Koczan, S. P.; Stephani, E. L.

    1985-10-01

    A new method of extracting natural heat from the Earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320(0)C (610(0)F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resources to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules.

  18. High-temperature borehole instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.P.; Stephani, E.L.

    1985-10-01

    A new method of extracting natural heat from the earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320/sup 0/C (610/sup 0/F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resource to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules. 60 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Spectroscopy-based photonic instrumentation for the manufacturing industry: contactless measurements of distances, temperatures, and chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noharet, B.; Zetterlund, E.; Tarasenko, O.; Lindblom, M.; Gurell, J.; Bengtson, A.; Lundin, P.

    2014-03-01

    The steady progress in photonic components in terms of cost-to-performance ratio, maturity and robustness opens new avenues for the commercial deployment of photonic sensor systems in a wide range of industrial applications. Advanced sensing can be used to optimize complex processes and thereby enable significant savings in energy consumption. Three cases of robust photonic instrumentation for process optimization and quality control in manufacturing industries are presented: improved metal recycling with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, quality control in precision machining by white-light interferometry with optical fiber probes embedded in machining tools, and process optimization in steel foundries by stand-off temperature measurements in blast furnaces with optical fiber lances and spectral analysis techniques. Each of these methods utilizes a low-cost spectrometer, and requires dedicated calibration and signal processing methods to guarantee robust operation in industrial environments with varying conditions. Experimental results are presented, including on-line steel alloy analysis with correct classification rates in excess of 95%, distance measurements with axial resolution of +/- 2nm over a 75?m range, and continuous temperature monitoring of molten steel in oxygen blast furnaces with temperature measurement accuracy better than 1%.

  20. Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iufer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

  1. Instrumentation development for magneto-transport and neutron scattering measurements at high pressure and low temperature 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Weiwei

    2013-07-01

    High pressure, high magnetic field and low temperature techniques are required to investigate magnetic transitions and quantum critical behaviour in different ferromagnetic materials to elucidate how novel forms of ...

  2. Instrumentation origin of the glass transition temperature depression in thin films measured by ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Mikhail; Nealey, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Ellipsometry is one of the standard methods for observation of glass transition in thin films. However, sensitivity of the method to surface morphology can complicate the manifestation of the transition in a few nm thick samples. In particular, an onset of the free surface roughness in the glass transition temperature range affects the experimental data in a way that leads to biased glass transition temperature assignment. Two possible mechanisms of surface roughening in the vicinity of glass transition are discussed: the roughness due to lateral heterogeneity and roughness associated with thermally activated capillary waves. Effective medium approximation models are used to introduce the surface roughness into optical calculations. The results of optical modeling for a 5 nm thick polystyrene film on silicon are presented.

  3. A DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION FOR GASIFICATION PROCESS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce W. Noel

    2002-11-15

    This progress report covers continuing work to develop a temperature probe for a coal gasifier. A workable probe design requires finding answers to crucial questions involving the probe materials. We report on attempts to answer those questions. We designed, assembled, and tested a portable test fixture that can give relative quantitative data on the condition of phosphors. It needs a more-sensitive detector for optimum performance. We ordered an appropriate detector. An experimental test of the survivability of thermographic phosphor in an ambient environment similar to that in a slagging gasifier showed no substantial deterioration of the phosphor. We consider this result so important that we delayed the date of publication of this report by one month to accommodate it. We assembled the first version of a prototype probe and were preparing to test it at the time of this report.

  4. Measured and simulated absorption of CO2 at high pressure and temperature: a new tool for remote sensing instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, S.; Piccioni, G.; Snels, M.; Tran, H.; Grassi, D.

    2011-10-01

    Here we present a comparison between measured and calculated absorption of CO2 gas at extreme conditions as found in the deep Venusian atmosphere. In addition, we describe a new tool to reproduce the absorption of CO2 with state of the art theory, in order to support remote sensing studies by instrumentation on orbiting spacecraft. Gas transmittance spectra have been recorded by a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectrometer covering a wide spectral range, from 350 to 25000 cm-1 (0.4 to 29 ?m) with a spectral resolution from 10 to 0.07 cm-1. A special customized gas cell, certified to support pressures up to 350 bar and temperatures up to 300° C, has been integrated inside a compartment of the interferometer. A large number of spectra has been recorded on a pressuretemperature grid from 1 to 30 bar and 298 to 600 K. Our experimental spectra have been compared with synthetic spectra obtained by a software that takes into account line-mixing due to inter-molecular collisions. Inclusion of the line mixing, which is depending on the molecular density, produces spectra which differ substantially from those produced by simpler models, (such as ARS [3]) using a Voigt profile and neglecting line mixing, in particular for the high pressure and temperature conditions present in the Venus' atmosphere.

  5. Assessment of adequate quality and collocation of reference measurements with space borne hyperspectral infrared instruments to validate retrievals of temperature and water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbet, X.

    2015-06-01

    A method is presented to assess whether a given reference ground based point observation, typically a radiosonde measurement, is adequately collocated and sufficiently representative of space borne hyperspectral infrared instrument measurements. Once this assessment is made, the ground based data can be used to validate and potentially calibrate, with a high degree of accuracy, the hyperspectral retrievals of temperature and water vapour.

  6. LIMS Instrument Package (LIP) balloon experiment: Nimbus 7 satellite correlative temperature, ozone, water vapor, and nitric acid measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. B., III; Gandrud, B. W.; Robbins, D. E.; Rossi, L. C.; Swann, N. R. W.

    1982-01-01

    The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) LIP balloon experiment was used to obtain correlative temperature, ozone, water vapor, and nitric acid data at altitudes between 10 and 36 kilometers. The performance of the LIMS sensor flown on the Nimbus 7 Satellite was assessed. The LIP consists of the modified electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde, the ultraviolet absorption photometric of ozone, the water vapor infrared radiometer sonde, the chemical absorption filter instrument for nitric acid vapor, and the infrared radiometer for nitric acid vapor. The limb instrument package (LIP), its correlative sensors, and the resulting data obtained from an engineering and four correlative flights are described.

  7. Optical distance measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An optical instrument, such as a stability monitor or a target range finder, uses an unstabilized laser to project a composite optical signal of coherent light having two naturally occurring longitudinal mode components. A beamsplitter divides the signal into a reference beam which is directed toward one photodetector and a transmitted beam which illuminates and is reflected from a distant target onto a second photodetector optically isolated from the first photodetector. Both photodetectors are operated on the square law principle to provide electrical signals modulated at a frequency equal to the separation between the frequencies of the two longitudinal mode components of the optical signal projected by the laser. Slight movement of the target may be detected and measured by electrically monitoring the phase difference between the two signals provided by the photodetectors and the range of the target measured with the aid of a microprocessor by changing the separation between the longitudinal modes by shifting the length of the resonator cavity in an iterative series of increments.

  8. Viscosity measuring instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinstein, S. P. (inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for enabling the measurement of the viscosity of substances, especially those containing volatiles at elevated temperatures, with greater accuracy and at less cost than before. The apparatus includes a cylinder with a narrow exit opening at one end and a piston which closely slides within the cylinder to apply force against a sample in the cylinder to force the sample through the exit opening. In order to more rapidly heat a sample the ends of the cylinder and piston are tapered and the sample is correspondingly tapered, to provide a large surface to volume ratio. A corresponding coal sample is formed by compressing particles of coal under high pressure in a mold of appropriate shape.

  9. Foundations of measurement and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshawsky, Isidore

    1990-01-01

    The user of instrumentation has provided an understanding of the factors that influence instrument performance, selection, and application, and of the methods of interpreting and presenting the results of measurements. Such understanding is prerequisite to the successful attainment of the best compromise among reliability, accuracy, speed, cost, and importance of the measurement operation in achieving the ultimate goal of a project. Some subjects covered are dimensions; units; sources of measurement error; methods of describing and estimating accuracy; deduction and presentation of results through empirical equations, including the method of least squares; experimental and analytical methods of determining the static and dynamic behavior of instrumentation systems, including the use of analogs.

  10. Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaas B Klaassen

    1997-01-01

    Nearly one-third of the book relates to error theory and its applications to physical measurements. Some of the topics, such as the measurement of electrical potential difference and electrical current are of historical importance. Elementary topics like the treatment of errors and complex topics like noise are dealt with at the same mathematical level. Although Thevenin's and Norton's theorems are

  11. Measuring Temperature Reading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    There are two requirements for taking a measurement of something. The first is a tool for taking a measurement. The second is scale for making sense of the numbers of the measurement. For example, a ruler is often used to measure short lengths. It is the tool for measurement. On the ruler are one or more number scales with equally spaced numbers. These numbers can be compared with numbers from any other ruler that is accurately set to the same scale. Measuring length is far simpler than measuring temperature. While there is evidence of tools for measuring length at various times in human history, tools and scales for measuring temperature do not appear until more recent human history. Early thermometers, called thermoscopes, first appear in the 1500's. They were crude instruments that were not at all accurate. Most did not even have a number scale associated with them. This made them useless for most practical purposes. Gabriel Fahrenheit created the first accurate thermometer in 1714, and the Fahrenheit temperature scale followed it in 1724. The thermometer s accuracy was based on its use of mercury, a silver colored substance that remains liquid over a wide range of temperatures but expands or contracts in a standard, predictable way with changes in temperature. To set the scale, Fahrenheit created the coldest temperature that he could. He mixed equal parts of ice, water, and salt, and then used this as the zero point, 0 degrees, of his scale. He intended to make 30 degrees the freezing point of water and 90 degrees the temperature of the human body, but he had to later revise these temperatures to be 32 degrees and 96 degrees. In the final version of the scale, the temperature of the human body became 98.6 degrees. 19th century thermoscope

  12. Compact Instruments Measure Helium-Leak Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, Stephen; Immer, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Compact, lightweight instruments have been developed for measuring small flows of helium and/or detecting helium leaks in solenoid valves when the valves are nominally closed. These instruments do not impede the flows when the valves are nominally open. They can be integrated into newly fabricated valves or retrofitted to previously fabricated valves. Each instrument includes an upstream and a downstream thermistor separated by a heater, plus associated analog and digital heater-control, signal- conditioning, and data-processing circuits. The thermistors and heater are off-the-shelf surface mount components mounted on a circuit board in the flow path. The operation of the instrument is based on a well-established thermal mass-flow-measurement technique: Convection by the flow that one seeks to measure gives rise to transfer of heat from the heater to the downstream thermistor. The temperature difference measured by the thermistors is directly related to the rate of flow. The calibration curve from temperature gradient to helium flow is closely approximated via fifth-order polynomial. A microprocessor that is part of the electronic circuitry implements the calibration curve to compute the flow rate from the thermistor readings.

  13. Dual physiological rate measurement instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tommy G. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide an instrument for converting a physiological pulse rate into a corresponding linear output voltage. The instrument which accurately measures the rate of an unknown rectangular pulse wave over an extended range of values comprises a phase-locked loop including a phase comparator, a filtering network, and a voltage-controlled oscillator, arranged in cascade. The phase comparator has a first input responsive to the pulse wave and a second input responsive to the output signal of the voltage-controlled oscillator. The comparator provides a signal dependent on the difference in phase and frequency between the signals appearing on the first and second inputs. A high-input impedance amplifier accepts an output from the filtering network and provides an amplified output DC signal to a utilization device for providing a measurement of the rate of the pulse wave.

  14. MACS, An Instrument and a Methodology for Simultaneous and Global Measurements of the Coronal Electron Temperature and the Solar Wind Velocity on the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reginald, Nelson L.

    2000-01-01

    In Cram's theory for the formation of the K-coronal spectrum he observed the existence of temperature sensitive anti-nodes, which were separated by temperature insensitive nodes, at certain wave-lengths in the K-coronal spectrum. Cram also showed these properties were remarkably independent of altitude above the solar limb. In this thesis Cram's theory has been extended to incorporate the role of the solar wind in the formation of the K-corona, and we have identified both temperature and wind sensitive intensity ratios. The instrument, MACS, for Multi Aperture Coronal Spectrometer, a fiber optic based spectrograph, was designed for global and simultaneous measurements of the thermal electron temperature and the solar wind velocity in the solar corona. The first ever experiment of this nature was conducted in conjunction with the total solar eclipse of 11 August 1999 in Elazig, Turkey. Here twenty fiber optic tips were positioned in the focal plane of the telescope to observe simultaneously at many different latitudes and two different radial distances in the solar corona. The other ends were vertically stacked and placed at the primary focus of the spectrograph. By isolating the K-coronal spectrum from each fiber the temperature and the wind sensitive intensity ratios were calculated.

  15. Instrumentation for Sensitive Gas Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    An improved instrument for optical absorption spectroscopy utilizes off-axis paths in an optical cavity in order to increase detection sensitivity while suppressing resonance effects. The instrument is well suited for use in either cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) [in which one pulses an incident light beam and measures the rate of decay of light in the cavity] or integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) [in which one uses a continuous-wave incident light beam and measures the power of light in the cavity as a function of wavelength]. Typically, in optical absorption spectroscopy, one seeks to measure absorption of a beam of light in a substance (usually a gas or liquid) in a sample cell. In CRDS or ICOS, the sample cell is placed in (or consists of) an optical cavity, so that one can utilize multiple reflections of the beam to increase the effective optical path length through the absorbing substance and thereby increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption. If an absorbing substance is not present in the optical cavity, one can utilize the multiple passes of the light beam to increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption and scattering by components of the optical cavity itself. It is desirable to suppress the effects of resonances in the cavity in order to make the spectral response of the cavity itself as nearly constant as possible over the entire wavelength range of interest. In the present instrument, the desired flattening of the spectral response is accomplished by utilizing an off-axis beam geometry to effectively decrease the frequency interval between longitudinal electromagnetic modes of the cavity, such that the resulting transmission spectrum of the cavity is nearly continuous: in other words, the cavity becomes a broad-band optical device.

  16. A transient hot-wire instrument for thermal conductivity measurements in electrically conducting liquids at elevated temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Alloush; W. B. Gosney; W. A. Wakeham

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a novel type of transient hot-wire cell for thermal conductivity measurements on electrically conducting liquids. A tantalum wire of 25 ?m. diameter is used as the sensing element in the cell, and it is insulated from the conducting liquids by an anodic film of tantalum pentoxide, 70 nm thick. The cell is suitable for measurements on conducting

  17. Measuring Language Attitudes: The Speech Evaluation Instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Zahn; Robert Hopper

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes investigations in the measurement of listeners' evaluations of spoken language. Lack of integration in research in this area has been due in part to the numerous measurement instruments used to assess such evaluative reactions. The paper reviews the development of past instruments, describes the design, analysis, and implementation of an omnibus measure, the Speech Evaluation Instrument (SEI),

  18. 10.3 High-temperature Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piazza, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes high temperature instrumentation development from 1960-1970, 1980-1990 and 2000-present. The contents include: 1) Background; 2) Objective; 3) Application and Sensor; 4) Attachment Techniques; 5) Evaluation/Characterization Testing; and 6) Future testing.

  19. Study of high speed photography measuring instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhijun Zhang; Jiyu Sun; Keyong Wu

    2007-01-01

    High speed photograph measuring instrument is mainly used to measure and track the exterior ballistics, which can measure the flying position of the missile in the initial phase and trajectory. A new high speed photograph measuring instrument is presented in this paper. High speed photography measuring system records the parameters of object real-time, and then acquires the flying position and

  20. Biomagnetic Measurements Using SQUID Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassi, D.; Zhuravlev, Y.

    2000-09-01

    Biomagnetic measurements involve the detection of the magnetic fields generated by physiological activity in living organisms. Because magnetic fields are sensed remotely, no physical contact with the subject is required, making the technique totally non-invasive Furthermore, only the magnetic fields originating within the body are measured. No external field is applied and it can therefore be confidently stated that the technique is completely safe. These characteristics make biomagnetometry an ideal tool for the investigation of physiological processes. The only magnetic field detector capable of measuring these extremely weak biomagnetic signals is the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). In the last thirty years SQUID-based ultrasensitive magnetometers have been widely used in the investigation of physiologically produced magnetic fields for diagnostic purposes. Owing to the numerous sources of noise and interference typical of an urban environment, it has until recently been considered almost impossible to operate a SQUID magnetometer in such a location without magnetic shielding. We have overcome these technical problems and have successfully used our specially developed unshielded SQUID systems in laboratory and hospital environments. This instrumentation is suitable for recording the biomagnetic fields in adults, neonates and fetuses, and has been applied in a number of clinical studies including fetal magnetocardiography.

  1. Instrumentation for detailed bridge-scour measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.; Trent, Roy E.

    1993-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is being developed to obtain channel bathymetry during floods for detailed bridge-scour measurements. Portable scour measuring systems have four components: sounding instrument, horizontal positioning instrument, deployment mechanisms, and data storage device. The sounding instrument will be a digital fathometer. Horizontal position will be measured using a range-azimuth based hydrographic survey system. The deployment mechanism designed for this system is a remote-controlled boat using a small waterplane area, twin-hull design. An on-board computer and radio will monitor the vessel instrumentation, record measured data, and telemeter data to shore.

  2. Virtual instrument based instrumentation for harmonic current emission measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mahesh; Sisir K Das; Bohy George; V. Jayashankar; V. Jagadeesh Kumar

    2003-01-01

    An instrumentation system for the measurement of harmonic emission to IEC 61000-3-2 is a subset of the general problem of harmonic measurements. A condition is derived for the SNR of a signal (with monotonically decaying harmonic amplitudes) to be zero due to quantization errors. This is enlarged to cover Gaussian noise in the analog front end of the measuring system.

  3. Pressure and temperature measurement devices - liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S. [Rosemount Inc., Chanhassen, MN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The need to measure temperature and pressure has become a fundamental and essential requirement in the process industry. This paper reviews the various pressure and temperature measurement devices used for liquid service. It looks at the principles of measurement, the types of instruments available, selection and suitability of each and also at the broad applications of these measurements for liquid service. Finally, this paper briefly discusses the future trend in instrumentation for measurements of this kind.

  4. 30 CFR 77.314 - Automatic temperature control instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.314 Automatic temperature control instruments... (a) Automatic temperature control instruments for thermal dryer system shall be of the recording type....

  5. The adaptation of iButtons® for near-surface rock temperature and thermal offset measurements in a high alpine environment - Instrumentation and first results, Kitzsteinhorn (3203 m), Hohe Tauern, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keuschnig, M.; Hartmeyer, I.; Schmidjell, A.; Schrott, L.

    2012-04-01

    High alpine regions are very rough terrains influenced by extreme weather conditions. Steep and inaccessible terrain complicates the installation and maintenance of monitoring instruments. Among other hazards lightning stroke, low temperatures and mass movements have a strong impact on permanently installed instruments. Therefore technical challenges include the development of robust measuring instruments to resist harsh environmental conditions. The presented work is part of the MOREXPERT ('Monitoring Expert System for Hazardous Rock Walls') project. One of the project's main objectives is the development of an easy to use and maintainable monitoring system with respect to cost and benefit. The assessment of rock permafrost distribution across the whole summit pyramid (300 meters in height, 3.5 ha) and the consideration of the heterogeneous topography requires a large number of temperature loggers. To meet these requirements iButtons® were used. The iButton® is a computer chip enclosed in a 16mm thick stainless steel can. The used DS1922L/T temperature logger iButtons® are rugged, self-sufficient systems that measure temperature and record the result in a protected memory section with an accuracy of ±0.5°C from -10°C to +65°C and a resolution of 0.0625°C. In contrast to conventionally used temperature loggers, iButtons® are cheap, end-user friendly and easily replaceable in case of damage. For this reason a large number of measurement sites can easily be equipped for the measurement of near-surface rock temperatures and thermal offset. A special instrumentation workflow for the installation of iButtons® in depths of 10 and 80 cm was developed. All iButtons® were attached to polyethylene rods and placed in previously drilled holes. First results show a good applicability of iButtons® for rock temperature measurements.

  6. IMTC 2003 Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the cost of systems, which own a relatively great number of instruments, and which therefore offer a wide analysis, Safety analysis, Automatic process control, Communications systems, Distributed Measurement. IIMTC 2003 ­ Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference Vail, CO, USA, 20-22 May 2003

  7. An Instrument to Measure Vocational Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Bert W.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    This report describes the Cognitive Vocational Maturity Test (CVMT), and instrument designed to measure career knowledges and abilities within six areas of the cognitive domain of vocational maturity, as well as offers validity and reliability data. (Authors)

  8. Isotopic CO2 Instrumentation for UAV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A.; Silver, J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is the largest component of anthroprogenic green house gas emissions. Knowing atmospheric 13CO2/12CO2 ratios precisely is important for understanding biogenic and anthroprogenic sources and sinks for carbon. Instrumentation mounted on UAV aircraft would enable important spatial isotopic CO2 information. However, current isotopic CO2 instrumentation have unfavorable attributes for UAV use, such as high power requirements, high cost, high weight, and large size. Here we present the early development of a compact isotopic CO2 instrument that is designed to nullify effects of pressure, temperature and moisture, and will ultimately be suitable for UAV deployment.

  9. Instrumentation for Structure Measurements on Highly Non-equilibrium Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Benmore, Chris J [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Wilding, Martin C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Containerless techniques (levitation) completely eliminate contact with the sample. This unique sample environment allows deep supercooling of many liquids and avoids contamination of high temperature melts. Recent experiments at the APS high energy beamline 11 ID-C used aerodynamic levitation with laser beam heating and acoustic levitation with cryogenic cooling. By using these two methods, liquids were studied over much of the temperature range from -40 to +2500 C. This paper briefly describes the instrumentation and its use with an -Si area detector that allows fast, in-situ measurements. Use of the instruments is illustrated with examples of measurements on molten oxides and aqueous materials.

  10. Study of high speed photography measuring instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Keyong

    2007-01-01

    High speed photograph measuring instrument is mainly used to measure and track the exterior ballistics, which can measure the flying position of the missile in the initial phase and trajectory. A new high speed photograph measuring instrument is presented in this paper. High speed photography measuring system records the parameters of object real-time, and then acquires the flying position and trajectory data of the missile in the initial phase. The detection distance of high speed photography is more than 4.5km, and the least detection distance is 450m, under the condition of well-balanced angular velocity and angular acceleration, program pilot track error less than 5'. This instrument also can measure and record the flying trail and trajectory parameters of plane's aero naval missile.

  11. Virtual instrumentation for power supply harmonic measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Manuel; R. Ramos; J. A. Gomez; S. Gomariz; X. Roset; A. Garrido

    1998-01-01

    The work reported here presents a virtual instrument (VI) for total harmonic distortion (THD) measurement index with a high accuracy, this is due to the use of high characteristics windows and DFT (discrete Fourier transform) interpolation algorithms are specially interesting in power switching supplies measurements. In the PWM switching regulators frequency characterization the stimulus signal amplitude has to be small

  12. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J; Wallace, Alex; Jastrow, Ulf; Kreis, Svea; Sorokin, Andrey A; Tiedtke, Kai

    2015-05-01

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000?eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of data normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given. PMID:25931075

  13. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; Wallace, Alex; Jastrow, Ulf; Kreis, Svea; Sorokin, Andrey A.; Tiedtke, Kai

    2015-01-01

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000?eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of data normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given. PMID:25931075

  14. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Moeller, Stefan; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; et al

    2015-05-01

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of datamore »normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given.« less

  15. Microthermal Instrument for Measuring Surface Layer Seeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue-Bao; Zheng, Yan-Fang; Deng, Lin Hua; Xu, Guang

    2012-02-01

    Microthermal fluctuations are introduced by atmospheric turbulence very near the ground. In order to detect microthermal fluctuations at Fuxian Solar Observatory (FSO), a microthermal instrument has been developed. The microthermal instrument consists of a microthermal sensor, which is based on a Wheatstone bridge circuit and uses fine tungsten filaments as resistance temperature detectors, an associated signal processing unit, and a data collection, & communication subsystem. In this paper, after a brief introduction to surface layer seeing, we discuss the instrumentation behind the microthermal detector we have developed and then present the results obtained. The results of the evaluation indicate that the effect of the turbulent surface boundary layer to astronomical seeing would become sufficiently small when installing a telescope at a height of 16m or higher from the ground at FSO.

  16. Pupil Alignment Measuring Technique and Alignment Reference for Instruments or Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G.

    2010-01-01

    A technique was created to measure the pupil alignment of instruments in situ by measuring calibrated pupil alignment references (PARs) in instruments. The PAR can also be measured using an alignment telescope or an imaging system. PAR allows the verification of the science instrument (SI) pupil alignment at the integrated science instrument module (ISIM) level of assembly at ambient and cryogenic operating temperature. This will allow verification of the ISIM+SI alignment, and provide feedback to realign the SI if necessary.

  17. IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference

    E-print Network

    Joseph, Dileepan

    reasons, such as a higher quantum efficiency, less smear and blooming, better yields and price pressureIEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference Budapest, Hungary, May 21­23, 2001 require external circuits to provide bias voltages, clock signals, control logic, analogue

  18. OSCILLOMETRIC VIRTUAL INSTRUMENT FOR BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentin Batagelj

    In this paper a simple educational model of a non-invasive blood pressure measurement device, based on the oscillometric principle is presented. The device is composed of a pressure transducer, auxiliary instrumentation for signal acquirement and digital signal processing module in the LabVIEW environment. Since the most problematic part of metrological evaluation of oscillometric devices is in proprietary algorithms of determining

  19. Instrumented Bolt Measures Load In Two Ways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Melvick, G. R.; Klundt, T. J.; Everton, R. L.; Eggett, M.

    1995-01-01

    Bolt instrumented to allow both ultrasonic and strain-gauge measurements of tensile load in bolt during installation and use of bolt in structure. Bolt head design allows interface for ultrasonic transducer installed, while shallow chamfered circumferential groove on bolt shank contains four strain gauges at equal angular intervals wired as a full-bridge transducer.

  20. IMTC 2005 Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference

    E-print Network

    Adler, Andy

    Eddy Current Based Flexible Sensor for Contactless Measurement of Breathing Alex Richer, Andy Adler such as monitoring of breathing in sleeping subjects for sleep apnea. The instrument is based on a magnetic coil to the transmitted field. This effect makes changes in the thoracic conductivity distribution due to breathing

  1. [A special instrument for hematocrit measurement].

    PubMed

    Ding, Wu-xing; Li, Tian

    2005-07-01

    A new instrument for hematocrit measurement is introduced in the paper, which can get the same accurate Hct values while its centrifuging speed is reduced. It integrates high speed centrifuge, automatic data processing and automatic analysis of hematocrit into a system, having more advantages than the traditional measuring devices, such as lower noise, less test errors and better accuracy. Therefore, it can satisfy well clinical applications. PMID:16419942

  2. Instrumented staircase for ground reaction measurement.

    PubMed

    Riener, R; Rabuffetti, M; Frigo, C; Quintern, J; Schmidt, G

    1999-07-01

    A staircase was developed to record ground reactions during stair climbing at different slopes (inclinations). Each step is instrumented with six strain-gauge-based force transducers which allow the measurement of three-dimensional ground reaction force and moment as well as the centre of pressure (COP) location. A specific sensor arrangement permits accurate recording, especially of the COP location. The overall design of the staircase and details of a single instrumented step are presented. Static and dynamic characteristics have been evaluated by different experimental procedures. Preliminary results of ground reaction forces are shown. PMID:10696713

  3. Instrumented tracer for Lagrangian measurements in Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

    PubMed

    Shew, Woodrow L; Gasteuil, Yoann; Gibert, Mathieu; Metz, Pascal; Pinton, Jean-François

    2007-06-01

    We have developed novel instrumentation for making Lagrangian measurements of temperature in diverse fluid flows. A small neutrally buoyant capsule is equipped with on-board electronics which measures temperature and transmits the data via a wireless radio frequency link to a desktop computer. The device has 80 dB dynamic range, resolving millikelvin changes in temperature with up to 100 ms sampling time. The capabilities of these "smart particles" are demonstrated in turbulent thermal convection in water. We measure temperature variations as the particle is advected by the convective motion and analyze its statistics. Additional use of cameras allow us to track the particle position and to report here the first direct measurement of Lagrangian heat flux transfer in Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The device shows promise for opening new research in a broad variety of fluid systems. PMID:17614636

  4. Instrumented tracer for Lagrangian measurements in Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shew, Woodrow L.; Gasteuil, Yoann; Gibert, Mathieu; Metz, Pascal; Pinton, Jean-François

    2007-06-01

    We have developed novel instrumentation for making Lagrangian measurements of temperature in diverse fluid flows. A small neutrally buoyant capsule is equipped with on-board electronics which measures temperature and transmits the data via a wireless radio frequency link to a desktop computer. The device has 80dB dynamic range, resolving millikelvin changes in temperature with up to 100ms sampling time. The capabilities of these "smart particles" are demonstrated in turbulent thermal convection in water. We measure temperature variations as the particle is advected by the convective motion and analyze its statistics. Additional use of cameras allow us to track the particle position and to report here the first direct measurement of Lagrangian heat flux transfer in Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The device shows promise for opening new research in a broad variety of fluid systems.

  5. Temperature, pressure, and wind instrumentation in the Phoenix meteorological package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Taylor; David C. Catling; Mike Daly; Cameron S. Dickinson; Haraldur P. Gunnlaugsson; Ari-Matti Harri; Carlos F. Lange

    2008-01-01

    The meteorological package (MET) on the Phoenix Lander is designed to provide information on the daily and seasonal variations in Mars near-polar weather during Martian late spring and summer. The present paper provides some background on the temperature, pressure, and wind instrumentation on the Phoenix MET station and their characterization. A separate paper addresses the MET lidar instrument. Laboratory studies

  6. Extreme ultraviolet BRDF measurements: instrumentation and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Michael P.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva A. M.

    1996-11-01

    The lack of measured surface scatter data at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths has been commented upon by a number of authors. The need for such data arises primarily in the area of stray light design and analysis. Most stray light software requires knowledge of the bidirectional reflectance distribution (BRDF) for relevant surfaces. Without this measured data, quantitative assessment of stray light effects is difficult, making the confident prediction of instrument performance almost impossible. The Goddard EUV scatterometer was designed to perform such measurements, and the geometry, important design issues, and performance are discussed. This instrument is capable of plane-of-incidence BRDF measurements at EUV wavelengths between 58.1 nm and 121.6 nm, with a lower measurement limit of approximately 10-5 sr-1, and is able to accommodate angles of incidence between 10 and 75 degrees. The scatterometer can measure scatter to within 1.5 degrees of the specular beam, and the scatter angle can be measured to within 0.1 degree. BRDF data is presented for the commonly used visible-diffuser material white Spectralon SRS-99 at 121.6 nm; and for common baffle surfaces Martin Black, black Spectralon SRS-02, and an evaporated Cu black at wavelengths of 58.4 nm and 121.6 nm and angles of incidence of 15 degrees and 45 degrees. The BRDF distribution of a 3000 line/mm Al diffraction grating is also presented.

  7. Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R. (comp.)

    1986-06-01

    The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  8. Instrumented staircase for ground reaction measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Riener; M. Rabuffetti; C. Frigo; J. Quintern; G. Schmidt

    1999-01-01

    A staircase was developed to record ground reactions during stair climbing at different slopes (inclinations). Each step is\\u000a instrumented with six strain-gauge-based force transducers which allow the measurement of three-dimensional ground reaction\\u000a force and moment as well as the centre of pressure (COP) location. A specific sensor arrangement permits accurate recording,\\u000a especially of the COP location. The overall design of

  9. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  10. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  11. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  12. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  13. 21 CFR 886.1460 - Stereopsis measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Stereopsis measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A stereopsis measuring instrument is a device intended to measure depth perception by illumination of objects placed on different planes. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  14. A Heat Flux Instrument for Measuring Venus Surface Heat Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauken, M.; Smrekar, S.

    2015-04-01

    An instrument has been developed to measure the surface heat flow on Venus. Heat flow measurement would provide a better understanding of the evolutionary development of Venus. The instrument uses a semiconductor thermopile to measure heat flow.

  15. Rotor instrumentation study for high-temperature superconducting generators

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenterly, S.W.; Wilson, C.T.

    1996-06-01

    In FY 9195, ORNL carried out work on rotor instrumentation systems in support of the General Electric (GE) Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI) on Superconducting Generator Development. The objective was to develop a system for tramsitting data from sensors in the spinning rotor to a stationary data acquisition system. Previous work at ORNL had investigated an optical method of cryogenic temperature measurement using laser-induced fluorescence in certain phosphors. Later follow-up discussions with experts in the ORNL Engineering Technology Division indicated that this method could also be extended to measure strain and magnetic field. Another optical alternative using standard fiber optic transmission modules was also investigated. The equipment is very inexpensive, but needs to be adapted for operation in a high-g-force rotating environment. An optical analog of a commutator or slip ring also needs to be developed to couple the light signals from the rotor to the stationary frame. Sealed mercury-film rotary contacts are manufactured by Meridian Laboratory. Unlike conventional slipring assemblies, these offer low noise and long lifetime, with low costs per channel. Standard units may need some upgrading for 3600-rpm or high-voltage operation. A commercial electronic telemetry system offered by Wireless Data Corporation (WDC) was identified as a viable candidate, and information on this system was presented to GE. GE has since ordered two of these systems from WDC for temperature measurements in their rotating test cryostat.

  16. MACS, an instrument, and a methodology for simultaneous and global measurements of the coronal electron temperature and the solar wind velocity on the solar corona

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelson Leslie Reginald

    2001-01-01

    The determination of the radial and latitudinal temperature and wind profiles of the solar corona is of great importance in understanding the coronal heating mechanism and the dynamics of coronal expansion. Cram (1976) presented the theory for the formation of the K- coronal spectrum and identified two important observations. He observed the existence of temperature sensitive anti-nodes at certain wavelengths

  17. MACS, An Instrument, and a Methodology for Simulations and Global Measurements of the Coronal Electron Temperature and the Solar Wind Velocity on the Solar Corona

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelson L. Reginald

    2000-01-01

    The determination of the radial and latitudinal temperature and wind profiles of the solar corona is of great importance in understanding the coronal heating mechanism and the dynamics of coronal expansion. Cram presented the theory for the formation of the K-coronal spectrum and identified two important observations. He observed the existence of temperature sensitive anti-nodes at certain wavelengths in the

  18. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS...Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring...tanks type C, each cargo containment system for a design temperature colder...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS...Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring...tanks type C, each cargo containment system for a design temperature colder...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS...Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring...tanks type C, each cargo containment system for a design temperature colder...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS...Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring...tanks type C, each cargo containment system for a design temperature colder...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1340 - Temperature measuring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS...Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1340 Temperature measuring...tanks type C, each cargo containment system for a design temperature colder...

  3. Infrared radiometric technique in temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazer, S.; Madding, R.

    1988-01-01

    One class of commercially available imaging infrared radiometers using cooled detectors is sensitive to radiation over the 3 to 12 micron wavelength band. Spectral filters can tailor instrument sensitivity to specific regions where the target exhibits optimum radiance. The broadband spectral response coupled with real time two-dimensional imaging and emittance/background temperature corrections make the instruments useful for remote measurement of surface temperatures from -20 C to +1500 C. Commonly used radiometric techniques and assumptions are discussed, and performance specifications for a typical modern commercial instrument are presented. The potential usefulness of an imaging infrared radiometer in space laboratories is highlighted through examples of research, nondestructive evaluation, safety, and routine maintenance applications. Future improvements in instrument design and application of the radiometric technique are discussed.

  4. NEUTRON SCATTERING INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASUREMENT OF MELT STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Weber, Christopher Benmore

    2004-10-21

    This Phase II research project was focused on constructing and testing a facility for the measurement of the structure of hot solid and liquid materials under extreme conditions using neutron diffraction. The work resulted in measurements at temperatures of 3300 K, the highest ever performed in a neutron beam. Work was performed jointly by Containerless Research, Inc. and Argonne National Laboratory with significant interactions with engineers and scientists at the under construction-SNS facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The work comprised four main activities: Design and construct an advanced instrument for structural studies of liquids and hot solids using neutron scattering. Develop and test a software package for instrument control, data acquisition and analysis. Test and demonstrate the instrument in experiments at the GLAD beamline at IPNS. Evaluate requirements for performing experiments at the SNS. Develop interest from the potential user base and identify potential support for Phase III. The objectives of the research were met. A second-generation instrument was developed and constructed. The instrument design drew on the results of a formal design review which was held at Argonne National Laboratory during the Phase I research [1]. The review included discussion with potential instrument users, SNS scientists and engineers and various scientists involved with materials, glass, ceramics, and geological sciences. The instrument combines aerodynamic levitation with pulsed neutron diffraction in a controlled atmosphere. An important innovation was the use of pure vanadium levitation nozzles that effectively eliminated contributions from the sample environment to the measured data. The instrument employed a 250 Watt CO2 laser that was configured for Class I laser operation. The use of Class I laser configuration meant that operators could work with the equipment with minimal restrictions and so concentrate on the research activities. Instrument control and data acquisition software was developed and implemented. As part of a larger initiative at IPNS, PC-based programs are being developed for acquisition and processing of neutron data. The PC-based beamline data handling system will enable compatibility with the levitator software. The instrument was bench tested at CRI and operated in three campaigns at the GLAD beamline at IPNS. Samples approximately 3.5 mm in diameter were levitated for periods up to 6 hours and at temperatures up to 3300 K. Structure factors were obtained for liquid oxide materials and hot solids. Details are given in this report and in published or submitted papers. During the course of the Phase I and Phase II projects, technical presentations were made at the Materials Research Society meeting in Boston, November, 2001, the American Conference on Neutron Scattering in Knoxville, TN, June, 2002, the Gordon Research Conference on High Temperature Chemistry (poster) in Waterville, ME, August 2002, the ACNS meeting in Baltimore, MD, June, 2004 and the Non-crystalline Materials-9 meeting in Corning NY, July, 2004. Two manuscripts were prepared, one is published, one is in review. The presentations have resulted in contact with the user community and we have received several requests to use the instrument. As a result, we are seeking support for collaborative research and plan to offer beamline instruments for commercial sale.

  5. Information characteristics of automatic control and measuring instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. D. Sychevskii; V. V. Kafarov

    1965-01-01

    1.An analysis of the operation of commercial automatic control and measuring instruments by means of the mathematical apparatus of the information theory has revealed a structural discrepancy between various instruments, as well as between elements intended for consecutive operation.2.The automatic control and measuring instruments produced by our industry should be provided with data on theiry carrying capacity, in view of

  6. Instrument for measurement of mechanical stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Bol'shakov, V.N.; Gorbash, V.G.

    1989-02-01

    An instrument for nondestructive measurement of mechanical stresses in parts of ferromagnetic materials with use of an applied magnetoelastic transducer is described. The basis of the method is measurement of the parameters of modulation of the magnetic flux in the part, which is magnetized with an alternating magnetic field periodically changing in direction in a plane parallel to the surface of the part. For the purpose of concentration of the magnetic flux in the directions determined at each moment of time by the position of the yoke, the ring magnetic core was made of an assembly of 60 plates of electrical steel. In addition to the magnetic system a system for providing rotation of the yoke from a small dc motor and a system for formation of the reference signal, including the modulator, the light source, and the photoiodide, were also located in the transducer. With rotation of the yoke of the transducer magnetic system the direction of magnetization in the inspected part periodically changes with the presence of anisotropy the magnetic flux in the transducer - part system is modulated in amplitude. Consequently the output emf occurring in the measuring winding will also be amplitude modulated.

  7. Line spread instrumentation for propagation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A line spread device capable of yielding direct measure of a laser beam's line spread function (LSF) was developed and employed in propagation tests conducted in a wind tunnel to examine optimal acoustical suppression techniques for laser cavities exposed to simulated aircraft aerodynamic environments. Measurements were made on various aerodynamic fences and cavity air injection techniques that effect the LSF of a propagating laser. Using the quiescent tunnel as a control, the relative effect of each technique on laser beam quality was determined. The optical instrument employed enabled the comparison of relative beam intensity for each fence or mass injection. It was found that fence height had little effect on beam quality but fence porosity had a marked effect, i.e., 58% porosity alleviated cavity resonance and degraded the beam the least. Mass injection had little effect on the beam LSF. The use of a direct LSF measuring device proved to be a viable means of determining aerodynamic seeing qualities of flow fields.

  8. Global and Hemispheric Temperature Anomalies: Land and Marine Instrumental Records

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) provides the Global and Hemisphere Temperature Anomalies: Land and Marine Instrumental Records data. Data tables and graphs from 1856 to 1998 are available. At the site, users will find a description of the methods to obtain the data, summaries describing the graphs, and references.

  9. Whistle Gauge Measures Flow And Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Kwack, Eug Y.

    1989-01-01

    Simple, rugged gauge used to measure speed of flow and temperature of steam or other gas flowing through pipes of arbitrary diameter, from 1 to 28 in. or larger. Specially designed, instrumented whistle - has no moving parts, small, nonobstruction, operates at high temperature and pressure, and cleans itself. Does not operate at zero flow, but at moderate flows (tens of meters per second) generates intense sound for use in measurements. Consists of slanted ring groove of depth D and pressure taps in wall of pipe carrying flow to be measured. Resonant wavelength of sound generated by ring groove depends primarily on size and shape of groove and approximately equal to 4D.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments. 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1719-3 Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments. ...1719-1(e)(3) luminous intensity measurements of the face, ribs, roof,...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments. 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1719-3 Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments. ...1719-1(e)(3) luminous intensity measurements of the face, ribs, roof,...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments. 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1719-3 Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments. ...1719-1(e)(3) luminous intensity measurements of the face, ribs, roof,...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments. 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1719-3 Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments. ...1719-1(e)(3) luminous intensity measurements of the face, ribs, roof,...

  14. An Analysis of Selected Skinfold Measuring Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jerald D.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of three relatively inexpensive skinfold calipers were compared with that of the Lange Skinfold Caliper. The instruments were used with 800 students ranging from elementary school to the college level. The Fat-O-Meter and Adipometer calipers compared favorably with the Lange instrument for accuracy and wearability while the…

  15. Neutron ion temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Hendel, H.W.; Lovberg, J.; Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1986-11-01

    One important use of fusion product diagnostics is in the determination of the deuterium ion temperature from the magnitude of the 2.5 MeV d(d,n)/sup 3/He neutron emission. The detectors, calibration methods, and limitations of this technique are reviewed here with emphasis on procedures used at PPPL. In most tokamaks, the ion temperature deduced from neutrons is in reasonable agreement with the ion temperature deduced by other techniques.

  16. Instrumentation of sampling aircraft for measurement of launch vehicle effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Tyson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obtaining valid airborne measurements. Discussions of the data acquisition system used, the instrument power system, and operational sampling procedures are included. Representative measurements obtained from an actual rocket launch monitoring activity are also presented.

  17. Portable instrumentation for solar absorptance and emittance measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Pettit; A. R. Mahoney

    1980-01-01

    Two portable instruments, one designed for solar absorptance and the other for emittance measurements, were evaluated. A solar spectrum reflectometer was used for solar absorptance measurements while a model AE emissometer was used to measure the emittance for an 80 C blackbody. Both instruments are manufactured by Devices and Services Co., Dallas, TX. The solar spectrum reflectometer uses four different

  18. Measuring Soil Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil temperature is a critical factor in the germination and early growth of many crops including corn, cotton, small grains, and vegetable crops. Soil temperature strongly influences the rate of critical biological reactions in the soil such as the rates of nitrification and microbial respiration. ...

  19. Instrument for benzene and toluene emission measurements of glycol regenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanyecz, Veronika; Mohácsi, Árpád; Puskás, Sándor; Vágó, Árpád; Szabó, Gábor

    2013-11-01

    We introduce an in-field and in-explosive atmosphere useable instrument, which can measure the benzene and toluene concentration in two gas and two glycol samples produced by natural gas dehydration units. It is a two-phase, on-line gas chromatograph with a photoacoustic spectroscopy based detector. The time resolution is 10 min per cycle and the minimum detectable concentrations are 2 mg m-3 for benzene, 3 mg m-3 for toluene in natural gas, and 5 g m-3 for benzene and 6 g m-3 for toluene in glycol. Test measurements were carried out at a dehydration plant belonging to MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company. Benzene and toluene emissions of gas dehydration unit are calculated from the measured values based on mass balance of a glycol regenerator. The relationship between the outdoor temperature and the measured concentration was observed which is caused by temperature-dependent operation of the whole dehydration unit. Emission decreases with increase of outdoor temperature.

  20. Development of a Binary Mixture Gas Composition Instrument for Use in a Confined High Temperature Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadell, Seth R.

    With recent advancements in material science, industrial operations are being conducted at higher and higher temperatures. This is apparent in the nuclear industry where a division of the field is working to develop the High Temperature Gas Reactor and the Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concurrently. Both of these facilities will have outlet gas temperatures that are at significantly higher temperatures than the typical water cooled reactor. These increased temperatures provide improved efficiency for the production of hydrogen, provide direct heating for oil refineries, or more efficient electricity generation. As high temperature operations are being developed, instruments capable of measuring the operating parameters must be developed concurrently. Within the gas reactor community there is a need to measure the impurities within the primary coolant. Current devices will not survive the temperature and radiation environments of a nuclear reactor. An instrument is needed to measure the impurities within the coolant while living inside the reactor, where this instrument would measure the amount of the impurity within the coolant. There are many industrial applications that need to measure the ratio of two components, whether it be the amount of particulate in air that is typical to pneumatic pumping, or the liquid to gas ratio in natural gas as it flows through a pipeline. All of the measurements in these applications can be met using a capacitance sensor. Current capacitance sensors are built to operate at ambient temperatures with only one company producing a product that will handle a temperature of up to 400 °C. This maximum operating temperature is much too low to measure the gas characteristics in the High Temperature Gas Reactor. If this measurement technique were to be improved to operate at the expected temperatures, the coolant within the primary loop could be monitored for water leaks in the steam generator, carbon dust buildup entrained in the flow, or used to measure the purity of the coolant itself. This work details the efforts conducted to develop such an instrument. While the concept of designing a capacitance sensor to measure a gas mixture is not unique, the application of using a capacitance sensor within a nuclear reactor is a new application. This application requires the development of an instrument that will survive a high temperature nuclear reactor environment and operate at a sensitivity not found in current applications. To prove this technique, instrument prototypes were built and tested in confined environments and at high temperatures. This work discusses the proof of concept testing and outlines an application in the High Temperature Test Facility to increase the operational understanding of the instrument. This work is the first step toward the ultimate outcome of this work, which is to provide a new tool to the gas reactor community allowing real-time measurements of coolant properties within the core.

  1. Low-cost optical instrumentation for biomedical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind

    2000-12-01

    Low-cost instruments for measurement in medicine, biotechnology, and environmental monitoring are presented. Recent developments in optoelectronic technology enable practical compact designs. This article presents the available types of light emitters, detectors, and wavelength selection components that are used in low-cost instruments. The main spectroscopic techniques (absorption, reflectance, luminescence intensity, lifetime, and polarization, evanescent wave and surface plasmon resonance) that are used with these instruments are described. Numerous examples of devices for a broad variety of biomedical measurements are presented.

  2. Integrated Tool Capabilities for Performance Instrumentation and Measurement

    E-print Network

    Dongarra, Jack

    Integrated Tool Capabilities for Performance Instrumentation and Measurement Sameer Shende, Allen examples of how the instrumentation and measurement strategies are implemented in the PAPI and TAU tool@cs.utk.edu, mucci@cs.utk.edu, dongarra@cs.utk.edu Abstract: As computer systems grow in size and complexity, tool

  3. A new plasma potential measurement instrument for plasma ion sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Tarvainen; P. Suominen; H. Koivisto

    2004-01-01

    A very efficient and fast instrument to measure the plasma potential of ion sources has been developed at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The operating principle of this novel instrument is to apply a decelerating voltage into a mesh located in the beamline of the ion source. The plasma potential is determined by measuring the current at

  4. A high-temperature Bonse--Hart ultrasmall-angle x-ray scattering instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, B.; Li, Y.; Harney, P.J.; Yeh, F. (Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3400 (United States))

    1993-06-01

    A Bonse--Hart ultrasmall-angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) instrument has been designed, constructed, and tested employing a synchrotron x-ray source. The instrument permits experiments ranging from below 0 [degree]C up to about 400 [degree]C, as well as temperature scanning, jumping, quenching, and annealing experiments. The mechanical elements used Super Invar as the basic building material in order to minimize the thermal expansion effect. As the synchrotron beam after the beamline optics is already somewhat collimated and monochromatized, a very fine tuning of the first crystal was necessary. The high-temperature Bonse--Hart instrument increased the performance by a factor of about 10 when compared with our earlier room-temperature Bonse--Hart instrument using the same set of channel-cut germanium crystals. The instrument was tested by using a suspension of polystyrene latex spheres and by combining the USAXS measurement, for the first time, with measurements of the same latex suspension by means of laser light scattering.

  5. A high-temperature Bonse-Hart ultrasmall-angle x-ray scattering instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Benjamin; Li, Yingjie; Harney, Paul J.; Yeh, Fengji

    1993-06-01

    A Bonse-Hart ultrasmall-angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) instrument has been designed, constructed, and tested employing a synchrotron x-ray source. The instrument permits experiments ranging from below 0 °C up to about 400 °C, as well as temperature scanning, jumping, quenching, and annealing experiments. The mechanical elements used Super Invar as the basic building material in order to minimize the thermal expansion effect. As the synchrotron beam after the beamline optics is already somewhat collimated and monochromatized, a very fine tuning of the first crystal was necessary. The high-temperature Bonse-Hart instrument increased the performance by a factor of about 10 when compared with our earlier room-temperature Bonse-Hart instrument using the same set of channel-cut germanium crystals. The instrument was tested by using a suspension of polystyrene latex spheres and by combining the USAXS measurement, for the first time, with measurements of the same latex suspension by means of laser light scattering.

  6. Permeameter for high-temperature magnetic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A permeameter is described that measures the magnetizing force and the corresponding magnetic induction up to 1000 C. The two symmetrical yokes are made of an alloy of 9 percent iron, 91 percent cobalt. A coil surrounding the specimen supplies a magnetizing force of up to 100 oersteds. The instrument uses the magnetic potentiometer principle to cancel the effects of the reluctance of the yoke and the joint gaps. Very close agreement was obtained at room temperature when compared to an MH type permeameter. The effect of temperature on the normal induction curves for the yoke material is also presented.

  7. Air temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, H. N.

    1978-01-01

    A coupled pair of identical film-mounted spherical bead thermistors serve as air temperature sensors aboard both Balloons 8-a and 8-b. The 8-a payload was reeled downward approximately 200 m beneath the balloon. The thermistor mounts were arranged in such a way so that when solar radiation was incident in a direction which was perpendicular to one film, then the direction of the incident solar ray was parallel to the second film. As the payload rotated during the flight (its rotation rate relative to the earth's magnetic field was sensed by a magnetometer), the temperature of each sensor varied depending on the orientation of the film surfaces with respect to the sun.

  8. An instrumented fastener for shear force measurements in joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, James W.; Rothgeb, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of a preliminary investigation of instrumented fasteners for use as sensors to measure the shear loads transmitted by individual fasteners installed in double splice joints. Calibration and load verification tests were conducted for instrumented fasteners installed at three fastener torque levels. Calibration test results show that the shear strains obtained from the instrumented fasteners vary linearly with the applied load and that the instrumented fasteners can be effectively used to measure shear loads transmitted by individual fasteners installed in double splice joints. The load distribution between individual fasteners is found to be dependent on the location of the fastener in the joint and the fastener torque level.

  9. Measurement of cloud point temperature in polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Mannella, G A; La Carrubba, V; Brucato, V

    2013-07-01

    A temperature-controlled turbidity measurement apparatus for the characterization of polymer solutions has been instrumented and set up. The main features are the coupled temperature-light transmittance measurement and the accurate temperature control, achieved by means of peltier cells. The apparatus allows to measure cloud point temperatures by adopting different cooling protocols: low rate for quasi-equilibrium measurements and high rate for detect kinetic effects. A ternary polymeric solution was adopted as case study system showing that cooling rate affects the measured cloud point temperature. PMID:23902117

  10. Performance Instrumentation and Measurement for Terascale Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Dongarra; Allen D. Malony; Shirley Moore; Philip Mucci; Sameer Shende

    2003-01-01

    As computer systems grow in size and complexity, tool sup- port is needed to facilitate the ecient mapping of large-scale applica- tions onto these systems. To help achieve this mapping, performance analysis tools must provide robust performance observation capabilities at all levels of the system, as well as map low-level behavior to high-level program constructs. This paper describes instrumentation and

  11. Study of instrument temperature effect on MODIS thermal emissive band responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2010-09-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB) over a spectral range from mid-wave infrared (MWIR) to long-wave infrared (LWIR), using photovoltaic (PV) HgCdTe detectors for bands 20-25 and 27-30 with wavelengths from 3.75?m to 9.73?m and photoconductive (PC) HgCdTe detectors for bands 31-36 with wavelengths from 11.0?m to 14.2?m. A total of 160 individual detectors, 10 per band, are distributed on the short- and mid-wave (SMIR) and LWIR cold focal-plane assemblies (CFPA) with temperature controlled at 83K. The instrument temperature affects the detector response and this effect varies with the detector type. Detector responses from on-orbit calibration and pre-launch measurements have been examined to characterize this effect. Results from this analysis show that, for the PV detectors on the SMIR CFPA, the detector responses (gains) increase with instrument temperature whereas the PC detector responses decrease with the instrument temperature. The calibration impact due to on-orbit changes in instrument temperatures is examined. On-orbit detector offset and nonlinear response characterization obtained from the on-boar blackbody (BB) warm-up and cool-down (WUCD) cycle is discussed. This investigation was performed for both Terra MODIS and Aqua MODIS.

  12. Instruments Measuring Blunted Affect in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Sanja; Asmal, Laila; Goosen, Anneke; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Phahladira, Lebogang; Emsley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Blunted affect, also referred to as emotional blunting, is a prominent symptom of schizophrenia. Patients with blunted affect have difficulty in expressing their emotions. The work of Abrams and Taylor and their development of the Rating Scale for Emotional Blunting in the late 1970’s was an early indicator that blunted affect could indeed be assessed reliably. Since then, several new instruments assessing negative symptoms with subscales measuring blunted affect have been developed. In light of this, we aim to provide researchers and clinicians with a systematic review of the different instruments used to assess blunted affect by providing a comparison of the type, characteristics, administration and psychometric properties of these instruments. Studies reporting on the psychometric properties of instruments assessing blunted affect in patients with schizophrenia were included. Reviews and case studies were excluded. We reviewed 30 full-text articles and included 15 articles and 10 instruments in this systematic review. On average the instruments take 15–30 minutes to administer. We found that blunted affect items common across all instruments assess: gestures, facial expressions and vocal expressions. The CAINS Self-report Expression Subscale, had a low internal consistency score. This suggests that this sub-scale does not reliably assess patients’ self-reported blunted affect symptoms and is likely due to the nature of blunted affect. Instruments correlated minimally with instruments measuring positive symptoms and more importantly with depression suggesting that the instruments distinguish between seemingly similar symptoms. PMID:26035179

  13. Global trends of measured surface air temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of surface air temperature measurements from available meteorological stations for the period of 1880-1985. It is shown that the network of meteorological stations is sufficient to yield reliable long-term, decadal, and interannual temperature changes for both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, despite the fact that most stations are located on the continents. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7 C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. Selected graphs of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones are included.

  14. Measured Spacecraft Dynamic Effects on Atmospheric Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Gell, David A.; Lay, Richard R.

    1997-01-01

    On September 1991, NASA launched the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. In addition to its atmospheric science mission, spacecraft dynamic effects on science measurements were analyzed. The investigation included two in-flight experiments to determine how each on-board instrument, subsystem and environmental disturbance contributed to the spacecraft dynamic response and how these disturbances affected science measurements. Three case studies are presented which show the impact of spacecraft dynamic response on science measurements. In the first case, correlation of independent atmospheric meridional wind measurements taken by two instruments with the spacecraft dynamic response demonstrated that excessive vibration (exceeding instrument pointing requirements) resulted in wind measurement disagreement. In the second case, solar array disturbances produced a spacecraft response signature on radiometer measurements. The signature explicitly demonstrated that if an instrument has sufficient spatial and temporal resolution, spacecraft dynamic response could impact measurements. In the final case, correlation of an instrument's fine sun sensor data and CO2 measurements demonstrated the effect of temporal and spatial sampling resolution and active pointing control on science measurements. The sun sensor had a frequency modulated characteristic due to spacecraft vibration and the periodic scanning of another instrument which was not present on the CO2 measurements.

  15. Instruments for measuring the amount of moisture in the air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    A summarization and discussion of the many systems available for measuring moisture in the atmosphere is presented. Conventional methods used in the field of meteorology and methods used in the laboratory are discussed. Performance accuracies, and response of the instruments were reviewed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each. Methods of measuring humidity aloft by instrumentation onboard aircraft and balloons are given, in addition to the methods used to measure moisture at the Earth's surface.

  16. Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

    2003-01-01

    A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. These types of measurements are used in computer models to relate remotely sensed water-surface temperature to bulkwater temperature. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured.

  17. Instrumentation for the in-situ measurement of building envelopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Grot; M. Modera; J. B. Fang

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the types of instrumentation that can be used for the in-situ measurement of the thermal resistance of building components. Four types of instrumentation are described: noncontact spot radiometers, contact heat flow transducers, portable calorimeters, and a type of portable guarded hot plate device developed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, called an envelope thermal testing unit. A brief description

  18. Low-cost optical instrumentation for biomedical measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yordan Kostov; Govind Rao

    2000-01-01

    Low-cost instruments for measurement in medicine, biotechnology, and environmental monitoring are presented. Recent developments in optoelectronic technology enable practical compact designs. This article presents the available types of light emitters, detectors, and wavelength selection components that are used in low-cost instruments. The main spectroscopic techniques (absorption, reflectance, luminescence intensity, lifetime, and polarization, evanescent wave and surface plasmon resonance) that are

  19. The Development of an Instrument to Measure Creative Teaching Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, John F.

    The development of an instrument to measure creative teaching abilities, the Creative Teaching Dilemma (CTD), involved three phases. The instrument was constructed and refined, and scoring procedures were outlined. The activities comprising the CTD included defining the teaching dilemma, gathering additional facts, identifying and stating the…

  20. An Analysis of Several Instruments Measuring "Nature of Science" Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Rodney L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is an investigation of the relationship among three selected instruments based on the responses of a sample of high school students. The instruments were the Nature of Science Scale (NOSS), the Science Support Scale (SSS), and the Test on the Social Aspects of Science (TSAS). All purport to measure "nature of science" objectives. (PEB)

  1. Development of an Instrument To Measure Attitudes toward Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Beverly; Troyer, Rik

    A group of 261 college juniors, seniors, and graduate students anticipating careers in mental health professions were administered an instrument designed to measure attitudes toward old age (people 65 and older). The instrument consisted of 60 statements regarding old age, and used a six-point Likert-type scale. Items were categorized into 10…

  2. Approaches to evaluate the virtual instrumentation measurement uncertainties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore Nuccio; Ciro Spataro

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the metrological characterization of virtual instruments. After a brief description of the features, the components and the working principle of the virtual instruments and the various uncertainty sources are analyzed. Then, two methods to evaluate the uncertainty of the measurement results are presented: a numerical method simulating the physical process of the A\\/D conversion, and an

  3. Approaches to evaluate the virtual instrumentation measurement uncertainties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nuccio; C. Spataro

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the metrological characterization of virtual instruments. After a brief description of the features, the constitution and the working principle of the virtual instruments, the various uncertainty sources are analyzed. Then two methods to evaluate the uncertainty of the measurement results are presented: a numerical method simulating the physical process of the A\\/D conversion, and an approximated

  4. Development of material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Richard; Giusca, Claudiu; Rickens, Kai; Riemer, Oltmann; Rubert, Paul

    2014-04-01

    The development of two irregular-geometry material measures for performance verifying surface topography measuring instruments is described. The material measures are designed to be used to performance verify tactile and optical areal surface topography measuring instruments. The manufacture of the material measures using diamond turning followed by nickel electroforming is described in detail. Measurement results are then obtained using a traceable stylus instrument and a commercial coherence scanning interferometer, and the results are shown to agree to within the measurement uncertainties. The material measures are now commercially available as part of a suite of material measures aimed at the calibration and performance verification of areal surface topography measuring instruments.

  5. The measurement of low temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Berman

    1973-01-01

    In the rapidly advancing field of cryogenic engineering and research the accurate measurement of very low temperatures has\\u000a become increasingly important. Alloys of gold with small amounts of iron have very large and reproducible thermoelectric powers\\u000a in this range and are successfully used as the active limbs of sensitive and stable low temperature thermocouples.

  6. Noncontact temperature pattern measuring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D. (inventor); Allen, J. L. (inventor); Lee, M. C. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a noncontact imagine pyrometer system for obtaining the true temperature image of a given substance in a contactless fashion without making assumptions about localized emissivity of the substance or the uniformity of the temperature distribution. Such a contactless temperature imaging system has particular application in the study and production of many materials where the physical contact required to make a conventional temperature measurement drastically effects or contaminates the physical process being observed. Two examples where accurate temperature profiles are of critical interest are: (1) the solid-liquid phase change interface in the production of electronic materials and (2) metastable materials in the undercooling region. The apparent novelty resides in the recognition that an active pyrometer system may be advantageously adapted to perform contactless temperature imaging so that an accurate temperature profile can be obtained.

  7. Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

    1986-03-01

    A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.

  8. Development of a new instrument for direct skin friction measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A device developed for the direct measurement of wall shear stress generated by flows is described. Simple and symmetric in design with optional small moving mass and no internal friction, the features employed in the design eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. The device is basically small and can be made in various sizes. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances were found to be minimized due to the design symmetry and optional damping provided. The design eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer, and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Dynamic measurements could be made in a limited range and measurements in liquids could be performed readily. Measurement made in the three different tunnels show excellent agreement with data obtained by the floating element devices and other techniques.

  9. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOEpatents

    Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  10. Fabrication of sensors for high-temperature steam instrumentation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Moorhead; M. B. Herskovitz; C. S. Morgan; J. J. Woodhouse; R. W. Reed

    1980-01-01

    A series of instruments is being developed for measurement of two-phase (steam and water) flow parameters in out-of-reactor safety tests that simulate a loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor. We have developed a unique ceramic-to-metal seal system, which will withstand relatively short-time exposure to 800°C (1470°F) steam and remain leaktight after repetitive thermal transients of 300°C\\/s (540°F\\/s). A ceramic

  11. Containerless high temperature property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Anderson, Collin D.

    1991-01-01

    Containerless processing in the low gravity environment of space provides the opportunity to increase the temperature at which well controlled processing of and property measurements on materials is possible. This project was directed towards advancing containerless processing and property measurement techniques for application to materials research at high temperatures in space. Containerless high temperature material property studies include measurements of the vapor pressure, melting temperature, optical properties, and spectral emissivities of solid boron. The reaction of boron with nitrogen was also studied by laser polarimetric measurement of boron nitride film growth. The optical properties and spectral emissivities were measured for solid and liquid silicon, niobium, and zirconium; liquid aluminum and titanium; and liquid Ti-Al alloys of 5 to 60 atomic pct. titanium. Alternative means for noncontact temperature measurement in the absence of material emissivity data were evaluated. Also, the application of laser induced fluorescence for component activity measurements in electromagnetic levitated liquids was studied, along with the feasibility of a hybrid aerodynamic electromagnetic levitation technique.

  12. Extreme ultraviolet BRDF measurements: instrumentation and results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Newell; Ritva A. Keski-Kuha

    1996-01-01

    The lack of measured surface scatter data at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths has been commented upon by a number of authors. The need for such data arises primarily in the area of stray light design and analysis. Most stray light software requires knowledge of the bidirectional reflectance distribution (BRDF) for relevant surfaces. Without this measured data, quantitative assessment of stray

  13. Microwave radiometer for subsurface temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. A.; Bechis, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    A UHF radiometer, operating at a frequency of 800 MHz, was modified to provide an integral, three frequency voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) circuit in the radio frequency (RF) head. The VSWR circuit provides readings of power transmission at the antenna-material interface with an accuracy of plus or minus 5 percent. The power transmission readings are numerically equal to the emissivity of the material under observation. Knowledge of material emissivity is useful in the interpretation of subsurface apparent temperatures obtained on phantom models of biological tissue. The emissivities of phantom models consisting of lean beefsteak were found to lie in the range 0.623 to 0.779, depending on moisture content. Radiometric measurements performed on instrumented phantoms showed that the radiometer was capable of sensing small temperature changes occurring at depths of at least 19 to 30 mm. This is consistent with previously generated data which showed that the radiometer could sense temperatures at a depth of 38 mm.

  14. Software Development for Jointly Analyzing Thermal-Ion Measurements from Multiple In-Situ Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruca, B.; Stevens, M. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Wind spacecraft provides high-quality, in-situ measurements of the solar wind's thermal ions with two separate instruments -- an electrostatic analyzer and a pair of Faraday cups. Each instrument's raw measurements must be processed to derive values for bulk parameters (e.g., densities, velocities, and temperatures). Until now, this analysis has always been carried out independently for each instrument. We report on our ongoing development of new software, dubbed "Janus," that will, for the first time, jointly analyze measurements from these two instruments. By drawing on their unique strengths, Janus will produce higher-quality data on solar-wind ions than an analysis of measurements from either instrument individually could. While Janus on its own will be an asset to the heliophysics community (especially for the study of CME's, CIR's, and other transient phenomena), it will also serve as an important case study for Solar Probe Plus (SPP), which will similarly have both a Faraday cup and an electrostatic analyzer for measuring thermal ions. A joint analysis of measurements from these SPP instruments will be especially important since, unlike their counterparts on Wind, their fields of view will only slightly overlap. SPP is expected to frequently encounter periods during which its two ion instruments together will have strong coverage of the incoming particles but separately will not.

  15. Room-temperature phosphorescence fiber-optic instrumentation for simultaneous multiposition analysis of dissolved oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan D??az-Garc??a; José M Costa-Fernández; Nerea Bordel-Garc??a; Alfredo Sanz-Medel

    2001-01-01

    The design and analytical characterization of a fiber-optic instrument for simultaneous multiposition water-dissolved oxygen monitoring by room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) measurements is presented. The sensing principle is based on the RTP quenching by oxygen of the phosphorescent light emitted by the metal chelate formed by Al with 8-hydroxy-7-iodo-5-quinolinesulfonic acid (Al-ferron) trapped in a sol–gel solid support. Four RTP oxygen sensor flow-cells

  16. Instrument for Aircraft-Icing and Cloud-Physics Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilie, Lyle; Bouley, Dan; Sivo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data acquired by this system and that are used to quantify the severity of icing conditions include sizes of cloud water drops, cloud liquid water content (LWC), cloud ice water content (IWC), and cloud total water content (TWC). The sensor head is mounted on the outside of an aircraft, positioned and oriented to intercept the ambient airflow. The sensor head consists of an open housing that is heated in a controlled manner to keep it free of ice and that contains four hot-wire elements. The hot-wire sensing elements have different shapes and sizes and, therefore, exhibit different measurement efficiencies with respect to droplet size and water phase (liquid, frozen, or mixed). Three of the hot-wire sensing elements are oriented across the airflow so as to intercept incoming cloud water. For each of these elements, the LWC or TWC affects the power required to maintain a constant temperature in the presence of cloud water.

  17. Workplace Discrimination, Prejudice, and Diversity Measurement: A Review of Instrumentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan W. Burkard; Michael A. Boticki; Michael B. Madson

    2002-01-01

    This is a review of five instruments designed to measure workplace discrimination, prejudice, and attitudes toward diversity. Each measure is critically reviewed based on item development, the current psychometric evidence, and the practical utility for career counseling and organizational development efforts. The Discussion section explores future research directions for validation studies, expansion of theory and measurement development, and recommendations for

  18. 40 CFR 201.22 - Measurement instrumentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...locomotive 0 1 Amount of correction to be subtracted from measured level (dB). (b) A microphone windscreen and an acoustic calibrator of the coupler type must be used as recommended by: (1) the manufacturer of the sound level meter or (2) the...

  19. Measuring mental models: Rationales and instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhang; Peiling Wang

    2005-01-01

    Rationales of measuring mental models In the field of human-computer interaction (HCI), research on mental models has produced a body of literature in the past twenty years. Despite differences in perspectives and terminologies surrounding mental models, the core of the topic concerns the understanding of the cognitive structures and processes underlying the behaviors of human beings performing computer based tasks.

  20. Temperature measurement during microwave processing

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, G.; Clark, D.E.; DiFiore, R.; Foltz, D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Many ceramic materials have been fabricated using sol-gel processing where the starting materials consist of a liquid organic precursor mixed with water and alcohol. The initial stages in sol-gel reactions require temperatures in the range of 100{degrees}C or less, and therefore appear ideally suited for processing in a conventional microwave oven. In this paper we evaluate the use of several types of thermocouple geometries for measuring the temperature of liquids, including tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) during microwave heating. The boiling point of water is used as a reference on which to base the accuracy of our measurements.

  1. An instrumented fastener for shear force measurements in joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.; Rothgeb, T. M.

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary investigation has been conducted on instrumented fasteners for use as sensors to measure the shear loads transmitted by individual fasteners installed in double-splice joints. Calibration and load verification tests were conducted for instrumented fasteners installed at three fastener torque levels. Results from calibration tests show that the shear strains obtained from the instrumented fasteners vary linearly with the applied load and that the instrumented fasteners can be effectively used to measure shear loads transmitted by individual fasteners installed in double-splice joints. Tests were also conducted with three instumented fasteners installed in a typical double-splice joint. The test results showed that the load distribution between individual fasteners is dependent on the location of the fastener in the joint and the fastener torque level.

  2. Mid-Latitude Temperatures at 87 km: Results From Multi-Instrument Fourier Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drob, Douglas P.; Picone, J. M.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; She, C . Y.; Kafkalidis, J. F.; Ortland, D. A.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Killeen, T. L.

    2000-01-01

    Using a novel Fourier fitting method we combine two years of mid-latitude temperature measurements at 87 km from the High Resolution Doppler Imager, the Colorado State University lidar, and the Peach Mountain Interferometer. After accounting for calibration bias, significant local-time variations on the order of 10 K were observed. Stationary planetary waves with amplitudes up to 10 K were observed during winter, with weaker wave amplitudes occurring during other seasons. Because of calibration biases among these instruments, we could estimate the annual mean temperature to no better than 193.5 plus or minus 8.5 K.

  3. Analysis of wind profile measurements from an instrumented aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, Terry S.; Murphy, Patrick J.

    1990-01-01

    The results of an experimental program to determine the capability of measuring wind profiles on support of STS operations with an instrumented aircraft are discussed. These results are a compilation of the flight experiments and the statistical data comparing the quality of the aircraft measurements with quasi-simultaneous and quasi-spatial overlapping Jimsphere measurements. An instrumented aircraft was chosen as a potential alternative to the Jimsphere/radar system for expediting the wind profile calculation by virtue of the ability of an aircraft to traverse the altitudes of interest in roughly 10 minutes. The two aircraft which participated in the study were F-104 and ER-2.

  4. Toward Development of a Generalized Instrument to Measure Andragogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Wilson, Lynda Swanson; Bates, Reid A.

    2009-01-01

    Andragogy has emerged as one of the dominant frameworks for teaching adults during the past 40 years. A major and glaring gap in andragogy research is the lack of a measurement instrument that adequately measures both andragogical principles and process design elements. As a result, no definitive empirical test of the theory has been possible. The…

  5. BETA GAUGE INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF AEROSOL MASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An instrument developed by LBL for the routine measurement of aerosol mass using the beta-gauge particle attenuation method is described and evaluated. Factors affecting the precision and accuracy of the measurement are discussed in detail. Results of intercomparison studies betw...

  6. An Instrument to Measure Chickering's Vector of Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, T. Dary; Delworth, Ursula

    1980-01-01

    Describes the construction of an instrument to measure identity, primarily based on Chickering's approach, i.e., the Erwin Identity Scale (EIS), designed to measure the three main concepts comprising identity: confidence, sexual identity, and conceptions about body and appearance. (Author)

  7. Measurements of musical instruments with surrounding spherical arrays

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    instrument in a room, it is advisable to take their directivities into account. To conduct the measurements in an anechoic chamber. Hereby great care has to be taken in the design process of the recording device in order. The international stan- dard for room acoustical measurements ISO 3382-1 even de- mands omnidirectional sources

  8. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 84, 033107 (2013) Broadband wide-angle dispersion measurements: Instrumental setup,

    E-print Network

    Dalang, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    : Instrumental setup, alignment, and pitfalls A. Farhang,1 B. Abasahl,1 S. Dutta-Gupta,1 A. Lovera,1 P. Mandracci, alignment, and performance of a setup for broadband wide-angle dispersion mea- surements, with emphasis on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements, are presented in com- prehensive detail. In contrast

  9. A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries

    E-print Network

    Gardner, Alan T.

    An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry ...

  10. [Construction of measurement instruments in the area of health].

    PubMed

    Coluci, Marina Zambon Orpinelli; Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa; Milani, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    Measurement instruments are an integral part of clinical practice, health evaluation and research. These instruments are only useful and able to present scientifically robust results when they are developed properly and have appropriate psychometric properties. Despite the significant increase of rating scales, the literature suggests that many of them have not been adequately developed and validated. The scope of this study was to conduct a narrative review on the process of developing new measurement instruments and to present some tools which can be used in some stages of the development process. The steps described were: I-The establishment of a conceptual framework, and the definition of the objectives of the instrument and the population involved; II-Development of the items and of the response scales; III-Selection and organization of the items and structuring of the instrument; IV-Content validity, V-Pre-test. This study also included a brief discussion on the evaluation of the psychometric properties due to their importance for the instruments to be accepted and acknowledged in both scientific and clinical environments. PMID:25760132

  11. Design and simulation of temperature measurement circuit based on LabVIEW and Multisim

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi Weng; Runjing Zhou

    2011-01-01

    This paper systematically introduces the principles of temperature measurement circuits and the structure of temperature measurement based on virtual instrument. The design and simulation are based mainly on Multisim and LabVIEW. The validity of the circuit design is tested. A virtual temperature display instrument is designed by using LabVIEW8. A detailed design process of temperature measurement circuit is also given.

  12. Optimizing a remote sensing instrument to measure atmospheric surface pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peckham, G. E.; Gatley, C.; Flower, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric surface pressure can be remotely sensed from a satellite by an active instrument which measures return echoes from the ocean at frequencies near the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band. The instrument is optimized by selecting its frequencies of operation, transmitter powers and antenna size through a new procedure baesd on numerical simulation which maximizes the retrieval accuracy. The predicted standard deviation error in the retrieved surface pressure is 1 mb. In addition the measurements can be used to retrieve water vapor, cloud liquid water and sea state, which is related to wind speed.

  13. Wind measurement systems and wind tunnel evaluation of selected instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Wetzel, J.S.

    1981-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has conducted wind tunnel tests of seven relatively inexpensive wind measurement systems as part of a program to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of instruments for use in small wind energy conversion system siting studies. This report discusses wind measurement systems and documents the results of the wind tunnel studies. Documentation consists of graphs and tables relating system and system component performance to wind speed. The results describe instrument system performance under ideal conditions; tests in the atmosphere are required to evaluate performance under realistic conditions.

  14. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 6: Flow measurement instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    A summary is provided of information available on liquid and gaseous oxygen flowmetering including an evaluation of commercial meters. The instrument types, physical principles of measurement, and performance characteristics are described. Problems concerning flow measurements of less than plus or minus two percent uncertainty are reviewed. Recommendations concerning work on flow reference systems, the use of surrogate fluids, and standard tests for oxygen flow measurements are also presented.

  15. Instrumentation for chemical species measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, C.E. (USAF, Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Instrument advances made during 1987-1990 for atmospheric trace species measurements are reviewed. Problems discussed include types of measurement strategies, oxidant species, reductant species, and flux measurement. Particular attention is given to odd oxygen species, hydrogen oxides, hydrocarbon oxy and peroxy radicals, halogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, reduced sulfur compounds, ammonia, cyanide compounds, water vapor, nitrous oxide, hydrogen halides, fully halogenated carbon compounds, fully halogenated carbonyl compounds, and sulfur hexafluoride. 195 refs.

  16. [History of instrumental measuring of hearing acuity: the first acumeter].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, H

    1992-09-01

    The necessity of measuring the acuity of hearing in a reproducible way arose for the first time when the invention of Volta's pile in 1800 seemed to present the opportunity of curing deafness. For this purpose Chr. H. Wolke in Jever, Northern Germany, in 1802 devised two instruments which he called "acumeter". Details of these instruments were hardly known, and Wolke's publication was believed to be lost. The author has now succeeded in tracing Wolke's publication and another associated paper by J. J. A. Sprenger. Hence, the circumstances of Wolke's and Sprenger's work and details of these first acumeters are now being published together with original figures and the correct dimensions of the instruments. The acumeters had a pendulum-like hammer that would strike against a plate swinging down from varying heights that could be read in degrees of angle from a scale. One of the instruments was made of wood. It was 1.50 m high, with the pendulum raised to the maximal position 2.70 m. The other instrument of similar construction was made of metal and about half the size of the first one, with a height of 0.70 m or 1.30 m respectively. For comparison Itard's acumeter is presented which was published in 1821. It worked on the same principle, and it is likely that Itard had been inspired by Wolke's paper. The development of mechanical acumeters after Wolke's and Itard's instruments is outlined briefly. PMID:1388477

  17. Validation of an Instrument to Measure Community College Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Lijuan

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the development and validation of a survey instrument to measure community college students' satisfaction with their educational experiences. The initial survey included 95 questions addressing community college student experiences. Data were collected from 558 community college students during spring of 2001. An exploratory…

  18. Mathematical enhancement of data from scientific measuring instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ioup, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The accuracy of any physical measurement is limited by the instruments performing it. The proposed activities of this grant are related to the study of and application of mathematical techniques of deconvolution. Two techniques are being investigated: an iterative method and a function continuation Fourier method. This final status report describes the work performed during the period July 1 to December 31, 1982.

  19. Sophisticated methods for measurement in tissue biology using virtual instrumentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Libor; K. Dusan; H. Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the possibilities of diagnostics and analysis of tissue via virtual instrumentation-LabVIEW. The two dimensional images shot by the camera provide information about the surface properties and degradation of a real skin. The main idea is based on the human skin parameters measured for healthy and ill skin. The aforementioned access provides parameters evaluation by creating a structure

  20. An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Figurski, J.D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J.R.; Denny, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

  1. Mass measuring instrument for use under microgravity conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yusaku; Yokota, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Seiji; Sugita, Yoichi; Ito, Hitomi [Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Shimada, Kazuhito [Medical Operations, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Tsukuba Space Center, Tsukuba 305-8505 (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    A prototype instrument for measuring astronaut body mass under microgravity conditions has been developed and its performance was evaluated by parabolic flight tests. The instrument, which is the space scale, is applied as follows. Connect the subject astronaut to the space scale with a rubber cord. Use a force transducer to measure the force acting on the subject and an optical interferometer to measure the velocity of the subject. The subject's mass is calculated as the impulse divided by the velocity change, i.e., M={integral}Fdt/{delta}v. Parabolic flight by using a jet aircraft produces a zero-gravity condition lasting approximately 20 s. The performance of the prototype space scale was evaluated during such a flight by measuring the mass of a sample object.

  2. Measurement of fracture initiation toughness and crack resistance in instrumented Charpy impact testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P Tronskar; M. A Mannan; M. O Lai

    2002-01-01

    A new method has been developed involving direct measurement of the load-line displacement during instrumented Charpy testing. The method uses a laser interferometer to measure displacement in addition to the load-line displacement derived from the load signal. Tests were conducted using fatigue precracked and V-notched test pieces in the temperature range +23°C to ?80°C on a conventional ship grade steel,

  3. Measuring Stakeholder Participation in Evaluation: An Empirical Validation of the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument (PEMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneault, Pierre-Marc; Jacob, Steve; Tremblay, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Stakeholder participation is an important trend in the field of program evaluation. Although a few measurement instruments have been proposed, they either have not been empirically validated or do not cover the full content of the concept. Objectives: This study consists of a first empirical validation of a measurement instrument that…

  4. Measuring formation properties through well casing with pulsed neutron instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trcka, Darryl

    2010-05-01

    Measuring formation properties through well casing with pulsed neutron instrumentation In the process of developing an oil or gas reservoir, the exploration team first confirms the existence of a potential reservoir with a discovery well. Then the size, content, and character of the reservoir are mapped with roughly six to twelve delineation wells. From this information the development team plans a development program to produce the oil and gas, which can run into hundreds of wells. Whereas the exploration and delineation wellbores are left open to the formation to allow measurement of the reservoir properties, the development wellbores are cased with cemented-in-place steel casing to isolate zones and allow targeting of specific oil or gas layers for production (which is accomplished by perforating the casing in the target zones with explosive charges). Once the casing is in place it obviously becomes more difficult to measure reservoir and formation properties since one-quarter to one-half inch of steel casing plus another inch or so of cement between the formation and the borehole greatly restrict the measurement methods that can be used. But there are over a million cased wellbores penetrating the earth's crust, many plugged, cemented, and abandoned, but many still producing oil and gas or otherwise available for logging. However difficult it may be, formation measurements through the steel casing are of importance to oil and gas production companies, and they could be of some value to earth scientists. Since 1964 when the first instrument was introduced, pulsed neutron instrumentation for oil and gas well logging has been used to measure formation properties through casing. The basic downhole instrumentation consists of a pulsed fusion reactor for a source of high energy neutrons and gamma ray detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy. The early generation instruments measured water and oil proportions crudely and only in reservoirs where the connate water was highly saline. Subsequent generations expanded the utility of the measurements, and the latest generation is able to make precise and accurate measurements of a number of formation properties through casing. This presentation reviews the state of the art in downhole pulsed neutron logging in cased wellbores and presents an overview of some of the current capabilities and limitations. The presentation is not focused on a single design or company technology. Rather, it reviews features of the technologies available from major worldwide suppliers along with a discussion of the range of applications, accuracy and precision, best practices, and recommendations for logging program planning. Measurements discussed include formation mineralogy, porosity, and density; multi-phase oil, water, gas, condensate, and CO2 proportions in the pore space; pressure; and mechanical rock properties.

  5. High Temperature Logging and Monitoring Instruments to Explore and Drill Deep into Hot Oceanic Crust.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P. A.; Ragnar, A.; Jean-Luc, D.; Jan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Drilling an entire section of the oceanic crust and through the Moho has been a goal of the scientific community for more than half of a century. On the basis of ODP and IODP experience and data, this will require instruments and strategies working at temperature far above 200°C (reached, for example, at the bottom of DSDP/ODP Hole 504B), and possibly beyond 300°C. Concerning logging and monitoring instruments, progress were made over the past ten years in the context of the HiTI ("High Temperature Instruments") project funded by the european community for deep drilling in hot Icelandic geothermal holes where supercritical conditions and a highly corrosive environment are expected at depth (with temperatures above 374 °C and pressures exceeding 22 MPa). For example, a slickline tool (memory tool) tolerating up to 400°C and wireline tools up to 300°C were developed and tested in Icelandic high-temperature geothermal fields. The temperature limitation of logging tools was defined to comply with the present limitation in wireline cables (320°C). As part of this new set of downhole tools, temperature, pressure, fluid flow and casing collar location might be measured up to 400°C from a single multisensor tool. Natural gamma radiation spectrum, borehole wall ultrasonic images signal, and fiber optic cables (using distributed temperature sensing methods) were also developed for wireline deployment up to 300°C and tested in the field. A wireline, dual laterolog electrical resistivity tool was also developed but could not be field tested as part of HiTI. This new set of tools constitutes a basis for the deep exploration of the oceanic crust in the future. In addition, new strategies including the real-time integration of drilling parameters with modeling of the thermo-mechanical status of the borehole could be developed, using time-lapse logging of temperature (for heat flow determination) and borehole wall images (for hole stability and in-situ stress determination) as boundary conditions for the models. In all, and with limited integration of existing tools, to deployment of high-temperature downhole tools could contribute largely to the success of the long awaited Mohole project.

  6. High temperature skin friction measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  7. High temperature permeameter for measuring magnetic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    Instrument for measuring magnetic permeability of materials undergoing heat treatment as method for monitoring stress relief and tempering is described. Procedure is based on magnetic potentiometer principle with yoke compensating coils to cancel effects of reluctance of yoke and joint gaps. Instrument is heated with specimen being heat treated.

  8. Measurements Verifying the Optics of the Electron Drift Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Vanessa; Kletzing, Craig; Bounds, Scott; Sigsbee, Kristine M.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection is the process of breaking and reconnecting of opposing magnetic field lines, and is often associated with tremendous energy transfer. The energy transferred by reconnection directly affects people through its influence on geospace weather and technological systems - such as telecommunication networks, GPS, and power grids. However, the mechanisms that cause magnetic reconnection are not well understood. The Magnetospheric Multi-Scale Mission (MMS) will use four spacecraft in a pyramid formation to make three-dimensional measurements of the structures in magnetic reconnection occurring in the Earth's magnetosphere.The spacecraft will repeatedly sample these regions for a prolonged period of time to gather data in more detail than has been previously possible. MMS is scheduled to be launched in March of 2015. The Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) will be used on MMS to measure the electric fields associated with magnetic reconnection. The EDI is a device used on spacecraft to measure electric fields by emitting an electron beam and measuring the E x B drift of the returning electrons after one gyration. This paper concentrates on measurements of the EDI’s optics system. The testing process includes measuring the optics response to a uni-directional electron beam. These measurements are used to verify the response of the EDI's optics and to allow for the optimization of the desired optics state. The measurements agree well with simulations and we are confident in the performance of the EDI instrument.

  9. Development of an optical instrument transformer for DC voltage measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosawa, K.; Yoshida, S. (Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan)); Mori, E.; Takahashi, G.; Saito, S. (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    This paper deals with the principles, design, assembly, testing results and practical application of a new type of optical voltage instrument transformer based on the Pockels effect, developed for the measurement of DC voltage, with a view to the protection and control of DC power transmission systems including frequency changer power equipment. In order to develop more accurate devices, the authors conceived a new scheme capable of overcoming the particular problems of DC voltage measurement which cause measurement errors. In this scheme, the DC voltage to be measured is chopped and applied to the Pockels crystal. An optical DC voltage instrument transformer was developed and tested using this scheme. The results of the factory tests showed that the characteristics of the new device conform with the required specifications of DC voltage instrument transformers for the protection and control of frequency changer power equipment. The results of field tests conducted for 1 year at an operating frequency conversion substation confirmed that the device is of adequate reliability. The new device has been practically applied in a frequency conversion power system of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc since May 1992.

  10. Sensors and instruments for oceanic dissolved carbon measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, U.; Hannides, A.; Mintrop, L.; Körtzinger, A.

    2009-11-01

    Highly accurate and precise measurements of marine carbon components are required in the study of the marine carbon cycle, particularly when investigating the causes for its variability from seasonal to interannual timescales. This is especially true in the investigation of the consequences of anthropogenic influences. The analysis of any marine carbon component requires elaborate instrumentation, most of which is currently used onboard ships, either in manual or automated mode. Technological developments result in more and more instruments that have sufficient long-term reliability so that they can be deployed on commercial ships, surface moorings, and buoys, whilst the great technological and operational challenges mean that only few sensors have been developed that can be used for sub-surface in situ measurements on floats, robots, or gliders. There is a special need for autonomous instruments and sensors that are able to measure a combination of different components, in order to increase the spatial and temporal coverage of marine carbon data. This paper describes analytical techniques used for the measurement of the marine dissolved carbon components, both inorganic and organic: the fugacity of CO2, total dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon. By pointing out advantages, disadvantages, and/or challenges of the techniques employed in the analysis of each component, we aim to aid non-carbon marine scientists, sensor developers and technologists, in the decision of which challenges to address in further development.

  11. The role of fiberoptics in remote temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzetti, Riccardo

    1988-01-01

    The use of optical fibers in conjunction with infrared detectors and signal processing electronics represents the latest advance in the field of non-contact temperature measurement and control. The operating principles and design of fiber-optic radiometric systems are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of using optical fibers are addressed. Signal processing requirements and various infrared detector types are also described. Several areas in which infrared fiber-optic instrumentation is used for temperature monitoring and control are discussed.

  12. Measurements verifying the optics of the Electron Drift Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Vanessa M.

    This thesis concentrates on laboratory measurements of the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI), focussing primarily on the EDI optics of the system. The EDI is a device used on spacecraft to measure electric fields by emitting an electron beam and measuring the E x B drift of the returning electrons after one gyration. This drift velocity is determined using two electron beams directed perpendicular to the magnetic field returning to be detected by the spacecraft. The EDI will be used on the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale Mission. The EDI optic's testing process takes measurements of the optics response to a uni-directional electron beam. These measurements are used to verify the response of the EDI's optics and to allow for the optimization of the desired optics state via simulation. The optics state tables were created in simulations and we are using these measurements to confirm their accuracy. The setup consisted of an apparatus made up of the EDI's optics and sensor electronics was secured to the two axis gear arm inside a vacuum chamber. An electron beam was projected at the apparatus which then used the EDI optics to focus the beam into the micro-controller plates and onto the circular 32 pad annular ring that makes up the sensor. The concentration of counts per pad over an interval of 1ms were averaged over 25 samples and plotted in MATLAB. The results of the measurements plotted agreed well with the simulations, providing confidence in the EDI instrument.

  13. Satellite Instrumentation for the Measurement of Auroral Phenomenon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Reagan; D. L. Carr; J. D. McDaniel; L. F. Smith

    1964-01-01

    A variety of instruments have been employed aboard earth-orbiting polar satellites for measurements of the aurora phenomenon. Fixed-threshold total-energy detectors which utilize aluminum layers evaporated onto plastic scintillators for electron threshold determination in the 2-31 keV range and a photomultiplier operated in a constant current mode for viewing the scintillation light are described. A variable-energy detector which utilizes a programmed

  14. Spectral Measurements of PMCs from SBUV/2 Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLand, Matthew T.; Shettle, Eric P.; Thomas, Gary E.; Olivero, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The SBUV/2 (Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet, model 2) instrument is designed to monitor ozone stratospheric profile and total column ozone using measurements of the Earth's backscattered ultraviolet albedo. We have previously demonstrated that the normal radiance measurements from SBUV/2 instruments, which sample 12 discrete wavelengths between 252 and 340 nm during each scan, can be used to identify polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). Some SBUV/2 instruments also periodically view the earth in continuous scan mode, covering the wavelength range 160-400 nm with 0.15 nm sampling. Analysis of these data show PMC occurrence rates similar to the normal discrete scan results, although the observation technique reduces the number of daily measurements by a factor of six. PMC observed by SBUV/2 instruments show a monotonic variation in the residual spectral albedo over the wavelength range 250 300 nm, with maximum enhancements of 10 15% at 250 nm. This result is consistent with microphysical model predictions from Jensen [1989. A numerical model of polar mesospheric cloud formation and evolution, Ph. D. Thesis, University of Colorado]. We find no evidence for a systematic localized increase in PMC residual albedo for wavelengths near 260 nm, in contrast to the recently reported results from the MSX UVISI instrument [Carbary J.F., et al., 2004. Evidence for bimodal particle distribution from the spectra of polar mesospheric clouds. Geophysics Research. Letters 31, L13108]. This result is observed for three different SBUV/2 instruments in both Northern and Southern Hemisphere data over a 13-year span. Our Mie scattering calculations show that the location and magnitude of the 260 nm hump feature is dependent upon the specific scattering angles appropriate to the MSX measurements. Although it explains the MSX spectrum, the bimodal size distribution proposed by Carbary et al. (2004), cannot explain the lack of scattering angle dependence of the SBUV/2 spectral shapes. The spectral signature of the SBUV/2 continuous scan PMC data is thus inconsistent with the bimodal particle size distribution suggested by Carbary et al. (2004).

  15. Sensors and instruments for oceanic dissolved carbon measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, U.; Hannides, A.; Mintrop, L.; Körtzinger, A.

    2009-02-01

    Highly accurate and precise measurements of marine carbon components are required in the study of the marine carbon cycle, particularly when investigating the causes for its variability from seasonal to interannual timescales. This is especially true in the investigation of the consequences of anthropogenic influences. The analysis of any component requires elaborate instrumentation, most of which is currently used onboard ships, either in manual mode or autonomous mode. Technological developments result in more and more instruments that have long-term reliability so that they can be deployed on surface moorings and buoys, whilst the great technological and operational challenges mean that only few sensors have been developed that can be used for sub-surface in situ measurements on floats, robots, or gliders. There is a special need for autonomous instruments and sensors that are able to measure a combination of different components, in order to increase the spatial and temporal coverage of marine carbon data. This paper describes analytical techniques used for the detection of the marine dissolved carbon components, both inorganic and organic: the fugacity of CO2, total dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon. By pointing out advantages, disadvantages, and challenges of the techniques employed in the analysis of each component, we aim to aid non-carbon marine scientists, sensor developers and technologists, in the decision where to tackle the challenges of further development.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  17. Momentum Flux Measuring Instrument for Neutral and Charged Particle Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavers, Greg; Chang-Diaz, Franklin; Schafer, Charles F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An instrument to measure the momentum flux (total pressure) of plasma and neutral particle jets onto a surface has been developed. While this instrument was developed for magnetized plasmas, the concept works for non-magnetized plasmas as well. We have measured forces as small as 10(exp -4) Newtons on a surface immersed in the plasma where small forces are due to ionic and neutral particles with kinetic energies on the order of a few eV impacting the surface. This instrument, a force sensor, uses a target plate (surface) that is immersed in the plasma and connected to one end of an alumina rod while the opposite end of the alumina rod is mechanically connected to a titanium beam on which four strain gauges are mounted. The force on the target generates torque causing strain in the beam. The resulting strain measurements can be correlated to a force on the target plate. The alumina rod electrically and thermally isolates the target plate from the strain gauge beam and allows the strain gauges to be located out of the plasma flow while also serving as a moment arm of several inches to increase the strain in the beam at the strain gauge location. These force measurements correspond directly to momentum flux and may be used with known plasma conditions to place boundaries on the kinetic energies of the plasma and neutral particles. The force measurements may also be used to infer thrust produced by a plasma propulsive device. Stainless steel, titanium, molybdenum, and aluminum flat target plates have been used. Momentum flux measurements of H2, D2, He, and Ar plasmas produced in a magnetized plasma device have been performed.

  18. Coherent Laser Instrument Would Measure Range and Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Daniel; Cardell, Greg; San Martin, Alejandro; Spiers, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A proposed instrument would project a narrow laser beam that would be frequency-modulated with a pseudorandom noise (PN) code for simultaneous measurement of range and velocity along the beam. The instrument performs these functions in a low mass, power, and volume package using a novel combination of established techniques. Originally intended as a low resource- footprint guidance sensor for descent and landing of small spacecraft onto Mars or small bodies (e.g., asteroids), the basic instrument concept also lends itself well to a similar application guiding aircraft (especially, small unmanned aircraft), and to such other applications as ranging of topographical features and measuring velocities of airborne light-scattering particles as wind indicators. Several key features of the instrument s design contribute to its favorable performance and resource-consumption characteristics. A laser beam is intrinsically much narrower (for the same exit aperture telescope or antenna) than a radar beam, eliminating the need to correct for the effect of sloping terrain over the beam width, as is the case with radar. Furthermore, the use of continuous-wave (CW), erbium-doped fiber lasers with excellent spectral purity (narrow line width) permits greater velocity resolution, while reducing the laser s power requirement compared to a more typical pulsed solid-state laser. The use of CW also takes proper advantage of the increased sensitivity of coherent detection, necessary in the first place for direct measurement of velocity using the Doppler effect. However, measuring range with a CW beam requires modulation to "tag" portions of it for time-of-flight determination; typically, the modulation consists of a PN code. A novel element of the instrument s design is the use of frequency modulation (FM) to accomplish both the PN-modulation and the Doppler-bias frequency shift necessary for signed velocity measurements. This permits the use of a single low-power waveguide electrooptic phase modulator, while simultaneously mitigating the effects of speckle as a noise source in the coherent detection.

  19. Measurements with the new PHE neutron survey instrument.

    PubMed

    Eakins, J S; Tanner, R J; Hager, L G

    2014-10-01

    A novel design of survey instrument has been developed to accurately estimate ambient dose equivalent from neutrons with energies in the range from thermal to 20 MeV. The device features moderating and attenuating layers to ease measurement of fast and intermediate energy neutrons, combined with guides that channel low-energy neutrons to the single, central detector. A prototype of this device has been constructed and exposed to a set of calibration fields: the resulting measured responses are presented and discussed here, and compared against Monte Carlo data. A simple simulated workplace neutron field has also been developed to test the device. PMID:24126484

  20. 121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York, New York County, NY

  1. Reference instrument of the VNIIM system for measuring hardness by the Vickers and Brinell methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Slavina

    1964-01-01

    If the calibration conditions are met, namely, the tip propagation speed under load is maintained at 0.2 mm\\/sec, the exposure time under load at 30 sec, and the ambient temperature at 20±2°C, the instrument can be recommended for reference measurements ensuring the reproduction of the hardness scale values and the calibration of hardness gauges with a mean square error not

  2. An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery

    PubMed Central

    Aglzim, El-Hassane; Rouane, Amar; El-Moznine, Reddad

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentation developed in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell or battery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. This instrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electronic cards. Software under Hpvee® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout of the impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, like the ambient temperature, the fuel cell temperature, the level of the hydrogen, etc…, were taken with several sensors that enable us to control the measurement. To filter the noise and the influence of the 50Hz, we have implemented a synchronous detection which filters in a very narrow way around the useful signal. The theoretical result obtained by a simulation under Pspice® of the method used consolidates the choice of this method and the possibility of obtaining correct and exploitable results. The experimental results are preliminary results on a 12V vehicle battery, having an inrush current of 330A and a capacity of 40Ah (impedance measurements on a fuel cell are in progress, and will be the subject of a forthcoming paper). The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7V, 10V, 8V and 5V) and with two imposed currents (0.6A and 4A). The Nyquist diagram resulting from the experimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internal impedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the values obtained (both theoretical and practical) enables us to validate our electronic measurement instrumentation. One of the future uses for this instrumentation is to integrate it with several control sensors, on a vehicle as an embedded system to monitor the degradation of fuel cell membranes.

  3. Project Vanguard Magnetic-Field Instrumentation and Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Storarik, J. D.; Shapiro, I. R.; Cain, J. C.

    1960-01-01

    The Vanguard III Satellite, 1959 Eta, placed in orbit on September 18, 1959, contained a proton precessional magnetometer for magnetic-field studies of exceptional accuracy. Throughout the 85 days of battery life, the instrumentation functioned according to plan. Measurements of the absolute total field were obtained in the meridian belts of Minitrack stations at altitudes 510 to 3750 kilometers and at latitudes +/- 33.4 degrees. Surface magnetic observatories were operated at eight of the Minitrack stations to furnish correlative information. This paper reviews briefly the instrumentation employed in these experiments, and the data collection and reduction procedures. Emphasis is given to results from a preliminary analysis. Specifically, this analysis bears on the accuracy of computed fields, the stability of the earth's field in space, the Capetown anomaly, and magnetic-storm effects.

  4. Higher-accuracy measuring instruments with rotating thermoreceivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. N. Rudnev; V. G. Lebedev

    1975-01-01

    When temperatures are measured with the aid of rotating thermoreceivers in the system, it is necessary to ensure a reliable coupling between the sensor and the stationary components. One uses for this purpose sliprings of various designs and these largely determine the measurement accuracy. The authors propose here a contactless transformer-type slipring shown schematically in Fig. 1. Both halves 1

  5. Evaluating and testing thermographic phosphors for turbine-engine temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Allison, S.W.; Beshears, D.L.; Cates, M.R.; Borella, H.M.; Franks, L.A.; Iverson, C.E.; Dowell, L.J.; Gillies, G.T.; Lutz, W.N.

    1987-01-01

    A technique developed earlier for measuring the temperature of inaccessible surfaces in low-temperature rotating machines is being adapted to measure the temperature of surfaces at the higher temperatures and in the erosive environment inside operating turbine engines. The method uses the temperature dependence of the characteristic decay time of the laser-induced-fluorescence of thermographic phosphors to measure the temperature. This paper summarizes recent work in four areas: phosphor characterization and calibration, instrumentation development, bonding, and field tests. By using improved instrumentation and data-analysis techniques, calibration curves for several phosphors are measured with greater accuracy and extended to higher temperatures than before. Phosphors are evaluated that were attached to sample surfaces by high-temperature bonding materials, electron-beam deposition, flame spraying, and plasma spraying. A burner rig test was performed on some phosphor-coated samples and the instrumentation required for an upcoming spin-pit test was designed, built, and calibrated.

  6. Seasonal and Regional Variation of Pan-Arctic Surface Air Temperature Over the Instrumental Record

    E-print Network

    Percival, Don

    Seasonal and Regional Variation of Pan-Arctic Surface Air Temperature Over the Instrumental Record surface air temperature (SAT) records from 59 Arctic stations north of 64°N show monthly anomalies we further the analysis of Arctic variability by reexamination of the surface air temperature (SAT

  7. Temperature control analysis and flight results for the Viking Orbiter 1975 Mars atmospheric water detection instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Kavanagh; F. L. Murphy

    1978-01-01

    The Mars atmospheric water detector (MAWD) instrument required a temperature of -70 C at the detector. The monochromator housing required +20 C + or - 1 C. This instrument was located on the scan platform, and slewed across two solar panels. The thermal design for the detector was an open flat plate radiator thermally isolated on four 1-in. tubes, with

  8. Full vector low-temperature magnetic measurements of geologic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Joshua M.; Solheid, Peter A.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Jackson, Mike J.; Bowles, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    magnetic properties of geologic materials offer insights into an enormous range of important geophysical phenomena ranging from inner core dynamics to paleoclimate. Often it is the low-temperature behavior (<300 K) of magnetic minerals that provides the most useful and highest sensitivity information for a given problem. Conventional measurements of low-temperature remanence are typically conducted on instruments that are limited to measuring one single-axis component of the magnetization vector and are optimized for measurements in strong fields. These instrumental limitations have prevented fully optimized applications and have motivated the development of a low-temperature probe that can be used for low-temperature remanence measurements between 17 and 300 K along three orthogonal axes using a standard 2G Enterprises SQuID rock magnetometer. In this contribution, we describe the design and implementation of this instrument and present data from five case studies that demonstrate the probe's considerable potential for future research: a polycrystalline hematite sample, a polycrystalline hematite and magnetite mixture, a single crystal of magnetite, a single crystal of pyrrhotite, and samples of Umkondo Large Igneous Province diabase sills.

  9. Measurements of the Ice Water Content of Cirrus in the Tropics and Subtropics. I; Instrument Details and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Sayres, D.; Pittman, J. V.; Allen, N.; Demusz, J.; Greenberg, M.; Rivero, M.; Anderson, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an instrument mounted in a pallet on the NASA WB-57 aircraft that is designed to measure the sum of gas phase and solid phase water, or total water, in cirrus clouds. Using an isokinetic inlet, a 600-watt heater mounted directly in the flow, and Lyman-alpha photofragment fluorescence technique for detection, accurate measurements of total water have been made over almost three orders of magnitude. Isokinetic flow is achieved with an actively controlled roots pump by referencing aircraft pressure, temperature, and true air speed, together with instrument flow velocity, temperature, and pressure. During CRYSTAL FACE, the instrument operated at duct temperatures sufficiently warm to completely evaporate particles up to 150 microns diameter. In flight diagnostics, intercomparison with water measured by absorption in flight, as well as intercomparisons in clear air with water vapor measured by the Harvard water vapor instrument and the JPL infrared tunable diode laser hygrometer validate the detection sensitivity of the instrument and illustrate minimal hysteresis from instrument surfaces. The simultaneous measurement of total water and water vapor in cirrus clouds yields their ice water content.

  10. Instrument transfer function of slope measuring deflectometry systems.

    PubMed

    Su, Tianquan; Maldonado, Alejandro; Su, Peng; Burge, James H

    2015-04-01

    Slope measuring deflectometry (SMD) systems are developing rapidly in testing freeform optics. They measure the surface slope using a camera and an incoherent source. The principle of the test is mainly discussed in geometric optic domain. The system response as a function of spatial frequency or instrument transfer function (ITF) has yet to be studied thoroughly. Through mathematical modeling, simulation, and experiment we show that the ITF of an SMD system is very close to the modulation transfer function of the camera used. Furthermore, the ITF can be enhanced using a deconvolution filter. This study will lead to more accurate measurements in SMD and will show the physical optics nature of these tests. PMID:25967213

  11. An instrument for high-throughput measurements of fiber mechanical properties

    E-print Network

    Kristofek, Grant William, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, an instrument is designed and constructed for the purpose of measuring the mechanical properties of single fibers. The instrument is intended to provide high throughput measurement of single fiber geometric ...

  12. An instrument for measuring complex magnetic susceptibility of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Gordon F.; Bailey, Richard C.

    2005-06-01

    To improve the success of electromagnetic induction (EMI) metal detectors in identifying anti-personnel land mines buried in slightly ferromagnetic natural soils, we need to know what range of soil physical properties must be dealt with. We have therefore built a laboratory instrument for measuring complex magnetic susceptibility in inch-sized samples over a frequency range from 100 Hz to ~ 70 kHz with errors of a few percent of the sample susceptibility in a sample of ~1 milli-SIU volume susceptibility, (i.e. ~30 micro-SIU). The instrument is a symmetrical, six coil, induction spectrometer. A pair of transmitter coils in Helmholtz configuration generates a uniform magnetic field over the sample region. The magnetic moment induced in the sample is detected (mainly) by a pair of receiver coils which are closer to the sample than the transmitter pair and also (nearly) in Helmholtz configuration, so as to provide uniform sensitivity over the whole sample region. The coupling of the main receiver pair to the transmitter pair is annulled with a second pair of coils (called the reference receiver pair) situated outside the transmitter pair. The transmitter coils are energized with a wideband current. Data acquisition is by a PC computer with a 192 kHz, 24 bit, 2 channel sound card using software in written in MatLab. Although our instrument is still a prototype and its design continues to evolve, we have measured susceptibility spectra of some samples from de-mining projects in areas where false alarms are a problem and have found dispersive susceptibilities.

  13. Real time measurement system based on wireless instrumented sphere.

    PubMed

    Roa, Yull Heilordt Henao; Fruett, Fabiano; Ferreira, Marcos David

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we developed a new measurement system which includes a Wireless Instrumented Sphere (WIS) and a Graphical User Interface (GUI) software, called Real Time Analysis (RTA). This system is able to acquire, process and visualize the three axis acceleration of the WIS allowing the identification and measurements of rotations, vibrations and impacts in real time. The aim of this instrument is to help the fruit producers to reduce food wasting and improve quality, especially in Brazil, one of the major agricultural countries in the world, whose losses could surpass 20% along the post-harvesting handling chain. Additionally, a data Post Processing Analysis software (PPA) provided of a video synchronization option was developed to determine the impact magnitude, position and even the cause of the impact itself (drop, fruit-to-sphere impact, etc.). Both GUIs presented graphics of the three axis acceleration vectors, acceleration magnitude and velocity, as well as the calculations of the number of impacts (peak detection), maximum, minimum and average impact magnitude. The WIS board was encapsulated in the middle of a spherical transparent polyurethane elastomer. It was also intended to be a small, simple, robust and low cost instrument. Its final diameter of approximately 63 mm, 160 g weight and 1.1 relative density. The RTA reduces the time for testing and is suitable for a fast feedback and allows the user to make adjustments in the experiment setup, packing system or even monitor any process along the post-harvesting handling chain, with an immediate response. The PPA with video synchronization option, proved to be a unique tool, relating the acceleration information with the video position. PMID:25674411

  14. Validation of low-cost ozone measurement instruments suitable for use in an air-quality monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David E.; Henshaw, Geoff S.; Bart, Mark; Laing, Greer; Wagner, John; Naisbitt, Simon; Salmond, Jennifer A.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a novel low-cost instrument that uses a sensor based on conductivity changes of heated tungstic oxide, which is capable of accurately measuring ambient concentrations of ozone. A combination of temperature steps and air flow-rate steps is used to continually reset and re-zero the sensor. A two-stage calibration procedure is presented, in which a nonlinear transformation converts sensor resistance to a signal linear in ozone concentration, then a linear correlation is used to align the calibration with a reference instrument. The required calibration functions specific for the sensor, and control system for air flow rate and sensor temperature, are housed with the sensor in a compact, simple-to-exchange assembly. The instrument can be operated on solar power and uses cell phone technology to enable monitoring in remote locations. Data from field trials are presented here to demonstrate that both the accuracy and the stability of the instrument over periods of months are within a few parts-per-billion by volume. We show that common failure modes can be detected through measurement of signals available from the instrument. The combination of long-term stability, self-diagnosis, and simple, inexpensive repair means that the cost of operation and calibration of the instruments is significantly reduced in comparison with traditional reference instrumentation. These instruments enable the economical construction and operation of ozone monitoring networks of accuracy, time resolution and spatial density sufficient to resolve the local gradients that are characteristic of urban air pollution.

  15. Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graaff, Reindert; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Lutgers, Helen L.; Baptist, Rene; de Jong, Ed D.; Zijp, Jaap R.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    A setup to measure skin autofluorescence was developed to assess accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in patients noninvasively. The method applies direct blacklight tube illumination of the skin of the lower arm, and spectrometry. The setup displays skin autofluorescence (AF) as a ratio of mean intensities detected from the skin between 420-600 nm and 300-420 nm, respectively. In an early clinical application in 46 and control subjects matched for age and gender, AF was significantly increased in the patients (p = 0.015), and highly correlated with skin AGE's that were determined from skin biopsies in both groups. A large follow-up study on type 2 diabetes mellitus, ongoing since 2001 with more than 1000 subjects, aims to assess the value of the instrument in predicting chronic complications of diabetes. At baseline, a relation with age, glycemic status and with complications present was found. In a study in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis AF was a strong and independent predictor of total and cardiovascular mortality. A commercial version of this AGE-reader is now under development and becomes available early 2005 (DiagnOptics B.V., Groningen, The Netherlands). One of the remaining questions, that will be answered by measuring so-called Exciation-Emission Matrices (EEM's) of the skin tissue in vivo, is whether a more selective choice of wavelengths is more strongly related to clinical characteristics. An experimental instrument to measure these EEM's was, therefore, developed as well. Clinical measurements are underway of EEM's in patient groups with diabetes mellitus and in healthy volunteers.

  16. Alignment Measurements of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Instrument in a Thermal/Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Michael D.; Herrera, Acey A.; Crane, J. Allen; Packard, Edward A.; Aviado, Carlos; Sampler, Henry P.

    2000-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory, scheduled for a fall 2000 launch, is designed to measure temperature fluctuations (anisotropy) and produce a high sensitivity and high spatial resolution (approximately 0.2 degree) map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation over the entire sky between 22 and 90 GHz. MAP utilizes back-to-back Gregorian telescopes to focus the microwave signals into 10 differential microwave receivers, via 20 feed horns. Proper alignment of the telescope reflectors and the feed horns at the operating temperature of 90 K is a critical element to ensure mission success. We describe the hardware and methods used to validate the displacement/deformation predictions of the reflectors and the microwave feed horns during thermal/vacuum testing of the reflectors and the microwave instrument. The smallest deformation predictions to be measured were on the order of +/- 0.030 inches (+/- 0.762 mm). Performance of these alignment measurements inside a thermal/vacuum chamber with conventional alignment equipment posed several limitations. The most troublesome limitation was the inability to send personnel into the chamber to perform the measurements during the test due to vacuum and the temperature extremes. The photogrammetry (PG) system was chosen to perform the measurements since it is a non- contact measurement system, the measurements can be made relatively quickly and accurately, and the photogrammetric camera can be operated remotely. The hardware and methods developed to perform the MAP alignment measurements using PG proved to be highly successful. The measurements met the desired requirements, for the metal structures enabling the desired distortions to be measured resolving deformations an order of magnitude smaller than the imposed requirements. Viable data were provided to the MAP Project for a full analysis of the on-orbit performance of the Instrument's microwave system.

  17. TRISO fuel compact thermal conductivity measurement instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Colby

    Thermal conductivity is an important thermophysical property needed for effectively predicting fuel performance. As part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program, the thermal conductivity of tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel needs to be measured over a temperature range characteristic of its usage. The composite nature of TRISO fuel requires that measurement be performed over the entire length of the compact in a non-destructive manner. No existing measurement system is capable of performing such a measurement. A measurement system has been designed based on the steady-state, guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow technique. The system as currently designed is capable of measuring cylindrical samples with diameters ˜12.3-mm (˜0.5?) with lengths ˜25-mm (˜1?). The system is currently operable in a temperature range of 400 K to 1100 K for materials with thermal conductivities on the order of 10 W/m/K to 70 W/m/K. The system has been designed, built, and tested. An uncertainty analysis for the determinate errors of the system has been performed finding a result of 5.5%. Finite element modeling of the system measurement method has also been accomplished demonstrating optimal design, operating conditions, and associated bias error. Measurements have been performed on three calibration/validation materials: SS304, 99.95% pure iron, and inconel 625. In addition, NGNP graphite with ZrO2 particles and NGNP AGR-2 graphite matrix only, both in compact form, have been measured. Results from the SS304 sample show agreement of better than 3% for a 300--600°C temperature range. For iron between 100--600°C, the difference with published values is <8% for all temperatures. The maximum difference from published data for inconel 625 is 5.8%, near 600°C. Both NGNP samples were measured from 100--800°C. All results are presented and discussed. Finally, a discussion of ongoing work is included as well as a brief discussion of implementation under other operating conditions, including higher temperatures and adaptation for use in a glovebox or hot cell.

  18. Instrument for measuring the wall shearing stress of turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwieg, H

    1950-01-01

    It is shown that at a smooth wall in a turbulent boundary layer the velocity profile next to the wall is dependent, aside from the material constants of the flowing medium, only on the shearing stress transmitted to the wall, even with pressure rise or with pressure drop. Consequently, the heat transfer of a small element that is built into the wall and has a higher temperature than that of the flowing medium is a measure of the wall shearing stress. Theoretical considerations indicate that the wall shearing stress of the boundary layer can be defined by means of a heat-transfer measurement with an instrument mounted in the wall. Such an instrument is described. The calibration curve and its directional sensitivity curve are indicated. It permits the determination of the wall shearing stress in magnitude and direction.

  19. Temperature, pressure, and wind instrumentation in the Phoenix meteorological package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Taylor; David C. Catling; Mike Daly; Cameron S. Dickinson; Haraldur P. Gunnlaugsson; Ari-Matti Harri; Carlos F. Lange

    2008-01-01

    should be less than 0.5 s for wind speeds of 5 m s1 or greater. Solar radiation falling on the thermocouples could raise the reported temperatures by up to 0.7 K for wind speeds of 5 m s1. The increase will be wind speed dependent and will increase to 0.8 K at U =3ms 1 under peak solar radiation. Pressure

  20. Axillary and rectal temperature measurements in infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C J Morley; P H Hewson; A J Thornton; T J Cole

    1992-01-01

    Rectal and axillary temperatures were measured during the daytime in 281 infants seen randomly at home and 656 at hospital under 6 months old, using mercury-in-glass thermometers. The normal temperature range derived from the babies at home was 36.7-37.9 degrees C for rectal temperature and 35.6-37.2 degrees C for axillary temperature. Rectal temperature was higher than axillary in 98% of

  1. Very broad-band seismic instrumentation for ground and marine high-sensitivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Nozzoli, Sergio; Peron, Roberto; Reale, Andrea; Santoli, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) is a very broad-band high-sensitivity accelerometer, result of a long activity devoted to the development of instruments for space use (room temperature gradiometers ad accelerometers). It can equally well be used for geophysical studies. It is the underlying component of a wide variety of instruments, as a high-sensitivity seismometers (sensitivity 10-10 g-?Hz-- under 10-1 Hz) and field seismometers, gravimeters and gradiometers (which employ a sensitivity 108 g-?Hz- under 10 Hz). Many instruments have been built and operated, in a variety of environments, including the multi-parameter sea-floor station GEOSTAR (GEophysical and Oceanographic Station for Abyssal Research). Following a description of the accelerometer, a review of the various types of measurements will be given, discussing its many applications. These range from seismic measurements to environment characterization (e.g., underground cavities reconnaissance) to geodetic studies. This instrument is therefore suited for use in wide warning networks for e.g. seismic monitoring: its integration into such networks will be discussed.

  2. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1986-04-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illiminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature. 3 figs.

  3. Brazing Refractory Metals Used In High-Temperature Nuclear Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Palmer; C. J. Woolstenhulme

    2009-06-01

    As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR 1) experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed.

  4. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Prather, William S. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

  5. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1994-09-20

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

  6. Temperature and heat flux measurements: Challenges for high temperature aerospace application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of high temperatures and the influence of heat transfer data is not strictly a problem of either the high temperatures involved or the level of the heating rates to be measured at those high temperatures. It is a problem of duration during which measurements are made and the nature of the materials in which the measurements are made. Thermal measurement techniques for each application must respect and work with the unique features of that application. Six challenges in the development of measurement technology are discussed: (1) to capture the character and localized peak values within highly nonuniform heating regions; (2) to manage large volumes of thermal instrumentation in order to efficiently derive critical information; (3) to accommodate thermal sensors into practical flight structures; (4) to broaden the capabilities of thermal survey techniques to replace discrete gages in flight and on the ground; (5) to provide supporting instrumentation conduits which connect the measurement points to the thermally controlled data acquisition system; and (6) to develop a class of 'vehicle tending' thermal sensors to assure the integrity of flight vehicles in an efficient manner.

  7. A high-temperature Bonse-Hart ultrasmall-angle x-ray scattering instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Chu; Yingjie Li; Paul J. Harney; Fengji Yeh

    1993-01-01

    A Bonse–Hart ultrasmall-angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) instrument has been designed, constructed, and tested employing a synchrotron x-ray source. The instrument permits experiments ranging from below 0 °C up to about 400 °C, as well as temperature scanning, jumping, quenching, and annealing experiments. The mechanical elements used Super Invar as the basic building material in order to minimize the thermal expansion

  8. Global Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD): Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusch, D.; Aksnes, A.; Budzien, S.; Eastes, R.; Anderson, D.; Andersson, L.; Burns, A.; Codrescu, M.; Daniell, R.; Dymond, K.; Eparvier, F.; Harvey, J.; Immel, T.; Krywonos, A.; McClintock, W.; Lankton, M.; Lumpe, J.; Prolss, G.; Richmond, A.; Solomon, S.; Strickland, D.; Woods, T.

    2007-05-01

    The Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) mission of opportunity is an ultraviolet imaging spectrograph that will fly on a geostationary satellite to measure densities and temperatures in the thermosphere and ionosphere. From this vantage point, GOLD will observe emissions from an entire hemisphere (disk) and the horizon (limb) of the Earth. Atmospheric temperatures can be determined from both. Such temperature measurements are essential to answering a vital science question: What is the response of the thermosphere to geomagnetic and solar forcing? The altitude profile of the N2 LBH emission on the Earth's limb will be used to determine the temperature of the atmosphere in the 150 to 300 km range using the scale height of the emission. The GOLD instrument is designed to make this measurement with an altitude resolution of 25 km. The sensitivity of the instrument and observations at tangent altitudes of 150-300 km are adequate to deduce the exospheric temperature with an accuracy of ±50 K. The measurement sequence allows limb profiles to be made every hour over the latitude range from 45S to 45N. On the disk, temperatures near 150 km (± 30 km) are measured using high spectral resolution observations of the N2 emissions. Previous work with data from the ARGOS satellite and modeling of the observations from GOLD indicate the temperatures on the disk can be determined to ±30 K (±15 K) on time scales of half (two) hour(s). Thus, GOLD provides adequate temporal and spatial resolution to answer one of the most important science questions regarding the space environment.

  9. Instrumentation development for magnetic and structural studies under extremes of pressure and temperature 

    E-print Network

    Giriat, Gaetan

    2012-06-25

    The study of the magnetic and structural properties of matter under extreme conditions is a fast developing field. With the emergence of new techniques and innovative instruments for measuring physical properties, the ...

  10. Temperature measurement through wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuai; Zhong, Xianxin; Chen, Lingling; Liao, Xiaowei

    2006-11-01

    Wireless sensor network is a novel network with a large of nodes through wireless communication for information measurement in distributing area. The temperature measurement through wireless sensor network can get temperature in distributing area without costly infrastructure. In order to realize temperature measurement in wireless communication, the wireless sensor network technology is utilized in the measurement. The wireless sensor node with Atmega128L is introduced. The sensor ERT-J1VR103J is used to induce temperature. The performance of temperature sensor is analyzed. The temperature is gotten by the microprocessor Atmega128L, and then is sent through radio chip CC2420. The wireless sensor network operation system TinyOS is used in the application. The wireless gateway node based on GPRS is utilized in the remote wireless temperature measurement system through Internet network. The user node receives data from gateway to acquire temperature. The experimental result is gotten and the accuracy of temperature is 0.1 Celsius degree with relative accuracy is 0.1 percent. The result indicates that the temperature measurement system through wireless sensor network is reliable, convenient, and low cost.

  11. Accurate temperature measurements with a degrading thermocouple

    SciTech Connect

    Skripnik, Y.A.; Khimicheva, A.I.

    1995-04-01

    Ways are considered of enhancing the accuracy of thermoelectric measurement of temperature. The high accuracy method proposed for monitoring the temperature of an aggressive medium can determine the temperature, irrespective of the instantaneous values of the Seebeck and Peltier coefficients, i.e., irrespective of the uncontrolled thermocouple sensitivity, which varies during use.

  12. Temperature standards, what and where: resources for effective temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, W.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Many standards have been published to describe devices, methods, and other topics. How they are developed and by whom are briefly described, and an attempt is made to extract most of those relating to temperature measurements. A directory of temperature standards and their sources is provided.

  13. Mach-Zehnder optical system as a sensitive measuring instrument.

    PubMed

    El-Kashef, H; Hassan, G E; El-Ghazaly, I

    1994-06-01

    A laser interferometric measurement technique that uses a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is developed. This technique permits studies of the physical processes that involve a change in the refractive index with temperature to a high degree of accuracy. A theoretical derivation has been formulated to permit computation of the refractive index of transparent materials. The technique is particularly useful in studying slight changes in refractive index of various gases, solutions over a considerable region, and flow patterns in wind tunnels. PMID:20885740

  14. Development of an instrument to measure manual praxis.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, A; Gorzkowska, J; Elton, R

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure manual praxis by assessing areas of function considered important in learning and planning movement; use of tools, imitation of gesture, and motor sequencing. Participants included 362 healthy children aged between 3 and 12 years. Their parents completed a questionnaire on hand skills. Performance on all tasks improved with age. However, transitive gestures reached an early ceiling effect at around 5 years of age. Assessment of manual praxis from the parental questionnaire correlated with the child's directly measured competency during a test of object use (P<0.01) but not with the ability to imitate transitive gestures or enact a motor sequence with a 'novel' task. Children from schools where a higher number were eligible for free school meals because of low family income had more difficulty with imitation of gesture and motor sequencing to verbal and picture commands (P<0.001, P<0.05, P<0.05). They were neither disadvantaged in tool use nor in appreciation of extracorporeal space. The pattern of errors made in tool use and motor sequencing differed from those described in adults with acquired dyspraxia. These results suggest that assessment of manual praxis in clinical populations should include tool use, imitation of gesture, and motor sequencing and that they should not necessarily be regarded as measuring a unitary function. PMID:10503918

  15. Temperature measurement systems in wearable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, S.; Go?ebiowski, J.

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the concept of temperature measurement system, adapted to wearable electronics applications. Temperature is one of the most commonly monitored factor in smart textiles, especially in sportswear, medical and rescue products. Depending on the application, measured temperature could be used as an initial value of alert, heating, lifesaving or analysis system. The concept of the temperature measurement multi-point system, which consists of flexible screen-printed resistive sensors, placed on the T-shirt connected with the central unit and the power supply is elaborated in the paper.

  16. Dynamic Surface Temperature Measurements in ICs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josep Altet; Wilfrid Claeys; Stefan Dilhaire; Antonio Rubio

    2006-01-01

    Measuring techniques of the die surface temperature in integrated circuits are reported as very appropriate for failure analysis, for thermal characterization, and for testing modern devices. The paper is arranged as a survey of techniques oriented towards measuring the temperature dynamics of the circuit surface and presenting and discussing both the merits and drawbacks of each technique with regard to

  17. Development and testing of the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) cm and mm wavelength occultation instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Stovern, M.; Otarola, A. C.; Young, A.; Wheelwright, B.; Stickney, R.; Albanna, S.; Duffy, B.; Groppi, C.; Hainsworth, J.

    2012-02-01

    We present initial results from testing a new remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). ATOMMS is designed as a satellite-to-satellite occultation system for monitoring climate. We are developing the prototype instrument for an aircraft to aircraft occultation demonstration. Here we focus on field testing of the ATOMMS instrument, in particular the remote sensing of water by measuring the attenuation caused by the 22 GHz and 183 GHz water absorption lines. Our measurements of the 183 GHz line spectrum along an 820 m path revealed that the AM 6.2 spectroscopic model provdes a much better match to the observed spectrum than the MPM93 model. These comparisons also indicate that errors in the ATOMMS amplitude measurements are about 0.3%. Pressure sensitivity bodes well for ATOMMS as a climate instrument. Comparisons with a hygrometer revealed consistency at the 0.05 mb level, which is about 1% of the absolute humidity. Initial measurements of absorption by the 22 GHz line made along a 5.4 km path between two mountaintops captured a large increase in water vapor similar to that measured by several nearby hygrometers. A storm passage between the two instruments yielded our first measurements of extinction by rain and cloud droplets. Comparisons of ATOMMS 1.5 mm opacity measurements with measured visible opacity and backscatter from a weather radar revealed features simultaneously evident in all three datasets confirming the ATOMMS measurements. The combined ATOMMS, radar and visible information revealed the evolution of rain and cloud amounts along the signal path during the passage of the storm. The derived average cloud water content reached typical continental cloud amounts. These results demonstrated a significant portion of the information content of ATOMMS and its ability to penetrate through clouds and rain which is critical to its all-weather, climate monitoring capability.

  18. Portable dynamic light scattering instrument and method for the measurement of blood platelet suspensions.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Spurej, Elisabeth; Brown, Keddie; Labrie, Audrey; Marziali, Andre; Glatter, Otto

    2006-08-01

    No routine test exists to determine the quality of blood platelet transfusions although every year millions of patients require platelet transfusions to survive cancer chemotherapy, surgery or trauma. A new, portable dynamic light scattering instrument is described that is suitable for the measurement of turbid solutions of large particles under temperature-controlled conditions. The challenges of small sample size, short light path through the sample and accurate temperature control have been solved with a specially designed temperature-controlled sample holder for small diameter, disposable capillaries. Efficient heating and cooling is achieved with Peltier elements in direct contact with the sample capillary. Focusing optical fibres are used for light delivery and collection of scattered light. The practical use of this new technique was shown by the reproducible measurement of latex microspheres and the temperature-induced morphological changes of human blood platelets. The measured parameters for platelet transfusions are platelet size, number of platelet-derived microparticles and the response of platelets to temperature changes. This three-dimensional analysis provides a high degree of confidence for the determination of platelet quality. The experimental data are compared to a matrix and facilitate automated, unbiased quality testing. PMID:16861778

  19. Validation of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder temperature and pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishbein, E. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Lungu, T.; Read, W. G.; Shippony, Z.; Waters, J. W.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Singh, U.; Gross, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Keckhut, P.; Gelman, M. E.; Nagatani, R. M.

    1996-04-01

    The accuracy and precision of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) atmospheric temperature and tangent-point pressure measurements are described. Temperatures and tangent-point pressure (atmospheric pressure at the tangent height of the field of view boresight) are retrieved from a 15-channel 63-GHz radiometer measuring O2 microwave emissions from the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Version 3 data (first public release) contains scientifically useful temperatures from 22 to 0.46 hPa. Accuracy estimates are based on instrument performance, spectroscopic uncertainty and retrieval numerics, and range from 2.1 K at 22 hPa to 4.8 K at 0.46 hPa for temperature and from 200 m (equivalent log pressure) at 10 hPa to 300 m at 0.1 hPa. Temperature accuracy is limited mainly by uncertainty in instrument characterization, and tangent-point pressure accuracy is limited mainly by the accuracy of spectroscopic parameters. Precisions are around 1 K and 100 m. Comparisons are presented among temperatures from MLS, the National Meteorological Center (NMC) stratospheric analysis and lidar stations at Table Mountain, California, Observatory of Haute Provence (OHP), France, and Goddard Spaceflight Center, Maryland. MLS temperatures tend to be 1-2 K lower than NMC and lidar, but MLS is often 5 - 10 K lower than NMC in the winter at high latitudes, especially within the northern hemisphere vortex. Winter MLS and OHP (44°N) lidar temperatures generally agree and tend to be lower than NMC. Problems with Version 3 MLS temperatures and tangent-point pressures are identified, but the high precision of MLS radiances will allow improvements with better algorithms planned for the future.

  20. Validation of UARS Microwave Limb Sounder Temperature and Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbein, E. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R. F.; Lungu, T.; Read, W. G.; Shippony, Z.; Waters, J. W.; McDermid, I. S.; McGee, T. J.; Singh, U.; Gross, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Keckhut, P.; Gelman, M. E.; Nagatani, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) atmospheric temperature and tangent-point pressure measurements are described. Temperatures and tangent- point pressure (atmospheric pressure at the tangent height of the field of view boresight) are retrieved from a 15-channel 63-GHz radiometer measuring O2 microwave emissions from the stratosphere and mesosphere. The Version 3 data (first public release) contains scientifically useful temperatures from 22 to 0.46 hPa. Accuracy estimates are based on instrument performance, spectroscopic uncertainty and retrieval numerics, and range from 2.1 K at 22 hPa to 4.8 K at 0.46 hPa for temperature and from 200 m (equivalent log pressure) at 10 hPa to 300 m at 0.1 hPa. Temperature accuracy is limited mainly by uncertainty in instrument characterization, and tangent-point pressure accuracy is limited mainly by the accuracy of spectroscopic parameters. Precisions are around 1 K and 100 m. Comparisons are presented among temperatures from MLS, the National Meteorological Center (NMC) stratospheric analysis and lidar stations at Table Mountain, California, Observatory of Haute Provence (OHP), France, and Goddard Spaceflight Center, Maryland. MLS temperatures tend to be 1-2 K lower than NMC and lidar, but MLS is often 5 - 10 K lower than NMC in the winter at high latitudes, especially within the northern hemisphere vortex. Winter MLS and OHP (44 deg N) lidar temperatures generally agree and tend to be lower than NMC. Problems with Version 3 MLS temperatures and tangent-point pressures are identified, but the high precision of MLS radiances will allow improvements with better algorithms planned for the future.

  1. 77 FR 37409 - Request for Domains, Instruments, and Measures for Development of a Standardized Instrument for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ...coordination of care, customer service), instruments...the level of enrollee satisfaction with qualified health...example, enrollment and customer service) from consumers...scope of the enrollee satisfaction survey may also include...example, enrollment and customer service). CMS...

  2. The rhesus measurement system: A new instrument for space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, Julie E.; Hines, John W.

    1993-01-01

    The Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) is a research environment designed to study the effects of microgravity using rhesus primates as human surrogates. This experimental model allows investigators to study numerous aspects of microgravity exposure without compromising crew member activities. Currently, the RRF is slated for two missions to collect its data, the first mission is SLS-3, due to fly in late 1995. The RRF is a joint effort between the United States and France. The science and hardware portions of the project are being shared between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and France's Centre National D'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The RRF is composed of many different subsystems in order to acquire data, provide life support, environmental enrichment, computer facilities and measurement capabilities for two rhesus primates aboard a nominal sixteen day mission. One of these subsystems is the Rhesus Measurement System (RMS). The RMS is designed to obtain in-flight physiological measurements from sensors interfaced with the subject. The RMS will acquire, preprocess, and transfer the physiologic data to the Flight Data System (FDS) for relay to the ground during flight. The measurements which will be taken by the RMS during the first flight will be respiration, measured at two different sites; electromyogram (EMG) at three different sites; electroencephalogram (EEG); electrocardiogram (ECG); and body temperature. These measurements taken by the RMS will assist the research team in meeting the science objectives of the RRF project.

  3. Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

    2002-01-01

    A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (=71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in.(=1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (=6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger.

  4. Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selinsky, T.; Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

    2002-01-01

    A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (approx. = 71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in. (approx. = 1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (approx. = 6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger. This work was done by Randy

  5. Measurement of sea surface temperature from HIRS2/MSU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, J.

    1983-01-01

    The High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), a 20-channel infrared sounder, and the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU), a 4-channel microwave sounder, were first launched on the TIROS-N Satellite in November 1978 as an upgraded operational temperature sounding system. Essentially identical instruments have flown on NOAA-6 and NOAA-7 and are scheduled to fly on future operational satellites through the eighties. While HIRS2 and MSU were designed primarily for the purpose of measuring atmospheric temperature profiles, the observed radiances are also sensitive to other meteorological parameters such as sea surface temperature, ground temperature, cloud height and cloud amount, ice extent over ocean, snow cover over land, etc. A physically based processing system for analysis of HIRS2/MSU data was developed to determine the above atmospheric and surface parameters, which when substituted in the radiative transfer equation, match the satellite observations to a given noise level. All parameters are retrieved in a mutually interacting fashion.

  6. Asteroid Bennu Temperature Maps for OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft and Instrument Thermal Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.; Emery, Josh; Delbo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A thermophysical model has been developed to generate asteroid Bennu surface temperature maps for OSIRIS-REx spacecraft and instrument thermal design and analyses at the Critical Design Review (CDR). Two-dimensional temperature maps for worst hot and worst cold cases are used in Thermal Desktop to assure adequate thermal design margins. To minimize the complexity of the Bennu geometry in Thermal Desktop, it is modeled as a sphere instead of the radar shape. The post-CDR updated thermal inertia and a modified approach show that the new surface temperature predictions are more benign. Therefore the CDR Bennu surface temperature predictions are conservative.

  7. Towards consistent Land Surface Temperature products from multiple satellite instruments: Validation Results from WACMOS-ET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Martins, Joao; Pires, Ana; Trigo, Isabel; Jimenez, Carlos; Prigent, Catherine; Prata, Fred; Göttsche, Frank; Hook, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter for a wide variety of earth surface processes and in particular for evapotranspiration. The ESA-funded project WACMOS-ET aims at advancing the development of evapotranspiration estimates at global and regional scales using various earth observations products. As part of this project, LST is computed globally using a consistent retrieval algorithm for satellite data from both low-earth orbit and geostationary instruments. These instruments include the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), and the Multi-functional Transport Satellites (MTSAT). In order to evaluate the quality of the resulting LST products, a comprehensive global validation study was carried out. The validation was performed by comparing satellite-derived LST against a) in situ observations acquired at stations located in various land cover types and b) the independent observations of the well-validated MOD11 LST product, which is generated from data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument onboard of the Terra platform. A direct comparison of AATSR-derived LST against in situ observations indicated a mean nighttime bias of 0.3 °C and a mean daytime bias of 1.4 °C. The standard deviations were found to be 1.3 °C and 2.5 °C, respectively. The root mean squared error (RMSE) as a measure of overall product accuracy was found to be 1.4 °C and 3.2 °C for nighttime and daytime data, respectively. LST derived from AATSR was found to be negatively affected by insufficient cloud masking during nighttime observations. However, the WACMOS-ET AATSR product was found to provide slightly more accurate retrievals than those of the GlobTemperature AATSR product when the same cloud mask is used. No suitable in situ sites were available for validating MTSAT LST but inter-comparisons with MODIS and AATSR LST showed a good correspondence. LST retrievals from GOES-E showed a good agreement with the ground-based in situ observations. The average bias over seven stations was found to be 0.37 °C for daytime data and as low as 0.21 °C for nighttime data. The standard deviations were found to be 2.9 °C and 2.4 °C, respectively. The RMSE for daytime data was 3.2 °C and for nighttime data 2.6 °C. Overall, the LST retrievals evaluated here show good to very good performance within the limits of what is currently achievable for LST products. The study indicates that applying a consistent retrieval algorithm for multiple instruments is feasible and provides promising results. The results from this study can be seen as an important first step towards producing merged LST products with high spatial and temporal resolution by combining data from both geostationary and low-earth orbit instruments.

  8. Analysis of in-core coolant temperatures of FFTF instrumented fuels tests at full power

    SciTech Connect

    Hoth, C.W

    1981-01-01

    Two full size highly instrumented fuel assemblies were inserted into the core of the Fast Flux Test Facility in December of 1979. The major objectives of these instrumented tests are to provide verification of the FFTF core conditions and to characterize temperature patterns within FFTF driver fuel assemblies. A review is presented of the results obtained during the power ascents and during irradiation at a constant reactor power of 400 MWt. The results obtained from these instrumented tests verify the conservative nature of the design methods used to establish core conditions in FFTF. The success of these tests also demonstrates the ability to design, fabricate, install and irradiate complex, instrumented fuel tests in FFTF using commercially procured components.

  9. Direct in situ measurements of thermospheric temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, D. C.; Nier, A. O.; Breig, E. L.; Power, R. A.; Hanson, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The open source neutral mass spectrometer on the Atmosphere Explorer satellites used for direct in situ measurements of the neutral gas temperature by means of the 'fly-through' mode of operation is evaluated. The derived neutral temperature (Tn) is compared with ion temperatures (T1) obtained simultaneously from the on-board retarding potential analyzer for altitudes and conditions where the two temperatures should be equal. A statistical analysis showed consistency between concurrently observed values of Tn and T1, also shown through profiles depicting their altitude distributions between 150 and 225 km. The overall magnitude of temperatures calculated from the Jacchia (1971) model results in a better representation of the observations than the higher temperatures predicted for this region by the MSIS model (Hedin, 1977), and agreement is also found between observed temperatures and neutral temperatures derived from altitude distributions of N2 particle densities.

  10. Device and method for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cannon, Collins P. (Kearney, MO); Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-10-29

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  11. Cloud temperature measurement using rotational Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jia; Patrick McCormick, M.; Wu, Yonghua; Lee, Robert B.; Lei, Liqiao; Liu, Zhaoyan; Leavor, Kevin R.

    2013-08-01

    Insufficient suppression of the elastic-scattering signal in the rotational Raman (RR) detection channels can result in a retrieval error particularly when the temperature of a thick cloud is measured using an RR lidar. To solve this problem, a technique is presented to obtain relative transmission factors for the two RR channels' thereby correcting for the influence of residual elastic-signal on the temperature retrieval. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated by applying the algorithm to the Hampton University (HU) lidar measurements. Intercomparisons of these temperature retrievals from both water-phase and cirrus clouds show good agreement with radiosonde measurements.

  12. High-resolution measurements of humidity and temperature with lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Spaeth, Florian; Hammann, Eva; Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    3-dimensional thermodynamic fields of temperature and moisture including their turbulent fluctuations have been observed with the two scanning lidar systems of University of Hohenheim in three field campaigns in 2013 and 2014. In this contribution, we will introduce these two self-developed instruments and illustrate their performance with measurement examples. Finally, an outlook to envisioned future research activities with the new data sets of the instruments is given. Our temperature lidar is based on the rotational Raman technique. The scanning rotational Raman lidar (RRL) uses a seeded frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm. A two-mirror scanner with a 40-cm telescope collects the atmospheric backscatter signals. Humidity measurements are made with a scanning water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) which uses a titanium sapphire laser at 820 nm as transmitter. This laser is pumped with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and injection-seeded for switching between the online and offline wavelengths. The DIAL receiver consists of a scanning 80-cm telescope. The measured temperature and humidity profiles of both instruments have typical resolutions of only a few seconds and 100 m in the atmospheric boundary layer both in day- and night-time. Recent field experiments with the RRL and the DIAL of University of Hohenheim were (1) the HD(CP)2 Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in spring 2013 in western Germany - this activity is embedded in the project HD(CP)2 (High-definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction); (2) a measurement campaign in Hohenheim in autumn 2013; (3) the campaign SABLE (Surface Atmospheric Boundary Layer Exchange) in south-western Germany in summer 2014. The collected moisture and temperature data will serve as initial thermodynamic fields for forecast experiments related to the formation of clouds and precipitation. Due to their high resolution and high precision, the systems are capable of resolving turbulent fluctuations of moisture and temperature in the convective boundary layer (CBL) from the surface to the entrainment zone, profiles of stability variables such as buoyancy as well as the CBL height, aerosol backscatter fields and cloud boundaries. The combination of these water vapor and temperature lidar instruments with Doppler lidar allows for deriving co-variances such as latent and sensible heat fluxes. The resulting new data sets are especially interesting for the validation and improvement of model parameterizations.

  13. Data Reduction techniques for aerosol size distribution measuring instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Z. Kapadia

    1980-01-01

    Data reduction methods for the electrical aerosol analyzer (EAA) and the diffusion battery condensation nuclei counter (DB-CNC) are presented. Both the EAA and DB-CNC can be modeled by the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. Thus the data reduction methods for both the instruments are similar. The data reduction methods for both the instruments were analyzed with simulated and

  14. Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS): Measurements from an instrumented aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luria, M.; Boatman, J. F.; Wellman, D. L.; Gunter, R. L.; Watkins, B. A.; Wilkison, S. W.; Van Valin, C. C.

    As part of the Lake Michigan Ozone Study, the NOAA instrumented King Air research aircraft made a series of flights over Lake Michigan during the summers of 1990 and 1991 to characterize the atmospheric conditions prevailing during times when O 3 concentrations exceeded the air quality standard. Most of the time, O 3 concentrations were within the normal range (40-70 ppbv) for the location and season, but higher concentrations were measured during the afternoon flights at several isolated locations. During three afternoon flights, high O 3 concentrations (> 120 ppbv) were observed along portions of the flight path; the highest 1-min average exceeded 160 ppbv. In two flights the highest O 3 concentrations were observed in the lower boundary layer over the eastern portion of the flight track; in one case the high concentrations were found over the western side of the lake throughout the boundary layer. The increased O 3 was accompanied by moderately increased SO 2 and NO x (10-20 ppbv); outside the region of elevated O 3, the SO 2 and NO x were less than 2-3 ppbv. The elevated zone concentrations were related to emissions from the urban region located near the southern and southwestern shores of Lake Michigan.

  15. Verifax: Biometric instruments measuring neuromuscular disorders/performance impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    VeriFax, founded in 1990 by Dr. Ruth Shrairman and Mr. Alex Landau, began operations with the aim of developing a biometric tool for the verification of signatures from a distance. In the course of developing this VeriFax Autograph technology, two other related applications for the technologies under development at VeriFax became apparent. The first application was in the use of biometric measurements as clinical monitoring tools for physicians investigating neuromuscular diseases (embodied in VeriFax's Neuroskill technology). The second application was to evaluate persons with critical skills (e.g., airline pilots, bus drivers) for physical and mental performance impairments caused by stress, physiological disorders, alcohol, drug abuse, etc. (represented by VeriFax's Impairoscope prototype instrument). This last application raised the possibility of using a space-qualified Impairoscope variant to evaluate astronaut performance with respect to the impacts of stress, fatigue, excessive workload, build-up of toxic chemicals within the space habitat, etc. The three applications of VeriFax's patented technology are accomplished by application-specific modifications of the customized VeriFax software. Strong commercial market potentials exist for all three VeriFax technology applications, and market progress will be presented in more detail below.

  16. Ultra high temperature instrumentation amplifier. Midterm progress report, September 1976March 1977

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Kelly; W. L. Cannon; Morse C. P

    1977-01-01

    The design of a downhole instrumentation amplifier to support geothermal well logging without thermal protection at temperatures up to 500°C is described. The basic approach is to provide signal conditioning for a transducer, amplify the transducer output and transmit this amplified signal over long electrical cables to the surface for further processing and recording. Ceramic vacuum tubes are used as

  17. A zero-gravity instrument to study low velocity collisions of fragile particles at low temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Salter; D. Heißelmann; G. Chaparro; G. van der Wolk; P. Reißaus; A. G. Borst; R. W. Dawson; E. de Kuyper; G. Drinkwater; K. Gebauer; M. Hutcheon; H. Linnartz; F. J. Molster; B. Stoll; P. C. van der Tuijn; H. J. Fraser; J. Blum

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the design, operation, and performance of a vacuum setup constructed for use in zero (or reduced) gravity conditions to initiate collisions of fragile millimeter-sized particles at low velocity and temperature. Such particles are typically found in many astronomical settings and in regions of planet formation. The instrument has participated in four parabolic flight campaigns to date, operating for

  18. Temperature Coefficient of the Elastic Moduli of Spring Materials Used in Instrument Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Brombacher

    1933-01-01

    A summary is presented of the values obtained by various observers of the temperature coefficients of the modulus of rigidity and Young's modulus of elasticity for the metals and alloys of possible usefulness in the construction of the elastic members of instruments. The composition of each material is given and also the condition of heat treatment or cold work. Much

  19. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, %5CDynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors%22. The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  20. Comparison Measurements of Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy L. Rempe; Keith G. Condie; Darrell L. Knudson; Lance Lewis Snead

    2010-01-01

    As part of a process initiated through the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) program to make Silicon Carbide (SiC) temperature monitors available for experiments, a capability was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. INL selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors.

  1. James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Calibration and Verification of High-Accuracy Instrumentation to Measure Heat Flow in Cryogenic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comber, Brian; Glazer, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an upcoming flagship observatory mission scheduled to be launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. The requirement for multiple thermal zoned results in the instruments being thermally connected to five external radiators via individual high purity aluminum heat straps. Thermal-vacuum and thermal balance testing of the flight instruments at the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element level will take place within a newly constructed shroud cooled by gaseous helium inside Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Space environment Simulator (SES). The flight external radiators are not available during ISIM-level thermal vacuum/thermal testing, so they will be replaced in test with stable and adjustable thermal boundaries with identical physical interfaces to the flight radiators. Those boundaries are provided by specially designed test hardware which also measures the heat flow within each of the five heat straps to an accuracy of less than 2 mW, which is less than 5% of the minimum predicted heat flow values. Measurement of the heat loads to this accuracy is essential to ISIM thermal model correlation, since thermal models are more accurately correlated when temperature data is supplemented by accurate knowledge of heat flows. It also provides direct verification by test of several high-level thermal requirements. Devices that measure heat flow in this manner have historically been referred to a "Q-meters". Perhaps the most important feature of the design of the JWST Q-meters is that it does not depend on the absolute accuracy of its temperature sensors, but rather on knowledge of precise heater power required to maintain a constant temperature difference between sensors on two stages, for which a table is empirically developed during a calibration campaign in a small chamber at GSFC. This paper provides a brief review of Q-meter design, and discusses the Q-meter calibration procedure including calibration chamber modifications and accommodations, handling of differing conditions between calibration and usage, the calibration process itself, and the results of the tests used to determine if the calibration is successful.

  2. Linking Fluorometry to Radiometry with Physical and Chemical Transfer Standards: Instrument Characterization and Traceable Fluorescence Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Resch-Genger; D. Pfeifer; K. Hoffmann; G. Flachenecker; A. Hoffmann; C. Monte

    Problems associated with the measurement of photoluminescence are briefly reviewed, including relevant\\u000a instrument parameters affecting these measurements. Procedures for the characterization of relevant instruments\\u000a are discussed, focusing on spectrofluorometers, and fit-for-purpose methods including suitable standards\\u000a are recommended. The aim here is to increase the awareness of the importance of reliable instrument characterization\\u000a and to improve the comparability of measurements of

  3. In-Situ Optical Wafer Temperature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Bruce; Schietinger, Chuck

    2003-09-01

    The need for increasingly tighter process control is eminently apparent as semiconductor device dimensions become smaller and wafers larger. Today "Thermal Budgets" are shrinking and ramp rates are increasing throughout wafer processing. Wafer temperature is perhaps the most universally critical process variable in front-end integrated circuits (IC) manufacturing. The use of pyrometry and optical lightpipes continues to gain widespread acceptance as the standard temperature control method in many processes. Lightpipes are used for controlling temperature in chemical vapor deposition (CVD), rapid thermal processing (RTP), epitaxial film growth (EPI) and physical vapor deposition (PVD). Optical thermometry offers numerous advantages over other forms of wafer temperature measurement. This paper presents the current strengths and limitations in optical wafer temperature measurement. Many factors continue to drive the measurement technology. As IC junctions become shallower, thermal budget concerns drive process temperatures down. Processing time and ramp rates continue to shorten in particular for implant anneals. Increasingly, process control requires complete thermal histories of wafers throughout IC manufacturing. These factors and new materials (copper and low-? dielectrics) push tool manufactures and pyrometer vendors toward lower temperatures while still requiring high sensitivity, and accuracy. The accuracy of most in-situ optical temperature measurement continues to be dominated by uncertainty in wafer emissivity. Factors that limit accuracy, e.g., from wafer to wafer and from tool to tool, and advances in the technology are discussed.

  4. Effects of Wafer Emissivity on Rapid Thermal Processing Temperature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D. H.; DeWitt, D. P.; Tsai, B. K.; Kreider, K. G.; Kimes, W. A.

    2003-09-01

    Lightpipe radiation thermometers (LPRTs) are widely used to measure wafer temperatures in rapid thermal processing (RTP) tools. To use blackbody-calibrated LPRTs to infer the wafer temperature, it is necessary to build a model to predict the effective emissivity accounting for the wafer and chamber radiative properties as well as geometrical features of the chamber. The uncertainty associated with model-corrected temperatures can be investigated using test wafers instrumented with thin-film thermocouples (TFTCs) on which the LPRT target spot has been coated with films of different emissivity. A finite-element model of the wafer-chamber arrangement was used to investigate the effects of Pt spot (?s = 0.25) and Au spot (?s = 0.05) on the temperature distribution of test wafers with spectral emissivities of 0.65 and 0.84. The effects of the shield reflectivity and the cool lightpipe (LP) tip on the wafer temperature were evaluated. A radiance analysis method was developed, and a comparison of model-based predictions with experimental observations was made on a 200 mm diameter wafer in the NIST RTP test bed. The temperature rises caused by the low-emissivity spot were predicted and the cooling effect of the LP tip was determined. The results of the study are important for developing the model-based corrections for temperature measurements and related uncertainties using LPRTs in semiconductor thermal processes.

  5. Using and Developing Measurement Instruments in Science Education: A Rasch Modeling Approach. Science & Engineering Education Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    This book meets a demand in the science education community for a comprehensive and introductory measurement book in science education. It describes measurement instruments reported in refereed science education research journals, and introduces the Rasch modeling approach to developing measurement instruments in common science assessment domains,…

  6. Cosmic microwave background dipole spectrum measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Isaacman, R. B.; Mather, J. C.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.; Shafer, R. A.; Weiss, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) has determined the dipole spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) from 2 to 20/cm. For each frequency the signal is decomposed by fitting to a monopole, a dipole, and a Galactic template for approximately 60% of the sky. The overall dipole spectrum fits the derivative of a Planck function with an amplitude of 3.343 +/- 0.016 mK (95% confidence level), a temperature of 2.714 +/- 0.022 K (95% confidence level), and an rms deviation of 6 x 10(exp -9) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm limited by a detector and cosmic-ray noise. The monopole temperature is consistent with that determined by direct measurement in the accompanying article by Mather et al.

  7. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...proof and volume of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits...30 of this chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an...

  8. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...proof and volume of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits...30 of this chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an...

  9. 27 CFR 19.277 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...shall provide for their own use accurate hydrometers, thermometers, and other necessary...or volume. (b) Instruments. Hydrometers and thermometers used by proprietors...Proprietors shall make frequent tests of their hydrometers and thermometers, and, if...

  10. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...proof and volume of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits...30 of this chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an...

  11. 27 CFR 19.188 - Measuring devices and proofing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...proof and volume of spirits. (b) Instruments. The hydrometers and thermometers that a proprietor uses to gauge spirits...30 of this chapter. Proprietors must frequently test their hydrometers and thermometers to ensure their accuracy. If an...

  12. MISSE 1 and 2 Tray Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.

    2006-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE 1 & 2) was deployed August 10,2001 and retrieved July 30,2005. This experiment is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC. NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, NASA-JSC, the Materials Laboratory at the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Boeing Phantom Works. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate performance, stability, and long term survivability of materials and components planned for use by NASA and DOD on future LEO, synchronous orbit, and interplanetary space missions. Temperature is an important parameter in the evaluation of space environmental effects on materials. The MISSE 1 & 2 had autonomous temperature data loggers to measure the temperature of each of the four experiment trays. The MISSE tray-temperature data loggers have one external thermistor data channel, and a 12 bit digital converter. The MISSE experiment trays were exposed to the ISS space environment for nearly four times the nominal design lifetime for this experiment. Nevertheless, all of the data loggers provided useful temperature measurements of MISSE. The temperature measurement system has been discussed in a previous paper. This paper presents temperature measurements of MISSE payload experiment carriers (PECs) 1 and 2 experiment trays.

  13. Use of precision low noise monolithic instrumentation amplifiers at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, M. C. M.; Scurlock, R. G.

    The FET analogue devices AD524AD and AD624AD, precision instrumentation amplifiers, have been successfully used at 77 K. The devices ceased to function when immersed in liquid helium but recovered, without damage, after warming. The gain, set by internal resistors on the chips, was almost independnet of temperature, but a small temperature dependent offset voltage was a standard feature. A pre-amplifier operating down to nitrogen temperatures can thus be implemented by a single low power integrated circuit device with minimal external components for use in cryogenics, metrology and space physics.

  14. Embedded optical gauges for dynamic temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, Daniel; Ao, Tom

    2011-06-01

    While mechanical diagnostics are common in dynamic compression research, accurate temperature measurements remain elusive. The problem is particularly acute in ramp- compression experiments, where temperatures are often well below 1000 K, a challenging domain for optical pyrometry. Embedded electrical gauges can be used to measure temperature in limited circumstances, but are difficult to incorporate into metal samples or magnetically-driven experiments. Embedded optical gauges may provide a viable temperature diagnostic when pyrometry and electrical gauges are impractical. Unlike pyrometry, where each sample has a unique emissivity, embedded optical gauges reference temperature to the optical properties of a standard material. Active optical measurements also provide direct control over the measured light levels, whereas pyrometry is limited by sample emission in particular spectral regions. This presentation will discuss the use of noble metal reflectivity gauges for dynamic temperature measurements. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85

  15. High Accuracy Temperature Measurements Using RTDs with Current Loop Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald M.

    1997-01-01

    To measure temperatures with a greater degree of accuracy than is possible with thermocouples, RTDs (Resistive Temperature Detectors) are typically used. Calibration standards use specialized high precision RTD probes with accuracies approaching 0.001 F. These are extremely delicate devices, and far too costly to be used in test facility instrumentation. Less costly sensors which are designed for aeronautical wind tunnel testing are available and can be readily adapted to probes, rakes, and test rigs. With proper signal conditioning of the sensor, temperature accuracies of 0.1 F is obtainable. For reasons that will be explored in this paper, the Anderson current loop is the preferred method used for signal conditioning. This scheme has been used in NASA Lewis Research Center's 9 x 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel, and is detailed.

  16. Expressions to determine temperatures and emission measures for solar X-ray events from GOES measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. J.; Starr, R.; Crannell, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Expressions which give the effective color temperatures and corresponding emission measures for solar X-ray events observed with instruments onboard any of the GOES satellites are developed. Theoretical spectra were used to simulate the solar X-ray input at a variety of plasma temperatures. These spectra were folded through the wavelength dependent transfer functions for the two GOES detectors. The resulting detector responses and their ratio as a function of plasma temperature were then fit with simple analytic curves. Over the entire range between 5 and 30 million degrees, these fits reproduce the calculated color temperatures within 2% and the calculated emission measures within 5%. With the theoretical spectra, similar expressions for any pair of broadband X-ray detectors whose sensitivities are limited to wavelengths between 0.2 and 100 A are calculable.

  17. Measuring a caring culture in hospitals: a systematic review of instruments

    PubMed Central

    Hesselink, G; Kuis, E; Pijnenburg, M; Wollersheim, H

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify instruments or components of instruments that aim to measure aspects of a caring culture-shared beliefs, norms and values that direct professionals and managers to act caring in hospitals, and to evaluate their psychometric properties. Design Systematic review. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Web of Science and the International bibliography of the Social Sciences. Study selection Peer-reviewed articles describing (components of) instruments measuring aspects of a caring culture in a hospital setting. Studies had to report psychometric data regarding the reliability or validity of the instrument. Potentially useful instruments that were identified after the title and abstract scan were assessed on relevance by an expert panel (n=12) using the RAND-modified Delphi procedure. Results Of the 6399 references identified, 75 were examined in detail. 7 studies each covering a unique instrument met our inclusion criteria. On average, 24% of the instrument's items were considered relevant for measuring aspects of the hospital's caring culture. Studies showed moderate-to-high validity and reliability scores. Validity was addressed for 6 of the 7 instruments. Face, content (90%) and construct (60%) validity were the most frequently reported psychometric properties described. One study (14%) reported discriminant validity of the instrument. Reliability data were available for all of the instruments. Internal consistency was the most frequently reported psychometric property for the instruments and demonstrated by: a Cronbach's ? coefficient (80%), subscale intercorrelations (60%), and item–total correlations (40%). Conclusions The ultimate standard for measuring a caring culture in hospitals does not exist. Existing instruments provide partial coverage and lack information on discriminant validity, responsiveness and feasibility. Characteristics of the instruments included in this review could provide useful input for the design of a reliable and valid instrument for measuring a caring culture in hospitals. PMID:24065697

  18. Improved instrumentation for near-real-time measurement of reactive hydrocarbons, NO{sub 2}, and peroxyacyl nitrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Drayton, P. J.; Blazer, C. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    1999-10-06

    The measurement of reactive hydrocarbons and associated nitrogen oxides, NO{sub 2}, and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) is of key importance to unraveling the complex chemistries involved in daytime photochemical oxidant formation and nighttime chemistry driven by the nitrate radical. Recent work has demonstrated that chemiluminescent reactions of ozone with hydrocarbons (and the temperature dependence of the reactions) can be used as a means of detecting a wide variety of organic compounds in the gas phase with sensitivity comparable to or better than that of the conventional flame ionization detection method (Marley and Gaffney, 1998). We have implemented a new design and built a new instrument to evaluate this approach for the monitoring of alkenes. This instrument makes use of a computer-controlled photon-counting system with a reaction chamber operated at room temperature. Signals are compared to those for an ethene standard to estimate relative reactivity. The instrument is described in detail here, along with a new version of a luminol-based chemiluminescence detection system with fast gas chromatography for measurement of NO{sub 2} and PANs. The photon-counting system, the reaction chamber, and the luminol detection system have been combined on one instrument rack for field use on both ground-based and aircraft platforms. Data presented show the response times of the instruments and indicate applications for examining reactive hydrocarbon emissions from both vegetation and anthropogenic sources. In addition, the luminol chemiluminescence instrument was field tested, and the data obtained are compared with data from a commercial NO{sub x} analyzer. Preliminary results demonstrating the potential use of this instrumentation for rapid measurement of key tropospheric trace species are presented and discussed.

  19. Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma.

    PubMed

    Golingo, R P; Shumlak, U; Den Hartog, D J

    2010-12-01

    The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma. PMID:21198059

  20. Note: Zeeman splitting measurements in a high-temperature plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Golingo, R. P.; Shumlak, U.; Den Hartog, D. J. [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2250 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The Zeeman effect has been used for measurement of magnetic fields in low-temperature plasma, but the diagnostic technique is difficult to implement in a high-temperature plasma. This paper describes new instrumentation and methodology for simultaneous measurement of the entire Doppler-broadened left and right circularly polarized Zeeman spectra in high-temperature plasmas. Measurements are made using spectra emitted parallel to the magnetic field by carbon impurities in high-temperature plasma. The Doppler-broadened width is much larger than the magnitude of the Zeeman splitting, thus simultaneous recording of the two circularly polarized Zeeman line profiles is key to accurate measurement of the magnetic field in the ZaP Z-pinch plasma device. Spectral data are collected along multiple chords on both sides of the symmetry axis of the plasma. This enables determination of the location of the current axis of the Z-pinch and of lower-bound estimates of the local magnetic field at specific radial locations in the plasma.

  1. Concurrent measurement of combustion oscillation and temperature of multiple flames in a simulated gas turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Lu; Spiros Siouris; Yong Yan; Chris W. Wilson; S. Cornwell

    2004-01-01

    A vision-based instrumentation system for the measurement of oscillation frequency and temperature distribution of multiple flames in a gas turbine combustor is developed and tested. The system, utilising imaging, spectral analysis and two-colour pyrometry techniques, is capable of monitoring the oscillation frequency and temperature distribution of up to eight flames concurrently and simultaneously. The relative error of the system for

  2. Instruments for Measuring Nursing Practice and Other Health Care Variables: Volume I [and] Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Mary Jane, Ed.; Lindeman, Carol Ann, Ed.

    This two-volume compilation classifies, describes, and critiques 159 clinical nursing instruments; 140 which measure psychosocial variables, 19 which measure physiological variables. Instruments are in various formats: paper and pencil tests, questionnaires, interview schedules, observation guides, rating scales, and mechanical devices such as…

  3. COMPASS: an instrument for measuring the polarization of the CMB on intermediate angular scales

    E-print Network

    Timbie, Peter

    COMPASS: an instrument for measuring the polarization of the CMB on intermediate angular scales 44106, USA Abstract COMPASS is an on-axis 2.6-m telescope coupled to a correlation polarimeter 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Instrument design COMPASS was designed to measure the po

  4. A new method and instrument for measuring circular motion error of NC machine tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. Liu; H. M. Shi; B. Li; X. Li

    2005-01-01

    A new method and instrument for measuring circular motion error of numerical control (NC) machine tools are described in this paper. The instrument consists of a linear displacement transducer bar with two balls at each end and a high accuracy rotary encoder. The radius variations are detected by the transducer and the rotation angle of the bar is measured by

  5. The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Woo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Measurement and instrumentation have long played an important role in production engineering, through supporting both the traditional field of manufacturing and the new field of micro\\/nanotechnology. Papers published in this special feature were selected and updated from those presented at The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011) held at KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea, on 29

  6. A virtual instrumentation system for measurements on the tallest medieval bell tower in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Moschioni

    2003-01-01

    A complex virtual instrumentation-based system for measurements of mechanical and thermal parameters of an ancient masonry bell tower is described in this paper. The main focus is oriented toward the measurement issues and the data acquisition and on-line analysis system, which is entirely based on a virtual instrument approach. Choice of transducers and strategies of data acquisition, analyses, and storing

  7. Laser weld penetration estimation using temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lankalapalli, K.N.; Tu, J.F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Industrial Engineering; Leong, K.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gartner, M. [Ford Motor Co., Livonia, MI (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Penetration depth is an important factor critical to the quality of a laser weld. This paper examines the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the bottom surface of the work-piece to estimate weld penetration. A three-dimensional analytical model relating penetration depth, weld bead width and welding speed to temperature distribution at the bottom surface of the workpiece is developed. Temperatures on the bottom surface of the workpiece are measured using infrared thermocouples located behind the laser beam. Experimental results from bead-on-plate welds on low carbon steel plates of varying thickness at different levels of laser power and speeds validate the model and show that the temperature on the bottom surface is a sensitive indicator of penetration depth. The proposed model is computationally efficient and is suitable for on-line process monitoring application.

  8. Rapid Measurements of Snow Stratigraphy Using A Portable Penetration Field Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Robert; Louge, Michel; Clifford, Kelly; Decker, Rand

    We describe a new field-portable tool for avalanche forecasting and hydrology that can rapidly generate stratigraphic profiles of density, permittivity and temperature through the snow pack. This penetration instrument consists of a wedged capacitance tip mounted at the end of a pole and a mechanical depth gauge. By appropriate place- ment of its reference, guard and sensor conductive surfaces, the instrument sheds hor- izontal electric field lines resolving horizontal snow layers of 2.5mm thickness. The probe was tested under realistically cold conditions at the mountain resort of Alta near Salt Lake City, Utah. There, it recorded the stratigraphy of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant at 3.9kHz and the temperature through a typical winter snow pack. The portable electronics was carried in a small backpack and the depth was recorded using a rotary digital encoder in frictional contact with the pole. The profiles were automatically acquired on a hand-held Personal Digital Assistant. Using independent calibrations, measurements of the real part provided an accurate profile of density later confirmed by the conventional excavation of a detailed snow cover profile. The ratio of the imaginary and real permittivities also revealed the signature of individual snow layers that could be identified in the excavation.

  9. Measurement of the light dosimetry parameters in PDT: definition of a dedicated instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffry, F.; Louis, V.; Granjon, Yves; Guillemin, Francois H.; Yvroud, Edouard

    1997-05-01

    The PDT uses the LASER characteristics in order to treat locally some types of cancers.Its principle is to irradiate the tumoral zones after the injection of a photosensitizer. Two processes take place during the treatment: one of them is a photochemical process and the other is a photothermal one. The parameters of major interest involved in these processes are the light energy, the oxygen rate in the tumor and the temperature. the aim of the light dosimetry is to optimize the light dose delivered by the LASER in order to enhance the therapeutic yield of the treatment. A sensor dedicated to this task has been studied in our laboratory. Our aim is to perform the measurement of several light dosimetry parameters with a single sensor. These parameters are the light attenuation coefficient, the oxygen saturation and the temperature. The general principle of the instrumentation is based on the backscattering of the light emitted by the optical treatment fiber. The associated instrumentation is composed with three parts: an optical structure, an electronic system and a software for the digital treatment. Our goal is to use this sensor in order to define a general method to extract the different parameters from the single backscattered signal.

  10. Temperature measurements of shock-compressed deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, N.C.; Ross, M.; Nellis, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    The authors measured the temperatures of single and double-shocked D{sub 2} and H{sub 2} up to 85 GPa (0.85 Mbar) and 5,200 K. While single shock temperatures, at pressures to 23 GPa, agree well with previous models, the double shock temperatures are as much as 40% lower than predicted. This is believed to be caused by molecular dissociation, and a new model of the hydrogen EOS at extreme conditions has been developed which correctly predicts their observations. These data and model have important implications for programs which use condensed-phase hydrogen in implosion systems.

  11. Instrumentation to Measure the Backscattering Coefficient bb for Arbitrary Phase Functions 

    E-print Network

    Haubrich, David

    2011-10-21

    explain the theory behind our instrument and based on measurements made in the laboratory we demonstrate that our prototype shows the predicted behavior. We present data for increased extinction in the water, and show how measuring the extinction...

  12. An Autonomous Ozone Instrument for Atmospheric Measurements from Ocean Buoys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Hintsa; W. T. Rawlins; E. R. Sholkovitz; D. S. Hosom; G. P. Allsup; M. J. Purcell; D. R. Scott; P. Mulhall

    2002-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a pollutant. Because of its adverse health effects, there are numerous monitoring stations on land but none over the oceans. We have built an ozone instrument for deployment anywhere at sea from ocean buoys, to study ozone chemistry over the oceans, intercontinental transport of pollution, diurnal and seasonal cycles of ozone,

  13. Measuring Quality of Life: A New and Practical Survey Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenley, James R.; Greenberg, Jan Steven; Brown, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Presents a new, short, self-administered questionnaire that assesses the quality of life in seven areas. Evidence for the reliability and validity of the questionnaire was based on data gathered from 971 clients; results indicate instrument reliability. The questionnaire features low-cost administration and valid psychometric properties. (RJM)

  14. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: FLOW MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flow meter devices are the most widely used process monitoring instruments in wastewater treatment. Careful consideration must be exercised during selection of flow meters to avoid equipment misapplication that can result in operation problems and equipment failure. It is the res...

  15. Just enough measurement: A proposed paradigm for designing medical instrumentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacy J. Morris Bamberg; Phil S. Dyer; Lucas S. Lincoln; Linfang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Our research group hypothesizes that one way to provide low-cost healthcare delivery efficiently is through the use of a large number of inexpensive sensors that can provide meaningful medical data. Typical development of medical instrumentation pursues increased resolution and higher accuracy - accompanied by a corresponding increase in cost; it is no secret that high costs impose a heavy burden

  16. Art therapy assessments and rating instruments: Do they measure up?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna J. Betts

    2006-01-01

    There are many benefits to justify the use of art therapy assessment techniques and rating instruments. However, methodological, theoretical and philosophical problems abound. These problems are explored, in relation to art therapy assessments and their corresponding rating tools. Information about the various types of rating scales is provided, including a comparison of the Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS) rating system and

  17. Constructing a Consensus-based Prevention Outcome Measurement Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Harvey A.; Lane, D. Timothy; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert G.; Rahman, Ahmmed; Chambers, Deborah T.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Ohio's Prevention Evaluation Project (PEP), that developed a questionnaire to assess behavioral and attitudinal outcomes in primary drug abuse prevention programs targeting young people aged twelve to seventeen. One of PEP's principal achievements was the inclusion of community prevention program providers in the evaluation instrument

  18. Measuring Student Attitudes: Semantic Differential or Likert Instruments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Following descriptions of a semantic differential (SD) and test of science-related attitudes (TOSRA)--a Likert-type scale--reports results of using the instruments with secondary school students in various Australian schools (N=1,049 for TOSRA and 1,116 for SD). Suggests SD for general attitude and Likert-type scales of specific attitude…

  19. Virtual instrumentation for pH measurements in biological systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Rigobello; F. Cazzaro; G. Scutari; A. Bindoli

    1999-01-01

    In the present communication a personal computer control methodology for pH data acquisition and analysis in biological systems is reported. The instrumental control, acquisition, storage, processing and presentation of the experimental data are provided by a data acquisition board, a graphical programming software and numerical analysis\\/graphics software. The major objective of this work is to improve the performance and flexibility

  20. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

    1994-10-04

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

  1. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN); McElhaney, Stephanie A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination.

  2. A Method of Measuring Piston Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Mangniello, Eugene J

    1940-01-01

    A method that makes use of thermocouples has been developed to measure the temperature of engine pistons operating at high speeds. The thermocouples installed on the moving piston are connected with a potentiometer outside the engine by means of pneumatically operated plungers, which make contact with the piston thermocouples for about 10 crankshaft degrees at the bottom of the piston stroke. The equipment is operated satisfactory at engine speeds of 2,400 r.p.m. and shows promise of successful operation at higher engine speeds. Measurements of piston temperatures in a liquid-cooled compression-ignition engine and in an air-cooled spark-ignition are presented.

  3. Visible radiation measurement for temperature determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elands, P. J. M.; Wijchers, T.

    1985-11-01

    The theory of radiation according to the laws of Planck and Stefan-Boltzmann is treated, and the detection of radiation and the detection geometrics are discussed. A detector consisting of a camera, a diode, and an amplifier, was examined to determine geometrics, including lens openings, focal distance, and principal planes. Saturation and the error in adjustment were determined. The procedure of detector calibration by means of a tungsten ribbon lamp is described. Measurements with the equipment to check the calibration constant were carried out on a piece of iron with known temperature. There is fairly good agreement between the results of this pyrometer method and temperature measurements with a thermocouple.

  4. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 48, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1999 55 Identification and Measurement of Fibers

    E-print Network

    Azimi-Sadjadi, Mahmood R.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 48, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 1999 55 Identification and Measurement of Fibers in Scanning Electron Microscopy Images Using a High-Order Correlation- surement technology. I. INTRODUCTION DIVERSE environmental, clinical, and quality assurance problems

  5. Temperature Coefficient of the Modulus of Rigidity of Aircraft Instrument Diaphragm and Spring Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Melton, E R

    1931-01-01

    Experimental data are presented on the variation of the modulus of rigidity in the temperature range -20 to +50 degrees C. of a number of metals which are of possible use for elastic elements for aircraft and other instruments. The methods of the torsional pendulum was used to determine the modulus of rigidity and its temperature coefficient for aluminum, duralumin, monel metal, brass, phosphor bronze, coin silver, nickel silver, three high carbon steels, and three alloy steels. It was observed that tensile stress affected the values of the modulus by amounts of 1 per cent or less.

  6. An electronic instrument for direct-reading indication of thermocouple temperature

    E-print Network

    Hartung, Robert Leonard

    1954-01-01

    AN ELECTRONIC INSTRVNENT FOR DIRECT-READING INDICATION OF THERNOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE A Thesis Robert Leonard Hartung Approved as to style and content by: . ~c i4- a~rman o omaottee a ea o epartment o ectr ea ng neer ng August 3, 95/ LIST...!@ay ll AlN OOLLEGE OE TEXAS AN ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT FOR DIRECT-READING INDICATION OF THERNOCOUPLE TEMPERATURE A Thesis Robert Leonard Hartung Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agriculture and Xechanical College of Texas in partial...

  7. Electro optical system to measure strains at high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    1991-01-01

    The measurement of strains at temperatures of the order of 1000 C has become a very important field of research. Technological advances in areas such as the analysis of high speed aircraft structures and high efficiency thermal engines require operational temperatures of this order of magnitude. Current techniques for the measurement of strains, such as electrical strain gages, are at the limit of their useful range and new methods need to be developed. Optical techniques are very attractive in this type of application because of their noncontacting nature. Holography is of particular interest because a minimal preparation of the surfaces is required. Optoelectronics holography is specially suited for this type of application, from the point of view of industrial use. There are a number of technical problems that need to be overcome to measure strains using holographic interferometry at high temperatures. Some of these problems are discussed, and solutions are given. A specimen instrumented with high temperature strains gages is used to compare the results of both technologies.

  8. Design, calibration and error analysis of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, C. R.; Tree, D. R.; Dewitt, D. P.; Wahiduzzaman, S. A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the methodology and uncertainty analyses of instrumentation for heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. Results are presented for determining the local wall heat flux in an internal combustion engine (using a surface thermocouple-type heat flux gage) and the apparent flame-temperature and soot volume fraction path length product in a diesel engine (using two-color pyrometry). It is shown that a surface thermocouple heat transfer gage suitably constructed and calibrated will have an accuracy of 5 to 10 percent. It is also shown that, when applying two-color pyrometry to measure the apparent flame temperature and soot volume fraction-path length, it is important to choose at least one of the two wavelengths to lie in the range of 1.3 to 2.3 micrometers. Carefully calibrated two-color pyrometer can ensure that random errors in the apparent flame temperature and in the soot volume fraction path length will remain small (within about 1 percent and 10-percent, respectively).

  9. Calibration of the geometrical characteristics of areal surface topography measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusca, C. L.; Leach, R. K.; Helery, F.; Gutauskas, T.

    2011-08-01

    The use of areal surface topography measuring instruments has increased significantly over the past ten years as industry starts to embrace the use of surface structuring to affect the function of a component. This has led to a range of areal surface topography measuring instruments being developed and becoming available commercially. For such instruments to be used as part of quality control during production, it is essential for them to be calibrated according to international standards. The ISO 25178 suite of specification standards on areal surface topography measurement presents a series of tests that can be used to calibrate the metrological characteristics of an areal surface topography measuring instrument. Calibration artefacts and test procedures have been developed that are compliant with ISO 25178. The material measures include crossed gratings, resolution artefacts and pseudorandom surfaces. Traceability is achieved through the NPL Areal Instrument - a primary stylus-based instrument that uses laser interferometers to measure the displacement of the stylus tip. Good practice guides on areal calibration have also been drafted for stylus instruments, coherence scanning interferometers, scanning confocal microscopes and focus variation instruments.

  10. Neutral thermospheric temperature from ion concentration measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breig, E. L.; Donaldson, J. S.; Hanson, W. B.; Hoffman, J. H.; Power, R. A.; Kayser, D. C.; Spencer, N. W.; Wharton, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for extracting information on neutral temperature from in situ F region measurements of O(+) and H(+) ion concentrations is analyzed and evaluated. Advantage is taken of the condition of charge-exchange equilibrium of these species in the neighborhood of 320 km to infer the associated relative abundances of neutral oxygen and hydrogen. Results are shown to be generally consistent with other concurrent in situ measurements.

  11. A new device for high precision in situ sediment temperature profile measurements at the seafloor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feseker, T.; Wetzel, G.; Heesemann, B.

    2012-04-01

    In situ sediment temperature profile measurements at the seafloor provide valuable information on fluid seepage, hydrate stability, and ambient temperature of samples. In addition, it can be convenient to approximate other parameters such as concentrations of porewater constituents from temperature or temperature gradient using transfer functions if their distribution is controlled by the same processes and direct quantification involves time-consuming sampling and laboratory analyses. We present a new instrument that can be used to obtain precisely positioned sediment temperature profile measurements from the seafloor during ROV dives. Consisting of a 0.4 m-long sensor rod equipped with eight temperature sensors and a standard data logger, the new T-Stick can be operated by an ROV in a fully autonomous mode. The temperature range of the instrument is -5 °C to 35 °C and it can withstand pressures of up to 600 bar. Compared to previously used instruments, the smaller diameter of the new T-Stick reduces the thermal inertia of the lance and results in shorter equilibration times. Virtual measurements generated by a numerical model showed that the T-Stick provides highly accurate temperature profile measurements with a root mean square error of 0.0027 K for a wide range of thermal sediment properties. Modeled temperature gradients are representative of both normal deep sea settings and cold seep environments with elevated temperature gradients of up to three orders of magnitude above normal background values, which are the primary target areas for T-Stick measurements. Deviations from the true in situ temperature profiles are caused by disturbance of the temperature field by the probe itself and may lead to underestimation of gradients and curvature in the profiles. A first field test of the T-Stick was conducted at the Håkon Mosby mud volcano at 1250 m water depth on the Barents Sea slope, where the new instrument provided useful information about the origin and extent of freshly erupted mud.

  12. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Plodinec

    2001-04-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU), in accordance with Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40395, will undertake four tasks for DOE EM during the period April 1, 2000 through March 31, 2001. (1) Characterization of Heavy Metals, Radionuclides and Organics in Heterogeneous Media; (2) Environmental Control Device Testing; (3) Waste Treatment and D&D Support: Process Monitoring and Control; and (4) Diagnostic Field Applications Coordination and Testing Support (DFACTS).

  13. Instrumentation for localized measurements in two-phase flow conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Neff; R. H. Averill; S. W. Shurts

    1979-01-01

    Three types of instrumentation that have been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and its predecessor, Aerojet Nuclear company, at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to investigate two-phase flow phenomenon in a nuclear reactor at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility are discussed: (a) a combination drag disc-turbine transducer (DTT), (b) a multibeam nuclear hardened gamma densitometer system, and (c)

  14. Azimuthal Signature of Coincidental Brightness Temperature and Normalized Radar Cross-Section Obtained Using Airborne PALS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Kim, Seungbum; Yueh, Simon; Cosh, Mike; Jackson, Tom; Njoku, Eni

    2010-01-01

    Coincidental airborne brightness temperature (TB) and normalized radar-cross section (NRCS) measurements were carried out with the PALS (Passive and Active L- and S-band) instrument in the SMAPVEX08 (SMAP Validation Experiment 2008) field campaign. This paper describes results obtained from a set of flights which measured a field in 45(sup o) steps over the azimuth angle. The field contained mature soy beans with distinct row structure. The measurement shows that both TB and NRCS experience modulation effects over the azimuth as expected based on the theory. The result is useful in development and validation of land surface parameter forward models and retrieval algorithms, such as the soil moisture algorithm for NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) mission. Although the footprint of the SMAP will not be sensitive to the small resolution scale effects as the one presented in this paper, it is nevertheless important to understand the effects at smaller scale.

  15. Post-Shock Temperature Measurements of Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Seifter, A.; Furlanetto, M. R.; Payton, J. R.; Obst, A. W. [University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Physics Division, P-23, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Stewart, S. T.; Kennedy, G. B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-28

    Post-shock temperature is an important quantity in shock physics experiments for constraining the dynamic equations of state of materials. A high-speed, infrared, multi-wavelength pyrometer has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for measurements in the temperature range from 400 to 1200 K. With customized front end optics, permitting concurrent VISAR measurements in the same optical path, validation experiments on aluminum have been conducted at the new Shock Compression Laboratory at Harvard University. Under <1 millitorr vacuum, a post-shock temperature of 495 K {+-} 30 K was recorded from a polished free surface of aluminum 2024-T4 subject to a peak shock pressure of 34.8{+-}0.8 GPa, in excellent agreement with the equation of state and previous experiments.

  16. Ultrasonic probes for high temperature immersion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, A.-U.; Jen, C.-K.; Ihara, I.

    2001-03-01

    Ultrasonic probes for high temperature measurements in immersion are presented. These probes consist of piezoelectric transducers and buffer rods, and may be operated in the pulse echo mode. The probes can operate to temperatures as high as 215 °C without requiring a cooling system. For imaging purposes, one end of the clad buffer rod is machined into a semi-spherical concave shape, of which the purpose is to focus the ultrasound. The operating frequency is between 5 and 9 MHz. Ultrasonic images, produced using a mechanical raster scan with the probes fully immersed in silicone oil at elevated temperatures, are presented. The importance of the signal-to-noise ratio in the pulse-echo measurement is discussed.

  17. IR temperature measurements in microwave heating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Cuccurullo; P. G. Berardi; R. Carfagna; V. Pierro

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a technique for the evaluation of the dielectric constant of a sample placed inside a microwave oven and confined in a cylindrical box is proposed. The box acts as a waveguide so that a simple model for the propagating wave can be assumed. Since traditional techniques for temperature measurements cannot be applied in microwave heating, the IR

  18. NEUTRON FLUX MEASUREMENT AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gray

    1960-01-01

    The problems of neutron flux measurements in hightemperature, low-flux ; (zero-energy) reactors are discussed. Because of the low flux, the detectors ; must operate closer to the core than in power reactors and hence must withstand ; higher temperatures for long periods of time. Gas ionization detectors are ; chosen as being the only type practicable under the acove conditions,

  19. Dynamic gas temperature measurement system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, D. L.; Robinson, W. W.; Watkins, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    A gas temperature measurement system with compensated frequency response of 1 kHz and capability to operate in the exhaust of a gas turbine engine combustor was developed. A review of available technologies which could attain this objective was done. The most promising method was identified as a two wire thermocouple, with a compensation method based on the responses of the two different diameter thermocouples to the fluctuating gas temperature field. In a detailed design of the probe, transient conduction effects were identified as significant. A compensation scheme was derived to include the effects of gas convection and wire conduction. The two wire thermocouple concept was tested in a laboratory burner exhaust to temperatures of about 3000 F and in a gas turbine engine to combustor exhaust temperatures of about 2400 F. Uncompensated and compensated waveforms and compensation spectra are presented.

  20. Ultra Low Temperature Ultra Low Power Instrument Packages for Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Yeh, P. S.; Cooper, L.; Feng, S.; Young, E.

    2010-01-01

    Achievement of solar system exploration roadmap goals will involve robotic or human deployment and longterm operation of surface science packages remote from human presence, thus requiring autonomous, self-powered operation. The major challenge such packages face will be operating during long periods of darkness in extreme cold potentially without the Pu238 based power and thermal systems available to Apollo era packages (ALSEP). Development of such science payloads will thus require considerable optimization of instrument and subsystem design, packaging and integration for a variety of planetary surface environments in order to support solar system exploration fully. Our work supports this process through the incorporation of low temperature operational components and design strategies which radically minimize power, mass, and cost while maximizing the performance under extreme surface conditions that are in many cases more demanding than those routinely experienced by spacecraft in deep space. Chief instruments/instrument package candidates include those which could provide long-term monitoring of the surface and subsurface environments for fundamental science and human crew safety. The initial attempt to design a 10 instrument environmental monitoring package with a solar/battery based power system led to a package with a unacceptably large mass (500 kg) of which over half was battery mass. In phase 1, a factor of 5 reduction in mass was achieved, first through the introduction of high performance electronics capable of operating at far lower temperature and then through the use of innovative thermal balance strategies involving the use of multi-layer thin materials and gravity-assisted heat pipes. In phase 2, reported here, involves strategies such as universal incorporation of ULT/ULP digital and analog electronics, and distributed or non-conventionally packaged power systems. These strategies will be required to meet the far more challenging thermal requirements of operating through a normal 28 day diurnal cycle. The limited temperature range of efficient battery operation remains the largest obstacle.

  1. Ultra Low Temperature Ultra Low Power Instrument Packages for Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Yeh, P. S.; Cooper, L.; Feng, S.; Young, E.

    2010-01-01

    Achievement of solar system exploration roadmap goals will involve robotic or human deployment and long-term operation of surface science packages remote from human presence, thus requiring autonomous, self-powered operation. The major challenge such packages face will be operating during long periods of darkness in extreme cold potentially without the Pu238 based power and thermal systems available to Apollo era packages (ALSEP). Development of such science payloads will thus require considerable optimization of instrument and subsystem design, packaging and integration for a variety of planetary surface environments in order to support solar system exploration fully. Our work supports this process through the incorporation of low temperature operational components and design strategies which radically minimize power, mass, and cost while maximizing the performance under extreme surface conditions that are in many cases more demanding than those routinely experienced by spacecraft in deep space. Chief instruments/instrument package candidates include those which could provide long-term monitoring of the surface and subsurface environments for fundamental science and human crew safety. The initial attempt to design a 10 instrument environmental monitoring package with a solar/battery based power system led to a package with a unacceptably large mass (500 kg) of which over half was battery mass. In phase 1, a factor of 5 reduction in mass was achieved, first through the introduction of high performance electronics capable of operating at far lower temperature and then through the use of innovative thermal balance strategies involving the use of multi-layer thin materials and gravity-assisted heat pipes. In phase 2, reported here, involves strategies such as universal incorporation of ULT/ULP digital and analog electronics, and distributed or non-conventionally packaged power systems. These strategies will be required to meet the far more challenging thermal requirements of operating through a normal 28 day diurnal cycle. The limited temperature range of efficient battery operation remains the largest obstacle.

  2. Long-Term Instrumental and Reconstructed Temperature Records Contradict Anthropogenic Global Warming

    E-print Network

    Horst-Joachim Lüdecke

    2011-10-09

    Monthly instrumental temperature records from 5 stations in the northern hemisphere are analyzed, each of which is local and over 200 years in length, as well as two reconstructed long-range yearly records - from a stalagmite and from tree rings that are about 2000 years long. In the instrumental records, the steepest 100-year temperature fall happened in the 19th century and the steepest rise in the 20th century, both events being of about the same magnitude. Evaluation by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) yields Hurst exponents that are in good agreement with the literature. DFA, Monte Carlo simulations, and synthetic records reveal that both 100-year events were caused by external trends. In contrast to this, the reconstructed records show stronger 100-year rises and falls as quite common during the last 2000 years. These results contradict the hypothesis of an unusual (anthropogenic) global warming during the 20th century. As a hypothesis, the sun's magnetic field, which is correlated with sunspot numbers, is put forward as an explanation. The long-term low-frequency fluctuations in sunspot numbers are not detectable by the DFA in the monthly instrumental records, resulting in the common low Hurst exponents. The same does not hold true for the 2000-year-long reconstructed records, which explains both their higher Hurst exponents and the higher probabilities of strong 100-year temperature fluctuations. A long-term synthetic record that embodies the reconstructed sunspot number fluctuations includes the different Hurst exponents of both the instrumental and the reconstructed records and, therefore, corroborates the conjecture.

  3. Time-series Temperature Measurement on Regions of Interest during Stir-fry Cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Mitsuru; Akasaka, Rie; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    In cookery science, it is already known that the application of heat contributes flavors, which improve palatability. Instruments for measuring temperature include a thermocouple. However, they cannot measure a temperature difference during cooking because of cook's motions. Therefore, we suggest a non-contact temperature measuring system by using a unit constituted by a visible and an infrared thermographic camera. In this study, we focus on the time-series temperature of a pan and of ingredients inside the pan in order to analyze quantitatively stir-fry cooking techniques.

  4. Development of an Instrument to Measure Undergraduates' Nanotechnology Awareness, Exposure, Motivation, and Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyehouse, Melissa A.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Bennett, Deborah E.; Imbrie, P. K.

    2008-10-01

    There are many educational interventions being implemented to address workforce issues in the field of nanotechnology. However, there is no instrument to assess the impact of these interventions on student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. To address this need, the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument was conceptualized. This paper is a progress report of the instrument development process. Version 1 of the instrument was administered to 335 first-year students majoring in food and agriculture fields in a pre-post fashion relative to a brief exposure to nanotechnology in the classroom. Following item analysis of Version 1 responses, a revision of the instrument was completed. Version 2 was administered to 1,426 first-year engineering students for the purpose of conducting item and factor analyses. Results indicate that the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument shows potential to provide valid information about student awareness of, exposure to, and motivation for nanotechnology. The instrument is not a valid measure of nano-knowledge and this subscale was dropped from the final version of the instrument. Implications include the use of the instrument to evaluate programs, interventions, or courses that attempt to increase student awareness of nanotechnology. Further study is necessary to determine how the Nanotechnology Awareness Instrument functions as a pre-post measure.

  5. Measuring surface vibrations of musical instruments using an inexpensive digital holography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoli, Nazif; Demoli, Ivan

    2005-09-01

    A new device for measuring surface vibrations of musical instruments is presented. The architecture of the device is based on a quasi-Fourier digital holography setup with inexpensive commercial elements capable of recording large digital holograms. Experimental results showing vibration modes for several musical instruments are given. The results demonstrate fringe pattern quality as well as the testing possibilities in tuning the musical instruments.

  6. Determination of the metrological characteristics of optical surface topography measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, R. K.; Giusca, C. L.

    2012-04-01

    The use of optical areal surface topography measuring instruments has increased significantly over the past ten years as industry starts to embrace the use of surface structuring to affect the function of a component. This has led to a range of optical areal surface topography measuring instruments being developed and becoming available commercially. For such instruments to be used as part of quality control during production, it is essential for them to be calibrated according to international standards. The ISO 25178 suite of specification standards on areal surface texture measurement presents a series of tests that can be used to calibrate the metrological characteristics of an areal surface texture measuring instrument (both contact and optical). Calibration artefacts and test procedures have been developed that are compliant with ISO 25178. The artefacts include crossed gratings, resolution artefacts and pseudo-random surfaces. Traceability is achieved through the NPL Areal Instrument - a primary stylus-based instrument that uses laser interferometers to measure the deflection of the stylus tip. Good practice guides on areal calibration have also been drafted for stylus instruments, coherence scanning interferometers, scanning confocal microscopes and focus variation instruments.

  7. Gene Expression Measurement Module (GEMM) - A Fully Automated, Miniaturized Instrument for Measuring Gene Expression in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Peyvan, Kia; Karouia, Fathi; Ricco, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The capability to measure gene expression on board spacecraft opens the door to a large number of high-value experiments on the influence of the space environment on biological systems. For example, measurements of gene expression will help us to understand adaptation of terrestrial life to conditions beyond the planet of origin, identify deleterious effects of the space environment on a wide range of organisms from microbes to humans, develop effective countermeasures against these effects, and determine the metabolic bases of microbial pathogenicity and drug resistance. These and other applications hold significant potential for discoveries in space biology, biotechnology, and medicine. Supported by funding from the NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development Program, we are developing a fully automated, miniaturized, integrated fluidic system for small spacecraft capable of in-situ measurement of expression of several hundreds of microbial genes from multiple samples. The instrument will be capable of (1) lysing cell walls of bacteria sampled from cultures grown in space, (2) extracting and purifying RNA released from cells, (3) hybridizing the RNA on a microarray and (4) providing readout of the microarray signal, all in a single microfluidics cartridge. The device is suitable for deployment on nanosatellite platforms developed by NASA Ames' Small Spacecraft Division. To meet space and other technical constraints imposed by these platforms, a number of technical innovations are being implemented. The integration and end-to-end technological and biological validation of the instrument are carried out using as a model the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus, known for its remarkable metabolic diversity and resilience to adverse conditions. Each step in the measurement process-lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification, and hybridization to an array-is assessed through comparison of the results obtained using the instrument with those from standard laboratory protocols. Once developed, the system can be used with minor modifications for multiple experiments on different platforms in space, including extension to higher organisms and microbial monitoring. A proposed version of GEMM that is capable of handling both microbial and tissue samples on the International Space Station will be briefly summarized.

  8. Measurement of the cosmic microwave background spectrum by the COBE FIRAS instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Fixsen, D. J.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Jensen, K. A.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) has a blackbody spectrum within 3.4 x 10(exp -8) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm over the frequency range from 2 to 20/cm (5-0.5 mm). These measurements, derived from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotomer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, imply stringent limits on energy release in the early universe after t approximately 1 year and redshift z approximately 3 x 10(exp 6). The deviations are less than 0.30% of the peak brightness, with an rms value of 0.01%, and the dimensionless cosmological distortion parameters are limited to the absolute value of y is less than 2.5 x 10(exp -5) and the absolute value of mu is less than 3.3 x 10(exp -4) (95% confidence level). The temperature of the CMBR is 2.726 +/- 0.010 K (95% confidence level systematic).

  9. EDITORIAL: The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011) The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Woo

    2012-05-01

    Measurement and instrumentation have long played an important role in production engineering, through supporting both the traditional field of manufacturing and the new field of micro/nanotechnology. Papers published in this special feature were selected and updated from those presented at The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011) held at KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea, on 29 June-2 July 2011. ISMTII 2011 was organized by ICMI (The International Committee on Measurements and Instrumentation), Korean Society for Precision Engineering (KSPE), Japan Society for Precision Engineering (JSPE), Chinese Society for Measurement (CSM) and KAIST. The Symposium was also supported by the Korea BK21 Valufacture Institute of Mechanical Engineering at KAIST. A total of 225 papers, including four keynote papers, were presented at ISMTII 2011, covering a wide range of topics, including micro/nanometrology, precision measurement, online & in-process measurement, surface metrology, optical metrology & image processing, biomeasurement, sensor technology, intelligent measurement & instrumentation, uncertainty, traceability & calibration, and signal processing algorithms. The organizing members recommended publication of updated versions of some of the best ISMTII 2011 papers in this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology. As guest editor, I believe that this special feature presents the newest information on advances in measurement technology and intelligent instruments from basic research to applied systems for production engineering. I would like to thank all the authors for their great contributions to this special feature and the referees for their careful reviews of the papers. I would also like to express our thanks and appreciation to the publishing staff of MST for their dedicated efforts that have made this special feature possible.

  10. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, K.; McCoy, C. A.; Fryer, C. L.; Greeff, C. W.; Hungerford, A. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Sheppard, D. G.; Williams, J. R.; Boehly, T. R.; Benage, J. F.

    2014-09-01

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO2) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1-15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding to shock pressures of 0.3-2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. Simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements.

  11. A New Automatic System for Angular Measurement and Calibration in Radiometric Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements. PMID:22319320

  12. Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity by a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Morgenstjerne, Axel; Rathmann, Ole

    1996-10-01

    Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single measurement at a known sample temperature, for example, at ambient temperature. The temperature of the sample surface can be measured rather easily at ambient temperature. The spectrum at ambient temperature is used to eliminate background effects from spectra as measured at other surface temperatures. The temperatures of the sample are found in a single calculation from the measured spectra independently of the response function of the instrument and the emissivity of the sample. The spectral emissivity of a sample can be measured if the instrument is calibrated against a blackbody source. Temperatures of blackbody sources are estimated with an uncertainty of 0.2-2 K. The method is demonstrated for measuring the spectral emissivity of a brass specimen and an oxidized nickel specimen.

  13. Attachment of Free Filament Thermocouples for Temperature Measurements on CMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Cuy, Michael D.; Wnuk, Stephen P.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) are being developed for use as enabling materials for advanced aeropropulsion engine and high speed civil transport applications. The characterization and testing of these advanced materials in hostile, high-temperature environments require accurate measurement of the material temperatures. Commonly used wire Thermo-Couples (TC) can not be attached to this ceramic based material via conventional spot-welding techniques. Attachment of wire TC's with commercially available ceramic cements fail to provide sufficient adhesion at high temperatures. While advanced thin film TC technology provides minimally intrusive surface temperature measurement and has good adhesion on the CMC, its fabrication requires sophisticated and expensive facilities and is very time consuming. In addition, the durability of lead wire attachments to both thin film TC's and the substrate materials requires further improvement. This paper presents a newly developed attachment technique for installation of free filament wire TC's with a unique convoluted design on ceramic based materials such as CMC's. Three CMC's (SiC/SiC CMC and alumina/alumina CMC) instrumented with type IC, R or S wire TC's were tested in a Mach 0.3 burner rig. The CMC temperatures measured from these wire TC's were compared to that from the facility pyrometer and thin film TC's. There was no sign of TC delamination even after several hours exposure to 1200 C. The test results proved that this new technique can successfully attach wire TC's on CMC's and provide temperature data in hostile environments. The sensor fabrication process is less expensive and requires very little time compared to that of the thin film TC's. The same installation technique/process can also be applied to attach lead wires for thin film sensor systems.

  14. Measuring Thermal Conductivity at LH2 Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvidge, Shawn; Watwood, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) produced reference materials for materials testing. One such reference material was intended for use with a guarded hot plate apparatus designed to meet the requirements of ASTM C177-97, "Standard Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus." This apparatus can be used to test materials in various gaseous environments from atmospheric pressure to a vacuum. It allows the thermal transmission properties of insulating materials to be measured from just above ambient temperature down to temperatures below liquid hydrogen. However, NIST did not generate data below 77 K temperature for the reference material in question. This paper describes a test method used at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to optimize thermal conductivity measurements during the development of thermal protection systems. The test method extends the usability range of this reference material by generating data at temperatures lower than 77 K. Information provided by this test is discussed, as are the capabilities of the MSFC Hydrogen Test Facility, where advanced methods for materials testing are routinely developed and optimized in support of aerospace applications.

  15. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  16. Temperature measurement on and inside lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, Bo

    1994-03-01

    The use of thermography within the lamp manufacturing industry can improve the quality of many types of lamps ranging from normal incandescent lamps to highly specialized lamps for sports arenas, airports or small lamps for cars. There is a strong demand for more light for the same energy input. Specialized lamps for all possible purposes are developed. But it also forces the lamp manufacturers to utilize the available materials to their extremes. The exact control of the temperatures inside or on the lamp shell has therefore become increasingly necessary as temperatures in lamps can be rather extreme. In plasma lamps for example, the plasma can have a temperature of 6000 C, the bulb around 700 C and the electrodes inside the bulb can have temperatures in excess of 2000 C. Thermographic methods have shown their applicability for a large number of measurement cases. Some of these methods and measurement cases are described. As these applications put very special demands on the measurement equipment, these demands are explained in more detail.

  17. High temperature Faraday balance for in situ measurement of magnetization in transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskar, D.; Adler, S. B.

    2007-02-01

    We report the design of a Faraday balance that can be used to measure the magnetization of transition metal oxides at high temperatures and under controlled atmosphere. The instrument is sufficiently sensitive and stable to quantify the magnetic force on diamagnetic and paramagnetic samples at temperatures up to 1000°C and in oxygen partial pressures as low as 100ppm. We demonstrate the performance of the instrument by presenting preliminary magnetic measurements of lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide (La1-xSrxCoO3-?) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3).

  18. Study of two assessment methods for multi-parameter measurement instrument precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiao-fang; Liu, Si-feng

    2008-10-01

    How to comprehensively assess precision of the Multi-parameter measurement instruments is becoming a hot research topic in academy. In this paper, the precision of the multi-parameter measurement instruments is assessed using the methods of MTS (Mahalanobis-Taguchi System) and grey incidence degree analysis through practice case study. The study illustrates that both methods are applicable in the assessment of the Multi-parameter measurement instrument precision. Through the comparison and contrast analysis, this paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods, which provides good references or guidelines to properly apply the methods under different situations.

  19. Physical Activity Measurement Instruments for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Rotor, Esmerita R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper is a systematic review of physical activity measurement instruments for field-based studies involving children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Database searches using PubMed Central, MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and PEDro located 12 research papers, identifying seven instruments that met the inclusion…

  20. Developing and validating an instrument for measuring user-perceived web quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel M. Aladwani; Prashant C. Palvia

    2002-01-01

    Many of the instruments to measure information and system quality were developed in the context of mainframe and PC-based technologies of yesteryears. With the proliferation of the Internet and World Wide Web applications, users are increasingly interfacing and interacting with web-based applications. It is, therefore, important to develop new instruments and scales, which are directly targeted to these new interfaces

  1. Readiness and Expectations Questionnaire: A Cross-Cultural Measurement Instrument for First-Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Ellen; Andre, Stefanie; Suhre, Cor

    2013-01-01

    The readiness and expectations questionnaire (REQ) assesses first-year students' expectations and preparedness for their first year in university. This measurement instrument is useful for educational policy and curriculum development; it can also be used to predict the outcomes of the first year of college. This instrument was initially developed…

  2. Measuring surface vibrations of musical instruments using an inexpensive digital holography device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazif Demoli; Ivan Demoli

    2005-01-01

    A new device for measuring surface vibrations of musical instruments is presented. The architecture of the device is based on a quasi-Fourier digital holography setup with inexpensive commercial elements capable of recording large digital holograms. Experimental results showing vibration modes for several musical instruments are given. The results demonstrate fringe pattern quality as well as the testing possibilities in tuning

  3. Instrumentation for the surface measurements of atmospheric electrical parameters at Maitri, Antarctica: First results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Panneerselvam; C. P. Anil Kumar; Ajay Dhar; K. U. Nair; C. Selvaraj; S. Gurubaran; B. M. Pathan

    2010-01-01

    We are operating atmospheric electrical instruments like long wire antenna, electric field meter, wire antenna and passive antenna for atmospheric Maxwell current, electric field, conduction current and atmospheric potential gradient. This year (December 2008) we have installed Electric Field Meter (EFM-100) and wire antenna for measuring the atmospheric electric field and conduction current. This instrument is deployed at Maitri, Antarctica

  4. Instrument for underwater high-angular resolution volume scattering function measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Dueweke; Jay Bolstad; Donald A. Leonard; Harold E. Sweeney; Philip A. Boyer; Erik M. Winkler

    1997-01-01

    A prototype instrument for in situ measurements of the volume scattering function (VSF) and the beam attenuation of water has been built and tested in the EOO laboratory. The intended application of the instrument is the enhancement of Navy operational optical systems for finding and imaging underwater objects such as mines. A description of the apparatus that was built and

  5. Developing an Instrument to Measure School Community Engagement with Implementation of Information Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiani, Candace Wexler

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable survey instrument to be used by librarians and other educational leaders to measure implementation of a school's information literacy program. The goal was to create an instrument that would consider implementation of a library-centered program within the context and culture of the…

  6. Developing a Forced-Choice Measure of Conflict-Handling Behavior: The "Mode" Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Ralph H.; Thomas, Kenneth W.

    1977-01-01

    The rationale and development of a new measure of five methods of handling interpersonal conflict (competing, collaborating, compromising, avoiding, and accomodating), which attempts to control for the social desirability response bias is described. The instrument--the Management of Differences Exercise, or the MODE instrument--is briefly compared…

  7. Reliability of the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument with University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Michael L.; Sadler, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    The Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument was initially designed to assess high school biology teachers' acceptance of evolutionary theory. To determine if the MATE instrument is reliable with university students, it was administered to students in a non-majors biology course (n = 61) twice over a 3-week period.…

  8. Designing Chemistry Practice Exams for Enhanced Benefits: An Instrument for Comparing Performance and Mental Effort Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Karen J.; Murphy, Kristen L.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The design and use of a chemistry practice exam instrument that includes a measure for student mental effort is described in this paper. Use of such an instrument can beneficial to chemistry students and chemistry educators as well as chemical education researchers from both a content and cognitive science perspective. The method for calculating…

  9. Auralization of a virtual orchestra using directivities of measured symphonic instruments

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Auralization of a virtual orchestra using directivities of measured symphonic instruments S. Pelzer. For a lively and natural virtual representation of real sound sources, it is important to include auralization of a full orchestra, the radiation patterns of symphonic instruments were captured using

  10. The BEAR program NRL plasma physics instrumentation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.N.; Baumback, M.M.; Haas, D.G.; Rodriguez, P.; Siefring, C.L.; Doggett, R.A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-11-15

    The BEAR program was a joint effort to launch, and demonstrate the feasibility of operating, a 1 MeV 10 ma Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) accelerator from a space platform. The accelerator design and manufacture were the responsibility of Los Alamos National Lab (LANL); diagnostics associated with accelerator operation and beam-plasma effects were also to be undertaken by LANL and NRL. Payload Integration and Telemetry was provided by the Air Force Geophysical Lab (AFGL) and Northeastern University (NEU). Beam effects on the local plasma in addition to accelerator produced vehicle effects (e.g., charging) were the responsibility of NRL as outlined herein. The BEAR rocket was launched successfully during the early morning hours of July 13 from White Sands Missile Range, White Sands, N.M. The NRL contribution to this effort included three instrument packages designed to diagnose beam-plasma and vehicle-plasma interactions. The instruments included: (1) Langmuir probe (LP) design consisting of 4 separate sensors; (2) High voltage (HIV) Langmuir Probe designed to monitor vehicle charging through current polarity changes; and (3) Plasma Wave Receive (PWR) designed to characterize the plasma wave emissions covering a broad frequency range from near DC to 50 MHz.

  11. INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT, MEASUREMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-12-31

    Many DOE applications would significantly benefit from the availability of robust and convenient instrumentation for trace-level actinide monitoring and analysis. This project focuses on developing new instrumentation for on-line or at-line monitoring for actinides with isotopic analysis capability. In addition, analytical protocols for a novel concentration method for actinides are being investigated. These efforts focus on demonstrating these techniques using uranium. In addition to its value in the analytical laboratory, the combination of a simple concentration technique with a robust isotopic monitor could provide a powerful method for addressing a number of outstanding DOE needs. Potential applications include monitors for waste water and sewage treatment systems influent and effluent, and the ability to determine the isotopic content of transuranic species in low-activity waste fractions for waste classification and product acceptance. For example, the need for improved monitoring for uranium, plutonium, and americium in treatment plant influent is clearly identified in need RF-ER11. With some additional sample pretreatment, such technology could also impact materials characterization needs by providing on-site isotopic analyses in a system that is smaller and significantly less complex than inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

  12. A Multi-Instrument Measurement of a Mesospheric Bore at the Equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiokawa, K.; Suzuki, S.; Otsuka, Y.; Ogawa, T.; Nakamura, T.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M., III

    2005-01-01

    We have made a comprehensive measurement of mesospheric bore phenomenon at the equator at Kototabang, Indonesia (0.2 deg S, 100.3 deg E), using an airglow imager, an airglow temperature photometer, a meteor radar, and the SABER instrument on board the TIMED satellite. The bore was detected in airglow images of both OH-band (peak emission altitude: 87 km) and 557.7-nm (96 km) emissions, as east-west front-like structure propagating northward with a velocity of 52-58 m/s. Wave trains with a horizontal wavelength of 30-70 km are observed behind the bore front. The airglow intensity decreases for all the mesospheric emissions of OI (557.7 nm), OH-band, O2-band (altitude: 94 km), and Na (589.3 nm) (90 km) after the bore passage. The rotational temperatures of both OH-band and O2-band also decrease approximately 10 K after the bore passage. An intense shear in northward wind velocity of 80m/s was observed at altitudes of 84-90 km by the meteor radar. Kinetic temperature profile at altitudes of 20-120 km was observed near Kototabang by TIMED/SABER. On the basis of these observations, we discuss generation and ducting of the observed mesospheric bore.

  13. The Rover Environmental Monitoring Station Ground Temperature Sensor: A Pyrometer for Measuring Ground Temperature on Mars

    PubMed Central

    Sebastián, Eduardo; Armiens, Carlos; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Zorzano, María P.; Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Esteban, Blanca; Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We describe the parameters that drive the design and modeling of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS), an instrument aboard NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory, and report preliminary test results. REMS GTS is a lightweight, low-power, and low cost pyrometer for measuring the Martian surface kinematic temperature. The sensor’s main feature is its innovative design, based on a simple mechanical structure with no moving parts. It includes an in-flight calibration system that permits sensor recalibration when sensor sensitivity has been degraded by deposition of dust over the optics. This paper provides the first results of a GTS engineering model working in a Martian-like, extreme environment. PMID:22163405

  14. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...and contents of tanks and other storage containers, and scales and measuring devices for weighing and measuring...5552)) (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1512-0298) [T.D....

  15. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...and contents of tanks and other storage containers, and scales and measuring devices for weighing and measuring...5552)) (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1512-0298) [T.D....

  16. Measuring nicotine dependence among youth: a review of available approaches and instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne M. Colby; Stephen T. Tiffany; Saul Shiffman; Raymond S. Niaura

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews issues and concepts related to the measurement of nicotine dependence among youth. The primary objectives of this review are to: (1) review the measures of nicotine dependence currently being used; and (2) delineate a future research agenda in an attempt to advance the quality of measurement and instrumentation for this important research endeavor. Existing measures of nicotine

  17. A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Alan T.; Karam, Hanan N.; Mulligan, Ann E.; Harvey, Charles F.; Hammar, Terence R.; Hemond, Harold F.

    2009-01-01

    An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry system provides data on shore in real time if desired. The immediate purpose of measurements by this device is to continuously infer fluxes of water across the sediment-water interface in a complex estuarine system; however, direct application to assessment of sediment-water fluxes in rivers, lakes, and other systems is also possible. Key objectives of the design include both low cost, and accuracy of the order of ±0.5 mm H2O in measured head difference between the instrument's two pressure ports. These objectives have been met, although a revision to the design of one component was found to be necessary. Deployments of up to nine months, and wireless range in excess of 300 m have been demonstrated. PMID:22389608

  18. BOOK REVIEW: Instrumentation & Measurement Pocket Book, Third Edition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Bolton

    2001-01-01

    The book is divided into four parts: `Systems', `System Components', `Measurements' and `Microprocessor Based Systems'.The first part of the book introduces Measurement Systems, Performance Terminology, Errors, Dynamic Characteristics, Loading Effects, Noise and Reliability.The `Measurement Systems' subsection is not sufficiently concise, as only a small number of derived units have been listed. The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been publishing posters

  19. Digital Measurement of Angular Velocity for Instrumentation and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin D. diCenzo; Barna Szabados; Naresh K. Sinha

    1976-01-01

    A new approach to digital measurements of angular velocity for control applications is discussed. An optical transducer is described which provides a pulse rate. The pulse period is measured and the division of time is achieved by either a general purpose or a special purpose processor. Since sampling intervals are small, measurements are available in digital form almost immediately. Other

  20. Development and testing of the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS) cm and mm wavelength occultation instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Stovern, M.; Otarola, A. C.; Young, A.; Wheelwright, B.; Stickney, R.; Albanna, S.; Duffy, B.; Groppi, C.; Hainsworth, J.

    2011-07-01

    We present initial results from testing a new remote sensing system called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). ATOMMS is designed as a satellite to satellite occultation system for monitoring climate. We are developing the prototype instrument for an aircraft to aircraft occultation demonstration. Here we focus on field testing of the ATOMMS instrument, in particular the remote sensing of water by measuring the attenuation caused by the 22 and 183 GHz water absorption lines. The 183 GHz line spectrum was measured along an 820 m path and compared with two spectroscopic models. This revealed that the AM 6.2 model is a much better match to the observed spectrum than the MPM93 model. These comparisons also indicate the ATOMMS amplitude errors were at the 0.3 % level. Comparisons with a hygrometer showed tracking consistent at the 0.05 mb level which is about 1 % of the absolute humidity. Initial 22 GHz measurements along a 5.4 path between two mountaintops showed the 22 GHz channels tracking a large change in water vapor. Ground truth is much harder to establish.

  1. High temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistance measurement system for thermoelectric materials in the thin disk geometry.

    PubMed

    Böttger, P H Michael; Flage-Larsen, E; Karlsen, O B; Finstad, Terje G

    2012-02-01

    A versatile apparatus to measure the cross-plane Seebeck coefficient and the resistivity of bulk samples shaped as disks or thin plates, over a temperature range of 300 K-620 K with possible extension to higher temperatures, is presented. It is constructed from readily available equipment and instrumentation with parts that are easily manufactured. The Seebeck coefficient is measured over an average region of the sample under steady-state conditions. The sample resistance is measured using a four-point alternating current method and scaled to room temperature measurements with known geometry to calculate resistivity. A variety of sample shapes are supported. Most importantly, the support of the thin disk geometry allows for the very same samples to be used in a laser flash instrument. The design allows for rough vacuum, high vacuum, or purging with inert gases in the sample chamber. Measurements on thermoelectric ZnSb and a Ni reference material are presented. PMID:22380119

  2. A zero-gravity instrument to study low velocity collisions of fragile particles at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Salter, D M; Heisselmann, D; Chaparro, G; van der Wolk, G; Reissaus, P; Borst, A G; Dawson, R W; de Kuyper, E; Drinkwater, G; Gebauer, K; Hutcheon, M; Linnartz, H; Molster, F J; Stoll, B; van der Tuijn, P C; Fraser, H J; Blum, J

    2009-07-01

    We discuss the design, operation, and performance of a vacuum setup constructed for use in zero (or reduced) gravity conditions to initiate collisions of fragile millimeter-sized particles at low velocity and temperature. Such particles are typically found in many astronomical settings and in regions of planet formation. The instrument has participated in four parabolic flight campaigns to date, operating for a total of 2.4 h in reduced-gravity conditions and successfully recording over 300 separate collisions of loosely packed dust aggregates and ice samples. The imparted particle velocities achieved range from 0.03 to 0.28 m s(-1) and a high-speed, high-resolution camera captures the events at 107 frames/s from two viewing angles separated by either 48.8 degrees or 60.0 degrees. The particles can be stored inside the experiment vacuum chamber at temperatures of 80-300 K for several uninterrupted hours using a built-in thermal accumulation system. The copper structure allows cooling down to cryogenic temperatures before commencement of the experiments. Throughout the parabolic flight campaigns, add-ons and modifications have been made, illustrating the instrument flexibility in the study of small particle collisions. PMID:19655969

  3. A zero-gravity instrument to study low velocity collisions of fragile particles at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, D. M.; Heißelmann, D.; Chaparro, G.; van der Wolk, G.; Reißaus, P.; Borst, A. G.; Dawson, R. W.; de Kuyper, E.; Drinkwater, G.; Gebauer, K.; Hutcheon, M.; Linnartz, H.; Molster, F. J.; Stoll, B.; van der Tuijn, P. C.; Fraser, H. J.; Blum, J.

    2009-07-01

    We discuss the design, operation, and performance of a vacuum setup constructed for use in zero (or reduced) gravity conditions to initiate collisions of fragile millimeter-sized particles at low velocity and temperature. Such particles are typically found in many astronomical settings and in regions of planet formation. The instrument has participated in four parabolic flight campaigns to date, operating for a total of 2.4 h in reduced-gravity conditions and successfully recording over 300 separate collisions of loosely packed dust aggregates and ice samples. The imparted particle velocities achieved range from 0.03 to 0.28 m s-1 and a high-speed, high-resolution camera captures the events at 107 frames/s from two viewing angles separated by either 48.8° or 60.0°. The particles can be stored inside the experiment vacuum chamber at temperatures of 80-300 K for several uninterrupted hours using a built-in thermal accumulation system. The copper structure allows cooling down to cryogenic temperatures before commencement of the experiments. Throughout the parabolic flight campaigns, add-ons and modifications have been made, illustrating the instrument flexibility in the study of small particle collisions.

  4. Evidence of a warm early instrumental period found in temperature related water isotope records from high elevation Alpine ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohleber, Pascal; Schöner, Wolfgang; Wagenbach, Dietmar

    2015-04-01

    The variability of water isotopes (delta-O18 or delta-D) preserved in Alpine glacier ice may provide mid-latitude temperature proxy records supplementing respective information from other archives. In order to archive long term records (i.e. exceeding 100 years) the limited glacier depth at suitable Alpine drill sites requires a relatively low net accumulation rate. In this respect, the cold glacier saddle Colle Gnifetti (CG) is the unique drilling site in the European Alps offering ice core records substantially exceeding the instrumental period. However, the unique low net accumulation at CG is characterised by strong spatio-temporal variability causing depositional noise that strongly challenges the interpretation of the ice core isotope records in terms of net temperature change. Here we present our findings from comparing stable water isotope records of the CG multi core array to a site-specific temperature time series. The latter is synthesized from high elevation stations of the instrumental HISTALP network considering among others the temperature shift from the accumulation bias towards growing seasons. Within the last century dedicated time series analysis reveals a common signal in the (supra-) decadal components of the instrumental temperature and isotope records. Extending the comparison over the entire 250 years instrumental period, systematic discrepancies are found within the early instrumental period (EIP). The delta-O18 record shows an overall decreasing trend from 1760 to 1890 AD, which is not reflected in the temperature record. However, using high Alpine summer temperature lacking the latest EIP adjustment, the long-term trends between isotope and instrumental data are in better agreement. The overall mean of the isotope based temperature in the EIP indicates substantially warmer levels than the EIP-corrected instrumental temperature. It differs, however, not significantly with respect to the non-EIP-corrected temperature mean. Although the main reason for the systematic discrepancies within the EIP is not settled, we discuss their implications with respect to performing a calibration of the ice core isotope thermometer against instrumental data over the entire instrumental period. In order to illustrate dating uncertainties and the intricate role of snow deposition, the inter-core isotope comparison is supplemented by impurity time series, including a tentative look at evidence of volcanic eruptions within the EIP. Finally, newest ice core isotope evidence is evaluated in the light of inconsistencies between the multi-decadal temperature variability derived from instrumental and other proxy sources, including the possibility of the EIP-correction of instrumental data being overestimated, at least, with respect to the high Alpine air temperature.

  5. Improved Refractometer for Measuring Temperatures of Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqwi, Amir A.

    2004-01-01

    The Dual Rainbow refractometer is an enhanced version of the Rainbow refractometer, which is added to, and extends the capabilities of, a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A PDPA utilizes pairs of laser beams to measure individual components of velocity and sizes of drops in a spray. The Rainbow-refractometer addition measures the temperatures of individual drops. The designs of prior versions of the Rainbow refractometer have required substantial modifications of PDPA transmitting optics, plus dedicated lasers as sources of illumination separate from, and in addition to, those needed for PDPA measurements. The enhancement embodied in the Dual Rainbow refractometer eliminates the need for a dedicated laser and confers other advantages as described below. A dedicated laser is no longer needed because the Dual Rainbow refractometer utilizes one of the pairs of laser beams already present in a PDPA. Hence, the design of the Dual Rainbow refractometer simplifies the task of upgrading PDPA hardware to enable measurement of temperature. Furthermore, in a PDPA/Dual Rainbow refractometer system, a single argon-ion laser with three main wavelengths can be used to measure the temperatures, sizes, and all three components of velocity (in contradistinction to only two components of velocity in a prior PDPA/Rainbow refractometer system). In order to enable the Dual Rainbow refractometer to utilize a pair of PDPA laser beams, it was necessary to (1) find a location for the refractometer receiver, such that the combined rainbow patterns of two laser beams amount to a pattern identical to that of a single beam, (2) adjust the polarization of the two beams to obtain the strongest rainbow pattern, and (3) find a location for the PDPA receiver to obtain a linear relationship between the measured phase shift and drop size.

  6. Wireless sensor for temperature and humidity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumea, Andrei; Svasta, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Temperature and humidity sensors have a broad range of applications, from heating and ventilation of houses to controlled drying of fruits, vegetables or meat in food industry. Modern sensors are integrated devices, usually MEMS, factory-calibrated and with digital output of measured parameters. They can have power down modes for reduced energy consumption. Such an integrated device allows the implementation of a battery powered wireless sensor when coupled with a low power microcontroller and a radio subsystem. A radio sensor can work independently or together with others in a radio network. Presented paper focuses mainly on measurement and construction aspects of sensors for temperature and humidity designed and implemented by authors; network aspects (communication between two or more sensors) are not analyzed.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of high temperature spectral emissivity measurement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselý, Z.; Honnerová, P.; Martan, J.; Honner, M.

    2015-07-01

    Computer model of temperature distribution in the sample in high temperature spectral emissivity measurement method is introduced. Sensitivity analysis is performed using computer model to determine the effect of various measurement method parameters on the sample temperatures. The effects of measured and reference coating thicknesses, measured coating emissivity and sample surface temperature are analyzed. The utilization of temperature difference between reference coating surface and the interface of reference and measured coatings for total emissivity uncertainty of measured coating is demonstrated.

  8. Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradere, C.; Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Pernot, G.; Palomo, E.; Dilhaire, S.; Batsale, J.-C.

    2014-06-01

    GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient ?, close to 10-3 K-1 versus 10-5 K-1 for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

  9. Thermoreflectance temperature measurement with millimeter wave

    SciTech Connect

    Pradere, C., E-mail: christophe.pradere@ensam.eu; Caumes, J.-P.; BenKhemis, S.; Palomo, E.; Batsale, J.-C. [I2M (Institut de Mécanique et d’Ingénierie de Bordeaux) UMR CNRS 5295, TREFLE Department, Esplanade des Arts et Métiers, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Pernot, G.; Dilhaire, S. [LOMA UMR 5798: CNRS-UB1, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2014-06-15

    GigaHertz (GHz) thermoreflectance technique is developed to measure the transient temperature of metal and semiconductor materials located behind an opaque surface. The principle is based on the synchronous detection, using a commercial THz pyrometer, of a modulated millimeter wave (at 110 GHz) reflected by the sample hidden behind a shield layer. Measurements were performed on aluminum, copper, and silicon bulks hidden by a 5 cm thick Teflon plate. We report the first measurement of the thermoreflectance coefficient which exhibits a value 100 times higher at 2.8 mm radiation than those measured at visible wavelengths for both metallic and semiconductor materials. This giant thermoreflectance coefficient ?, close to 10{sup ?3} K{sup ?1} versus 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for the visible domain, is very promising for future thermoreflectance applications.

  10. Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

  11. NMR measurement of bitumen at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zheng; Hirasaki, George J

    2008-06-01

    Heavy oil (bitumen) is characterized by its high viscosity and density, which is a major obstacle to both well logging and recovery. Due to the lost information of T2 relaxation time shorter than echo spacing (TE) and interference of water signal, estimation of heavy oil properties from NMR T2 measurements is usually problematic. In this work, a new method has been developed to overcome the echo spacing restriction of NMR spectrometer during the application to heavy oil (bitumen). A FID measurement supplemented the start of CPMG. Constrained by its initial magnetization (M0) estimated from the FID and assuming log normal distribution for bitumen, the corrected T2 relaxation time of bitumen sample can be obtained from the interpretation of CPMG data. This new method successfully overcomes the TE restriction of the NMR spectrometer and is nearly independent on the TE applied in the measurement. This method was applied to the measurement at elevated temperatures (8-90 degrees C). Due to the significant signal-loss within the dead time of FID, the directly extrapolated M0 of bitumen at relatively lower temperatures (<60 degrees C) was found to be underestimated. However, resulting from the remarkably lowered viscosity, the extrapolated M0 of bitumen at over 60 degrees C can be reasonably assumed to be the real value. In this manner, based on the extrapolation at higher temperatures (> or = 60 degrees C), the M0 value of bitumen at lower temperatures (<60 degrees C) can be corrected by Curie's Law. Consequently, some important petrophysical properties of bitumen, such as hydrogen index (HI), fluid content and viscosity were evaluated by using corrected T2. PMID:18387325

  12. Unified Instrumentation: Examining the Simultaneous Application of Advanced Measurement Techniques for Increased Wind Tunnel Testing Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Editor); Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Joseph W.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Meyers, James F.; South, Bruce W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2002-01-01

    A Unified Instrumentation Test examining the combined application of Pressure Sensitive Paint, Projection Moire Interferometry, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry, Doppler Global Velocimetry, and Acoustic Microphone Array has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The fundamental purposes of conducting the test were to: (a) identify and solve compatibility issues among the techniques that would inhibit their simultaneous application in a wind tunnel, and (b) demonstrate that simultaneous use of advanced instrumentation techniques is feasible for increasing tunnel efficiency and identifying control surface actuation / aerodynamic reaction phenomena. This paper provides summary descriptions of each measurement technique used during the Unified Instrumentation Test, their implementation for testing in a unified fashion, and example results identifying areas of instrument compatibility and incompatibility. Conclusions are drawn regarding the conditions under which the measurement techniques can be operated simultaneously on a non-interference basis. Finally, areas requiring improvement for successfully applying unified instrumentation in future wind tunnel tests are addressed.

  13. Design of an instrument for measuring the spectral bidirectional scatter distribution function.

    PubMed

    Leloup, Frédéric B; Forment, Stefaan; Dutré, Philip; Pointer, Michael R; Hanselaer, Peter

    2008-10-10

    The spectral bidirectional scatter distribution function (BSDF) offers a complete description of the spectral and spatial optical characteristics of a material. Any gloss and color measurement can be related to a particular value of the BSDF, while accurate luminaire design with ray tracing software requires the BSDF of reflectors and filters. Many measuring instruments, each having particular advantages and limitations, have been reported in the literature, and an overview of these instruments is included. A measuring instrument that allows for an absolute determination of the spectral BSDF with a full three dimensional spatial coverage in both reflectance and transmittance mode, a broadband spectral coverage, a large dynamic range, a reasonable acquisition time, and a large sample illumination area is presented. The main instrument characteristics are discussed, and the measurement capabilities are illustrated. PMID:18846189

  14. In Situ, Airborne Instrumentation: Addressing and Solving Measurement Problems in Ice Clouds

    E-print Network

    Cziczo, Daniel James

    A meeting of 31 international experts on in situ measurements from aircraft was held to identify unresolved questions concerning ice formation and evolution in ice clouds, assess the current state of instrumentation that ...

  15. A Regularized Neural Net Approach for Retrieval of Atmospheric and Surface Temperatures with the IASI Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aires, F.; Chedin, A.; Scott, N. A.; Rossow, W. B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, a fast atmospheric and surface temperature retrieval algorithm is developed for the high resolution Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) space-borne instrument. This algorithm is constructed on the basis of a neural network technique that has been regularized by introduction of a priori information. The performance of the resulting fast and accurate inverse radiative transfer model is presented for a large divE:rsified dataset of radiosonde atmospheres including rare events. Two configurations are considered: a tropical-airmass specialized scheme and an all-air-masses scheme.

  16. Pressure instrumentation for gas turbine engines - A review of measurement technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armentrout, E. C.; Kicks, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Many types and designs of pressure measuring instrumentation are used during the development and testing of gas turbine engines. This paper provides an overview of more commonly available pressure transducers and their characteristics. Probe designs for use in both steady-state and dynamic pressure measurement systems are reviewed. Techniques used to qualify instrument probes and the methods used to calibrate pressure transducers during engine testing are described.

  17. Prairie grassland bidirectional reflectances measured by different instruments at the FIFE site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deering, D. W.; Middleton, E. M.; Irons, J. R.; Blad, B. L.; Walter-Shea, E. A.; Hays, C. J.; Walthall, C.; Eck, T. F.; Ahmad, S. P.; Banerjee, B. P.

    1992-01-01

    Land surface reflectance measurements were obtained during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) field campaigns utilizing a variety of airborne and ground-based spectral radiometers. To study the validity of the assumption that the values obtained by the several different teams and instruments were interchangeable, the surface radiation measurement teams converged on a common site for one day during the fifth intensive field campaign in 1989. The bidirectional reflectances from the various instruments were basically found to be comparable.

  18. In vivo Load Measurements With Instrumented Orthopaedic Implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Graichen; A. Rohlmann; G. Bergmann

    Knowledge of the loads to which orthopaedic implants are subjected is a fundamental prerequisite for their optimal biomechanical design. Of particular importance are joint replacements for hip, shoulder and knee, vertebral body replacements and spinal fixation devices. In vivo measurements of forces and movements give the most accurate data to improve their long-term success. For in vivo measurements a wireless

  19. Land Surface Temperature Measurements form EOS MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zhengming

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a physics-based land-surface temperature (LST) algorithm for simultaneously retrieving surface band-averaged emissivities and temperatures from day/night pairs of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data in seven thermal infrared bands. The set of 14 nonlinear equations in the algorithm is solved with the statistical regression method and the least-squares fit method. This new LST algorithm was tested with simulated MODIS data for 80 sets of band-averaged emissivities calculated from published spectral data of terrestrial materials in wide ranges of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions. Comprehensive sensitivity and error analysis has been made to evaluate the performance of the new LST algorithm and its dependence on variations in surface emissivity and temperature, upon atmospheric conditions, as well as the noise-equivalent temperature difference (NE(Delta)T) and calibration accuracy specifications of the MODIS instrument. In cases with a systematic calibration error of 0.5%, the standard deviations of errors in retrieved surface daytime and nighttime temperatures fall between 0.4-0.5 K over a wide range of surface temperatures for mid-latitude summer conditions. The standard deviations of errors in retrieved emissivities in bands 31 and 32 (in the 10-12.5 micrometer IR spectral window region) are 0.009, and the maximum error in retrieved LST values falls between 2-3 K. Several issues related to the day/night LST algorithm (uncertainties in the day/night registration and in surface emissivity changes caused by dew occurrence, and the cloud cover) have been investigated. The LST algorithms have been validated with MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) dada and ground-based measurement data in two field campaigns conducted in Railroad Valley playa, NV in 1995 and 1996. The MODIS LST version 1 software has been delivered.

  20. Optimization of the atmospheric temperature field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Bogdan J.; Bajer, Konrad; Haman, Krzysztof E.; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2004-11-01

    Small-scale inhomogeneities of the atmospheric temperature field are caused by air turbulence and result in refractive index fluctuations, which in turn influence the propagation of optical beams. Understanding small density fluctuations in the atmosphere is important for the free-space laser communication and for high-resolution imaging through the atmosphere. The ultra-fast aircraft resistance thermometer constructed in the Institute of Geophysics, Warsaw University, measures the temperature of cloudless air and of warm clouds with 10 kHz sampling frequency. During a flight at the speed of 100 m/s, at low altitudes up to 2 km, this corresponds to the spatial resolution of the order of one centimeter. This resolution is sufficient for studying small density fluctuations in the atmospheric boundary layer. A streamlined shield protects the sensing wire of the thermometer from cloud droplets and other small particles suspended in the air but introduce aerodynamic disturbances in the form of vortices. The thermometer records the resulting fluctuations of temperature as noise. The shield sucks air and water collected on its surface through the suction slits. This suction also suppresses the disturbances. In this paper we analyze how the temperature measurements are influenced by: (i) turbulence generated behind the shield placed in front of the sensing wire; (ii) suction of air through the shield slits; (iii) cloud droplets of various space distributions, masses and velocities. We have carried out the 2D numerical simulations of the time-dependent, incompressible, viscous flow (the Navier-Stokes equation) around the shield placed in a uniform stream. We solved the particle path equations for an ensamble of droplets in the Stokes approximation. All the simulations are oriented toward optimization of the shield shape in order to (i) reduce noise in measurements at low and high altitudes and (ii) protect the sensing wire against ice crystals in flights at high altitudes.

  1. A numerical study of geometry dependent errors in velocity, temperature, and density measurements from single grid planar retarding potential analyzers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Davidson; G. D. Earle; J. H. Klenzing; R. A. Heelis

    2010-01-01

    Planar retarding potential analyzers (RPAs) have been utilized numerous times on high profile missions such as the Communications\\/Navigation Outage Forecast System and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program to measure plasma composition, temperature, density, and the velocity component perpendicular to the plane of the instrument aperture. These instruments use biased grids to approximate ideal biased planes. These grids introduce perturbations in

  2. An instrument for measuring the momentum flux from atomic and charged particle jets

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.A.; Zonca, F.; Timberlake, J.; Bennett, T.; Cuthbertson, J.; Langer, W.; Motley, R.

    1990-07-01

    We have developed an instrument to measure the momentum flux from an intense plasma stream for which the standard techniques used for low pressure gases (<10 Torr) at room temperature are unsuitable. This device, a Plasma Momentum Meter, can measure forces of 10{sup {minus}5} {minus} 10{sup {minus}3} Newtons with a response time of <50 ms onto surfaces of different materials immersed in dense plasmas (n > 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3}). Such forces are transmitted predominantly by ionic and neutral species, with 10's of eV's of kinetic energy, are accompanied by high heat fluxes, and are pulsed. The momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer, a capacitance-type pressure gauge. This protects the transducer from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering. An absolute force calibration of the PMM to 1% accuracy has been made is described. A flat carbon target has been used in measurements of the momentum flux of He, Ne, Ar, and Kr, plasmas produced in a magnetized linear plasma device. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  3. A Self-Contained Acoustic Scintillation Instrument for Path-Averaged Measurements of Flow and Turbulence with Application to Hydrothermal Vent and Bottom Boundary Layer Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. di Iorio; D. Lemon; R. Chave

    2005-01-01

    A self-contained acoustical scintillation instrument is described that has been used to measure flow and turbulence characteristics in two diverse oceanographic settings. This instrument is a battery-operated and internally logging acoustic propagation system that is ideally suited to monitor long-term flow and small- scale effective refractive index fluctuations. When the temperature variability dominates the acoustic scat- tering, as is the

  4. Rocket borne instrument to measure electric fields inside electrified clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhnke, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    Simple electric field measuring system is mounted on small rocket and consists of two voltage probes, one extending from nose and other on tail fin. Electric field through which rocket passes is determined by potential difference between probes.

  5. 40 CFR 1065.205 - Performance specifications for measurement instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING...Accuracy b Repeatability b Noise b Engine speed transducer...Accuracy, repeatability, and noise are all determined with the...accuracy, repeatability and noise measurement described...

  6. High data density temperature measurement for quasi steady-state flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Rashidnia, Nasser; Creath, Katherine

    1995-01-01

    A new optical instrument, the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI), is used to measure the temperature distribution across a heated chamber filled with silicone oil. Data taken using the LCPDI are compared to equivalent measurements made with a traversing thermocouple and the two data sets show excellent agreement This instrument maintains the compact, robust design of Linnik's point diffraction interferometer and adds to it phase stepping capability for quantitative interferogram analysis. The result is a compact, simple to align, environmentally insensitive interferometer capable of accurately measuring optical wavefronts with very high data density and with automated data reduction.

  7. High Data Density Temperature Measurement for Quasi Steady-State Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, C. R.; Rashidnia, N.; Creath, K.

    1996-01-01

    A new optical instrument, the liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI), is used to measure the temperature distribution across a heated chamber filled with silicone oil. Data taken using the LCPDI are compared to equivalent measurements made with a traversing thermo-couple and the two data sets show excellent agreement. This instrument maintains the compact, robust design of Linniks point diffraction interferometer and adds to it phase stepping capability for quantitative interferogram analysis. The result is a compact, simple to align, environmentally insensitive interferometer capable of accurately measuring optical wave-fronts with very high data density and with automated data reduction.

  8. Electric filed measurements onboard satellites - method, instrumentation and recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    The electric field measurements in the conductive media, such as ground, water and space plasma, are one of the most complicated metrological tasks from the point of view of proper measurement method application. This is because the electric field sensors are always interacting with the surrounding medium and the parasitic potential is formed at this. In the result, the measured value consists of the sum of useful and parasitic signals; by this the signal-to-noise ratio is mostly below unity. To overcome these problems, special high demands are made to the electric sensor parameters, especially to its equal form and surface homogeneity. These are analyzed in the report and the ways to fulfill them are discussed. The successful examples of DC electric field measurements in space plasma are given. But if only AC component is necessary to measure, the problem becomes much easier to overcome and even the sensors with non-uniform surface may be used. Some examples of AC electric field measurements during recent space missions are given and main peculiarities of sensors installation onboard the satellites are discussed. The possible sensor arrangement for future spatial mission onboard cubesat is also discussed. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197 (SEAM).

  9. Combining Radio Occultation Measurements with Other Instruments to Map the Ionospheric Electron

    E-print Network

    Combining Radio Occultation Measurements with Other Instruments to Map the Ionospheric Electron to incorporate other ionospheric measurements, such as electron-density profiles from inverted ionograms or in the individual TEC measurements contain no information about the spatial variation of the electron concentration

  10. Instruments and Methods A non-destructive method for measuring the salinity and solid

    E-print Network

    Worster, M. Grae

    Instruments and Methods A non-destructive method for measuring the salinity and solid fraction developed to make in situ measurements of salinity and solid- fraction profiles in growing sea ice with theoretical predictions. In a field test in the Arctic, the bulk salinity of growing sea ice has been measured

  11. The quality of evidence of psychometric properties of three-dimensional spinal posture-measuring instruments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychometric properties include validity, reliability and sensitivity to change. Establishing the psychometric properties of an instrument which measures three-dimensional human posture are essential prior to applying it in clinical practice or research. Methods This paper reports the findings of a systematic literature review which aimed to 1) identify non-invasive three-dimensional (3D) human posture-measuring instruments; and 2) assess the quality of reporting of the methodological procedures undertaken to establish their psychometric properties, using a purpose-build critical appraisal tool. Results Seventeen instruments were identified, of which nine were supported by research into psychometric properties. Eleven and six papers respectively, reported on validity and reliability testing. Rater qualification and reference standards were generally poorly addressed, and there was variable quality reporting of rater blinding and statistical analysis. Conclusions There is a lack of current research to establish the psychometric properties of non-invasive 3D human posture-measuring instruments. PMID:21569486

  12. TOPEX/Poseidon Microwave Radiometer (TMR): 1. Instrument Description and Antenna Temperature Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, C. S.; Keihm, S. J.; Janssen, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The TOPEX/Poseidon Microwave Radiometer (TMR) is a 3-frequency radiometer flown on the TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) satellite in low Earth orbit. It operates at 18, 21 and 37 GHz in a nadir only viewing direction which is co-aligned with the T/P radar altimeters. TMR monitors and corrects for the electrical path delay of the altimeter radar signal due to water vapor and non-precipitating liquid water in the atmosphere. This paper describes the TMR instrument and the radiometric instrument calibration required to derive antenna temperature (T_A) from the raw digital data. T_A precision of 0.4 K is predicted on orbit in all expected thermal environments. T_A accuracy of 0.5-0.6 K is expected following a post-launch field calibration campaign. When uncertainties related to antenna sidelobe corrections are included, this T_A accuracy yields a brightness temperature accuracy of 0.7- 0.8 K...

  13. REMORA 3: The first instrumented fuel experiment with on-line gas composition measurement by acoustic sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, T.; Muller, E.; Federici, E. [CEA - Nuclear Energy Div., DEN - Fuel Research Dept. - Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Rosenkrantz, E.; Ferrandis, J. Y. [CNRS - Univ. Montpellier 2, Southern Electronic Inst., UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Tiratay, X.; Silva, V. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Div., DEN, Nuclear Reactors and Facilities Dept., F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Machard, D. [EDF, SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France); Trillon, G. [AREVA-NP, F-69456 Lyon (France)

    2011-07-01

    With the aim to improve the knowledge of nuclear fuel behaviour, the development of advanced instrumentation used during in-pile experiments in Material Testing Reactor (MTR) is necessary. To obtain data on high Burn-Up MOX fuel performance under transient operating conditions, especially in order to differentiate between the kinetics of fission gas and helium releases and to acquire data on the degradation of the fuel conductivity, a highly instrumented in-pile experiment called REMORA 3 has been conducted by CEA and IES (Southern Electronic Inst. - CNRS - Montpellier 2 Univ.). A rodlet extracted from a fuel rod base irradiated for five cycles in a French EDF commercial PWR has been re-instrumented with a fuel centerline thermocouple, a pressure transducer and an advanced acoustic sensor. This latter, patented by CEA and IES, is 1 used in addition to pressure measurement to determine the composition of the gases located in the free volume and the molar fractions of fission gas and helium. This instrumented fuel rodlet has been re-irradiated in a specific rig, GRIFFONOS, located in the periphery of the OSIRIS experimental reactor core at CEA Saclay. First of all, an important design stage and test phases have been performed before the irradiation in order to optimize the response and the accuracy of the sensors: - To control the influence of the temperature on the acoustic sensor behaviour, a thermal mock-up has been built. - To determine the temperature of the gas located in the acoustic cavity as a function of the coolant temperature, and the average temperature of the gases located in the rodlet free volume as a function of the linear heat rate, thermal calculations have been achieved. The former temperature is necessary to calculate the molar fractions of the gases and the latter is used to calculate the total amount of released gas from the internal rod pressure measurements. - At the end of the instrumented rod manufacturing, specific internal free volume and pressure measurements have been carried out. Preliminary calculations of the REMORA 3 experiments have been performed from these measurements, with the aim to determine free volume evolution as a function of linear heat rate history. - A tracer gas has been added to the filling gas in order to optimize the accuracy of the helium balance at the time of the post irradiation examination. The two phases of the REMORA 3 irradiation have been achieved at the end of 2010 in the OSIRIS reactor. Slight acoustic signal degradation, observed during the test under high neutron and gamma flux, has led to an efficiency optimization of the signal processing. The instrumentation ran smoothly and allowed to reach all the experimental objectives. After non destructive examination performed in the Osiris reactor pool, typically gamma spectrometry and neutron radiography, the instrumented rod and the device have been disassembled. Then the instrumented rod has been transported to the LECA facility in Cadarache Centre for post irradiation examination. The internal pressure and volume of the rodlet as well as precise gas composition measurements will be known after puncturing step performed in a hot cell of this facility. That will allow us to qualify the in-pile measurements and to finalize the data which will be used for the validation of the fuel behaviour computer codes. (authors)

  14. A systematic review of instruments that measure attitudes toward homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Grey, Jeremy A; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Coleman, Eli; Bockting, Walter O

    2013-01-01

    Scientific interest in the measurement of homophobia and internalized homophobia has grown over the past 30 years, and new instruments and terms have emerged. To help researchers with the challenging task of identifying appropriate measures for studies in sexual-minority health, we reviewed measures of homophobia published in the academic literature from 1970 to 2012. Instruments that measured attitudes toward male homosexuals/homosexuality or measured homosexuals' internalized attitudes toward homosexuality were identified using measurement manuals and a systematic review. A total of 23 instruments met criteria for inclusion, and their features were summarized and compared. All 23 instruments met minimal criteria for adequate scale construction, including scale development, sampling, reliability, and evidence of validity. Validity evidence was diverse and was categorized as interaction with gay men, HIV/AIDS variables, mental health, and conservative religious or political beliefs. Homophobia was additionally correlated with authoritarianism and bias, gender ideology, gender differences, and reactions to homosexual stimuli. Internalized homophobia was validated by examining relationships with disclosing one's homosexuality and level of homosexual identity development. We hope this review will make the process of instrument selection more efficient by allowing researchers to easily locate, evaluate, and choose the proper measure based on their research question and population of interest. PMID:23480076

  15. Workplace Discrimination, Prejudice, and Diversity Measurement: A Review of Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkard, Alan W.; Boticki, Michael A.; Madson, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Critically reviews diversity measures in terms of item development, psychometric evidence, and utility for counseling and development: Workplace Prejudice/Discrimination Inventory, Attitudes toward Diversity Scale; Organizational Diversity Inventory, Workforce Diversity Questionnaire, Perceived Occupational Opportunity Scale-Form B, and Perceived…

  16. Measurement and instrumentation of a switched reluctance motor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Krishnan; P. Materu

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe and compare various techniques for the measurement of switched reluctance motor (SRM) inductance for any rotor position and level of excitation. Results for an experimental prototype are compared to the analytical and finite-element analysis predictions. It is shown that the proposed flux linkage method is the most appropriate for the SRM and can be applied to the

  17. Developing an Instrument to Measure Bias in CME

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takhar, Jatinder; Dixon, Dave; Donahue, Jill; Marlow, Bernard; Campbell, Craig; Silver, Ivan; Eadie, Jason; Monette, Celine; Rohan, Ivan; Sriharan, Abi; Raymond, Kathryn; Macnab, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The pharmaceutical industry, by funding over 60% of programs in the United States and Canada, plays a major role in continuing medical education (CME), but there are concerns about bias in such CME programs. Bias is difficult to define, and currently no tool is available to measure it. Methods: Representatives from industry and…

  18. Instruments and data analysis methods for volume measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suda

    1976-01-01

    In recent years there has been renewed interest and effort in the United States on methods for accurately determining SNM content in tanks and other process vessels. American National Standard N15.19 was developed to provide criteria and procedures for calibration of tanks and to promulgate specifications for such measurements. Developmental work in the areas of statistical treatment of the calibration

  19. Instrument measures many optical properties in visible and IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    Electro-optical system measures reflectance, reflectance ratio, transmission, absorption, refractive index, and absorption coefficient in both visible and infrared (IR) spectral regions. System effectively combining capabilities of ellisometer, reflectometer, and spectrophotometer is expected to find application in environmental and material composition testing fields.

  20. Instrumentation for the measurement of autofluorescence in human skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reindert Graaff; Robbert Meerwaldt; Helen L. Lutgers; Rene Baptist; Ed D. de Jong; Jaap R. Zijp; Thera P. Links; Andries J. Smit; Gerhard Rakhorst

    2005-01-01

    A setup to measure skin autofluorescence was developed to assess accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) in patients noninvasively. The method applies direct blacklight tube illumination of the skin of the lower arm, and spectrometry. The setup displays skin autofluorescence (AF) as a ratio of mean intensities detected from the skin between 420-600 nm and 300-420 nm, respectively. In an

  1. An Instrument for the Measurement of Parental Authority Prototypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, John R.

    Baumrind (1971) proposed three distinct patterns of parental authority (permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness) and measured these parenting styles through interviews with parents and their children and through observations of parents interacting with their children. This study was undertaken to develop a readily-accessible,…

  2. Testing The Cas A Neutron Star Temperature Decline With Other Chandra Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshamouty, Khaled; Heinke, C. O.; Ho, W. C. G.; Patnaude, D. J.; Shternin, P. S.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    The neutron star in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant is 330 years old, making it the youngest neutron star in the Milky Way. Heinke & Ho (2010) reported a rapid cooling drop of 4% in its surface temperature (21% drop in observed flux) from Chandra ACIS-S archival data between 2000 and 2009. This opened the suggestion of enhanced neutrino emission due to a superfluid transition in the core to account for the observed rapid cooling (Page et al. 2011, Shternin et al. 2011). Here we present analysis of archival Chandra ACIS-I, HRC-I and HRC-S data over the same time period to test the rate. We used the best ACIS-S carbon atmosphere spectral fits to infer the countrates corresponding to various temperatures, along with current (CALDB 4.4.6) estimates of the effective area and its changes over time for these cameras, to calculate the temperature drops in each instrument. We find that the HRC-I data are consistent with the ACIS-S result, though tending to smaller declines. The ACIS-I data suggest a slightly larger drop. The HRC-S data (with the longest exposures) indicate a marginal temperature decline of 0.9+0.7-0.7 % (90% conf.) over 9 years.

  3. Tropospheric Formaldehyde Measurements from the ESA GOME Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Kurosu, T. P.; Palmer, P. I.; Martin, R. V.; Fiore, A.; Li, Q.; Jacob, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) was launched on the European Space Agency's ERS-2 satellite on April 20, 1995. GOME measures the Earth's atmosphere in the nadir geometry, using a set of spectrometers that cover the UV and visible (240-790 nm) at moderate resolution (0.2 nm in the UV, 0.4 nm in the visible), employing silicon diode array detectors. GOME takes some 30,000 spectra per day, obtaining full global coverage in three days. We directly fit GOME radiance spectra using nonlinear least-squares analysis to obtain column amounts of several trace species with significant tropospheric concentrations, including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and formaldehyde (HCHO). Measurements of HCHO due to biogenic activity in the troposphere are presented here.

  4. Flight and attitude dynamics measurements of an instrumented Frisbee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2005-03-01

    In-flight measurements are made of the translational accelerations and attitude motion of a hand-thrown flying disc using miniaturized accelerometers and other sensors and a microcontroller data acquisition system. The experiments explore the capabilities and limitations of sensors on a rapidly rotating platform moving in air, and illustrate several of the complex gyrodynamic aspects of Frisbee flight. The data give insight into the biomechanics of Frisbee launch, and indicate lift, drag and pitch moment coefficients consistent with previous wind-tunnel measurements. The experiments constitute an instructive exercise in aerospace vehicle systems integration and in attitude reconstruction, and open the way to guided disc wings using control surfaces actuated during specific spin phases determined by onboard sensors.

  5. An instrument to measure the heat convection coefficient on the endocardial surface.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Icaro; Shah, Jignesh; Ferreira da Rocha, Adson; Webster, John G; Valvano, Jonathan W

    2003-05-01

    This work describes the fundamentals and calibration procedure of an instrument for in vivo evaluation of the heat convection coefficient between the endocardium and the circulating blood flow. The instrument is to be used immediately before radio-frequency cardiac ablation is performed. Thus, this instrument provides researchers with a valuable parameter to predict lesion size to be achieved by the procedure. The probe is a thermistor mounted in a Swan-Ganz catheter, and it is driven by a constant-temperature anemometer circuit. A 1D model of the sensor behaviour in a convective medium, the calibration procedure and the apparatus are explained in detail. Finally, a performance analysis of the instrument in the range of 200-3500 W m(-2) K(-1) shows that the average absolute error of full scale is 7.4%. PMID:12812418

  6. Comparing alternative instruments to measure service quality in higher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Brochado; Rui Cunha Marques

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of five alternative measures of service quality in the high education sector – service quality (SERVQUAL), importance-weighted SERVQUAL, service performance (SERVPERF), importance-weighted SERVPERF, and higher education performance (HEdPERF). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire containing perception items enhanced from the SERVPERF and HEdPERF

  7. Instrumentation for measuring the dynamic pressure on rotating compressor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Lanati, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    To establish the capability for measurement of oscillatory pressure on rotating blades, miniature fast response semiconductor strain gage pressure transducers (2mm x 0.33mm) were mounted in several configurations on thin titanium and steel compressor blades and subjected to pressure cycles from 1 to 310 kPa during static tests and spin tests. Static test conditions included 20 C to 150 C, 0 to 3000 tensile microstrain, -1000 to +1000 bending microstrain and + or - 650G vibration. The spin test conditions included 20 C to 82 C at 0 to 90,000G. Durability was excellent. Pressure transducer sensitivity changed by only a few percent over this range of environmental conditions. Noise signal due to oscillatory acceleration normal to the diaphragm was acceptable (0.33Pa/G). Noise signal due to oscillatory strain was acceptable (0.5 Pa/microstrain) when the transducer was mounted on a 0.05mm rubber pad, with a total buildup of 0.38mm on the measure surface. Back mounting or partial recessing to eliminate buildup, increased the strain effect to 1.2 Pa/microstrain. Flush mounting within the blade to eliminate buildup reduced the strain effect, but required development of a special transducer shape. This transducer was not available in time for spin tests. Unpredictable zero drift + or - 14 kPa ruled out the use of these mounting arrangements for accurate steady-state (D.C.) measurements on rotating blades. The two best configurations fully developed and spin tested were then successfully applied in the NAS3-20606 rotating fan flutter program for quantitative measurement of oscillatory pressure amplitudes.

  8. Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: Probing atomic structure in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Fanelli, Victor R.; Reiche, Helmut M.; Larson, Eric; Taylor, Mark A.; Xu, Hongwu; Zhu, Jinlong; Siewenie, Joan; Page, Katharine

    2014-12-01

    This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO2 measurements. The new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO2 sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H2 and natural gas uptake/storage.

  9. Two Instruments for Measuring Distributions of Low-Energy Charged Particles in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bader, Michel; Fryer, Thomas B.; Witteborn, Fred C.

    1961-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that the bulk of interplanetary gas consists of protons with energies between 0 and 20 kev and concentrations of 1 to 105 particles/cu cm. Methods and instrumentation for measuring the energy and density distribution of such a gas are considered from the standpoint of suitability for space vehicle payloads. It is concluded that electrostatic analysis of the energy distribution can provide sufficient information in initial experiments. Both magnetic and electrostatic analyzers should eventually be used. Several instruments designed and constructed at the Ames Research Center for space plasma measurements, and the methods of calibration and data reduction are described. In particular, the instrument designed for operation on solar cell power has the following characteristics: weight, 1.1 pounds; size, 2 by 3 by 4 inches; and power consumption, 145 mw. The instrument is designed to yield information on the concentration, energy distribution, and the anisotropy of ion trajectories in the 0.2 to 20 kev range.

  10. Comparative measurements of single event upset and total dose environments using the CREAM instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, C.S.; Sims, A.J. (Defense Research Agency, Space Dept., Royal Aerospace Establishment, Famborough, Hampshire GU14 6TD (GB)); Farren, J.; Stephen, J. (Nuclear Physics and Instrumentation Div., Harwell Lab., Oxfordshire (GB)); Underwood, C. (Surrey Satellite Technology, Univ. of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey (GB))

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that the Cosmic Radiation Environment and Activation Monitor (CREAM) is taking regular measurements in the upper atmosphere on board the supersonic Concorde, while a further version of the same instrument is currently scheduled for flight on the Space Shuttle during September and November 1991. Meanwhile a sister instrument (CREDO) is continuously monitoring the environment in sun-synchronous orbit on board UOSAT-3. These contemporaneous flights of similar instruments enable intercomparison of environments as well as verification of predictive models and correlation with device behavior. The extensive data set encompasses both quiet-time data and solar-particle events.

  11. Asymmetric trends in seasonal temperature variability based on long instrumental records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matiu, Michael; Ankerst, Donna; Menzel, Annette

    2015-04-01

    While the increase in global mean temperature over the past several decades is widely accepted, the issue as to whether and to what extent temperature variability is changing has not been solved yet. Temperature variability as the width of the temperature distribution measures the likelihood of temperature extremes. Those changes can amplify, nullify or reduce the effect a gradual warming has on extremes. Since climatic extremes exert large impacts on society and ecology, effects of altered temperature variability must be considered in tandem with effects of a gradually increasing temperature mean. Previous studies of trends in mean temperature and its associated variability have produced conflicting results. Here we investigate 10 selected long-term climate records of minimum, mean and maximum temperatures in Switzerland, Germany and the UK. In detail, we analysed trends in seasonal, annual and decadal measures of variability (standard deviation and various quantile ranges) as well as asymmetries in the trends of extreme vs mean temperatures via quantile regression. Besides accelerated mean warming during 1864-2012, we found higher trends for Tmax than for Tmin in the last 40 years (1973-2012), amounting to up to 0.08°C yr-1 in spring. In contrast, variability trends were not as uniform: significant changes occurred in opposing directions depending on the season, as well as when comparing 1864-2012 trends to those of 1973-2012. Often, variability changed asymmetrically and consequently, trends in high and low extremes differed. More patterns were detected for spatial and seasonal variation in these changes of variability.

  12. Instrument Busy Time and Mass Measurement using Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan O. Allen; Prakash V. Bhave; Jeffrey R. Whiteaker; Kimberly A. Prather

    2006-01-01

    Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) instruments have been used widely to measure the size and composition of single ambient aerosol particles. ATOFMS data do not directly and quantitatively represent aerosol composition because the instruments exhibit non-linear response to particle concentration, size, and composition. Our approach is to analyze separately the components of non-linear ATOFMS response using field sampling data in

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-LINE INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES TO DETECT AND MEASURE PARTICULATES

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Wu; Steve Palm; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard III

    2004-07-31

    In this quarter, we have constructed the first field deployable PM measurement system. This system is retrofit from the system that we designed and tested in the lab, and by adding light blocking covers and rugged electronic boxes, we are now ready to test the instrument in our industrial collaborator's site with real engines. We have also collected tons of data on standard PM particles with our lab instrument.

  14. Study of the virtual instrumentation applied to measure pulsed heavy currents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weibo Li; Chengxiong Mao; Jiming Lu

    2005-01-01

    The design and implementation of a high-performance virtual instrumentation (VI) based on the Rogowski coil are discussed. The instrumentation can measure pulsed heavy currents of the high-power high-voltage laser source whose performance indices are introduced. The analysis of models, including both time-domain and frequency-domain characteristics of the Rogowski coil, is presented. Problems related to the data acquisition systems (DASs), including

  15. Development and test of a Microwave Ice Accretion Measurement Instrument (MIAMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magenheim, B.; Rocks, J. K.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an ice accretion measurement instrument that is a highly sensitive, accurate, rugged and reliable microprocessor controlled device using low level microwave energy for non-instrusive real time measurement and recording of ice growth history, including ice thickness and accretion rate is discussed. Data is displayed and recorded digitally. New experimental data is presented, obtained with the instrument, which demonstrates its ability to measure ice growth on a two-dimensional airfoil. The device is suitable for aircraft icing protection. It may be mounted flush, non-intrusively, on any part of an aircraft skin including rotor blades and engine inlets.

  16. Instrumentation for near-Earth measurement of orbital debris and cosmic dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuzzolino, Anthony J.

    1992-01-01

    Dust instrumentation based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust sensor arrays is described which will measure the masses, fluxes, velocities, and trajectories of orbital debris particles and natural micrometeoroids. Orbital debris particles are distinguished from natural particles (cosmic dust) by means of the velocity/trajectory information. The instrumentation will measure particle trajectory with a mean error of approximately 7 degrees (for isotropic flux) and is designed for measurements over the particle diameter range of approximately 2 to 200 micro-m. For future missions having Earth-return capabilities, arrays of capture cell devices positioned behind the PVDF trajectory system would provide for Earth-based chemical and isotopic analysis of captured dust.

  17. Instrumentation for measurement of aircraft noise and sonic boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A jet aircraft noise and sonic boom measuring device which converts sound pressure into electric current is described. An electric current proportional to the sound pressure level at a condenser microphone is produced and transmitted over a cable, amplified by a zero drive amplifier and recorded on magnetic tape. The converter is comprised of a local oscillator, a dual-gate field-effect transistor (FET) mixer and a voltage regulator/impedance translator. A carrier voltage that is applied to one of the gates of the FET mixer is generated by the local oscillator. The microphone signal is mixed with the carrier to produce an electrical current at the frequency of vibration of the microphone diaphragm by the FET mixer. The voltage of the local oscillator and mixer stages is regulated, the carrier at the output is eliminated, and a low output impedance at the cable terminals is provided by the voltage regulator/impedance translator.

  18. DEFINING THE 'BLIND SPOT' OF HINODE EIS AND XRT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Mulu-Moore, Fana [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Schmelz, Joan T. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Golub, Leon [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kobayashi, Ken, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, 320 Sparkman Dr, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    Observing high-temperature, low emission measure plasma is key to unlocking the coronal heating problem. With current instrumentation, a combination of EUV spectral data from Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS; sensitive to temperatures up to 4 MK) and broadband filter data from Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT; sensitive to higher temperatures) is typically used to diagnose the temperature structure of the observed plasma. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a 'blind spot' exists in temperature-emission measure space for combined Hinode EIS and XRT observations. For a typical active region core with significant emission at 3-4 MK, Hinode EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with temperatures greater than {approx}6 MK and emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 27} cm{sup -5}. We then demonstrate that the temperature and emission measure limits of this blind spot depend upon the temperature distribution of the plasma along the line of sight by considering a hypothetical emission measure distribution sharply peaked at 1 MK. For this emission measure distribution, we find that EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 26} cm{sup -5}. We suggest that a spatially and spectrally resolved 6-24 Angstrom-Sign spectrum would improve the sensitivity to these high-temperature, low emission measure plasma.

  19. Advanced near-and mid-infrared laser based instruments for atmospheric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Dirk; Weibring, Petter; Spuler, Scott; Walega, James; Spowart, Mike; Fried, Alan

    2010-05-01

    We present new ground and airborne instruments for atmospheric measurements based on fiber and diode laser sources. This versatile optical technology can be configured to provide high resolution, sensitive, selective, and real-time measurements. In particular we will present current and planned instruments to measure important trace gas species, including isotopes, and 3D wind-speeds from an aircraft platform. All the instruments presented leverage technology advances made in the photonics and optical telecommunication industry. We have developed a set of tools based around these technological building blocks and used them to design a suite of measurement capabilities for use by the atmospheric research community. Optical technologies have been accumulating a proven record of robust performance, and enable one to built more lightweight and compact instrumentation for easy deployment for traditional ground, advanced sea, and airborne measurement platforms. We will present how these enabling optical technologies have served as the foundation for select instruments, and provide a roadmap for future development opportunities.

  20. Applications of a New Handheld Reference Point Indentation Instrument Measuring Bone Material Strength.

    PubMed

    Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Guerri, Roberto; Nogues, Xavier; Puig, Lluis; Torres, Elisa; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Hoffseth, Kevin; Stalbaum, Tyler; Srikanth, Ananya; Weaver, James C; Rosen, Sasha; Barnard, Heather; Brimer, Davis; Proctor, Alex; Candy, James; Saldana, Christopher; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan; Lescun, Timothy; Nielson, Carrie M; Orwoll, Eric; Herthel, Doug; Kopeikin, Hal; Yang, Henry T Y; Farr, Joshua N; McCready, Louise; Khosla, Sundeep; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Hansma, Paul K

    2013-12-01

    A novel, hand-held Reference Point Indentation (RPI) instrument, measures how well the bone of living patients and large animals resists indentation. The results presented here are reported in terms of Bone Material Strength, which is a normalized measure of how well the bone resists indentation, and is inversely related to the indentation distance into the bone. We present examples of the instrument's use in: (1) laboratory experiments on bone, including experiments through a layer of soft tissue, (2) three human clinical trials, two ongoing in Barcelona and at the Mayo Clinic, and one completed in Portland, OR, and (3) two ongoing horse clinical trials, one at Purdue University and another at Alamo Pintado Stables in California. The instrument is capable of measuring consistent values when testing through soft tissue such as skin and periosteum, and does so handheld, an improvement over previous Reference Point Indentation instruments. Measurements conducted on horses showed reproducible results when testing the horse through tissue or on bare bone. In the human clinical trials, reasonable and consistent values were obtained, suggesting the Osteoprobe(®) is capable of measuring Bone Material Strength in vivo, but larger studies are needed to determine the efficacy of the instrument's use in medical diagnosis. PMID:24115973

  1. Comparison between UV index measurements performed by research-grade and consumer-products instruments.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Haeffelin, Martial; Brogniez, Colette; Verschaeve, Franck; Saiag, Philippe; Pazmiño, Andrea; Mahé, Emmanuel

    2010-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure, skin cancer and other related diseases are not just subjects of scientific literature. Nowadays, these themes are also discussed on television, newspapers and magazines for the general public. Consequently, the interest in prevention of sun overexposure is increasing, as the knowledge of photoprotection methods and UVR levels. The ultraviolet index (UVI) is a well-known tool recommended by the World Health Organization to avoid harmful effects of UV sunlight. UVI forecasts are provided by many national meteorological services, but local UVI measurements can provide a more realistic and appropriate evaluation of UVR levels. Indeed, as scientific instruments are very expensive and difficult to manipulate, several manufacturers and retail shops offer cheap and simple non-scientific instruments for UVI measurements, sometimes included in objects of everyday life, such as watches, outfits and hand-held instruments. In this work, we compare measurements provided by several commercial non-scientific instruments with data provided by a Bentham spectrometer, a very accurate sensor used for UV measurements. Results show that only a few of the instruments analyzed provide trustworthy UVI measurements. PMID:20354638

  2. Temperature measurement in PV facilities on a per-panel scale.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Miguel A; Andújar, José M; Enrique, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, construction and testing of an instrumentation system for temperature measurement in PV facilities on a per-panel scale (i.e., one or more temperature measurements per panel). Its main characteristics are: precision, ease of connection, immunity to noise, remote operation, easy scaling; and all of this at a very low cost. The paper discusses the advantages of temperature measurements in PV facilities on a per-panel scale. The paper presents the whole development to implementation of a real system that is being tested in an actual facility. This has enabled the authors to provide the readers with practical guidelines, which would be very difficult to achieve if the developments were implemented by just simulation or in a theoretical way. The instrumentation system is fully developed, from the temperature sensing to its presentation in a virtual instrument. The developed instrumentation system is able to work both locally and remotely connected to both wired and wireless network. PMID:25061834

  3. A Conceptual Model and Set of Instruments for Measuring Student Engagement in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldspink, Christopher; Foster, Margot

    2013-01-01

    This work has its origins with research into the effects of pedagogy on student engagement and learning outcomes. It summarises the development of self-report and observation instruments for measuring student engagement suitable for early years to senior secondary. The measures are sensitive to the context and experience of learning rather than,…

  4. Instrument Development Procedures for Maze Measures. Technical Report # 08-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Kimy; Sundstrom-Hebert, Krystal; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Tindal, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the instrument development of maze measures for grades 3-8. Each maze passage contained twelve omitted words that students filled in by choosing the best-fit word from among the provided options. In this technical report, we describe the process of creating, reviewing, and pilot testing the maze measures.…

  5. Modification, Calibration and a Field Test of an Instrument for Measuring Light Absorption by Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aki Virkkula; Norman C. Ahlquist; William P. Arnott; Patrick J. Sheridan; Patricia K. Quinn; Derek J. Coffman

    2005-01-01

    A filter-based single-wavelength photometer (Particle Soot Absorption Photometer, PSAP) for measuring light absorption by aerosols was modified to measure at three wavelengths, 467 nm, 530 nm, and 660 nm. The modified and an unmodified photometer were calibrated during the Reno Aerosol Optics Study (RAOS) 2002 against two absorption standards: a photoacoustic instrument and the difference between the extinction and scattering

  6. Interval Estimation of Optimal Scores from Multiple-Component Measuring Instruments via SEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko

    2006-01-01

    A structural equation modeling based method is outlined that accomplishes interval estimation of individual optimal scores resulting from multiple-component measuring instruments evaluating single underlying latent dimensions. The procedure capitalizes on the linear combination of a prespecified set of measures that is associated with maximal…

  7. COMPUTER CONTROLLED SETUP FOR PRECISE ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS - A STEP TOWARDS THE VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivaylo Cankov Jivkov; Maria Petrova Alexandrova; Deyan Sabchev Dimov; Radostina Genova Kalinova; Vessela Angelova Nikolova

    Virtual instrument for low current and low noise DC electrical measurement based on Keithley 617 electrometer is developed. The software consists of two parts operating in parallel threads - GUI accepting the commands from the operator and a cycle for the data acquisition and control. The device is tested by measurement of resistor with high value of 100 G?. Taking

  8. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 6 of 6: Temperature Measurement of Galvanneal Steel

    SciTech Connect

    S.W. Allison; D.L. Beshears; W.W. Manges

    1999-06-30

    This report describes the successful completion of the development of an accurate in-process measurement instrument for galvanneal steel surface temperatures. This achievement results from a joint research effort that is a part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S> Department of Energy and fifteen North American Steelmakers. This three-year project entitled ''Temperature Measurement of Galvanneal Steel'' uses phosphor thermography, and outgrowth of Uranium enrichment research at Oak Ridge facilities. Temperature is the controlling factor regarding the distribution of iron and zinc in the galvanneal strip coating, which in turn determines the desired product properties

  9. Instrumented thick-walled tube method for measuring thermal pressure in fluids and isotropic stresses in thermosetting resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzlyakov, Mikhail; Simon, Sindee L.; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the thermal pressure coefficient and cure-induced and thermally induced stresses based on an instrumented thick-walled tube vessel. The device has been demonstrated at pressures up to 330 MPa and temperatures to 300 °C. The method uses a sealed stainless steel thick-walled tube to impose three-dimensional isotropic constraints. The tube is instrumented with strain gauges in hoop and in axial directions and can be used in open or closed configurations. By making measurements of the isotropic stresses as a function of temperature, the method allows determination of the thermal pressure coefficient in both the glassy and rubbery (or liquid) states. The method also can be used to measure isotropic stress development in thermosetting resins during cure and subsequent thermal cycling. Experimental results are presented for sucrose benzoate, di-2-ethylhexylsebacate, and an epoxy resin. The current report shows that the method provides reliable estimates for the thermal pressure coefficient. The thermal pressure coefficient is determined with resolution on the order of 10kPa/K. Among advantages of the method is that the tubes are reusable, even when measurements are made for cure response of thermosetting resins.

  10. A simple instrument and technique for measuring columnar water vapor via near-IR differential solar transmission measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Reagan; K. J. Thome; B. M. Herman

    1992-01-01

    A simple two-channel solar radiometer and data retrieval technique is described for sensing the columnar content of atmospheric water vapor via differential solar transmission measurements in and adjacent to the 940-nm water vapor absorption band. The instrument features two parallel channels for simultaneous measurements in and out of the absorption band to eliminate temporal variability effects in the differential comparison

  11. EDITORIAL: The 9th International Symposium on Measurement Science and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII-2009) The 9th International Symposium on Measurement Science and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri

    2010-05-01

    The papers for this special feature have been selected for publication after the successful measurement forum that took place in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 2009. ISMTII-2009 presented state-of-the-art approaches and solutions in the most challenging areas and focused on microscale and nanoscale measurements and metrology; novel measurements and diagnostic technologies, including nondestructive and dimensional inspection; measurements for geometrical and mechanical quantities, terahertz technologies for science, industry and biomedicine; intelligent measuring instruments and systems for industry and transport; optical and x-ray tomography and interferometry, metrology and characterization of materials, measurements and metrology for the humanitarian fields; and education in measurement science. We believe that scientists and specialists around the world found there the newest information on measurement technology and intelligent instruments, and this will stimulate work in these areas which is an essential part of progress in measurement. The ISMTII Symposia have been held successfully every two years from 1989 in the People's Republic of China, Hungary, Egypt, Hong Kong, UK and Japan under the direction of ICMI. In 2009 the ISMTII measuring forum took place in Russia, and it is a great honour for our country, as well as for the Russian Academy of Sciences and its Siberian Branch—Novosibirsk Scientific Center. This Symposium was located in historic Saint Petersburg, which from its foundation has been a unique bridge of communication between countries on all continents, and participation provided an excellent opportunity for the exchange of experience, information and knowledge between specialists from different countries and fields. On behalf of the Organizers, Steering Committee and International Program Committee I would like to thank all the participants for their valuable contributions without which this special feature would not have become reality, as well as the reviewers for their careful evaluation of the papers. My special thanks go to the publishing team of the Measurement Science and Technology journal.

  12. [Physical meaning of temperature measured by spectral line intensity method].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Hua; Tang, Huang-Zai; Shen, Yan; Shi, Yong; Hou, Ling-Yun

    2007-11-01

    The difference between electron temperature and excitation temperature is analyzed in the aspect of statistics thermodynamics. It is presented clearly that the temperature acquired by spectral line intensity method is not free electron temperature, but internal electronic excitation temperature of heavy particle. Under thermal equilibrium condition, the excitation temperature is equal to the electron temperature, while under non-thermal equilibrium condition, the excitation temperature is not equal to the electron temperature. In the study of arc jet plume in vacuum chamber, spectral line intensity method was employed to measure the apparent excitation temperature of arc jet plume, and Langmuir probe was employed to measure the electron temperature of arcjet plume. The big difference between the excitation temperature and the electron temperature proved that the temperature acquired by spectral line intensity method is not free electron temperature. PMID:18260380

  13. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas.

    PubMed

    West, Michael D; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 microN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments. PMID:19485509

  14. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 {mu}N. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  15. Application of laser diode in airplane engine nozzle temperature measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yuan-fei; Ren, Qiang; Li, Xue-yuan

    2013-08-01

    Thermoelectric couple was employed in traditional airplane engine nozzle temperature measurement system with the disadvantages of large size, heavy weight, big error and slow response. This paper presents a new kind of real—time temperature measurement system using laser diode InGaAs/I as light source, and using pyroelectric detector LiTa03 as optical receiving unit and using a microprocessor as signal processing center. This instrument consists of three parts: optical emitting and receiving system, signal amplifying and controlling system, and display system. The principle, structure, anti—interference measure of the system are introduced. Experimental results of airplane engine real—time temperature measurement show that temperature measurement accuracy and response time conform to our requirement in the range of 300°C?800°C and agree with prediction of theory. All these prove that the design is correct.

  16. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Beltz, Nobert; Bandy, Alan R.; Ferek, Ronald J.; Thornton, Donald C.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the NASA Tropospheric Chemistry Program, a series of field intercomparisons have been conducted to evaluate the state-of-the art for measuring key tropospheric species. One of the objectives of the third intercomparison campaign in this series, Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 3 (CITE 3), was to evaluate instrumentation for making reliable tropospheric aircraft measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide. This paper reports the results of the intercomparisons of five sulfur dioxide measurement methods ranging from filter techniques, in which samples collected in flight are returned to the laboratory for analyses (chemiluminescent or ion chromatographic), to near real-time, in-flight measurements via gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric, and chemiluminescent techniques. All techniques showed some tendency to track sizeable changes in ambient SO2 such as those associated with altitude changes. For SO2 mixing ratios in the range of 200 pptv to a few ppbv, agreement among the techniques varies from about 30% to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the pair of measurements intercompared. For SO2 mixing ratios less than 200 pptv, measurements from the techniques are uncorrelated. In general, observed differences in the measurement of standards do not account for the flight results. The CITE 3 results do not unambiguously identify one or more of the measurement techniques as providing valid or invalid SO2 measurements, but identify the range of 'potential' uncertainty in SO2 measurements reported by currently available instrumentation and as measured under realistic aircraft environments.

  17. Alignment Measurements of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Instrument in a Thermal/Vacuum Chamber Using Photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Michael D.; Herrera, Acey A.; Crane, J. Allen; Packard, Edward A.; Aviado, Carlos; Sampler, Henry P.; Obenschain, Arthur (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory, scheduled for a late 2000 launch, is designed to measure temperature fluctuations (anisotropy) and produce a high sensitivity and high spatial resolution (< 0.3 deg at 90 GHz.) map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation over the entire sky between 22 and 90 GHz. MAP utilizes back-to-back Gregorian telescopes to focus the microwave signals into 10 differential microwave receivers, via 20 feed horns. Proper alignment of the telescope reflectors and the feed horns at the operating temperature of 90 K is a critical element to ensure mission success. We describe the hardware and methods used to validate the displacement/deformation predictions of the reflectors and the microwave feed horns during thermal/vacuum testing of the reflectors and the microwave instrument. The smallest deformations to be resolved by the measurement system were on the order of +/- 0.030 inches (0.762 mm). Performance of these alignment measurements inside a thermal/vacuum chamber with conventional alignment equipment posed several limitations. A photogrammetry (PG) system was chosen to perform the measurements since it is a non-contact measurement system, the measurements can be made relatively quickly and accurately, and the photogrammetric camera can be operated remotely. The hardware and methods developed to perform the MAP alignment measurements using PG proved to be highly successful. The PG measurements met the desired requirements, enabling the desired deformations to be measured and even resolved to an order of magnitude smaller than the imposed requirements. Viable data were provided to the MAP Project for a full analysis of the on-orbit performance of the Instrument's microwave system.

  18. Equipment developed for static high temperature resistivity measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra H. Slivinsky

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus has been developed to accurately measure electrical resistivity as a function of temperature at high temperatures for metals and alloys. The resistivity of 0.254 mm diam tantalum wire has been measured between the temperatures 1170 and 2860 K. Temperature measurements were taken with an automatic optical pyrometer, a two-color ratio pyrometer, and a tungsten–rhenium thermocouple. The temperature observations were

  19. Equipment developed for static high temperature resistivity measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra H. Slivinsky

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus has been developed to accurately measure electrical resistivity as a function of temperature at high temperatures for metals and alloys. The resistivity of 0.254 mm diam tantalum wire has been measured between the temperatures 1170 and 2860 K. Temperature measurements were taken with an automatic optical pyrometer, a two-color ratio pyrometer, and a tungsten-rhenium thermocouple. The temperature observations were

  20. NIGHTGLOW: An Instrument to Measure the Earth's Nighttime Ultraviolet Glow - Results from the First Engineering Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, Louis M.; Smith, Robert; Murphy, Scott; Christian, Eric R.; Farley, Rodger; Krizmanic, John F.; Mitchell, John W.; Streitmatter, Robert E.; Loh, Eugene C.; Stochaj, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    We have designed and built an instrument to measure and monitor the "nightglow" of the Earth's atmosphere in the near ultraviolet (NUV). In this paper we describe the design of this instrument, called NIGHTGLOW. NIGHTGLOW is designed to be flown-from a high altitude research balloon, and circumnavigate the globe. NIGHTGLOW is a NASA, University of Utah, and New Mexico State University project. A test flight took place from Palestine, Texas on July 5, 2000, lasting about 8 hours. The instrument performed well and landed safely in Stiles, Texas with little damage. The resulting measurements of the NUV nightglow are consistent with previous measurements from sounding rockets and balloons. The results will be presented and discussed.

  1. Instrument Cross-Comparisons and Automated Quality Control of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Hughes, G.

    2005-03-18

    Within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) instrument network, several different systems often measure the same quantity at the same site. For example, several ARM instruments measure time-series profiles of the atmosphere that were previously available only from balloon-borne radiosonde systems. These instruments include the Radar Wind Profilers (RWP) with Radio-Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS), the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), the Microwave Radiometer Profiler (MWRP), and the Raman Lidar (RL). ARM researchers have described methods for direct cross-comparison of time-series profiles (Coulter and Lesht 1996; Turner et al. 1996) and we have extended this concept to the development of methods for automated quality control (QC) of ARM datastreams.

  2. Development of optical near-infrared spectroscopy instruments for human skin sebum measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msabbri, A. R.; Mohamad, M.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Omar, A. F.

    2014-05-01

    There are many techniques and instruments that are currently available to give better results for measuring the quality of human skin. In this study, two non-invasive spectroscopy instruments have been used namely NIRQuest spectrometer and ASD FieldSpec® 3 Spectroradiometer. Both of these spectroscopy instruments were used to find the correlation technique with the commercial instruments (DermaLab® USB Sebum Module). Initially an experiment was conducted to find intensities peak of the absorption of oleic acid as a part of sebum composition. From the spectra peak of the absorbance, the wavelength will be determined. Next step was to measure the reflectance of human skin sebum by using two spectroscopic instruments. The analysis will carry on at the wavelength that have been chosen from the previous study and also from the wavelength of the fatty acid to find the best wavelength that contribute in sebum composition. From several analyses, the wavelengths that contribute in sebum were 1208, 1414, 1726, and 1758 nm that obtained the value of R2 0.8444 for NIRQuest Spectrometer and 0.8532 for ASD FieldSpec® 3 Spectroradiometer. For future research this non- invasive techniques can be used in dermatology field for the use of various skin analysis. Besides that, the less wavelength used is an advantage to develop instruments with less amount of wavelength sensor. It can reduce the cost of development.

  3. The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-Resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI): Design and Performance Prediction of the Wind and Temperature Instrument on the Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, K. D.; Englert, C. R.; Harlander, J.; Brown, C. M.; Stephan, A. W.; Makela, J. J.; Harding, B. J.; Stevens, M. H.; Immel, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Global High-resolution Thermospheric Imaging (MIGHTI) is one of four instruments on the NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON). MIGHTI will measure the global distribution of horizontal, neutral winds and temperatures over an altitude range that is not readily accessible to in-situ probes (90-300km). Thermospheric winds will be obtained from Doppler shift measurements of the atomic oxygen green (?=557.7nm) and red (?=630.0nm) emission lines. Lower thermospheric temperatures will be determined from the spectral shape of the molecular oxygen atmospheric emission band around ?=762nm. Two identical MIGHTI interferometers, oriented on the spacecraft to view a common atmospheric volume, obtain orthogonal line of sight wind information. Both instruments use the Doppler Asymmetric Spatial Heterodyne (DASH) approach with low order Echelle gratings optimized for the red, green, and near infrared wavelengths detected by MIGHTI. We will present the MIGHTI instrument design, including the driving instrument parameters and performance estimates. In particular, we will show the MIGHTI interferometer design and first laboratory test results using a prototype interferometer.

  4. Stratospheric composition balloon, aircraft and rocket-borne experiments, 28-30 September 1977 (systems, instruments, trajectories, supporting measurements)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, H. N.; Izquierdo, M.; Korn, A.; Murcray, D.; Page, W.

    1978-01-01

    The STRATCOM (STRATospheric COMposition) is a long term multipurpose program for integrated, correlated measurements of stratospheric parameters related to composition, thermodynamics, and radiative balance. Balloon 8-b, carrying a solar-pointing grating infrared spectrometer, two CO2 thermal emission radiometers and two in-situ air temperature sensors was launched at 1251 MST on 28 September 1977 to float at an altitude of 39 km from 1521 MST with the instruments making measurements at that altitude through the time of sunset at 1822 MST. Balloon 8-a lifted a payload consisting of four UV filter photometers, two UV spectrometers, two chemiluminescent ozonesondes, dasibi ozone monitor, 14 tube cryogenic sampler, two aluminum oxide H2O sensors, four air temperature sensors, atmospheric pressure sensor, infrared and visible pyranometers, downward-looking camera, blunt-kryton lamp-Gerdien condenser probe, three component anemometer, balloon apex-plate payload and three parachute-borne dropsondes.

  5. Non-coincident Inter-instrument Comparisons of Ozone Measurements Using Quasi-conservative Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lait, L. R.; Newman, P. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; McGee, T.; Twigg, T.; Browell, E.; Bevilacqua, R.; Andersen, S. B.; DeBacker, H.; Benesova, A.

    2004-01-01

    Ozone measurements from ozonesondes, AROTAL, DIAL, and POAM III instruments during the SOLVE-2/VINTERSOL period are composited in a time-varying, flow-following quasi-conservative (PV-6) coordinate space; the resulting composites from each instrument are mapped onto the other instruments locations and times. The mapped data are then used to intercompare data from the different instruments. Overall, the four data sets are found to be in good agreement. AROTAL shows somewhat lower values below 16 km, and DIAL has a positive bias at the upper limits of its altitude range. These intercomparisons are consistent with those obtained from more conventional near-coincident profiles, where available. Although the PV-theta mapping technique entails larger uncertainties of individual profile differences compared to direct near-coincident comparisons, the ability to include much larger numbers of comparisons can make this technique advantageous.

  6. Design and Implementation Content Validity Study: Development of an instrument for measuring Patient-Centered Communication

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ghahramanian, Akram; Rassouli, Maryam; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Nikanfar, Ali-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of content validity in the instrument psychometric and its relevance with reliability, have made it an essential step in the instrument development. This article attempts to give an overview of the content validity process and to explain the complexity of this process by introducing an example. Methods: We carried out a methodological study conducted to examine the content validity of the patient-centered communication instrument through a two-step process (development and judgment). At the first step, domain determination, sampling (item generation) and instrument formation and at the second step, content validity ratio, content validity index and modified kappa statistic was performed. Suggestions of expert panel and item impact scores are used to examine the instrument face validity. Results: From a set of 188 items, content validity process identified seven dimensions includes trust building (eight items), informational support (seven items), emotional support (five items), problem solving (seven items), patient activation (10 items), intimacy/friendship (six items) and spirituality strengthening (14 items). Content validity study revealed that this instrument enjoys an appropriate level of content validity. The overall content validity index of the instrument using universal agreement approach was low; however, it can be advocated with respect to the high number of content experts that makes consensus difficult and high value of the S-CVI with the average approach, which was equal to 0.93. Conclusion: This article illustrates acceptable quantities indices for content validity a new instrument and outlines them during design and psychometrics of patient-centered communication measuring instrument.

  7. Study of the automatic measuring technique and instrument for an automobile shock-absorber connecting rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chan-Yao; Dai, Shuguang; Zhang, R. J.; Mu, Ping-An

    1993-09-01

    The autinobile shock absorber connecting rod makes very strict tolerance requirements on the diameter size, roundness, straightness. Because it is a kind of thin and long workpiece, it is difficult to measure the errors of the roundness and axis straightness. Furthermore, it brings much difficulty to realize the highly efficient autinatic measurment as the connecting rod is mass produced. Therefore, there is not any kind of connecting rod automatic measuring instrument available in China. In this article, the authors put forword the methods and principles which can autiatically and efficiently measure the above-mentioned errors of the connecting rod and have designed a reliable and simple automatic measuring instrument, Furthermore, the designing requirements and methods of the software and the electrical system are also introduced. The problem of the automatic measurement of the automobile shock absorber connecting rod has been solved. and it not only guarantees the quality of the rod, but also provides the basis for technical analysis of the product.

  8. Design of a surface deformation measuring instrument for the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    1993-01-01

    This final technical report covers the work accomplished (under NAG3-1300) from 1 October 1991 to 1 October 1993. The grant is a direct result of Dr. H. Philip Stahl's (of Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology) participation in the NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program at NASA Lewis Research Center sponsored by Case Western Reserve University and the Ohio Aerospace Institute. The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a fundamental fluid physics experiment designed to provide quantitative data on the thermocapillary flow of fluid under the influence of an increased localized surface temperature. STDCE flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia in the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) in June 1992. The second flight of this experiment (STDCE-2) is scheduled for 1995. The specific science objectives of STDCE-2 are to determine the extent and nature of thermocapillary flows, the effect of heating mode and level, the effect of the liquid free-surface shape, and the onset conditions for and nature of oscillatory flows. In order to satisfy one of these objectives, an instrument for measuring the shape of an air/oil free surface must be developed.

  9. Nonintrusive Measurement Of Temperature Of LED Junction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidecker, Henning; Powers, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Temperature inferred from spectrum of emitted light. Method of determining temperature of junction based on two relevant characteristics of LED. Gap between valence and conduction electron-energy bands in LED material decreases with increasing temperature, causing wavelength of emitted photon to increase with temperature. Other, as temperature increases, non-radiative processes dissipate more of input electrical energy as heat and less as photons in band-gap wavelenth region; optical and quantum efficiencies decrease with increasing temperature. In principal, either characteristic alone used to determine temperature. However, desirable to use both to obtain indication of uncertainty.

  10. Arctic (and Antarctic) Observing Experiment - an Assessment of Methods to Measure Temperature over Polar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigor, I. G.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Woods, J. E.; Henderson, G. R.; Zook, J.; Marshall, C.; Gallage, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic environment has been undergoing profound changes; the most visible is the dramatic decrease in Arctic sea ice extent (SIE). These changes pose a challenge to our ability to measure surface temperature across the Polar Regions. Traditionally, the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) and International Programme for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB) have measured surface air temperature (SAT) at 2-m height, which minimizes the ambiguity of measurements near of the surface. Specifically, is the temperature sensor measuring open water, snow, sea ice, or air? But now, with the dramatic decrease in Arctic SIE, increase in open water during summer, and the frailty of the younger sea ice pack, the IABP has had to deploy and develop new instruments to measure temperature. These instruments include Surface Velocity Program (SVP) buoys, which are commonly deployed on the world's ice-free oceans and typically measure sea surface temperature (SST), and the new robust Airborne eXpendable Ice Beacons (AXIB), which measure both SST and SAT. "Best Practice" requires that these instruments are inter-compared, and early results showing differences in collocated temperature measurements of over 2°C prompted the establishment of the IABP Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) buoy test site at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Barrow, Alaska. Preliminary results showed that the color of the hull of SVP buoys introduces a bias due to solar heating of the buoy. Since then, we have recommended that buoys should be painted white to reduce biases in temperature measurements due to different colors of the buoys deployed in different regions of the Arctic or the Antarctic. Measurements of SAT are more robust, but some of the temperature shields are susceptible to frosting. During our presentation we will provide an intercomparison of the temperature measurements at the AOX test site (i.e. high quality DOE/ARM observations compared with unattended buoy measurements, and satellite retrievals). We will also show how these data may be used to improve our record of temperature over polar environments.

  11. Soil moisture inferences from thermal infrared measurements of vegetation temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Thermal infrared measurements of wheat (Triticum durum) canopy temperatures were used in a crop water stress index to infer root zone soil moisture. Results indicated that one time plant temperature measurement cannot produce precise estimates of root zone soil moisture due to complicating plant factors. Plant temperature measurements do yield useful qualitative information concerning soil moisture and plant condition.

  12. Application of digital holography in temperature distribution measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangjun Wang; Yan Li; Dayong Wang; Jie Zhao

    2010-01-01

    A reflection heat source including a radiator as well as an aluminum plate is designed, and the temperature field of the aluminum plate is used as the tested object. The reflection lensless Fourier transform (LFT) digital holography is performed to measure the temperature field distribution. For the comparison, the temperature measurement system within the radiator is used to measure the

  13. A Zero-Gravity Instrument to Study Low Velocity Collisions of Fragile Particles at Low Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Salter, D M; Chaparro, G; van der Wolk, G; Reißaus, P; Borst, A G; Dawson, R W; de Kuyper, E; Drinkwater, G; Gebauer, K; Hutcheon, M; Linnartz, H; Molster, F J; Stoll, B; van der Tuijn, P C; Fraser, H J; Blum, J

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the design, operation, and performance of a vacuum setup constructed for use in zero (or reduced) gravity conditions to initiate collisions of fragile millimeter-sized particles at low velocity and temperature. Such particles are typically found in many astronomical settings and in regions of planet formation. The instrument has participated in four parabolic flight campaigns to date, operating for a total of 2.4 hours in reduced gravity conditions and successfully recording over 300 separate collisions of loosely packed dust aggregates and ice samples. The imparted particle velocities achieved range from 0.03-0.28 m s^-1 and a high-speed, high-resolution camera captures the events at 107 frames per second from two viewing angles separated by either 48.8 or 60.0 degrees. The particles can be stored inside the experiment vacuum chamber at temperatures of 80-300 K for several uninterrupted hours using a built-in thermal accumulation system. The copper structure allows cooling down to cryogenic temper...

  14. Development of a compact laser for ChemCam instrument and potential use for wind measurement on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, B.; Saccoccio, M.; Maurice, S.; Durand, E.; Derycke, C.; Montmessin, F.; Bruneau, D.

    2009-09-01

    A new conduction cooled compact laser for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on Mars is presented. The laser provides pulses with energy higher than 30mJ at 1?m of wavelength with a good spatial quality (M2 between 1 and 3 according to the temperature). The performance of the laser is within the specifications on a large temperature range (-20°C/+20°C). This laser will be mounted on the ChemCam Instrument of the NASA mission MSL 2009 (finally reported to 2011). The goal of this instrument is to study the chemical composition of Martian rocks. A laser source (subject of this presentation) emits a pulse. It creates a luminous plasma on the rock, which is then analyzed by three spectrometers. The laser source was developed by the French company Thales Laser, under funding and with technical support from CNES. The laser is compact and does not require any active cooling. More recently, the laser was studied by the LATMOS (Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, former Service d'Aéronomie). The goal of this study was to make spectral measurements on the laser to evaluate its capacity to be used as a luminous source for Lidar applications, and in particular for a Doppler Lidar measuring the wind speed. As the laser is very well adapted to the harsh Martian environments, one of the possible applications would be wind speed measurements on Mars. The first results obtained by the LATMOS are good and do not show any impossibilities for this target application.

  15. Experimental evaluation of an invasive medical instrument based on a displacement measurement system.

    PubMed

    Fotiadis, Dimitris; Astaras, Alexandros; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Papathanasiou, Kostas; Kalfas, Anestis

    2014-09-24

    This paper presents a novel method for tracking the position of a medical instrument's tip. The system is based on phase locking a high frequency signal transmitted from the medical instrument's tip to a reference signal. Displacement measurement is established having the loop open, in order to get a low frequency voltage representing the medical instrument's movement; therefore, positioning is established by means of conventional measuring techniques. The Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) stage of the Phase Locked Loop (PLL), combined to an appropriate antenna comprise the associated transmitter located inside the medical instrument tip. All the other low frequency PLL components, Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) and Mixer, are located outside the human body, forming the receiver part of the system. The operating details of the proposed system were coded in Verilog-AMS. Simulation results indicate robust medical instrument tracking in one dimension (1D). Experimental evaluation of the proposed position tracking system is also presented. The experiments described in this paper are based on a transmitter moving opposite a stationary receiver performing either constant velocity or uniformly accelerated movement, and also together with two stationary receivers performing constant velocity movement again. This latter setup is implemented in order to demonstrate the prototype's accuracy for planar (2D) motion measurements. Error analysis and time domain analysis are presented for system performance characterization. Furthermore, preliminary experimental assessment using a saline solution container to more closely approximate the human body as an RF wave transmission medium has proved the system's capability of operating underneath the skin. PMID:25265618

  16. THE SuperTIGER Instrument: Measurement of Elemental Abundances of Ultra-Heavy Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binns, W. R.; Bose, R. G.; Braun, D. L.; Brandt, T. J.; Daniels, W. M.; DowKonnt, P. F.; Fitzsimmons, S. P.; Hahne, D. J.; Hams, T.; Israel, M. H.; Klemic, J.; Labrador, A. W.; Link, J. T.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Moore, P.; Murphy, R. P.; Olevitch, M. A.; Rauch, B. F.; Sakai, K.; San Sebastian, F.; Sasaki, M.; Simburger, G. E.; Stone, E. C.; Waddington, C. J.; Ward, J. E.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    The SuperTIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument was developed to measure the abundances of galactic cosmic-ray elements from Ne-10 to Zr-40 with individual element resolution and the high statistics needed to test models of cosmic-ray origins. SuperTIGER also makes exploratory measurements of the abundances of elements with 40 < Z < or = 60 and measures the energy spectra of the more abundant elements for Z < or = 30 from about 0.8 to 10 GeV/nucleon. This instrument is an enlarged and higher resolution version of the earlier TIGER instrument. It was designed to provide the largest geometric acceptance possible and to reach as high an altitude as possible, flying on a standard long-duration 1.11 million cu m balloon. SuperTIGER was launched from Williams Field, McMurdo Station, Antarctica, on 2012 December 8, and made about 2.7 revolutions around the South Pole in 55 days of flight, returning data on over 50 x 10(exp 6) cosmic-ray nuclei with Z > or = 10, including approx.1300 with Z > 29 and approx.60 with Z > 49. Here, we describe the instrument, the methods of charge identification employed, the SuperTIGER balloon flight, and the instrument performance.

  17. Instrumentation for measuring and recording streamflow data at river-control structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Instrument Development Laboratory

    1983-01-01

    Instrumentation was developed in the mid to late 60 's to resolve the dilemma of intolerably high percentages of missing streamflow records on certain large and highly controlled streams in industrialized parts of the United States. Analysis of the field situation at specific problem sites quickly suggested that conventional stream gaging techniques should be supplanted by new instruments, designed to measure key hydraulic data at the nearest stream control structures. The key data were found universally to include some combination of a length measurement to specify the vertical height of a gate opening in a dam; measurement of pressure head differential in a turbine; a count of lockages; and precise measurement of time, to give one master reference scale to which all measurements could be keyed. The instruments designed to collect such key data are the shaft position digitizer, the shaft output follower, the STACOM manometer, the lock pressure switch, and the digital data collection console. Although their design was prompted by the need to collect data at river control structures their potential for field use is not that restrictive. Several of these instruments have already found widespread use in the hydrologic data collection program at large. In the 12-1/2 yr period from June 1968 to December 1980 nineteen different river control structures were instrumented. The general experience to date has been a marked improvement in completeness of record, with the average performance somewhere in the 80 percentile range. Performance percentiles at individual sites have ranged from the mid 90 's to about 70. Maintenance records show the instruments to be virtually trouble free, except for the unpredictable acts of nature and man. (Author 's abstract)

  18. An external sensor for instantaneous measurement of the internal temperature in lithium-ion rechargeable cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Rengaswamy; Carkhuff, Bliss G.; Butler, Michael H.; Baisden, Andrew C.; Uy, O. Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Based on a four-probe electrical measurement, we have developed a Battery Internal Temperature Sensor. BITS, unlike a surface-mounted thermocouple, provides a direct measure of the internal temperature. We have demonstrate in several different rechargeable lithium-ion cells ranging in capacity from 2- to 50-Ah, the existence of an intrinsic relationship between a cell's internal temperature and a readily measurable electrical parameter. Today, container rupture and fire are the most detrimental consequences of thermal runaway in rechargeable Li-ion cells. Although storing or operating Li-ion cells in high-temperature environments is not advisable, high internal temperature has a greater potential to initiate catastrophic events. Measuring the environmental temperature at any proximity to the surface of the cell is insufficient to know or intervene with fast-rising internal heat. For example, monitoring internal temperature in real time has direct relevance to the thermal runaway caused by external and internal short circuits that may have no relevance to the external temperature. Yet, until now, there has been no simple technique to monitor the internal temperature of a single cell or multiple cells in Li-ion batteries. BITS, developed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, is a miniature instrument, with demonstrated capability to measure and report internal temperature of individual cells in a multi-cell battery pack at the rate of 200-ms/cell.

  19. Long Awaited Fundamental Measurement of the Martian Upper Atmosphere from the Langmuir Probe and Waves Instrument on the MAVEN Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Laila; Andrews, David; Ergun, Bob; Delory, Greg; Morooka, Michiko; Fowler, Chris; McEnulty, Tess; Weber, Tristan; Eriksson, Anders; Malaspina, David; Crary, Frank; Mitchell, David; McFadden, Jim; Halekas, Jasper; Larson, Davin; Connerney, Jack; Espley, Jared; Eparvies, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Electron temperature and density are critical quantities in understanding an upper atmosphere. Approximately 40 years ago, the Viking landers reached the Martian surface, measuring the first (and only) two temperature profiles during it's descent. With the MAVEN mission arriving at Mars details of the Martian ionosphere can agin be studied by a complete plasma package. This paper investigates the first few months of data from the MAVEN mission when the orbit is below 500 km and around the northern hemisphere's terminator. The fo-cus of this presentation is on the different measure-ments that the Langmuir probe and Waves (LPW) in-strument is making on the MAVEN mission. Some of the LPW highlights that will be presented: (a) the long awaited new the electron temperature profiles; (b) the structures observed on the nightside ionosphere; (c) wave-particle insteractions observed below 500 km; and (d) the observed dusty environment at Mars. This presentation is supported by measurements from the other Particle and Fileds (PF) measurements on MAVEN.

  20. Designing an Instrument to Measure the QoS of a Spanish Virtual Store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abajo, Beatriz Sainz; de La Torre Díez, Isabel; Salcines, Enrique García; Fernández, Javier Burón; Pernas, Francisco Díaz; Coronado, Miguel López; de Castro Lozano, Carlos

    This article describes the development of an instrument, in the form of a survey, which is distributed to users of a B2C website selling electronic books in order to ascertain their satisfaction. The opinions compiled from a pilot sample and the exploratory factor analysis carried out point to factors that best summarise the quality of the application analysed here. Analysis of the initial survey, with a total of 40 items, shaped the final instrument, encompassing 18 items divided into 6 dimensions, which measure the perceptions of users of the application in order to improve the contents of the website. Subsequently, a confirmatory factorial analysis is performed, ensuring the reliability of the study and which confirms that the structure of the instrument developed truly measures service quality in accordance with the requirements of the website in terms of offering a space that fulfils consumer expectations in the Information Society.

  1. Dualex: A New Instrument for Field Measurements of Epidermal Ultraviolet Absorbance by Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulas, Yves; Cerovic, Zoran G.; Cartelat, Aurélie; Moya, Ismaël

    2004-08-01

    Dualex (dual excitation) is a field-portable instrument, hereby described, for the assessment of polyphenolic compounds in leaves from the measurement of UV absorbance of the leaf epidermis by double excitation of chlorophyll fluorescence. The instrument takes advantage of a feedback loop that equalizes the fluorescence level induced by a reference red light to the UV-light-induced fluorescence level. This allows quick measurement from attached leaves even under field conditions. The use of light-emitting diodes and of a leaf-clip configuration makes Dualex a user-friendly instrument with potential applications in ecophysiological research, light climate analysis, agriculture, forestry, horticulture, pest management, selection of medicinal plants, and wherever accumulation of leaf polyphenolics is involved in plant responses to the environment.

  2. Paradata for 'Weather Instruments ~^ Weather InstrumentsWeather Instruments for Measuring the Climate of IllinoisBuilding and Using Weather InstrumentsWeather ToolsTyson Research Center Weather Station EquipmentSchool Garden Weather Station MeteorologyNext Generation Weather Lab'

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'Weather Instruments ~^ Weather InstrumentsWeather Instruments for Measuring the Climate of IllinoisBuilding and Using Weather InstrumentsWeather ToolsTyson Research Center Weather Station EquipmentSchool Garden Weather Station MeteorologyNext Generation Weather Lab'

  3. Methodological investigation of measuring nasopharyngeal temperature as noninvasive brain temperature analogue in the neonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hae-Kyung Ko; Andreas Flemmer; Caroline Haberl; Georg Simbruner

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: (a) To investigate in a newborn animal model whether nasopharyngeal temperature is more closely related to epidural brain temperature than rectal temperature and (b) to investigate in human neonates whether measurement of nasopharyngeal temperature is dependent on the measurement site and other conditions. Design and setting: (a) Animal experiment in newborn piglets, at an institute for surgical research. (b)

  4. Air temperature profile and air/sea temperature difference measurements by infrared and microwave scanning radiometers

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Air temperature profile and air/sea temperature difference measurements by infrared and microwave air temperature profile and air/sea temperature difference. The main advantage of this technique measurements, accounting for air attenuation and sea surface roughness. Then we show retrieval results

  5. Bulk temperature measurement in thermally striped pipe flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lemure, N.; Olvera, J.R.; Ruggles, A.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Coll. of Engineering

    1995-12-01

    The hot leg flows in some Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designs have a temperature distribution across the pipe cross-section. This condition is often referred to as a thermally striped flow. Here, the bulk temperature measurement of pipe flows with thermal striping is explored. An experiment is conducted to examine the feasibility of using temperature measurements on the external surface of the pipe to estimate the bulk temperature of the flow. Simple mixing models are used to characterize the development of the temperature profile in the flow. Simple averaging techniques and Backward Propagating Neural Net are used to predict bulk temperature from the external temperature measurements. Accurate bulk temperatures can be predicted. However, some temperature distributions in the flow effectively mask the bulk temperature from the wall and cause significant error in the bulk temperature predicted using this technique.

  6. Crowdsourcing urban air temperature measurements using smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    Crowdsourced data from cell phone battery temperature sensors could be used to contribute to improved real-time, high-resolution air temperature estimates in urban areas, a new study shows. Temperature observations in cities are in some cases currently limited to a few weather stations, but there are millions of smartphone users in many cities. The batteries in cell phones have temperature sensors to avoid damage to the phone.

  7. Refractory thermowell for continuous high temperature measurement of molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Thiesen, Todd J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the continuous high temperature measurement of materials in vessels lined with rammed or cast refractory materials. A refractory housing member is integral with the refractory lining of the vessel and contains a plurality of high temperature sensing means, such as thermocouples. A face of the housing is flush with the refractory lining and contacts the high temperature material contained in the vessel. Continuous temperature measurement is achieved by a means which is coupled to the thermocouples for indicating the temperature.

  8. INSTRUMENTS MEASURING PERCEIVED RACISM/RACIAL DISCRIMINATION: REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF FACTOR ANALYTIC TECHNIQUES

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2015-01-01

    Several compendiums of instruments that measure perceived racism and/or discrimination are present in the literature. Other works have reviewed the psychometric properties of these instruments in terms of validity and reliability and have indicated if the instrument was factor analyzed. However, little attention has been given to the quality of the factor analysis performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exploratory factor analyses done on instruments measuring perceived racism/racial discrimination using guidelines from experts in psychometric theory. The techniques used for factor analysis were reviewed and critiqued and the adequacy of reporting was evaluated. Internet search engines and four electronic abstract databases were used to identify 16 relevant instruments that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Principal component analysis was the most frequent method of extraction (81%). Sample sizes were adequate for factor analysis in 81 percent of studies. The majority of studies reported appropriate criteria for the acceptance of un-rotated factors (81%) and justified the rotation method (75%). Exactly 94 percent of studies reported partially acceptable criteria for the acceptance of rotated factors. The majority of articles (69%) reported adequate coefficient alphas for the resultant subscales. In 81 percent of the studies, the conceptualized dimensions were supported by factor analysis. PMID:25626225

  9. Development and validation of a measuring instrument for burnout syndrome in teachers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Mantilla, Jesús Miguel; Fernández Díaz, Ma José

    2012-11-01

    This paper is part of a research done on Burnout Syndrome, and its objective is to develop and validate an instrument for measuring the syndrome in Secondary School teachers, taking as a principal starting point Maslach, Schaufeli, and Leiter's theory (2001). After developing and testing the instrument on a sample of 794 teachers in the Community of Madrid (Spain), we analyzed the reliability, content and construct validity (the latter by means of Structural Equations Models implemented with Software AMOS 7.0). The reliability analysis (alpha = .911 for the total instrument; .849, .899 and .674 for the dimensions of Exhaustion, Reduced Personal Accomplishment and Depersonalization respectively) and the Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CMIN/DF = 4.163, CFI = .904, RMSEA = .60, PRATIO = .874) showed highly satisfactory results. The discrimination coefficient scores for items in the final instrument ranged between .22 and .74. Thus, the instrument presented combines the necessary technical characteristics for it to be considered a valid and reliable tool for measuring the syndrome. PMID:23156947

  10. Understanding and Measuring Evaluation Capacity: A Model and Instrument Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Ritzler, Tina; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Garcia-Iriarte, Edurne; Henry, David B.; Balcazar, Fabricio E.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Evaluation Capacity Assessment Instrument (ECAI), a measure designed to assess evaluation capacity among staff of nonprofit organizations that is based on a synthesis model of evaluation capacity. One hundred and sixty-nine staff of nonprofit organizations completed the ECAI. The 68-item…

  11. Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR) for Remote Wiring and Measurement of Electronic Circuits on Breadboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawfik, M.; Sancristobal, E.; Martin, S.; Gil, R.; Diaz, G.; Colmenar, A.; Peire, J.; Castro, M.; Nilsson, K.; Zackrisson, J.; Hakansson, L.; Gustavsson, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a state-of-the-art remote laboratory project called Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR). VISIR allows wiring and measuring of electronic circuits remotely on a virtual workbench that replicates physical circuit breadboards. The wiring mechanism is developed by means of a relay switching matrix connected to a PCI…

  12. Psychometric characteristics of the Spanish version of instruments to measure neck pain disability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco M Kovacs; Joan Bagó; Ana Royuela; Jesús Seco; Sergio Giménez; Alfonso Muriel; Víctor Abraira; José Luis Martín; José Luis Peña; Mario Gestoso; Nicole Mufraggi; Montserrat Núñez; Josep Corcoll; Ignacio Gómez-Ochoa; Ma José Ramírez; Eva Calvo; Ma Dolores Castillo; David Martí; Salvador Fuster; Carmen Fernández; Nuria Gimeno; Alejandro Carballo; Álvaro Milán; Dolores Vázquez; Montserrat Cañellas; Ricardo Blanco; Pilar Brieva; Ma Trinidad Rueda; Luis Álvarez; María Teresa Gil del Real; Joaquín Ayerbe; Luis González; Leovigildo Ginel; Mariano Ortega; Miryam Bernal; Gonzalo Bolado; Anna Vidal; Ana Ausín; Domingo Ramón; María Antonia Mir; Miquel Tomás; Javier Zamora; Alejandra Cano

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NDI, COM and NPQ are evaluation instruments for disability due to NP. There was no Spanish version of NDI or COM for which psychometric characteristics were known. The objectives of this study were to translate and culturally adapt the Spanish version of the Neck Disability Index Questionnaire (NDI), and the Core Outcome Measure (COM), to validate its use

  13. Construction of an Instrument to Measure Social Valuation in an Emerging Market Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katono, Isaac Wasswa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to construct a parsimonious instrument to measure social valuation in a collective setting using Uganda as an example. Design/methodology/approach: A triangulation technique was used in this study. Conversations with students, parents, teaching and non-teaching staff at Uganda Christian University (UCU) main campus were…

  14. A New Method to Measure LF Time Code Service Signal Based on Virtual Instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Feng; Guichen Wu; Zhifang Liu; Yan Bai

    2007-01-01

    Both of the method and instrumentation for measurement of the low-frequency (LF) standard frequency and time signal service system was proposed in the ITU-R new question draft published in Dec, 2005. Since the foundation of experimental LF time code service station (BPC) by National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1998, lots of research have been done in

  15. The Development and Validation of an Instrument That Measures Student Perceptions of Teacher Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapan, Stephen D.

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to collect student judgments regarding their teacher's credibility. Items were developed and evidence of content validity generated. A pilot sample and a final sample of high school students were administered the Source Credibility Measure (SCM) so that actual response data could…

  16. Ice Mass Balance Buoy: An Instrument to Measure and Attribute Changes in Ice Thickness

    E-print Network

    Geiger, Cathleen

    Ice Mass Balance Buoy: An Instrument to Measure and Attribute Changes in Ice Thickness Jacqueline A the Ice Mass Balance buoy (IMB) in response to the need for monitoring changes in the thickness of the Arctic sea ice cover. The IMB is an autonomous, ice-based system. IMB buoys provide a time series of ice

  17. New instrumentation for optical measuring of oxygen in gas or dissolved in liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Trettnak; W. Gruber; F. Reininger; P. O'Leary; I. Klimant

    1996-01-01

    The optical oxygen sensor is a novel device for the determination of oxygen in gases or dissolved in liquids. It is based on the measurement principle of fluorescence quenching, which is completely different from that of polarographic oxygen sensors (today the most widespread devices for oxygen detection). The new instrument offers features and advantages, which render it not only a

  18. Instrumentation for optical measurement of dissolved oxygen based on solid state technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang R. Gruber; Ingo Klimant; Otto S. Wolfbeis

    1993-01-01

    A number of measurement schemes for the determination of dissolved or gaseous oxygen have been reported, most of them based on fluorescence quenching methods. They have the disadvantage of requiring large and heavy instrumentation and, therefore, are not suitable for micro-integrated technologies. As a result, the applicability is greatly limited. We introduce a system based on semiconductor devices (LEDs, photodiodes,

  19. Measuring the effect of the reflection of sound from the lips in brass musical instruments

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Measuring the effect of the reflection of sound from the lips in brass musical instruments J. A Smith Watkins Trumpets, Cornborough, YO60 6RU Sheriff Hutton, Yorkshire, UK jk50@st of the player are often assumed to perfectly reflect sounds that strike them. Experimental and theoretical

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING THE UNDERSTANDING OF PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCORMICK, FLOYD G.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DEVELOP AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES IN FARM MANAGEMENT WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE. PRINCIPLES WERE IDENTIFIED FROM LITERATURE SELECTED BY AGRICULTURAL ECONOMISTS. FORTY-FIVE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS WERE REFINED ON THE BASIS OF RESULTS OF THREE PRETESTS AND…

  1. Establishing the Reliability of the Florida Performance Measurement System's Research Based Observation Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    This paper investigates the reliability of the Florida Performance Measurement Systems' Summative Observation instrument. Developed for the Florida Beginning Teacher Evaluation Program, it provides behavioral ratings for teachers in a classroom setting. Data came from ratings of videotapes of nine teachers conducting actual lessons by nine teams…

  2. Initial Validation of an Instrument Measuring Psychology-Specific Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renken, Maggie D.; McMahan, Ethan A.; Nitkova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Psychology-specific epistemological beliefs (EBs) are believed to influence students' approach to and performance in psychology courses. However, empirical research on this topic is limited due in part to a lack of well-validated instruments measuring this construct. The primary objective of this research was to develop and validate the…

  3. Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Fussen; F. Vanhellemont; C. Bingen; E. Kyrölä; J. Tamminen; V. Sofieva; S. Hassinen; A. Seppälä; P. Verronen; J.-L. Bertaux; A. Hauchecorne; F. Dalaudier; J.-B. Renard; R. Fraisse; O. Fanton d'Andon; G. Barrot; A. Mangin; B. Théodore; M. Guirlet; R. Koopman; P. Snoeij; L. Saavedra

    2004-01-01

    We present the first global measurement of the sodium mesospheric layer obtained from the processing of about 100 000 star occultations by the GOMOS instrument onboard the ENVISAT satellite. The retrieval method is developed on the basis of a simple DOAS retrieval applied to averaged transmittances. The vertical inversion of the sodium slant path optical thickness is performed by using

  4. Revision and Validation of an Instrument Measuring Managerial Coaching Skills in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sohee; McLean, Gary N.; Yang, Baiyin

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing attention on managerial coaching as an effective leadership initiative in organizations, there have been increasing needs for reliable and valid tools to assess managers' coaching skills. This study reviewed and revised an existing instrument measuring coaching skills in organizations created by McLean, Yang, Kuo, Tolbert, and…

  5. The Development of a Valid and Reliable Instrument for Measuring Instructional Coaching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Aimee Anton; Dudek, Marged Howley; Rittenberg, Rebekah; Larson, William

    2014-01-01

    This research used data from educators and teacher candidates in Ohio (a state in the Midwestern United States) to produce a valid and reliable instrument for measuring instructional coaching skills. The research involved three pilot tests with large samples of respondents. Initial items came from the extant literature on instructional coaching,…

  6. AC 2009-206: DEVELOPING AN INSTRUMENT TO MEASURE ENGINEERING DESIGN SELF-EFFICACY

    E-print Network

    AC 2009-206: DEVELOPING AN INSTRUMENT TO MEASURE ENGINEERING DESIGN SELF-EFFICACY Adam Carberry, Tufts University Adam Carberry is a doctoral student in the Math, Science, Technology, and Engineering-Sun Lee is an assistant professor in the Math, Science, Technology, and Engineering Program

  7. Behcet's disease: evaluation of a new instrument to measure clinical activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Bhakta; P. Brennan; T. E. James; M. A. Chamberlain; B. A. Noble; A. J. Silman

    1999-01-01

    Objective. Behcet's disease (BD) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by vasculitis. At present, there are no laboratory markers that correlate well with the clinical activity in BD. This has led to the development of an instrument (BD Current Activity Form) to measure activity. Scoring is based on the history of new clinical features present over the preceding 4 weeks

  8. Development an Instrument to Measure University Students' Attitude towards E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehra, Vandana; Omidian, Faranak

    2012-01-01

    The study of student's attitude towards e-learning can in many ways help managers better prepare in light of e-learning for the future. This article describes the process of the development of an instrument to measure university students' attitude towards e-learning. The scale was administered to 200 University students from two countries (India…

  9. Evaluation of Revision Effect on Criterion Validity of Multiple-Component Measuring Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko

    2007-01-01

    A method for point and interval estimation of change in criterion validity of multiple-component measuring instruments as a result of revision is outlined. The procedure is developed within the framework of covariance structure modeling, which complements earlier methods for testing change in composite reliability due to addition or deletion of…

  10. From Measurements to Models: What Satellite and Sub-Orbital Instruments

    E-print Network

    From Measurements to Models: What Satellite and Sub-Orbital Instruments Can and Must Contribute km MISR Stereo-Derived Plume Heights 07 May 2010 Orbit 55238 Path 216 Blk 40 UT 12:39 km 0 2 4 6 Plume 1 Plume 2 #12;D. Nelson and the MISR Team MISR Stereo-Derived Plume Heights 07 May 2010 Orbit

  11. Design of an Instrument to Measure Optical Reflectance of Scintillating Crystal Surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Janecek; William W. Moses

    2008-01-01

    In order for a Monte Carlo simulation to be accurate in predicting and optimizing the light collection in scintillation detectors, the light reflectance off an internal surface within the scintillating crystal must be understood well. We present design studies for an instrument that will accurately measure the reflectance distribution within a scintillating crystal. A laser is aimed towards the center

  12. Temperature and anisotropic-temperature relaxation measurements in cold, pure-electron plasmas

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Temperature and anisotropic-temperature relaxation measurements in cold, pure-electron plasmas B. R not be equal, and, when unequal, we have measured the relaxation rate at which electron­electron collisions; accepted 3 January 1996 Plasma temperatures in the range 25 to 2 106 K have been measured using a cryogenic

  13. The measurement of sea surface temperature with an infrared radiometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Braun; D. Mercer

    1970-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to make simultaneous measurements of sea surface temperature with infrared and microwave radiometers. Such measurements should be useful for determining the accuracy of satellite radiometer measurements of sea surface temperatures. Measurements were made with RCA personnel as part of PROJECT ROCKFISH, at a test site on the Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel near Norfolk, Virginia.

  14. Measuring Adult Memory: The Development and Validation of a New Instrument To Measure Long-term Memory in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck, Jeb

    2001-01-01

    An instrument measuring visual memory span in long-term memory was tested on 239 adults using pictures of common objects. Correlations were found between the number of images recalled and age, level of education, level of income, intelligence, sex, and social activity. (Contains 21 references.) (Author/JOW)

  15. The Calibration of Instruments for Atmospheric Ozone Measurements with a Sealed Ozone Cell: The OSIRIS\\/ODIN Spectrograph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Evans; E. Puckrin

    2002-01-01

    A new technique for the calibration of satellite instruments for atmospheric ozone measurements with a sealed ozone cell is described. Spectral measurements of the ozone absorption from a sealed gas cell are measured with a FTIR to determine the amount of ozone in the cell. The satellite instrument then views the cell against a Spectralon screen illuminated by the appropriate

  16. Instrumented sphere method for measuring thermal pressure in fluids and isotropic stresses and reaction kinetics in thermosetting resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzlyakov, Mikhail; Meng, Yan; Simon, Sindee L.; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2004-10-01

    A novel technique is described for measuring thermal pressure in fluids and for measuring isotropic stress development and reaction kinetics in thermosetting resins during cure and thermal cycling. The method uses a 12.7-mm-diam sealed stainless steel spherical pressure vessel to impose three-dimensional isotropic constraints. The vessel is instrumented with strain gauges and thermocouples. Both isotropic stresses and reaction kinetics during cure at cure temperatures as high as 300 °C can be measured. In addition, measurement of the isotropic stress as a function of temperature yields the thermal pressure coefficient in both the glassy and rubbery (or liquid) states. Experimental results are presented for sucrose benzoate, a pressure-transmitting oil di-2-ethylhexylsebacate and an epoxy resin. The method provides reproducible estimates for the thermal pressure coefficient and the stresses are highly isotropic. A suggestion for improved versions of the device is: thicker walled vessels can be used to increase the upper stress limit (currently at 30 MPa). Also if a lower temperature range is to be studied, then aluminum can be used as a vessel material. Since epoxy resins have better adhesion to aluminum than to stainless steel, there may be an advantage to this.

  17. Precision ocean salinity measurements using the Passive Active L\\/S-band aircraft instrument

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Wilson; Simon H. Yueh; Steve Dinardo; Yi Chao; Fuk Li

    2003-01-01

    Ocean salinity measurements using the Passive Active L\\/S-band instrument flying on the NCAR C-130 aircraft were made in July 2002 near Monterey, CA. When the radiometer data were corrected for the SST using the Klein and Swift salinity model and surface roughness effects using the L-band scatterometer, the retrieved salinity measurements had an RMS difference of 0.2-0.3 psu when compared

  18. A gas chromatographic instrument for measurement of hydrogen cyanide in the lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrose, J. L.; Zhou, Y.; Haase, K.; Mayne, H. R.; Talbot, R.; Sive, B. C.

    2012-01-01

    A gas-chromatographic (GC) instrument was developed for measuring hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the lower atmosphere. The main features of the instrument are (1) a cryogen-free cooler for sample dehumidification and enrichment, (2) a porous polymer PLOT column for analyte separation, (3) a flame thermionic detector (FTD) for sensitive and selective detection and (4) a dynamic dilution system for calibration. We deployed the instrument for a ~4 month period from January-June 2010 at the AIRMAP atmospheric monitoring station Thompson Farm 2 (THF2) in rural Durham, NH. A subset of measurements made during 3-31 March is presented here with a detailed description of the instrument features and performance characteristics. The temporal resolution of the measurements was ~20 min, with a 75 s sample capture time. The 1? measurement precision was <10% and the instrument response linearity was excellent on a calibration scale of 0.10-0.75 ppbv (±5%). The estimated method detection limit (MDL) and accuracy were 0.021 ppbv and 15%, respectively. From 3-31 March 2010, ambient HCN mixing ratios ranged from 0.15-1.0 ppbv (±15%), with a mean value of 0.36 ± 0.16 ppbv (1?). The approximate mean background HCN mixing ratio of 0.20 ± 0.04 ppbv appeared to agree well with tropospheric column measurements reported previously. The GC-FTD HCN measurements were strongly correlated with acetonitrile (CH3CN) measured concurrently with a proton transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS), as anticipated given our understanding that the nitriles share a common primary biomass burning source to the global atmosphere. The nitriles were overall only weakly correlated with CO, which is reasonable considering the greater diversity of sources for CO. However, strong correlations with CO were observed on several nights under stable atmospheric conditions and suggest regional combustion-based sources for the nitriles. These results demonstrate that the GC-FTD instrument is capable of making long term, in-situ measurements of HCN in the lower atmosphere. To date, similar measurements have not been performed, yet they are critically needed to (1) better evaluate the regional scale distribution of HCN in the atmosphere and (2) discern the influence of biomass burning on surface air composition in remote regions.

  19. A gas chromatographic instrument for measurement of hydrogen cyanide in the lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrose, J. L.; Zhou, Y.; Haase, K.; Mayne, H. R.; Talbot, R.; Sive, B. C.

    2012-06-01

    A gas-chromatographic (GC) instrument was developed for measuring hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the lower atmosphere. The main features of the instrument are (1) a cryogen-free cooler for sample dehumidification and enrichment, (2) a porous polymer PLOT column for analyte separation, (3) a flame thermionic detector (FTD) for sensitive and selective detection, and (4) a dynamic dilution system for calibration. We deployed the instrument for a ∼4 month period from January-June, 2010 at the AIRMAP atmospheric monitoring station Thompson Farm 2 (THF2) in rural Durham, NH. A subset of measurements made during 3-31 March is presented here with a detailed description of the instrument features and performance characteristics. The temporal resolution of the measurements was ~20 min, with a 75 s sample capture time. The 1? measurement precision was <10% and the instrument response linearity was excellent on a calibration scale of 0.10-0.75 ppbv (±5%). The estimated method detection limit (MDL) and accuracy were 0.021 ppbv and 15%, respectively. From 3-31 March 2010, ambient HCN mixing ratios ranged from 0.15-1.0 ppbv (±15%), with a mean value of 0.36 ± 0.16 ppbv (1?). The approximate mean background HCN mixing ratio of 0.20 ± 0.04 ppbv appeared to agree well with tropospheric column measurements reported previously. The GC-FTD HCN measurements were strongly correlated with acetonitrile (CH3CN) measured concurrently with a proton transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS), as anticipated given our understanding that the nitriles share a common primary biomass burning source to the global atmosphere. The nitriles were overall only weakly correlated with carbon monoxide (CO), which is reasonable considering the greater diversity of sources for CO. However, strong correlations with CO were observed on several nights under stable atmospheric conditions and suggest regional combustion-based sources for the nitriles. These results demonstrate that the GC-FTD instrument is capable of making long term, in-situ measurements of HCN in the lower atmosphere. To date, similar measurements have not been performed, yet they are critically needed to (1) better evaluate the regional scale distribution of HCN in the atmosphere and (2) discern the influence of biomass burning on surface air composition in remote regions.

  20. Interpreting the probe-surface interaction of surface measuring instruments, or what is a surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Richard; Weckenmann, Albert; Coupland, Jeremy; Hartmann, Wito

    2014-09-01

    When using dimensional measuring instruments it is assumed that there is a property of the object, which we call surface, that is present before during and after the measurement, i.e. the surface is a fundamental property of an object that can, by appropriate means, be used to measure geometry. This paper will attempt to show that the fundamental property ‘surface’ does not exist in any simple form and that all the information we can have about a surface is the measurement data, which will include measurement uncertainty. Measurement data, or what will be referred to as the measured surface, is all that really exists. In this paper the basic physical differences between mechanically, electromagnetically and electrically measured surfaces are highlighted and discussed and accompanied by measurement results on a roughness artefact.

  1. Bird flight and airplane flight. [instruments to measure air currents and flight characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan, A.

    1980-01-01

    Research was based on a series of mechanical, electrical, and cinematographic instruments developed to measure various features of air current behavior as well as bird and airplane flight. Investigation of rising obstruction and thermal currents led to a theory of bird flight, especially of the gliding and soaring types. It was shown how a knowledge of bird flight can be applied to glider and ultimately motorized aircraft construction. The instruments and methods used in studying stress in airplanes and in comparing the lift to drag ratios of airplanes and birds are described.

  2. Axillary and Rectal Temperature Measurements Poorly Agree in Newborn Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. E. Hissink Muller; L. H. van Berkel; A. J. de Beaufort

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Evaluation of the agreement between axillary temperature measurements and rectal temperature measurements in neonates. Methods: Rectal and axillary body temperatures were simultaneously measured for 3 min in 33 neonates (gestational age 25–42 weeks, weight 840–4,005 g). Two investigators performed paired measurements, one in each neonate. A single type of thermometer was used in this study: one thermometer for each

  3. Application of inverse heat conduction problem on temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhou, G.; Dong, B.; Li, Q.; Liu, L. Q.

    2013-09-01

    For regenerative cooling devices, such as G-M refrigerator, pulse tube cooler or thermoacoustic cooler, the gas oscillating bring about temperature fluctuations inevitably, which is harmful in many applications requiring high stable temperatures. To find out the oscillating mechanism of the cooling temperature and improve the temperature stability of cooler, the inner temperature of the cold head has to be measured. However, it is difficult to measure the inner oscillating temperature of the cold head directly because the invasive temperature detectors may disturb the oscillating flow. Fortunately, the outer surface temperature of the cold head can be measured accurately by invasive temperature measurement techniques. In this paper, a mathematical model of inverse heat conduction problem is presented to identify the inner surface oscillating temperature of cold head according to the measured temperature of the outer surface in a GM cryocooler. Inverse heat conduction problem will be solved using control volume approach. Outer surface oscillating temperature could be used as input conditions of inverse problem and the inner surface oscillating temperature of cold head can be inversely obtained. A simple uncertainty analysis of the oscillating temperature measurement also will be provided.

  4. Feasibility study for the advanced one-dimensional high temperature optical strain measurement system, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lant, Christian T.

    1990-01-01

    The Instrumentation and Control Technology Division is developing optical strain measurement systems for applications using high temperature wire and fiber specimens. This feasibility study has determined that stable optical signals can be obtained from specimens at temperatures beyond 2,400 C. A system using an area array sensor is proposed to alleviate off-axis decorrelation arising from rigid body motions. A digital signal processor (DSP) is recommended to perform speckle correlations at a rate near the data acquisition rate. Design parameters are discussed, and fundamental limits on the speckle shift strain measurement technique are defined.

  5. Application of digital holography in temperature distribution measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangjun; Li, Yan; Wang, Dayong; Zhao, Jie

    2010-11-01

    A reflection heat source including a radiator as well as an aluminum plate is designed, and the temperature field of the aluminum plate is used as the tested object. The reflection lensless Fourier transform (LFT) digital holography is performed to measure the temperature field distribution. For the comparison, the temperature measurement system within the radiator is used to measure the temperature distributions. The results obtained by these two methods are in good agreement, which demonstrates that the digital holography method is valid for the measurement of the temperature distribution.

  6. Water temperature-influential factors, field measurement, and data presentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Herbert H.; Ficke, John F.; Smoot, George F.

    1975-01-01

    This manual contains suggested procedures for collecting and reporting of water-temperature data on streams, lakes and reservoirs, estuaries, and ground water. Among the topics discussed are the selection of equipment and measuring sites, objectives and accuracy of measurements, and data processing and presentation. Background information on the influence of temperature on water quality and the factors influencing water temperature are also presented.

  7. Scanning infrared radiometer for measuring the airsea temperature difference

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    when the air­sea temperature difference is negative, and Hwang and Shemdin3 showed that sea-surfaceScanning infrared radiometer for measuring the air­sea temperature difference Joseph A. Shaw a vertically scanning infrared radiometer for measuring the air­sea temperature difference without disturbing

  8. An Instrumented Mouthguard for Measuring Linear and Angular Head Impact Kinematics in American Football

    PubMed Central

    Camarillo, David B.; Shull, Pete B.; Mattson, James; Shultz, Rebecca; Garza, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel instrumented mouthguard as a research device for measuring head impact kinematics. To evaluate kinematic accuracy, laboratory impact testing was performed at sites on the helmet and facemask for determining how closely instrumented mouthguard data matched data from an anthropomorphic test device. Laboratory testing results showed that peak linear acceleration (r2 = 0.96), peak angular acceleration (r2 = 0.89), and peak angular velocity (r2 = 0.98) measurements were highly correlated between the instrumented mouthguard and anthropomorphic test device. Normalized root-mean-square errors for impact time traces were 9.9 ± 4.4% for linear acceleration, 9.7 ± 7.0% for angular acceleration, and 10.4 ± 9.9% for angular velocity. This study demonstrates the potential of an instrumented mouthguard as a research tool for measuring in vivo impacts, which could help uncover the link between head impact kinematics and brain injury in American football. PMID:23604848

  9. Thermoelectric thin-film high-temperature measurements by computer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S. S.; Rabinovich, S. M.; Shing, Y. H.; Tran, N. T.; Josefowicz, J. Y.

    1986-02-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a novel automated apparatus for measuring the Seebeck coefficient (S) and the electrical conductivity (?) of thin-film thermoelectric materials continuously over the temperature range of 20 to 1000 °C. An inert substrate coated with a thin film thermoelectric material is increased and decreased in temperature at a predetermined rate set by program control while maintaining a constant temperature gradient across the sample. A fully automated computer data acquisition system is used to control instrumentation, measurements, and data storage. This approach is particularly useful for studying the transition from amorphous to crystalline structure in the semiconducting materials. Thin-film thermoelectric materials were prepared by magnetron sputtering and rf glow discharge. Parameters S and ? were measured as a function of temperature, histology, type, and amount of doping. Materials studied had the compositions Bi2Te3, GeTe, Ge80Te20, PbTe, and S.

  10. The Cabauw Intercomparison Campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments (CINDI): Design, Execution, and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piters, Ankie; Boersma, K.F.; Kroon, M.; Hains, J. C.; Roozendael, M. Van; Wittrock, F.; Abuhassan, N.; Adams, C.; Akrami, M.; Allaart, M. A. F.; Apituley, A.; Beirle, S.; Bergwerff, J. B.; Berkhout, A. J. C.; Brunner, D.; Cede, A.; Chong, J.; Clemer, K.; Fayt, C.; FrieB, U.; Gast, L. F. L.; Gil-Ojeda, M.; Goutail, F.; Graves, R.; Griesfeller, A.

    2012-01-01

    From June to July 2009 more than thirty different in-situ and remote sensing instruments from all over the world participated in the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). The campaign took place at KNMI's Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. Its main objectives were to determine the accuracy of state-ofthe- art ground-based measurement techniques for the detection of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (both in-situ and remote sensing), and to investigate their usability in satellite data validation. The expected outcomes are recommendations regarding the operation and calibration of such instruments, retrieval settings, and observation strategies for the use in ground-based networks for air quality monitoring and satellite data validation. Twenty-four optical spectrometers participated in the campaign, of which twenty-one had the capability to scan different elevation angles consecutively, the so-called Multi-axis DOAS systems, thereby collecting vertical profile information, in particular for nitrogen dioxide and aerosol. Various in-situ samplers and lidar instruments simultaneously characterized the variability of atmospheric trace gases and the physical properties of aerosol particles. A large data set of continuous measurements of these atmospheric constituents has been collected under various meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. Together with the permanent measurement capability at the CESAR site characterizing the meteorological state of the atmosphere, the CINDI campaign provided a comprehensive observational data set of atmospheric constituents in a highly polluted region of the world during summertime. First detailed comparisons performed with the CINDI data show that slant column measurements of NO2, O4 and HCHO with MAX-DOAS agree within 5 to 15%, vertical profiles of NO2 derived from several independent instruments agree within 25% of one another, and MAX-DOAS aerosol optical thickness agrees within 20-30% with AERONET data. For the in-situ NO2 instrument using a molybdenum converter, a bias was found as large as 5 ppbv during day time, when compared to the other in-situ instruments using photolytic converters.

  11. GISS 2007 Temperature Analysis The year 2007 tied for second warmest in the period of instrumental data, behind the

    E-print Network

    Hansen, James E.

    since 1990. Figure 1. (a) Annual surface temperature anomaly relative to 1951-1980 mean, based on surface air measurements at meteorological stations and ship and satellite measurements of sea surface temperature. (b) Global map of surface temperature anomalies for 2007. Arctic Warmth. The map reveals

  12. Stream temperature dynamics: Measurements and modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bashar A. Sinokrot; Heinz G. Stefan

    1993-01-01

    A numerical model based on a finite difference solution of the unsteady heat advection-dispersion equation is formulated to predict water temperatures in streams at time increments of 1 hour. An energy balance accounts for the effects of air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, cloud cover, and wind speed on the net rate of heat exchange through the water surface, and

  13. Global trends of measured surface air temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Hansen; Sergej Lebedeff

    1987-01-01

    We analyze surface air temperature data from available meteorological stations with principal focus on the period 1880-1985. The temperature changes at mid- and high latitude stations separated by less than 1000 km are shown to be highly correlated; at low latitudes the correlation falls off more rapidly with distance for nearby stations. We combine the station data in a way

  14. Sea surface temperature measurements with AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, H.

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of global sea surface skin temperature derived from cloud-free AIRS super window channel at 2616 cm-1 (sst2616) with the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature for September 2002 shows surprisingly small standard deviation of 0.44K.

  15. Atmospheric methane measurement instrument using a Zeeman-split He-Ne laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, J. Barry; Kebabian, Paul L.; Kolb, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    The construction of an atmospheric methane measurement instrument based on a Zeeman-split IR He-Ne laser is reported. The laser has a tranverse magnetic field over about 2/3 of its gain length and can oscillate at an (unsplit) frequency (2947.91/cm) centered on a methane absorption line, or on either of two frequencies split by + or - 0.055/cm from the center, with low CH4 absorption. The laser is tuned to dwell sequentially at each frequency, giving two differential absorption measurements in each 46-ms tuning cycle. Atmospheric measurements are made using two multiple pass absorption cells, one with fast (0.75-s) and one with slow (5-s) flow response times. Fluctuations in ambient CH4 of about 20-ppb (rms, 1-s averaging) are detected, with interference fringe effects the dominant noise source. The instrument has operated in a field experiment (NASA GTE/ABLE-3A) in Alaska.

  16. Test VLPC Cryostat: Programming and Configuration of Cryogenic and Temperature Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Zaczek, M.; /Fermilab

    1997-08-11

    Currently, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is in the midst of a site wide upgrade. Here at D-Zero, one of the components of this upgrade will be the construction of two 48 cassette VLPC cryostats which will be the heart of the new magnetic central fiber tracker. A VLPC or Visible Light Photon Counter is a device that allows physicists to more accurately calculate the origins of particles ejected during a proton - anti-proton collision in the detector. Inside the detector is an optical fiber barrel which surrounds the collision point. When an ejected particle strikes a fiber the result is the release of photons which travel along the fiber until they reach the bottom of a cassette hitting the VLPC chip. These impacts result in voltages which are read by the VLPC chips and sent to the computer for future analysis. From these voltages, physicists can determine the origins of the particles, their charges, their speeds and other information as well. Within the last few months a test VLPC bas been built at D-Zero. This VLPC is comprised of four rectangular cassettes each equipped with heating elements, RTDs and 1024 VLPC chips. This particular configuration is unique here at Fermilab. Other VLPC cryostats that have been built were usually cylindrical in their geometry. The purpose of this test VLPC is to have on hand a reliable model to aid in understanding the complexities involved in running such devices at approximately 10K, as well as to prepare for the eventual 48 cassette VLPCs to come. In particular, an important aspect of this test phase is to check the engineering involved so that the final cryostats are designed correctly. Also, this test cryostat will enable us to check each of the cassettes to be used in the final cryostat and correct any problems before hand. This engineering note has been written in order to describe the setup of the VLPC as it pertains to the programming, configuration and control of all of the cryogenic and temperature instruments. These instruments include the two pneumatic valves, the pressure transmitter, heating elements of the cassettes, and the various RIDs scattered throughout.

  17. Complete velocity distribution in river cross-sections measured by acoustic instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    To fully understand the hydraulic properties of natural rivers, velocity distribution in the river cross-section should be studied in detail. The measurement task is not straightforward because there is not an instrument that can measure the velocity distribution covering the entire cross-section. Particularly, the velocities in regions near the free surface and in the bottom boundary layer are difficult to measure, and yet the velocity properties in these regions play the most significant role in characterizing the hydraulic properties. To further characterize river hydraulics, two acoustic instruments, namely, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and a "BoogieDopp" (BD) were used on fixed platforms to measure the detailed velocity profiles across the river. Typically, 20 to 25 stations were used to represent a river cross-section. At each station, water velocity profiles were measured independently and/or concurrently by an ADCP and a BD. The measured velocity properties were compared and used in computation of river discharge. In a tow-tank evaluation of a BD, it has been confirmed that BD is capable of measuring water velocity at about 11 cm below the free-surface. Therefore, the surface velocity distribution across the river was extracted from the BD velocity measurements and used to compute the river discharge. These detailed velocity profiles and the composite velocity distribution were used to assess the validity of the classic theories of velocity distributions, conventional river discharge measurement methods, and for estimates of channel bottom roughness.

  18. Water temperature and concentration measurements within the expanding blast wave of a high explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, J. R.; Lightstone, J. M.; Piecuch, S.; Koch, J. D.

    2011-04-01

    We present an application of absorption spectroscopy to directly measure temperature and concentration histories of water vapor within the expansion of a high explosive detonation. While the approach of absorption spectroscopy is well established, the combination of a fast, near-infrared array, broadband light source, and rigid gauge allow the first application of time-resolved absorption measurements in an explosive environment. The instrument is demonstrated using pentaerythritol tetranitrate with a sampling rate of 20 kHz for 20 ms following detonation. Absorption by water vapor is measured between 1335 and 1380 nm. Water temperatures are determined by fitting experimental transmission spectra to a simulated database. Water mole fractions are deduced following the temperature assignment. The sources of uncertainty and their impact on the results are discussed. These measurements will aid the development of chemical-specific reaction models and the predictive capability in technical fields including combustion and detonation science.

  19. Effects of temperature and humidity on atomic force microscopy dimensional measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Ma, Chengfu; Chen, Yuhang; Chu, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhao

    2015-07-01

    The influence of environmental factors on dimensional measurements of atomic force microscopy (AFM) was investigated experimentally. Measurements were taken with environmental control over a whole AFM chamber and a local sample chamber to highlight the influence of working conditions on the instrument itself. Both temperature and humidity were found to have a significant impact on pitch measurements of a two-dimensional grating. The effect of temperature on the behavior of the microscope itself is generally larger than the thermal expansion or contraction of the sample. The effect of humidity was further determined to be relevant to the scan direction and velocity. For precise AFM dimensional measurements, the possible influences of temperature and humidity must be carefully considered. Microsc. Res. Tech. 78:562-568, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25900354

  20. Titan's Surface Temperatures Measured by Cassini CIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Flasar, F. M.; Kundle, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Pearl, J. C.; Nixon, C. A.; Carlson, R. C.; Mamoutkine, A. A.; Brasunas, J. C.; Guandique, E.; Arhterberg, R. K.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Romani, P. N.; Segura, M. E.; Albright, S. A.; Elliott, M. H.; Tingley, J. S.; Calcutt, S.; Coustenis, A.; Bezard, B.; Courtin, R.

    2008-01-01

    A large fraction of 19-micron thermal radiation from the surface of Titan reaches space through a spectral window of low atmospheric opacity. The emergent radiance, after removing the effect of the atmosphere, gives the brightness temperature of the surface. This atmospheric window is covered by the far-infrared channel of the Composite Infrared spectrometer1 (CIRS) on Cassini. In mapping Titan surface temperatures, CIRS is able to improve upon results of Voyager IRIS, by taking advantage of improved latitude coverage and a much larger dataset. Observations are from a wide range of emission angles and thereby provide constraints on the atmospheric opacity and radiance that are used to derive the surface temperature. CIRS finds an average equatorial surface brightness temperature of 93.7+/-0.6 K, virtually identical to the HASI temperature at the Huygens landing site. Mapping in latitude shows that the surface temperature decreases toward the poles by about 2 K in the south and 3 K in the north. This surface temperature distribution is consistent with the formation of lakes seen at high latitudes on Titan.